5112-14 Germantown Avenue - City of Philadelphia

5112-14 Germantown Avenue - City of Philadelphia

NOMINATION OF HISTORIC BUILDING, STRUCTURE, SITE, OR OBJECT PHILADELPHIA REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES PHILADELPHIA HISTORICAL COMMISSION SUBMIT ALL ATT...

3MB Sizes 0 Downloads 4 Views

Recommend Documents

Sou Philadelphia Germantown - Settlement Music School
Nov 2, 2017 - Iron Stone Strategic Capital Partners. Justin & Mary Klein. Bruce & Robyn E. Leto. Moore Brothers Wine Com

City of Philadelphia - Philadelphia City Council Legislation
WHEREAS, SEIU Local 36 as part of the Justice for Janitors campaign, recently won the right in a union election to repre

PHILADELPHIA CITY PLANNING COMMISSION - City of Philadelphia
Mar 1, 2016 - Duane Bumb, Representing Harold T. Epps. Christopher Rupe, Representing Michael DiBerardinis. Peilin Chen

City of Philadelphia - Philadelphia City Council Legislation
from Geno's Steaks from 6 PM to 12 Midnight on Thursday, March 5 th ... WHEREAS, “Blue Thursday” coincides with Joey

City of Philadelphia - Philadelphia City Council Legislation
Boy Scouts Council occupies a City building located at 22nd and Spring Streets. ... and the City's Fair Practices Ordina

City of Philadelphia - Philadelphia City Council Legislation
Room 402, City Hall. Philadelphia. (Resolution No. 110924). RESOLUTION. Recognizing and Thanking Councilman At-Large Jac

City of Philadelphia - Philadelphia City Council Legislation
WHEREAS, The Lunar New Year encompasses several holidays celebrating the New ... Japanese New Year, Korean New Year, Táº

City of Philadelphia - Philadelphia City Council Legislation
support the longtime residents of gentrifying neighborhoods, and to retain a consultant to ... WHEREAS, Over the last se

City of Philadelphia - Philadelphia City Council Legislation
RESOLVED BY THE COUNCIL OF THE CITY OF PHILADELPHIA, THAT Allan. Domb is hereby appointed as a member of the Board of Di

Design Review Commission - City of Germantown
State Farm, Charles Giordano, 2199 S. Germantown Rd., Request Approval of a Ground-mounted Tenant Identification. Sign.

NOMINATION OF HISTORIC BUILDING, STRUCTURE, SITE, OR OBJECT PHILADELPHIA REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES PHILADELPHIA HISTORICAL COMMISSION SUBMIT ALL ATTACHED MATERIALS ON PAPER AND IN ELECTRONIC FORM ON CD (MS WORD FORMAT)

1. ADDRESS OF HISTORIC RESOURCE (must comply with an Office of Property Assessment address)

5112-14 Germantown Avenue Street address:__________________________________________________________________ 19144 Postal code:_______________

8 Councilmanic District:__________________________

2. NAME OF HISTORIC RESOURCE

The King-Green House Historic Name:__________________________________________________________________ Common Name:_________________________________________________________________

3. TYPE OF HISTORIC RESOURCE Building

Structure

Site

Object

poor

4. PROPERTY INFORMATION Condition:

excellent

good

fair

Occupancy:

occupied

vacant

under construction

ruins unknown

Storage Current use:____________________________________________________________________

5. BOUNDARY DESCRIPTION Please attach a plot plan and written description of the boundary.

6. DESCRIPTION Please attach a description of the historic resource and supplement with current photographs.

7. SIGNIFICANCE Please attach the Statement of Significance.

1899 Period of Significance (from year to year): from _________ c. 1740s to _________ c. 1740s / c. 1790s / c. 1920s-40s Date(s) of construction and/or alteration:______________________________________________ Architect, engineer, and/or designer:_________________________________________________ Builder, contractor, and/or artisan:___________________________________________________

Jacob Bowman Original owner:__________________________________________________________________ Daniel King and the Green Family Other significant persons:__________________________________________________________

CRITERIA FOR DESIGNATION: The historic resource satisfies the following criteria for designation (check all that apply): (a) Has significant character, interest or value as part of the development, heritage or cultural characteristics of the City, Commonwealth or Nation or is associated with the life of a person significant in the past; or, (b) Is associated with an event of importance to the history of the City, Commonwealth or Nation; or, (c) Reflects the environment in an era characterized by a distinctive architectural style; or, (d) Embodies distinguishing characteristics of an architectural style or engineering specimen; or, (e) Is the work of a designer, architect, landscape architect or designer, or engineer whose work has significantly influenced the historical, architectural, economic, social, or cultural development of the City, Commonwealth or Nation; or, (f) Contains elements of design, detail, materials or craftsmanship which represent a significant innovation; or, (g) Is part of or related to a square, park or other distinctive area which should be preserved according to an historic, cultural or architectural motif; or, (h) Owing to its unique location or singular physical characteristic, represents an established and familiar visual feature of the neighborhood, community or City; or, (i) Has yielded, or may be likely to yield, information important in pre-history or history; or (j) Exemplifies the cultural, political, economic, social or historical heritage of the community.

8. MAJOR BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES Please attach a bibliography.

9. NOMINATOR

Oscar Beisert / J.M. Duffin [email protected] Name with Title___________________________________ Email________________________________ The Keeping Society of Philadelphia 26 January 2017 Organization______________________________________Date________________________________ (717) 602-5002 Street Address____________________________________Telephone____________________________ 1315 Walnut Street, Suite 732 City, State, and Postal Code______________________________________________________________ Philadelphia, PA 19107 Nominator

is

is not

the property owner. PHC USE ONLY

26 January 2017 Date of Receipt:_______________________________________________________________________ Correct-Complete

Incorrect-Incomplete

Date:_________________________________ 10 April 2017

27 April 2017 Date of Notice Issuance:_________________________________________________________________ Property Owner at Time of Notice

Bruce Ward Gibby Name:_________________________________________________________________________ Address:_______________________________________________________________________ 139 Carroll Avenue ______________________________________________________________________________ City:_______________________________________ Glenside

PA State:____

19038 Postal Code:_________

Date(s) Reviewed by the Committee on Historic Designation:____________________________________ Date(s) Reviewed by the Historical Commission:______________________________________________ Date of Final Action:____________________________________________________________________ Designated

Rejected

4/11/13

Nomination for the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places

Looking southwest. Courtesy Oscar Beisert.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue Germantown Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 1

5. BOUNDARY DESCRIPTION The boundary description of the proposed designation is as follows: Beginning at a point on the southwesterly side of Germantown Avenue measured North 51 degrees 54 minutes 4 seconds West a distance of 119 feet 8 5/8 inches from the northwesterly side of Manheim Street thence extending from said point of beginning South 36 degrees 55 minutes 53 seconds West along the northwesterly side of a proposed 14 feet wide easement which extends Southwest from said Germantown Avenue 88 feet 10 inches to a point; thence extending North 53 degrees 4 minutes 7 seconds West 50 feet 1/4 inch to a point then extending North 36 degrees 55 minutes 53 seconds East passing through a wall of the building erected on this lot and the building on the lot adjoining to the Northwest 89 feet 7 3/8 inches to a point on the south westerly side of Germantown Avenue; thence extending South 52 degrees 12 minutes 48 seconds East along the said south westerly side of Germantown Avenue 41 feet 7 1/4 inches to an angle point of therein; thence extending South 51 degrees 54 minutes 4 seconds East still along the said south westerly side of Germantown Avenue 8 feet 5 1/8 inches to a point being the first mentioned point in place of beginning. Tax Account No. 035-36660-05112-001

The boundary for the subject property is in red. Courtesy Philadelphia Water.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 2

Looking southwest. Courtesy Oscar Beisert.

6. PHYISCAL DESCRIPTION Built entirely of Wissahickon Schist, the roughcast building at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue occupies a forty-six-foot-wide lot opposite Collom Street in the Germantown section of Philadelphia. Like most of the historic buildings in the former German Township, the subject house is set immediately upon the Avenue with unimproved, open space at the rear of the building. The house stands two-and-one-half-stories tall and has a side-gable roof. With Georgian stylistic antecedents, this Germantown Vernacular house spans six generous bays in width and is generally symmetrical.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 3

Looking southwest. Courtesy Oscar Beisert.

Primary Elevation, First Floor The first floor was originally residential, but has been reconfigured to accommodate commercial use like many of the early buildings on Germantown Avenue. The fenestration contains a central pedestrian door flanked by two large storefront windows with a second pedestrian door at the side. The shop windows are delineated by a cornice with a dentil molding and flanking pilasters with deteriorated capitals. The lower doorway appears to retain its original situation, as well as an early wooden architrave and door. The original pediment above the door has been inappropriately replaced and/or reconstructed. The door at the side was relocated, but may include an early and/or recreated wooden architrave and door. Both doors are partly obscured by plywood, but features a center panel and in the place of two panels at the top are two oval lights. The side door is also flanked by wooden pilasters with deteriorated capitals. The pilasters support a pediment above the door that was inappropriately replaced and/or reconstructed. In general the primary elevation features scored roughcast and sections of rubble schist.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 4

Looking southeast. Courtesy Oscar Beisert.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 5

Looking southwest. Courtesy Oscar Beisert.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 6

Looking southwest. Courtesy Oscar Beisert.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 7

Looking southwest. Courtesy Oscar Beisert.

Looking southwest. Courtesy Oscar Beisert.

Looking southwest at a late nineteenth century view of the house. Source: the Germantown Historical Society.

Primary Elevation, Second Floor The second floor retains its nineteenth-century or earlier fenestration, spanning six bays in width. A single window appears to have been added above the central door. The windows feature original-appearing wooden architraves and sills. These apertures are shuttered with plywood, however original or early wooden sash windows may be present beneath the plywood. The roofline is delineated by a simple, but early wooden cornice. The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 8

Looking southwest. Courtesy Oscar Beisert.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 9

Looking southwest. Courtesy Oscar Beisert.

Looking southwest. Courtesy Oscar Beisert.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 10

Looking southwest. Courtesy Oscar Beisert.

Looking southwest at a late nineteenth century view of the house. Source: the Germantown Historical Society.

Primary Elevation, Third Floor The third, half story of the building features two dormers. If the façade were divided in two, each dormer would be approximately at center. The dormers are gable-front, Georgian style, featuring eight-over-eight wood sash windows that appear to be early if not original. A plain red brick chimney pierces the lower section of the building just north of the lower dormer, but is off center, indicating the house’s growth over time. This chimney is deeper than it is wide.

Looking southwest. Courtesy Oscar Beisert.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 11

Northeast Elevation At the southern end of the building, within the gable-end, is a simple, but irregular fenestration of two windows at the ground floor, both shuttered with plywood; two windows in the second floor, featuring early wood sash windows with a six-over-six and six-over-nine configurations; and a single wooden window in the third, half story, featuring a six-over-six light configuration. A one-story ell appends the rear of this section.

Looking west. Source: Bing Maps.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 12

Looking north. Source: Bing Maps.

Southeast and Northwest Elevations The rear (southeast) elevation appears to include a two-story ell at the northern most section of the elevation. A large, one-story addition spans the remaining elevation. Two dormers also present on the third floor. The placement of these dormers may indicate the original configuration of the house.

Looking east. Courtesy Bing Maps. The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 13

Looking west. Courtesy Oscar Beisert.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 14

Looking southwest. Courtesy Oscar Beisert.

Site Information Between the subject building and the Commodore Barron House is an iron gate leading to a separate parcel, but also providing egress to the rear of the subject parcel. Since the Barron House is listed in the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, this iron gate and/or the opening of this alleyway is subject to the proposed designation.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 15

Taken in the late nineteenth century, the Green House at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, during the period of Charles U. Green the third generation of hatters to live and operate as a hatter at the subject property. Found in the Castner Scrapbooks on Germantown. Courtesy the Free Library of Philadelphia.

7. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE The house at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue is a significant historic resource that merits designation by the Philadelphia Historical Commission and inclusion on the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places. Located in the Germantown neighborhood of Philadelphia, the building satisfies the following Criteria for Designation as enumerated in Section 14-1004 of the Philadelphia Code: a) c) d) g) j)

Has significant character, interest, or value as part of the development, heritage, or cultural characteristics of the City, Commonwealth, or nation or is associated with the life of a person significant in the past; Reflects the environment in an era characterized by a distinctive architectural style; Embodies distinguishing characteristics of an architectural style or engineering specimen; Is part of or related to a square, park or other distinctive area which should be preserved according to an historic, cultural or architectural motif; and Exemplifies the cultural, political, economic, social, or historical heritage of the community.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 16

5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown. Drawing by John Richards. Source: the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

Criterion A Built in part as early as the 1740s, the subject house at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue is a representative building of the eighteenth century development of Germantown. Joseph Shippen (1679–1741), a prosperous Boston-born merchant and one of the first Philadelphians to summer in Germantown, bought roughly 150 acres of land in lower Germantown between 1707 and 1709. In 1743, his sons advertised the subdivision of that acreage into lots for sale between present-day Hansberry to Reger Streets on and in the vicinity of Germantown Avenue. The subject property was part of two thirty-foot lots fronting on Germantown Avenue, both of which were purchased by Jacob Bowman (Bauman) between 1743 and 1748. Bowman built a stone house on the subject lot, which he used as a rental property. After Bowman’s ownership, several others had possession of the property. In March 1794, the subject house was purchased by brass founder, Daniel King, Sr. He made this dwelling his home.1 If the subject house was not enlarged by a previous owner, King certainly commissioned enlargement. The 1798 U.S. Direct Tax indicates that King’s two-story stone house measured forty-six feet in width by twenty-three feet in depth. This measurement aligns precisely with the current measurement of the subject house. Criterion A The property represents the life and work of Daniel King, Sr. (ca. 1731–1806), a prosperous and well-known Philadelphia brass founder. The subject property is the only surviving building associated with this important Philadelphia craftsman.

