11. Form Prepared by - Maryland Historical Trust

11. Form Prepared by - Maryland Historical Trust

Capsule Summary ,,.. AL-111-C-182 l . Battlefield at Pleasant Mills (Folck's Mill Battlefield) Cumberland (vicinity) August 1, 1864 Private .. ' ...

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Capsule Summary ,,.. AL-111-C-182 l . Battlefield at Pleasant Mills (Folck's Mill Battlefield) Cumberland (vicinity) August 1, 1864 Private

.. '

The Battle ofFolck's Mill (Battle of Pleasant Mills) was a Civil War military engagement that occurred on August l, 1864, when Union troops under the command of General Benjamin F. Kelley engaged Confederate troops under the command of Brigadier General John McCausland. Kelley's intention was to rebuffMcCausland's westward advances along the Baltimore Pike toward Cumberland, Maryland, after the latter's forces had captured and burned Chambersburg, Pennsylvania two days prior. Military action was concentrated around Pleasant Mills, a gristmill, cooperage, and farm owned by the Folck family. Several of the buildings associated with Pleasant Mills sustained damage from the exchange of artillery fire and contributed to the name later given to the engagement. The skirmish continued until the early evening, and the following day Confederate troops retreated east before turning south toward Oldtown, Maryland. Turkey Flight Manor, an inn located along the Baltimore Pike, sustained damage from shelling during the engagement and reportedly served as a hospital for Union soldiers following the battle. Although the engagement resulted in little damage and few casualties, it is credited with stopping the westward advances of McCausland and sparing Cumberland from the fate of Chambersburg.

The natural, topographic, cultural, and manmade features that contributed to the battle comprise an area of approximately 700 acres and include several cultural resources extant during the engagement. The course of Evitts Creek forms a broad valley that extends approximately north-south along the center of the battlefield site. The site is also bifurcated by the paths oflnterstate 68, U.S. Route 40, U.S. Route 220, and Maryland Route 144 (Baltimore Pike).

Maryland Historical Trust Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties Form 1. Name of Property

Inventory No. AL-III-C-182

{indicate preferred name)

historic

B attlefield at Pleasant Mills

other

Folck's Mill Battlefield (preferred)

2. Location street and number

National Pike (US 40/MD 144)

city, town

Cumberland

county

A llegany

3. Owner of Property name

not for publication x

vicinity

{give names and mailing addresses of all owners)

Various telephone

street and number state

city, town

zip code

4. Location of Legal Description liber

courthouse, registry of deeds, etc. Allegany County Courthouse city, town

Cumberland, MD

folio

tax parcel

tax map

tax ID number

5. Primary Location of Additional Data ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ -~x_

Contributing Resource in National Register District Contributing Resource in Local Historic District Determined Eligible for the National Register/Maryland Register Determined Ineligible for the National Register/Maryland Register Recorded by HABS/HAER Historic Structure Report or Research Report at MHT Other: See continuation sheets

6. Classification Category x district _ _ building{s) structure _ _site _ _ object

Ownership _ _ public _ _ private _x_both

Resource Count

Current Function _x_ agriculture _x_commerce/trade defense _x_domestic _ _education _x_funerary _ _government health care _ _ industry

_ _ landscape _ _ recreation/culture _ _ religion _ _ social _x_ transportation _ _work in progress unknown _x_vacant/not in use _ _other:

Contributing I

2

4

Noncontributing 5 bu ildings - - - - sites _ _,____ structures _ _ _ _ objects - -'-?_ _ Total

Number of Contributing Resources previously listed in the Inventory 3

7. Description

Inventory No. AL-III-C-182

Condition _ l_

excellent good fair

l_

deteriorated ruins altered

Prepare both a one paragraph summary and a comprehensive description of the resource and its various elements as it exists today.

Summary The Battle offolck' s Mill (Battle of Pleasant Mills) was a Civil War military engagement that occurred on August 1, 1864. Military action was concentrated around the Pleasant Mills, a gristmill, cooperage, and farm owned by the Folck family. Confederate forces led by Brigadier General John McCausland, attempting to reach Cumberland, advanced from the east along the Baltimore Pike (National Pike). Union Army forces led by General Benjamin F. Kelley positioned themselves on the city's eastern approach, successfully managing to intervene on the Confederate advance toward Cumberland. Several of the buildings associated with Pleasant Mills sustained damage from the exchange of artillery fire and contributed to the name later given to the engagement. The natural, topographic, cultural, and manmade features that contributed to the battle comprise an area of approximately 700 acres and include several cultural resources extant during the engagement. The course of Evitts Creek forms a broad valley that extends approximately north-south along the center of the battlefield site. The site is also bifurcated by the paths oflnterstate 68 (1-68), U.S. Route 40 (US 40), U.S. Route 220 (US 220), and Maryland Route 144 (MD 144). Description Pleasant Mills Battlefield is comprised of approximately 700 acres in Allegany County, Maryland, located approximately three miles northeast of the City of Cumberland. The boundaries of the battlefield are not firmly defined, but are comprised of a series of 800-to900-foot contour lines that encompass the positions of the Union and Confederate forces . These hills encircle the site ofFolck's Mill, Turkey Flight Manor, and the Evitts Creek valley, which formed the epicenter of battle activities. 1-68/US 40, a four-to-six-lane divided expressway, extends east-west through the center of the battlefield site and immediately south of the Folck' s Mill site. US 220, a two-lane freeway, extends north from 1-68/US 40 immediately east offolck' s Mill.

