A Synopsis of the Risk Factors Predisposing Athletes in the Southeastern United States to Lightning Deaths and Injuries and the Most Reliable Ways to Protect Them Sonya S. Abadeer, Leopoldo A. Catala, Michelle L. Odai, Michelle A Cleary; Florida International University, Miami, Florida Context: Due to a unique combination of factors, outdoor athletes in the Southeastern United States are at high risk of lightning deaths and injuries. Lightning detection methods are available to minimize lightning strike victims. Objective: Becoming aware of the risk factors that predispose athletes to lightning strikes and determining the most reliable detection method against hazardous weather will enable Certified Athletic Trainers to develop protocols that protect athletes from injury. Data Sources: A comprehensive literature review of Medline and Pubmed using key words: lightning, lightning risk factors, lightning safety, lightning detection, and athletic trainers and lightning was completed. Data Synthesis: Factors predisposing athletes to lighting death or injury include: time of year, time of day, the athlete’s age, geographical location, physical location, sex, perspiration level, and lack of education and preparedness by athletes and staff. Although handheld lightning detectors have become widely accessible to detect lightning strikes, their performance has not been independently or objectively confirmed. There is evidence that these detectors inaccurately detect strike locations by recording false strikes and not recording actual strikes. Conclusions: Lightning education and preparation are two factors that can be controlled. Measures need to be taken by Certified Athletic Trainers to ensure the safety of athletes during outdoor athletics. It is critical for athletic trainers and supervising staff members to become fully aware of the risks of lightning strikes in order to most effectively protect everyone under their supervision. Even though lightning detectors have been manufactured in an attempt to minimize death and injuries due to lightning strikes, none of the detectors have been proven to be 100% effective. Educating coaches, athletes, and parents on the risks of lightning and the detection methods available, while implementing an emergency action plan for lightning safety, is crucial to ensure the well being of the student-athlete population. Key words: Certified Athletic Trainer, lightning detectors
Band Queer: Lesbian and Gay Marching and Symphonic Bands and Transformative and Emancipatory Learning Experiences for Adults Sofia Bitela Florida International University, USA Abstract: Lesbian and gay marching and symphonic bands hold rich opportunities for adults to engage in transformative and emancipatory learning experiences. Transformative learning involves the transformation of an individual’s perspective after carefully considering the underlying beliefs and assumptions supporting the old perspective, a process known as critical reflection (Mezirow, 1998). Transformative learning encompasses a complex process whereby adults engage in active meaning-making and change how they see themselves and the world around them (Baumgartner, 2001). The process begins when a person experiences a disorienting dilemma, or a major event “a person experiences as a crisis” (Merriam & Caffarella, 1999, p. 321). Next, the stage of self-examination leads into thinking critically about the underlying beliefs, assumptions, and personal biases underlying a particular viewpoint. After wrestling with one’s thoughts and values, a person eventually reaches the stage in which perspective transformation takes place. Someone exploring his or her sexuality can come to terms with being gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, or queer (GLBTQ) through actively engaging in the transformative learning process (King, 2003). However, GLBTQ issues remain relatively invisible in the field of adult education (Grace & Hill, 2004; Hill, 2003, 2004; Rocco & Gallagher, in press). Emancipatory learning, sometimes considered a subset of transformative learning (Olson, 2005), follows the same intellectual process as transformative learning. Emancipatory learning explicitly seeks social change to correct injustice as a primary goal (Imel, 1999). However, it moves beyond the scope of individual perspective transformation and seeks instead the transformation of a group of people and ultimately, society (Gordon, 1993; Welton, 1993). Emancipatory learning, or liberatory learning, seeks to release individuals, groups, and society from assumptions and perspectives that keep individuals marginalized and disenfranchised. As people become free of these assumptions and beliefs, a more just and equitable society will evolve. Like the African American civil rights movement of the 1960s, the gay rights movement currently attempts to make great strides in gaining equal civil rights and legal recognition for the GLBTQ community (Graff, 2002). Undoubtedly, the gay rights movement of recent years provides important considerations for the role of emancipatory learning for adults. Spirituality can engage the learner more actively in the transformative and emancipatory learning processes by immersing the learner in the emotional experience of the event (Dirkx, 1997, 2006; Tisdell, 1999; Tisdell & Tolliver, 2001). Dirkx (1997) states “denial of soul within the learning environment is denial of a life force” (p. 85). The GLBTQ Christian community acknowledges the role of music in providing spiritually satisfying experiences whereby music gives hope to the oppressed and induces joy (Anderson, 2005; Chellew-Hodge, 2005), actively celebrating this life force. Music educators mostly consider the community-building aspect of adult music groups (Foster, 2000; LeCroy, 1998), although Mark (1996) addresses the role of Bitela, S. (2007). Band queer: Lesbian and gay marching and symphonic bands and transformative and emancipatory learning experiences for adults. In S. M. Nielsen & M. S. Plakhotnik (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Annual College of Education Research Conference: Urban and International Education Section (pp. 1-6). Miami: Florida International University. http://coeweb.fiu.edu/research_conference/
2 informal learning in adult music groups. Adult educators view music as an aid in transformative and emancipatory learning (Allsup, 2001; Rowland, 1999; Taylor, 2006; Yorks & Kasl, 2006). Music, then, can be used as a tool for adult learners to enrich their transformative and emancipatory learning experiences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role lesbian and gay marching and symphonic bands play in providing transformative and emancipatory learning experiences for adults. The paper will discuss a brief history of the Lesbian and Gay Band Association (LGBA), LGBA bands and their role in transformative learning and emancipatory learning. LGBA Bands The Lesbian and Gay Band Association currently lacks attention in music education, adult education, and GLBTQ research literature. Brett and Wood (2002) mention LGBA in only one sentence in a 31-page article about lesbian and gay music; a search for gay band or LGBA through GLBTQ research literature, among them including the Journal of Homosexuality and GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, yielded zero results. The Lesbian and Gay Band Association began as a direct consequence of the gay liberation movement in the United States. In 1969, the Stonewall riots in New York City occurred, marking a milestone as the GLBTQ community rebelled against constant police harassment. After that, annual marches held in the last weekend of June commemorated the event and united the community to continue fighting for equal social and civil recognition (Shepard, 2001). Eventually, gay and lesbian marching bands across the country formed to turn the marches into genuine, festive parades. In 1982, bands from New York City (Lesbian and Gay Big Apple Corps), Dallas (Oak Lawn Band), Chicago, Los Angeles (Freedom Band Foundation of Los Angeles), San Francisco (San Francisco Lesbian and Gay Freedom Band), Houston (Houston Pride Band), and Minneapolis-St. Paul (Minnesota Freedom Band) met in Chicago and formed Lesbian and Gay Bands of America as an official organization. The nationwide network changed its name to Lesbian and Gay Band Association after two bands in Canada and two bands in Australia officially joined. Currently, LGBA bands exist in sixteen states in the U.S., the District of Columbia, Canada, and Australia. The bands form in cities with large GLBTQ populations. The official motto for LGBA states its goal as “bringing pride and understanding through music” (www.gaybands.org). In addition to providing a welcoming atmosphere for GLBTQ individuals, LGBA bands hold great potential for emancipatory learning since they have emancipatory roots and provide support for the GLBTQ community and its causes. LGBA Bands and Transformative Learning Through various practices, LGBA bands provide an atmosphere conducive to individual transformative learning. Disorienting Dilemma The disorienting dilemma consists of an event perceived to be a crisis; somehow it challenges the person’s established assumptions and beliefs about the world and how it functions (Merriam & Caffarella, 1999). The gay pride parade has been described as a transformative experience invigorating its participants and spectators with new political possibilities (Howe, 2001). LGBA bands perform on an annual basis at these pride parades for their local communities, giving members the chance to think about their positionality within the mainstream heterosexual society. They must consider individual occupational or family circumstances that may hinder them from publicly appearing and performing at the parade. While playing music affirms GLBTQ identity and the community’s integration into mainstream society, such as “I Am What I Am” (Herman, 1983, track 8) from La Cage Aux Folles or “I’d Like to Teach the
3 World to Sing (In Perfect Harmony)” (Salonga, 1971, track 6), the band actively engages the members and the audience in thinking carefully about their sexuality. Performing at mainstream events provides another opportunity for experiencing a disorienting dilemma. When asked to perform at a mainstream Fourth of July parade, DC’s Different Drummers willingly acquiesced because “the board felt it was good exposure and incorporated ourselves into the larger community” (P. Shepherd, personal communication, November 7, 2006). In August 2003, when the Minnesota Freedom Band hosted the LGBA conference, delegates from LGBA bands worldwide joined together and performed at the Minnesota State Fair for a “somewhat puzzled crowd” (www.gaybands.org). The disorienting dilemma of the band members could consist of starting to think of themselves as genuinely belonging to the larger, mainstream community; the heterosexuals in the audience could have most certainly experienced some slight discomfort at seeing a GLBTQ band perform at family events and begin to rethink prior assumptions about GLBTQ individuals and their community. Self-Examination and Critical Reflection of Assumptions At this stage, individuals begin to examine the underlying reasons for their beliefs and assumptions (Merriam & Caffarella, 1999). Often, people reconsider the underlying power structures holding the beliefs and assumptions in place, questioning if in fact they are somehow wrong. The band’s GLBTQ status “becomes a transformative tool for thinking about the construction of one’s sexual identities vis-à-vis the interrelationships among language, history, and society” (Sears, 1992, p. 152). Unlike other traditional community bands, LGBA bands must face the issues of homophobia and heterosexism in seemingly simple matters such as selecting a rehearsal space and concert venue. If the host is not gay-friendly, or at least perceived to be gayfriendly, then the church or auditorium or any other rehearsal space immediately ceases to be considered for use. Lesbian and gay bands typically do not allow individuals under age 18 to join without parental approval for fear of being accused of pedophilia and ‘recruiting’ youth into the GLBTQ lifestyle. Furthermore, each individual member must carefully consider who he or she will invite to an upcoming concert to avoid any accidental outings and possible subsequent negative repercussions. In each instance, the band and its members must think about what it means to be gay and how basic societal assumptions about the GLBTQ community affects their individual choices as well as the falsehood of these beliefs and assumptions. Reintegration with the New, Transformed Perspective At the final stage, after engaging in critical reflection, people incorporate a new, transformed perspective with their previously held cognitive framework (Merriam & Caffarella, 1999). LGBA band members learn to accept their own individual GLBTQ status, or role as a heterosexual supporter, and celebrate their sexuality through performing works by GLBTQ composers such as Aaron Copland, Benjamin Britten, and Peter Tchaikovsky and a host of Broadway medleys. The music encountered in LGBA band performances comprises a cultural artifact of GLBTQ life in America; performing such music helps solidify a unique identity and sense of community for GLBTQ individuals (Saliers & Saliers, 2005). More importantly, however, once the band members consciously accept not only their individual status as gay or lesbian but also the band’s status as gay or lesbian, it opens an avenue to begin working on behalf of the GLBTQ community. After realizing the marginalization they and the band must endure because of their sexual minority status, it helps transform their mindset from one of passive acceptance to one of community activism and social action.
4 LGBA Bands and Emancipatory Learning LGBA bands provide emancipatory learning through two primary mechanisms: “building cross-cultural empathy through music” and “promoting collective consciousness and “social action through music” (Olson, 2005, p. 57). Building Cross-Cultural Empathy Through Music All of the LGBA bands open membership to anyone who wishes to play, regardless of sex, race, nationality, and HIV-status, among other considerations, and most importantly, sexual orientation. By creating an open and tolerant rehearsal and performance space for its members, LGBA bands provide a safe environment for GLBTQ individuals, both closeted and out, and straight allies to collaborate and learn together. Although said in context of teaching band members of different musical abilities, “given tolerance, members will teach each other effectively” (Ryon, 1992, p. 36). A potential straight ally with limited knowledge of the GLBTQ community and its advocates could easily learn through informal conversations and fellow band members. Also, performing at mainstream events, which can create a disorienting dilemma at the individual level, can help foster empathy between the GLBTQ and mainstream heterosexual society at the group level. Promoting Collective Consciousness and Social Action Through Music LGBA bands can perform at events benefiting the local community. The Oak Lawn Band, in conjunction with all of the other GLBTQ music groups in Dallas, performed at a Gulf Coast Relief Concert dedicated to assisting GLBTQ victims of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Other community activism events include performing at rallies and demonstrations against antigay legislation, as when the Oak Lawn Band performed at an anti-Federal Marriage Amendment rally that garnered local mainstream media attention. LGBA bands can even engage in social action at national events, as when they performed at the March on Washington, held in 1987, 1993, and 2000; the March on Washington represented a political movement in favor of gay rights (Garnets & D’Augelli, 1994; Graff, 2002; Shepard, 2001). In each of these situations, LGBA bands thought of the larger GLBTQ community at the local and national levels and engaged in actions to benefit it. Although they performed music, their presence could help inspire individuals in the band take action on more concrete and visible levels once they leave the rehearsal or performance space. Implications for the Field Adult educators fail to recognize the role community groups play in transformative and emancipatory learning (Imel, 1997, 1999, 2001). The consideration of LGBA bands and their role in transformative and emancipatory learning not only addresses this issue but also the field’s tendency to neglect GLBTQ issues in general. As the gay rights movement continues forward, GLBTQ community groups, and especially LGBA, will play an increasing role in demonstrating visible emotional and political support. Using creative arts as a medium to explore one’s own sexual identity, as well as community identity, and seek support could hold promising prospects for the future (Grace & Wells, 2005). By placing an acute emphasis on building cross-cultural empathy between GLBTQ individuals and their allies and mainstream heterosexual society and promoting social action (Olson, 2005), LGBA bands provide much more than just a pleasant tune in the parade, at the park, or in the performance hall. They inspire GLBTQ adults to continue learning more about the issues affecting their community and find ways to redress societal injustices committed against them. As Don and Emily Saliers relate, “whenever music touches us deeply, the potential for transformation exists. What we think and what we perceive about the world and about ourselves can change” (p. 174).
5 References Allsup, R. E. (2001). Music education as liberatory practice: Exploring the ideas of Milan Kundera. Philosophy of Music Education Review, 9(2), 3-10. Anderson, R. L. (2005, March/April). Music and spirituality. Whosoever: An Online Magazine for GLBT Christians, 9(5). Retrieved October 15, 2006 from http://www.whosoever.org/v9i5/stars.shtml. Baumgartner, L. M. (2001). An update on transformational learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 89, 15-24. Brett, P., & Wood, E. (2002). Lesbian and gay music. Electronic Musicological Review, 7, 1-31. Chellew-Hodge, C. (2005, March/April). Language of the spirit: Gay and lesbian musicians on the mystery of music. Whosoever: An Online Magazine for GLBT Christians, 9(5). Retrieved October 15, 2006 from http://www.whosoever.org/v9i5/music.shtml. Dirkx, J. M. (1997). Nurturing soul in adult learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 74, 79-88. Dirkx, J. M. (2006). Engaging emotions in adult learning: A Jungian perspective on emotion and transformative learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 109, 15-26. Foster, R. (2000). Community bands thrive from coast to coast. The Instrumentalist, 54(8), 3844. Garnets, L. D., & D’Augelli, A. R. (1994). Empowering gay and lesbian communities: A call for collaboration with community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology, 22(4), 447-470. Gordon, B. M. (1993). African-American cultural knowledge and liberatory education: Dilemmas, problems, and potentials in a postmodern American society. Urban Education, 27(4), 448-470. Grace, A. P., & Hill, R. J. (2001, June). Using queer knowledge to build inclusionary pedagogy in adult education. Paper presented at the 42nd Annual Adult Education Research Conference, Lansing, MI. Grace, A. P., & Hill, R. J. (2004). Positioning queer in adult education: Intervening in politics and praxis in North America. Studies in the Education of Adults, 36(2), 167-189. Grace, A. P., & Wells, K. (2005, June). Social learning for fugitive learners: The Out is In artsinformed queer community education project in Alberta. Paper presented at the 46th Annual Adult Education Research Conference, Atlanta, GA. Graff, E. J. (2002, October 21). How the culture war was won. The American Prospect, 33-36. Herman, J. (1983). I am what I am. [Original Broadway cast]. On La Cage Aux Folles: The Broadway Musical (1983 Original Broadway Cast). [CD]. New York: RCA Broadway Victor. Hill, R. J. (2003, June). Working memory at AERC: A queer welcome and a retrospective. Proceedings of the 1st LGBTQ Pre-Conference at the 44th Annual Adult Education Research Conference, San Francisco, CA. Hill, R. J. (2004). Activism as practice: Some queer considerations. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 102, 85-94. Howe, A. C. (2001). Queer pilgrimage: The San Francisco homeland and identity tourism. Cultural Anthropology, 16(1), 35-61. Imel, S. (1997). Adult learning in groups: Practice application brief. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED404569).
6 Imel, S. (1999). How emancipatory is adult learning?: Myths and realities no. 6. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED436663). Imel, S. (2001). Learning communities/communities of practice: Trends and issues alert no. 26. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED452434). King, K. L. (2003, June). Changing from the inside-out: Transformational learning and the development of GLBT sexual identities among adults. Proceedings of the 1st LGBTQ PreConference at the 44th Annual Adult Education Research Conference, San Francisco. LeCroy, H. F. (1998). Community-based music education: Influences of industrial bands in the American South. Journal of Research in Music Education, 46(2), 248-264. Lesbian and Gay Band Association. Retrieved October 14, 2006 from http://www.gaybands.org. Mark, M. (1996). Informal learning and adult music education. Bulletin-Council for Research in Music Education, 130, 119-122. Merriam, S. B., & Caffarella, R. S. (1999). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Mezirow, J. (1998). On critical reflection. Adult Education Quarterly, 48(3), 185-198. Olson, K. (2005). Music for community education and emancipatory learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 107, 55-64. Rocco, T. S., & Gallagher S. J. (2006). Straight privilege and moral/izing: Issues in career development. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 112, 29-39. Rowland, M. L. (1999, June). Missing the beat: Adult learning through religious music in an African-American church. Paper presented at the 40th Annual Adult Education Research Conference, DeKalb, IL. Ryon, T. (1992). The enduring joys of community band. The Instrumentalist, 47, 32-44. Saliers, D., & Saliers, E. (2005). A song to sing, a life to live: Reflections on music as a spiritual practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Salonga, L. (1971). I’d like to teach the world to sing (In perfect harmony). [The New Seekers]. On We’d Like to Teach the World to Sing. [CD]. Itasca, IL: Collector’s Choice. Sears, J. T. (1992). Researching the other/Searching for self: Qualitative research on homosexuality in education. Theory into Practice, 31(2), 147-156. Shepard, B. H. (2001, May). The queer/gay assimilationist split: The suits vs. the sluts. Monthly Review, 53(1), 49-62. Taylor, E. W. (2006). The challenge of teaching for change. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 109, 91-95. Tisdell, E. J. (1999). The spiritual dimension of adult development. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 84, 87-95. Tisdell, E. J., & Tolliver, D. E. (2001). The role of spirituality in culturally relevant and transformative adult education. Adult Learning, 12(3), 13-14. Welton, M. (1993). Social revolutionary learning: The new social movements as learning sites. Adult Education Quarterly, 43(3), 152-164. Yorks, L., & Kasl, E. (2006). I know more than I can say: A taxonomy for using expressive ways of knowing to foster transformative learning. Journal of Transformative Education, 4(1), 43-64.
The Mistranslation of the ABCs: An American AIDS Education Campaign in Botswana Liana Casbarro and Jemlys Jäger Florida International University, USA Abstract: The majority of Botswana citizens have access to national HIV/AIDS education, but the messages ignore native cultural practices. The purpose of this paper is to critique the influence of American humanism and individualism on the ABC model of HIV/AIDS prevention used to stem the AIDS epidemic in Botswana. In 2005, the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS) estimated that 36.3 million adults and children in the world are living with HIV. Adults 15 to 49 living in SubSaharan Africa make up 67% of the world’s HIV positive population. In one Sub-Saharan country, Botswana, 270,000 adults are estimated to be living with HIV (UNAIDS, 2006). The Botswana AIDS Impact Survey conducted by the National AIDS Coordinating Agency, Botswana government agency, found that 92% of men and 94% of women in urban areas knew that AIDS can be avoided. Even in rural areas, 84% of men and 85% of women had knowledge of how to avoid AIDS (Mogomotsi, 2004). These surveys indicate that the majority of Batswana, or Botswana citizens, have access to national HIV/AIDS education. Unfortunately, national education messages have ignored native health and sex education as well as norms of sexual behavior (Ntseane & Preece, 2005). Government sponsored AIDS education has relied predominantly on the ABC (Abstain, Be Faithful, Condomise) campaign, to stem the AIDS epidemic in Botswana. The ideals of sexual behavior that the ABC campaign promotes have been borrowed heavily from American programs and endorse American values. The purpose of this paper is to critique the influence of American individualism and humanism, which are contrary to the norms of Botswana’s collectivist society, on the ABC model of HIV/AIDS prevention used throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. The ABC Campaign The first AIDS case in Botswana was reported in 1985. By 1987, AIDS had spread to enough of the population that Botswana’s government acknowledged AIDS as a potential health crisis and set up the National AIDS Control Program (Heald, 2002). Throughout the late 80s and 90s, the World Health Organization, USAID, and various INGOs worked with Botswana’s Ministry of Health in setting up programs for HIV/AIDS surveillance and control. “In 1988, the first national AIDS prevention campaign used radio messages, car bumper stickers, and T-shirts to convey behavior modification messages” (Allen & Heald, 2004, p. 1144). The vigor of the government’s initial response died quickly as the messages failed to change behavior. Lack of awareness of the severity of the AIDS epidemic was pervasive throughout the country, and AIDS was (is) shrouded in a strong social stigma. Part of the campaigns’ ineffectiveness may have been the promotional messages themselves, which were not responsive to the sensitivities of the target group (Allen & Heald, 2004). By the mid-90s all that was left in Gaborone, the country’s capital, “were white vans with Lover’s Plus condoms emblazoned on the side and a large billboard that proclaimed: ‘Avoiding AIDS is as easy as ABC – Abstain, Be Faithful, and Condomise’” (Allen & Heald, 2004, p. 1144). The number of Casbarro, L., & Jäger, J. (2007). The mistranslation of the ABCs: An American AIDS education campaign in Botswana. In S. M. Nielsen & M. S. Plakhotnik (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Annual College of Education Research Conference: Urban and International Education Section (pp. 7-11). Miami: Florida International University. http://coeweb.fiu.edu/research_conference/
8 people infected with HIV in Botswana rose exponentially between 1992 and 1997 when the country became known as “the AIDS capital of the world” (Heald, 2002, p. 2). Today, the ABC message is ever-present in Botswana HIV/AIDS education programs (AVERT, 2006), which are funded by the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. In 2005 alone, the United States donated $1,455,000 specifically for ABC materials and $24,884,871 for projects containing an abstinence, be faithful, and/or condom component (U.S. Department of State, 2006). Condom promotion as a central AIDS education component is prevalent in many African countries, including Botswana. However, “the condom message was initially developed for a community that practiced recreational and not procreational sex” (Heald, 2002, p. 6). The U.S. gay and lesbian community had been fighting the spread of HIV for three years when the first AIDS case was reported in Botswana. Their response to the emerging epidemic was to develop the “safe/safer sex model of prevention” (Heald, 2002, p. 2). Messages directed at gay men were distributed in the form of leaflets and brochures and “recommended three main types of behavior modification: reducing the number of different sexual partners; eliminating the exchange of body fluids during sex; and ‘knowing your partners’ by avoiding places characterized by sexual anonymity” (King, 1993, p. 47). No attempt was made to directly export the gay American safe/safer sex campaign to Botswana. However, in 1987 when American organizations began to sponsor Botswana AIDS education, AIDS in the U.S. was still considered a ‘gay disease’. No model of prevention for heterosexuals existed (King, 1993). The B and C in the ABC campaign have direct connections to the safe/safer sex model, and the A was likely an addition by the American mainstream (Christian heterosexuals). Despite the target population, both the safe/safer sex and ABC model of prevention encourage self-directed behavior modification based the on the humanist belief that people are free to act. Both models assume human behavior can (and probably should) be dictated by the individual, not his or her community. Humanism and Individualism The philosophy of humanism evolved from humanistic psychology, which was developed in the United States by Maslow and Rogers during the first half of the 1900s (Merriam & Brockett, 1997). The central themes of humanism are that behavior is not predestined by either environment or subconscious, and therefore, people are free to act of their own will. Humanism also asserts that “people are inherently good” and “possess unlimited potential for growth and development” (Merriam & Caffarella, 1999, p. 256). These beliefs mesh particularly well with the American values of independence, individualism, and self-fulfillment (Merriam & Brockett, 1997), and may in fact be the product of such values. Dominant themes in individualist societies are “self-definition as an entity that is distinct and separate from group(s), emphasis on personal goals even if pursuit of such goals inconveniences the in-group, and less concern and emotional attachment to in-groups” (Triandis, Bontempo, & Villareal, 1988, p. 335). “Self-reliance for individualistic cultures implies freedom to do one’s own thing” (Triandis et al., 1988, p. 335), which is similar to the humanist belief that people are free to act (Merriam & Caffarella, 1999). Humanism may have grown out of the individualistic social norm of the West, but in the last half century it has emerged as an American cultural force in its own right. Together, individualism and humanism interact in Western thought to form an ideal human purpose: control of one’s future success regardless of the opposition.
