A comprehensive brief review on antimicrobial herbs and spices.

A comprehensive brief review on antimicrobial herbs and spices.

Journal of Global Biosciences ISSN 2320-1355 Volume 5, Number 1, 2016, pp. 3468-3474 Website: www.mutagens.co.in E-mail: [email protected] researc...

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Journal of Global Biosciences ISSN 2320-1355 Volume 5, Number 1, 2016, pp. 3468-3474 Website: www.mutagens.co.in E-mail: [email protected] [email protected]

Review Paper A COMPREHENSIVE BRIEF REVIEW ON ANTIMICROBIAL HERBS AND SPICES Kirti Rani and Pragya Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida,, Sec-125, Noida-201303 (UP), India. Abstract

Microbial and fungal infections are reported one of the major causes of most of epidemics and communicable diseases which is affected the clinical burden on social, health and economical growth of many developing and underdeveloped countries. Emergence of resistance against well known pathogenic bacteria, viruses and fungi is posing a great challenge to the current world and therefore it is needed to discover novel herbal or naturally occurring antibactericidal and antifungicidal plants products. Traditionally, various herbs, leaf extracts from various trees, and plant parts e.g. spices have been using form ancient time as anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agents to treat many disease. Herbs and spices e.g. Elettaria and Amomum (cardamom), Cuminum cyminum (cumin), Aloe Barbadensis (Aloe vera), Emblica officinalis (amla), Santalum album (sandalwood), Curcuma longa (turmeric), Syzygium aromaticum (clove), Crocus sativus (saffron), Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Fennel) and Azadirachta indica (neem trees) have been also used for thousands of years to enhance the flavor, colour and aroma of food. These are also very popular as very cost effective and potent antimicrobial agents to treat various pathogenic diseases from ancient times. Key words: Herbs; Spices; Antimicrobial activity; Antibactericidal; Antifungicidal. INTRODUCTION Commonly herbs and spices are used for flavoring the cuisines and naturally occurring home food preservatives [1]. In addition to boosting flavor, herbs and spices e.g. Elettaria and Amomum (cardamom), Cuminum cyminum (cumin), Aloe Barbadensis (Aloe vera), Emblica officinalis (amla), Santalum album (sandalwood), Curcuma longa (turmeric), Syzygium aromaticum (clove), Crocus sativus (saffron), Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Fennel) and Azadirachta indica (neem trees) are also known for medicinal value being as cheap and easy to get antimicrobial agents [2, 3]. A large number of herbal plants are known to be used to combat various diseases due to having antimicrobial activity [4]. 1.1. Antibacterial activities 1.1.1. Cardamom is a spice made from the seeds of fruit of plants and it belongs to the genera, Elettaria and Amomum. This spice belongs to family: Zingiberaceae well known as Choti elaichi in Hindi or Alleicha in Odia according to Indian Medicinal System [5, 6]. Aqueous extract of cardamom have been found effective against S. aureus, a bacteria responsible for various skin