Topographic and Landscape Features The battlefield site is characterized by low-lying hills that rise above a relatively broad valley formed by the course of Evitts Creek and its associated floodplain and tributaries. Elevations across the site range approximately from 920 feet above sea level to 640 feet along the banks of Evitts Creek. The resulting landscape is a mix of a predominantly level valley ringed by steep, forested slopes. The landscape levels off to the south, forming a level terrace currently containing fallow agricultural fields, meadows, and forests. Most of the steeper and hilltop areas are heavily vegetated with a mix of hickory, maple, and oak forests. The natural features of the landscape are interspersed with commercial and residential development located along arterial roads. A notable exception to this pattern is the manicured lawn of Hillcrest Cemetery, which occupies a hillside clearing at the northwest corner of the battlefield site. The rights of way that flank the major roads and expressways within the battlefield area are predominantly grass-covered slopes.

Contributing Civil War-Era Resources Although the natural topographic features of the Pleasant Mills Battlefield were major determinants in the battle' s course of events, several manmade features also played a role in the battle. By comparing historical documentation- first-hand and contemporary accounts, historic maps and views, and secondary histories of battle events- against extant resources, it is possible to determine which resources dating from the battle survive. A surviving circa 1864 map provides a fairly detailed depiction of the physical features present at the time the Battle ofFolck' s Mill occurred. 1

1

There are two maps that depict the general plan, troop formations, and resources associated with the battlefield site. The first is undated but likely dates from circa 1864; it is housed at the National Archives, Record Group 77, Records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers (see Figure 1). The second map is a facsimile of the first, drawn by F.M. Knight and published in 1895 in Atlas of Th e War of the Rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies (see Figure 2).

Maryland Historical Trust Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties Form

Inventory No.

AL-III-C-182

Name Battlefield at Pleasant Mills (Folck's Mill Battlefield) Continuation Sheet Number _J_ Page 1

1.

Folck's Mill Site

At the center of the skirmish was the Pleasant Mills property owned by the Folck family. The battle map depicts a grouping of seven standing structures- including a cooper's shop, a dwelling house, a gristmill, a sawmill, a barn, and two unnamed buildings (likely dwellings)- as well as a millrace (see Figure 3). The Pleasant Mills gristmill has been preserved as a ruin, although the standing portions of the buildings and structures owned by the Folck family at the time of the engagement have been lost due to age or encroaching roadway construction. Archaeological fieldwork performed a 2014 Phase II investigation located over fifteen above-ground cultural features around the twenty-acre Folck' s Mill site, including both industrial and domestic resources. These features include the gristmill foundation, head and tail races, barn foundation with silo pad, house fo undation #1 (Elmco Farmhouse) with five associated features (a brick-lined cistern, a landscaping feature, a driveway, and two retaining walls), two outbuildings, and house foundation #2. At the time of investigation, above-ground features were in varying states of preservation. The majority of the foundations were crumbling and in need of stabilization, with the grist mill foundation suffering irreparable damage from visitor access to the site. Major portions of both house foundation # 1 and the head race have been destroyed by road construction associated with Route 40/1-68 and US 220. Based on historic documents and building materials, structures and resources believed to date to the nineteenth century include portions of house foundation # 1, house foundation #2, the grist mill foundation with its associated raceways, the barn, and outbuilding # 1. Both the house foundation # 1 and the barn appear to have later modifications and expansions. Although the concrete construction materials for outbuilding #2 may point to a later construction date, there may have been an earlier structure at that location based on the presence ofrough dressed field stones around the current foundation. No trace of the mill dam, cooperage, blacksmith' s shop, or slave quarters was discovered.2 The Folck's Mill site was documented in the Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties circa 1978 (AL-III-C-040), was recorded as an archaeological site in 1986(18AG150), and was subsequently listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 2008 (NRIS #08001071). 2.

Turkey Flight Manor (Colonial Manor)

The circa 1864 battle map also depicts a cluster of four buildings labeled "Hinkle" and "Toll-gate," located immediately west of the Folck property and Evitts Creek. Formerly known as Turkey Flight Manor, the Hinkle property was operated as an inn and owned by Jesse Hinkle, who possibly also operated the turnpike toll nearby. Turkey Flight Manor was named for the "Turkey Flight," a 260acre patent granted in the 1740s. In 1819, Jacob Hoblitzell purchased a portion of Turkey Flight (with several adjacent parcels including Pleasant Mills) and erected a toll house and tavern to serve drovers and teamsters along the turnpike.3 During the Battle of Folck' s Mill, the propertY was owned by Jesse Hinkle. The building sustained damage from shelling during the engagement, and afterward reportedly served as a hospital for Union troops.

2 For additional information, see: Brooke Kenline et al. Archaeological Phase II Investigation at the Folck's Mill Site (18AG150), Allegany County, Maryland. TRC Environmental Corporation, Chapel Hill, NC. Submitted to Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore, MD, 2014. 3 Brooke Kenline et al. Archaeological Phase II Investigation at the Folck 's Mill Site (18AGJ 50), Allegany County, Maryland. TRC Environmental Corporation, Chapel Hill, NC. Submitted to Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore, MD, 2014.

Maryland Historical Trust Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties Form

Inventory No.

AL-III-C-182

Name Battlefield at Pleasant Mills (Folck's Mill Battlefield) Continuation Sheet Number _J_ Page 2

When US 40 was constructed circa 1937 to the north of Turkey Flight Manor, the building was rehabilitated and expanded to serve as a motor inn. At this time, it was renamed "Colonial Manor." 4 The primary far;:ade- formerly facing the turnpike to the south- was reoriented to face north, with a two-story portico added to face US 40. One-story additions were constructed on the east, west, and south sides of the building. Turkey Flight Manor was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1976 (as Colonial Manor) under the Multiple Property Listing Inns on the National Road (NRIS #76000976) and was separately documented in the Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties as Colonial Manor (AL-III-C-007). The associated tollgate is no longer extant, possibly destroyed by roadway development. 3.