9 An Individualist Strategy in a Collectivist Society The African communal view of self contrasts sharply with the dominant view of self in Western thought. Social development in the African context is not an individual journey; it is a process whereby “a person realizes his or her place and responsibilities within a community of other people” (Mkhize, 2006, p. 187). The Batswana philosophy states that “the individual is meaningful only as a part of the whole society, since to be is to participate” (Otunga, 2005, p. 50) illustrating a belief inherent in collectivist societies where the concept of self is interdependent (Gudykunst et al., 1996). Due to the collectivist nature of Botswana, “participatory methods of planning and delivery of prevention activities” should be used (Ntseane, 2004, p. 20). In reference to the current state of HIV/AIDS education in Botswana, Preece and Ntseane (2004) found that “an education strategy that privileges the individual sits uneasily within a culture that responds more willingly to collective pressure to conform and take responsibility for others” (p. 18). The ABC message privileges the individual’s right to change his or her behavior from the established social norms without the permission or agreement of the community (Heald, 2002). For example, for a man to decide to be faithful to one wife in a polygamist community, he would have to reject the norm of having multiple sexual partners. In collectivist societies such us those in Botswana, cultural norms are accepted and not challenged by community members (Triandis et al., 1988). It is against their nature to disregard the needs of the community or “do their own thing” (Triandis et al., 1988, p. 325). The cultural norms of the Batswana are such that individuals feel pressure to conform to behaviors that are strictly opposite those purposed by the ABC campaign. For instance, women are told to oblige partners to wear condoms when traditionally men have total control over sexual situations. In addition, the campaign makes no attempt to appeal to the Batswana’s shared sense of responsibility by placing emphasis on changing behavior for the benefit of the group (Preece & Ntseane, 2004). While the rationale and delivery of the ABC campaign conflict with the cultural norms of Botswana’s collectivist society, each component of the campaign also conflicts with Batswana sex norms. Social and Sexual Norms of Behavior The production of children is expected, making abstinence a dissenting act, and marriage is primarily a union for producing children (Ntseane, 2004). If a husband believes he is impotent, he may “place his wife at the disposal of an intimate friend or relative to have a child” (Ntseane, 2004, p. 11). “Similarly, if the problem lies with her, she may procure another woman from the family to bare him children, thus saving the marriage” (Ntseane, 2004, p. 11). In Botswana, although sex has many other purposes, such as for pleasure or exchange, procreation is a sexual priority (Ntseane, 2004). Condoms, which act not only as a barrier for sexually transmitted diseases, but also for procreation, have been “actively opposed by church groups, parents, and elders” for being seen as promoting immorality and promiscuity (Allen & Heald, 2004, p. 1144). The social norms governing sex acts with cousins, uncles, stepfathers, and boyfriends have a direct bearing on the be faithful to one partner component of the ABC campaign (Ntseane & Preece, 2005). For example, the polygamous ideal still prevails in many ethnic groups in Botswana as evidenced by sexual practices like Nkazana, which is sex between husband and the wife’s younger sister, and Seantlo, which is a marriage between a widow or widower and a sibling of the deceased husband or wife (Ntseane, 2004). The social functions of sex within these groups are likely to engage individuals in sex with multiple partners, thus negating the possibility of being faithful to one partner (Ntseane, 2004).
10 Replace American Philosophies with African Ethnophilosophy Humanism and individualism make assumptions about human existence that do not accurately describe the realities of life for Batswana. These American philosophies should be replaced with African ethnophilosophy in order to change the foundation of inaccurate assumptions and culturally inapplicable values on which Botswana AIDS education is based. African ethnophilosophy, which “considers folktales, communal worldviews and traditions of African communities as well as the philosophies of a group of people” (Otunga, 2005, p. 49), should be substituted for humanism and individualism when designing educational strategies for HIV/AIDS prevention in Botswana. “[African philosophy] centers on people in their social context” and “teachers working within this philosophy of education use a mixture of teaching methods with the emphasis on participatory approaches that encourage and enhance socialization” (Otunga, 2005, p. 49). National and international policies governing Botswana’s AIDS education should support culturally relevant programs, which emphasize behavioral changes that do not depend on the denial of cultural norms, such as polygamy. An educational strategy that appeals to Botswana communities’ desire for consensus should have much more success than the current strategies, which ask individuals to reject cultural norms of behavior. In addition, the United States and other nations should cease funding programs that intentionally or unintentionally favor the adoption of American values by Africans. This practice is disrespectful of Batswana culture and may even be counterproductive in preventing the spread of the AIDS virus. References Allen, T., & Heald, S. (2004). HIV/AIDS policy in Africa: What has worked in Uganda and what has failed in Botswana? Journal of International Development, 16(8), 1141-1154. Retrieved October 2, 2006, from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/109751930/PDFSTART AVERT. (2006). HIV and AIDS in Botswana. Horsham, UK: Authior. Retrieved October 10, 2006, 2006, from http://www.avert.org/aidsbotswana.htm Gudykunst, W. B., Matsumoto, Y., Ting-Toomey, S., Nishida, T., Kim, K., & Heyman, S. (1996). The influence of cultural individualism-collectivism, self construals, and individual values on communication styles across cultures. Human Communication Research, 22(4), 510-413. Retrieved November 1, 2006, from http://www.blackwellsynergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1996.tb00377.x Heald, S. (2002). It's never easy as ABC: Understandings of AIDS in Botswana. African Journal of AIDS Research, 1(1), 1-10. King, E. (1993). Safety in numbers: Safer sex and gay men. London: Cassell. Merriam, S. B., & Brockett, R. G. (1997). The profession and practice of adult education: An introduction. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Merriam, S. B., & Caffarella, R. S. (1999). Learning in adulthood (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Josey-Bass. Mkhize, N. (2006). African traditions and the social, economic and moral dimensions of fatherhood. In L. Richter & R. Morrell (Eds.), Baba men and fatherhood in South Africa (pp. 189-198). Cape Town, South Africa: HSRC Press. Retrieved November 13, 2006, from http://www.hsrcpress.ac.za/freedownload.asp?id=2113 Mogomotsi, B. W. (2004). Efforts towards HIV/AIDS prevention – the case of Botswana. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved November 6, 2006, from http://www.unesco.org/education/uie/pdf/Mogomotsi.pdf
11 Ntseane, P. G. (2004). Cultural dimensions of sexuality: Empowerment challenge for HIV/AIDS prevention in Botswana. Unpublished manuscript. Ntseane, P., & Preece, J. (2005). Why HIV/AIDS prevention strategies fail in Botswana: Considering discourses of sexuality. Development Southern Africa, 22(3), 347-363. Otunga, R. (2005). Foundations of adult education in Africa. Cape Town: Pearson Education South Africa. Preece, J., & Ntseane, G. (2004). Using adult education principles for HIV/AIDS awareness intervention strategies in Botswana. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 23(1), 5-22. Triandis, H. C., Bontempo, R., & Villareal, M. J. (1988). Individualism and collectivism: Crosscultural perspectives on self-in group relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(2), 323-338. UNAIDS. (2006). 2006 report on the global AIDS epidemic. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. Retrieved November 6, 2006, from http://www.unaids.org/en/HIV_data/2006GlobalReport/default.asp U.S. Department of State. (n.d). FY 2005 Botswana partners. Washington DC: Author. Retrieved October 20, 2006, from http://www.state.gov/s/gac/partners/59818.htm
The Acute Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Muscular Power and Agility Cara J. Cordrey, Brady L. Tripp, *Patrick Jacobs, Richard Lopez, Michelle L. Odai Florida International University, Miami, FL *Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL Context: While research suggests whole body vibration (WBV) positively affects measures of neuromuscular performance in athletes, researchers have yet to address appropriate and effective vibration protocols. Objective: To identify the acute effects of continuous and intermittent WBV on muscular power and agility in recreationally active females. Design: We used a randomized 3-period crossover design to observe the effects of 3 vibration protocols on muscular power and agility. Setting: Sports Science and Medicine Research Laboratory at Florida International University. Patients or Other Participants: Eleven recreationally active female volunteers (age=24.4±5.7y; ht=166.0±10.3cm; mass=59.7±14.3kg). Interventions: Each session, subjects stood on the Galileo WBV platform (Orthometrix, White Plains, NY) and received one of three randomly assigned vibration protocols. Our independent variable was vibration length (continuous, intermittent, or no vibration). Main Outcome Measures: An investigator blinded to the vibration protocol measured muscular power and agility. We measured muscular power with heights of squat and countermovement jumps. We measured agility with the Illinois Agility Test. Results: Continuous WBV significantly increased SJ height from 97.9±7.6cm to 98.5±7.5cm (P=0.019, β=0.71, η2 =0.07) but not CMJ height [99.1±7.4cm pretest and 99.4±7.4cm posttest (P=0.167, β=0.27)] or agility [19.2±2.1s pretest and 19.0±2.1s posttest (P=0.232, β=0.21)]. Intermittent WBV significantly enhanced SJ height from 97.6±7.7cm to 98.5±7.7cm (P=0.017, β=0.71, η2 =0.11) and agility 19.4±2.2s to 19.0±2.1s (P=0.001, β=0.98, η2=0.16), but did not effect CMJ height [98.7±7.7cm pretest and 99.3±7.3cm posttest (P=0.058, β=0.49)]. Conclusion: Continuous WBV increased squat jump height, while intermittent vibration enhanced agility and squat jump height. Future research should continue investigating the effect of various vibration protocols on athletic performance. Key Words: neuromuscular enhancement, athletic performance, jump
Stress Urinary Incontinence in Female Athletes Kelly I. Daly, Jennifer Doherty-Restrepo Florida International University, Miami, FL Objective: The purpose of this study is to educate allied health professionals and female athletes of the anatomy of the pelvic floor, and the pathology, etiology, and prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in female athletes. Background: Urinary incontinence is not a life-threatening or dangerous condition, but it is socially embarrassing, may cause the individual to remove herself from social situations, and decrease quality of life. While typically associated with parous women who had vaginal delivery, research has shown prevalence of the condition in physically active women of all ages. Stress urinary incontinence has shown to lead to withdrawal from participation in high-impact activities such as gymnastics, aerobics, and running. It may be considered a barrier for life-long athletics participation in women. Description: An in-depth introduction to the cause and origin of stress urinary incontinence including review of the female pelvic floor anatomy and prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in the female athletic population. Clinical Advantages: Athletic trainers and other allied health professionals will develop an understanding of the multiple mechanisms that cause stress urinary incontinence. Clinician competency of the dynamics and mechanism of urinary incontinence prepares the individual to learn diagnostics, prevention, pharmacological intervention, and treatment of this pathology. Key Words: pelvic floor dysfunction, pelvic floor muscles, exercise Urinary incontinence is defined by the International Continence Society (ICS) as "the complaint of any involuntary leakage of urine".1 The condition of urinary incontinence is a social or hygienic problem and is objectively demonstrable.1 There are three types of urinary incontinence: urge, stress, and mixed. Urge urinary incontinence is the complaint of “involuntary leakage accompanied by or immediately proceeded by urgency.”1 Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is the complaint of “involuntary leakage on effort or exertion”1 such as coughing, sneezing, laughing, and exercise. Genuine stress incontinence is urodynamically proved involuntary loss of urine when intravesical pressure exceeds that of the urethra without simultaneous detrusor contraction.1 Mixed urinary incontinence is the complaint of “involuntary leakage associated with urgency and also with exercise, effort, sneezing, and coughing.”1 Prevalence Urinary incontinence is more common in women of all ages than in men.2 “Modern living conditions coupled with the increased female work force and the desire to keep in shape through fitness programs result in urologic symptoms representing a high risk to the pelvic floor.”3 SUI is the most prevalent type of urinary incontinence2 with prevalence rates between 10% and 55% in women between ages 15 and 64 years.3,4 Often associated with the older multiparous women, SUI has been reported to occur in two-thirds of female gymnasts5 and 28% of female collegiate athletes.6 Data refutes the customary thinking that physically fit women do not suffer from urinary incontinence, and the participation in sports and fitness activities should offer protection from this condition.7 Vaginal delivery is one of the highest risk factors6 for developing urinary incontinence, but prevalence has been observed and measured in nulliparous physically active females. “It can occur during various physical activities, but is especially noted in exercise that involves chronic,
repetitive motion and involves high impact landings, jumping, and running.”8 Female athletes involved with track and field (long jump, triple jump, high jump, hurdles), gymnastics (floor exercises, asymmetric bars, trampolining), basketball, volleyball, handball, combat sports (karate, judo), bodybuilding, and horseback riding are at highest risk, although frequency of SUI is noted in tennis players, skiers, skaters, and joggers.9 Bø et al10 demonstrated that 26% of female physical education students had involuntary urinary leakage during various physical activities, a significantly higher prevalence as compared to sedentary students. The relationship between urinary incontinence and physical activity was assessed by Nygaard et al9, who surveyed 326 women, 290 of whom exercise regularly, with a mean age of 38.5 years. Forty-seven percent of participants noted some degree of incontinence, which correlated positively with the number of vaginal deliveries. Thirty percent noted incontinence during at least one type of exercise. Urinary incontinence exclusively during exercise was seen in only one woman. Exercises involving repetitive bouncing were associated with the highest incidence of incontinence. Twenty percent of incontinent exercisers discontinued an exercise because of incontinence, whereas 18% changed the way a specific exercise was performed and 55% wore an absorbent pad during exercise.9 Boucier11 researched female SUI in sports and fitness activities. Fifty-nine women with a mean age of 25 years were split into two groups: female athletes and women who practice sports on a regular basis. Degree of incontinence was classified as severe, moderate, or mild. Severe refers to dripping incontinence with exercising. Moderate is defined as urinary leakage with heavy lifting or running. Mild is leakage with jumping. The prevalence of SUI symptoms was 7% severe, 24% moderate, and 33% mild in the athlete group. Approximately forty-two percent of the 291 elite female ballet dancers, gymnasts, badminton, volleyball, handball, and basketball players surveyed had experienced urine loss in daily life, while 43% experienced urine loss during their sport. Of those who leaked during sport participation, 95.2% experienced urine loss while training versus only 51.2% during competition. Sixty percent of individuals reporting SUI wore absorbent pads during activity. 6 Risk factors for SUI in female athletes extend beyond the anatomy of the pelvic floor. It is hypothesized that hypothalamic amenorrhea attributed to rigorous exercise, eating disorders, or a combination of both. These factors may result in lower estrogen levels, contributing to urinary incontinence.4 Bø and Borgen2 found that the prevalence of SUI and urge incontinence in eating disordered athletes in comparison to healthy athletes was 38.8% and 15%, respectively. In contrast, a study conducted in 2001 demonstrated no difference in prevalence of either urinary incontinence between eating disordered non-athletes and healthy non-athletes.2 Urinary incontinence is not a life-threatening or dangerous condition, but it is socially embarrassing, may cause the individual to remove herself from social situations, decrease quality of life, and increase sedentary behavior. A sedentary lifestyle is one of the top ten leading causes of death and doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and obesity.12 Sedentary lifestyle also increases the risks of colon and breast cancer, high blood pressure, lipid disorders, osteoporosis, depression and anxiety.13 Anatomy: Pelvic Floor The anatomy of the pelvic floor includes structures responsible for active and passive support of the urethrovesical junction, vagina, and anorectum. “Intrinsic and extrinsic properties of the urethrovesical neck and anorectum allow maintenance of urinary and anal continence at rest and with activity.”13 The continence mechanism refers to the many structures that may contribute to a woman’s continence: urethra, bladder, sphincter and pelvic floor muscles (PFM),
neurologic innervation, hormonal status, skeletal structure, resting abdominal pressure, and collagen makeup.3,7 Three bones form the human pelvis: the left and right innominate, the sacrum, and the coccyx. Each innominate bone is formed by fusion of the ilium, ischium, and pubis. The bones are attached anteriorly by the symphysis pubis and posteriorly to the sacrum by the sacroiliac joints. The pelvis accommodates the bladder, urethra and ureters, vagina, and rectum. The bladder wall is composed of bundles of smooth (detrusor) muscle. Its unique compliance allows it to function as a low-pressure, high compliance organ that adapts to increasing volume with minimal increase in internal pressure. As the bladder fills during the storage phase, the walls stretch and it assumes a spherical shape. The detrusor muscle has a oblique arrangement of muscle fibers that is ideally suited to empty the spherically shaped bladder. Two U-shaped bands of fibers, known as the detrusor loops, lie at the bladder neck (urethrovesical junction) and can function as a spincter favoring closure.14 The trigonal muscle is a specialized smooth muscle surrounding the urethra at the bladder neck. It is composed of three parts: the trigone, the trigonal ring, and the trigonal plate. It is believed that the trigone contributes to the continence mechanism through alpha-andrenergic innervation, keeping this region of the bladder neck closed.14 The urethra is a hollow muscular tube, embedded in the anterior vagina wall. The wall is composed of a hormonally sensitive mucosa, a submucosal vascular plexus, and three muscular layers. The musculature is composed of longitudinal and circular layers of smooth muscle, and the striated urogenital sphincter muscle. The striated urogenital sphincter and the vascular submucosa are each responsible for contributing to approximately one third of the total urethral closing pressure at rest.15 The urogenital sphincter is divided into two parts that function as a unit: the sphincter urethra (which lies adjacent to the proximal one centimeter of the urethral lumen) and the urethrovaginal sphincter (which extends below this level). Both are primarily composed of slow twitch fibers, which maintain constant tone but have the ability to generate additional force when recruited, as would occur during coughing.7 The striated muscle of this sphincter is contracted voluntarily both to interrupt urine stream and when a sense of urge is felt but the social situation is inappropriate for voiding. It is contracted reflexively during increases in intra-abdominal pressure when urethral resistance needs to be augmented.14 An estrogen-dependant submucosal vascular plexus encircles the urethral mucosa. Together, the mucosa and submucosa form a cushion that contributes to urethral closing pressure. The submucosa is a highly organized arteriovenous complex capable of filling and emptying. Therefore, it is thought to contribute to the continence mechanism mainly at rest, by filling the urethral wall and mucosa with blood and forming a hermetic seal.15 Interconnections of the three structures support the vesicle neck and proximal urethyra: the arcus tendineus fasciae pelvis, the endopelvic fascia (Figure 1), and the levator ani muscles. The arcus tendineus fasciae pelvis is a fibrous band of fascia that is attached ventrally to the pubic bone and dorsally to the ischial spine and provides a lateral attachment for the pelvic floor muscles and ligaments. The endopelvic fascia is the first layer of the pelvic floor. It consists of the pubourethra ligaments, the urethropelvic ligaments, and the uterosacral ligaments and attaches the uterus and vagina to the pelvic wall. The pelvis is bordered caudally and dorsally by the PFM that provide support for the pelvic organs to relieve constant strain on the pelvic ligaments.7
The pelvic floor consists of three separate components of the levator ani muscles: pubococcygeus arises from the back of the pubis and is directed posteriorly along the side of the anal canal toward the coccyx and sacrum, the ileococcygeus comes from the ischial spine and is attached to the coccyx, the coccygeus arises from the spine of the ischium and inserts into the margin of the coccyx and into the side of the inferior sacrum (Figure 2).3, 15 These three muscles comprise two functional groups: the pubococcygeus acts like a sling, effectively closing the urogenital hiatus tightly against the pubic bone; the other two muscles act synergistically in providing a “levator plate”7 on which the pelvic organs rest when tension is placed on their ligamentous structures. The opening within the levator ani muscle, through which the urethra and vagina pass, is called the urogenital hiatus.3 The levator ani muscles are primarily slow twitch fibers7, providing tone to the pelvic floor to support the viscera during normal activity. The remaining fast twitch fibers are reflexively contracted during Valsalva maneuvers, during sudden increases in pressure, or during voluntary contraction.15 Contraction of the fast twitch fibers elevates the pelvic viscera and closes the vaginal introitus.7,15 The neuronal control of urination involves a series of complex pathways that connect the cerebral cortex to the midbrain, spinal cord, bladder, urethra, and pelvic floor. These pathways allow for reflex subconscious control and voluntary cortical control of the lower urinary tract. Autonomic and somatic peripheral activity within the lower urinary tract are under the control of the central nervous system.15 The combination of suspension of the genital tract by the ligaments and fascia and contraction of the pelvic floor by the levator ani is responsible for normal urinary continence. The levator ani receives sensory and motor innervation from the pudendal nerve branches and directly from the sacral nerve plexus. At rest, the urinary sphincters are closed due to active firing of the sympathetic fibers to smooth muscle and of the somatic pudendal neurons to the striated muscle of the urethra and the urinary sphincters. Further, the detrusor motor neurons are inhibited via supranuclear control. As urine accumulates, the bladder wall distends. With small urinary volumes there is an adjustment of tone via stretch receptors in the bladder wall so that intravesical (urinary bladder) tension does not, at first, increase. This is accomplished primarily through physical changes in the detrusor. Storage phase activity is modulated by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. The voiding phase, however, is primarily mediated by parasympathetic activity. The micturition reflex begins with a sudden and complete relaxation of the striated muscles of the pelvic floor and a decrease in urethral pressure. Seconds later, intravascular pressure increases due to a contraction of the detrusor muscle.15 Decent and funneling of the bladder neck occur and flow begins. During micturition, the PFM relax allowing the bladder neck to rotate downward. Decent is limited by fascial attachments to the arcus tendineus fascia. Once voiding has been completed, the levator muscles resume normal resting tone, bringing the bladder neck back up to its original position.7 “During a voluntary contraction, the PFM lift inwardly. The urethra closes and the PFM resist downward movement, thereby stabilizing the urethra.”3 During sudden stress, such as coughing, a fast-acting contraction of the distal urethra contributes reflexively to the compressive forces of the proximal urethra, preventing urine leakage. When the pressure of a cough is generated by contraction of the thoracoabdominal muscles, the PFM also contract in coordination with the respiratory diaphragm, as well as intercostal and abdominal wall muscles, to maintain continence.7 Additionally, the levator ani muscles contract and the pubococcygeus portion is pulled anteriorly towards the pubic symphysis to compress the urethra.15