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infections and pneumonia while methonal extract is effective against both E. coli and S.aureus [1,5]. In other studies, methanol extract of cardamom seeds have been found very effective against antibiotic resistance S. aureus and P. mirabilis species [7]. The major constituents of cardamom are are alpha-terpineol, citronellol, borneol, trans-nerolidol, cis/trans-linalol oxides, gamma-sitosterol, phytol, geraniol, stigmasterol and other non-cineol, alpha-phellandrene, menthone, alpha and beta pinene, beta-sistostenone, eugenyl acetate, bisabolene, p-cymene, geranyl acetate and terpinene [8,9,10,11]. Its gold nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized and gains popularity in new approach of advanced enzyme and biosensor technology [12]. 1.1.2. Cuminum cyminum (cumin) is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native from the east Mediterranean to India and its extracts have been clinically tested against bacterial infections as an effective antioxidants. The major compounds in cumin are reported cuminaldehyde; limonene; α- and β-pinene; 1,8-cineole; o- and p-cymene; α- and γ-terpinene; safranal and linalool [13]. Cumin seed oil with alcoholic extract has been found to inhibit the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae and its clinical isolates and cause improvement in cell morphology, improve memory loss and decrease in urease activity [14]. Silver nanoparticles using Cuminum cyminum have been synthesized through microwave irradiation which can might be helpful in forthcoming clinical trial of many pathogenic diseases [15]. 1.1.3. Aloe Barbadensis (Aloe vera) was also produced and tested its antimicrobial activity to inhibit E.coli and S.aureus, this effect was maybe due to the interaction with the bacterial cell wall lead to loosen their cell wall and increase the permeability of their cell membrane [16, 17, 18]. It is lead to death of the bacterial cells due to ill effect of nanoparticles on the proteins in the cytoplasm of the bacterial cell and failure of functional replication mechanism [19]. 1.1.4. Emblica officinalis (amla) is used in traditional medicinal therapy like, Ayurvedha, Tibetan and Siddha to treat various clinical ailments [20]. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of E.officinalis was showed presence of tannins, saponins, flavanoids and phenols of which flavonoids and saponins that found to be the most inhibitory towards the pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogene [21]. Aqueous infusion extract of amla also exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against E. cloacae and E. coli [22]. So, keeping its clinical portal, zinc oxide nanoparticles from Emblica Officinalis was prepared successfully by using green technology [23]. In another study, leaf extract of Emblica officinalis were used to produce naturally occurring antibacterial silver nanoparticles which was also reported to be effective against human pathogens [24]. 1.1.5. Santalum album (sandalwood) powder and oil are much glamorized as herbal based cosmetics, pharmaceutical products and revolutionary herbal medicine over a decade e.g. up to 1920–1930, mostly as a urogenital and skin antiseptic. Its main component is santalol (about 75%) and santyl acetate that used in aromatherapy and to prepare soaps, body washes and telecom powders of many world popular national and international brands [25]. Various fractions of sandalwood and its essential oil have been found to be effective against the infection of E coli, S aureus and S.typhi. In earlier reports, its fractions, called santalol and santayl acetate using PRE-ADMET was showed 100% human intestinal absorption and plasma protein binding, positive against carcinogenic cell lines, positive CNS-barrier test, which affirms them as potent antibacterial and anticancerous agents [26]. Apart from this, the East Indian Sandalwood tree, Santalum album L. has been widely used in ancient medicine therapy for treatment of common colds, bronchitis, skin disorders, heart ailments, general weakness, fever, infection of the urinary tract, inflammation of the mouth and pharynx, liver and gallbladder complaints [27]. Leaf bark of sandalwood was also used to synthesis silver nanoparticles which have potential of improving heart, stomach and liver conditions, act as anti-poison, cure fever, memory improvement, blood purifier, to treat piles, vomiting, poisoning, hiccoughs initial phase of pox, urticaria, eye infections and inflammation of umbilicus [28]. Successful preparation of sliver nanoparticles was also synthesized by using 1mM Silver Nitrate solution and to that 10ml extract solution of sandalwood with constant stirring. [29]. 1.1.6. In India, Curcuma longa (turmeric) has been used as a remedy for stomach and liver ailments, as well as topically to heal sores, wounds due to having antimicrobial property. Its

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active compound called, curcumin is believed to have a wide range of biological effects including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antibacterial, and antiviral activities, which indicate potential in clinical medicine [30]. Turmeric natural dye have been found to have good inhibitory activity against E.coli and Vibrio cholera [31]. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles was also reported using turmeric extract to test its potent antimicrobial activity to meet the requirements of clinical, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries [32]. 1.1.7. Syzygium aromaticum (clove) has antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal and antioxidant properties. And, its oil is also used traditionally as a savoring agent and antimicrobial material in food [33]. It has been found to inhibit Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as well as yeast too [34]. The antibacterial properties of clove have been tested against food borne pathogens (S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli) [35]. Mixtures of clove essential oil have also been found effective against Listeria monocytogenes found in chicken meat [36]. Silver nanoparticles from Syzygium aromaticum was also synthesized by green technology and tested their antibacterial efficacy [37]. Similarly, copper nanoparticles was also successfully prepared form Syzygium aromaticum with slight chemical modification [38]. 1.1.8. Crocus sativus (saffron) is the most expensive spice in the world which is derived from the dried stigmas of the purple saffron crocus, Saffron is widely used in Persian, Indian, European, Arab, and Turkish cuisines. Antimicrobial activity of different parts of Croccus sativus L. (saffron) including stigma, stamen, leaves and colora of the purple saffron crocus are processed by various solvents for its extraction. It have been also tested against different bacteria and found to be quite effective against Microccucos luteus, Staphylococcus epidermitis, Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli [39]. Silver nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by using aqueous saffron extract by using most advanced green technology [40]. 1.1.8 Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Fennel) is a perennial herb belonging to the family Apiaceae and it is mainly grown in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. It is highly aromatic and flavoring herb with culinary and medicinal uses. Fennel fruit is a dry seed, traditionally used as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, carminative, diuretic and antispasmodic agent [41]. Fennel is very popular in treatment of glaucoma [42], galactagogue and hypertension [43]. Antibacterial activities of methanolic extract of dried fennel seeds have been clinically tested against pathogenic bacteria Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli [44]. Its silver nanoparticles in combination with vancomycin have been found to show maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus [45]. In other process, for biosynthesis of nanoparticles, 10 ml plant extract was mixed with 90 ml of silver nitrate (8mM) in a sterile was used previously [46]. 1.1.10. Other products made from Azadirachta indica (neem trees) have been used in India for over two millennia for their medicinal properties. Methanol and ethanol extracts of neem have been found to inhibit common human pathogens like Bacillus pumillus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus [47]. Preparation and characterization of zero valent iron nanoparticles were also done from the leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) [48]. 1.2. Antifungal activities 1.2.1. Traditional uses of Cuminum cyminum (cumin) are reported to reduce inflammation, increase urination, prevent gas, and suppress muscle spasms. It has also been used as an aid for indigestion, jaundice, diarrhea, and flatulence. DPPH assay was also performed on human erythrocytes using cumin extract and found it was able to decrease free radicals, hence it lead to confirm that cumin have good antioxidant properties [49]. Cumin oil was also found to be highly effective against all the isolates of tested pathogenic fungi as it was completely inhibited mycelial growth of all fungi when added to solid medium and have been found to possess anticancerous, antidiabetic and immunomodulatory properties [50]. 1.2.2. Aloe Barbadensis (Aloe vera) is very short-stemmed succulent plant and have been very popular very effective antifungal agents to treat many skin diseases such as in controlling pimples, blackheads, whiteheads and pigmentation and skin darkening growing [51, 52]. Silver nanoparticles from Aloe vera’s leaf extract have also been found effective against Rhizopus sp. and Aspergillus sp. [53]. Silver nanoparticles from aloe vera’s leaf extract was also prepared and