Hoblitzell Cemetery

The graveyard noted on the circa 1864 battle map is the site currently known as Hoblitzell Cemetery, named for Jacob Hoblitzell, owner of the Pleasant Mills until his death in 1830. During the engagement, the cemetery was located at the western edge of the battlefield site, at the foot of the slopes on which the Union troops were positions. The graveyard currently is located within a heavily vegetated ravine adjacent to a tributary of Evitts Creek and bound by the I-68/US 40/US 220 offramp to Naves Cross Road NE. The graveyard retains several extant tombstones, including that of Jacob Hoblitzell, and has been recorded as an archaeological site (18AG287). 4.

Baltimore Pike (National Pike)

Financed and constructed by the State of Maryland in the 1790s, the Baltimore Pike linked Frederick, Maryland to Cumberland, Maryland. Here, it met the National Road, which continued westward. 5 By the 181 Os, these roadways created an unbroken link from Baltimore and Washington to the Ohio River Valley. 6 During the Battle of Pleasant Mills, the Baltimore Pike was a significant determinant in the path of both Union and Confederate troops, who used the turnpike as a means of approach to the battle site before pausing in their respective hillside positions. The Baltimore Pike has been documented in the Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties in Allegany County as the Baltimore Pike/MD 144 (AL-II-A-110). By the turn of the twentieth century, the distinction between the Baltimore Pike and the National Road had been obscured. The creation and subsequent improvement of US 40 further blurred the historical distinction between state turnpike and federal road. Improvements to US 40 during the late 1930s allowed for improved automobile traffic along its route, in some cases requiring bypasses around the original Baltimore Pike roadbed. In 1937, US 40 was diverted around the original turnpike route (see Figure 5). Immediately south of the Pleasant Mills site, it moved directly to the north, necessitating a new bridge over Evitts Creek (as well as narrowly avoiding destruction to Turkey Flight Manor, located in the interstice between the two roadways). Currently, east of the Folck's Mill site and US 220, 1-68 curves to the south while the Baltimore Pike arcs to the north, although the roads later converge to share parallel but separate paths. Classified as Maryland Route 144 (MD 144), the former Baltimore Pike is currently a two-lane, asphalt-paved roadway.

4

This is a misnomer, considering the building was constructed during the Federal period. The National Road was chartered by Congress and signed into law by President Thomas Jefferson in 1806 as the first federally planned and financed interstate route. Road construction began in 1811 in Cumberland, the route's eastern terminus, which by 1818 had connected to Wheeling, West Virginia. 6 Joseph F. Wood, "The Idea of a National Road," in The National Road, ed. Karl Raitz (Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996), 113-114. 5

Maryland Historical Trust Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties Form

Inventory No. AL-III-C-182

Name Battlefield at Pleasant Mills (Folck's Mill Battlefield) Continuation Sheet Number _J_ Page 3

5.

Covered Bridge

Although not noted on contemporary maps, a covered bridge along the turnpike, spanning Evitts Creek, also figured in the engagement- advance Confederate troops crossed the bridge before being surprised by Union fire and forced to take shelter behind the Hinkle and Folck properties. The covered bridge had clapboard siding, a hipped roof, and coursed stone abutments and was reportedly constructed in 1818. It was replaced circa 1894 with an iron bridge, which has also been subsequently replaced (see Figure 4) .7

6.

Additional Unidentified Properties

The circa 1864 battle map also recorded several additional features that are no longer extant, including a large barn located south of the turnpike and a schoolhouse located to the northeast of the graveyard site. One additional property, located on the banks of Elk Lick Run and south of the Confederate positions, is labeled "Hendrickson." 8

Non-Contributing Resources There are several resources that have been documented in the Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties that are within the boundaries of the Pleasant Mills Battlefield but which are otherwise non-contributing resources. In all cases, the resources listed below were developed after the battle occurred. They do not detract from the integrity of the historic battlefield. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Carlton Farm (AL-III-C-056) - Ali Ghan Road (US 40) - Late-nineteenth-century vernacular farmhouse Concrete Block House (AL-III-C-054) - Ali Ghan Road (US 40) - Large, early-twentieth-century, Colonial Revival-style house Hillcrest Cemetery (AL-III-C-110) - Hillcrest Road - Circa 1900 cemetery located on sloped clearing Hillcrest Memorial Park Funeral Chapel & Singing Tower (AL-III-C-048) - Hillcrest Road - Late-nineteenth or earlytwentieth-century Gothic Revival-style masonry tower Bower Garden Center (AL-III-C-055) - Christie Road - Twentieth-century, Craftsman-style, foursquare house with hipped roof Bridge 1030 (SHA) - (AL-III-C-164)- I-68 over Evitts Creek - Reinforced concrete-frame bridge constructed in 1937 and widened in 1992 Barn and Smokehouse on Christie Road - (AL-III-C-053) - Christie Road - Late-nineteenth-century, cross-gable barn on ashlar stone foundation

There are several dozen resources within the battlefield area that do not contribute to its significance. These are predominantly residential and commercial properties developed in the early-to-mid-twentieth century. They were not individually documented for this inventory form. Integrity Although there are a large number of non-contributing resources within the district boundary, the visual landscape and extant contributing resources have retained a moderate degree of historic integrity with regard to their appearance on August 1, 1864. The 7

"A New Bridge Will Have to Be Built," Evening Times (Cumberland, MD), April 7, 1894. The Hendrickson Family Cemetery is located several miles north of the battlefield site, on Hazen Road near US 220 and the Pennsylvania border. It is possibly connected to the Hendrickson property depicted on the circa 1864 battle map.