1

Deed: Noe Townsend, formerly of Germantown, coach maker, and Elizabeth, his wife, to Daniel King, Sr., 25 March 1794, recited in Philadelphia Deed Book I.H., No. 6, p. 65, City Archives of Philadelphia (hereafter CAP). The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 17

1742 Shippen Partition Plan, Germantown (north at bottom of map). Source: Philadelphia Deed Book I., No. 9, p. 544, City Archives of Philadelphia

Historic Context: Early History of 5112–14 Germantown Avenue 1707-1806 The subject property traces its origins to the estate of Joseph Shippen (1679–1741), one of the first Philadelphians to summer in Germantown, a trend that become common for the eighteenth and nineteenth century elite. Shippen was born in Boston, but came to Philadelphia around 1707, about fifteen years after his father Edward Shippen. He worked as a merchant in the city and acquired land both in the city and parts of Southwark, then its own township. Joseph began buying land in lower Germantown by 1709.2 He eventually acquired three original town and side lots totaling 150 acres, which encompassed the area from present day Hansberry to Reger Streets and Germantown to Wissahickon Avenues. Sometime before his death in 1741, Shippen had retired to his Germantown property. In February 1740, he gave most of his Germantown property so his three sons Edward (1703–1781), Joseph (1706–1793), and Dr. William Shippen (1712–1775) to be divided among.3 The remaining portion of the larger estate which stretched

2

Not all the early deeds for Shippen’s Germantown purchases were recorded. Those that did make it to the record are as follows: Deed: Abraham Opden Graeff of Germantown, weaver, to Joseph Shippen of the city of Philadelphia, merchant, for 50 A., 24d 2m (April) 1707, Philadelphia Deed Book E. 3, Vol. 6, p. 149; Deed: Abraham Opden Graeff of Germantown, linen weaver, to Joseph Shippen of the city of Philadelphia, merchant, for 50 A., 4 July 1709, Philadelphia Deed Book E. 5, Vol. 7, p. 332; Isaac Van Sintern of Germantown, weaver, and Neiltei, his wife, to Joseph Shippen of the city of Philadelphia, merchant, for 12½ A., 10 February 1712, Philadelphia Deed Book E. 7, Vol. 8, p. 299, CAP. 3 Deed: Joseph Shippen, the father, to his sons Edward, Joseph and William Shippen, 27 February 1740; recited in Philadelphia Deed Book I., No. 9, p. 544, City Archives of Philadelphia (hereafter CAP). The recital has a deed book and page number for the 1740 deed but no record of that date corresponds with the citation given. The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 18

into adjacent Northern Liberties (now East Falls) was devised to them in Joseph’s will later the same year.4 Edward, Joseph and William Shippen divided up their father’s Germantown estate in February 1742. 5 This partition was Germantown’s first large scale subdivision. The Shippen brothers created a square and four new streets – two of which (Mannheim and Green Streets) still retain their original names – and a total of 78 lots of varying sizes.6 The smallest lots were placed along Germantown Avenue and around the “German Square.” Most of the lots were unimproved.7 Beginning in 1743, the brothers starting advertising the lots along Germantown Avenue for sale.8 The sale of the lots on ground rent was slow at first but soon picked in the 1740s and 1750s.9

4

Will of Joseph Shippen “late of the City of Philadelphia (but now of Germantown) … merchant,” dated 30 December 1740, proved 30 June 1741, Will Book F., p. 219, Philadelphia Register of Wills. 5 Deed of Partition between Edward Shippen, of the City of Philadelphia, merchant, Joseph Shippen, of the City, merchant, and William Shippen, of the City, chemist, 10 February 1741[/2], Philadelphia Deed Book I., No. 9, p. 544, CAP. Later recitals of the partition deed assign the double date of 1741/2 (Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 61, p. 475; Deed Book A.W.M., No. 61, p. 469). 6 A plan of the partition is recorded with the partition deed. 7 The partition deed mentions a “House & Lot called the Roe Buck Tavern” on lot ES IS WS 15 (near present-day 5116–28 Germantown Ave.) which the brothers held jointly and “an Old House” on lot WS 11 (5106 Germantown Ave.). 8 American Weekly Mercury, August 27, 1741, February 14, 1742/3; Pennsylvania Gazette, January 9, 1753 9 For examples – Deed: Edward Shippen to James Logan, 1 January 1753, page 5, Ashmead Papers (Am .009), Historical Society of Pennsylvania; Deed: William Shippen and Susannah, his wife, to Jacob Weitman, 30 January 1754, recited in Philadelphia Deed Book I., No. 17, p. 413; Deed: Edward Shippen to Daniel Ent, 10 September 1755, recited in Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 5, p. 95; Deed: Edward Shippen to James Abercrombie, 29 October 1757, Philadelphia Deed Book T.H., No. 7, p. 476, CAP. The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 19

Detail of the 1742 Shippen Partition Plan, Germantown (north at bottom of map). Subject property highlighted. Source: Philadelphia Deed Book I., No. 9, p. 544, City Archives of Philadelphia.

The subject property was part of two lots, both with 30-foot fronts along Germantown Avenue. The southeastern lot was assigned to William Shippen (numbered WS 12) and the northeastern lot to Joseph Shippen (numbered IS 13). WS 12 and IS 13 were purchased by Jacob Bauman at some point between 1743 and 1747. One of these lots became the site of a new stone house, which was used as a rental property. This building is most likely incorporated into the subject house. Jacob Bauman (d. 1748) Jacob Bauman (also spelled ‘Jacob Bowman’ in historic documents) arrived in Philadelphia in October 1727 from the Lambsheim, Germany.10 While he was born in the Wallenburg (now Waldenburg), Canton Basel, Switzerland, Bowman followed the path of most young and poor Swiss people in that period by migrating down the Rhine into the Palatinate in search of economic prosperity. In Lambsheim, he worked as a carpenter, and was successful enough to obtain local citizenship in 1717. That same year, he married Susanna Müller from nearby Böhl.11 10

Heinrich Rembe, “Emigration Materials from Lambsheim in the Palatinate,” in Rhineland Emigrants: Lists of German Settlers in Colonial America, ed. Don Yoder (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1985), 99. Most of the details of Bowman’s early life are taken from this source. Jacob Bowman (d. 1748) should not be confused with another Jacob Bowman (d. 1798), variously called a cooper or cedar cooper, who lived in Germantown in latter half of the eighteenth century. 11 Annette K. Burgert, Eighteenth Century Pennsylvania German Emigrants from Hassloch and Böhl in the Palatinate (Worthington, Ohio: AKB Publications, 1983), 6. Susanna died sometime between 1735 and 1748 and Jacob remarried a woman named Margaret. The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 20

Almost a decade later, Bowman emigrated to America and continued to work as a carpenter, where his labors in the Quaker colony were more lucrative. Just two years after his arrival, he was able to purchase three lots, one of which included a house at the southwest corner of Germantown Avenue and Queen Lane. This house served as his residence.12 He purchased the subject properties between 1743 and 1747 and it was likely during this time that a portion of the subject house was built. Like the many other Swiss in Germantown, Bowman was Reformed. With all of the fervor and zeal of his similarly enthusiastic brethren, Bowman was one of the founding trustees of the Germantown Reformed Church (later known as Market Square Presbyterian Church). Bowman’s success was short-lived, as he died in 1748. His estate was valued that same year at £1,388 – a very impressive compared to his most of his neighbors. According to the terms of Jacob Bowman’s will, the executors were to liquidate as much of his real estate holdings necessary to satisfy his debts and financial obligations—one of which included the “maintenance of his five daughters.” Among the properties Bowman specifically described in his will was the subject property: “the two Lotts of Land, in Germantown which I have of Joseph Shippen & William Shippen, and … the Improvements & Messuages thereon.”13 The estate inventory described this property as “two Lots of Land (along the Main Street) taken of Messrs. Shippen on Ground Rent w[i]th the Improv[e]m[en]ts & Buildings” and valued them at £130. The liquidation began in October 1748with an auction that included the subject property. The following notice was published in Christopher Sower’s newspaper:

Advertisement in Sower’s Pennsilvanische Geschichts-Schreiber, October 16, 1749. Source: Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

Translation: On Friday, the 27th of this month October will be sold a house on the street in Germanton. It is the house which the deceased Jacob Bauman built

12

Deeds of [Lease and] Release: Dirk Johnson, of Germantown, yeoman, to Jacob Bowman, of Germantown, carpenter, Philadelphia Deed Book G., No. 11, p. 273, CAP. Bowman’s ownership of this corner lot led to the adjacent street, Queen Lane, being known as Bowman’s Lane for much of the eighteenth century. 13 Will of Jacob Bowman, of German Town, carpenter, 30 April 1748, proved 19 May 1748, Will File 203 of 1748, Philadelphia Register of Wills. The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 21

opposite Fridrich Fend, the cooper.14 Also to be sold another lot on Bauman’s Lane bordering on the house, also various household goods. Whoever has interest in one or the other can then present themselves at Jörg Schmitt’s. Inexpensive credit will be given by the executors Dirck Kaiser, Christoph Meng and Margaretha Schmitt.15 The result of the sale are unknown at this time. The purchaser of the subject property may have been surgeon Gottfried Bush, since he is the next confirmed owner. Bush owned the subject property prior to 1760, when he sold it to leather dresser John David Seiferheldt.16 Seiferheldt appears to have made this his home. The house may have been enlarged to include a shop at the north at that time. He is listed at this location in the 1767 and 1769 Philadelphia County Tax Assessment.17 Sometime before his death in 1773, Seiferheldt moved to Northern Liberties, and the subject house was let. Like Jacob Bowman, Seiferheldt directed his executors to sell the subject house to satisfy his financial obligations, which primarily was the support of his children.18 Between April 1773 and May 1775, Seiferheldt’s executors sold the house to coach maker John Bethel. 19 David Deshler, the eminent Philadelphia merchant, held Bethel’s mortgage. The coach maker appears to have occupied the subject house for more than a decade until he defaulted on the mortgage. In turn, Deshler foreclosed on Bethel, and the subject house was sold at sheriff’s sale in 1788.20 There being no interested buyer at the right price, Deshler purchased the property at the sale. Deshler retained the property until 1792, when it was sold to 14

John Frederick Fende owned a property where 5129-33 Germantown Avenue is now located (Philadelphia Deed Book H., No. 20, p. 336, CAP). 15 Translated by J.M. Duffin. The German text reads: Am Freytag als den 27sten dieses Monats October soll in Germanton and der Straß ein Hauß und ein Lott darnebe auf offentlicher Vendu verkaufft werden, es ist das Hauß welches der verstorbene Jacob Bauman gebauet hat gegen Fridrich Fend dem Kieffer über. Auch ist noch ein Lott zu verkauffen in Baumans Läen, es stößt an das Land zum Hauß, auch verschiedener Haußrath. Wer Sinn zu einem oder dem andern hat, kann sich alsdann einfinden bey Jörg Schmitt, es wird billiger Credit gegeben von den Executorn Dirck Kaiser/ Christoph Meng/ und Margaretha Schmittin. 16 Deed: Godfryd Bush, of Germantown, surgeon, and Anna Maria, his wife, to John David Seiferheldt, of Germantown, leather dresser, 24 April 1760, recited in Philadelphia Mortgage Book X., No. 5, p. 212, CAP. Not much is known about Gottfried Bush other than he continues to appear in the Germantown tax lists into the 1770s as a non-property owner and was buried in the Upper Burial in January 1776 (Peter D. Keyser, “A History of the Upper Germantown Burying-Ground,” in Pennsylvania Vital Records, ed. Don Yoder [Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1983], 1:567). 17 Listed in 1767 as “David Sefferhold, skinner, Dwell[ing] w[ith] Lot” next to other identified property owners in this section of Germantown, “The particulars of each person's estate, as appears by the township and ward assessors' returns,” Tenth eighteen penny provincial tax (1767) on the inhabitants of the city and county of Philadelphia, p. 116 recto, Rare Book & Manuscript Library University of Pennsylvania Ms. Codex 1261. 1769; Germantown Township, Philadelphia, p. 94 verso, Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission; Records of the Office of the Comptroller General, RG-4; Tax & Exoneration Lists, 1762-1794. 18 Will of David Seyferheld, of Northern Liberties, skinner and breeches maker, dated 15 April 1773, proved 29 April 1773, Philadelphia Will Book P., p. 401, Philadelphia Register of Wills. The will states: “Whereas I have a Messuage and Lot of Ground Situate in Germantown I do hereby desire Authorize and impower [sic] my Executors ... to sell and expose the same for the best price that can reasonably be had...” 19 Recited in mortgage of John Bethel, of Germantown, chaise maker, to David Deshler, 23 April 1775, Philadelphia Mortgage Book M., No. 1, p. 219, CAP. 20 Deed Poll: Joseph Cowperthwaite, sheriff, to David Deshler, city, merchant, 28 February 1788, for £215, Court of Common Pleas Sheriff Deed Book C-4, p. 55, CAP. The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 22