Urinary Incontinence Etiology SUI is diagnosed based on urine leakage concurrent with an increase in abdominal pressure, with or without pelvic floor prolapse or urethral hypermobility and in the absence of bladder detrusor activity. It is generally believed that SUI results from damage to one or more of the support mechanisms that stabilize the vesicle neck and proximal urethra. Known risk factors for SUI include weak connective tissue and PFM, pregnancy, vaginal delivery with injury to the peripheral nerves, fascia, ligaments, and PFM, obesity, strenuous work including physical activity, and old age.2 A National Institute of Health consensus panel developed a list of 6 risk factors associated directly with exercise-induced stress urinary incontinence including “increasing age, female gender, increased parity, heavy physical activity, high-impact sports, hypoestrogenic amenorrhea, and obesity.”10 Other factors are less clear, including strenuous work, exercise, constipation with straining on stool, coughing or other conditions that can increase abdominal pressure chronically.3 Activities most commonly associated with a sudden increase in intra-abdominal pressure are jumping, landings, and dismounts. “The PFM must be able to contract very forcefully and rapidly to withstand the constant, repetitive deceleration of the abdominal viscera on the pelvic floor caused by repetitive running or jumping.”8 It is speculated that athletes are more incontinent during sports that require running into a jump, which adds momentum to the dynamic impact of the abdominal viscera on the pelvic floor. “Force-plate studies have illustrated a wide range of maximum vertical ground-reaction forces for different activities. For example, long jumpers, who land on their heels, can generate a maximum ground-reaction force of up to 16 times their body weight.”8 Generalized muscle fatigue, including PMF fatigue, may also play a role in stress urinary incontinence.8 Pathophysiology A major cause of SUI is the loss of anatomic support of the urethra and urethrovesical junction. This anatomical support is provided anteriorly by the pubo-urethra ligament. The posterior urethra is pushed anteriorly during activation of the pelvic floor muscles. When the bladder and proximal urethra are well supported, increases in intra-abdominal pressure are transmitted equally to both structures, and continence is maintained. This occurs at least in part, because coughing or straining compresses the anterior urethral wall against the well-supported posterior wall, thereby occluding the lumen. Loss of anatomic support allows a displacement of the bladder neck causing the opening of the posterior aspect of the urethrovesical junction during physically stressful activities. Increases in intra-abdominal pressure are then fully transmitted to the bladder, and to a lesser extent to the urethra, and urine loss occurs.15 Chronic increased intra-abdominal pressure may place a woman at risk due to resultant pelvic relaxation. When the pressure is too high or the levator ani are damaged, this disturbed anatomic relationship leads to the loss of support to the reproductive organs. In the biomechanical concept of pathophysiology of pelvic floor dysfunction, it is claimed that the muscular abdominal wall is strong (voluntary or reflex abdominal contraction) and rigid prohibiting the levator ani muscles to play the role of “shock absorber.”12 Vaginal delivery causes partial denervation of the pelvic floor in most women having their first baby. Damage to the pudendal nerve releases tension placed on the pelvic floor tissue and is associated with urinary and fecal incontinence in some women.12 For some it is likely to be the first step along a path leading to prolapse of the abdominal viscera and/or stress urinary incontinence.16 When abnormal intra-abdominal pressure exists, the suspensory mechanism is
called on to support an increased load. While the ligaments can support the abdominal viscera for a short amount of time, “the connective tissue will eventually become damaged.”12 The anatomic pathophysiology of organ prolapse in the new mother and that of the athlete become similar in nature. If the pelvic floor is no longer functionally efficient, the connective tissue will become damaged and stability is not maintained. Conclusion Although urinary incontinence is not a life-threatening or dangerous condition, it is socially embarrassing, may cause the individual to become withdrawn from social situations, and decrease quality of life. Research on SUI has revealed that this condition may lead to withdrawal from participation in high-impact activities such as gymnastics, aerobics, and running.6,9-12 It may be considered a barrier to life-long athletic participation in women. Educating allied health professionals on the anatomy of the pelvic floor, pathology, etiology, and prevalence of stress urinary incontinence may remove barriers for individuals seeking care for this condition. References 1. Abrams P, Cardozo L, Fall M, et al. The standardisation of terminology of lower urinary tract function: Report from the standardisation sub-committee of the international continence society. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;187:116-126. 2. Bø K, Borgen JS. Prevalence of stress and urge urinary incontinence in elite athletes and controls. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33:1797-1802. 3. Bø K. Urinary incontinence, pelvic floor dysfunction, exercise and sport. Sports Med. 2004;34:451-464. 4. Fantl JA, Newman, D.K., Colling, J., et. al. Clinical practice guideline number 2: Urinary incontinence in adults: Acute and chronic management. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 1996;96-0682. 5. Hunskaar S, Arnold EP, Burgio K, Diokno AC, Herzog AR, Mallett VT. Epidemiology and natural history of urinary incontinence. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2000;11:301319. 6. Thyssen HH, Clevin L, Olesen S, Lose G. Urinary incontinence in elite female athletes and dancers. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2002;13:15-17. 7. Bourcier AP, Juras JC. Nonsurgical therapy for stress incontinence. Urol Clin North Am. 1995;22:613-627. 8. Nygaard IE, Thompson FL, Svengalis SL, Albright JP. Urinary incontinence in elite nulliparous athletes. Obstet Gynecol. 1994;84:183-187. 9. Nygaard I, DeLancey JO, Arnsdorf L, Murphy E. Exercise and incontinence. Obstet Gynecol. 1990;75:848-851. 10. Greydanus DE, Patel DR. The female athlete. before and beyond puberty. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2002;49:553-80, vi. 11. Bø K, Hagen RH, Kvarstein B, Jorgensen LS. Female stress urinary incontinence and participation in different sports and social activities. Scand J Sports Sci. 1989;11:117-121. 12. Bourcier AP. Conservative treatment of stress incontinence in sportwomen. Neurourol Urodyn. 1990;9:232.
13. World Health Organization. Sedentary lifestyle: a global public health problem. Available at: http://www.who.int/moveforhealth/advocacy/information_sheets/sedentary/en/index.html. Accessed 11/19, 2006. 14. Strohbehn K. Normal pelvic floor anatomy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 1998;25:683705. 15. Gonçalves FDP. Abdominal and pelvic floor muscle activation patterns during coughing in women with and without stress urinary incontinence. [Master's]. Kingston, Ontario: Queen's University; 2005. 16. DeLancy JO. The pathophysiology of stress urinary incontinence in women and its implications for surgical treatment. World J Urol. 1997;15:268-274. 17. Shah J, Farthing A, Richardson R, Lennard S. Primal 3D interactive series: Pelvis & perineum. London, UK: Primal Pictures Ltd.; 2004.
Figure 1. The arcus tendineus is a thickened linear component of the obturator fascia. It lies between the pelvic surface of the body of pubis and the ischial spine and gives origin to the muscles of the levator ani. The uterosacral ligaments are paired crescentshaped folds of peritoneum. The uterovesical ligament is a thickened fold of peritoneum that is reflected from the anterior aspect of the junction between the cervix and body of the uterus, to the posterior aspect of the bladder. The pubovesical ligaments act to stabilize the bladder, attaching at the neck. *Reprinted from Shah, Farthing, Richardson, & Lennard.17
Figure 2. Inferior view of the female pelvic floor. The pubococcygeus forms the anterior part of the levator ani muscle. The iliococcygeus forms the posterior part of the levator ani muscle. The coccygeus is often described as the muscular belly of the sacrospinous ligament with which it is fused on its pelvic aspect. *Reprinted from Shah, Farthing, Richardson, & Lennard.17
Reliability of the Clinical Application of a Mechanical Inclinometer in Measuring Glenohumeral Motion Priscilla M. Dwelly, Brady L. Tripp, Michelle L. Odai, Patricia A. McGinn* Florida International University, Miami, FL *Nova Southeastern University, Ft. Lauderdale, FL Objective: Establish intra- and inter-examiner reliability of glenohumeral range of motion (ROM) measures taken by a single-clinician using a mechanical inclinometer. Design: A single-session, repeated-measure, randomized, counterbalanced design. Setting: Athletic Training laboratory. Participants: Ten college-aged volunteers (9 right-hand dominant; 4 males, 6 females; age=23.2±2.4y, mass=73±16kg, height=170±8cm) without shoulder or neck injuries within one year. Interventions: Two Certified Athletic Trainers separately assessed passive glenohumeral (GH) internal (IR) and external (ER) rotation bilaterally. Each clinician secured the inclinometer to each subject’s distal forearm using elastic straps. Clinicians followed standard procedures for assessing ROM, with the participants supine on a standard treatment table with 90° of elbow flexion. A second investigator recorded the angle. Clinicians measured all shoulders once to assess inter-clinician reliability and eight shoulders twice to assess intra-clinician reliability. We used SPSS 14.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) to calculate standard error of measure (SEM) and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) to evaluate intra- and inter-clinician reliability. Main Outcome Measures: Dependent variables were degrees of IR, ER, glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) and total arc of rotation. We calculated GIRD as the bilateral difference in IR (nondominant– dominant) and total arc for each shoulder (IR+ER). Results: Intra-clinician reliability for each examiner was excellent (ICC[1,1] range=0.90-0.96; SEM=2.2°-2.5°) for all measures. Examiners displayed excellent inter-clinician reliability (ICC[2,1] range=0.790.97; SEM=1.7°-3.0°) for all measures except nondominant IR which had good reliability(0.72). Conclusions: Results suggest that clinicians can achieve reliable measures of GH rotation and GIRD using a single-clinician technique and an inexpensive, readily available mechanical inclinometer. Key Words: Shoulder, glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD), range of motion (ROM) Reliably measuring range of motion (ROM) is an integral component of a comprehensive shoulder exam. Patients with shoulder pathologies often present with decreased glenohumeral (GH) ROM.1,2 Measured values can be compared between clinicians, to normative data, and used to calculate measures that are associated with pathologies including glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) and total arc of rotation. However, reliable techniques measuring ROM often lack practicality in use, requiring two clinicians or expensive instruments. Establishing a standard patient position for measuring ROM allows the same or different clinician to reproduce the measurements later. The standard protocol for measuring rotational ROM, external (ER) and internal rotation (IR) with the arm in 90º abduction,1-11 has an excellent Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) for intra-clinician reliability when using a standard goniometer.12 However, discrepancy exists on whether the patient should sit or lay supine, if the clinician should limit ROM by stabilization, or use visual investigation to prevent additional
scapulothoracic motion. The end of glenohumeral rotation occurs when a firm capsular end point is felt or when the scapula appreciates.1 A variety of measurement tools are available to determine ROM of the GH joint, including a mechanical and digital inclinometer, goniometer, and computerized tracking analysis.1,2,6-8,10,12 Goniometric methods have displayed fair to good reliability5; however, their applicability is limited in the clinical setting. Clinically, the examiner must efficiently be able to measure ROM without a second examiner present. Goniometric measurements often require two examiners; the first secures the goniometer and follows the movement of the forearm into rotation, while the second stabilizes the scapula.5,8 Scapular stabilization, the application of a posterior force on the anterior coracoid and lateral clavicle to limit anterior tilt of the scapula, isolates glenohumeral rotation.1,2-5,9,10 A measuring instrument must be financially obtainable for clinical use. A computerized data tracking software with joint position sensors can be used to determine ROM, but is not practical to a high school or small setting. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish a reliable measure of internal and external ROM using a mechanical inclinometer. We hypothesize our results will be similar to goniometric reliability of fair to good. Methods Participants were 10 healthy college-aged volunteers (20 shoulders) (9 right-hand dominant; 4 males, 6 females; age=23.2±2.4 y, mass=73±16 kg, height=170±8 cm) with no shoulder or neck injuries within the past year. Clinicians were two Certified Athletic Trainers (PD and PM) with novice experience using an inclinometer to assess ROM. Each clinician practiced with the mechanical inclinometer for one week prior to testing to gain familiarization with the instrument. Each clinician measured one subject at a time on two separate examination tables in an Athletic Training research laboratory. We measured maximal passive GH IR and ER bilaterally using an inexpensive mechanical inclinometer (Sears, Roebuck & Co., Chicago, IL). The inclinometer uses a pendulum to determine its angular relation to horizontal, accurate to 0.5°. We strapped the inclinometer firmly to each subject’s forearm at the distal radius using two 1” elastic straps with hook-and-loop closures. Each measurement followed standard procedures for assessing GH rotational ROM, with subjects lying supine on a standard treatment table with 90° of elbow flexion wearing a t-shirt or sports bra. This protocol for patient positioning is reported as a valid and reliable measure of isolated glenohumeral motion.12 The clinician controlled scapular motion through visual inspection and patient positioning, with the scapula on the table. Clinicians considered maximal motion achieved when rotation ceased with a firm capsular endfeel and before they appreciated scapular motion. Clinicians then prompted a second investigator to record the angle indicated by the inclinometer. The two clinicians were blinded to each measure to remove bias. We measured each rotation twice, recording the average. We calculated GIRD as the difference between nondominant total arc and dominant total arc measures. Each clinician measured all 20 shoulders once to assess inter-examiner reliability and measured eight shoulders twice to assess intra-examiner reliability. Participants rested for 5 minutes between measures to allow any affects of the measure to diminish before the next measurement. We used SPSS 14.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) to calculate standard error of measure (SEM) and evaluate intra- and inter-examiner reliability of dependent measures through ICC.
Results Listed in Table 1 are mean and standard deviation (SD) for each motion measured. For clinician 1, mean measure of dominant IR was 53.7+5.4º, dominant ER 87.4+12.7º, with total arc measurements of 151+12.5º for dominant shoulder. For clinician 2, mean measures of dominant IR was 66.7+5.7º, dominant ER 85.0+11.9º, with total arc measurements of 151+11.0º for dominant shoulder. . ICC values of >0.75 are regarded as excellent, 0.40-0.75 as fair to good, and 0-0.40 as poor.12. Intra-clinician reliability for each clinician was excellent (ICC[1,1] range=0.90-0.96; SEM=2.2°-2.5°) for all measures (Table 2). Clinicians displayed excellent inter-clinician reliability (ICC [2,1] range=0.79-0.97; SEM=1.7°-3.0°) for all measures except nondominant IR which had good reliability (0.72) (Table 3). Discussion The results of this study indicate our clinicians displayed good to excellent reliability when measuring GH rotation with a mechanical inclinometer. All measures were excellent for both intra- and inter-examiner reliability, except nondominant IR with good reliability. Our measures are comparable to other non-overhead throwing measures. Mean measures for ROM are IR 48.7º and ER 81.6º in non-overhead throwing athletes.13 The average ROM for throwing athletes is, however, greater in both ER with 113º- 141º and IR with 56.6º-65º in the dominant shoulder.3,14 The specific cause in the change of ROM is unknown; associations are made with osseous adaptations and soft tissue adaptations due to the repetitive stress of throwing. Patients with shoulder pathologies often have a change in their affected shoulder’s ROM. In measuring shoulder ROM, the method must be reliable so that when compared across time the method is exact, and the results are comparable. The amount of rotational ROM measured can determine the severity of the pathology. Athletes with internal impingement have shown a decrease in IR, that is not met with gains in ER.1 With results comparable over time, the clinician can determine the progress of an intervention or the continuation of a pathology.15 Our results demonstrate that using a mechanical inclinometer to measure rotational motion at the GH joint is both intra- and inter-examiner reliable. Our study is limited to healthy college-aged population. Our results apply only to the use of the mechanical inclinometer for measuring range of GH rotation. Conclusions This demonstrates that novice clinicians can achieve reliable measures of GH rotation and GIRD using a single-clinician technique and an inexpensive, readily available mechanical inclinometer. Further investigation is needed to determine the validity of measuring rotation at the GH joint using a mechanical inclinometer compared to motion analysis software and a standard goniometer, and if a mechanical inclinometer is reliable when measuring patients with pathology.
Table 1. Mean Values for IR, ER, Total Arc, and GIRD D IR D ER ND IR ND ER Clinician 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 Mean 63.7 66.7 87.4 85.0 66.8 66.8 87.1 85.8 SD 5.4 5.7 12.7 11.9 5.9 4.7 10.1 9.0 D Arc ND Arc GIRD Clinician 1 2 1 2 1 2 Mean 151 151 154 153 3.1 0.1 SD 12.5 11.0 9.1 7.7 4.3 4.5 Legend. D, dominant; ND, nondominant.
Table 2. Intra-clinician Reliability Measures Clinician 1 Clinician 2
Table 3. Inter-clinician Reliability Measures ICC D IR 0.790 D ER 0.941 ND IR 0.720 ND ER 0.968 D ARC 0.937 ND ARC 0.870 Legend. D, dominant; ND, nondominant.
ICC 0.962 0.942
SEM 2.24 2.53
SD 5.6 12.1 5.2 9.3 11.5 8.2
SEM 2.57 2.94 2.75 1.66 2.89 2.96
Figure 1. Technique used to measure range of passive glenohumeral external rotation.
Figure 2. Technique used to measure range of passive glenohumeral internal rotation
References 1. Myers JB, Laudner KG, Pasquale MR, Bradley JP, Lephart SM. Glenohumeral range of motion deficits and posterior shoulder tightness in throwers with pathologic internal impingement. Am J Sports Med. 2006; 34(3):385-391. 2. Ruotolo C, Price E, Panchal A. Loss of total arc of motion in collegiate baseball players. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2006; 15(1):67-71. 3. Reagan KM, Meister K, Horodyski MB, Werner DW, Carruthers C, Wilk K. Humeral retroversion and its relationship to glenohumeral rotation in the shoulder of college baseball players. Am J Sports Med. 2002; 30(3):354-360. 4. Boon AJ, Smith J. Manual scapular stabilization: its effect on shoulder rotational range of motion. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000; 81(7):978-983. 5. Awan R, Smith J, Boon AJ. Measuring shoulder internal rotation range of motion: a comparison of 3 techniques. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002; 83(9):1229-1234. 6. Osbahr DC, Cannon DL, Speer KP. Retroversion of the humerus in the throwing shoulder of college baseball pitchers. Am J Sports Med. 2002; 30(3):347-353. 7. Baltaci G, Johnson R, Kohl H, III. Shoulder range of motion characteristics in collegiate baseball players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2001; 41(2):236-242. 8. Borsa PA, Dover GC, Wilk KE, Reinold MM. Glenohumeral range of motion and stiffness in professional baseball pitchers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006; 38(1):21-26. 9. Lintner SA, Levy A, Kenter K, Speer KP. Glenohumeral translation in the asymptomatic athlete's shoulder and its relationship to other clinically measurable anthropometric variables. Am J Sports Med. 1996; 24(6):716-720. 10. Ellenbecker TS, Roetert EP. Effects of a 4-month season on glenohumeral joint rotational strength and range of motion in female collegiate tennis players. J Strength Cond Res. 2002; 16(1):92-96. 11. Stanley A, McGann R, Hall J, McKenna L, Briffa NK. Shoulder strength and range of motion in female amateur-league tennis players. J Orthop Sport Phys. 2004; 34(7):402409. 12. Green S, Buchbinder R, Forbes A, Bellamy N. A standardized protocol for measurement of range of movement of the shoulder using the Plurimeter-V inclinometer and assessment of its intrarater and interrater reliability. Arthritis Care Res. 1998; 11(1):43-52. 13. Greene BL, Wolf SL. Upper extremity joint movement: comparison of two measurement devices. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1989; 70(4):288-290. 14. Crockett HC, Gross LB, Wilk KE, Schwartz ML, Reed J, O'Mara J et al. Osseous adaptation and range of motion at the glenohumeral joint in professional baseball pitchers. Am J Sports Med. 2002; 30(1):20-26. 15. Valentine RE, Lewis JS. Intraobserver reliability of 4 physiologic movements of the shoulder in subjects with and without symptoms. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006; 87(9):1242-1249. 16. Dover GC, Kaminski TW, Meister K, Powers ME, Horodyski M. Assessment of Shoulder Proprioception in the Female Softball Athlete. Am J Sports Med. 2003; 31(3):431-437.