8

Maryland Historical Trust Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties Form

Inventory No. AL-III-C-182

Name Battlefield at Pleasant Mills (Folck's Mill Battlefield) Continuation Sheet Number ...:I_ Page 4

battlefield boundaries are defined by the major landscape features that informed the course of battle at Pleasant Mills; these features have retained their general topography and vegetation from 1864. The area around the battlefield still retains its rural character and many wooded areas have been preserved. Therefore, the battlefield retains its integrity of setting and location. Construction ofl-68 , US 220, and their associated interchanges and rights of way, however, have resulted in major changes to the appearance of the battlefield, both impairing the general landscape integrity and also obscuring the approach route taken by both Confederate and Union troops. Although the turnpike itself has been retained and generally follows its 1864 path, improvements to US 40and1-68 throughout the twentieth century diverted the flow of travel from the historic route. The construction of US 220 in a new location inserted a major visual and functional obstacle between the east-west continuity of the site. Associated landscape alterations along the interchanges and rights of way of these roadways have further altered the configuration of the historic landscape. For example, the slope to the northeast of the 1-68/US 220 interchange, the site of Confederate cannon during the battle, has been heavily graded and largely denuded of vegetation. Therefore, the battlefield retains only low degrees of integrity of feeling and association. Certain individual resources that figured in the course of the battle are extant yet have retained low degrees of material and design integrity. The Pleasant Mills gristmill, which sustained damage during the engagement, is preserved as a ruin which is part of a larger archaeological site significant under National Register Criterion D. Turkey Flight Manor has been extensively altered and its character reflects its development during the twentieth century. Therefore, these physical features have retained a low degree of integrity of materials, workmanship, and design, which extends to the general integrity of the battlefield itself.

Maryland Historical Trust Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties Form

Inventory No. AL-III-C-182

Name Battlefield at Pleasant Mills (Folck's Mill Battlefield) Continuation Sheet Number _J_ Page 5

Matrix of Contributing Resources

#

Resource Name

Alternate Name(s)

Resource Type

MIHP

National Register (NRIS)

Archaeological Site Number

Contri bu ting I NonContributing

1

The Pleasant Mills

Folck's Mill; Wolfe Mill

Structure

AL-III-C040

#08001071

18AG150

Contributing

Turkey Flight Manor Hoblitzell Cemetery Baltimore Pike Covered Bridge

Colonial Manor

Building

AL-III-C007

#76000976

2 3 4

Site National Pike

Structure

Contributing 18AG287

AL-II-A-110

Contributing Contributing

Structure

No longer extant

6

Schoolhouse, Barn, and Hendrickson Property

Building

No longer extant

7

Carlton Farm

Building

5

8 9

10

11 12

13

Concrete Block House Hillcrest Cemetery Hillcrest Memorial Park Funeral Chapel & Singing Tower Bower Garden Center Bridge 1030 (SHA) Barn and Smokehouse on Christie Road

AL-III-C056 AL-III-C054 AL-III-C110

NonContributing NonContributing NonContributing

Building

AL-III-C048

NonContributing

Building

AL-III-C055

NonContributing

Structure

AL-III-C164

NonContributing

Building

AL-III-C053

NonContributing

Building Site

8. Significance Period

Areas of Significance

1600-1699 1700-1799 ~ 1800-1899 1900-1999 2000-

_ agriculture _ archeology architecture art commerce communications _ community planning conservation

Specific dates

August 1, 1864

Construction dates

Various

Inventory No . AL-III-C-182

Check and justify below economics education _ engineering entertainment/ recreation _ ethnic heritage _ exploration/ settlement

health/medicine _ industry invention _ landscape architecture law literature _ maritime history ~military

_ _ _ _

performing arts philosophy politics/government religion science _ social history _ transportation other:

Architect/Builder

Evaluation for: _ __

National Register

_ _ _ _ Maryland Register

-~x~_not

evaluated

Prepare a one-paragraph summary statement of significance addressing applicable criteria, followed by a narrative discussion of the history of the resource and its context. (For compliance projects, complete evaluation on a DOE Form - see manual.) Summary Statement of Significance The Battle of Pleasant Mills (Battle ofFolck' s Mill) occurred on August 1, 1864, when Union troops under the command of General Benjamin F. Kelley engaged Confederate troops under the command of Brigadier General John McCausland. Kelley's intention was to rebuffMcCausland' s westward advances along the Baltimore Pike toward Cumberland, Maryland, after the latter' s forces had captured and burned Chambersburg, Pennsylvania two days prior. Kelley situated his troops on a series of hills northeast of Cumberland, overlooking Evitts Creek as well as grist and saw mills operated by John Folck. The Folck property was the center of the skirmish, with Confederate troops taking shelter behind the mill structures under Union fire from the hillside above. The skirmish continued until the early evening, when Confederate forces retreated into West Virginia. Turkey Flight Manor, an inn located along the Baltimore Pike, reportedly served as a hospital for Union soldiers after Confederate troops retreated. Although the engagement resulted in relatively little damage and approximately fifty injuries (including three-to-four fatal injuries), it is credited with stopping the westward advances of McCausland and sparing Cumberland from the fate of Chambersburg. Narrative History History ofPleasant Mills to 1864 In 1800, Thomas Beall purchased a two-hundred acre tract of land along Evitts Creek known as Pleasant Valley. Between 1800 and 1807, Beall constructed a mill on the property. In 1808, Thomas Hoblitzell married Beall' s daughter and operated the mill until he purchased the property, by that time known as "Pleasant Mills," from the estate ofBeall' s cousin in 1824. Hoblitzell also purchased an adjacent tract known as "Turkey Flight," on which he constructed a toll house and tavern on the south side of the National Pike. At the time ofHoblitzell 's death in 1830, his various properties were divided among his heirs. At this time, John Folck, Sr., owner of the Bowling Green Mill just south of Cumberland, purchased Pleasant Mills, although he would not receive the title to the land until 1832 due to legal claims made by Hoblitzell's heirs. 9 John Folck, Sr. improved the mill in the 1830s, adding a cooperage, blacksmith shop, and sawmill before transferring control of the mill property to his two sons, Henry and John, Jr. By 1840, the latter was listed as the head of the household, although he did not officially own the property until the death of John Folck, Sr. in 1864 (Henry died in 1839). ' 0 By the 1860s, the Pleasant Mills had developed into a small village, with several families residing on the property and dependent on it for their livelihoods. 11 9

