[2.64] Middle Imperial Roman 193 AD - 324 AD

[2.64] Middle Imperial Roman 193 AD - 324 AD

[2.78] Late Imperial Roman 307 AD – 425 AD Climat : Agressivité : Zone topographique : Chaud 1 2 Arable Terrains obligatoires : (ouest) (est) Terra...

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[2.78] Late Imperial Roman 307 AD – 425 AD Climat : Agressivité : Zone topographique :

Chaud 1 2 Arable

Terrains obligatoires : (ouest) (est)

Terrains facultatifs :

Rd WW, Rv, H(S), H(G), V, RGo, BUA Wd ou O, M (ouest) Wd, O, E (est)

Avertissements Les troupes irrégulières sont en rouge, les troupes obligatoires en gras, les mots non traduits ou intraduisibles en italique.

Liste principale Désignation

Type Reg Cv (O) C-in-C Reg Bd (O) Reg Ax (S) Reg Cv (O) Sub-general Reg Bd (O) Reg Bd (O) Legionarii Reg Ps (O) Archers supporting legionarii Reg Ax (S) Auxilia Palatina Border / Pseudocomitatenses auxilia Reg Ax (O) Archers supporting all Ax (S) or (O) except marines Reg Ps (O) Skirmishers with javelins, darts, sling, staff sling or Reg Ps (S) crossbow Reg Ps (O) Reg Art (O) Bolt shooters Reg Art (F) Stone throwers Reg Art (S) Laeti or city militia Irr Ax (I) Dromons [Ax, Ps] Reg Gal (F) • or Lusoriae/Pictae [Ax, Ps] Irr Bts (S) Marines Irr Ax (O) Ditch and palisade for camp TF

Coût 28 27 25 28 27 7 2 5 4 2 3 2 8 10 10 2 2 3 3 1

200 pts

250 pts

300 pts

400 pts

Type Coût Reg Cv (O) 8 Reg LH (O) 5 Reg LH (F) 4 Reg Bw (O) 5 List: Early Frankish, Alamanni, Quadi, Suevi, Rugian or Turcilingi (Bk 2)

200 pts 2-4 2-4 0-3 0-1

250 pts 2-5 3-5 0-4 0-1

300 pts 2-6 3-6 0-5 0-2

400 pts 3-8 4-8 0-6 0-2

0-8

0-9

0-11

0-15

200 pts 0-1

250 pts 0-1

300 pts 0-2

400 pts 0-2

200 pts 0-1

250 pts 0-1

300 pts 0-2

400 pts 0-2

1 1-2 2-8

3-10 3-12 4-16 1 per 2 Bd or 1 per Bd 2-8 3-10 3-12 4-16 0-6 0-8 0-9 0-12 0 or 1 per Ax 0-2

0-3

0-3

0-4

0-2

0-3

0-3

0-4

0-1 0-2

0-1 0-3

0-2 0-3

0-2 0-4

0-2

0-3

0-3

0-4

0-6

0-1 per Gal 0-8 0-9

0-12

Only in western armies Désignation Equites Equites Illyricani Equites sagittarii Auxilia Palatina sagittarii units Frankish allies

Only in western armies after 312 AD Désignation Catafractarii/Clibanarii

Type Reg Kn (X)

Coût 13

Only in western armies after 380 AD Désignation Regrade equites as Comites Alani

JPM200504

Type Reg Kn (F)

Coût 11

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[2.78] Late Imperial Roman 307 AD – 425 AD Only in western armies after 406 AD Désignation Alan allies

Type Coût List: Alan (Bk 2)

200 pts 0-8

250 pts 0-9

300 pts 0-11

400 pts 0-15

Type Coût 200 pts List: Later Visigothic (Bk 2)

250 pts

300 pts

400 pts

200 pts 1-2 0-2 0-2 2-3 1 0-2 0-1 0-3 0-1

250 pts 1-2 0-2 0-3 2-4 1 0-3 0-1 0-4 0-1

300 pts 2 0-2 0-3 2-5 1-2 0-3 0-2 0-5 0-2

400 pts 2-3 0-3 0-4 3-6 1-2 0-4 0-2 0-6 0-2

0-6

0-8

0-9

0-12

300 pts

400 pts

300 pts

400 pts

250 pts 0-1

300 pts 0-1

400 pts 0-1

250 pts

300 pts

400 pts

250 pts 0-3 0-1

300 pts 0-3 0-2

400 pts 0-4 0-2

300 pts 0-4 *2-3

400 pts 0-5 *2-4

Only in western armies after 418 AD Désignation Visigothic allies

Only in eastern armies after 324 AD Désignation Catafractarii Clibanarii Equites Equites Illyricani, promoti indigenae or Saraceni Equites sagittarii Equites sagittarii indigenae Dromedarii cameleers Auxilia Palatina sagittarii units Border / Pseudocomitatenses sagittarii units Arab nomad allies

Type Coût Reg Kn (F) 11 Reg Kn (X) 13 Reg Cv (O) 8 Reg LH (O) 5 Reg LH (F) 4 Reg LH (F) 4 Reg LH (I) 3 Reg Bw (O) 5 Reg Bw (I) 4 List: Later Pre-Islamic Arab (Bk 2)

Only in eastern armies from 325 AD to 363 AD Désignation Armenian and Hiberian allies

Type Coût 200 pts 250 pts List: Early Armenian and Gordyene (Bk 2) Only in eastern armies after 337 AD

Désignation Upgrade catafractarii to

Type Reg Kn (X)

Coût 13

200 pts

250 pts All

Only in eastern armies from 366 AD to 375 AD Désignation Currus drepanus cataphract scythed chariot

Type Irr Exp (O)