Acute Effects of Neuromuscular-Training with Handheld-Vibration on Elbow Joint Position Sense Donald A. Faust, Brady L. Tripp, Michelle A. Cleary, Patrick Jacobs P* Florida International University, Miami, FL *Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL Context: Clinicians use exercises in rehabilitation to enhance sensorimotor-function, however evidence supporting their use is scarce. Objective: To evaluate acute effects of handheld-vibration on joint position sense (JPS). Design: A repeated-measure, randomized, counter-balanced 3-condition design. Setting: Sports Medicine and Science Research Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: 31 healthy college-aged volunteers (16-males, 15-females; age=23+3y, mass=76+14kg, height=173+8cm). Interventions: We measured elbow JPS and monitored training using the Flock-of-Birds system (Ascension Technology, Burlington, VT) and MotionMonitor software (Innsport, Chicago, IL), accurate to 0.5°. For each condition (15,5,0Hz vibration), subjects completed three 15-s bouts holding a 2.55kg Mini-VibraFlex dumbbell (Orthometric, New York, NY), and used software-generated audio/visual biofeedback to locate the target. Participants performed separate pre- and post-test JPS measures for each condition. For JPS testing, subjects held a non-vibrating dumbbell, identified the target (90°flexion) using biofeedback, and relaxed 3-5s. We removed feedback and subjects recreated the target and pressed a trigger. We used SPSS 14.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) to perform separate ANOVAs (p<0.05) for each protocol and calculated effect sizes using standard-mean differences. Main Outcome Measures: Dependent variables were absolute and variable error between target and reproduced angles, pre-post vibration training. Results: 0Hz (F1,61=1.310,p=0.3) and 5Hz (F1,61=2.625,p=0.1) vibration did not affect accuracy. 15Hz vibration enhanced accuracy (6.5±0.6 to 5.0±0.5°) (F1,61=8.681,p=0.005,ES=0.3). 0Hz did not affect variability (F1,61=0.007,p=0.9). 5Hz vibration decreased variability (3.0±1.8 to 2.3±1.3°) (F1,61=7.250,p=0.009), as did 15Hz (2.8±1.8 to 1.8±1.2°) (F1,61=24.027, p<0.001). Conclusions: Our results support using handheld-vibration to improve sensorimotor-function. Future research should include injured subjects, functional multi-joint/multi-planar measures, and long-term effects of similar training. Key words: sensorimotor-function, active repositioning, audio/visual biofeedback The elbow endures large magnitudes of force during the overhead throw.1,2 To avoid injury, the senorimotor system (SMS) must control and disperse stress by coordinating joint motion and position.3-7 When loads are too great, the stabilizing structures of the joint are at risk for injury.1,2 Structural damage compromises stability, hampers SMS function, and may lead to further structural damage and fatigue.8-15 Clinicians use this paradigm to identify perspective interventions including endurance training, surgical procedures, and rehabilitation. Clinical trials have observed postponement of fatigue through a combination of resistance and endurance training.16 Surgical interventions followed by rehabilitation incorporating neuromusculartraining rectify structural damage and restore SMS function.17 During post-surgical or conservative rehabilitation programs, clinicians employ exercises using manual rhythmic stabilization or oscillatory devices with the goal of enhancing neuromuscular control (NMC).18 These exercises include short bursts of resistance that require an almost subconscious SMS
2 reaction to restore or maintain joint position and stability. Evidence validating the efficacy of these rehabilitation exercises is scarce however, because standardizing the applied resistance is challenging. Our goal was to standardize a neuromuscular-training exercise and observe the acute effects on active JPS at the elbow. We used a vibrating dumbbell to standardize the applied resistance during elbow neuromuscular-training. Traditionally, research examining vibration has reported the occupational hazards of exposure to high loads/frequencies produced by industrial machinery on SMS function.19-22 Strength and conditioning research has observed positive acute effects of vibration using high frequencies of whole body vibration (WBV), for periods ranging from 1 to 10 minutes.23-28 These short bouts of WBV immediately enhance average velocity, force, and power,23 through neuromuscular mechanisms similar to the changes observed over the first ten weeks of power-training.29 Researchers23-28 attribute these transient augmentations following vibration to neuromuscular mechanisms including a heightened awareness and joint control strategy with quicker rate of force development. While the precise mechanisms remain largely unknown,22-28 researchers postulate they stem from enhanced neuromuscular efficiency.24 Although such vibration exercises affect the components providing NMC, no research has investigated the acute effects of vibration-enhanced neuromusculartraining on SMS function. Therefore, our purpose was to examine the acute effects of neuromuscular-training using handheld-vibration (HV) on SMS function as measured through active elbow JPS. Methods Research Design We used a repeated-measure, randomized, and counterbalanced 3-condition (crossover) design. The independent variables were frequency of HV at three levels (0 [control], 5, and 15Hz) and time at two levels (pre- and post-test). The dependant variables were absolute (accuracy) and variable (variability) error scores measured through active elbow JPS. Subjects performed pre and post-tests 3 separate times, thereby serving as members of each group (control, 5 and 15Hz) Participants We randomly sampled of 31 healthy college-aged individuals (16 males, 15 females; 29 right-handed, 2 left-handed; age= 23+3 y, mass= 76+14 kg, height= 173+8 cm). We screened participants using a health history questionnaire and excluded subjects based on prior history of upper-extremity injury (within the last year), major upper-extremity surgery, or central nervous system disorder. We asked participants, 24hr before their appointment, to abstain from strenuous upper-extremity activity to help eliminate any possible fatigue or carry-over soreness. Prior to data collection, all participants read and signed an informed consent form approved by the Institutional Review Board. Instruments We collected and analyzed degrees of bilateral elbow flexion using four wired sensors from the Flock-of-Birds electromagnetic tracking system (Ascension Technology, Burlington, VT), and MotionMonitor software (Innsport, Chicago, IL). This system is considered reliable14 and accurate (0.5° at 0.91m).30 During the intervention, participants held a 2.55kg MiniVibraFlex dumbbell (Orthometric, New York, NY). Procedures Digitizing. We digitized participants according to the International Society of Biomechanics’ standardized protocol.31 We attached sensors bilaterally to participants’ distal posterior forearm and over the deltoid tuberosity of the ulna with elastic straps and a mild spray
3 adhesive. We palpated, marked and digitized bony landmarks on each arm including medial and lateral humeral epicondyles, radial and ulnar styloid processes. Order of Testing. Participants performed a pre-test measure of JPS, underwent a randomized intervention and repeated the JPS measure. We tested each arm individually and randomly assigned the order of arm testing (dominant or non-dominant). Each participant was tested as a member of one intervention group, rested for 45-minutes (to limit any physical or mental fatigue or learning effect), and returned to serve as a member of the remaining intervention groups. JPS Measure. For each elbow JPS test, participants stood, resting their test elbow on a padded, adjustable armrest. We adjusted the height of the pipe by adding or removing 1.9cm wooden planks to attain 60±5º of shoulder flexion. Because adding resistance32 with auditory and visual biofeedback33, 34 during JPS testing enhances NMC, during NM-training, our participants held a 2.55kg non-metal dumbbell and used both visual and auditory real-time feedback provided by the biofeedback software. The software generated a tone when the testelbow deviated more than 1 degree from the desired target angle. The participants faced a monitor on which the software presented visual feedback including oscilloscopes illustrating position of the test-elbow in relation to the target angle. An investigator trained participants to produce the desired target angle of 90 º elbow flexion using the software generated real-time visual and auditory biofeedback. The visual biofeedback included line graphs indicating the participant’s elbow flexion angle in relation to the target angle. The computer generated a tone when elbow flexion angle deviated from the target by more than one degree. To begin each JPS test, subject found the target angle, maintained the position for 3-5s, then relaxed their arm, resting the dumbbell on the table. Before attempting angle-reproduction trials, participants blindfold themselves and we removed auditory biofeedback. To indicate when they believed they had reproduced the target angle, participants pressed a trigger in their contra-lateral hand. After pressing the trigger, participants returned their arm to the resting position and began the next angle-reproduction trail within three seconds. Participants performed three anglereproduction trails for each JPS test. HV Training Protocol. Participants underwent separate JPS testing before and after each of the three interventions (0, 5, 15Hz). Two of the three experimental interventions included vibration of the 2.55kg dumbbell at 5 or 15Hz with an amplitude of 2mm. The remaining intervention used no vibration (0Hz, control). To maintain the position of 60±5º of shoulder flexion during training, we raised or lowered the height of the padded bar (based of the participant’s height) and instructed participants to refrain from resting their elbow on the padded bar during the training. We did this to maintain a consistent shoulder angle and eliminate distribution of force to the table and any discomfort it may have caused. We began the vibration and reintroduced to the target elbow position to participants actively, using the software generated real-time visual and auditory biofeedback. Participants held this position for 15s using the biofeedback, before lowering their arm and resting for 60s. Participants repeated the vibration bout two more times, with a minute of rest between each bout. Statistical Analysis. We performed statistical analyses using SPSS 14.0 statistical package for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) with a significance level set a priori at P ≤ 0.05. For each dependent variable, accuracy (absolute error, absolute distance from the target) and variability (variable error, variability of angles reproduced), and each intervention (vibration at 0, 5, and 15Hz), we used a separate analyses of variance to compare pre-test to post-test values. We calculated effect sizes for each exercise condition using the standard mean difference
4 equation.35 Results Our purpose was to evaluate the acute effects of neuromuscular-training using three frequencies of HV on the accuracy and variability of elbow JPS. Table 1 presents the effects of each vibration protocol on active elbow JPS. The 0Hz and 5Hz vibration protocols did not have a significant effect on accuracy (P>0.05), while the 15Hz vibration protocol significantly enhanced accuracy (decreased absolute error) (P≤0.05). The 0Hz vibration protocol did not significantly effect variability (P>0.05), while 5 and 15Hz vibration significantly enhanced variability (decreased variable error) (P≤0.05). Discussion We observed an acute enhancement of active elbow JPS (accuracy and variability) after neuromuscular-training using dumbbell vibration at 15Hz. This is the first report indicating vibration may enhance acute JPS when used in neuromuscular-training. We also observed less variability after neuromuscular-training using 5Hz vibration (Table 1). Because we used low frequency vibration for short durations, there is no data affording comparisons to ours. Our general observation that vibration can enhance NMC however, is in contrast to previous reports.14,36-38 Our use of low frequencies of vibration for short durations of exposure may have enabled the acute enhancements in SMS function we observed. Research indicates that exposure to high loads of vibration for an extended period is detrimental to SMS function.36 Large magnitudes (amplitude, frequency, and exposure duration) are believed to disrupt the ability of the peripheral afferents to function.37 It is also well established that muscular fatigue also decreases NMC.14,38 We did not observe the negative effects muscular fatigue would have produced, because of the low frequencies and short periods of vibration exposure compared with other reports.14, 36-38 While the majority of vibration research focuses on its detrimental effects, not all reports investigating vibration have observed negative results.22,32,33 We actually observed an acute enhancement of JPS immediately after HV exposure, which is supported by literature. When observing JPS immediately before and after vibration exposure, instead of during vibration exposure, NMC was not impaired.22 Researchers attribute this observation to the SMS receiving more afferent stimulation during vibration exposure, creating a clearer image of limb position in relation to the remembered framework of the central nervous system.22 Researchers also observed that when testing JPS in the midranges of motion, NMC was not impaired by vibration exposure.22 We tried to enhance JPS by incorporating added resistance during the JPS testing and vibration exposure. One JPS report suggests that adding resistance enhances SMS function.32 We also used auditory and visual biofeedback during the neuromuscular-training to enhance NMC. Researchers observed greater movement velocity while maintaining accuracy with the aid of visual biofeedback during MNC testing.33 In comparison, we observed acute enhancement of JPS measuring immediately after vibration exposure in the mid range of elbow flexion with audio and visual biofeedback. All proposed mechanisms for the enhancement of JPS, we observed. Our results support the use of HV in exercise programs designed to improve sensorimotor function. While we used HV to standardize NMC tasks used clinically, further research should investigate if these same enhancements may be elicited using more common clinical techniques. We acknowledge that this study, like all research has limitations. We used a standard 2.55kg dumbbell and did not normalize the magnitude of resistance to participant body mass or maximal force output. Because we used a light dumbbell, only measured elbow flexion, and subjects only
5 held positions for 15s, participants did not report feeling fatigue regardless of body mass. We believe that the 5Hz vibration did not significantly enhance accuracy due to a lack of statistical power (Table 1). We only observed the acute effects of HV; the chronic effects of neuromuscular-training programs warrant further investigation. Our results only apply to healthy college-aged individuals. Further research should investigate the effects of HV in injured populations and those of different age groups. Future research into the use of HV should include other vibration frequencies and exposure durations, measure other joints, and functional multijoint/multi-planar measures. Our study was unique in that it was the first to observe an acute enhancement of active elbow JPS following neuromuscular–training. We used vibration-enhanced resistance with audio and visual biofeedback to enhance the affect of neuromuscular-training on JPS. We believe we were able to enhance JPS by increasing the amount of afferent information provided to the central nervous system. The added afferent information may have enabled the central nervous system to develop a clearer image of extremity positioning and thus enhance NMC.23 This is important clinically, because decreased NMC can lead to further injury. One reason this is the first study to observe this is because of the difficulty in standardizing neuromuscular-training exercises. Short bouts of HV in conjunction with other neuromuscular-training shows promise in enhancing SMS function. Reference List 1. McCall BR, Cain EL, Jr. Diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the thrower's elbow. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2005;4(5):249-54. 2. Werner SL, Murray TA, Hawkins RJ, Gill TJ. Relationship between throwing mechanics and elbow valgus in professional baseball pitchers. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2002;11(2):151-5. 3. Lephart SM, Pincivero DM, Giraldo JL, Fu FH. The role of proprioception in the management and rehabilitation of athletic injuries. Am J Sports Med. 1997;25(1):130-7. 4. Myers JB, Lephart SM. The Role of the Sensorimotor System in the Athletic Shoulder. J Athl Train. 2000;35(3):351-63. 5. Myers JB, Lephart SM. Sensorimotor deficits contributing to glenohumeral instability. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2002;(400):98-104. 6. Riemann BL, Lephart SM. The Sensorimotor System, Part II: The Role of Proprioception in Motor Control and Functional Joint Stability. J Athl Train. 2002;37(1):80-4. 7. Riemann BL, Lephart SM. The Sensorimotor System, Part I: The Physiologic Basis of Functional Joint Stability. J Athl Train. 2002;37(1):71-9. 8. Carpenter JE, Blasier RB, Pellizzon GG. The effects of muscle fatigue on shoulder joint position sense. Am J Sports Med. 1998;26(2):262-5. 9. Huysmans MA, Hoozemans MJ, van der Beek AJ, de Looze MP, van Dieen JH. Fatigue effects on tracking performance and muscle activity. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2007;17(1): January 5. 10. Myers JB, Guskiewicz KM, Schneider RA, Prentice WE. Proprioception and Neuromuscular Control of the Shoulder After Muscle Fatigue. J Athl Train. 1999;34(4):362-7. 11. Pedersen J, Ljubisavljevic M, Bergenheim M, Johansson H. Alterations in information transmission in ensembles of primary muscle spindle afferents after muscle fatigue in heteronymous muscle. Neuroscience. 1998;84(3):953-9. 12. Pedersen J, Lonn J, Hellstrom F, Djupsjobacka M, Johansson H. Localized muscle fatigue decreases the acuity of the movement sense in the human shoulder. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31(7):1047-52.
6 13. Sterner RL, Pincivero DM, Lephart SM. The effects of muscular fatigue on shoulder proprioception. Clin J Sport Med. 1998;8(2):96-101. 14. Tripp BL, Boswell L, Gansneder BM, Shultz SJ. Functional Fatigue Decreases 3Dimensional Multijoint Position Reproduction Acuity in the Overhead-Throwing Athlete. J Athl Train. 2004;39(4):316-20. 15. Walsh LD, Hesse CW, Morgan DL, Proske U. Human forearm position sense after fatigue of elbow flexor muscles. J Physiol. 2004;558(Pt 2):705-15. 16. Verney J, Kadi F, Saafi MA, Piehl-Aulin K, Denis C. Combined lower body endurance and upper body resistance training improves performance and health parameters in healthy active elderly. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006;97(3):288-97. 17. Lephart SM, Myers JB, Bradley JP, Fu FH. Shoulder proprioception and function following thermal capsulorraphy. Arthroscopy. 2002;18(7):770-8. 18. Wilk KE, Reinold MM, Andrews JR. Rehabilitation of the thrower's elbow. Clin Sports Med. 2004;23(4):765-801, xii. 19. Cardinale M, Pope MH. The effects of whole body vibration on humans: dangerous or advantageous? Acta Physiol Hung. 2003;90(3):195-206. 20. Di LC, Ranchelli A, Lucidi P et al. Effects of whole-body vibration exercise on the endocrine system of healthy men. J Endocrinol Invest. 2004;27(4):323-7. 21. Jordan MJ, Norris SR, Smith DJ, Herzog W. Vibration training: an overview of the area, training consequences, and future considerations. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19(2):45966. 22. Radovanovic S, Day SJ, Johansson H. The impact of whole-hand vibration exposure on the sense of angular position about the wrist joint. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2006;79(2):153-60. 23. Bosco C, Colli R, Introini E et al. Adaptive responses of human skeletal muscle to vibration exposure. Clin Physiol. 1999;19(2):183-7. 24. Cormie P, Deane RS, Triplett NT, McBride JM. Acute effects of whole-body vibration on muscle activity, strength, and power. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20(2):257-61. 25. Delecluse C, Roelants M, Verschueren S. Strength increase after whole-body vibration compared with resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35(6):1033-41. 26. Ronnestad BR. Comparing the performance-enhancing effects of squats on a vibration platform with conventional squats in recreationally resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18(4):839-45. 27. Torvinen S, Kannus P, Sievanen H et al. Effect of four-month vertical whole body vibration on performance and balance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(9):1523-8. 28. Torvinen S, Kannus P, Sievanen H et al. Effect of 8-month vertical whole body vibration on bone, muscle performance, and body balance: a randomized controlled study. J Bone Miner Res. 2003;18(5):876-84. 29. Kyrolainen H, Avela J, McBride JM et al. Effects of power training on muscle structure and neuromuscular performance. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2005;15(1):58-64. 30. Tripp BL, Uhl TL, Mattacola CG, Srinivasan C, Shapiro R. A comparison of individual joint contributions to multijoint position reproduction acuity in overhead-throwing athletes. Clin Biomech (Bristol , Avon ). 2006;21(5):466-473. 31. Wu G, van der Helm FC, Veeger HE et al. ISB recommendation on definitions of joint coordinate systems of various joints for the reporting of human joint motion--Part II: shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand. J Biomech. 2005;38(5):981-92.