Brooke Kenline et al. Archaeological Phase II Investigation at the Falck 's Mill Site (1BAG150), Allegany County, Maryland. TRC Environmental Corporation, Chapel Hill, NC. Submitted to Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore, MD, 2014. 10 Brooke Kenline et al. Archaeological Phase II Investigation at the Folck's Mill Site (18AG150), Allegany County, Maryland. TRC Environmental Corporation, Chapel Hill, NC. Submitted to Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore, MD, 2014.

Maryland Historical Trust Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties Form

Inventory No. AL-III-C-182

Name Battlefield at Pleasant Mills (Folck's Mill Battlefield) Continuation Sheet Number__§_ Page 1

The area immediately surrounding the Pleasant Mills property was predominantly rural during the Civil War, although its proximity to Cumberland and the presence of Baltimore Pike facilitated the movement of goods and people through the area. Apart from the tradesmen employed by the F olcks, the 1860 Federal Census indicated that many of the residents around Pleasant Mills were farmers. 12 History of Cumberland The City of Cumberland was incorporated in 1815 near the site of Fort Cumberland, which had served as a military outpost during the French and Indian War and later, the Whiskey Rebellion. Following the Revolutionary War, Euro-American settlers flowed west through Cumberland, given its location at a natural pass in the Appalachian Mountain Range. During the nineteenth century, Cumberland flourished as a center of coal mining and manufacturing industries, developing into a major transportation hub connecting the agrarian Midwestern states with industrialized cities on the eastern seaboard. By the 1850s, three significant transportation routes ended in or extended through Cumberland: the National Road, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. Although it had an industrial economy grounded in transportation, mining, and manufacturing, Cumberland also served as the center for a large agricultural population scattered in surrounding rural areas. 13 General John McCausland and the Burning of Chambersburg Despite being a center of industry and a key junction point between eastern and western states, Cumberland was relatively insulated from major conflict during the Civil War. In July 1864, however, following his unsuccessful sieges of Baltimore and Washington, Confederate Lieutenant General Jubal Early ordered Brigadier General John McCausland to capture and burn Chambersburg, Pennsylvania and thereupon proceed to Cumberland, in part to retaliate for the destruction of several southern towns at the hands of the Union Army, but also to seize or destroy equipment and structures related to the coal mining and railroad industries in those cities. After Chambersburg failed to meet the ransom demanded by McCausland, Confederate troops set fire to the town, resulting in the destruction of about 265 public and private buildings. With Union troops led by General W. W. Averill quickly approaching, McCausland 's regiment departed Chambersburg and continued onward to Cumberland, located about seventy-five miles to the southwest. 14 Battle ofPleasant Mills (Battle ofFolck 's Mill) On July 31, news of the burning of Chambersburg and the impending arrival ofMcCausland's troops reached Cumberland. Anxious to protect their city from a conflagration at the hands of Confederate troops, the citizens of Cumberland were ignited to action, organizing a militia of three companies numbering about two-hundred troops, placed under the command of General Charles M. Thruston. These militia forces supplemented the companies under the control of General Benjamin F. Kelley, Union commander of

11

The 1860 Federal Census, in addition to John Feick and his family and four slaves residing on the property, recorded: John McKeon (miller) and family, John Bramble (cooper) and family including a grown son (also a cooper), William Green and family including a grown son (also a laborer), and Thomas Judy (blacksmith) and family. Eighth Census of the United States, Allegany County, MD (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records, Record Group 29, 1860). 12 Eighth Census of the United States, Allegany County, MD (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records, Record Group 29, 1860). 13 Maryland, A Guide to the Old line State (New York: Oxford University Press, 1940), 262-270. 14 Harold L. Scott, Sr. The Civil War Battle at Folck 's Mill Near Cumberland, Maryland (Cumberland: 1999), 163-164.

Maryland Historical Trust Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties Form

Inventory No.

AL-111-C-l 82

Name Battlefield at Pleasant Mills (Folck's Mill Battlefield) Conti nuation Sheet Number__§____ Page 2