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characterized for its antifungal efficacy [54]. In other studies, biosynthesise of cerium oxide nanoparticles was also done by using Aloe Barbadensis Miller Gel [54]. Gold nanoparticles were also prepared by stirring mixture of Aloe vera aqueous extract with 1mM HauCl aqueous solution [55]. 1.2.3. Antimicrobial activities for curcumin and rhizome extract of Curcuma longa (turmeric) was also reported quite effective against different fungi and parasites to enhance the inhibitory effect of existing antifungal agents through synergism [56]. 1.2.4. Croccus sativus L. (saffron) is widely used in the treatment of some of the major depressive disorder and cancers e.g. skin and esophageal due to having effective antifungal agents [57]. Saffron was also coined to relieve the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome to reduce the vaginal antifungal infections in some cases [59]. 1.2.5. Azadirachta indica (neem) products are believed by Siddha and Ayurvedic practitioners to be very strong anthelmintic, antifungal, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antiviral, contraceptive and sedative agents. Neem oil is also used for healthy hair, to improve liver function, detoxify the blood, and balance blood sugar levels. Neem leaves have also been used to treat skin diseases like eczema and psoriasis to reduce the antifungal infections naturally without any side effects. Silver nanoparticles have been also prepared by using green technology by using neem extract which was obtained from its leaves, stem, roots and fruits and found to be used in dental filling [60]. As well as, solid lipid nanoparticles are also loaded in Neem oil for topical treatment of acne have been formularized and characterized and used as skin peeling and farcical [61]. CONCLUSION Hence, it is concluded that these herbs and spices e.g. Elettaria and Amomum (cardamom), Cuminum cyminum (cumin), Aloe Barbadensis (Aloe vera), Emblica officinalis (amla), Santalum album (sandalwood), Curcuma longa (turmeric), Syzygium aromaticum (clove), Crocus sativus (saffron), Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Fennel) and Azadirachta indica (neem trees) are found to reported be very effective against various pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Their medicinal and therapeutic uses must be increased over others chemically synthesized antibiotics to treat pathogenic diseases. Because, their naturally occurring compounds do not have any side effects during the medication used for combating any disease. Hence, their therapeutic uses must be streamlined with effective clinical management strategies to perform the successful clinical trials and potential palliative care of epidemics and communicable diseases. REFERENCES 1. Kaushik P, Goyal P, Chauhan A and Chauhan G (2010) In Vitro Evaluation of Antibacterial Potential of Dry FruitExtracts of Elettaria cardamomum Maton (Chhoti Elaichi) Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 9 (3): 287-292 2. Nielsen PV and Rios R (2000) Inhibition of fungal growth on bread by volatile compounds from spices and herbs and mustard essential oil Inter J Food Microbiol 60: 219-229 3. Fisher C (1992) Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health ACS Symp Ser. 1992:506. 4. Mishra N and Behal KK (2010) Antimicrobial activity of some spices against selected microbes Int J Pharmacy and Pharm Sci 2(3):187-196 5. Shaban MAE, Kandeel KM, Yacout GA and Mehaseb SE (1987) The chemical composition of the volatile oil of Elettaria cardamomum seeds Pharmazie 42: 207-208 6. Pattanayak M and Nayak PL (2013) Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Elettaria cardamomum (ELAICHI) Aqueous Extract World Journal of Nano Science & Technology 2(1): 01-05 7. Akrayi HFS (2012) Antibacterial Effect of Seed Extracts of Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) against Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis Tikrit Journal of Pure Science 17:(2)

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