" EFFECT OF FEEDING FREQUENCY ON FEED CONSUMPTION

" EFFECT OF FEEDING FREQUENCY ON FEED CONSUMPTION

" EFFECT OF FEEDING FREQUENCY ON FEED CONSUMPTION, GROWTH AND FEED CONVERSION OF Tor tambroides (EMPURAU) .. . Sharifah Khadijah Binti Syed Ismail...

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"

EFFECT OF FEEDING FREQUENCY ON FEED CONSUMPTION, GROWTH AND FEED CONVERSION OF Tor tambroides (EMPURAU)

.. .

Sharifah Khadijah Binti Syed Ismail 24991

QL 63'.1

SS31 2112

Bachelor of Science with Honours

(Resource Biotechnology)

2012



Pusat Kbidmat MakJumat Abdemik UNIVERSm MALAYSIA SARAWAK Effect of Feeding Frequency on Feed Consumption, Growth and Feed Conversion of

Tor tambroides (Empurau) P.KHIDMAT MAKLUMAT AKADEMIK

111111111

rilrlllllllill

1000235567

Sharifah Khadijah Binti Syed Ismail (24991)

A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of

Science with Honour (Resource Biotechnology)



Supervisor: Dr. Lee Kui Soon

Resource Biotechnology Programme

Faculty of Resource Science and Technology

Universiti Malaysia Sarawak

ACKNOWLEDEMENT

This project was performed in partial fulfilment for the Degree of Bachelor of Science with Honours. First and foremost, I would like to thank God for His blessings upon the completion of this project. My sincere gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Lee Kui Soon for giving me the opportunity to work on this project under his careful guidance, valuable advice, generous suggestions and encouragement. I am grateful to Dr. Lee as he showed great patience in guiding us and dedicated his time to analyze the problem each time I faced some difficulty in the experiment. Besides, I would like to dedicate my special thanks to Mr. Louis Chin Vui Ngian (Msc. Candidature) for sharing experiences and knowledge with me and also for his advices and helps during the study. I am also grateful and want to thank Animal Biotechnology Laboratory's lab assistants, Mr. Abg Iskandarsah and Mr. Dahlan for their assistances especially in technical problems and provided a most congenital and supportive atmosphere through my project. Last but not least, I would like to express my deepest gratitude and appreciation to my family, especially my mom, Mrs. Khamisah Binti Yusof ~io.r her continued moral support and motivation which given me a great encouragement to finish this study. Also not to forget to all my coursemates and labmates who went through joy and frustrations with me throughout finishing the study. Their support, comfort and assistance are greatly appreciated.

Ll

·

-/

Pusat Khidmat MakJumat Akademik UNlVERSI11 MALAYSIA SARAWAK

Table of Contents CONTENTS

PAGE

Acknowledgement __ ............................................................... .................. ..... .

I

Table of contents .......................................................................................... ..

II

List of Abbreviation ....................................................................................... .

IV

List of Tables and Figures .................................................................... .. ...... ..

V

Abstract! Abstrak .................................... ................. ..................................... .

VI

1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................. .

1

2.0 Literature Review ................................................................................... .

2.1 Biology of Tor tambroides

3

2.2 Morphology of Tor tambroides (Bleeker)

4

2.3 Feeding Habit

4

2.4 Economic Value

5

3.0 Materials and Methods ........................................................................... ..

3.1 Fish Acclimatization and Preparation

6

3.2 Fish Feeding

6 ~.

3.3 Length and Weight Measurement

t

t

-,

3.4 Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and Food Conversion Efficiency (FCE) 4.0 Result .................................. .............................. ...................................... .

8 8

4.1 Feed Consumption

9

4.2 Length and Weight

10

4.3 Food Conversion Ratio and Food Conversion Efficiency

14

5.0 Discussion ............................................................................................... .

5.1 Feed Consumption

15

II

I

!

'. 5.2 Length and Weight Measurement

16

5.3 Feed Conversion Ratio and Feed Conversion Efficiency

17

6.0 Conclusion ..................................... ....... ........... ............ .................. ..........

19

7.0 References ................................................................................................

20

Appendix....... ............. ............................... ................................. ....... ..... ... .....