the Department of West Virginia, whose troops had been headquartered in Cumberland, primarily to safeguard the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad there. 15 The Alleganian newspaper provided an account of the preparations: To this community the past week has been a season of intense excitement and apprehension. It was known that a Rebel raiding force was operating in Pennsylvania and it was deemed highly-probable that in returning to Virginia they might strike for the upper fords of the Potomac. Hence, during the latter part oflast week all the roads leading into the town were strongly picketed and ingress and egress prohibited. On Sunday morning it was ascertained that they had captured and destroyed a portion of Chambersburg, Pa., but had been finally driven out by General Averill's forces, and were retreating towards Maryland. On Monday morning the excitement increased to such a degree that business was almost universally suspended, the business houses closed, and the merchants in many instances packed and removed their goods. 16 At noon on August 1, news reached the town that Confederate troops were approaching Cumberland at a distance of six miles along the Baltimore Pike. Kelley situated his troops at the eastern approach to Cumberland, on hills flanking the turnpike and overlooking Evitts Creek and Pleasant Mills below. At approximately 3:00 p.m., an advance squadron of Confederate cavalry reached the vicinity of Evitts Creek, approaching westward along the Baltimore Pike. After crossing a covered bridge that spanned the creek, the Confederate troops were surprised by a volley of musket fire from Kelley' s troops. In haste, the Confederate forces retreated back, taking shelter behind the bridge as well as several of the buildings on the Folck and Hinkle properties. Confederate sharpshooters opened fire on Kelley's troops, but this fire was essentially neutralized by the Union troops' return fire. 17 McCausland, arriving from the rear, deployed a line of skirmishers and positioned four cannon on an unnamed hill to the east of Folck's Mill and immediately north of the Baltimore Pike. The skirmish continued into the late evening, when McCausland ceased 18 fire to regroup and await reinforcements from General Bradley T. Johnson. The Alleganian summarized the days' events thus: "The battle opened about three o'clock, and the artillery firing, interspersed with an occasional volley, of musketry continued until six, when the rebels ceased firing, both sides occupying pretty much the same position as when the contest began." 19 Ensconced in their defensive positions in the hills above Pleasant Mills, the Confederate and Union forces engaged in no direct combat, and very few injuries or fatalities were reported: "Forty or fifty, perhaps Jess, will probably cover the entire number of killed and wounded on both sides. Fatal injuries were sustained by only one of our [Union] gunners we believe, while the wounds received are not generally of a severe character. Two or three of the enemy [Confederate] are said to have been killed." 20 Although no additional gunfire occurred after the evening of August 1, McCausland and Johnson's troops remained in the vicinity for another day, testing the size and position of Kelley's troops while they strategized their withdrawal. Under nightfall on August 2"d, McCausland's troops retreated east along the Baltimore Pike. With General Averill's Union troops approaching from Hancock, Maryland to the east, McCausland turned south and continued toward Oldtown, Maryland.

15

The companies under Kelley's command were: " ... three regiments of Ohio National Guards, four companies of Eleventh West Virginia Infantry, one company Sixth West Virginia Infantry, two sections Battery L, First Illinois Light Artillery, one section Battery B, Maryland Light Artillery, and several hundred stragglers, mostly unarmed, who had stampeded from the front after the battle near Winchester, July 24th." Harold L. Scott, Sr. The Civil War Battle at Folck's Mill Near Cumberland, Maryland (Cumberland: 1999), 166. Quoted from The War of the Rebellion, Part I, Volume 37, Chapter XLIX, 188. 16 "The Invasion," The Alleganian (Cumberland, MD), August 3, 1864. Western Maryland Regional Library. 17 Harold L. Scott, Sr. The Civil War Battle at Folck's Mill Near Cumberland, Maryland (Cumberland: 1999), 166-167. 18 Harold L. Scott, Sr. The Civil War Battle at Falck 's Mill Near Cumberland, Maryland (Cumberland: 1999), 166-167. 19 "The Invasion," The Alleganian (Cumberland, MD), August 3, 1864. Western Maryland Regional Library. 20 "The Invasion," The Alleganian (Cumberland, MD), August 3, 1864. Western Maryland Regional Library.

Maryland Historical Trust Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties Form

Inventory No.

AL-III-C-182

Name Battlefield at Pleasant Mills (Folck's Mill Battlefield) Continuation Sheet Number _lL Page 3

Immediate Aftermath During the engagement, John Folck reportedly gathered those who lived on the mill property into the cellar of the main dwelling house, expressing his anger at the commander who would fire without warning on non-combatants.2 1 Following the battle, it became clear that a majority of damage was inflicted on the mill property and buildings: "The dwelling, mill and barn of John Folck, Esq., were pretty much in range of our guns and were struck several times by shell. -The barn was fired by an exploding shell, and was 22 entirely destroyed with its contents almost the entire product of the late harvest." The inn operated by Jesse Hinkle, located across the turnpike from the Folck property, was damaged by shelling during the engagement and reportedly served as a hospital for Union soldiers following the battle.23 Cumberland expressed its gratitude toward Kelley and his men for sparing the city from the fate of Chambersburg. A few days following the battle, the citizens of Cumberland gathered to issue a formal statement of thanks: We tender to Brigadier General B. F. Kelley, and the brave officers & soldiers under his command, our warmest thanks for the skill and energy displayed by the General and his officers and the bravery exhibited by the troops under their command, in their successful resistance to the capture of this city by the Rebel forces on Monday last ... we are indebted to the brave men who risked their lives in our defence [sic] and in defence [sic] of our town and property, for the avertion [sic] of a dreadful calamity, similar to that lately inflicted upon the people of Chambersburg, by the same men who applied the torch of the incendiary to that town, and turned houseless & homeless upon the world thousands of non-combatants with their wives and children. 24

Pleasant Mills Damage and Later Development Following the battle, the Folck family and their dependents continued to operate the mill, evidently repairing the damage sustained during the battle. Beginning in 1874, the mill property was sold several times, although contemporary sources document its continued milling activity. In 1894, brothers William and Charles Wolfe purchased the property, which at the time totaled sixty-five acres. The mill property remained in the Wolfe family until 1958, when it was purchased by the State Roads Commission for the purposes of constructing an interchange between US 220 and .I-68 . By the 1970s, the mill was documented as being in ruins. In 1986, it was recorded as an archaeological site. Most twentieth-century maps label the property as Wolfe Mill. 25