7 32. Brindle TJ, Uhl TL, Nitz AJ, Shapiro R. The influence of external loads on movement precision during active shoulder internal rotation movements as measured by 3 indices of accuracy. J Athl Train 2006 January;41(1):60-6. 33. Brindle TJ, Nitz AJ, Uhl TL, Kifer E, Shapiro R. Kinematic and EMG characteristics of simple shoulder movements with proprioception and visual feedback. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2006 June;16(3):236-49. 34. Mroczek N, Halpern D, McHugh R. Electromyographic feedback and physical therapy for neuromuscular retraining in hemiplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1978 June;59(6):258-67. 35. Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, revised edition. New York: Academic Press; 1997. 36. Gauthier GM, Roll JP, Martin B, Harlay F. Effects of whole-body vibrations on sensory motor system performance in man. Aviat Space Environ Med 1981 August;52(8):473-9. 37. Rogers DK, Bendrups AP, Lewis MM. Disturbed proprioception following a period of muscle vibration in humans. Neurosci Lett 1985 June 12;57(2):147-52. 38. Allen TJ, Proske U. Effect of muscle fatigue on the sense of limb position and movement. Exp Brain Res 2006 March;170(1):30-8. Tables and Figures Table 1. Analysis of the acute effects of neuromuscular-training with hand-held vibration on accuracy and variability of active elbow joint position sense Vibration Pre-test Post-test F Power Effect_Size* p Frequency 0Hz-a 7.0±4.9 6.3±4.3 1.310 0.257 0.203 n/a 0Hz-v 3.0±2.1 2.9±1.8 0.007 0.933 0.051 n/a 5Hz-a 5.4±3.5 4.7±2.8 2.625 0.110 0.358 n/a 5Hz-v 3.0±1.8 2.3±1.3 7.250 0.009 n/a 0.42 15Hz-a 6.5±4.9 5.0±3.5 8.681 0.005 n/a 0.33 15Hz-v 2.8±1.8 1.8±1.2 24.027 <0.001 n/a 0.62 Legend: a=absolute error; v=variable error; *Effect size calculated by using the standard mean difference equation
High School Influences on the Selection of Athletic Training as a Career Denisha S. Fergusson, Jennifer L. Doherty-Restrepo, Michelle L. Odai Florida International University, Miami, FL Context: Research suggests internships, mentorship, and specialized school programs positively influence career selection; however, little data exists specific to athletic training. Objective: We identified high school (HS) experiences influencing career choice in college athletic training students (ATS). Design: Our survey included 35 Likert-type close-ended questions, which were reviewed by a panel of faculty and peers to establish content and construct validity. Setting: Participants completed an online questionnaire at their convenience. Participants: 217 college ATS (153 female, 64 male) from a random selection of accredited programs on the east coast. We excluded minors, freshmen, and undecided majors from the study. Informed consent was implied by proceeding to the questionnaire. Data Collection and Analysis: We used descriptive statistics to analyze the data collected via a secure website. Results: Mentors were most influential in the decision of career path (62.4%;n=131/210) with 85.2% (n=138/162) reporting mentors were readily available to answer questions regarding career options and 53.1% (n=86/162) counseled them regarding HS electives. Of participants involved in an internship (41.0%;n=86/210), most developed such opportunities independently (66.3%;n=57/86). Respondents who attended traditional HS suggested providing diverse electives (71.9%;n=133/185), additional internship (53.5%;n=99/185), and mentorship (33.0%;n=61/185) opportunities to effectively educate students regarding career options. Conclusions: College ATS that gained internship experience during HS report the opportunity positively influenced their career selection. Mentors support HS students by offering insight and expertise in guiding students’ career choices. Participants suggested HS afford diverse electives with internship and mentorship opportunities to positively influence interested students towards pursuing a career in athletic training. Key Words: career choice, education, mentorship Allied health professions constantly strive to improve recruitment efforts to increase the number of students enrolling in allied health profession education programs.1 One proposed way to positively impact the shortage of allied health professionals is to effectively promote health careers to high school students.2 Research suggests high school students have poor knowledge of health care professions and the opportunities available to them.1 Some methods of increasing student awareness of allied health professions include brochures, college and career fairs, school programs, mentorship, internship opportunities, magazines, and the media.1-3 Promotional efforts of interest in this investigation are mentorship, internships, and specialized school programs (SSP). A 2001 study distributed questionnaires to high school career counselors to identify perceived effective promotional activities.2 The most effective efforts include health career days, visits by local practicing health professionals, and health career site visits.2 These efforts can be categorized as interactions with health care professionals and depending on the level of interaction, a form of mentorship.2 Mentorship is a key component of informing and educating high school students on career options.3 Mentors in the health profession are a support system by providing insight,
guidance, and expertise on career options.3,4 Many mentors may also volunteer to be guest speakers in classes or allow students to observe them in the clinical setting. Incorporating experiential learning (internships) into the mentorship experience allows students to observe health care professionals and gain advanced knowledge and recognition of skills.4 Students gain experience in the clinical setting for community service hours, networking opportunities and resume builders for future endeavors. These students may have a clinical and educational advantage when entering college. Another method of increasing public knowledge and improving perceptions associated with allied health professions are SSPs such as enrichment programs, magnet programs, and academies. Such programs offer multiple classes or electives concentrating on various aspects of a desired career.5 SSPs have been one of the most effective methods of facilitating student growth and progression into the allied health profession due to the incorporation of mentorship and focused learning.1 The combination of mentorship and specialization emphasizes academic and clinical experiences, similar to many allied health curricula within accredited education programs. Students obtain basic knowledge and clinical skills of the profession through coursework and clinical residencies and mentorship by assigned health care professionals. In the high school environment, clinical experiences correspond to mentorship and affiliations in which students observe and assist various health care professionals including athletic trainers. Research suggests mentorship strongly influences students’ perceptions of a profession and their decision to pursue that profession.3 Students with allied health mentors may make better informed decisions and have clear perceptions regarding career options.3 Through SSPs, students gain experience in several activities consistent with the profession of interest and academic curriculum. Course work ranges from the basic sciences to specific athletic training courses such as injury prevention or general medical conditions. SSPs expose students to more demanding college courses,6,7 and utilize problem-based learning which potentially improves standardized test scores (such as SAT or ATC scores).8 Students completing the program may be eligible for additional scholarships having built a strong academic and extra-curricular portfolio increasing their competitive edge in the college application process.3 SSPs are beneficial in other professions and can be hypothesized to be beneficial in athletic training career selection. When students specialize, they refine their career options and take more career specific coursework, which will benefit them in college. SSPs foster discussion and stimulate thought provoking questions regarding professional aspirations. SSPs expose students to collegepreparatory coursework and may provide the opportunity to attend college courses for dual credit toward graduation requirements. Health science specialization programs in the high school system benefit the allied health community by providing exposure to a more captive and influential audience. The purpose of this investigation was to describe the influences on an athletic training students’ career path while in high school. To accomplish this goal, we observed the influence of internships, mentorship experience and SSPs. Methods Research Design We utilized a survey design implemented via electronic questionnaire. Our questionnaire included 35 Likert-type close-ended questions. A panel of faculty and peers established content and construct validity including internal consistency of the survey and evaluated ease of website
navigation. We analyzed the data to identify the response percentages for the indicated sample. We sought to describe the influence three promotional efforts had on athletic training students while in high school by observing the influence of internships, mentorship experience and SSP. We attempted to answer the following research question: (a) What influences allied health majors in their career path? To answer this research question, we identified three components of particular interest: (b) Are internships influential in a student’s decision on a career path? (c) Are mentors influential in a student’s decision on a career path? (d) Are SSPs influential in a student’s decision on a career path? Participants We used randomized criterion sampling to solicit potential participants. We identified accredited athletic training education programs via the National Athletic Training Association website (www.nata.org). We compiled a list of accredited programs from the eastern United States, defined as states east of the Mississippi River. States included in the study had at least five accredited programs. We randomly selected ten states by pulling their names out of a box. We included all programs from the selected states in the study. Our target sample size was 200 participants. We excluded minors, college freshmen and undecided majors because of their potential to select a program other than athletic training. Instruments We modified a questionnaire used to evaluate student recruitment in allied health education programs.1 The questionnaire was distributed and collected data with an electronic questionnaire via a secure website (www.surveymonkey.com). The survey entitled “Influences on Career Selection Survey” (ICSS) included 32 Likert-type questions. We divided the ICSS into 6 sections: (1) Demographics, (2) General influences on career choice, (3) Influence of internships, (4) Influence of mentorship, (5) Influence of school programs, and (6) Influences in a comprehensive high school. The software permitted only one answer per question, as needed. The software automatically skipped questions based on previous responses, progressing respondents to the next applicable question. To increase compliance and assure confidentiality, all respondents were anonymous. Procedures We solicited participation by contacting undergraduate program directors via email. Each program director received an IRB approved email cover letter that included a hyperlink to the survey which they forwarded to their students. Informed consent was implied if students proceeded to the survey. To further improve response rates, we sent a follow-up email to program directors 2 weeks later. The survey took respondents 10-15 minutes to complete. Pilot Testing. We established content and construct validity and internal consistency of the instrument through pilot testing. We distributed the questionnaire to a panel of faculty and professional peers to evaluate ease of website navigation and to thoroughly analyze each question. The panel also ensured that each survey question pertained to the research question. Following revisions, we redistributed the instrument to faculty and peers for final analysis. Statistical Analysis We assigned numeric codes to responses and used statistics to describe central tendency, (frequency, mode, mean) to analyze the data. Results From the universities meeting the inclusionary criteria, 230 participants completed the online questionnaire. We eliminated 13 participants because they did not meet the inclusionary
criteria, resulting in 217 useable questionnaires. Demographics Two hundred seventeen participants (70.5%, n= 153/217 females, 29.5%, n= 64/217 males; 185 Caucasian, 10 African American, 13 Asian, 8 Latino, and 1 other) completed the online questionnaire. General influences on career choice The majority of participants, 86.5% (n=186/215) had career aspirations prior to college admittance. Over eighty-two percent (n=154/186) of those participants were still pursuing their initial career path at the time of the survey. Some of the major influences on career selection include mentors or the observation of a professional (62.4%; n=131/210), a family/friend (40.0%; n=84/210), and SSPs (22.4%, n= 47/210). Influence of internships While only 41.0% (n=86/210) of participants were involved in an internship 57.5% (n=50/87) indicated such opportunities were available through their high school and 66.3% (n=57/86) indicated they researched such opportunities on their own time. The majority of participants (89.4%; n=76/85) agreed their internship experience had a positive influence on their career path. Influence of mentorship Mentors were most influential in a students’ decision on a career path (62.4%; n=131/210), specifically mentorship by a health professional in the same field of study as the participant (32.4%; n= 67/207). The majority of participants (78.9%; n=127/161) indicated that their mentor positively influenced their career path. The majority of participants agreed their mentor was readily available to answer questions regarding career options (85.2%; n=138/162) and educated them on high school course electives which would help them accomplish their career goal (53.1%; n=86/162). High school experience While only 9.3% (n=19/204) of participants attended a SSP, 83.3% (n=15/18) of these participants reported the program positively influenced their career path. Participants that attended a traditional high school indicated more diverse electives (71.8%; n=133/185), internship opportunities (53.5%; n=99/185), and increased mentorship exposure (33.0%; n=61/185) should be made available to better inform students of career options. Thirty-nine percent of participants (n= 79/202) irrespective of the type of high school attended indicated they took approximately 1-5 field trips to various health profession environments. The most influential coursework on career decisions of students were Health & Fitness (46.0%; n=93/202), Biology (38.6%; n=78/202) and Athletic Injuries (37.6%; n=76/202). Conclusion Although previous research suggests high school students have poor knowledge of health professions,4 our results suggest students have some level of exposure to career options in health. The medical and nursing professions are in support of exposing high school students to career options as this increases awareness and selection of careers in the health professions.1,4,6,12 This investigation identified effective methods of influencing high school students to pursue the profession of athletic training. While no research exists regarding such efforts in the athletic training profession, current data from other professions suggests that mentorship, internships, and SSP are effective promotional efforts. We identified the need for increased recruitment efforts targeting minority students as
there was a disproportionate representation of minorities in our study. Several recruitment tactics have been implemented to decrease the disparity, including increased mentorship by minority professionals, the selection of qualified minority students to participate in internship opportunities and the creation of SSPs designed to incorporate, mentorship, internship and academic excellence among minority students.16,21 Minority Athletic Trainers could guest lecture high school course lectures, providing information as to their personal influences, personal experiences, educational path, and employment setting to name a few. The minority Athletic Trainer could also volunteer to mentor prospective students if he/she is not employed at the high school. Mentorship Experiences Our research indicated that mentoring experiences positively influenced the career choice of ATSs. Mentorship is identified as a key component of informing and educating high school students about their career options by offering insight and expertise in guiding students’ career choices.3,4 Certified Athletic Trainers (AT) working in high schools may be the initial source of contact students have with health professionals, therefore, they are accessible to mentor students interested in the profession. ATSs may also serve as mentors for interested ATSs as they may be more closely linked in age and possibly interests and values. Both the AT and ATS can mentor students in their career search by sharing personal experiences and developing a professional personal relationship with the interested student. The AT and/or ATS can mentor students on the importance of effective communication in the healthcare setting through role play and basic conversation. When working in the high school environment, it is necessary for the AT to communicate effectively with the diverse personalities of high school faculty, students, coaches, parents and physicians. Internship Experiences Of the participants involved in an internship, the majority found the experience positively influenced their career path. Internship experiences provide a different learning style for students transitioning from learning cognitive tasks to motor tasks. The ability to adapt to this change in learning style greatly improves the students learning potential by improving critical and reflective thinking skills, and hands-on experience.23 Relative to athletic training, interested students may intern with the AT employed by their school or through affiliations with nearby schools. The increased presence of ATs in the high school setting17,18 may increase student interest in the profession and internship opportunities. To maximize the internship experience, the supervising AT may educate students on basic first aid, taping techniques, and initial treatment techniques of minor athletic injuries. Hands-on experience caters to tactile and visual learners and provides an opportunity for students to familiarize themselves with the demands of the profession.14 Interested students may also create projects assigned by the AT such as posters on prevention and rehabilitation, which not only educate the students but also the athletes. As a result of the internship experience participants were able to identify aspects of the profession which attracted or deterred them from pursuing the profession of interest. Specialized School Programs The application of knowledge obtained in the classroom and during internship and mentorship experiences to real-life situations may improve students’ understanding of previously learned material.15 SSPs have successfully incorporated this concept into their curriculum.1 Such programs have been identified as one of the most effective methods of facilitating student
growth and progression into health professions.1 Although the literature supports the utilization of SSPs to increase student knowledge of health professions, we concluded the availability of more diverse electives as opposed to the type of school program greatly influenced a student’s decision on a career choice. Although not involved in a SSP, the majority of participants were exposed to the athletic training profession through elective courses related to the profession. Providing more diverse electives, for example, Athletic Injuries or Health and Fitness, presents opportunities for ATs to interact with students in the classroom setting, in addition to the clinical setting, thereby increasing exposure to potentially interested students. The athletic training profession should pursue more innovative strategies similar to or in conjunction with those implemented by the medical and nursing professions. ATs working in high schools may mentor prospective students via teaching courses at their school, guest lecturing, or organizing open houses/career fairs on collegiate campuses. Although some ATs may be actively engaged in mentorship, internship and SSPs, more involvement is needed. For example, athletic training professionals and educators could work collaboratively to develop and offer summer enrichment programs, implement academy programs for students to attend throughout the school year, or host career fairs and information sessions with nearby high schools, to name a few. Student recruitment research in allied health reported a majority of students decided to pursue a health career at an early age,1 substantiating the need for the athletic training profession to target this population. References 1. Baldwin A, Agho AO. Student Recruitment in Allied Health Educational Programs: The Importance of Initial Source of Contact. J Allied Health. 2003; 32(2): 65-70. 2. Alexander C, Fraser J. The Promotion of Health Careers to High School Students in the New England Health Area: The Views of High School Careers Advisors. Aust J Rural Health. 2001; 9: 145-149. 3. Bumgarner SD, Means BH, Ford MJ. Building Bridges from High School to Healthcare Professional. J Nurses Staff Devt. 2003; 19(1): 18-22. 4. Marcelin GE, Goldman L, Spivey WL, Eichel JD, Kaufman F, Fleischman AR. The Junior Fellows Program: Motivating Urban Youth Toward Careers in Health, Science, and Medicine. J Urban Health. 2004; 81(3): 516-523. 5. Nessel PA. Law Magnet Programs. ERIC Digest. 1996: 1-7. 6. Hadderman M. Trends and Issues: Magnet Schools. ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management. 2002; 1-7. 7. Glazer H, Parker HJ, Rasberry JL, Buentello J, DeVaney A, Goodman MS, Hucks LH, Lee C, Chan F. Perceived Prestige and Health Careers Recruitment. J Healthc Educ Train. 1994; 8(3): 13- 17. 8. Soto-Greene M, Wright L, Gona OD, Feldman LA. Minority Enrichment Programs at the New Jersey Medical School: 26 Years in Review. Acad Med. 1999; 74(7): 386-389. 9. Hausman CS, Goldring EB. School Community in Different Magnet Structures. Sch Eff Sch Improv. 2000; 11(1): 80 -102. 10. Shannon DM, Bradshaw CC. A Comparison of Response Rate, Response Time, and Costs of Mail and Electronic Surveys. JEXPE. 2002; 70(2): 179-192. 11. Schaeffer DR, Dillman DA. Development of Standard E-Mail Methodology: Results on an Experiment. POQ. 1998; 62(3): 378-397.
12. Fincher RM, Sykes- Brown W, Allen-Noble R. Health Science Learning Academy: A Successful “Pipeline” Educational Program for High School Students. Acad Med. 2002; 77(7): 737-738.
Global Literacy: Challenges, Choices and Convictions Renita Ferreira and Mohammed K. Farouk Florida International University, USA Abstract: Teaching with a global focus in schools today is compelling. Teachers need to be educated in engaging students to become globally literate. The curriculum has failed to meet this dire need. Hence, teachers assume the role of global educators through the meaningful interpretation of the curriculum to connect with students. Recently, there has been plenty of evidence that global controversies are growing in magnitude and will neither go away nor resolve themselves. They require action. For this paper global education will be used as the process and global literacy as the end product. Various definitions of global education (Calder & Smith, 1996; Kirkwood, 2001,) are attempts at capturing this field, which is characterized by definitional ambiguities (Kirkwood, 2001). Those responsible for preparing students to become responsible global citizens should be trained and willing to deal with difficult global issues. Literacy has had an evolving definition. Being able to read and write is an archaic definition in today’s information age and globalized world. Literacy today stands for know-how and awareness of the first word appended to it (Dubin & Kuhlman, 1992). Our understanding of literacy is changing (Leu & Kinzer, 2000). Education for global literacy and global citizenship (Nussbaum, 1997) must replace the very obsolete connotation of literacy. Hence, today global literacy stands for understanding that the world is interconnected and becoming increasingly multicultural; and in the chaos of economic development, the earth is heading towards selfdestruction (Hanvey, 1982). Students should leave school reasonably globally literate, able to (a) speak one or more languages in addition to English to develop better communication skills; (b) train for high skilled jobs in the United States or abroad; (c) find ways to travel and develop a curiosity and appreciation of other cultures; (d) learn to protect nature through ecological education; (e) develop an awareness of the world and human rights, and dissipate apathy; and (f) apply creative, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills to relevant class work and global issues (International Education Summit, 2005). Objectives The objective of this paper is not only to steer away from rhetoric and linguistic jargon, but also to make suggestions for facilitating the process of educating for global literacy, both for teachers and students. The purpose is to address the challenges that teachers will encounter in the process, and the choices they will be forced to make as global educators. These can only be made if they have the conviction that it is truly their responsibility. The intent is to explore ways of addressing these issues, focusing on strategies for moving educational systems towards a more inclusive direction, and procuring the involvement of both students and community. “Teachers must develop reflective cultural, national and global identifications themselves if they are to help students become thoughtful, caring, and reflective citizens in a multicultural world society” (Banks, 2001, p. 5). Tucker (1991) views teachers and not textbooks as more important in delivering the global education culture. Teachers’ choice of pedagogy, content, approach and convictions will change the dimension of teaching and characterize it with a global
Ferreira, R., & Farouk, M. K. (2007). Global literacy: Challenges, choices and convictions. In S. M. Nielsen & M. S. Plakhotnik (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Annual College of Education Research Conference: Urban and International Education Section (pp. 12-17). Miami: Florida International University. http://coeweb.fiu.edu/research_conference/
13 focus. Students will thus see the world through eyes other than the dominant ones in terms of class, background, identity, race, culture, and citizenship. Theoretical Framework As Americans navigate through the tumultuous waves of the effects of globalization, facing the increasing complexities in the world, there is rising concern that schools today are not adequately preparing students for the challenges of a changing world (Merryfield, 1998). This paper draws upon the theoretical work of several prominent educators, notably John Dewey (1916) who said that as a society progresses, it must understand its responsibility to convey and safeguard some of its best present achievements to help make a better future society. The school must be considered as the appropriate mechanism used to achieve this goal. Dewey (1916) saw educated citizens as more than a society of individuals with technical skills, vocational inclinations, and economic ambitions. Therefore, this paper will put forward a discussion to answer questions that will address the urgency of students becoming global citizens and achieving global literacy, and how teachers can bring about this change: (a) When we talk about global literacy, what are we trying to achieve and for whom? (b) How might the challenges be addressed? (c) How do teachers make choices? (d) Do teachers have the conviction and selfdetermination to enact the initiatives? Barber (2002) explains the paradox regarding U.S. global education: although this country is among the most diverse worldwide, with students from numerous cultures, we are among the least knowledgeable about our students’ native countries and cultures. Hanvey’s (1982) criteria for global education in the classroom have been succeeded by others who either added to the norms (Pike & Selby, 1988) or worked with variations of it (Kniep, 1991). Pike and Selby (1988) included values into global education; Tye and Tye (1992) state that global education engages students of all ages and in all subject matters. In the first major evaluation of world studies in schools, conducted among over 200 teachers, Steiner (1992) found that teachers lacked the confidence and expertise needed to translate their otherwise positive attitude toward the subject. Since teachers are pivotal (Tucker, 1990) in the delivery of global literacy, it is crucial that teachers are trained to have the confidence and conviction to make choices and face the challenges presented to them in an inclusive curriculum or teaching to include and embed a global focus. Many teachers are intimidated by words like globalization, global education, and global literacy (Merryfield, 2000) and unfortunately they have not been prepared to teach for diversity, challenge inequities, or even recognize the effects of globalization. Challenges The complexity of these global issues presents many challenges for teachers, students, and the community who must develop a unified effort to make the global education program successful. Implementing global education has proven contentious (Schukar, 1993). Werner (1991) explains that the general consensus is students should be trained to enter into an interdependent world, but limitations exist in the knowledge and rationale for this training. This paper will address some of the dilemmas. Challenges for Teachers One of the more prominent challenges for teachers as envisioned by the researcher and informed by global educators (Hanvey, 1982; Merryfield, 1998) is that those teaching global education must be competent in analyzing this complex world through lived experiences. This particular challenge will come easier to the well-traveled teacher or to the immigrant teacher who can share not only their experiences but also those of their students who hail from different
14 cultures, whether they are Eurocentric, Asian, Hispanic or other. Teachers must ensure that the workforce of the 21st century is flexible, skilful, and that they become lifelong learners. The challenge of making children functional in an extremely competitive environment is difficult, especially when knowledge has a very short shelf-life. Proficiency in languages helps teachers understand immigrant students and empathize with them. Teachers play dual roles in their classroom which can become problematic. They defend human rights of the underprivileged while simultaneously guarding against the eradication of the rainforest by the same indigenous people whose rights are being protected. Teachers evade such controversial issues due mostly to a sheer lack of aptitude. An emerging awareness of the world goes hand-in-glove with a growing level of self-awareness. The outward journey is also the inward journey (Pike & Selby, 2000). Again, teachers should be models of appropriate values such as caring, exhibit behaviors of tolerance and understanding, while firmly enacting the tenets of global education. Tensions can arise between local and global when students are reluctant to relinquish their roots (Delors (UNESCO, 1999) Additionally, there are extraneous activities such as constraints of time, and policies that include deadlines on testing which prevent teachers from being global educators. The lack of support from the administration for a school-wide program such as global education can be detrimental to the enthusiasm of a global teacher. Universities and teacher training colleges neglect to internationalize and train teachers in global education and how it can be woven into almost any lesson plan in any discipline. Importantly, teacher training institutions should provide a mentoring service for novice teachers who get embroiled in the bureaucracy of the school system, and neglect to perform as global educators even when educated to do so. Mature teachers should be encouraged to attend seminars with international content and technological teaching aids. Some of the promising practices in global education, namely the emphasis on interdisciplinary concepts, model inquisitiveness, skepticism, and participatory learning, need greater attention and collaboration on the part of the teachers. Challenges for Students Students are vulnerable because they are victims of what is now being referred to as outof-school literacy. It is considered a multifaceted, evolving construct developed by youth and their communities. Young people construct networks of friends on web-based computer blogs (e.g., My Space) while simultaneously instant messaging and researching for a homework assignment online. Out-of-school youth learning takes place with social networks at home. Youth proactively engage in and successfully learn new meanings and knowledge in their everyday cultural, social, linguistic, and community contexts which can be detrimental to what they learn in school, and which is a challenge because frequently it is contradictory in content. Global education can help students discover ways their lives might be enriched by the world as well. Goodlad (1986) cautions that if schools fail to provide opportunities, students might conclude, that everything “out there” is inferior or even wrong. This emphasizes the “us” and “them” factor (Huntington, 2003) even more. A global curriculum helps students understand and become supportive of global programs which would enhance their experiences in global literacy. With the accelerating growth of global interdependence evident in spiraling economic, political, cultural, technological, and ecological linkages that increasingly characterize the international order (Anderson, 1990; Tye, 1990), students’ experience increased challenges in obtaining jobs in a very competitive world. This situation is aggravated if they lack language skills or opportunities to deliberate global issues. Students tend to be egocentric especially at adolescence (Elkind, 1967). Adolescents,
15 because of the physiological metamorphosis they are undergoing, are primarily concerned with themselves. Accordingly, they fail to differentiate between what others are thinking and their own mental preoccupations. An antidote to egocentrism can be service learning. It is a powerful strategy for teaching and learning global education, which allows young people to deepen and demonstrate their learning and at the same time develop a strong sense of civic responsibility (Glenn, 2002). Challenges Facing the Community As stated before Dewey (1916) considers the community an integral part for creating a better learning environment in school, one that will perpetuate its culture. The school is a reflection of its community. Very frequently the community lives in isolation from its schools for many reasons, such as the lack of communication between schools and communities and the quality of communication. This challenge is reciprocal since both school and community need to find a common “meeting ground.” Service and community learning should be well received within a community and treated as an extension of the schools. The cliché “think locally, act globally” is doable but remains a challenge mainly from the lack of interest from the community itself or cooperation from those in power who can make it happen. Engaging the community in athletics within themselves and the “outside” world, celebrating their culture with the cultures of the world, and opening their homes to exchange students from abroad and participating in global outreach programs are some ideas to make the global and local coincide. Choices for Teachers Choice is both desirable and empowering (Iyengar & Lepper, 1999). Teachers can make good choices only if they are knowledgeable about the local community and the world. An essential ingredient in making choices is “care” (Gaudelli, 2003). If teachers cared enough about the children upon whose minds they make an indelible mark, then maybe they would make the right choices. Teachers must choose books from other languages and cultures with guided discussions to help children develop an understanding of other people and their customs. Reading material can have a transformative effect and can become an important element of a global curriculum. Teachers can also be innovative in the development of extracurricular activities for extra credit or merely as relief from the drudgery of studying. Economics and mathematics lend themselves to a similar treatment - economics is a dynamic field, closely related to globalization and the functioning of global markets. Choices for Students Intrinsic motivation has provided the clearest demonstration of the link between the provision of choice and motivation (Iyengar & Lepper, 1999). The obvious lack of choices in the curriculum mandated by the state is detrimental to the global education of the student. Social studies is the most appropriate subject for launching global education, but because of accountability, it has been side-stepped. If choices are offered, students have opportunities to study content that can empower them to consider diverse and conflicting points of view. It can encourage them to think critically about their own identity and social construction. Teachers who provide experiential inquiry and collaborative learning (Pike & Selby, 1988) through choices help students learn from their own and other people’s experiences and feelings. Choices for the Community There is increasing recognition within developmental, educational, and sociological theories that both schools and home are important institutions that socialize and educate children. Most current theories stress the need for connections between families and schools (Epstein, 1990). Polls of public opinion (Gallup, 1986), for example, have shown that parents want more
16 contact with schools. The most important choice that the community must make is one in which they feel the gratification that their children are being prepared to become not only patriotic citizens of their own country but world class citizens. Public schools must adopt the concepts of parents-as-policy-makers to initiate community contribution at the local level and eventually transform it to a new and ambitious global level. Convictions New initiatives have had as their foundations the belief that teaching and learning in the 21st century need a fresh impetus that encapsulates new learning, new pedagogies, and new technologies. These initiatives are not contexts for adding more to an already crowded curriculum, but rather are reconceptualizations of curriculum and pedagogies. Barriers to curricular change include the traditional teacher-oriented beliefs, values and convictions of all constituents involved (administrators, teachers, students, parents etc.), teachers’ knowledge bases and personal characteristics (i.e., age, experience, academic training), and the traditional structure of schools. Beliefs and convictions are personal constructs important to a teacher’s practice, and there exists general agreement that beliefs and convictions are connected to planned and enacted instructional practices in the classroom (Pajares, 1992). Teachers must remember they are not the only ones that must be convinced; students and the community must be persuaded that they have the combined responsibility to promote global perspectives. Conclusion Global education by its nature and purpose is transformative. It aims to transform students to understand through a series of lenses a world that is interconnecting and interdependent; it aims to empower teachers to teach about the world and it provokes communities to embrace and celebrate that world. Through reflection on individual identities across local, national and global contexts, teachers can translate meanings of global education into classroom practice. The depth and quality of the teacher’s understanding of global education are significant factors in what and how global education is taught (Pike & Selby, 2000). It is only with that deep sentiment of conviction that teachers who strive to become global educators will overcome the challenges, and provide students with more choices in the curriculum to enable them to become globally literate. References Anderson, L.F. (1990). A rationale for global education. In K.A. Tye (Ed.), Global education: From thought to action. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Banks, J. (2001). Citizenship education and diversity implications for teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 52, 5-16. Barber, B. R. (2002). The educated student: global citizen or global consumer? Liberal Education, 88, 22-28. Calder, M., & Smith, R. (1993). A better world for all: Development education for the classroom. Canberra: AusAID. Delors, J. (1999). Education for the twenty-first century: Issues and prospects. Retrieved 25 July, 2006, from http://www.unesco.org/delors/ Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University. Dubin, F., & Kuhlman, N. A. (1992). The dimensions of cross-cultural literacy. In F. Dubin & N. A. Kuhlman (Eds.), Cross-cultural literacy: Global perspectives on reading and writing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Regents/Prentice Hall. Elkind, D. (1967). Egocentrism in adolescence. Child Development, 38, 1025-1034.
