2003 WTP Elementary School Student High Resolution

2003 WTP Elementary School Student High Resolution

Directed by the CENTER FOR CIVIC EDUCATION and funded by the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION under the Education for Democracy Act approved by the UN...

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Directed by the

CENTER FOR CIVIC EDUCATION and funded by the

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION under the Education for Democracy Act approved by the

UNITED STATES CONGRESS

COVER

“Washington Crossing the Delaware,” Eastman Johnson (1824-1906) Private Collection (study after “Washington Crossing the Delaware,” by Emmanuel Leutze, the Metropolitan Museum, NY) © Art Resource, New York Cover + book design: Mark Stritzel

© 2003, CENTER FOR CIVIC EDUCATION 10 09 08

08 09 10

All rights reserved. Except for use in a review, reproduction or transmittal of this work in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, and use of this work in any form in any information storage and retrieval system is forbidden without prior written permission of the publisher. The U.S. Department of Education disclaims responsibility for any opinion or conclusions contained herein. The federal government reserves a nonexclusive license to use and reproduce for government purposes, without payment, this material where the government deems it in its interest to do so.

ISBN 13 978–089818169-2 ISBN 10 0–89818–169–0

ADVISORY COMMITTEE We the People: The Citizen and the Constitution Hon. Spencer Abraham

William Fay

Gordon M. Ambach

Hon. Dianne Feinstein

Hon. David McIntosh Joe McTighe

Hon. Les AuCoin

Sandra Feldman

Hon. Kweisi Mfume

Richard D. Bagin

Vincent Ferrandino

Milton D. Morris

Richard A. Baker

William Galston

Hon. Patty Murray

William G. Baker

Susan Griffin

Hon. Claiborne Pell

Hon. Max S. Baucus

William F. Harris

William T. Pound

Carol Blum

Hon. Orrin G. Hatch

Hon. J. Danforth Quayle

Hon. Bill Bradley

Hon. Mark O. Hatfield

Diane Ravitch

Anne Bryant

Hon. Augustus F. Hawkins

Alfred S. Regnery

Hon. John H. Buchanan Jr.

Charles Haynes

Hon. Rick Renzi

Hon. Dale L. Bumpers

Antonia Hernandez

Robert A. Schadler

R. Freeman Butts

Hon. Ernest F. Hollings

Jonathan S. Shapiro

Mark W. Cannon

Paul Houston

Hon. Philip R. Sharp

Gene Carter

A. E. Dick Howard

John William Smith

Michael Casserly

Victoria Hughes

Raymond W. Smock Hon. Robert T. Stafford

John Cheek

Hon. Henry J. Hyde

Hon. Thad Cochran

Hon. James Jeffords

Philippa Strum

Hon. William Cohen

Hon. Edward M. Kennedy

Hon. Strom Thurmond

John F. Cooke

Hon. Tom Lantos

Gerald Tirozzi

Hon. Philip M. Crane

Jack Lockridge

Reg Weaver

Mitchell E. Daniels Jr.

William L. Lucas

Paul A. Yost Jr.

Leonard De Fiore

Ginny Markell

Jean B. Elshtain

Mary McFarland

BOARD OF DIRECTORS Center for Civic Education President

Janet Green

Susan Stroud

Thomas Craven

William Hatcher

Robert Taylor

Hon. Richard Ibanez

Jonathan Varat

Members

Wil Jordan

Pauline Weaver

Pamela Allender

Eileen Kurahashi

Bob Wells

Carl Cohn

William Lucas

Nancy Zamora

Jock Covey

Laura O'Leary

Tom Ehrlich

Ali Mossaver-Rahmani

Members Emeriti R. Freeman Butts

H. David Fish

James Otto

C. Hugh Friedman

Richard Pedersen

Joanne Garvey

Maxine Frost

Paul Possemato

Leland R. Selna Jr.