Noe Townsend, who used the subject house as a rental property.21 After the foreclosure, former owner John Bethel continued to live in the house as a tenant—first of Deshler and later Townsend.22 In March 1794, Townsend sold the house to brass founder, Daniel King, Sr., who made the subject house his final residence.23 Daniel King, Sr. (ca. 1731–1806) Daniel King, Sr. was a prosperous and well-known Philadelphia brass founder. The subject property is the only surviving building associated with this important Philadelphia craftsman. King was born in Great Britain around 1731.24 According to a 1772 source, he apprenticed in the brass trade in London and “worked in some of the best Shops in England.”25 He first appears in Philadelphia records at the time of his marriage to Rebecca Richardson on May 22, 1756 at St. Michael’s Lutheran Church. 26 By 1760 he had a shop with the “Sign of the Bell and Candlestick, at the upper End of Second street.”27 This city location was soon insufficient for the needs of his foundry and perhaps too expensive to rent or maintain so in 1763 he moved to a property he along Old York Road in Bristol Township, Philadelphia (now part of the Logan section of the city) which his wife inherited.28 The move to the country, however, was shortlived because he is back in the city by 1766 renting a property from the estate of Rebecca Venable at the northeast corner of S. Front Street and Norris Alley (present-day 124 S. Front Street).29 He remained at this location until March 1794 when he moved the business, described as the “Old Brass Foundry,” down the block to present-day 134 S. Front Street.30 21

The deed for this sale was never recorded. Evidence of the sale is found in the 1791 and 1792 Germantown Township, Philadelphia County Tax Assessments which show the change in the name of the ownership of this lot. 22 Germantown Township, Philadelphia County Tax Assessments, 1789–1793, CAP. 23 Deed: Noe Townsend, formerly of Germantown, coach maker, and Elizabeth, his wife, to Daniel King, Sr., 25 March 1794, recited in Philadelphia Deed Book I.H., No. 6, p. 65, CAP. 24 His tombstone in the Christ Church Burial Ground states only that he was “a native of Great Britain” aged 75 years at the time of his death in February 1806 (Edward L. Clark, A Record of the Inscriptions on the Tables and Grave-Stones in the Burial-Grounds of Christ Church, Philadelphia [Philadelphia: Collins, printer, 1864], 451). It is possible that he was from Newington, County of Surrey (now a part of the London Borough of Southwark) because “Newington” was the name of his property in Bristol Township, Philadelphia (Elaine Forman Crane, ed., The Diary of Elizabeth Drinker [Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1991] 2:552). 25 Maryland Gazette, 20 July 1772, p. 3. 26 “Record of the Marriages in the Evangelical Lutheran Congregation in Philadelphia Commenced Anno 1745,” in Don Yoder, ed., Pennsylvania German Church Records of Births, Baptisms, Marriages, Burials, etc From the Pennsylvania German Society Proceedings and Addresses (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1983) 1: 635. 27 Pennsylvania Gazette, January 3, 1760. This is the first advertisement for his business in the Philadelphia newspapers. 28 Described in the Pennsylvania Gazette (September 8, 1763) as “Old York Road, five Miles from Philadelphia, and one Mile above the Rising Sun.” Deed: Mary Richardson, of Bristol Township, widow, Joseph Moore , of the city, blacksmith, and Mary, his wife, and Deborah Richardson, of Bristol Township, spinster, to Daniel King, city, brass founder and Rebecca, his wife, 7 September 1761, Philadelphia Deed Book H., No. 15, p. 251; Deed: Michael Hillegass, of the city, gentleman, and Henrietta, his wife, to Daniel King, city, brass founder, 17 March 1761, for £130, Philadelphia Deed Book H., No. 15, p. 254, CAP. He sold off 27 acres almost immediately after acquiring the property (Deed: Daniel King, of the city, brass founder, and Rebecca, his wife, to Charles Hay, of Bristol Township, miller, 2 November 1761, for £200, Philadelphia Deed Book H., No. 15, p. 294, CAP). Many of the original deeds for these transactions are found in the Wister Family Papers at Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum. 29 Pennsylvania Gazette, 13 February 1766; Deed: Thomas Bond, of the city, doctor of physic, to John Field, of the city, merchant, 28 February 1785, Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 23, p. 96, CAP. The old address number for this The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 23

1767 newspaper advertisement. Source: Pennsylvania Chronical, April 20, 1767.

Daniel King and his family appear to have lived most of their early life in the city. King was a member of Christ Church, renting pew 78 (cattycorner to Franklin’s pew) from 1778 to 1785.31 Rebecca, however, chose not to join her husband at Christ Church and was received into the Society of Friends in 1771.32 They may have also maintained a country residence during this period. In 1775, he purchased a 3.75 acre lot near present-day S. Broad and Christian Streets and sold it in 1781 describing the main house on the property as a “handsome Brick Summer or Pleasure House.” 33 Shortly before selling that property, Daniel and Rebecca acquired from Rebecca’s siblings the Richardson family home in Bristol Township, Philadelphia, which Daniel called “Newington.”34 property was 68 S. Front Street. King sold off the remaining portion of his wife’s inheritance (39 acres) in Bristol Township in 1764 (Deed: Daniel King, of the city, brass founder, and Rebecca, his wife, to Charles Hay, Bristol Township, miller, 18 June 1764, for £370, Philadelphia Deed Book A.W.M., No. 45, p. 305, CAP). 30 General Advertiser, 18 March 1794, 3. The old address for this property was 76 S. Front St. 31 “Christ Church Historical Collections Online,” accessed January 16, 2017, http://www.philageohistory.org/rdicimages/ChristChurch/index.cfm. There are no baptismal records of King’s children at Christ Church suggesting that the family were members of another church before the late 1770s. 32 Meeting of 28 day 6 month 1771, Women’s Meeting Minutes (1767–1781). p. 134–35, Philadelphia Monthly Meeting, U.S. Quaker Meeting Records, 1681–1935, Ancestry.com. She is listed in the membership lists of the meeting as Rebecca King “wife of Daniel” (“List of Names of the Members of the Monthly Meeting of Friends of Philadelphia,” Lists of Members, 1772–1781, Philadelphia Monthly Meeting Arch Street, U.S. Quaker Meeting Records, 1681–1935, Ancestry.com). 33 Deed: Joseph Penrose, of Bensalem Township, Bucks Co., grazer, to Daniel King, city, brass founder, 3 July 1775, Philadelphia Deed Book A.M., No. 70, 604; Deed: Daniel King, of the city, brass founder, and Rebecca, his wife, to James Dunlap, of the city, practitioner in physic, Philadelphia Deed Book A.M., No. 70, p. 606, CAP; The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser, May 5, 1781, 4. 34 Deed: Joseph Moore, of Bristol Township, blacksmith, and Mary, his wife, to Daniel King, of the city, brass founder, 1 February 1780, Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 2, p. 154; Deed: John Richardson, of the city, joyner, to Daniel King, of the city, brass founder, 2 February 1780, Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 2, p. 154, CAP. “Newington” was located on the east of Old York Road near the present-day intersection of Fisher Avenue. The name of the house/property is found in Elizabeth Drinker’s diary (Crane, ed., The Diary of Elizabeth Drinker, 1:552). For an account of the later history of the site see Anne DeB. Mears, The Old York Road and Its Early Associations of History and Biography, 1670 – 1870 (Philadelphia: Harper & Brother, 1890), 24–27. King acquired some adjacent land here in the 1780s (Deed Poll: Thomas Proctor, Sheriff, to Daniel King, 6 December 1784, The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 24

Shortly after Rebecca’s death in February 1786, King shifted his family’s primary residence to “Newington” but retained the Front Street property probably as a city residence in addition to his business’s location.35 His son Daniel King, Jr., (ca. 1761–1836) continued to live in the Front Street property after his father moved.36 It was also around this time that he married again to an Elizabeth Dickinson who brought with her 15 acres of land next to “Newington.” 37 Daniel increased the size of the “Newington” property over the next eight years to slightly over 75 acres but decided not to make this his final home.38 King’s acquisition of the subject property on March 25, 1794 marked a turning point in his life establishing Germantown as his final home. A week before the purchase, King entered into an agreement of sale with Henry Drinker to sell “Newington” for the impressive sum of £3,146.39 King sold off all his Bristol Township, Philadelphia holdings in 1794.40 He started investing in Germantown property at the same time. He purchased the former Germantown home of Quaker abolitionist Anthony Benezet in 1794 and a lot on Manheim Street in 1797.41 He was ideally situated for business contacts because Germantown was just beginning to expand from the influx of Yellow Fever refugees from the city. King’s brass foundry was fairly extensive in the type work it produced. A 1767 newspaper provided a seventeen different items from firedogs, candlesticks, and brass cocks to bells of all

Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 17, p. 247 – property, known as “Rural Felicity,” sold by him in 1785, Deed Book D ., No. 18, p. 105, CAP). 35 Burial for Rebecca King, 20 day 2 month 1786, Record of Burials in Friends Burial Ground, Middle District Monthly Meeting, p. 477, Births and Burials 1686 – 1807, Philadelphia Monthly Meeting, U.S. Quaker Meeting Records, 1681–1935, Ancestry.com. 36 Daniel King, Jr. appears in the tax lists as well as the 1790 census at this location. The published in the tombstone inscription for Daniel, Jr., in Clark’s book is incorrect. According to the Board of Health Burial Records, Daniel, Jr., was around 75 not 66 years old when he died in 1836 (Board of Health Cemetery Returns for 1836, “Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Death Certificates, 1803-1915,” Family Search.org). 37 Recital in Deed: Daniel King, sometime of the city and afterwards of Bristol Township but now of Germantown, brass founder, and Elizabeth, his wife, to Henry Drinker, of the city, merchant, 2 September 1795, Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 57, p. 262, CAP. Deed: Andrew Epple, of the city, merchant, and Mary, his wife, to Elizabeth Dickerson, of Bristol Township, spinster, 9 August 1781, Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 57, p. 252, CAP. 38 Deed: Catherine Prefountaine, of Bristol Township, widow, to Daniel King, of the city, brass founder, 2 August 1783, Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 57, p. 251; Deed: Thomas Moyer, of the city, potter, and Margaret, his wife, to Daniel King, of Bristol Township, brass founder, 3 October 1791, Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 57, p. 255; Deed: John Deprefountaine, of Bristol Township, surveyor, to Daniel King, of Bristol Township, brass founder, 19 April 1792, Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 57, p. 257, CAP. 39 Crane, ed., Diary of Elizabeth Drinker, 1:548. The actual deed was not executed until a year and half later (Deed: Daniel King, sometime of the city and afterwards of Bristol Township but now of Germantown, brass founder, and Elizabeth, his wife, to Henry Drinker, of the city, merchant, 2 September 1795, Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 57, p. 262, CAP). The Drinkers used the house as a country home and renamed it “Clearfield.” 40 Deed: Daniel King, of Bristol Township, brass founder, and Elizabeth, his wife, to Henry Young, of the same, yeoman, April 10, 1794, Philadelphia Deed Book I.C., No. 9, p. 288, CAP. 41 Deed: Sarah Rhoads to Daniel King, Sr., 5 April 1794, recited in Philadelphia Deed Book R.D.W., No. 54, p. 437; Deed: Edward Bonsall, of the city, and Hannah G., his wife, to Daniel King, Germantown, brass founder, 15d 4m (April) 1797, Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 71, p. 52, CAP. The Benezet property was on Germantown Avenue at the site of today of St. Luke’s Episcopal Church. The 1798 Direct Tax lists this property as having three houses on it. Daniel King’s estate sold the property in May 1814 (Philadelphia Deed Book G.W.C., No. 92, p. 62). The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 25

sizes and cylinders for pumps.42 One specialty he was proud of was a uniquely designed brass knocker that could not be “wrenched off their Doors.” He created these to combat the problem of a rash of “wonton Folicks of sundry intoxicated Bucks and Blades of this City … [and] the united Attacks of those nocturnal Sons of Violence, in their abominable and detestable Excursions.”43 King also did very fine brass work all mostly done by his own designs.44 A surviving example of andirons at the Winterthur Museum in the Adams style is similar to pair King did for John Cadwalader in 1770 which cost £25 – more than double what Cadwalader paid Benjamin Affleck for a sofa and mahogany desk.45

42

Henry J. Kaufman, American Copper and Brass (New York: Bonanza Books, 1968), 61–62. Pennsylvania Gazette, 27 February 1766, 5. 44 Brass founders during this period made all their own models, which necessitated original design work (Kaufman, American Copper and Brass, 57–59). 45 Kaufman, American Copper and Brass, 151. 43

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 26

Federal cast brass andirons marked “Daniel King Fecit,” circa 1790. Source: Winterthur Museum Collections.

First model of Daniel King Howitzer, ca. 1790. Source: Cannons Online.