17 Epstein, J. L. (1990). School and family connections: Theory, research, and implications for integrating sociologies of education and family. Marriage and Family Review, 15, 99126. Gallup, G. H. (1986). The 18th annual gallup poll of the public’s attitude toward public schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 68, 43-59. Gaudelli, W. (2003). World class: Teaching and learning in global times. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Glenn, J. (2002). Learning in deed: The power of service-learning for American schools. The National Commission on Service Learning. New York: Author. Goodlad, J. I. (1986). The learner at the world’s center. Social Education, 50, 430-433. Hanvey, R. (1982). An attainable global perspective. Theory Into Practice, 21, 167-197. Huntington, S. (2003). The clash of civilizations and the making of world order. New York: Simon and Schuster. International Education Summit. (2005). Global literacy for Wisconsin The 2005 International Education Summit. Iyengar, S. S., & Lepper, M. R. (1999). Rethinking the value of choice: A cultural perspective on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 349-366. Kirkwood, T. (2001). Our global age requires global education: Clarifying definitional ambiguities. Social Studies, 92, 10-16 Leu, D. J., Jr., & Kinzer, C. K. (2000). The convergence of literacy instruction with networked technologies for information and communication. Reading Research Quarterly, 35, 108127. Merryfield, M. (1998). Pedagogy for global perspectives in education: Studies of teachers’ thinking and practice. Theory and Research in Social Education, 26, 342-379. Merryfield, M. (2000). Why aren’t teachers being prepared to teach for diversity, equity, and global connectedness? A study of the lived experiences in making of multicultural and global educators. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16, 429-443. Nussbaum, M. (1997). Cultivating humanity: A classical defense of reform in liberal education. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Pajares, M. F. (1992) Teachers’ beliefs and education research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 62, 307-332. Pike G., & Selby, D. (1988). Global teacher global learner. London: Hodder and Stoughton. Pike, G., & Selby, D. (2000). Global education as transformative education. Retrieved 26 July, 2006, from www.citzens4change.org Schukar, R. (1993). Controversy in global education: Lesson for teacher educators. Theory Into Practice, 32, 52-57. Steiner, M. (1992). Evaluating active learning. World Studies, 24, 8-13. Tucker, J.J. (1991). Global education partnerships between schools and universities. Yearbook of Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 109-124. Tye, K. (Ed.). (1990). Global education: From thought to action. Yearbook of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Tye, B. B., & Tye, K. A. (1992). Global education: A study of school change. Albany: State University of New York Press. Werner, W. (1991). Contradictions in global education. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Forum of Global Education, Hartford, CT.
Culturally Appropriate Authentic Assessments: Exploring the Use of Authentic Assessments for African American Children at Risk for Special Education in Urban Settings Delsue Frankson and Cheryl White-Lindsey Florida International University, USA Abstract: Authentic assessments provide an alternative to informal and formal assessments which may reduce the number of African Americans in special education programs. This literature review will explore the use of authentic assessment for at risk students in special education programs in urban settings. Learning disability and emotional disorders continue to be overrepresented in minority children and have become a national dilemma that occurs in urban educational settings. Learning disability is “an inability to learn at an expected rate despite the fact that they [children] have experienced traditionally adequate instructional programs and typically have process-oriented deficits, as opposed to effect-oriented deficits” (Bernstein & Tiegerman, 1993, p. 328). Emotional disorders include “children or youth with schizophrenia, affective or anxiety disorders, in which behavioral or emotional responses of the individual in school are so different from his/her generally accepted, age appropriate, ethnic or cultural norms that they adversely affect performance in a variety of areas” (National Association of School Psychologists, 2005). The most prominent group of minority students placed in special education classes are African Americans, followed by Hispanics. For the purpose of this literature review the term African American refers to black students of African or Caribbean decent, born in the United States, who refer to themselves as black, non-Hispanic. African American students are 2.9 times more likely than White students to be labeled mentally retarded, 1.9 times more likely to be labeled emotionally disturbed, and 1.3 times more likely to be labeled having a learning disability (National Alliance of Black School Educators & ILIAD Project, 2002). The educational status of African Americans in urban schools has continually received scrutiny, due in part to the deplorable status these schools. Urban schools have low retention rates and test scores, comparatively poor grades, and disproportional representation of minorities in special education (Harris, Brown, Ford, & Richardson, 2004). This over-representation of African American students in special education has been a concern for over three decades; however, the attempts of the educational system to address and modify this problem have failed. African Americans have been placed and maintained in special programs based on their perceived abilities rather than the actual abilities to interact within social constructs, including academic, behavioral, linguistic, and/or emotional. Referrals to special education are more than likely initiated during the elementary school years and are often based on formal and informal assessments and teachers’ misunderstanding of students’ cultural needs (Losen, Orfield, & Harvard Civil Rights Project, 2002). African Americans display the academic behaviors that do not emulate their non-minority peers; African Americans are more expressive, verbal, field dependent (in that they require contextual instruction), relational, and affectively oriented. African American students are expected to perform and test within a culture they may have little or no understanding of (Daunic, Correa, Reyes-Blanes, & Maria, 2004) and are expected to meet the same expectations as their peers from other cultural backgrounds. As a result, these students become frustrated, develop self-doubt stigmas, feel lost, and intimidated when instructed and Frankson, D., & White-Lindsey, C. (2007). Culturally appropriate authentic assessments: Exploring the use of authentic assessments for African American children at risk for special education in urban settings. In S. M. Nielsen & M. S. Plakhotnik (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Annual College of Education Research Conference: Urban and International Education Section (pp. 18-23). Miami: Florida International University. http://coeweb.fiu.edu/research_conference/
19 evaluated in traditional settings. The term disability carries a distinct biological marker, in which the social stigma of the term denotes negativity and stereotypes (Conner & Ferri, 2005), especially for African American students. The Civil Rights Project at Harvard University identified teachers’ methods of teaching and concluded most teachers did not take into account the learning styles of their students, especially minorities (Losen et al., 2002). Without a basic knowledge of the needs of African American students, teachers allow for the same scenario for some African American students. They take formal or informal tests that do not account for their different learning styles and have their tests graded through one modality. Then, the students are erroneously labeled and assigned to special education (Daunic et al., 2004). Using research-based data teachers can gain an understanding of academic needs of African American students and provide those who continuously fail tests the opportunity to receive alternating forms of assessments. Authentic assessments can be used as a secondary source and an alternative testing option for African Americans who have proven to be unsuccessful with standardized tests. Authentic assessments are often referred to as performance-based assessments, and the format allows for students to engage in real-world tasks and scenario-based problem solving more than traditional assessments such as multiple choice or true/false pencil-and-paper based tests (DarlingHammond, 1997). In addition, authentic assessments are mostly open-ended and can be answered using multiple approaches. Authentic assessments can take the form of performances, projects, writings, demonstrations, debates, simulations, presentations, or other open-ended tasks (Cheek, 1993; Dana & Tippins, 1993). The purpose of this paper is to explore the literature on the use of authentic assessments on African American students at risk for referral to special education. The over-representation of African Americans in special education has had a significantly negative impact on their achievement in school. The topic of over-representation has been significantly researched yet the use of authentic assessments as an alternative testing source for African American students is under-researched. The authors hope to contribute to the need for an increased effort toward the development of authentic assessments for African Americans students who are at risk for referral into special education programs. Method To collect data, we searched five databases for journal articles as well as Florida International University Library Catalog using key descriptors. The databases were: Psych Info, Educational Full Text, ERIC, Wilson Omnifile Full Text Mega, and Fact Search. The database searches were done on: ERIC - May 26, 2006, Psych INFO- May 27, 2006, Fact Search – June 7, 2006, Education Full Text – May 26, 2006, and Wilson Omni File – June 7, 2006. Each of the key descriptors, African American and Black American, was combined with the following key words: authentic assessment, achievement gap, intervention, ethics, academic achievement, at risk students, special education, overrepresentation, disproportionality, emotional disability, and learning disability. Incidences of authentic assessments and their use with urban minority students and the success rates of African American students as a result of authentic assessments in school-based settings were also searched as underlying thematic focus. To be included in this literature review, the research had to be published between 1990 and 2006. The search resulted in 23,942 hits. ERIC database produced the most hits (7,548), followed by PsycINFO (6,942), Wilson Omni File (5,321), Education Full Text (3,923), and Fact Search (208). The distribution of hits resulted from using the key descriptor Black American is provided in Table 1 and African American in Table 2.
20 Table 1 Results of Combination of African American and Key Words by Database Descriptors & Black American Authentic assessments Achievement gap Intervention Ethics Academic achievement At risk Special education Overrepresentation Disproportionality Emotional disability Learning disability
Wilson Omni File Full Text Mega 3 52 650 240 337 650 656 48 5 5 7
Education Full Text
12 301 394 60 1,765 756 929 40 6 22 34
0 22 163 21 139 416 27 6 2 4 4
0 102 228 72 507 249 1,139 31 3 3 10
0 0 7 0 0 5 1 0 0 4 2
We declined the articles with studies that were too broad. We chose to use a deductive analysis for the selection of the articles because we had a preconceived focus related to African American and authentic assessments.
Table 2 Results of Combination of African American and Key Words by Databases Descriptors & African American Authentic assessments Achievement gap Intervention Ethics Academic achievement At risk Special education Overrepresentation Disproportionality Emotional disability Learning disability
Wilson Omnifile Full Text Mega 2 51 669 173 368 583 716 62 5 20 19
Education Full Text
12 247 40 61 1,259 710 796 37 11 22 34
2 1,309 1,270 45 1,021 2,225 214 29 9 5 9
2 106 226 36 399 213 943 38 3 4 9
0 8 10 1 8 139 18 3 1 0 1
21 Discussion Urban special educational programs in inner cities face unique challenges. The design of appropriate educational programs for urban special education students needs to be examined. Morse (2001) provides reasons why educational programs should meet the needs of this population. Morse addresses the fundamental differences between urban schools ands rural or suburban schools, focusing on the labeling of students in urban special education and the evolution of their disabilities. Urban special education students differ from their peers in that they require a more extensive form of instruction that involves authentic, culturally relevant activities to meet their individual needs. Additionally, students in urban schools are susceptible to at-risk factors, such as poverty, single parent households, higher dropout rates, and parents with a lowered educational level. Standardized Assessment and African American Students Race as an academic achievement predictor is important when determining the appropriate assessments to use for authentic assessments. Traditionally, schools systems track performance on achievement test by race (African American, Hispanic American, Native American, Asian American, and White) to compare different groups of students and their performance on standardized assessments. African American and Hispanic students are at a disadvantage compared to their White peers on achievement tests. The knowledge of being tested on their academic abilities (stereotype threat) inhibits African American students from performing at higher achievement levels (Bainbridge & Lasley, 2002). In a study comparing reading and math performance of African American and European American students in Ohio’s urban districts the big eight average (Akron, Canton, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Dayton, Toledo, and Youngstown), African American students’ reading performance was an average of 28.5%, where White students performed an average of 36.9%. In math African American students performed 16.3% on average whereas White students performed at 41.0% (Ohio Department of Education, 1999). These discrepancies continue to support the gap in achievement between African Americans and their White peers. The implications for African American student are critical and students need to be exposed to high quality, well-designed assessments that take into consideration the risk factors associated with certain racial groups. Designing appropriate authentic assessments will aid in lessening the gap in performance of students from different races. Authentic Assessment: Steps to Creating Achievement in African Americans Authentic assessments provides for modification of curricular forms of assessments that alters the assumed outcome of African American learners (as to prevent harm or improve their academic achievement). Creating appropriate alternative assessments for African American students involves the following steps. The first step involves an intervention that focuses on redesigning the urban school by incorporating a school-wide implementation of culturally responsive practices, such as teacher dialogue, student cultural activities, and parental involvement. Next, schools must infuse authentic assessments that involve content-rich pedagogy that is relatable for minority, high-poverty or urban poor populations and focus on the curriculum, assessments, teachers, and systems to monitor students progress (see Table 3). Finally, designing instructional practices, such as a comprehensive curriculum, in which goals, objectives, and parental input and involvement are aligned with the diversity of students’ cultures and learning styles provides for a more appropriate means of providing a quality education for African American children at risk for special education in urban settings.
22 Table 3 Key Attributes of Effective Urban Schools 1
Use standards extensively to design curriculum and instruction, assess student work, and evaluate teachers. 2 Lengthen instructional time in reading and mathematics as a strategy for increasing the number of students meeting the standards. 3 Use the available flexibility in the law to spend more on professional development for tractors that can improve instructional practice. 4 Have comprehensive systems to monitor students’ mastery of standard through authentic assessments and provide extra support to students who need it. 5 Tightly focus parental involvement efforts on helping students meet standards by helping parents understand the standards and assessments formats and procedures. 6 Tend to be located in districts and/or states that have accountability systems with built-in consequences for school staff. Note: Adapted from the Alliance for Excellent Education (2002, p. 20). Students’ self-esteem is related to their academic success. Teaching and assessing minority students must involve honoring ancestral culture and building on students’ strengths (Delpit, 1995). Creating authentic assessments that involve tasks such as oral retellings or tactile physical activities may be a better alternative for African American students. Once students realize their culture and community are valued, they will take pride in their community and will be more apt to perform better on assessments. Implications Designing appropriate assessments for African Americans with and without disabilities will allow them to become full participants in their academic careers. Policy makers should understand the uniqueness of these students. Designing school curriculum and assessments that provide an embedded alternative to assessment will meet their individual needs (Morse, 2001), allow for a more equal playing field, and help bridge the gap between this population and their White counterparts. African American students must be enrolled in schools that nurture and support them while stimulating high quality instruction. Performance of African Americans, more so than other students, is influenced to a large degree by the social support and encouragement that they receive from teachers (Ladson-Billings, 1994; Noguera, 2003). Any negative interactions will have the same effect, however, in a diminishing manner. References Bainbridge, W. L., & Lasley, T. J. (2002). Demographics, diversity, and k-12 accountability: The challenge of closing the achievement gap. Education and Urban Society, 34(4), 422437. Bernstein, D. K., & Tiegerman, E. (1993). Language and communication disorders in children. New York: Macmillan. Cheek, D. W. (1993). Plain talk about alternative assessment. Middle School Journal, 25(2), 610. Connor, D., & Ferri, B. (2005). Tools of Exclusion: Race, Disability and (Re) Segregated Education. Teachers College Record, 107(3), 453-474. Dana, T. M., & Tippins, D. J. (1993). Considering alternative assessment for middle level
23 learners. Middle School Journal, 25(2), 3-5. Darling-Hammond, L. (1997). The right to learn: A blue-print for creating schools that work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Daunic, A. P., Correa, V. I., Reyes-Blanes, & Maria E. (2004). Teacher preparation for culturally diverse classrooms: Performance-based assessment of beginning teachers. Teacher Education and Special Education, 27(2), 105 – 118. Delpit, L. (1995). Other people’s children: Cultural conflict in the classroom. New York: New Press. Harris, J. J., III, Brown, E., L., Ford, D. Y., & Richardson, J. W. (2004). African Americans and multicultural education: A proposed remedy for disproportionate special education placement and under inclusion in gifted education. Education and Urban Society, 36(3), 304-341. Ladson-Billings, G. (1994). The dreamkeepers: Successful teachers of African American. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Losen, D. J., & Orfield, G. (Eds.). (2002). Racial inequity in special education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press. Morse, T. E. (2001). Designing appropriate curriculum for special education students in urban schools. Education and Urban Society, 34(1), 4-17. National Alliance of Black School Educators & ILIAD Project (2002). Addressing overrepresentation of African American students in special education. Arlington, VA: Council for Exceptional Children. National Association of School Psychologists. (2005). Position statement on students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Retrieved July 10, 2006, from http://www.nasponline.org/information/pospaper sebd.html Noguera, P. A. (2003). The trouble with black boys: The role and influence of environmental and cultural factors on the academic performance of African American males. Urban Education, 38(4), 431-459. Ohio Department of Education. (1999). Comparison of Reading and Math Performance of African Americans and European American Students in Ohio’s Urban Districts. Dayton, OH: Ohio Department of Education.
