A PRAGMATICS ANALYSIS OF PERSUASIVE EXPRESSIONS OF

A PRAGMATICS ANALYSIS OF PERSUASIVE EXPRESSIONS OF

A PRAGMATICS ANALYSIS OF PERSUASIVE EXPRESSIONS OF ADVERTISEMENT OF THE JAKARTA POST FEBRUARY 10-16 2014 RESEARCH PAPER Submitted as a Partial Fulfil...

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A PRAGMATICS ANALYSIS OF PERSUASIVE EXPRESSIONS OF ADVERTISEMENT OF THE JAKARTA POST FEBRUARY 10-16 2014

RESEARCH PAPER Submitted as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Getting Bachelor Degree of Education in English Department

by PRIA ADI BYANTARA A 320100067

SCHOOL OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF SURAKARTA 2014

A PRAGMATICS ANALYSIS OF PERSUASIVE EXPRESSIONS OF ADVERTISEMENT OF THE JAKARTA POST FEBRUARY 10-16 2014 by PRIA ADI BYANTARA A320100067 [email protected] Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta ABSTRACT

Pria Adi Byantara A.320100067 A PRAGMATICS ANALYSIS OF PERSUASIVE EXPRESSIONS OF ADVERTISEMENT OF THE JAKARTA POST FEBRUARY 1016 2014. Research Paper. School of Teacher Training and Education. Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta. 2014. This study aims to describe the linguistic forms of persuasive expression and to explain the illocutionary meanings of persuasive expression found in the advertisement of The Jakarta Post February 10-16 2014. This is a descriptive qualitative research. The researcher collected the data by using methods of observation and documentation. The data includes field note of reading, underlying, classifying, rewriting and coding. The techniques used in analyzing data are as follows: reading the data of persuasive expression, underlying the data, analyzing the data from the result of observation and classifying, and concluding the result and giving suggestion. The result of the study shows that there are 22 of persuasive expression. There are six kinds of persuasive expression from twenty two data found in advertisement of The Jakarta Post. They are imperative sentence (31,9%), declarative sentence (27,3%), independent clause (4,5%), noun phrase (27,3%), compound noun phrase (4,5%)and verb phrase (4,5%). The types of persuasive expression found in advertisement of The Jakarta Post dominated by imperative sentence. The types illocutionary meanings are (4,5%) of convincing, (4,5%) of informing, (4,5%0 of emphasizing, (59,5%) of describing, (4,5%) of persuading, (9%) of explaining, (4,5%) of imaging, (4,5%) of inviting and (4,5%) of suggesting. The illocutionary acts mostly appear in describing. Total is 22 (100%) of persuasive expressions. Keywords: Persuasive expression (The linguistic forms and the meanings of persuasive expression).

A. INTRODUCTION Advertising is a form of advertisement which is particularly common in newspapers, online and other periodicals which may be sold or distributed free of charge. Advertisement, according to Bovee (1992: 7) is nonpersonal communication information usually paid and usually persuasive in nature about products, services or opinions by sponsor identified through various media. Recently there are so many advertisements which are shown in newspaper, the producer also make a billboard on the street. In distributing the products, the way which the producer did is showing pictures of products with the prize of each product, but sometimes the producer also adds discount so the consumer will have more interest to buy the products. Advertisements on newspaper have meaning and purpose with different sentences, pictures and have meaning for reader to buy and use the products, the advertisements use sentences to persuade the reader to do what in the advertisements and the sentence is containing persuasive expression. Persuasive expressions, according to Jakobson in Waugh (1980: 57-82) described six functions of language (or communication functions). The first function is for referential function, corresponds to the factor of message and describes a situation, object or mental state. The descriptive statements of the referential function can consist of both definite descriptions and deictic words, e.g. "The autumn leaves have all fallen now." The second function is expressive (alternatively called "emotive" or "affective") function. It relates to the addresser (sender) and is best exemplified by interjections and other sound changes that do not alter the denotative meaning of an utterance but do add information about the Addresser's (speaker's) internal state, e.g. "Wow, what a view!" The third function is conative function, it engages the addressee (receiver) directly and is best illustrated by vocatives and imperatives, e.g. "Tom! Come inside and eat!" The fourth function is poetic function which focuses on "the message for its own sake" (the