The outbreak of the American Revolution provided King with an opportunity to expand his business. Since almost all artillery pieces of this period were cast in bronze or brass, brass founders were in great demand – prompting other metal workers, like Paul Revere, to start working with brass. John Adams reported in 1777 that King was casting howitzers and pedreros.46 The Pennsylvania Council of Safety ordered two howitzers from King in 1775 and the following year asked him to take charge of a blast furnace.47 After the Revolution, King continued to cast guns which were used by both the navy and army. He developed a special light-weight and mobile howitzer, known as the King howitzer, which was used in the 1790s.48 Some of these pieces bore the mark “D. King Germantown.” The military contracts probably contributed to his rise in wealth in the 1780s. He went from having one servant in his household in 1774 to two enslaved Africans in his household and a taxable carriage in 1782.49 A sign of his status among the craftsmen of Philadelphia is evidenced 46

“There is another Man, one King, who lives in Front street, at the Corner of Norris's Ally, who cast Patterara’s and Howitzers” (John Adams to Charles Adams, March 30, 1777 in Paul H. Smith et al., eds., Letters of Delegates to Congress, 1774–1789 [Washington, DC: Library of Congress] 6:507). 47 Donald W. Holst, “Further Notes of the King Howitzer,” Military Collector and Historian Winter 1997. 48 Spencer C. Tucker, ed., The Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Early American Republic, 1783–1812: A Political, Social, and Military History (Oxford: ABC-CLIO, 2014) 1:23; Don H. Berkebile, “The 2 3/4-Inch U.S. Howitzer, 1792 –1793,” Military Collector and Historian Spring 1961; Jeff Kinard, Artillery: An Illustrated History of Its Impact (Oxford: ABC-CLIO, 2007), 165; Kaufman, American Copper and Brass, 191–93. 49 Walnut Ward, “A Transcript of the Assessment of the Seventeenth 18th Provincial Tax laid the 8th Day of April 1774 on the Inhabitants of the City and County of Philadelphia,” p. 46, Pennsylvania and New Jersey, Church and The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 27

in the “Grand Fœderal Procession” of July 1788. The parade was organized to celebrate the final ratification of the U.S. Constitution in June 1788 and included over 5,000 participants and a crowd of 17,000 people in Philadelphia.50 Various trades and craftsmen prepared and occupied floats representing the industry of the new nation. King was on a float representing the brass founders’ trade which the Pennsylvania Gazette described:

The Pennsylvania Gazette (Philadelphia: 9 July 1788), p. 3. Source: Newspapers.com.

Daniel King’s Germantown Home King purchased the subject house in 1794. He was taxed on three and one-quarter acres and a dwelling, as well as one horse and fifty pounds’ worth of personal estate. The tax was consistent in 1795, the most valuable item being the “3-1/4 Acres & Dwelling £300.”51

Detail of Daniel King at the subject property as recorded in the 1794 Philadelphia County Tax List. Source: City Archives of Philadelphia.

Town Records, 1708-1985 (Ancestry.com); Pennsylvania State Tax, Philadelphia, Walnut Ward, p. 151, Pennsylvania, Tax and Exoneration, 1768–1801 (Ancestry.com). One enslaved African continued to live with King after his move to Germantown but not after 1797. 50 The Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia, s.v. “Grand Federal Procession,” by Laura Rigal, accessed January 20, 2017, http://philadelphiaencyclopedia.org/archive/grand-federal-procession/ 51 1795 Philadelphia County Tax List, Germantown Township, CAP. The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 28

The subject house was likely enlarged to its present footprint during King’s ownership. The 1795 and 1797, Philadelphia County Tax Lists, the assessed value of King’s house and land was raised considerably. The £300 assessment escalated to £667, which did not include the addition of a “Coach House & Stable.” Having received over £3,100 from the sale of “Newington” in 1795, King would have had enough money to finance a major enlargement of the subject house.

Detail of Daniel King at the subject property as recorded in the 1797 and 1798 Philadelphia County Tax List. Source: City Archives of Philadelphia.

The inordinate increase in taxes clearly indicates an enlargement of the building between 1795 and 1797. The 1798 U.S. Direct Tax provides more detail. King’s two-story stone house was recorded as measuring 46 feet in width by 23 feet in depth – which aligns precisely with the current measurement of the subject house. At that time the house was reported to have had seventeen windows, which were comprised of 348 lights. The subject house was situated on twenty perches. The property also included four other improvements – a two-story stone kitchen, measuring 12 by 18 feet, a frame woodhouse, measuring 16 by 12 feet, a frame barn 18 by 24 feet, and a frame workshop 12 by 12 feet. The property appears to have been valued at $2,700.52

Daniel King’s entry in List No. 1 in the United States Direct Tax of 1798 National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

52

List No. 1, entry 232 and List No. 2, entry 177, Germantown Township, United States Direct Tax of 1798: Tax Lists for the State of Pennsylvania. M372, Records of the Internal Revenue Service, 1791-2006, Record Group 58. National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C. (Ancestry.com) The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 29

Detail of Daniel King at the subject property as recorded in the 1799 Philadelphia County Tax List. Source: City Archives of Philadelphia.

Detail of Daniel King at the subject property as recorded in the 1800 Philadelphia County Tax List. Source: City Archives of Philadelphia.

In 1799 and 1800, the King household remained at the subject house with nine occupants at the turn of the nineteenth century.53 Daniel King, Sr., lived in the subject house for the remainder of his life. He died in February 1806 and his death was reported on both the Philadelphia and New York newspapers.54

Death notice in Poulson's American Daily Advertiser, February 21, 1806.

Though he was living in Germantown, Daniel was buried in the Christ Church Burial Ground.55 According to the terms of his will, the subject house to his wife Elizabeth for the remainder of her of life and after to be sold by his executors.56 Elizabeth, however, did not live much longer 53

Second Census of the United States, 1800. M32 Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C. 54 Poulson's American Daily Advertiser, 21 February 1806, p. 3; New-York Gazette, 26 February 1806, p. 3. 55 Clark, Record of the Inscriptions on the Tables and Grave-Stones, 451. 56 Will of Daniel King, dated 11 January 1797, proved 26 February 1806, Will Book Y-1, p. 405, Philadelphia Register of Wills. He left several bequests to his children Daniel, Jr., William, Thomas, Mary, Hester and Elizabeth. He wanted his son William to continue as brass founder, leaving him all the “tools and patterns belonging to my trade.” The total value of his estate (after the sale of the real estate) was close to $7,000 (Settlement of the Estate of The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 30

in the house. She died in November 1813.57 Daniel King, Jr., as executor of his father’s will, sold the subject house to the Green brothers the following June.58

Taken in the late nineteenth century, 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown during the ownership of the Green family. Note the small shop front has been added to the façade on right. Source: Germantown Historical Society.

CRITERION J The site of three generations of prominent milliners, 5112–14 Germantown Avenue exemplifies the cultural, economic, social, and historical heritage of nineteenth century Germantown. At that time, hats were a primary feature of the everyday dress. As a result, the manufacture of hats and the position of the hatter was one that affected the appearance of most people. Philadelphians were no exception to this rule. In the first half of the nineteenth century, hats were largely made of wool or animal fur. Pennsylvania was a major hat-making center in the United States and Philadelphia turned out a substantial portion of these products. While most of the hatteries were located in Philadelphia proper, Philadelphia County manufactured about forty percent of the gross product. More than a quarter of that gross product was produced in the then small village of Germantown, and thus it was an important local hat-making center, starting in about 1800 and continuing through the 1840s. The Green family is known to be one of the first families that perfected Daniel King, Sr., October 21, 1814, Estate of Daniel King, No. 28, Book 25, p. 9, Philadelphia Orphans Court Estate Papers). 57 Clark, Record of the Inscriptions on the Tables and Grave-Stones, 452. 58 Deed: Daniel King, surviving executor of the will of Daniel King, Sr., of Germantown, to Joseph Green and Jacob Green, both of Germantown, hatters, 15 June 1814, Philadelphia Deed Book I.H., No. 6, p. 65, CAP. The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 31

the art of “modern hat making” in Germantown, as it was considered in the first quarter of the nineteenth century. The house at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue was home to three generations of hatters. Brothers Joseph Green and Jacob Green purchased the property in 1814; however, it is unclear exactly when they began residing on the premises. At time the house was known as that of “Jacob Green, hatter.” The property passed to his children and grandchildren and both generations continued working in the family hat business. Jacob Green sons, John G. Green, George Green, and Joseph Green were all hatters and John G. Green’s son, Charles U. Green took over the family business by the 1860s, operating his hat shop on the subject site through the end of the century. Home to three generations of hatters, the building at 5112–14 is one of the only extant resources related to hat making and hatters on Germantown Avenue, as such serving as primary historical resource in relationship to hat making and hatters in nineteenth century Germantown. The following sections—Hat Making in Germantown and The Greens—Three Generations of Hatters at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue are included to provide historic context for the above statement of significance: Historic Context: Hat Making in Germantown in the 19th Century According to the Third Census of the United States, Pennsylvania was a national center of hat production in 1810. There were 532 hatteries in Pennsylvania producing products valuing $1.2 million whereas the next largest producer, New York, had only 124 hatteries. In total, Pennsylvania manufactories produced 474,924 wool and mixed hats, and 45,369 fur hats.59 Of the 532 hatteries in the Commonwealth, 63 were in Philadelphia proper, while 39 were located in the county.60 More than quarter of those hatteries in the county were found in Germantown. Naaman Keyser Ployd’s scrapbook on Germantown at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania has a newspaper article published in the late nineteenth or early twentieth century on the local hatters and their associated industry. There is little documentation of hat making in Germantown in the nineteenth century, however, Ployd’s scrapbook provides insight to this early period. The article cites that the Greens were among the earliest hatters, establishing a manufactory on “Main Street” (Germantown Avenue) about 1800. All hats were not made complete in those days in Germantown. The rough work was done here and the finishing done to a considerable extent in Philadelphia. Among those who learned the hat business with the Greens were the late John Schaeffer, Harry Stoup, John Bowman, and John and William Corwell.61 Both Joseph and Jacob Green were listed in the 1808, 1810, 1811, and 1818 Germantown tax assessments. It appears that Germantown of the first quarter of the nineteenth century had no hat 59

Tench Coxe, A Statement of the Arts and Manufactures of the United States of America, for the Year 1810 (Philadelphia: A. Cornman, Jr., 1814), 9. 60 Coxe, A Statement of the Arts and Manufactures, p. 49. 61 “Old-Time Hatters, Something About a Once Prominent Germantown Industry,” N.P. Ployd “The Scrap Book,” Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Ployd’s scrapbook is contains documented and undocumented clippings, memorabilia, and photographs on Germantown prior to 1911. The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 32

shops, as the hats were largely of custom make at that time. If someone desired a hat, they would call upon one of the hat manufactories in a different part of the city, take measurements, and the hat making process would ensue. It appears that John Schaeffer had learned hat making from the Greens, and, as such, he opened his shop adjacent to their establishment with a shop on the Avenue and his manufactory in the rear. The old house and barn, the willow trees, the pump on the highway, the old time garden filled with fruit trees, the old gray horse have all disappeared. Mr. Schaeffer and his good wife, “Aunt Sally,” as all called her, and every member of the family have passed away. And every one of the apprentices is dead, as well as the regular hatters, which included the Shivers, Keels, Ployds, Murters, Wunders, Humeses and a host of others. 62 John Bowman also operated a hat manufactory and possibly even a shop at 108 E. Haines Street (extant in 1911). The article taken from the Ployd scrapbook describes the context of hats further: There was not quite so much style to the hats worn in those days. They were stronger and firmer and the styles did not change as often, and one hat lasted several years. Summer and winter the same sort of hats were worn. The body of the hats was made of fur, either of beaver, musk, coney, nutria or otter. Members of the Society of Friends wore the Otter hats, which were costly, selling for about $10 each. There were several styles, the low crown, the bellshaped and wide brim.63 The later history of Germantown’s hat making industry is described in Naaman H. Keyser’s History of Old Germantown: About the year 1825 hat making was a flouring industry in Germantown. There were at that time four hat shops, which employed jointly about one hundred hands, quite a good number for nearly eighty years ago. Jacob Green’s shop was on Main Street, opposite what is now called Collom Street. Joseph Green had a shop on Main Street, below Armat. John Schaeffer had a shop in the buildings now standing on Main Street, opposite the Young Men’s Christian Association, and John Bowman carried on the business on Main Street, where George Weiss’ coal office is located. The majority of the hats had what were known as wool bodies. They were shipped to every part of the country. The population of the whole country at that time was only about nine and a half millions, Pennsylvania being credited with a little more than a million, of which more than two hundred were slaves. Virginia had more people than Pennsylvania, but about one-half of her population were in slavery. 62 63

“Old-Time Hatters.” “Old-Time Hatters.” The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 33