24

.

III

,

List of Abbreviations

FCR

Feed Conversion Ratio

FCE

Feed Conversion Efficiency

IV

.

List of Tables Table

Page

Table 1: Proximate composition of the feed

7

Table 2: Mean total feed consumption per study fish at each feeding

9

frequency during the study period Table 3: Mean weekly length measurements of fish per feeding frequency

11

Table 4: Mean weekly fish weights per feeding frequency

12

List of Figures Figure

Page

Figure 1: Weekly pattern of mean daily feed consumption by the fish at different feeding frequencies

~ .

10

t

. Figure 2: Total weight (g) and length (cm) increments in the studied fish at the

13

end of the study period Figure 3: Feed conversion ratios and feed conversIOn efficiencies of the studied fish at different feeding frequencies

v

14

Effect of Feeding Frequency on Feed Consumption, Growth and Feed Conversion of Tor tambroides (Empurau) Sharifah Khadijah Binti Syed Ismail

Resource Biotechnol ogy Faculty of Resource Science and Technology Universiti Malaysia Sarawak

ABSTRACT The effect of feeding frequency on feed consumption, growth and feed conversion efficiency of Tor tambroides (Empurau) was investigated over a period of 10 weeks. There were significant difference (P
ABSTRAK

.. •

t

Kesan kekerapan makan lerhadap pengambitan makanan, perlumbuhan dan kecekapan penukaran makanan oleh Tor lambroides (Empurau) lelah disiasal unluk jangka masa J0 minggu. terdapal berbezaan sign[/ikan (P
1.0 INTRODUCTION

The fish species under the genera Tor, Neolissochilus and Naziritor are also known as 'mahseer' . However the term 'mahseer' is restricted to the member of genus Tor (Sen & Jayaram, 1982). The fish species under genera Tor is found distributed in Malaysia, Indonesia, India and Pakistan (Menon, 1992; Roberts, 1999; Mohindra et al., 2007). As reported by Kiat (2004), there are about 20 different species of fish under the genus Tor from all across Asia. Malaysian Mahseer (Tor spp.); Tor tambroides and Tor douronensis are two valid Tor species in Malaysia (Roberts, 1989; Kottelat et al., 1993; Rainboth, 1996; Zhou and Chu, 1996). They are the two species that are indigenous to the state of Sarawak. These species are also locally known as Empurau or Kelah for T. tambroides and I

Semah or Pelian for T. dournonensis (Inger & Chin, 1962; Mohsin & Ambak, 1991; Kottelat et al., 1993). In this study, T. tambroides become the subject of interest because of its cultural, economic value and also the conservation status due to significant destruction of their natural habitat, deforestation, forest development and overfishing (Sungan et al., 2006). The Government of Sarawak saw the importance of this speci68"~long with T. douronensis and have evaluated their aquaculture potential. International research collaboration between Sarawak and Australia in 2001-2004 have succeeded to breed both species using hormone injection method or known as hypophysation technique. Successes in artificial propagation of T. tambroides bring significant developments in conservation and aquaculture. The study aims at solving some problem statements. These problem statements are there still no complete documentation available in discussing about the effect of feeding 1

frequency towards the growth of T tambroides. Other than that, the relationship between feeding frequency and growth of T tambroides remain unclear. T tambroides is said to be a delicate species because of its demand towards its daily needs and has a slow growth progress. The normal growth of the fish in term of total weight is estimated to be 600 gram per year but Misieng et al. (2011) showed that optimum dietary protein level of 40% in the feed given to the T tambroides resulted in maximum growth when tested in the certain period of time.

The main objectives of this study are: (i) Determining the effect of feeding frequency on food consumption by the Tor tambroides in the laboratory.