Ruth Gadebusch

Clark Quinn

A. Ronald Oakes

Tom Giugni

Clara Slifkin

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The following staff and consultants have contributed to the development of this text

Principal Writers

Reviewers

Creative Director

Charles N. Quigley

Kim Allender

Mark Stritzel

Ken Rodriguez

Charles F. Bahmuller Sandy Baker

Production Design

Editorial Director

Margaret Stimmann Branson

Monica Melograna

Theresa M. Richard

John Hale

Holly Small

Dick Kean

Merrick Walter

Editorial Assistant

Robert Leming

David Hargrove

Rebecca Reeder

Illustrator

Susan Roe

Richard Stein

SPECIAL THANKS We wish to express our thanks to the following individuals who also contributed to the development of this text. Michael Conroy for editorial expertise, Juliet De Souza and Bianca Olsen for proofreading, Dick Kean for advice and direction on solving difficult content issues, Rose Freeland for colorization, Robert Meyers for prepress, and Sally Mills our print consultant. Special thanks to sixth-grader Diane Motamed who graciously critiqued portions of the text, tested activities, and volunteered her opinions on choice of cover image.

Warren E. Burger (1907–1995) Chief Justice of the United States, 1969–1986

CHAIR, COMMISSION ON THE BICENTENNIAL OF THE U NITED S TATES C ONSTITUTION The years 1987 to 1991 marked the 200th anniversary of the writing, ratification, and implementation of the basic documents of American democracy, the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Our Constitution has stood the tests and stresses of time, wars, and change. Although it was not perfect, as Benjamin Franklin and many others recognized, it has lasted because it was carefully crafted by men who understood the importance of a system of government sufficiently strong to meet the challenges of the day, yet sufficiently flexible to accommodate and adapt to new political, economic, and social conditions. Many Americans have but a slight understanding of the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and the later amendments to which we pledge our allegiance. The lessons in this book are designed to give you, the next generation of American citizens, an understanding of the background, creation, and subsequent history of the unique system of government brought into being by our Constitution. At the same time, it will help you understand the principles and ideals that underlie and give meaning to the Constitution, a system of government by those governed.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction Unit One Lesson 1

Lesson 2

1

What basic ideas about government did the Founders have?

3

What were the British colonies in America like in the 1700s?

5

Why did the Founders believe that people needed a government?

13

Lesson 3

What is a republican government?

21

Lesson 4

What is a constitutional government?

29

Lesson 5

What ideas did the Founders use in the Declaration of Independence?

39

Lesson 6

What were the first state governments like?

47

Unit Two

How did the Framers write our Constitution?

53

Lesson 7

What was the first national government like?

55

Lesson 8

How was the Philadelphia Convention organized?

63

Lesson 9

How many representatives should each state have in Congress?

71

What did the Framers do about the problem of slavery?

79

How does the Constitution organize our government?

85

What basic ideas about government are included in the Preamble to the Constitution?

87

Lesson 10

Unit Three

Lesson 11

Lesson 12

How does the Constitution limit the powers of our government?

93

Lesson 13

What is the legislative branch?

99

Lesson 14

What is the executive branch?

109

Lesson 15

What is the judicial branch?

115

Lesson 16

How did the Constitution create a federal system of government?

123

How does the Constitution protect our basic rights?

131

How does the Constitution protect your right to freedom of expression?

133

How does the Constitution protect your right to freedom of religion?

143

How does the Constitution protect your right to equal protection of the laws?

151

How does the Constitution protect your right to due process of law?

159

How does the Constitution protect your right to vote?

165

What are the responsibilities of citizens?

173

What is the role of the United States in the world today?

175

What are some important responsibilities of citizens?

183

How can citizens promote the common good?

191

Unit Four

Lesson 17

Lesson 18

Lesson 19

Lesson 20

Lesson 21

Unit Five

Lesson 22

Lesson 23

Lesson 24

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Reference Section

197

The Declaration of Independence

198

The Constitution of the United States

203

Glossary

223

Index

231

Credits

235