code itself, and how it is used) and is the operative function in poetry as well as slogans. The fifth functionis phatic function, defines that language is for the sake of interaction and is therefore associated with the contact factor. The phatic function can be observed in greetings and casual discussions of the weather, particularly with strangers. It also provides the keys to open, maintain, verify or close the communication channel: "Hello?", "Ok?", "Hummm", "Bye".The sixth function is metalingual (alternatively called "metalinguistic" or "reflexive") function is the use of language (what Jakobson calls "Code") to discuss or describe itself. Yule (1996: 3) states that pragmatics is the study of how more gets communicated than is said. Meanwhile Leech (1983: 39) explain that pragmatics can be usefully defined as the study of how utterances have meanings in situations. According to Yule (2006:250), speech act is an action such premising performed by a speaker with utterance either as a direct speech or a indirect speech. It is an utterance that has performative function in language and communication. Austin (1976) in Renkema (1992:22) states that there are three kinds of speech act, namely locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary. Kroeger (2005: 35) stated that phrase is a group of words that can function as a constituent within a simple clause. The head of a phrase is distinguished from its dependents the non head words as being the category word that characterizes the primary grammatical role of the phrase. In the following phrases the head word, or head, is bolded: too slowly = Adverb Phrase (AdvP); the head is an adverb, very happy = Adjective Phrase (AP); the head is an adjective, the massive dinosaur = Noun Phrase (NP); the head is a noun, at lunch = Preposition Phrase (PP); the head is a preposition, watch TV = Verb Phrase (VP); the head is a verb.

Frank (1972) Classified Sentences by Types :Declarative sentence, It deals with a statement. Frank (1972: 221) said that the subject and predicate of declarative sentence have normal word order. The sentence ends with a full stop or a period(.) For example: She studies diligently for the final exam. Interrogative sentence, it deals with a question. Frank (1972: 221) asserted that the subject and auxiliary are often reversed in interrogative sentence. And the sentence ends with a question mark (?). for example: Does she study diligently for the final exam?. Imperative sentence, it deals with commands and request. Frank (1972: 221) explained that only the predicate is expressed. It uses the simple form of verb and regardless of person or lense. It ends with a period in writing and drop in pitch in speech. For example: Study diligently for your final exam. Exclamatory sentence, Frank (1972: 221) told that exclamatory sentence begins with an exclamatory phrase consisting of what or how plus part of the predicate. It is followed by the subject and the balance of the predicate. The exclamatory sentence ends with an exclamation mark (!). For example: How diligent you are! What a diligent student you are! Persuasion is defined as symbol manipulation designed to produce action in others (Lerbinger, 1972). Gibson and Hodgetts (1990: 258-87) suggest basic elements for two steps in persuasive business communicationto identify the objectives and to organize the message. Persuasive expression is also found in the advertisement of Jakarta Post newspaper as bellow: ADORABLE ANGELS SPECIAL MASSAGE..? Creamy, Asian Angels to your door in 30 minutes-For Fantastic Servicing Call us anytime! Ask For Porscha at 0812.1213.9625

From the advertisement above, the content of the advertisement interests the readers. The words that interest the readers are “angels” and “fantastic” because from those words the readers will think that angel is a perfect figure. It means that the service will be perfect like a service of angels. The words “fantastic” used to represent good but the word “fantastic” represents to show that more than good so the readers will interest to that advertisement. Based on the statements above the researcher is interested to analyze persuasive expression in advertisement of The Jakarta Post February 10-16 2014. By so doing, the researcher gives a title A PRAGMATICS ANALYSIS OF PERSUASIVE EXPRESSION OF ADVERTISEMENT OF THE JAKARTA POST FEBRUARY 10-16 2014. B. RESEARCH METHOD This is a descriptive qualitative research. The type of data is texts (words). The subject of this research is advertisement. The objects of this research are the persuasive expression and the illocutionary meanings of persuasive expression. The data are collected by using observation and documentation method. The researcher applied several procedures to collect the data. The procedures are as reading the advertisement, underlying persuasive expression, and retyping. The data are analyzed by using Frank’s and Kroeger’s theory and identifying meaning using Searle’s theory. C. RESULT AND DISCUSSION Based on the data analysis, the researcher discusses the result of the study. Based on the discussion, the researcher discusses the recapitulation of the result of the study. The researcher finds three kinds of persuasive expression. The forms are the sentence in the kinds of imperative sentence, declarative sentence, clause in the kinds of

independent clause, and phrase in the kinds of noun phrase, compound noun phrase and verb phrase.