Coût 7

200 pts 0-1

Only in eastern armies from 395 AD to 397 AD Désignation Visigothic allies

Type Coût 200 pts List: Early Visigothic (Bk 2) Only in eastern armies in 399 AD

Désignation Rioting religious mob Armed peasants and slaves

Type Irr Hd (S) Irr Hd (O)

Coût 2 1

200 pts 0-2 0-1

Only in eastern armies after 388 AD or western armies after 395 AD Désignation Hunnic and Alan mercenaries Equites Taifali, Sciri or Theodosiaci

JPM200504

Type Irr LH (S) Reg Kn (F)

Coût 7 11

200 pts 0-3 *1-2

250 pts 0-3 *1-3

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[2.78] Late Imperial Roman 307 AD – 425 AD Only in eastern armies after 388 AD or western armies from 395 AD to 408 AD Désignation Gothic foot • graded as all • or all

Type Irr Wb (O) Reg Ax (S)

Coût

200 pts

250 pts

300 pts

400 pts

3 5

*3-6

*4-8

*5-9

*6-12

This list covers the Roman army from the reforms of Constantine I until the accession to power of Aetius. Note that the reforms did not extend to the east until he defeated his last rival in 324 AD, so it overlaps the Middle Imperial Roman list. The reformed army has been considered since Gibbon wrote his “Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire” to have been much less efficient that its predecessors. This view has been reversed as yesterday’s wargamers joined the ranks of academics! Its main innovation was the formation of first central and then regional field armies to support the frontier defences. Legions were now optimised for fighting barbarian warbands and cavalry. Their pila were first supplemented and then replaced by lighter throwing spears with greater range. These were in turn supplemented by multiple lead-weighted throwing darts of range such that they could partially replace archery. The short gladius was also replaced by a longer sword. The large 10 cohort legion of earlier days was replaced by a much smaller 1,200 strong body probably originating in detachments (vexillations) taken from the frontier legions. The field force legions needed to be supported by elite cavalry and infantry. Rather than denude the frontiers of the old auxiliary cohorts and alae, these were provided by cavalry units equipped much like the old ones but called vexillations and new infantry units called auxilia palatina. The latter carried the same new long range throwing weapons, long sword and big oval shield as the legions. Legionaries are depicted in art with muscle cuirasses and pteruges, and auxilia as unarmoured. Academics currently choose to disbelieve the art and assume that legionaries wore mail corselets. There are a few representations of mailed soldiers on foot, but these could be dismounted cavalry. The wood carving from Egypt referred to under list 55 shows both mailed and muscle-cuirassed Romans on foot. A few of the auxilia were entirely archers. Legions and probably other auxilia included a proportion of supporting archers. The continued existence of lanciarii as such is improbable. Constantine seems to have amalgamated all his into a special elite advanced guard legion (Bd) which became the army’s senior infantry unit. However, Vegetius describes light infantry with javelins and darts, or with slings, staff-slings or bows, who sally out through legionary ranks. As time went on, the original “palatina” legions and cavalry of the field army were joined by others with the slightly lower status of “comitatensis” and then, in emergency, by promoted frontier infantry units with the still lower rank of “pseudocomitatensis”. Some cavalry vexillations were the old type mailed javelin throwing cavalry, others were light unarmoured javelin-throwing Illyricani, yet others light horse archers. Especially heavy lance armed cavalry were called catafractarii and clibanarii. The distinction, if any, between catafractarii and clibanarii is a matter of dispute. All clibanarii units were originally recruited from eastern peoples, and most catafractarii from western. The latter were originally ordinary equites who exchanged the long contus for lancea and shield. Libanius credits Constantius II with creating a large number of cataphract units with armour even heavier than the Persians with even the horses being armoured. The likely method of achieving this would have been by upgrading existing catafractarii in line with those clibanarii already in existence. They would then be functionally identical, both being fully armoured lancers on fully armoured horses. Constantine I’s original army seems to have had neither type, but defeated Maxentius’s clibanarii. The next evidence of cataphracts in the west is as garrisons in Gaul from 312 and these may have been remnants of Maxentius’s units. Ammianus describes “the cataphract cavalry that they call clibanarii” present at Constantius II’s entry into Rome in 357 as “all masked, furnished with protecting breastplates and girt with iron belts, so that you might have supposed them statues polished by the hand of Praxiteles, not men. Thin circles of iron plates, fitted to the curves of their bodies, completely covered their limbs; so that whichever way they had to move their members, their garment fitted, so skilfully were the joinings made.” In his description of Julian’s battle of Argentoratum in the same year, he variously describes a single body of cavalry as “cataphract cavalry”, “cataphractarii” and “clibanarii”. Claudian’s account of the assassination of Rufinus describes fully armoured men on metal armoured horses. An allied contingent in a sub-Roman British army can include 1 element of catafractarii. The Notitia Dignitatum includes coloured shield emblems for all units of the western field armies and the infantry of the eastern field armies. A recent suggestion that most were invented by monkish copyists has little to recommend it. Cataphract scythed chariots were advocated for use against Persia by a Roman inventor now ascribed to the reign of Valentinian I and Valens. The standard warship was now the dromon (“runner”) developed from an original used on the River Po. These were single banked and much smaller than the later Byzantine warships of the same name. The Goths who fought for Theodosius I at the Frigidus in 394 did so under Roman generals. Whether they fought in native style or were formed into new auxilia palatina is disputed, but the Notitia has units of the latter called Tervingi, Visi and (several) Theodosiani of the right date. Minima marked * apply only if any troops so marked are used. Phil Barker et Richard Bodley Scott, Listes d’armées DBM – Livre 2, 2e édition, novembre 1998 JPM200504

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