Rich Virginia slave owners often visited Germantown, and quite a large number of sales were made with that section, for Germantown hats were famous in Dixie in the winter months. About 1835 “brush hats” were quite a fad in Germantown. They were made of the skin of a Russian rabbit, which cost from $3 to $6 a pound. Beaver fur was worth from $16 to $20 a pound in the early days of hat making in Germantown, but as it became scarce it advanced in price to $70 per pound. Each hat required about three ounces of fur to complete it. One style of hat was worn in those early days almost the entire year. Sometimes the fastidious ones wore a light fur in summer time and heavy dark fur in winter. There were few straw hats worn in summer, but it was seldom that they were seen. Strikes were of frequent occurrence in those early days between the “foul” hatters and the men who combined together for good wages. Pitched battles were of frequent occurrence, generally at the hotels, where the hatters congregated. The borough [Germantown] authorities were often called upon to suppress the troubles. A hatters’ organization was continued here for several years, and officers were chosen regularly. At a public meeting of journeyman hatters, held at the public house of Joseph Mullen, February 25, 1836, to form an association, Jacob Ployd was called to the chair, and Benjamin Dungan was appointed secretary. A committee of five, composed of Beach Humes, Thomas Marple, John Shields, Charles Honisen and Benjamin Dungan, was selected to draft a constitution and by-laws. At a meeting held in March, 1836, Jacob Ployd was again selected as President; Benjamin Dugan, Vice-President; William H. Smith, Secretary; William Bowman, Treasurer; Stewards, Thomas Marple and Eli Morgan. In March, 1837, Thomas Marple was elected President; Henry B. Troutman, Vice-President; George W. Wright, Secretary, and William Bowman, Treasurer. The process of felting was thus described by the late Jacob Ployd to the writer a few years before his death: The fur of beavers, rabbits and other animals was mixed with wool, used for the production of felt hats. The first operation was to remove the fur from the skin of the animals. The wool and fur fibers were agitated and tossed into the air, which caused them to fall with the greatest irregularity upon a table. The fur was interlaced in this way in every possible manner. The combination was then covered with a cloth, and reduced in thickness by pressure. Layer after layer was laid one upon the other, until the fabric of the hat had attained the proper thickness. This was called bowing, great skill being required on the part of the workmen. Competent bowers could make five or six bodies a day. The wages of a good hatter were about $7 per week, and they had steady work the year round. A number of our oldest families had representatives among the hate makers of seventy-five or more years ago. There were the Schaeffers, Shieldses, The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 34

Bowmans, Sharplesses, Ployds, Murters, Greens, Roys, Keels, Jacksons, Elliotts, Evanses and Morgans. The Greens were the pioneers in improved hat making business here in Germantown. Owning to strikes, the introduction of laborsaving machinery, and “wild cat” currency, the hat business began to decline in 1840. With the panic of 1842 the hat shops of Germantown closed, to open no more, after occupying a prominent place here since 1683. Of course the early hat makers used skins of animals exclusively. The silk hat industry superseded the fur hat making in Philadelphia in 1843, and as this branch of the businesses was entirely foreign to the hat makers of Germantown, the hat makers gradually took up other vocations.64 It appears that the hat making industry in Germantown ended in the 1840s. The Green Family — Three Generations of Hatters at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue The Greens were the pioneers in improved hat making business here in Germantown.65 The first of three generations to live and work as a hatter at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Jacob Grün (Jacob Green) was born in the Germantown Township on July 31, 1776 to Christoph Grün (Christopher Green) and Anna Maria Hesser.66 Christopher Green is said to have arrived in Philadelphia about 1755 and in 1763 married the daughter of a local baker.67 Jacob Green was one of several children born to Christopher and Anna Maria Green: Johannes (b. 1764), Georg Nicholas (b. 1767), Joseph (b. 1771), and Wilhelm (b. 1773), all of whom were born in the Germantown and baptized at St. Michael’s Lutheran Church, Germantown.68

64

“Hat Making: One of Germantown’s Most Flourishing Industries From About 1825 to About 1840,” in Naaman H. Keyser, et al., History of Old Germantown: With a Description of Its Settlement and Some Account of Its Important Persons, Buildings and Places Connected With Its Development (Germantown: H.F. McCann, 1907), 440–42. 65 “Old-Time Hatters.” 66 Frederick S. Weiser and Debra D. Smith, ed., St. Michael’s Evangelical Lutheran Church, Germantown (Now Part of Philadelphia), 1741–1841 (Rockport, ME: Picton Press, 1998) 1: 110. 67 Anna Maria Magdalena Hesser was the daughter of Frederick Hesser and Maria Catharina Merckle who had been in Germantown since 1735 (Annette Kunselman Burgert, Eighteenth Century Emigrants from German-Speaking Lands to North America, v. 1 The Northern Kraichgau [Breinigsville, Pa: The Pennsylvania German Society, 1983], 161). Christopher and Anna Maria were marred on May 1, 1763 at St. Michael’s Lutheran Church, Germantown (Weiser and Smith, St. Michael’s Evangelical Lutheran, 2: 17. 68 Weiser and Smith, St. Michael’s Evangelical Lutheran, 1: 74, 81, 89, 95, 102, 110. There was another son, William (b. 1769) who died as an infant (Weiser and Smith, St. Michael’s Evangelical Lutheran, 2: 122). The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 35

Entry for “Christian” [sic, Christopher] Green, hatter, on the Germantown tax assessment of 1767. Courtesy Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Pennsylvania.

According to the Provincial Tax list for Germantown in 1767, Christopher Green was a hatter in Germantown.69 He did not own any real estate and for £9 rented a house from David Dietrick a few doors above St. Michael’s Lutheran Church in Beggarstown, known today as Mt. Airy.70 By 1772, Green moved another house a few doors north of the Dietrick house and was well enough off to own horse.71 In 1774 he added a cow to his household.72 By end of that year he was able to buy a house at the southeast corner of Germantown Avenue and present-day Hortter Street, however, the economic pressures and upheaval of the Revolution probably forced him to sell in five years later.73 In the 1780s, Christopher appears only the Germantown tax lists as a renter living almost next to St. Michael’s Church by Jacob Horter and Jacob Gorgas.74 It is possible that Christopher may have died sometime in the late 1780s because he drops out the tax list around this time. His occupation never provided him with sufficient income to own land for any long time. Christopher Green was long forgotten when Naaman H. Keyser prepared his history of Germantown, as the first generation American Greens were Joseph Green and Jacob Green, being credited as the early pioneers of the hat making business in Germantown.75

69

Tenth eighteen penny provincial tax (1767) on the inhabitants of the city and county of Philadelphia, Pa., Germantown Township, p. 120r, Ms. Codex 1261, Rare Book and Manuscript Library University of Pennsylvania. 70 The present-day address for the location of the house would be 6715 Germantown Avenue. Dietrick acquired this property in 1757 (Recited in Philadelphia Deed Book H., No. 8, p. 324, CAP). 71 “Error! Main Document Only.A Transcript of the Fifteenth Eighteen Penny Provincial Tax Assessed the 13th Day of March 1772, for the City and County of Philadelphia,” Germantown Township, p. 216, Am .338, Historical Society of Pennsylvania. He was renting the property from the Unrue family at the present-day address of 6721 Germantown Avenue (Philadelphia Deed Book G.W.C., No. 10, p. 483). 72 Germantown, 1774, p. 261. Tax & Exoneration Lists, 1762–1794. Series No. 4.61; Records of the Office of the Comptroller General, RG-4. Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Ancestry.com. 73 Deed: Michael Jacobi, of Germantown, hosier, and Elizabeth, his wife, to Christopher Green, of Germantown, fleet maker, 1 December 1774, Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 3, p. 443; Deed: Christopher Green, of Germantown, hatter, and Mary, his wife, to Jacob Gominger, of Germantown, miller, 9 January 1779, Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 3, 442, CAP. 74 Germantown, 1780, p. 68, 1782, p. 94; 1783, p. 69; 1785, p. 206, Tax & Exoneration Lists, 1762–1794. Series No. 4.61; Records of the Office of the Comptroller General, RG-4, Ancestry.com. 75 Keyser, History of Old Germantown, 440. The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 36

Germantown Avenue was then known as Main Street and the township was centered on the old turnpike. At least three properties appear to have been associated with the Greens over time; although, only the subject property survives. According to Ployd’s scrapbook, Joseph and Jacob Green may have been the first in the larger movement of hat making in Germantown. However, we know that their father was a hatter as early as 1767, and that Joseph Green was working as a hatter soon after. Joseph and Jacob Green appear in a number of places in the Germantown tax lists in the 1790s and 1800s.76 In 1800, it appears that the Joseph and Jacob Green “commenced the manufacture of hats” on the site of what is now Vernon Park. Naturally, the building stood on Main Street, being located “above Price.”77 It was not until 1811 the Green brothers were able to pull together their resources to purchase their first property – 5537–39 Germantown Avenue.78 They acquired the subject property three years later. 79 Jacob Green was a hatter at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue and Joseph Green operated a shop at 5537–39 Germantown Avenue.

Signature or Mark of Jacob Green, taken from his last “Will and Testament,” written in 1850. Courtesy Ancestry.com.

Jacob Green married Susanna (born August 25, 1774) and they had four children: John G. Green (born 1800); George Green (born 1801); William Green (born 1805); and Joseph Green (born 1810). 80 Along with his brother Joseph Green, Jacob Green is listed as a hatter in the Germantown County Tax Assessments of 1810, 1811, and 1818. Joseph Green and Jacob Green purchased the subject property in 1814; however, it is not precisely clear exactly when the Green occupied the building. In 1818, it appears that the 76

In 1795, Joseph was actually renting the house next to the subject house (Germantown Township, 1795, Philadelphia County Tax Assements, CAP). 77 “Old-Time Hatters.” 78 Deed: Jacob Roset and wife to Joseph Green and Jacob Green, 25 March 1811, Philadelphia Deed Book I.C., No. 13, p. 366; Keyser, History of Old Germantown, 336–37. 79 Deed: Daniel King, surviving executor of the will of Daniel King, Sr., of Germantown, to Joseph Green and Jacob Green, both of Germantown, hatters, 15 June 1814, Philadelphia Deed Book I.H., No. 6, p. 65, CAP. 80 Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania and New Jersey, Church and Town Records, 1708-1985 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011.; Historical Society of Pennsylvania; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Collection Name: Historic Pennsylvania Church and Town Records; and Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Death Certificates, 1803–1915.” Index. FamilySearch, Salt Lake City, Utah, 2008, 2010. From originals housed at the Philadelphia City Archives. “Death Records.” The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 37

brothers and their respective families were living together in their house near Market Square in Germantown. In 1822 they decided to split their two properties were Joseph Green took 5537-39 Germantown Avenue and Jacob the subject property.81 This suggests that Jacob Green and his family likely began the process of purchasing the subject property in 1814, saving or paying enough to purchase it outright in 1822. It appears that the Greens lived at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue between the purchase in 1822 and 1825, as Jacob Green is referenced as having a shop “on Germantown Avenue near Jefferson in 1825” in Ployd’s scrapbook. Of Jacob’s four surviving sons, only William would relocate from the subject property and not become a hatter. Susannah Green died rather young on September 10, 1825 at the age of fifty-one.82 In 1850, Jacob Green’s will, drafted in 1850, left the subject house to his sons John G. Green and Joseph Green. I give and bequeath to my sons John G. Green and Joseph Green their heirs and assigns forever, the House and Lot in the Borough of Germantown in the County aforesaid, being the same premises on which I now reside...83 According to the 1850 Census, Jacob Green was retired, living as the head of the household in the subject house along with his sons and their families. John G. Green, and his sons George and Joseph were listed as hatters. 84 Like many people seeking safe investment opportunities in this period, Jacob Green held mortgages on several properties: Edward H. Bensell’s bond mortgage for two thousand and one hundred dollars, Henry K. B. Ogle’s bond and mortgage for nine hundred dollars, John Small’s bond and mortgage for five hundred and fifty dollars, and eight hundred shares of capital stock of the Bank of Germantown.85 At the time his will was devised, Jacob Green also owned a house and lot on Shakamaxon Street in the District of Kensington; and a “Lot of land situate on Manheim Street in the Borough of Germantown…” He also made specific bequests, including one to his son George Green in the form of “bonds and mortgages” owed by at least two individuals. Jacob Green also left “the Ground Rent for five hundred and fifty dollars due and coming due and payable by the First

81

Deed: Jacob Green and his wife to Joseph Green, September 16, 1822, Philadelphia Deed Book G.W.R., No. 9, 242; Deed: Joseph Green to Jacob Green, September 16, 1822, Philadelphia Deed Book I.H., No. 6, p. 67, CAP. 82 Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania and New Jersey, Church and Town Records, 1708-1985 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011. 83 Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Wills and Probate Records, 1683-1993 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2015. 84 Seventh Census of the United States, 1850; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M432, 1009 rolls); Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29; National Archives, Washington, D.C. 85 Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Wills and Probate Records, 1683-1993 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2015. The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 38

Presbyterian Church, Manayunk…” and at least one other “bond and mortgage” to his son William Green.86 Jacob Green died in on February 27, 1853 in Germantown87 After his death, John G. Green and Joseph Green were paid $4,057.83; George Green was paid $3,459.31; and William Green, who served as executor, was paid $2,610.50.88

Signatures of the Green brothers from the last “Will and Testament” of their father, written in 1850. Courtesy Ancestry.com.