1. Sentence Frank (1972) classified sentence in two ways, they are: Sentence by types: declarative sentence, interrogative sentence and imperative sentence, exclamatory sentence. Sentence by number of full predications: simple sentence, compound sentence, complex sentence, compound-complex sentence. A sentence consists of at least a subject and a predicate. The analysis of sentence and its illocutionary acts found in persuasive expression of advertisement in The Jakarta Post February 10-16 2014 can be seen below. a. 18/Feb142014/21/IS/Informing Immerse yourself in Southeast Asia’s hard rock music event of the yearSingapore’s first rock festival. Experience seven of hardest and heaviest rock bands including seven times Grammy nominated rock icon Rob Zombie and two special guests: acclaimed band Five Finger Death Punch, and Black Veil Brides, will join forces and share the stage for two amazing nights. Context

: the writer tells that the management of Southeast Asia Committee provides special show on Singapore’s first rock festival in pleasure taste. The setting of Singapore Rock Festival is in Singapore. The writer explains about a Southeast Asia hard rock music which in that event will be attended by hundred or even thousands of people so there are so many people there and make one person almost may swim and then immerse his or herself into crowd people.

The form of data 18 being underlined is an utterance in the form of imperative sentence. The underlined imperative sentence “immerse yourself in

Southeast Asia’s hard rock music event of the year-Singapore’s first rock festival” functions as directive expression. This directive expression has sub function as to persuade. This persuades the reader about the attracting condition in a place to join the event which is cheerful sense. Locution

: the writer tells the reader to immerse their self in Southeast Asia’s hard rock music event.

Illocution

: based on the statement above, the intention of the utterance “immerse yourselfin Southeast Asia’s hard rock music event of the year-Singapore’s first rock festival” by the writer is persuading the reader by informing that the rock festival is reasonable to be visited because it offers great performance from seven of hardest and heaviest rock bands including seven times Grammy nominated rock icon Rob Zombie and two special guests: acclaimed band Five Finger Death Punch, and Black Veil Brides.

b. 04/Feb102014/24/DS/Persuading You need to embrace the New Year in a bold way. In the wake of the new year, COAST has just launched its 2014 spring and summer collection, dubbed the SS14, characterized by bold color combinations, clean and contemporary silhouettes as well as detailed materials featuring matte sequins, jacquards and lace. Context

: the writer tells that COAST launches special clothes for spring season and summer season in glamour taste. The setting of launching is in COAST’s office. The writer describes about lifestyle to welcome the New Year that is by wearing dresses from different style especially bravely style.

The form of data 4 being underlined is an utterance in the form of declarative sentence. The underlined simple sentence “you need to embrace the New Year in a bold way” functions as directive expression. This directive expression has sub function as to persuade. This persuades the reader about to welcome the New Year by a new appearance which is relax sense. Locution

: the writer tells the reader to embrace the new year.

Illocution

: based on the statement above, the intention of the utterance “you need to embrace the new year in a bold way” by the writer is persuading to welcome the new year by dressing spring and summer collection, dubbed the SS14, characterized by bold color combinations, clean and contemporary silhouettes as well as detailed materials featuring matte sequins, jacquards and lace.

2. Clause A clause may be defined in the same way as a sentence: It is a full predication that contains a subject and a predicate with a finite verb. The analysis of clause and its illocutionary meaning found in persuasive expression ofthe advertisements in The Jakarta Post February 10-16 2014 can be seen below. c. 16/Feb142014/9/SC/Convincing RAIN RAIN GO AWAY, you can try using our award winning Albert dehumidifier to absorb excess moisture caused by the rain to achieve ideal humidity indoors. Context

: the writer tells that there was a tool to absorb humidity in offering taste. The setting of the tool to get is in Best Denki Jakarta. The writer explains about a tool which the function is

changing the air in a room from high humidity become dry like no rain anymore. The form of data 16 being underlined is an utterance in the form of simple clause. The underlined simple clause “rain rain go away” functions as directive expression. This directive expression has sub function as to persuade. This persuades the reader about the giving of the quality of the tool which is satisfying sense. Locution

: the writer said that the tool will make the rain go away.