African History and Identity: A Case Study of Black British Students in London Janice Giles Florida International University, USA Abstract: Through the administration of questionnaires and interviews in six of London’s secondary schools, this case study seeks to investigate Black Britons’ self-concepts and attitudes toward curricular depictions of continental and diasporan Africans and the extent to which the African Union’s (A.U.) PanAfrican outreach agenda may be advanced or challenged. As one of the world’s most vibrant cosmopolitan cities, London boasts a population of immense cultural, linguistic, and religious diversity. Its contemporary global status and strength as a premiere financial and corporate center lends to its appeal for Asian, European, and Middle Eastern financiers and ensures a steady influx of residents from all over the world. However, the lures of this metropolis has as much to do with Britain’s imperialist legacy as it does with the current economic order. This is especially true for Britain’s sizable Black population whose swelling numbers attest to this nation’s historic relationship with Africa dating back to the 16th century, as well as Britain’s sustained influence among her former colonial territories. The African Diaspora of Britain, therefore, boasts a rich history of contribution to the strength of the former empire and present-day nation in economic, cultural, and socio-political terms. Her peoples are a mix of long established African communities, 20th and 21st century Caribbean and continental African immigrants, as well as their first and second generation British born descendents (Adi, 2000). However, in spite of Black Briton’s collective contributions to the strength and vibrancy of Britain, race relations have been strained as European ethnocentrism has thwarted the accommodation of this segment of this demographic in school and social policy (Solomos, 2003). Most problematic, is the contradiction evident in Britain’s national curriculum affecting Black Caribbeans (566,000), Africans (485,000), those who self-identify as mixed race (674,000), and Black Other (97,000), collectively constituting Britain’s African Diaspora. So extreme is the negation of Black British life, history, and agency, within the national curriculum that there can be evidenced instances of reactionary identity development, as well as an ethos of anti-intellectualism among the youth that oft result in negative self-concepts. As a result, the present-day reality of these diasporans is characterized by a dynamic negotiation of assimilation and resistance forces that both affect, and are a response to the public policy trends of the state (Byfield, 2000). Statement of Problem In response to this crisis, many theorists purport that the suppression of African history and erasure of the Diaspora’s legacy from British curriculum reinforces a notion of Black Briton as a stereotypically passive and disenfranchised peopling. Factoring in the images of Africans as portrayed in canon when formulating their self-conceptualizations has not only been found to be gravely detrimental to the personal, socio-economic, and political development of the community, but poses a significant threat to Black adolescents, whom whilst engaged in secondary schooling traverse the most critical stages of identity development (Phinney, 1990). Although the inclusion of content relevant to Black British life and achievement has been theorized as a means to foster racial and culture consciousness and ameliorate the swelling Giles, J. (2007). African history and identity: A case study of Black British students in London. In S. M. Nielsen & M. S. Plakhotnik (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Annual College of Education Research Conference: Urban and International Education Section (pp. 24-29). Miami: Florida International University. http://coeweb.fiu.edu/research_conference/
25 numbers of school exclusions and underachievers, African heritage has largely been relegated to a subtopic of British history to be engaged haphazardly during the designated month of October (Britain's Black Heritage month). For government representatives such as Chair of the Commission for Racial Equality, Trevor Philips, the politics of textual authority has been wholly neglected. In like manner, academicians within the dominant discourse regarding the crises facing Black students in British schools such as Tony Sewell have firmly rooted the cause of the community’s arrested academic development in the cultural values of the Diaspora itself, reinforcing stereotypical notions of African and African descended traditions and communities and refusing to account for Black Africans as the most highly educated group in British society (Cross, 1994). In this way, it becomes of great significance to uncover whether or not access to an unadulterated and counter African historiography and recount of contemporary agency via the oral traditions of family and elders may contribute to the advance of this segment of the Diaspora versus others. Significance of Study Irrespective of the heightened awareness of the politics of race and culture within education, conservatism continues to tone the policy that determines the content of British curriculum, and stifles the response of the state to Black Britain’s socio-political demands. It is within this context, as well as the recognition of the force of African history on critical culture consciousness in the empowerment of diasporic societies throughout the Pan-African that the A.U. has embarked upon a counter strategy to engender a 21st century African Renaissance. Centering discourse on the education-identity-mobilization nexus, African leaders and theoreticians from the continent and Diaspora gathered at the First and Second Conferences of Intellectuals of Africa and the Diasporas in 2004, in Dakar, Senegal, and 2006 in Brazil, respectively. In the panel discussion led by chairperson Adama Samassekou, on African Identity in a Multicultural Context at the CIID (2004), speakers drew attention to the politics of race and ethnicity in the respective continental and extra-continental African locales, the influence of globalization/westernization on the multiple African cultural identities, and the need to review and remodel curricula pertaining to Africa and Her peoples (AfricanUnion.org, 2006). In facilitation of the achievement of the goals of the A.U. in this respect, this research endeavors toward a case study of the African Diaspora of Britain, whose location within a polity whose leadership has influenced the movement of and the world’s relationship to the African for over 500 years, makes it invaluable to understanding the staggered nature of acculturation patterns, the preservation of the ‘African personality’ in the face of cultural hegemony, as well as the impact of historical and contemporary scholarship regarding the African on the shifting nature of diasporan identity. The notion of Diaspora itself assumes heterogeneity, and attitudes toward Africa and concepts of the self are largely context specific. This research limits its scope to uncover the nature of situations within this particular space that affect identity and feelings of self-mastery, impacted by the negation of African curriculum in British education. This study seeks to address the following questions: 1) What are the elements or situations that impact identity among adolescents and young adults of African descent in London’s secondary schools? 2) How do the realities of Peoples of African decent as reflected in Britain's national curriculum influence self-concepts and attitudes toward the Black British and larger Pan-African body?
26 Review of Literature Blacks and Britain Though the African presence in Britain was a reality from as early as 210AD, xenophobia engendered an intermediate home grown racial narrative based on the Victorian images of the savage African that held currency from as early as the 16th century (Jones, 1971). Such was the fear of Africa and its inhabitants during this time that in 1596 Queen Elizabeth ordered Africans out of the land, disturbed by their presence. This view of the African as a threat to the cultural integrity of Britain was a sentiment that echoed through out the centuries up until and beyond Enoch Powell’s 1968 “Rivers of Blood” speech in response to the great waves of Caribbean immigrants in the 1940s, 50s, and 60s (Natfront.com, 2007). With the 1979 election of Conservative Margaret Thatcher unemployment and discrimination burgeoned, and Blacks in Britain of all ethnicities and social classes became increasingly impoverished as a consequence of the heightened serge in racist politics. Thatcherism demonized the underprivileged and marginalized for their suboptimal positions, and a ‘blame the victim’ mentality was aggressively perpetuated (Lea, 1997). At the close of the 20th century, Blacks in Britain continued to find themselves as targets of racial aggression as the 1994 race-based murder of Stephen Lawrence and the justice department’s inactivity led to uprisings all over the country causing the BBC to label the UK’s antiracist policies as failing. In spite of the many military, political, entrepreneurial, literary, and arts based successes credited to members of Britain’s African Diaspora, it is the former relationship and conceptualizations of Blacks in Britain that dominate. Blacks and British Education For the large part, contemporary British historiography continues to mirror the ideological thrusts that facilitated and legitimized the structuring of the British Empire toward imperialist configurations. Britain’s endeavor toward the ideals of human rights and equality, popularized in the wake of fascism, civil rights, and post apartheid and attempts to integrate the truth of the shared history and collaborative national development thrust of Blacks and other Britons, has only resulted in a very lackluster endorsement of multicultural education that largely exoticized difference as opposed to engendering the development of an expanded and culturally sophisticated lens to critically engage the reality of such a multifaceted locality. In recognition of the pernicious effects of a monocultural and exclusionary curricula, Lee Jasper, Policy Director for Equality and Policing for the Mayor of London in critique of British historiography has stated: “that the extent to which children recognize themselves in the school curriculum, the sense in which their self-identity is reinforced by the use of a creative approach to the national curriculum, is all critical to their overall educational performance”, asserting the need “ to rebuild and reinforce, promote and encourage self-esteem amongst young black children in terms of their sense of historical importance and location and contribution to the city of London” (Emmanus, 2005, p.1). Pedagogues have also suggested the use of a history inclusive of African contributions and realities to inform disciplines across the curricular as a means to counter philosophically monocultural thrusts in education. Theorists considered the development of a National Citizen Education curricula design reflective of the multicultural nature of British history and society as a means of perpetuating a notion of citizens as flexible and fluid as their identities. Figueroa (2000) contends citizenship education must reflect the history of struggle on the part of segments of the population for equal rights and point up the ways in which full citizenship has been denied as a means of arresting the recurrence of such events in the future. However, England’s adoption of a formal Citizenship Education agenda via the Order of the Qualifications and Curriculum
27 Authority and the Department for Education and Employment developed from the recommendations the Crick report, which in itself was seen as perpetuating the very racist notions of citizenship that the new thrust sought to undermine (Osler & Starky, 2000). Replete with an underlying assimilationist thread, recommendations positioned the white majority British against minorities. Minorities were attributed with behaviors aberrant to the general populace, and there was an indiscriminate homogenization of non-white nationals. This idea of adaptation to the British way of life echoed sentiments of the civilizing missions of old (Jones, 1971) as political and social rights appeared to be dependent upon the measure of conformity to national standards. Situational identity. Multidisciplinary in nature, this research rests on the premises of social identity theory and adopts a framework of situational ethnicity as a basis for the understanding the dynamism of identity. This frame of reference alludes to the challenges of an individual’s negotiation of cultures and accepts the subjective, fluid, and situational embrace of one over the other, while at times even favoring bicultural forms (Wilson, 1984). Researches suggest that “ethnic identity might ideally be accompanied by a description of the situation in which it was elicited” (Kaufert, 1977, p 126). In engaging the most relevant dimensions of situations (Belk, 1975), this study takes into account the antecedents state (the momentary moods or conditions immediately preceding choice) and the social situation (the presence or absence of others). In this way, we are able to theorize on the psychological and emotional processes that engender subtle identity shifts, as well as the inversion of macro and micro loyalties, the elements impacting the cleavage between ascribed and felt ethnicity (Stayman & Deshpande, 1989), and the extent to which strategic ethnic affiliation affords commonality with, or social distance from others. This form of analysis lays bare the hybrid nature of the individual, reinforces the verity of the fact that “all creole phenomena have at their root, the encounter with difference and with power differentials” (Kapchan & Strong, 1999, p. 241), and alerts us to the socio-politics at play in demographically plural spaces in general. In engaging Black British hybridity, negotiation of space, and critical consciousness, it becomes relevant to ascertain the extent to which this exercise of mind assumes Diaspora consciousness or whether cultural and historical awareness are requisites to the formulation of such a self-conceptualization. Diaspora consciousness. Many writers continue to ruminate over the means by which diasporan consciousness may be recognized, measured, and developed. For the most part connectedness to Africa was assumed via the identification of aspects of African culture within creolized forms (Herkowitz, 1966) and led to the theorization of hybridity, creolization and syncretism. Nevertheless, the unconscious retentions, however interesting, lent little insight into the extent to which of peoples of African descent within a host country possessed the sociopolitical and historical awareness to self-conceptualize themselves as constitutive of a Diaspora. Other theorists explore the phenomena of race consciousness (Hanchard, 1991) as a means to predict solidarity based upon a commonness of experience and socio-political standing, but found that race consciousness did not assure unity in thought and action. However, with the creation of the Afrocentric scale (Cokley & Williams, 2005; Resnicow & Ross-Gaddy, 1997), Black psychologists deployed a tool to obtain general measures of critical consciousness, attitudes toward the African homeland, and self-identification patterns, accounting for three of the most vital themes of discourse relating to Diaspora. The utilization of this tool in conjuncture with the narratives of individuals themselves has been theorized to be an effective means to obtain a more nuanced and contemporarily relevant estimation of the nature of felt and expressed Identity (Grills & Longshore, 1996).
28 Method Data for this research will be collected via the completion of a Likert-scale attitudinal questionnaires and interviews in six of London’s secondary schools. The administration of the survey tool and conduction of the interviews will take place during the Spring 2008 scholastic term, which extends from the first week in January to the last week in April. A random sample of 30 students from each of the six secondary school grades (year 7-12) will be identified and furnished with closed ended 15 item survey tool known as the Afrocentric scale. The Afrocentric scale measures Afrocentric values such as collectivism, community orientation, and elicits responses that alert the researcher to the existence of possible anti-Black sentiments (Grills & Longshore, 1996). The data collected from the questionnaires will be used to supplement the interview responses of 18 secondary school attendees, ranging in ages from 11-17, which correspond to the above stated grades. The participants’ responses will indicate their perspectives and experiences with regard to five thematic emphases, namely (a) Black British identity, (b) measures of Afrocentricity, (c) perspectives in response to the depictions of peoples of African descent in curriculum, (d) attitudes toward Africa, and (e) ideas regarding the capacities and inclinations of members of their Diaspora and the wider Pan-African expanse. Lastly, a text book analysis of the history text will be undertaken so as to triangulate the findings. Thirty 11-17 year old students will be randomly selected from each grade of secondary school (year 7-12) in each of the six schools (N=1,080). To effectively target the Black British demographic, the six co-ed publicly funded state schools will be selected from the London boroughs of Brent, Lambeth, Lewisham, Southam, Newham, and Hackney within which, according to the 2001 census of Britain and Wales, the majority of London’s 54% of AfricanCaribbean and 78% of African Britons reside. Non-proportional stratified sampling will enable to identify schools with the highest Afro-Caribbean, African British, and Black Other populations. The three informants to be interviewed in each school will be selected via purposeful sampling reflecting the three ethnic typologies of Afro-Caribbean, African British, and Black Other, or Mixed Race (N=18). Findings Taking a phenomenological approach in interpreting identity among members of the African Diaspora in Britain not only points up the dynamics of the socio-political space, but the psychology of diasporan peoples in general. In assessing the viability of the socio-political infrastructure to accommodate the African Union‘s Pan-African outreach agenda, identity, measures of Afrocentricity, and attitudes toward Africa and her peoples as they are affected by British curriculum is of paramount importance. The findings will allude to the processes inherent in ethnic and cultural affiliation and the elements, such as education and social exclusion, that impact it. References Adi, H. (2000). Pan-Africanism and West African nationalism in Britain. African Studies Review, 43(1), 69-82. Back, L., Goldberg, D. T, & Solomos, J. (Eds.). (2002). A companion to racial and ethnic studies. Oxford: Blackwell. Belk, R. (1975). Situational variables and consumer behavior. Journal of Marketing Research, 2, 157-167. Byfield, J. (2000). Rethinking the African diaspora. African Studies Review, 43(1), 1-9. Cokley, K., & Williams, W. (2005). A psychometric examination of the Afrocentric scale. Journal of Black Studies, 35(6), 827-843.
29 Cross, T. (1994). Black Africans now the most highly educated group in British society. The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 3, 92-93. Emmanus, B. (2005). Interview of Lee Jasper. Retrieved February 24, 2007, from http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/community/webcasts/blackhistorymonth05 /transcript/ Gilroy, P. (1993). The Black Atlantic: Double consciousness and modernity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Grills, C., & Longshore, D. (1996). Afrocentrism: Psychometric analysis of a self-report measure. Journal of Black Psychology, 22(1), 86-106. Hanchard, M. (1991). Racial consciousness and Afro-Diasporic experiences. Socialism and Democracy, 3, 83-106. Hilliard, A. (1998). SBA: The reawakening of the African mind. Gainsville: Makare. Jones, E. (1971). The Elizabethan image of Africa. Charlottesville: The University of Virginia Press. Kapchan, D., & Strong. P. (1999). Theorizing the hybrid. The Journal of American Folklore, 112(445), 239-253. Kaufert, J. (1977). Situational identity and ethnicity among Ghanaian university students. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 15(1), 126-135. Kincaid, J. (1991). On seeing England for the first time. New York: HarperCollins. Lea, J. (1997). From integration to exclusion: the development of crime prevention policy in the United Kingdom. Retrieved November 3, 2006 from http://www.malcolmread.co.uk/jockyoung/inclexcl.htm Mirza, H., & Reay, D. (2000). Redefining citizen: Black women educators and the 'third space', in challenging democracy. London: RoutledgeFalmer. Phinney, J. (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: Review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 108(3), 499-514. Report on Conference of Intellectuals of Africa and the Diaspora AfricanUnion.org website, Retrieved November 14th 2006, http:/18.104.22.168/search? Q=cachen:n_NDBCm3R7MJ:ocpa.irmo.hr/resources/docs/int. Resnicow, K., & Ross-Gaddy, D. (1997). Development of a racial identity scale for low income African Americans. Journal of Black Studies, 28(2), 239-254. Solomos, J. (2003). Race and racism in Britain (3rd ed.). London: Palgrave Macmillan. Stayman, D., & Deshpande, R. (1989). Situational ethnicity and consumer behavior. The Journal of Consumer Research, 16(3), 361-371. Stross, B. (1999). The hybrid metaphor: From biology to culture. The Journal of American Folklore, 112(445), 254-267. The National Front. (n.d.). The prophecies of Enoch Powell, Retrieved March 2007, from http://www.natfront.com/powell.html Wilson, A. (1984). Mixed race children in British society: Some theoretical considerations. The British Journal of Sociology, 35.
Prolonged Rehabilitation of Jones Fracture in Division I-A Collegiate American Football Player: A Case Report Farah M. Hernandez, Lindsey E. Eberman Florida International University, Miami, FL Objective: To describe the prolonged rehabilitation program for a Jones fracture in a Division I-A American football player. Background: A 21 year old, African American, collegiate football player (body mass= 264 lb; height= 76.5 in; body fat= 16.0%) complained of a sharp pain at the dorsal aspect of the left foot. The athlete experiences a compressive force to the fifth metatarsal and upon evaluation, mild swelling was present along the lateral aspect of the foot. Differential Diagnosis: Jones fracture, metatarsal fracture, bone contusion. Treatment: An intramedullary fixation surgery was scheduled two weeks post injury, to correct and stabilize the fracture. Intramedullary fixation is a method of mending the bone internally with a screw, wire, or metal plate along the fractured bone length wise. Following surgery the athlete continued use of crutches for ambulation and was placed in a removable walking boot for 5 weeks. Uniqueness: This case presented a unique challenge in the rehabilitation program, as the athlete experienced slow formation of the bone callus and therefore a prolonged rate of recovery. The athlete was in a walking boot longer than expected (2 weeks longer than anticipated) which inhibited advancement in his rehabilitation due to a slow bone callus formation. A soft callus usually begins to form at day 5 following injury, but documentation was incomplete, and a hypothesis for slow bone callus formation could be secondary to lengthened time between injury occurrence and injury reporting. The athlete may have been weight bearing during the early callus formation, but healing may have been prohibited. Also, vascularization in the area is already limited and may also have played a role in delayed bone growth. Conclusions: Although the return to participation was longer than expected, the rehabilitation program was successful in returning the athlete to competition. Keywords: fifth metatarsal fracture, bone callus formation, Jones Fracture
Strategies for Reducing Math Anxiety in Post-Secondary Students Laura Iossi Florida International University, USA Abstract: This literature review explores how educators might address adult math anxiety. Curricular, instructional, and non-instructional strategies are reviewed. The suggested approaches emphasize treating the cognitive and physical manifestations of math anxiety. “Mathematics anxiety involves feelings of tension and anxiety that interfere with the manipulation of numbers and the solving of mathematical problems in a wide variety of ordinary life and academic situations” (Richardson & Suinn, 1972, p. 551). Many adults, with and without disabilities, do not feel confident in their ability to do math (Duffy & Furner, 2002). The most intuitive definition of math anxiety is a fear of math. Quantiphobia (Goldberg & Waxman, 2003), mathophobia (Hilton, 1980), math phobia (Pan & Tang, 2005), and MathematicsLearning Distress (MALEI, 2006) are descriptive phrases that represent the same phenomenon. Despite these variations, the majority of researchers prefer the term math anxiety. The pervasiveness of math anxiety demands attention. About 85% of students studied by Perry (2004) in introductory math classes claimed to experience at least mild math anxiety. Jackson and Leffingwell (1999) found that only 7% of their 157 students did not have a stressful experience in their math classes from kindergarten through college. The freshman year in college was the starting point of mathematics-related stress for 27% of their participants. Forms of math anxiety range from moderate test anxiety to extreme anxiety (Perry, 2004). “Mathophobia may be compared with the loss of one of the primary senses” (Hilton, 1980, p. 175). Extreme anxiety can be debilitating inside the mathematics classroom. In Fall 2000, 22% of entering freshman enrolled in remedial mathematics courses at institutions of higher education (Parsad & Lewis, 2003), and the dropout rate in these courses can be as high as 25% per semester, with only one of two students completing remediation (McCabe, 2003). Often the passing rates in mathematics classes at this level are below 50% (McCabe, 2003). Intelligent and determined students often repeatedly fail their mathematics courses as a result of anxiety. Math anxiety contributes to these dismal statistics, so math instructors should mentor students to manage their math anxiety. The purpose of this literature review is to explore strategies for minimizing math anxiety. Method The data was collected by searching the ERIC, PsycInfo, WilsonWEB, and JSTOR databases using the keywords math and mathematics anxiety. Among the hundreds of articles listed (e.g., WilsonWeb listed over 700 results), those that focused on K-12 or were over 20 years old were discarded. The researcher sought peer-reviewed articles that represented a crosssection of empirical studies. However, some suggestions were included from non-peer reviewed sources that the author viewed as contributing to a gap in the peer-reviewed literature. The author included articles that focused on treatment options, looked for patterns in the research, and eventually constructed the categories of curricular, instructional, and non-instructional strategies. Strategies for Minimizing Anxiety Strategies for minimizing anxiety include (a) curricular strategies, such as retesting, selfpaced learning, distance education, single-sex classes, and math anxiety courses, (b) instructional
Iossi, L. (2007). Strategies for reducing math anxiety in post-secondary students. In S. M. Nielsen & M. S. Plakhotnik (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Annual College of Education Research Conference: Urban and International Education Section (pp. 30-35). Miami: Florida International University. http://coeweb.fiu.edu/research_conference/
31 strategies, such as manipulatives, technology, self-regulation techniques, and communication, and (c) non-instructional strategies, such as relaxation therapy and psychological treatment. Curricular Strategies Colleges may offer courses that minimize math anxiety. Although face to face traditional lecture courses remain the prevalent method for math instruction, courses that incorporate retesting, self-paced learning, distance learning, and single sex formats may assist math anxious students. Colleges may want to consider these alternate methods of delivery. Retesting. The literature suggests that retesting and mastery learning are possible instructional techniques that increase performance and, thereby, allay anxiety. A study on the results of retests in an intermediate algebra class showed students viewed retesting as helpful (Juhler, Rech, From, & Brogan, 1998). Approximately, 90% of the students improved their performance on the retest. Furthermore, 80% of the students reported that retesting eased anxiety, even if they did not use the option of the retest. Retests may help students counter past feelings of failure and offer an emotional safety net for test anxious students (Juhler et al., 1998). Retesting has become a more feasible option as test generators allow for effortless creation of multiple versions of exams. Although retesting may minimize anxiety, faculty may not consider it a viable option because of time constraints. Self-paced learning. Self-paced learning could also be another suggestion for reducing math anxiety. Eppler, Harju, Ironsmith, and Marva (2003) found that learning goal oriented students were less anxious, indicating that one approach to allay math anxiety could involve the development of learning goal orientation over performance goal orientation. The students who had high learning goals performed significantly better in the lecture sections than in the selfpaced sections, and students with high performance goals performed better in the self-paced classes. However, the researchers did not conduct a posttest to see which course format resulted in more decreased math anxiety, which could be an interesting proposition for future research. The self-paced courses in the study were not designed with the mastery learning component. Distance education. Although learning mathematics at home may seem counterproductive to math anxiety, it could have some benefits. For instance, students do not have to be anxious about being called on unexpectedly in class and worry about looking stupid in front of peers. The anonymity of an online course may actually serve to decrease the anxiety. Taylor and Mohr (2001) found that 90% of students in their sample of developmental distance learning students with low or very low confidence levels declared that they felt more confident to manage everyday mathematics and mathematics in their future studies. Also, 51% of 53 students reported they had overcome their declared feelings of math anxiety to successfully pass the course. However, one must take into account that this online course was designed with awareness of student anxiety issues. Single-sex classes. Curricular strategies for coping with gender have occasionally been tested. To address gender issues, single-sex classes might provide some relief. Campbell and Evans (1997) found that females in the single-sex class had a statistically significant lower mathematics anxiety rating than did the females in the coed class. However, the sample size was very small (n =15) and the institution was a rather unusual small Catholic high school. Brunson (1983), in a study at Indiana University on the offering of a single-sex women’s basic mathematics course found that students in the optional all female section had significantly higher achievement scores than women in the mixed sections, even though they had lower initial SAT scores. However, there was no significant difference in changes in measures of math anxiety for the two groups as measured by the Math Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS).