(ii) Determining the effect of feeding frequency on feed conversion efficiency and growth in length and weight of the studied fish in the laboratory. (iii) To suggest an aquaculture practice that can minimizes losses and maximizing profit in rearing these fish. ~-

2

. ",

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Biology of Tor tambroides

Genus Tor is commonly known as mahseer (Sen & Jayaram, 1982). They can be classified under the family of Cyprinidae. In Malaysia, only three species of Tor can be found which are T. tambroides (Bleeker), T. douronensis (Valenciennes) and T. tambra [(Nguyen et at., 2006) and Ingram et at., 2005)]. This species can be found throughout east and south-east Asia (Kiat, 2004).

Tor also categorized as most excellent game fish as well as highly

sought after as ornamental fish (Ng, 2004). The Tor species inhibit rocky streams and rivers with fast flowing water in the plains and preferred clear stony or rocky bottoms (Shreshtha, 1997). This unique fish is also called Empurau for the local people in Sarawak (Litis et at., 1997). T. tambroides is ecologically classified as endangered and threatened species (Ingram et at., 2005). T. tambroides lay only small proportion of the eggs at a single spawning event but

repeats the process a few times in a season and said to be a batch spawner (Raina et at., 1999; Ingram et at., 2007; Singh, 2007). The wild Tor species

. believed to spawn during i~

the raining monsoon season (Ingram et at., 2005). Environmental conditions such as temperature, water level, pH, flow velocity, turbidity and rain falls are said to trigger Tor to spawn (Dobriyal et at., 2000).

3

I

2.2 M orphology of Tor tambroides (Bleeker) According to Mohsin and Ambak (1983), T tambroides has elongated body which is moderately compressed, the mouth is slightly inferior with thick lips and provided with developed lobes. The median lobe under the lower lip of the T tambroides distinguished it from other species of Tor especially T

douronensis which has almost similar

morphological features as T tambroides. Based on the observation, Weber and Beaufort (191 6) explained that T tambroides has lobe that reaching a line connecting comers of mouth while T douronensis has lobe that do not reach a line connecting comers of the mouth as the T tambroides. This species have body size larger than the others (Haryono,

2003). Tor is said to have a big-scale (Nandeesha et aI., 1993). Having a cylindrical body with powerful tail are some of the important characteristics that make T tambroides can swim and withstand the fast flowing water (Menon et ai., 2000).

2.3 Feeding Habit

There is not much known about the feeding habits of T

• -' tambrtiides. T

tambroides is an

omnivore which feed plants, small fish, insect and molluscs (Pisolkar & Karamchandani, 1984; Talwar & Jhingran, 1992). According to research by Misieng et ai. (2011), T

tambroides fed with 40% dietary protein shows increment in their total weight and total length gained other than same fish fed with 30%, 45% and 50% dietary protein. MuzaffarBazaz and Keshavanath (1993) also reported that, the best dietary protein level for T

khudree is also 40%. The dietary protein and lipids level did not affect the content of lipid in final whole body, muscle and liver (Ng et ai., 2008). 4

Pusat Khidmat Maklumat Akadtmik VNIVERSm MALAYSIA SARAWAK

2.4 Economic Value Litis et at. (1997) categorized T tambroides and T. douronensis found in Malaysia as the most valuable and highly priced cyprinid fish. The market price for T tambroides can reach above 400 Ringgit Malaysia per kg (RM 400/kg) in the open market in Kapit, Sarawak and have a great latent for aquaculture industry (Ingram et at. 2005). According to Ng (2004), T tambroides are among the most valuable game fish, ornamental fish, and aquaculture fish and as a source of protein. The flesh of T tambroides can reach up to 1500 Malaysian Ringgit per kg (RM 1500/kg) and because of its market value, overfishing and exploitation of habitat in a search of the fish eventually resulting in rapid reduction of the population size of T tambroides. This fish is the indigenous species in Sarawak and Sarawak State Government has established specially designed program for this species which focus on the artificial propagation and culture techniques for conservation and aquaculture purposes (De Silva et at., 2004).

~.

5

!