Twentieth Century Road Development In the late-nineteenth century, the National Road and National Pike through Allegany County declined as major transportation routes. Many noted the roadbed's deplorable conditions, encroachment by adjacent property owners, and its unsuitability for use as a highspeed thoroughfare. Beginning in the mid-twentieth century, a rise in the popularity of private automobiles fostered an interest in reviving and improving historic and scenic routes, especially the National Road. Beginning in the 1910s, the "Good Roads Movement" was formed, supported by organizations like the National Highway Association and the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR), who successfully lobbied Congress to pass legislation funding highway infrastructure improvements, including the 21

James W. Thomas, History ofAllegany County, Maryland (Baltimore: Regional Publishing Company, 1969), 1169. "The Invasion," The Alleganian (Cumberland, MD), August 3, 1864. Western Maryland Regional Library. 23 Harold L. Scott, Sr. The Civil War Battle at Folck's Mill Near Cumberland, Maryland (Cumberland: 1999), 25 . 24 "Mass Meeting of Citizens," The Alleganian (Cumberland, MD), August 10, 1864. Western Maryland Regional Library. 25 Brooke Kenline et al. Archaeological Phase II Investigation at the Folck 's Mill Site (18AGJ 50), Allegany County, Maryland. TRC Environmental Corporation, Chapel Hill, NC. Submitted to Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore, MD, 2014. 22

Maryland Historical Trust Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties Form

Inventory No.

AL-III-C-182

Name Battlefield at Pleasant Mills (Folck's Mill Battlefield) Continuation Sheet Number _JL_ Page 4

Good Roads Act (1916) and the Highway Act (1921). The efforts of these organizations came to fruition in the construction of US 40. Constructed in the 1920s, the new US 40 predominantly followed the route of the National Road in this area. To celebrate the heritage of the old National Road and the communities it traversed, organizations like the DAR installed historical markers and monuments along its path. Increased traffic along the corridor also prompted the restoration and rehabilitation-and in some cases demolition-of historic properties in the vicinity of the route. 26 The new US 40 brought additional traffic through the vicinity of the Folck's Mill Battlefield site. In the 1930s, the State Roads Commission planned improvements to the route that would allow for a wider, smoother course of travel. The commission condemned a large portion of the Wolfe property in 193 7 and realigned the road to the north, leaving the old road as a spur below the level of the graded highway. The realignment of the road was likely the impetus for redirection of the former Turkey Flight Manor to the north, to face the new roadway. US 220, which like US 40 had been built atop existing roads in the 1920s, was reconstructed in the 1950s. It was diverted east from Cumberland to accommodate heavier commercial vehicles and a greater volume of traffic. It was in order to construct an interchange with US 40 that the remainder of the mill site was acquired from the Wolfe family in 1958. Automobile traffic along US 40 peaked around 1960. Following the construction oflnterstate 70 in the 1960s, traffic declined precipitously. At this time, Interstate 68 was planned to act as an alternate route for I-70 and also to serve Cumberland and Morgantown, West Virginia. Construction began on I-68 in downtown Cumberland in 1965, although it would be another twenty-five years before the route was completed. Around the Folck's Mill Battlefield site, later improvements to US 220 and I-68 included lane expansion, guardrails, and further grading. I-68 was expanded in 1962 to allow for four lanes of traffic and a new concrete bridge was built across Evitt's Creek. Beginning in 1987, US 220 was widened and new erosion controls were implemented. To allow for this expanded roadway, Evitts Creek was diverted to the west, altering its original path and eliminating a sharp bend in the creek northeast of the mill property.

26

Glenn A. Harper, "Preserving the National Road Landscape," in The National Road, ed. Karl Raitz (Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996), 384-391.

9. Major Bibliographical References

Inventory No. AL-III-C-182

See continuation sheet.

10. Geographical Data Acreage of surveyed property Acreage of historical setting Quadrangle name

Approximately 700 acres Same Evitts Creek

Quadrangle scale: "'"""7'"°.5'""""'rm=·n=u=t=e_ _ _ _ __

Verbal boundary description and justification The Pleasant Mills Battlefield site encompasses approximately 700 acres located three miles northeast of Cumberland, Allegany County, Maryland. The battlefield boundaries have an irregular border that extends lengthwise along the east-west I-68/US 40/US 220 route corridor. The outer edges of the battlefield site follow a series of 800-to-900-foot ridges that surround the Evitts Creek floodplain.

The boundaries described above correspond to the Folck's Mill Battlefield Core Area delineated in the Update to the Civil War Advisory Commission Report on the Nation's Civil War Battlefields for the State of Maryland, created by the National Park Service American Battlefield Protection Program (NPS ABPP) and published in 2010. The Core Area is defined as the areas of fighting on the battle, including positions that delivered and received fire and the intervening space and terrain between them. According to an interview conducted with the the NPS ABPP, the boundaries of the Core Area are derived from available historic documentation provided by local historians and authorities. It is recommended that the Core Area be boundaries be surveyed, if more intensive documentaiton is planned. For the Folck's Mill Battlefield site, the Core Area was drawn to include all topographic, landscape, and manmade features that factored into the Battle ofFolck's Mill on August 1, 1864.

11. Form Prepared by name/title

Bill Marzella, Historic Preservation Planner

organization

EHT Traceries, Inc.

date

June2014

street & number

1121 5th Street, NW

telephone

(202) 393-1199

city or town

Washington

state

DC

The Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties was officially created by an Act of the Maryland Legislature to be found in the Annotated Code of Maryland, Article 41 , Section 181 KA, 1974 supplement. The survey and inventory are being prepared for information and record purposes only and do not constitute any infringement of individual property rights. return to:

Maryland Historical Trust Maryland Department of Planning 100 Community Place Crownsville, MD 21032-2023 410-514-7600

Maryland Historical Trust Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties Form

Inventory No.