Second Generation of Hatters at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue John G. Green was a second-generation hatter at the subject house and continued the business after his father’s death. In 1862 and 1863, he is listed in the Philadelphia City Directory as a hatter on Germantown Avenue.89 Germantown is generally not accounted for in the Philadelphia City Directories until consolidation in 1854. The United States Census records John G. Green as a hatter at this address in 1850, 1860, 1870, and 1880.90 He is also recorded as a hatter in the Pennsylvania Septennial Census Returns in 1863.91 John G. Green married Mary Ann Maiden Name, who was born about 1806 in Philadelphia.92 They had following children: Jacob Green 86

Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Wills and Probate Records, 1683-1993 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2015. 87 Historical Society of Pennsylvania; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Collection Name: Historic Pennsylvania Church and Town Records 88 Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Wills and Probate Records, 1683-1993 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2015. 89 Ancestry.com. U.S. City Directories, 1822-1995 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011. 90 Seventh Census of the United States, 1850; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M432, 1009 rolls); Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29; National Archives, Washington, D.C.; 1860 U.S. census, population schedule. NARA microfilm publication M653, 1,438 rolls. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.; 1870 U.S. census, population schedules. NARA microfilm publication M593, 1,761 rolls. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.; and Tenth Census of the United States, 1880. (NARA microfilm publication T9, 1,454 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C. 91 Septennial Census Returns, 1779–1863. Box 1026, microfilm, 14 rolls. Records of the House of Representatives. Records of the General Assembly, Record Group 7. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg, PA. 92 “Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Death Certificates, 1803–1915.” Index. FamilySearch, Salt Lake City, Utah, 2008, 2010. From originals housed at the Philadelphia City Archives. “Death Records.”. The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 39

(November 20, 1831-April 16, 1832); Susan Green (born circa 1833); George A. Green (born circa 1836); and Charles U. Green (dates?). John G. Green died on January 28, 1878. Mary A. Green died on March 23 1882, and was buried on March 27 in the cemetery of Trinity Lutheran Church.93

Signature of George Green, June 1878. Taken from his Last Will & Testament. Courtesy Ancestry.com

George Green was a second-generation hatter at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue. He may have been the “Green, Geo.” listed in the 1818 Philadelphia City Directory as a hatter at “Sch. 5th bel. High,” indicating that his residence may have been in Philadelphia as a young man.94 George Green in the Philadelphia city directory as a hatter on Germantown Avenue in Germantown in 1862 and 1863.95 The United States Census records George Green as a hatter at this address 1850, 1860, 1870, and 1880.96 He is also recorded as a hatter in the Septennial Census Returns of 1863.97 The fact that George Green was likely never married and had no children is indicated in his will, which includes fifteen hundred dollars for his widowed sister-in-law Mary A. Green; one thousand dollars to his nephew Charles U. Green; and the residue of his estate to his only living brother Joseph Green. At the time of his death, George Green At the time of his death the estate was valued at $15,927.86 and owned fifteen shares of stock in the Lehigh Valley Railroad Company; fifteen shares of the Western National Bank of Philadelphia; twenty-one shares of the National Bank of Germantown; “$1,000, 6% Bond of the Baltimore & Ohio, R.R. Co., Parkersburg Branch”; “$2,000 Consol Mtg., 6% Bond of the Lehigh Valley R.R. Co.”; and half interests in three mortgages including Christ Church, Germantown. He also had an interest in three pieces of property formerly belonging to his father.98 George Green died at the subject 93

“Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Death Certificates, 1803–1915.” Index. FamilySearch, Salt Lake City, Utah, 2008, 2010. From originals housed at the Philadelphia City Archives. “Death Records”; and Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania and New Jersey, Church and Town Records, 1708-1985 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011. 94 John Adems Paxton, The Philadelphia Directory and Register for 1818… (Philadelphia: E&R Parker, 1818), p. 144. 95 Ancestry.com. U.S. City Directories, 1822-1995 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011. 96 Seventh Census of the United States, 1850; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M432, 1009 rolls); Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29; National Archives, Washington, D.C.; 1860 U.S. census, population schedule. NARA microfilm publication M653, 1,438 rolls. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.; 1870 U.S. census, population schedules. NARA microfilm publication M593, 1,761 rolls. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.; and Tenth Census of the United States, 1880. (NARA microfilm publication T9, 1,454 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C. 97 Septennial Census Returns, 1779–1863. Box 1026, microfilm, 14 rolls. Records of the House of Representatives. Records of the General Assembly, Record Group 7. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg, PA. 98 Will of Jacob Green. Source: Ancestry.com. The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 40

house on November 8, 1889, and was buried three days later the cemetery of Trinity Lutheran Church.99 Joseph Green was a second-generation hatter at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue. He is listed as a hatter in the Philadelphia city directory as a hatter on Germantown Avenue in Germantown in 1862 and 1863.100 The U.S. Census records Joseph Green as a hatter at this address 1850, 1860, 1870, and 1880.101 He is also recorded as a hatter in the Septennial Census Returns of 1863.102 Joseph Green married Rachael A. Maiden Name, who was born on September 25, 1822 in Philadelphia. Three children were born to their union: Jacob Middle initial since there are so many J. Greens? Green (born December 20, 1849); John L. Green (born November 14, 1852); and Sarah Green (born July 16, 1858). Rachel A. Green died on May 11, 1874. Joseph Green died on May 5, 1888 and was buried at Ivy Hill Cemetery in.103

99

“Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Death Certificates, 1803–1915.” Index. FamilySearch, Salt Lake City, Utah, 2008, 2010. From originals housed at the Philadelphia City Archives. “Death Records.” 100 Ancestry.com. U.S. City Directories, 1822-1995 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011. 101 Seventh Census of the United States, 1850; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M432, 1009 rolls); Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29; National Archives, Washington, D.C.; 1860 U.S. census, population schedule. NARA microfilm publication M653, 1,438 rolls. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.; 1870 U.S. census, population schedules. NARA microfilm publication M593, 1,761 rolls. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.; and Tenth Census of the United States, 1880. (NARA microfilm publication T9, 1,454 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C. 102 Septennial Census Returns, 1779–1863. Box 1026, microfilm, 14 rolls. Records of the House of Representatives. Records of the General Assembly, Record Group 7. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg, PA. 103 “Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Death Certificates, 1803–1915.” Index. FamilySearch, Salt Lake City, Utah, 2008, 2010. From originals housed at the Philadelphia City Archives. “Death Records.” The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 41

Detail of late nineteenth century photograph of 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, showing Charles U. Green’s window display and signage. Source: Germantown Historical Society.

Third Generation of Hatters at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue Charles U. Green was a third-generation hatter at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue. Later, at the time of his death the subject property was described as follows: 2-1/2 Story Stone house and Store…2 Story Frame Shop and Frame Stable situate nos 5112 and 5114 Germantown Ave 22nd Ward lot 60 feet 6 inches x 217 feet— 104

He married Catherine, who was born about 1830 in Ireland. There was at least one child born to their union—Mary Rosanna Green, who born about 1871, attended public school, but at some point became unable to care for herself and referred to as an invalid.105 1862 was the earliest listing for Charles U. Green as a hatter.106 By 1863, Charles U. Green was established in the family business so much so that his name was listed in Mc’Elroy’s Philadelphia City Directory as “Green, C.U., hatter,” while his father and uncles were either 104

Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Wills and Probate Records, 1683-1993 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2015. 105 Tenth Census of the United States, 1880. (NARA microfilm publication T9, 1,454 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C. 106 Philadelphia City Directory. (Philadelphia: 1862), p. 254. The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 42

unlisted or listed as “gentleman,” even though they too were hatters (if that’s true).107 The United States Census records Charles U. Green as a hatter at this address 1870 and 1880.108 He is listed as a hatter at the subject house in the various Philadelphia City Directories published between 1868 and 1899.109 Catherine Green died on June 20, 1886 in Germantown.110 It appears that at some point, likely after his wife’s death, Charles U. Green employed a housekeeper or servant by the name of Mary Trainor,111

The signature of Charles U. Green, taken from his Last Will and Testament. Courtesy Ancestry.com.

Charles U. Green died on May 28, 1899, the cause being listed as “Epileptic Convulsions”. His funeral was conducted by Rev. Huddle on May 31 and his burial followed in the family plot at the cemetery of Trinity Lutheran Church.112 In his Last Will and Testament he left a small trust of $300 to Charles W. Otto to care for the graves of his family and his parents. He left the residue of his estate to his cousin Sallie Green for the care of his invalid daughter May Rosanna Green. The provisions of the will called for a bequest of $7,000 to his “faith servant” Mary Trainor with the residue to be given to his cousins Sallie Green and John S. Green.113 At the time of his death in 1899, Charles U. Green’s estate included a stock of hats and caps worth $253; a clock worth $20; a piano worth $40; a carpet worth $7; a chair worth $3; various other furnishings worth a total of $10; a desk and chamber furniture worth about $15; eight shares of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company worth $504; fifteen shares of the Western National Bank worth $990; one share of the Manufacturers National Bank worth $95: and bonds

107

McElroy’s Philadelphia City Directory. (Philadelphia: Orrin & Rogers, 1864), p. 283-284. 1870 U.S. census, population schedules. NARA microfilm publication M593, 1,761 rolls. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.; and Tenth Census of the United States, 1880. (NARA microfilm publication T9, 1,454 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C. 109 This was determined through searching the 1868, 1878, 1879, 1881, 1887, 1888, 1889, 1890, 1891, 1893, 1895, 1897, 1899 city directories. 110 Historical Society of Pennsylvania; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Collection Name: Historic Pennsylvania Church and Town Records 111 Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Wills and Probate Records, 1683-1993 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2015. 112 “Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Death Certificates, 1803–1915.” Index. FamilySearch, Salt Lake City, Utah, 2008, 2010. From originals housed at the Philadelphia City Archives. “Death Records.”. 113 Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Wills and Probate Records, 1683-1993 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2015. 108

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 43

and shares of the Lehigh Valley Railroad Company worth $1745. As previously mentioned, the subject house was also part of his Last Will and Testament. The building was valued at $3500.114

Detail of late nineteenth century photograph of 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, showing Charles U. Green’s shop window signage and a faint impression of signage on the old door. Courtesy the Germantown Historical Society.

After the death of Charles U. Green, his daughter died on September 6, 1899. His bequest to Mary Trainor could not be paid with the residue of his estate without selling the subject property and it was sold shortly after, leaving John L. Green and Sallie Green $4,000.115 While Sallie Green is reported to have been the last of the Greens to live at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, there is no indication that she worked as a hatter. However, it is certainly probable that she assisted with the work. Her father Joseph Green had three surviving children, as stated above. Jacob Green (born 1850) was a clerk in 1880. He also never married. Jacob Green remained a clerk until the time of his death at which time he worked for the National Bank. At the time of his death the National Bank placed him on the “roll of honor” for his many years of service. He died on October 5, 1893 in Germantown. His funeral took place at his “late

114

Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Wills and Probate Records, 1683-1993 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2015. 115 Green Family File, Germantown Historical Society. The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 44

residence” at Queen Lane and Green Street and burial at Ivy Hill Cemetery.116 John L. Green (born 1853) was a railroad clerk. Remaining a clerk until the time of his death, he lived at 69 Queen Street. 117 John L. Green died of “Valvular Heart Disease” on October 14, 1903. His funeral was conducted by Rev. Huddle on October 17 and his burial at Ivy Hill Cemetery.118 Sallie Green was the youngest of the third generation that lived at the subject house. She was confirmed at Trinity Lutheran Church in 1882. Sallie Green119 appears to have never married at the time of her death. Sallie Green lived in the house for much of her adult life, removing to her brother’s house at 69 Queen Lane. She appears at this house in the 1900 and 1910 Census. She has a servant living with her in each census record. Her cousin’s invalid daughter does not appear to be in residence.120 She eventually moved to 35 E. Tulpehocken Street, where she died on July 10, 1958 and was buried at Ivy Hill Cemetery.121

Receipt from Charles U. Green to Mrs. John Wister, undated. Source: Wister Family Papers, HSP.

116

“Funeral of Jacob Green,” The Germantown Guide. 14 October 1893. “Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Death Certificates, 1803–1915.” Index. FamilySearch, Salt Lake City, Utah, 2008, 2010. From originals housed at the Philadelphia City Archives. “Death Records.”. 118 Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania and New Jersey, Church and Town Records, 1708-1985 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011. 119 Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania and New Jersey, Church and Town Records, 1708-1985 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011. 120 United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1900. T623; and Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910 (NARA microfilm publication T624). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C. 121 Pennsylvania (State). Death certificates, 1906–1963. Series 11.90 (1,905 cartons). Records of the Pennsylvania Department of Health, Record Group 11. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 117

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 45

The above drawing features the subject house at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, as it may have looked in 1798 when it is known to have been at its current size. Taken from Old Landmarks of Germantown and Vicinity by John Richard. Courtesy the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

Receipt from Charles U. Green to Mrs. John Wister, undated. Source: Wister Family Papers, HSP.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 46

The above drawing features the subject house at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, as it may have looked in 1798 when it is known to have been at its current size. Taken from Old Landmarks of Germantown and Vicinity by John Richard. Courtesy the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

Criterion C and Criterion D The subject house at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue embodies distinguishing characteristics of a vernacular architectural style, type, and local tradition that represents an early building tradition practiced in Germantown, the larger Philadelphia area, and beyond. There is no specific classification known to the author, but this type could perhaps be called a “double-house,” an “extended house,” an “early mixed-use house,” or the “linear house.” Use of the term doublehouse is not to be confused with the ubiquitous Philadelphia twin that is by definition two houses often articulated as a single architectural expression. The term extended house or even early mixed-use house represents a typical Germantown and/or Philadelphia tale, which is both rural and urban: a building that was enlarged overtime. This dwelling type started life smaller and grew over time. In Philadelphia, there is an urban or semi-urban tradition of the linear growth of the ridgepole parallel to major thoroughfares like Germantown Avenue. This tradition makes perfect sense on streets that served as major highways through the old world city, but seem to be less explicable in the rural setting. Yet the linear growth of homes seems to be standard in any environment. Two of the earliest, extant specimens of this type of linear house growth are the Livezey House and, more close to home, Wyck, the Haines family house and perhaps the oldest in Germantown. The Livezey House represents the linear growth of such houses in an all time rural setting, while Wyck is a house that grew with Germantown. Unlike the Livezey House’s visible stages of growth or construction, Wyck’s timeline of growth is less obvious with its longtime roughcast façade. The subject house is similar—it may have grown, like Wyck, in stages—with two or three, perhaps more, periods of construction. While Wyck grew with Germantown and the needs of the family it served, its growth was insular within its large parcel. The subject house is more specific to represent the development of Germantown, physically evolving along the avenue itself. The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 47

Wyck. Source: the Thomas Shoemaker Papers, HSP.