3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1 Fish Acclimatization and Preparation All 25 live Malaysian mahseer (T. tambroides) fingerlings specimen were procured from the local fish fann in Kapit, Sarawak. Upon the arrival of all the fingerlings, they were weighed and total lengths of each fish were taken and mean weight along with mean total length is calculated. The fishes were acclimatized in the laboratory for one week. During the acclimatization period, the fishes were fed thrice daily. Five glass aquaria of 27,000 cm3 cubic capacities labelled A, B, C, D and E were randomly stocked with 5 fingerlings each and provided with aeration and fitted with water filter. After the acclimatization period, fingerlings were fed with dry feed at the rate of 5% fish body weight for 10 weeks. The water in the aquarium was changed (100%) fortnightly to maintain good water quality. Water quality parameters in the aquarium such as dissolved oxygen, temperature and pH were monitored and recorded weekly. Temperature and dissolved oxygen was measured using HANNA HI 9146 Portable Dissolve Oxygen (nO)

. ..

meter (USA) while pH of the water was measured using HANNA HI 991001 Extended Range Portable pH Meter (USA).

3.2 Fish Feeding The fishes in the different aquaria were fed at different feeding frequencies. Those in aquarium A, B, C, D, and E were fed once, twice, thrice, four times and five times a day, respectively. Dry feed containing 32% protein was given to the fishes despite of their feeding frequencies throughout the study period. The proximate basic compositions of the feed were described in Table I. 6

t

Table I: Proximate composition of the feed

Proximate composition

Composition (%)

Protein

32

Moisture

10

Ash

10

Fat

5

Fibre

5

Before new feeds were given, old uneaten feeds were removed using a small scoop net. The uneaten feeds were dried at temperature of 50.0 ± 2.0 DC for 24 hours to the initial feed moisture content of 10% in an incubator. The left over feed were then weighed to detennine the amount of feed eaten by the experimental fish. Mean daily consumption of feed (g) by each fish fingerling per feeding frequency was estimated by subtracting the weight of the uneaten feed from the total weight of feed given to the fish in each aquarium and followed by dividing it by the total number of

-,

fingerlings in that aquarium.

Mean daily consumption of feed (g) / fish / feeding freq. =

Total weight of feed given - weight of uneaten feed Total number of fingerling in aquarium

The mean daily consumption of feed per fish per feeding frequency was then summed up to determine the mean weekly feed consumption per feeding frequency.

7

3.3 Length and Weight Measurement The fish sampling were done once a week prior to measure the weight and length of each of the fingerlings. They were put on a Petri dish and weighed collectively on a weighing balance. The average weight in grams was calculated to represent the weight of each individual fingerling. The total length of each fingerling was measured to the nearest 0.1 mm using a ruler. The measurements were taken carefully but quickly to avoid injury to the fingerlings. After taking the measurements, all the fingerlings were put back into their respective aquarium. Measurements of weight and length of the fingerlings were done once a week throughout the study period.

3.4 Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) Based on the length and weight increments, the food conversion ratios at different feeding frequency were calculated. The FCR of the fish at different feeding frequencies was work out according to Jhingran (1991), from the formula :

FCR = Diet fed (g) + Weight gain (g)

-.. , The FCR was calculated as ratio between feed intake and body weight gain at the end of each week. The feed conversion efficiency (%) was also calculated based from the fonnula below. All the data were subjected to statistical analysis. The comparison of mean values was made by using ANOV A with the help of P ASW® Statistics 18, SPSS Inc. (2009) software program.

FCE = [Weight gain by fish (g) 70Diet fed (g)] x 100

8

4.0 RESULTS

4.1 Feed Consumption Throughout the study period, temperature of the water ranged between 6.8 - 7.8 °C with DO of about 85 - 95 %. The pH of the water ranged between pH 6.8- 7.8. The mean total feed consumed per fish per feeding frequency during the study period (g) by T tambroides (Empurau) is shown in the Table 2. At the end of the study, fish that is fed once daily consume a lower quantity of feed (6.87 g) than fish that were fed at higher frequencies. The highest feed consumption was observed in fish that were fed 5 times daily (10.68 g). There were significant difference (P<0.05) in feed consumption at the different feeding frequencies. The weekly pattern of mean daily feed consumption by the fish at different feeding frequencies is illustrated in Figure 1.

Table 2: Mean total feed consumption per study fish at each feeding frequency during the study period

ledlng Frequency

Total feed consume/fishlfeedingfrequency (g) for 10 weeks ~

.