Name Battlefield at Pleasant Mills (Folck's Mill Battlefield) Continuation Sheet Number _JL Page 1

.. P LJ&i N O'F" iT HE

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Figure 1: "Plan of the Battle Field at Pleasant Mills" National Archives Record Group 77, Records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, circa 1864

AL-III-C-182

Maryland Historical Trust Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties Form

Inventory No . AL-111-C-l 82

Name Battlefield at Pleasant Mills (Folck's Mill Battlefield) Continuation Sheet Number _JL Page 2

Figure 2: "Plan of the Battle-Field at Pleasant Mills" (note north is to the left) F.M. Knight, Atlas of the War of the Rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1895), Pl. LIV

Maryland Historical Trust Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties Form

Inventory No. AL-III-C-182

Name Battlefield at Pleasant Mills (Folck's Mill Battlefield) Continuation Sheet Number _JL_ Page 3

Figure 3: Folck's Mill gristmill (center) and sawmill (right), circa 1894 Allegany County Historical Society The light-colored brick on the comer of the gristmill indicates patching of shelling damage sustained during the battle.

Figure 4: Covered bridge over Evitts Creek, circa 1894 Herman and Stacia Miller Photo Collection, City of Cumberland The covered bridge spanning Evitts Creek was constructed circa 1818. During the engagement, advance Confederate troops crossed the bridge before being surprised by Union fire and forced to take shelter behind the Hinkle and Folck properties. It was replaced circa 1894 with an iron bridge, which has also been subsequently replaced.

Maryland Historical Trust Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties Form

Inventory No . AL-111-C-18 2

Name Battlefield at Pleasant Mills (Folck's Mill Battlefield) Continuation Sheet Number__§___ Page 4

Figure 5: View looking northeast along US 40, circa 1937 Allegany County Civil War Roundtable This bird' s-eye view photograph was taken soon after the US 40 roadway and bridge over Evitts Creek was constructed in 1937.

1

2 3 4 5

US40 Baltimore Pike Folck's Mill Property Turkey Flight Manor Hillcrest Cemetery

Figure 6: Winter view ofFolck' s Mill property across Evitts Creek, US 40 at right, circa 193 7 Allegany County Civil War Roundtable

Maryland Historical Trust Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties Form

Inventory No. AL-111-C-182

Name Battlefield at Pleasant Mills (Folck's Mill Battlefield) Continuation Sheet Number_§__ Page 5

Bibliographical References "A New Bridge Will Have to Be Built." Evening Times (Cumberland, MD), April 7, 1894. Clites, Gary, Allegany County Civil War Roundtable. Interview with Bill Marzella, June 16, 2014 Curry, Dennis C. Archaeological Reconnaissance ofthe Proposed National Freeway (AGEA, Tie Lines A & C, and Northern and Western Avoidance Alignments), Allegany County, Maryland. Department of Natural Resources, Maryland Geological Survey, Division of Archaeology, Maryland State Highway Administration, Project No. A519-033-619 , MGS File Report No. 194, MHT No. AG 21 , 1986. Curry, Dennis C. Wolfe Mill. Archaeological Site Survey: Basic Data Report. MHT No. 18AG150, 1986. Eighth Census of the United States, Allegany County, MD. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 29, 1860. Federal Writers' Project. Maryland, A Guide to the Old Line State. New York: Oxford University Press, 1940. "The Invasion." The Alleganian (Cumberland, MD), August 3, 1864. Western Maryland Regional Library. Kenline, Brooke, Heather Millis, William Marzella, and Gray O ' Dwyer. Archaeological Phase II Investigation at the Folck 's Mill Site (18AGJ50), Allegany County, Maryland. TRC Environmental Corporation, Chapel Hill, NC. Submitted to Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore, MD, 2014. "Mass Meeting of Citizens." The Alleganian (Cumberland, MD), August 10, 1864. Western Maryland Regional Library. National Register of Historic Places. Folck's Mill, Cumberland, Allegany County, Maryland, National Register #08001071 , 2008. National Register of Historic Places. Inns on the National Road. Allegany and Garrett Counties, Maryland, National Register #76000976, 1976. Hawke, Paul, Chiefofthe American Battlefield Protection Program. Interviews with Bill Marzella, June 16 and 26, 2014. Raitz, Karl, editor. The National Road. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996. Scott, Harold L. , Sr. The Civil War Battle at Folck 's Mill Near Cumberland, Maryland. Cumberland: 1999. Thomas, James W. History ofAllegany County, Maryland. Baltimore: Regional Publishing Company, 1969.

Update to the Civil War Advisory Commission Report on the Nation 's Civil War Battlefields, State of Maryland. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service American Battlefield Protection Program, 2010.

Maryland Historical Trust

Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties Form Inventory Number: Name of Property: Location :

AL-111-C-182 Battlefield at Pleasant Mills (Folck's Mill Battlefield) Cumberland (vicinity), Allegany County, Maryland

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USGS Topographic Map

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Evitts Creek Quad, 7.5 Minute Scale, 2011

I Folck's Mill Battlefield Boundaries

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Maryland Historical Trust

Maryland Inventory of Historic Properties Form Inventory Number: Name of Property: Location :

Aerial Photograph Google Earth , 2013

AL-lll-C-182 Battlefield at Pleasant Mills (Folck's Mill Battlefield) Cumberland (vicinity) , Allegany County, Maryland

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I Folck's Mill Battlefield Boundaries