Looking southwest. Courtesy Oscar Beisert.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 48

The physical characteristics of this linear house includes a specific building form, massing, and roof: the form is wider than it is deep; the massing is symmetrical and symmetrically-inspired; the primary elevation is between four to six bays in width, but may have originated from a smaller or earlier house; and the roof is almost always side-gable—the urban version featuring a ridgepole parallel to the street; and, a features of the roof, there are almost always dormers that may have been “improved” over time to meet the increased size of the building or the stylistic and/or fashionable preferences of the day. The culmination or product of these features is a house that is not dissimilar in form, massing, or roof to the “German/Swiss Colonial Tripartite House;” or the enlarged “German/Swiss Colonial Center-Hall House.122 Form, massing, and roof is one part of this story, the other part is the exterior treatment over time. While the eighteenth century appearance of the dwelling may have been similar to that of the “German/Swiss Colonial Tripartite House;” or the enlarged “German/Swiss Colonial CenterHall House,” the final product was almost always disguised in a Georgian fascia of scored or even un-scored rough cast with cornice details, dormer dressings, and pretentious architraves and urban pediments. In the John Richards sketch shown above, the subject house had a quiet but dignified Georgian appearance set upon this largely Germanic house form. This too was an aesthetic treatment that defines much of the early architecture of Germantown. The Georgian style is contextualized at the state level by the Pennsylvania Architectural Field Guide, which is published online by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission (PHMC). The house also reflects the environment in the era characterized by the said Georgian style of architecture, as applied to buildings of the Germantown vernacular. A typical Georgian house in Pennsylvania is a stone or brick two-story building with a side-gabled roof and a symmetrical arrangement of windows and doors on the front façade.123 Taken from the Pennsylvania Architectural Field Guide’s section on the Georgian Style 17001800, the above statement describes the aesthetic finish of the subject house at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, standing as a two-story house of load bearing stone masonry construction with a symmetrical arrangement of apertures. The field guide describes common building types as houses, schools, and courthouses. The subject building was indeed built and served as a house.

122

Rachel Carley. The Visual Dictionary of American Domestic Architecture. (New York, New York: Henry Holt and Company, Inc., 1997), p. 40-47. 123 “Georgian Style 1700-1800,” Pennsylvania Architectural Field Guide. Published online by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 49

“The Ship House,” home of the Bockius Family, built about 1760. Demolished many years ago, the house stood at Germantown Avenue and Pomona Terrace. Note, the house also appears as a double house, featuring similar dormers as the subject house. Source: the Thomas Shoemaker Papers, HSP.

Looking southwest. Courtesy Oscar Beisert.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 50

Above: Known as the Brockius House, the building shown in the two images above was located at 6316 Germantown Avenue. This building is an example of how the subject house (shown below) at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue may have started life when constructed in the 1740s. Note the chimney is similar in form and placement, as is the incomplete design of the symmetrical fenestration. On left, the drawing is from Old Landmarks of Germantown and Vicinity by John Richard. Courtesy the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. On right, the photograph is courtesy the Castner Collection at the Free Library of Philadelphia. Below: 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, the subject house is framed to emulate the portion of the building that is similar to the building shown above. Interestingly the architrave or pediment is similar. Source: the Thomas Shoemaker Papers, HSP.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 51

While being Germanic in its massing, form, and roof, many of these features also suit the architecture of the English, and, in these similarities, the Germanic house and the Georgian aesthetic treatment made for an acceptable and advantageous mixed-marriage that became popular in Philadelphia, especially in Germantown. Identifiable features of the Georgian Style include: 1. Symmetrical form and fenestration (window placement); 2. Multi-pane windows (620 panes in each sash); 3. Side-gabled or hipped roof; 4. Stone or brick walls; 5. Transom window over paneled front door; 6. Pediment or crown and pilasters at front entry; 7. Cornice with dentils; 8. Water table or belt course; and 9. Corner quoins. The subject house retains the features in items 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, missing features 8 and 9. Regarding symmetrical form and fenestration, the reconfiguration of the ground floor fenestration retains the original pedestrian door and works to compliment the original symmetry. The fenestration of the second floor and the dormers have been retained. Multi-paned windows may be present on the second floor beneath the sheathing and are present in the dormers, both front and back. There are also multi-pane wooden sash windows on the side elevations. The building retains its original sidegabled roof. While there is no transom, there are certainly two paneled doors. One door features lights in the place of panels in the uppermost portion. The wooden doors may be original or early, and are definitely architecturally sensitive. Components of the original and/or early pediments and pilasters are extant within the façade. The architraves also appear to be original. A small element of the early cornice line appears to separate the roofline from the second floor. There are also dentil cornices over the shop windows. Aside from the documentary evidence related to the enlargement of the house, there are physical characteristics, which include the off-centered chimney; the symmetrical configuration of dormers on the primary elevation with asymmetrical dormers at the rear; the presence of two pedestrian doors within the primary elevation; and the semi-symmetrical fenestration with windows that do not exactly line up in scale and form.

“The Dedier House, built 1748, taken down 1881.” Located immediately above Hood Cemetery, the Dedier House was similar in scale and form to the subject building at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue. Note the chimney is also offcenter within the roofline. There are also only two dormers. Taken from Old Landmarks of Germantown and Vicinity by John Richard. Courtesy the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 52

The linear house with Georgian stylistic features could once be found in Germantown and various sections of Philadelphia. These houses were built in the eighteenth century and like the neighborhood they grew over time. This type is especially prevalent in Germantown along the Avenue and on other ancient thoroughfares throughout the city, including Buist Avenue, Frankford Avenue, Haines Street, Lancaster Avenue, Old York Road, Ridge Avenue, etc. Especially poignant examples that no longer exist include the Dedier House, which once stood north of the Hood Cemetery; the house that once stood at 6320 Germantown Avenue; the house that formerly stood at 4536 Germantown Avenue; and the Wagner House, which once stood at 4820 Germantown Avenue.

6320 Germantown Avenue, demolished. This house had a similar feeling of scale and form to the subject house at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue. It also has two dormers, two pedestrian doors at the façade; and a chimney at center that has a similar form to that of the subject building. Courtesy the Castner Collection at the Free Library of Philadelphia.

Once standing at 4536 Germantown Avenue, the building shown above on left, featuring two doors, reflects the design and/or conversion of the building to a shop. One door appears to have led to the shop, while the other no doubt provided access to the residence. There are also shop windows that were potentially added later. The house is similar in form and massing to the subject house at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue. Taken from Old Landmarks of Germantown and Vicinity by John Richard. Courtesy the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 53

The Henry Freas House appears as a double house, one side of which served as a store in the late nineteenth century. Source: the Thomas Shoemaker Papers, HSP.

Perhaps the last feature of the building type to commonly be added was the shop front, which was certainly a common feature of these houses in the nineteenth century. Restoration of these houses may include and/or not include a period-appearing shop front.

Located at the corner of Germantown Avenue and E. Washington Lane, the drawing above shows two buildings that represent the subject building at 5112–14. Known as the Washington Hotel, the building on left clearly grew over time or was adapted to different uses evidenced by the number of doors and the irregular, but symmetrical fenestration. Extant at 6233-35 Germantown Avenue, the house on right may represent the original form and massing of the subject building at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue. Note, its primary entrance is off center and it features two gable-front dormers. Taken from Old Landmarks of Germantown and Vicinity by John Richard. Courtesy the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 54

Beyond the massing, form, and roof, the house has features that are distinctive of the Georgian style of architecture. Below please find local, Germantown examples of the Georgian architrave.

The original doorway, door, and pediment of 5112–14 Germantown Avenue. The upper pediment is no longer extant in the present form. Its appearance will be important information for the restoration of the house. Source: the Thomas Shoemaker Papers, HSP. The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 55

The drawing above is of a farmhouse owned at one time by Christopher Ludwig, then the Baker General. The house was once located on Haines Street. Like the subject house, it may have grown over time to suit the needs of the owner. It too features certain Georgian stylistic details such as the architrave and pediment. Taken from Old Landmarks of Germantown and Vicinity by John Richard. Courtesy the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

Left: the doorway of 5933 Germantown Avenue. Right: the doorway of 4825 Germantown Avenue. Both photos were taken in 1913 by P.B. Wallace. Source: the Thomas Shoemaker Papers, HSP.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 56

The chimney is also indicative of Georgian style of architecture, as seen below in the subject Germantown examples.

The Home of Isaac Pugh, Church Lane. While the Pugh House was much larger, it has a similar chimney type as the subject house at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue. The photograph was taken in 1859. Courtesy the Castner Collection at the Free Library of Philadelphia.

The chimney of the subject house at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue. Courtesy Oscar Beisert.

Left: the chimney of the house formerly located at 6320 Germantown Avenue. Courtesy the Castner Collection of the Free Library of Philadelphia. Right: the chimney of the Brockius House, 6316 Germantown Avenue. Courtesy the Castner Collection at the Free Library of Philadelphia.

The chimney of the Royal House, 5011 Germantown Avenue, which was taken in the mid-twentieth century as part of HABS PA-1709. Courtesy the Library of Congress’ Digital Collection.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 57

The gable-front doormers are indicative of the Georgian style, as seen in the examples below.

“The Ship House,” home of the Bockius Family, built about 1760. Demolished many years ago, the house stood at Germantown Avenue and Pomona Terrace. Note, the house also appears as a double house, featuring similar dormers as the subject house. Source: the Thomas Shoemaker Papers, HSP.

Wyck. Source: the Thomas Shoemaker Papers, HSP.

Looking southwest. Courtesy Oscar Beisert.

Looking southwest at a late nineteenth century view of the house. Courtesy the Germantown Historical Society.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 58

The subject house, as shown in the late nineteenth century. Source: the Thomas Shoemaker Papers, HSP.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 59

The Commodore Barron House at 5008-10 Germantown Avenue and the Green House at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue. Source: the Germantown Avenue Scrapbook of the Susan Perkins Collection HSP.

CRITERION G The Green House at 5112–14 Germantown Avenue is a component of a distinctive area, which should be preserved according to an historic, cultural or architectural motif. The subject building is contributing to the Colonial Germantown Historic District. The building contributes to the said historic district, which is listed in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). Furthermore, the Colonial Germantown Historic District is a National Historic Landmark (NHL). This building satisfies Criterion G, as it is part of and related to a distinctive area, which should be preserved according to an historic cultural and architectural motif, as prescribed by the NRHP and NHL programs.124

124

National Register of Historic Places Inventory–Nomination Form for the Colonial Germantown Historic District. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 60

Letter: Carol D. Shull, former Keeper of the National Register, to Dr. Larry E. Tise, former State Historic Preservation Officer, 20 June 1983. This letter confirms that the subject building is a contributing resource of a NHL Historic District. Courtesy Germantown Historical Society.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 61