A Once daily .

6.87·

B. Twice daily

10.68

c. Thrice daily

16.62

D. Four times daily

22.24

B. Five times daily

27.81

9

••

I ,

3.5

-=ell y

Q/

....ell

3.0

-=r::: f Il

1.0

Q/

CI.

.... ==ell

....

"Q/

y 1:1

fIl

Q/

Y

CI)

e ~~ = go::

"Q /.5"

~

-<>- Once daily -0- Twice daily 1.5

-lr- Thrice daily

Q/

.... ~

=

.-­CI)

-X- Four daily

-­-=....

1.0

~

0.5

"

Five daily

C I)

'il

cell

Q/

~

0.0 2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Weeks

Figure I: Weekly pattern of mean daily feed consumption by the fish at different feeding frequencies.

4.2 Length and Weight The mean weekly values of fish lengths and weights at each feeding frequency are shown • in Table 3 and 4, respectively. Fish length at the end of the study p~riod showed increment

for every fishes in each feeding frequencies. Fish length increased from an initial value of 4.70 cm to final values of 7.36 cm in feeding frequency A and 8.96 cm in feeding frequency E. Other feeding frequencies (B, C and D) had length values intermediate between the two extremes. There was a significant difference (P
10

Table 3: Mean weekly length measurements offish per feeding frequency

Weekly length measurements (cm) ,,­

Weeks

Feeding Frequency (A-E) A. Once daily

Initial length (cm) 4.7

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------- .----------------------

-----------------------

1 4.58

2 5.04

3 5.58

4 6.08

5 6.22

6 6.42

7 6.70

8 6.98

9 7.18

10 7.36

B. Twice daily

4.7

4.86

5.30

5.76

6.28

6.66

6.96

7.28

7.06

7.28

7.50

C. Thrice daily

4.7

5.06

5.40

5.82

6.30

6.70

7.12

7.44

7.7

7.98

8.18

D. Four times daily

4.7

5.18

5.40

5.92

6.52

6.80

7.26

7.72

8.10

8.64

8.90

E. Five times daily

4.7

5.02

5.40

6.14

6.86

7.32

7.70

8.00

8.36

8.66

8.96

.. . '­

11

--­

Table 4: Mean weekly fish weights per feeding frequency

__WeeI~ly mean

__

w~~I!!_~ (g)_~!. th~_~~~l~~

fish ___

n

__________ . n n n _ . _

n

_

______n m _____

__ •

_______ •

Weeks

A. Once daily

Initial Weight (g) 1.01

B. Twice daily

Feeding Freguenc~

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------.:.~-------- --- ----------------------------

1.05

2 1.60

3 2.43

4 3.62

5 4.13

4.58

7 5.07

1.01

1.28

1.73

2.51

3.11

4.22

4.76

C. Thrice daily

1.01

1.34

1.88

2.54

3.19

4.34

D. Four times daily

1.01

1.46

2.02

2.79

3.69

E. Five times daily

1.01

1.37

1.96

3.18

3.93

(A-E)

_____ _

n

1

'. '

..

12

6

8 5.30

9 5.34

10 5.49

5.28

5.43

5.50

5.60

4.77

5.32

5.45

5.47

5.86

4.74

5.46

6.00

6.13

6.19

6.45

5.29

6_04

6.28

6.39

6.39

7.23

On the other hand, the weight values for fishes that were fed once daily had the lowest final mean weight (5.49 g) while fishes that were fed five times daily had the highest mean weight value (7.23 g) starting from initial mean weight at 1.01 g. Mean weight values for the other feeding frequencies (B, C and D) ranged progressively between the two extremes. There was also significant difference (P<0.05) in final weight values at the different feeding frequencies. Final mean length and mean weight increments per feeding frequency at the end of the study period are shown in Figure 2.

E

~ oS:

6.00

to", cII)

3

+1

ft!

QI

-a" C C

_E

..