Illocution

: based on the statement above, the intention of the utterance “rain rain go away” by the writer is persuading the reader by convincing not to worry to rain because there is a tool to absorb excess moisture caused by the rain.

3. Phrase A syntactic constituent headed by a lexical category, i.e. a noun, adjective, verb, adverb or preposition. The analysis of phrase and its illocutionary meaning found in persuasive expression of the advertisements in The Jakarta Post February 10-16 2014 can be seen below. d. 01/Feb102014/13/NP/Emphasizing This season of love lets Hotel Borobudur Jakarta pamper you and your specialone with our Valentine Romance Package. Context

: the writer tells that the management of Hotel Borobudur provides special service on Valentine day it is called Valentine Romance Package in romantic taste. The setting of Valentine Romantic Package is in Hotel Borobudur. The advertisement tells about the writer’s impression to make different sense of

doing something special with his/her soul mate on that precise moment. In this utterance, the writer assumes that there is a fortune for them to take this special moment. The form of data 1 being underlined is an utterance in the form of noun phrase. The underlined noun phrase “this season of love” functions as directive expression. This directive expression has sub function as to persuade. This persuades the reader to be better about the conducting of Hotel factors which is romance sense. Locution

: the writer said that the season of love has came.

Illocution

: based on the statement above, the intention of the utterance “this season of love” by the writer is persuading by emphasizing the event of valentine to be season of love in Hotel Borobudur Jakarta that provide Valentine Romance Package.

e. 02/Feb102014/13/CNP/Describing Special Ala Carte Valentine Dinner for two (2) persons at Bruschetta Italian Restaurant inclusive of welcome drink and sparkling water. Context

: the writer tells that the management of Bruschetta Italian Restaurant provides special service on Valentine day it is called Special Ala Carte Valentine Dinner in romantic taste. The setting of Valentine Romantic Package is in Bruschetta Italian Restaurant. The writer tells also about the special service from restaurant in valentine’s day by giving romantic atmosphere to make different sense of having a dinner beside a pool with some lamps for decoration so the light of the lamps bounce off the water.

The form of data 2 being underlined is an utterance in the form of compound noun phrase as object of prepositional phrase Bruchetta Italian restaurant. The underlined compound noun phrase “welcome drink and sparkling water” functions as directive expression. This directive expression has sub function as to persuade. This persuades the reader when enjoying the meal from the restaurant which is romance sense. Locution

: the writer said that servicing dinner from the restaurant with sparkling water.

Illocution

: based on the statement above, the intention of the utterance “welcome drink and sparkling water” by the writer is persuading by describing the romantic atmosphere to make different sense of having a dinner beside a pool with some lamps for decoration so the light of the lamps bounce off the water.

1. The Kinds of Persuasive Expression There are six kinds of persuasive expressions found in The Jakarta Post February 10-16 2014. They are kinds of sentence, clause and phrase. They are presented in the following table: No.

Types of Persuasive

Ammount

Expressions 1.

Imperative Sentence

7

Number of

Percentage

Data

(%)

05, 08, 13, 17,

31, 9 %

18, 20, 22 2.

Declarative Sentence

6

04, 06, 07, 14, 19, 21

27, 3 %

3.

Independent Clause

1

16

4, 5 %

4.

Noun Phrase

6

01, 03, 10, 11,

27, 3 %

12, 15 5.

Compound

Noun

1

02

4, 5 %

Verb Phrase

1

09

4, 5 %

Total

22

Phrase 6.

100%

Based on the result of the table above, the kinds of persuasive expressions are seven data belonging to imperative sentence (31,9%), six data belonging declarative sentence (27,3%), one data belonging simple clause (4,5%), six data belonging noun phrase (27,3%), one data belonging compound noun phrase (4,5%) and one data belonging verb phrase (4,5%). So, the total of the whole data found in persuasive expression of the advertisement of The Jakarta Post February 10-16 2014 are twenty two data (100 %). 2. The Illocutionary Meaning of Persuasive Expressions Beside study about persuasive expressions, the writer studies about illocutionary meaning. It purposes to know what the intention of the speaker or the writer from the sentence that belonging of persuasive expressions. Based on the analysis above, the result of illocutionary acts that belonging in persuasive expression found in The Jakarta Post February 10-16 2014 advertisement are: No.