8. Bibliography American Weekly Mercury, August 27, 1741, February 14, 1742/3. Anne DeB. Mears, The Old York Road and Its Early Associations of History and Biography, 1670 – 1870 (Philadelphia: Harper & Brother, 1890), 24–27. Annette K. Burgert, Eighteenth Century Pennsylvania German Emigrants from Hassloch and Böhl in the Palatinate (Worthington, Ohio: AKB Publications, 1983), 6. “A Transcript of the Assessment of the Seventeenth 18th Provincial Tax laid the 8th Day of April 1774 on the Inhabitants of the City and County of Philadelphia,” p. 46, Pennsylvania and New Jersey, Church and Town Records, 1708-1985 (Ancestry.com). “A Transcript of the Fifteenth Eighteen Penny Provincial Tax Assessed the 13th Day of March 1772, for the City and County of Philadelphia,” Germantown Township, p. 216, Am .338, Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Board of Health Cemetery Returns for 1836, “Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Death Certificates, 1803-1915,” Family Search.org. Burial for Rebecca King, 20 day 2 month 1786, Record of Burials in Friends Burial Ground, Middle District Monthly Meeting, p. 477, Births and Burials 1686 – 1807, Philadelphia Monthly Meeting, U.S. Quaker Meeting Records, 1681–1935, Ancestry.com. Clark, Record of the Inscriptions on the Tables and Grave-Stones, 451. “Christ Church Historical Collections Online,” accessed January 16, 2017, http://www.philageohistory.org/rdic-images/ChristChurch/index.cfm. Crane, ed., The Diary of Elizabeth Drinker, 1:552. Deed: Abraham Opden Graeff of Germantown, weaver, to Joseph Shippen of the city of Philadelphia, merchant, for 50 A., 24d 2m (April) 1707, Philadelphia Deed Book E. 3, Vol. 6, p. 149. Deed: Abraham Opden Graeff of Germantown, linen weaver, to Joseph Shippen of the city of Philadelphia, merchant, for 50 A., 4 July 1709, Philadelphia Deed Book E. 5, Vol. 7, p. 332. Deed: Andrew Epple, of the city, merchant, and Mary, his wife, to Elizabeth Dickerson, of Bristol Township, spinster, 9 August 1781, Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 57, p. 252, CAP. Deed: Catherine Prefountaine, of Bristol Township, widow, to Daniel King, of the city, brass founder, 2 August 1783, Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 57, p. 251, CAP. Deed: Christopher Green, of Germantown, hatter, and Mary, his wife, to Jacob Gominger, of Germantown, miller, 9 January 1779, Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 3, 442, CAP. Deed: Daniel King, of the city, brass founder, and Rebecca, his wife, to Charles Hay, of Bristol Township, miller, 2 November 1761, for £200, Philadelphia Deed Book H., No. 15, p. 294, CAP. Deed: Daniel King, of the city, brass founder, and Rebecca, his wife, to Charles Hay, Bristol Township, miller, 18 June 1764, for £370, Philadelphia Deed Book A.W.M., No. 45, p. 305, CAP. Deed: Daniel King, of Bristol Township, brass founder, and Elizabeth, his wife, to Henry Young, of the same, yeoman, April 10, 1794, Philadelphia Deed Book I.C., No. 9, p. 288, CAP. Deed: Daniel King, sometime of the city and afterwards of Bristol Township but now of Germantown, brass founder, and Elizabeth, his wife, to Henry Drinker, of the city, merchant, 2 September 1795, Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 57, p. 262, CAP.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 62

Deed: Daniel King, surviving executor of the will of Daniel King, Sr., of Germantown, to Joseph Green and Jacob Green, both of Germantown, hatters, 15 June 1814, Philadelphia Deed Book I.H., No. 6, p. 65, CAP. Deed: Daniel King, of the city, brass founder, and Rebecca, his wife, to James Dunlap, of the city, practitioner in physic, Philadelphia Deed Book A.M., No. 70, p. 606, CAP. Deed: Edward Bonsall, of the city, and Hannah G., his wife, to Daniel King, Germantown, brass founder, 15d 4m (April) 1797, Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 71, p. 52, CAP. Deed: Edward Shippen to James Logan, 1 January 1753, page 5, Ashmead Papers (Am .009), Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Deed: Edward Shippen to Daniel Ent, 10 September 1755, recited in Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 5, p. 95. Deed: Edward Shippen to James Abercrombie, 29 October 1757, Philadelphia Deed Book T.H., No. 7, p. 476, CAP. Deed: Godfryd Bush, of Germantown, surgeon, and Anna Maria, his wife, to John David Seiferheldt, of Germantown, leather dresser, 24 April 1760, recited in Philadelphia Mortgage Book X., No. 5, p. 212, CAP. Deed: Isaac Van Sintern of Germantown, weaver, and Neiltei, his wife, to Joseph Shippen of the city of Philadelphia, merchant, for 12½ A., 10 February 1712, Philadelphia Deed Book E. 7, Vol. 8, p. 299, CAP. Deed: John Deprefountaine, of Bristol Township, surveyor, to Daniel King, of Bristol Township, brass founder, 19 April 1792, Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 57, p. 257, CAP. Deed: John Richardson, of the city, joyner, to Daniel King, of the city, brass founder, 2 February 1780, Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 2, p. 154, CAP. Deed: Joseph Moore, of Bristol Township, blacksmith, and Mary, his wife, to Daniel King, of the city, brass founder, 1 February 1780, Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 2, p. 154 Deed: Joseph Penrose, of Bensalem Township, Bucks Co., grazer, to Daniel King, city, brass founder, 3 July 1775, Philadelphia Deed Book A.M., No. 70, 604. Deed: Mary Richardson, of Bristol Township, widow, Joseph Moore , of the city, blacksmith, and Mary, his wife, and Deborah Richardson, of Bristol Township, spinster, to Daniel King, city, brass founder and Rebecca, his wife, 7 September 1761, Philadelphia Deed Book H., No. 15, p. 251. Deed: Michael Hillegass, of the city, gentleman, and Henrietta, his wife, to Daniel King, city, brass founder, 17 March 1761, for £130, Philadelphia Deed Book H., No. 15, p. 254, CAP. Deed: Michael Jacobi, of Germantown, hosier, and Elizabeth, his wife, to Christopher Green, of Germantown, fleet maker, 1 December 1774, Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 3, p. 443. Deed: Noe Townsend, formerly of Germantown, coach maker, and Elizabeth, his wife, to Daniel King, Sr., 25 March 1794, recited in Philadelphia Deed Book I.H., No. 6, p. 65, City Archives of Philadelphia (hereafter CAP). Deed of Partition between Edward Shippen, of the City of Philadelphia, merchant, Joseph Shippen, of the City, merchant, and William Shippen, of the City, chemist, 10 February 1741[/2], Philadelphia Deed Book I., No. 9, p. 544, CAP. Deed Poll: Joseph Cowperthwaite, sheriff, to David Deshler, city, merchant, 28 February 1788, for £215, Court of Common Pleas Sheriff Deed Book C-4, p. 55, CAP. Deed Poll: Thomas Proctor, Sheriff, to Daniel King, 6 December 1784, Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 17, p. 247 The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 63

Deeds of [Lease and] Release: Dirk Johnson, of Germantown, yeoman, to Jacob Bowman, of Germantown, carpenter, Philadelphia Deed Book G., No. 11, p. 273, CAP. Deed: Sarah Rhoads to Daniel King, Sr., 5 April 1794, recited in Philadelphia Deed Book R.D.W., No. 54, p. 437. Deed: Thomas Bond, of the city, doctor of physic, to John Field, of the city, merchant, 28 February 1785, Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 23, p. 96, CAP. Deed: Thomas Moyer, of the city, potter, and Margaret, his wife, to Daniel King, of Bristol Township, brass founder, 3 October 1791, Philadelphia Deed Book D., No. 57, p. 255, CAP. Deed: William Shippen and Susannah, his wife, to Jacob Weitman, 30 January 1754, recited in Philadelphia Deed Book I., No. 17, p. 413. Don H. Berkebile, “The 2 3/4-Inch U.S. Howitzer, 1792 –1793,” Military Collector and Historian Spring 1961. Donald W. Holst, “Further Notes of the King Howitzer,” Military Collector and Historian Winter 1997. Edward L. Clark, A Record of the Inscriptions on the Tables and Grave-Stones in the BurialGrounds of Christ Church, Philadelphia [Philadelphia: Collins, printer, 1864], 451. Elaine Forman Crane, ed., The Diary of Elizabeth Drinker [Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1991] 2: 552. Frederick S. Weiser and Debra D. Smith, ed., St. Michael’s Evangelical Lutheran Church, Germantown (Now Part of Philadelphia), 1741–1841 (Rockport, ME: Picton Press, 1998) 1: 110. Germantown Township, Philadelphia, p. 94 verso, Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission; Records of the Office of the Comptroller General, RG-4; Tax & Exoneration Lists, 1762-1794. Germantown Township, Philadelphia County Tax Assessments, 1789–1793, CAP. Germantown, 1774, p. 261. Tax & Exoneration Lists, 1762–1794. Series No. 4.61; Records of the Office of the Comptroller General, RG-4. Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Ancestry.com. Germantown, 1780, p. 68, 1782, p. 94; 1783, p. 69; 1785, p. 206, Tax & Exoneration Lists, 1762–1794. Series No. 4.61; Records of the Office of the Comptroller General, RG-4, Ancestry.com. General Advertiser, 18 March 1794, 3. “Hat Making: One of Germantown’s Most Flourishing Industries From About 1825 to About 1840,” in Naaman H. Keyser, et al., History of Old Germantown: With a Description of Its Settlement and Some Account of Its Important Persons, Buildings and Places Connected With Its Development (Germantown: H.F. McCann, 1907), 440–42. Heinrich Rembe, “Emigration Materials from Lambsheim in the Palatinate,” in Rhineland Emigrants: Lists of German Settlers in Colonial America, ed. Don Yoder (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1985), 99. Henry J. Kaufman, American Copper and Brass (New York: Bonanza Books, 1968), 61– 62. Jeff Kinard, Artillery: An Illustrated History of Its Impact (Oxford: ABC-CLIO, 2007), 165; Kaufman, American Copper and Brass, 191–93.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 64

Letter: John Adams to Charles Adams, March 30, 1777 in Paul H. Smith et al., eds., Letters of Delegates to Congress, 1774–1789 [Washington, DC: Library of Congress] 6:507. List No. 1, entry 232 and List No. 2, entry 177, Germantown Township, United States Direct Tax of 1798: Tax Lists for the State of Pennsylvania. M372, Records of the Internal Revenue Service, 1791-2006, Record Group 58. National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C. (Ancestry.com). “List of Names of the Members of the Monthly Meeting of Friends of Philadelphia,” Lists of Members, 1772–1781, Philadelphia Monthly Meeting Arch Street, U.S. Quaker Meeting Records, 1681–1935, Ancestry.com. Maryland Gazette, 20 July 1772, p. 3. Meeting of 28 day 6 month 1771, Women’s Meeting Minutes (1767–1781). p. 134–35, Philadelphia Monthly Meeting, U.S. Quaker Meeting Records, 1681–1935, Ancestry.com. Mortgage: John Bethel, of Germantown, chaise maker, to David Deshler, 23 April 1775, Philadelphia Mortgage Book M., No. 1, p. 219, CAP. New-York Gazette, February 26, 1806, p. 3. “Old-Time Hatters, Something About a Once Prominent Germantown Industry,” N.P. Ployd “The Scrap Book,” Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Ployd’s scrapbook is contains documented and undocumented clippings, memorabilia, and photographs on Germantown prior to 1911. Pennsylvania Gazette, 9 January 1753. Pennsylvania Gazette, 3 January 1760. Pennsylvania Gazette, 8 September 1763. Pennsylvania Gazette, 13 February 1766. Pennsylvania Gazette, 27 February 1766, 5. Peter D. Keyser, “A History of the Upper Germantown Burying-Ground,” in Pennsylvania Vital Records, ed. Don Yoder [Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1983], 1:567. Poulson's American Daily Advertiser, 21 February 1806, p. 3 “Record of the Marriages in the Evangelical Lutheran Congregation in Philadelphia Commenced Anno 1745,” in Don Yoder, ed., Pennsylvania German Church Records of Births, Baptisms, Marriages, Burials, etc From the Pennsylvania German Society Proceedings and Addresses (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1983) 1: 635. Second Census of the United States, 1800. M32 Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C. Spencer C. Tucker, ed., The Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Early American Republic, 1783– 1812: A Political, Social, and Military History (Oxford: ABC-CLIO, 2014) 1:23. Tench Coxe, A Statement of the Arts and Manufactures of the United States of America, for the Year 1810 (Philadelphia: A. Cornman, Jr., 1814), 9. Tenth eighteen penny provincial tax (1767) on the inhabitants of the city and county of Philadelphia, Pa., Germantown Township, p. 120r, Ms. Codex 1261, Rare Book and Manuscript Library University of Pennsylvania. The Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia, s.v. “Grand Federal Procession,” by Laura Rigal, accessed January 20, 2017, http://philadelphiaencyclopedia.org/archive/grand-federalprocession/ “The particulars of each person's estate, as appears by the township and ward assessors' returns,” Tenth eighteen penny provincial tax (1767) on the inhabitants of the city and county of The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 65

Philadelphia, p. 116 recto, Rare Book & Manuscript Library University of Pennsylvania Ms. Codex 1261. 1769. The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser, May 5, 1781, 4. Walnut Ward,; Pennsylvania State Tax, Philadelphia, Walnut Ward, p. 151, Pennsylvania, Tax and Exoneration, 1768–1801 (Ancestry.com). Will of David Seyferheld, of Northern Liberties, skinner and breeches maker, dated 15 April 1773, proved 29 April 1773, Philadelphia Will Book P., p. 401, Philadelphia Register of Wills. Will of Jacob Bowman, of German Town, carpenter, 30 April 1748, proved 19 May 1748, Will File 203 of 1748, Philadelphia Register of Wills. Will of Joseph Shippen “late of the City of Philadelphia (but now of Germantown) … merchant,” dated 30 December 1740, proved 30 June 1741, Will Book F., p. 219, Philadelphia Register of Wills. 1795 Philadelphia County Tax List, Germantown Township, CAP. Contributors This nomination is the result of the pro bono research and writing efforts of Oscar Beisert, Architectural Historian and Historic Preservationist, and J.M. Duffin, Archivist and Historian. The nomination was edited by Kelley Wiles, Architectural Historian.

The King-Green House 5112–14 Germantown Avenue, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nomination to the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places, Winter 2017–Page 66