110ft! -QI



oS: U

5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00

.- -

1.00

oS:

0.00

IIOC

~ CII

u:::

Once daily

Twice daily

Thrice daily

Four times da

Five times daily

• Wet weight (g)

4.48

4.59

4.85

5.44

6.22

• Total length (cm)

2.66

2.80

3.48

4.]0 ,

4.26

Feeding Frequencies

Figure 2: Total weight (g) and length (cm) increments in the studied fish at the end of the study period.

The highest length increment (4.26±0.12 cm) was observed in feeding frequency E and the lowest length increment (2.66±0.24 cm) observed in frequency A. Likewise, the highest weight increment (6.22±0.00 g) was recorded at the highest feeding frequency (E) and the lowest value (4.48±0.09 g) was recorded at the lowest feeding frequency (A).

13

4.3 Food Conversion Ratio and Food Conversion Efficiency The Biological Feed Conversion Ratios (FCR) for the studied fish at the various feeding frequencies during the study period is shown in Figure 3. The fish fed at frequency of five times daily (E) had the highest feed conversion ratio (4.47) and the ones fed once and twice daily (A and B) had the lowest feed conversion ratio of 1.53 and 2.33, respectively. A statistical comparison between the means of FCR using ANOV A revealed a significant difference (P
0

""~>

..... u OZ

70.00

.-""­

60.00

~

50.00

08

20.00

~~

65.26

Feed Conversion Ratio • Feed Conversion Efficiency (%)

z"" Oz inO a:­ 40.00 ""en >a: z"" 30.00 0> u Z

"""" ~

10.00 0.00 A. Once daily

B. Twice daily

C. Thrice daily

D. Four times daily

E. Five times daily

FEEDING FREQUENCIES

Figure 3: Feed Conversion Ratios and Feed Conversion Efficiencies of the studied fish at different feeding frequencies.

Feed Conversion Efficiencies in Figure 3 were reflections of the feed conversion ratios. The highest feed conversion efficiency was exhibited by fish fed once daily (65.26%) and the least (22.36%) seen in fish fed five times daily. 14

5.0 DISCUSSION

5.1 Feed Consumption

The fingerlings of Malaysian mahseer (T tambroides) were subjected to different daily feeding frequencies to study its effect towards feed consumption, growth and feed conversion when tested in the laboratory. Feeding and feeding frequencies are among the major factors that determine the growth and development of the fish. This present study indicated that the highest quantity of feed was consumed by fishes fed five times daily with

totaI mean feed consumed per fish to be 27.81 g, while it was observed that the least quantity of feed was consumed by fishes fed once daily (6.87 g). Statistical analysis using OVA showed that there was a significant difference in the amount of feed consumed at different feeding frequencies (P<0.05). Feeding the fish to extend it would give satiation to the fish is the most general ,priJllCil)}es in feeding practices (FEAP-Aquamedia, 2010). A fully fed fish will be least to

stressed out and therefore, grow progressively to provide)Tigh quality food for human ~_nptiion.

In aquaculture practices, farmers required to have skills to predict exactly

much feed to give to their fish in order to occupied their satiation that helps in their lllanvtb and development. Feeding frequencies and compositions of the feed given to the

in part, control the growth (fish size) of the fish. Small larval fish and fry such as -''l:HIf!I1

in this present investigation, need to be feed with a high protein diet frequently

excess as suggested by Misieng et al. (2011). Small fish have high energy demand iI1t_efolre must be eat nearly continuously and fed almost hourly. Previous study by

et al. (2007) on some fish species have shown that the fish fed frequently (three 15

times daily) resulted in the highest weight gain (P
5.1 Length and Weight Measurement )

This present study indicated that the fish length and fish weight increments were highest in the fish fed the highest number of times (5 times) daily and the lowest increment was

observed with fishes fed the least number of times (once) daily. There are significant difference (P
hatter the growth· (length measurement) of the fish. There also significant difference (p
.....11 T. tambroides especially for aquaculture activities. Freq,uent feeding of small fish

-.

_ _ .J1IH

give any serious consequences since feeding small fisn in excess is not much a

"iblem if compared to over feeding larger fish because small fish need and consumed a small amount of feed relative to the volume of water in the culture system (Craig &

16