Types of Illocution

Ammount

Meaning

Number of

Percentage

data

(%)

1.

Convincing

1

16

4, 5 %

2.

Informing

1

18

4, 5 %

3.

Emphasizing

1

01

4, 5 %

4.

Describing

13

02, 03, 05,

59, 5 %

06, 07, 08, 09, 10, 11, 14, 15, 19, 21, 5.

Persuading

1

04

4, 5 %

6.

Explaining

2

13, 22

9%

7.

Imaging

1

12

4, 5 %

8.

Inviting

1

17

4, 5 %

9.

Suggesting

1

20

4, 5 %

Based on the result of the table above, there are twenty one data of illocutionary acts of persuasive expression found in advertisement of The Jakarta Post February 10-16 2014. The illocution meanings are convincing, informing, emphasizing, describing, persuading, explaining, imaging, inviting, suggesting. Based on the table above, the illocutionary acts mostly appear in describing. The writer tries to deliver the meaning of the persuasive expression by informing the readers what are the meaning in each persuasive expression.

D. Conclusion Based on the research findings and discussion in chapter IV, the writer draws the conclusion as follow: 1. Gibson and Hodgetts (1990: 258-87) suggest basic elements for two steps in persuasive business communication to identify the objectives and to organize the message. In identifying the objectives of the persuasive message, three elements are suggested: (1) the writer should know the product or service, the expression of which is to be direct and specific, (2) the writer should know the customer or the target market, (3) the writer should know the desired action. As the result of the research finding for adding the objectives of the persuasive message is the way of the speaker to give expression to the reader. 2. There are six kinds of persuasive expressions from twenty two data found in advertisement of The Jakarta Post. They are imperative sentence (7 data/31,9%), declarative sentence (6 data/27,3%), independent clause (1 data/4,5%), noun phrase (6 data/27,3%), compound noun phrase (1 data/4,5%)and verb phrase (1 data/4,5%). The kinds of persuasive expression found in advertisement of The Jakarta Postare dominated by imperative sentences.Imperative sentences make a request or give a command and they are usually short and powerful by pragmatics element in imperative sentence itself. The researcher finds the kinds of persuasive expression by applying the theory from Kroeger (2005) and Frank (1972). 3. The illocutionary meaning of persuasive expression is described by reffering the theory of speech acts by Searle (1978). The illocution meanings are persuading by convincing, informing, emphasizing, describing, persuading, explaining, imaging, inviting, suggesting. The illocutionarymeaning mostly appear in describing. The

writer tries to deliver the meaning of the persuasive expression by describing the readers what are the meaning in each persuasive expression of the advertisements.

E. Suggestion Finally, the writer gives suggestions based on the analysis of the research as follow: 1. To lecturers of English Department, they can suggest to their students to conduct research paper deals with semantics and pragmatics in order to make more knowledge in linguistics study, especially semantics and pragmatics. 2. To the next reseacher, they can analyze persuasive expression in others source such as movie, magazine, article, newspaper, novel, ect. Besides, the writer also suggest to analyze the meaning of persuasive expression by reffering to other principle of pragmatics such as implicature and presupposition. The writer recommended to conduct a research about “Persuasive Language and Typical of Persuasive Way”.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bovee, Courtland L. 1992. Contemporary Advertising. Homewood: Irwin Frank, Marcella. 1972. Modern English: A Practical Reference Guide. New York: PrenticeHall Gibson, J & Hodgetts, R. 1990. Business Communication: Skills and Strategies. New York: Harper & Row Leech, Geoffrey N. 1983. Principle of Pragmatics. New York: Longman Inc. Lerbinger, Otto. 1972. Designs for Persuasive Communication. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall Levinson C, Stephen. 2000. Pragmatics. Cambridge: University Press. Peceei, Jean Stilwell. 1999. Pragmatics. London and New York:Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. Yule, George. 1996. Pragmatics. Oxford University Press.