32 Math anxiety courses. A semester long math anxiety course may be beneficial for decreasing math anxiety and improving subsequent success in the course. Several colleges have math anxiety relaxation/confidence groups. For nearly 20 years, the University of Florida has had a Math Confidence Group where students meet weekly (Carroll, 2006). Several postsecondary institutions also offer math anxiety courses. Butte College (2006) offers a one credit MATH 100: Math Without Fear, where students meet for two hours a week for eight weeks. “This course is designed to explore the connections between anxiety and a student’s ability to do math. It will include techniques that will enable the student to overcome the barriers impeding their success in mathematics” (Butte, 2006, Math 100 Section). American River College (2006) offers Math10: Developing Confidence in Math. “This course helps students to recognize common fears and misconceptions of mathematics, and to overcome math anxiety and avoidance. Strategies to achieve success in mathematical situations are discussed” (Math 10 Section). Chabot College (2006) offers a math anxiety course through its counseling department, PSCN 4901: Dealing with Math Anxiety that is worth ½ credit. Although the literature on the effectiveness of such courses is sparse, some students must be deriving some benefits because the colleges continue to offer such courses. Instructional Strategies Instructors remain the primary resource for many students. Teachers can suggest many techniques that may help students allay their math anxiety. The savvy instructor can incorporate anti-anxiety measures in presentation and assessment of mathematics material. Manipulatives. Many studies have focused on pre-service teachers perhaps since they reported the highest mean math anxiety score on MARS (Hembree, 1990). Since these future teachers develop future generations of math students, they should break the cycle of passing along math anxiety from instructor to student. Studies by Gresham, Haynes, Sloan, and Vinson (1997), Harper & Daane (1998) and Vinson (2001) found that the instructor’s use of a hands-on manipulatives approach to a mathematics methods course resulted in a significant reduction in math anxiety. “The students also liked ‘doing something’ with manipulatives as opposed to sitting and taking notes since the manipulatives enabled them to ‘see’ math and better understand how it works” (Harper & Daane, 1998, Results, ¶ 6). Sloan, Daane, and Giesen (2002) studied pre-service teachers and found that global learners, learners that approach problems in an intuitive manner, reported higher levels of mathematics anxiety and could reduce their anxiety by avoiding traditional instruction. Manipulatives and the hands on approach used in these methods courses may prove successful to other populations as well. Technology. Using technology to cope with math anxiety is rarely reported in the literature. Hembree (1990) mentioned in his meta-analysis that special classwork on computers or with calculators did not seem effective in reducing math anxiety. However, Goldberg and Waxman (2003) discuss using Excel as a means for curing quantiphobia. Students used Excel as part of the course to focus on improving their quantitative and computer skills. As students experienced successes, their quantiphobia decreased and, students were more confident about enrolling in additional quantitative reasoning courses. Although the data for that study were anecdotal reports, it demonstrates how technology may be a tool for minimizing anxiety. Self-regulation techniques. Students can also act to minimize their own math anxiety, and instructors can encourage them to do so. Perry (2004) offered students three valuable suggestions. First, students must direct their energies towards improving their mathematical abilities and solving problems, not at scapegoats. Next, students should not fall prey to negative racial or gender stereotypes that may lead them to believe that they cannot do well in
33 mathematics. Finally, the most important counter-anxiety technique is simply to keep a positive attitude. Math biographies, journaling, attacking the root of math anxiety, and positive math selftalk can all help (Steele & Arth, 1998). Perry (2004) essentially expressed a student math anxiety mission statement, “Students need to acknowledge their mathematical difficulties and formulate a plan to overcome them, including seeking appropriate assistance when necessary” (p. 324). Although Perry’s advice is logical, he may be oversimplifying the problem. Communication. Much influence remains in the hands of the instructor. Instructors need to remain aware of and sensitive to the ego of the fragile math student. By encouraging mutual respect, professors ensure that the classroom environment is psychologically safe (Jackson & Leffingwell, 1999). Instructors can help by cautioning against stereotype threat and by emphasizing effort over innate ability (Osborne, 2001). They can refine their verbal and nonverbal communication and allow for opportunities for small successes early in the course. Instructors can consider using the factors Harper and Daane (1998) found that decreased student math anxiety: (a) working with a partner, (b) working in cooperative learning groups, (c) working with small groups or in centers, (d) using manipulatives, and (e) writing about mathematics in journals. Perhaps some of the same suggestions for the treatment of learning disabilities in mathematics may be considered for math anxious students. These suggestions include flexible methods of content presentation, flashcards, math related computer software, breaking problems into subtasks, using graph paper for organizing numbers, manipulatives, visual models, and glossary of math terms and concepts (McGlaughlin, Knoop, & Holliday, 2005). Ultimately, instructors should carefully look at the delivery methods and their effects on student anxiety. Non-Instructional Strategies Relaxation therapy and psychiatric treatment are two non-instructional avenues for math anxiety reduction. Some of the emotional needs of students may best be handled outside of the classroom. Since this may be outside the expertise of most instructors, they may encourage students to seek support from the appropriate professionals. Relaxation therapy. Meditation, yoga, and psychotherapy could be valid treatments. However, the educational research community does not seem to be particularly interested in these alternative treatments as indicated by the infrequent publication of studies. Trent and Fournet (as cited in Green, 1990, p. 324) found empirical evidence to support the conclusion that the hypnotherapeutic restructuring treatment aided in improving the mathematics performance and the mathematics attitudes of the students relative to the systematic desensitization and expectancy control groups. However, all three treatments significantly decreased the levels of students’ mathematics anxiety. Psychological treatment. In a meta-analysis, Hembree (1990) found that whole class psychological treatments were not effective in reducing math anxiety, but the out of class treatments of systematic desensitization along with anxiety management training seemed to be effective. The behavioral treatments and cognitive behavioral methods brought the performance level of high anxiety students to the level of non treated low anxiety students. However, Zettle (2003) found that acceptance and commitment therapy compared favorably to systematic desensitization. Both interventions were associated with significant reductions in math anxiety. Students may also require treatment for a math learning disability such as dyscalculia, the math version of dyslexia. Dyscalculia includes a lack of intuition about the relative size of numbers (McCrone, 2002; Vaidya, 2004). Estimates are that 5% of the school population is affected
34 (McCrone, 2002). However, adult dyscalculia, its relationship to math anxiety, and its treatment as a disability are uncharted territory. Conclusion The research calls for further confirmation of the effectiveness of the identified and for the study of new strategies that minimize math anxiety. The research implies that reducing math anxiety and increasing the achievement of students remains a college wide endeavor; institutions can remain aware of math phobic students when designing course offerings; advisors can aid students by matching anxious students with courses that complement their learning styles, and instructors can identify and assist math anxious students. If the strategies that the research offers are implemented, math anxious students may soon find success and colleges may be labeled as welcoming math zones. Math educators dream for the day when students can confidently say, “I enjoy math!” This dream will only be realized when the entire educational community strives to prevent, recognize, and treat math anxiety. References American River College. (2006). Fall 2006 class schedule: Mathematics. Retrieved September 16, 2006, from http://www.losrios.edu/arc/fall/Mathematics-MATH.htm Brunson, P. W. (1983). A classroom experiment involving basic mathematics and women. The Two-Year College Mathematics Journal, 14(4), 318-321. Butte College. (2006). Math catalog. Retrieved September 16, 2006, from http://www.butte.edu/information/catalog/course_descriptions/catalog_math.html Campbell, K. T., & Evans, C. (1997). Gender issues in the classroom: A comparison of mathematics anxiety. Education, 117, 332-339. Carroll, C. (2006). Developing math confidence. University of Florida Counseling Center. Retrieved September 17, 2006, from http://www.counsel.ufl.edu/brochure.asp? include=brochures/developing_math_confidence.brochure Chabot-Las Positas Community College. (2006). Web course catalog academic year 2006-2007: Psychology. Retrieved September 16, 2006, from https://bw4.clpccd.cc.ca.us/clpccd/ 2006/cat_pscn.htm Duffy, M. L., & Furner, J. M. (2002). Equity for all students in the new millennium: Disabling math anxiety. Intervention in School and Clinic, 38(2), 67-74. Retrieved April 2, 2006, from http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/math_skills/equity_for_all_students.html Eppler, M., Harju, B., Ironsmith, M., & Marva, J. (2003). Motivation and performance in college students enrolled in self-paced versus lecture-format remedial mathematics courses. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 30(4), 276-284. Freiberg, M. (2005). Math--that four-letter word! Academic Exchange Quarterly, 9(3), 7-11. Goldberg, R., & Waxman, J. (2003). A novel approach to curing quantiphobia. Mathematics and Computer Education, 37(1), 39-54. Green, L. T. (1990). Test anxiety, mathematics anxiety, and teacher comments: Relationships to achievement in mathematics classes. The Journal of Negro Education, 59(3), 320-335. Hadfield, O. D., & Trujillo, K. M. (1999). Tracing the roots of mathematics anxiety through indepth interviews with preservice elementary teachers. College Student Journal, 33(2), 219-232. Harper, N. W., & Daane, C. J. (1998). Causes and reduction of math anxiety in preservice elementary teachers. Action in Teacher Education, 19(4), 29-38. Hembree, R. (1990). The nature, effects, and relief of mathematics anxiety. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 21(1), 33-46.
35 Hilton, P. (1980). Math anxiety: Some suggested causes and cures: Part 1. The Two-Year Mathematics Journal, 11(3), 174-188. Jackson, C. D., & Leffingwell, R. J. (1999). The role of instructors in creating math anxiety in students form kindergarten through college. Mathematics Teacher, 92(7), 583-586. Juhler, S. M., Rech, J. F., From, S. G., & Brogan, M. M. (1998). The effect of optional retesting on college students’ achievement in an individualized algebra course. The Journal of Experimental Education, 66(2), 125-137. MALEI Mathematics Institute. (2005). Mathematics-learning distress. Retrieved April 9, 2006 from http://www.mathsense.org McCabe, R. H. (2003). Yes we can! A community college guide for developing America’s underprepared. Phoenix, AZ: League for Innovation in the Community College and American Association of Community Colleges. McCrone, J. (2002). Dyscalculia. The Lancet Neurology, 1, 266. McGlaughlin, S. M., Knoop, A. J., &. Holliday, G. A. (2005). Differentiating students with mathematics difficulty in college: Mathematics disabilities vs. no diagnosis. Learning Disability Quarterly, 28, 223-232. Osborne, J. W. (2001). Testing stereotype threat: Does anxiety explain race and sex differences in achievement? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 26, 291-310. Pan, W., & Tang, M. (2005). Students’ perceptions on factors of statistics anxiety and instructional strategies. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 32(3), 205-214. Parsad, B., & Lewis, L. (2003). Remedial education at degree-granting postsecondary institutions in Fall 2000 (NCES 2004–010). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved October 17, 2006 from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/2004/section5/indicator31.asp Perry, A. B. (2004). Decreasing math anxiety in college students. College Student Journal, 38(2), 321-324. Richardson, F. C., & Suinn, R. M. (1972). The mathematics anxiety rating scale: Psychometric data. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 19(6), 551-554. Sloan, T. R., Vinson, B., Haynes, J., & Gresham, R. (1997, November). A comparison of preand post- levels of mathematics anxiety among preservice teacher candidates enrolled in a mathematics methods course. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the MidSouth Educational Research Association, Memphis, TN. Sloane, T., Daane, C. J., & Giesen, J. (2002). Mathematics anxiety and learning styles: What is the relationship in elementary preservice teachers? School Science and Mathematics, 102(2), 24-87. Steele, D. F., & Arth A. A. (1998). Lowering anxiety in the math curriculum. The Education Digest, 63, 18-23. Taylor, J. A., & Mohr, J. (2001). Mathematics for math anxious students studying at a distance. Journal of Developmental Education, 25(1), 30-41. Vaidya, S. R. (2004). Understanding Dyscalculia for teaching. Education, 124(4), 717-720. Vinson, B. M. (2001). A comparison of preservice teachers’ mathematics anxiety before and after a methods class emphasizing manipulatives. Early Childhood Education Journal, 29(2), 89-94. Zettle, R. D. (2003). Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) vs. systematic desensitization in treatment of mathematics anxiety. The Psychological Record, 53, 197-215.
Investigating Race and Ethnicity on Data Collection and Analysis Cynthia M. Januszka, Amy C. Lora, Karen K. Wollard, and Tonette S. Rocco Florida International University, USA Abstract: This paper details the research methods an introductory qualitative research class used to both study an issue related to race and identity, and to familiarize themselves with data collection strategies. Throughout the paper the authors attempt to capture the challenges, disagreements, and consensus building that marked this unusual research endeavor. Qualitative methods courses in the College of Education have typically involved action learning, with individuals or small groups identifying the problem, creating research questions, developing instruments, collecting data, and analyzing the data. Rarely is there enough overlap in interest or background to create a large project, but in the spring of 2005, a rare group of individuals gathered to study qualitative methods. The students were ethnically and racially diverse, evenly divided between Blacks, Hispanics and Whites. In early discussions, the group coalesced around an interest in how the race and ethnicity of researchers impact the research process. A decision was made to conduct research within the class, with each student acting as a participant researcher and participating in designing the study, collecting data and analyzing the data, while also journaling their anonymous thoughts on the process. The authors were all participants in the class. The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the process involved when a class takes up a research project. The paper will begin with the background of the problem and explain how the group finally agreed to the purpose statement. The discussion will then turn to the method used by the participant researchers to collect and analyze the data. Finally, there will be a discussion of the process with an attempt to capture the challenges, disagreements, and consensus building that marked this endeavor. Once the class had reached a consensus about participant research and the general topic of racial and ethnic bias and its influence on the research process, a review of the literature was conducted. A task force was then created to focus on creating the purpose statement and crafting the research questions. There is a great deal of scholarly literature about race of interviewer effects, especially when the research focuses on measuring political or racial attitudes, dating back to the early 40s (Davis, 1997). The topic of race relations has an even longer history, going back to the 1700s (Alderfer & Tucker, 1996). The race of an interviewer affects interview responses: respondents adjust their responses to satisfy the perceived expectations of the interviewer. This effect can result in response bias, whether in a survey, focus group, or interview (Davis, 1997). Krysan and Couper (2003) investigated how the answers given to an interviewer of one race differ from those given to the interviewer of another race, finding that the answers by both African Americans and Whites were influenced by the interviewer’s race. Blacks tend to be cautious about what they disclose to Whites as a consequence of racism (Alderfer & Tucker, 1996). White men also tend to feel pressure to be politically correct when discussing racial issues (Taylor, 1992). Some social scientists have limited the influence of bias by matching interviewers and respondents by race, though this has not been decisively shown to produce more valid data (Alderfer & Tucker, 1996). Recently, as demographics of the United States have changed, Januszka, C. M., Lora, A. C., Wollard, K. K., & Rocco, T. S. (2007). Investigating race and ethnicity on data collection and analysis. In S. M. Nielsen & M. S. Plakhotnik (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Annual College of Education Research Conference: Urban and International Education Section (pp. 36-42). Miami: Florida International University. http://coeweb.fiu.edu/research_conference/
37 researchers have begun analyzing and comparing a tri-racial order, especially as Hispanics have emerged as a growing minority, especially in concentrated geographic regions (Bonilla-Silva, 2004). Potential for bias exists both for both researchers and participants (Sherman, 2002). This can be detrimental to the integrity of the research, as individuals may feel pressure to conform their answers to accommodate the interviewer, or to exaggerate relationships between measures (Davis, 1997; Sherman, 2002). Yet, frequently researchers still act as if their hidden biases are irrelevant (Alderfer, 1985). The diverse demographics of this class offered an opportunity to probe both interviewer effects and participant bias, while offering the class members an opportunity to discuss and reflect on the possible biases and attitudes each person brings to the research endeavor. The class agreed that this was an important topic, and that the research design would have to address issues within and across race and ethnicity. Purpose The original purpose statement was crafted and adopted by class consensus: The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of race and ethnicity on data. The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the process. Method The setting of this study was a graduate qualitative methods course. The course began with a structured syllabus designed to provide students with experiences in the various forms of data collection and analysis. After speaking to one of the student groups about their research topic, the instructor brought this topic to the class asking if the class might be interested in pursuing the question. The members of the class seemed unanimous in their agreement to become participant researchers pursuing one research question. We agreed to investigate the influence of race and ethnicity on data collection and analysis, using a phenomenological case study. “Phenomenology is concerned with examining entities from many sides, angles, and perspectives until a unified vision of the essences of a phenomenon or experience is achieved” (Moustakas, 1994, p. 58). The essences are the “core meanings mutually understood through a phenomenon commonly experienced” (Patton, 2002, p. 106). To uncover the essences of the students’ experiences of collecting and analyzing data, we examined the class as the primary case with multiple embedded cases within the class. This section will discuss the participant research process, data collection, and global analysis. Participant Research Process The students in the class were participant researchers since they were the researchers and the participants. The instructor, as the inquiry facilitator, supported group cohesion and collective inquiry (Patton, 2002). The class discussed and agreed on every design decision and implementation issue. Students, individually or in small groups, took primary responsibility for a specific task such as designing the instruments, monitoring the process, and overseeing all other aspects of the study. The instruments designed were profiles, journal questions, and the interview guide. Monitoring the process involved tracking instrument completion, storing the completed instruments and transcripts, and organizing the data into triads to send to the researchers. All issues and aspects of the study were discussed in class or through electronic mail until consensus was reached. Documents or processes were then revised and returned to the group for feedback. If major issues were again raised, they were discussed during a class session; minor issues were addressed by the group responsible for the task.
38 Participant Researchers Convenience sampling was used because we were a class and intensity sampling was used because the class had “information-rich cases that manifested the phenomenon intensely” (Patton, 2002, p. 243). As a minority-serving institution, the likelihood of representation from different racial and ethnic groups was high; however, having equal representation was serendipitous. One instructor and 18 students (10 female and 8 male) participated in the study. Ethnic and racial groups were equally represented: six White students, six Black students, and six Hispanic students. There was discussion about the self-classification of participants into the three racial and ethnic groups due to the wide degree of variance within each group. For example, one participant of Hispanic and White origin did not look Hispanic, yet he classified himself into the Hispanic group. The diversity within each group included: (a) the White group with five participants of European descent and one of Russian descent; (b) the Black group with one Haitian American, two African Americans, one Afro Caribbean, and one Jamaican; and (c) the Hispanic group with three Cuban Americans, one Puerto Rican, one Mexican American, and one person of Uruguayan parentage. The 15 doctoral students and 3 master’s students were from the middle class and between the ages of 25 to 56. Triads as Cases The participant researchers were divided into 12 small groups called triads. Two forms of triads were used: intergroup (mixed race/ethnicity) and intragroup (same race/ethnicity). The six intergroup triads contained one Hispanic, one White, and one Black student. The six intragroup triads consisted of two White, two Black, or two Hispanic groups. The participants belonged to both an intergroup and an intragroup triad. Each person rotated through the roles of observer, interviewer, and interviewee with someone of the same race/ethnicity and someone of a different race/ethnicity. Data collection through the triads enabled us to observe whether there were differences in behavior when participants interacted with people of a same or different race. Data Collection Data collection involved students e-mailing their data to a specific student in the class. Students were given a code number to label their data. Only the keeper of the codes (one participant researcher) knew everyone’s codes. All of the documents were stored on the computer within the six intergroup data set files. Data Sets A data set included all data generated by a triad: six interviews, six observations, three profiles, and thirty-three journal entries. Each member of a triad conducted two interviews (one same race, one different race), two observations of interviews (interviewer and interviewee, same race and different race), one profile, and 11 journal entries. Interviews. The 33 questions on the interview guide dealt with how race, ethnicity, identity, and bias affect journaling, observations, interviews, and the analysis of data. The same interview guide was used in the interview of same and different race participants. The interviews took between 20 to 60 minutes and were held at locations and times convenient to the participants. The interviews were audiotaped and each interviewer was responsible for transcription. Observations. Observations of the same and different race interviews were conducted within the triads. Observers first took both emic and etic notes while observing and then the notes were later typewritten. When a researcher takes emic notes, he/she describes what is being observed directly, whereas etic notes involve writing feelings about what is being observed (Gay
39 & Airasian, 2003). An example of emic note taking is recording that the participant is wearing a buttoned up, red shirt and a blue skirt. Etic notes about the same participant could be that the researcher felt that the participant looked stiff and uncomfortable. Recording both emic and etic notes gave us a rich description of what took place during the interviews. Profiles. Each person completed a profile with questions grouped into four categories: (a) identity; (b) family/marital status; (c) residence/background; and (d) program of study/project inquiry. The 10 questions in the identity category dealt with age, marital status, gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, and race. The family/marital status category contained 15 questions pertaining to such topics as marital status, number of children, and quantity of interracial relationships. The residence/background category had 12 questions pertaining to citizenship, county of residence, languages spoken, religious practice, and socioeconomic status. The last category, program of study/project inquiry, contained eight questions covering such topics as program of study at the university and enrollment status (full or part-time). The 46 questions on the profile were e-mailed to each participant, and they were given two weeks to fill them out and e-mail them back to the sender. Journals. Each participant kept reactions to five class discussions and six open ended prompts in a journal, making 11 entries. The six open ended prompts included (a) who am I, (b) how do you think others identify you, (c) how do you want others to identify you, (d) describe an incident relating to identity, (e) what are your reactions to the interview process, and (f) what are your reactions to the overall project? The eleven journal entries were collected over an eightweek period. Data Analysis The two forms of triangulation used in this study were multiple forms of data and researchers (Denzin, 1978). Interviews, observations, profiles, and journal entries served as the data sources. Each form of data was analyzed separately and then compared to each other. Additionally, multiple researchers analyzed the same data to come up with codes. Each case was analyzed by three researchers who had the same race or ethnicity and then by another three researchers with differing race and ethnicities (see Figure 1). Codebooks were turned and one final intergroup triad analyzed all of the codes to look for themes (see Figure 2). Discussion of the Process As a Black, White, or Hispanic participant researcher, each class member organized with his/her perspective intergroup and intragroup to fulfill the objectives of gathering data through interviews. This aspect of the class project proved to be challenging for several reasons, including conflicts of scheduling and various levels of dedication to the class project. Each triad needed to meet a minimum of two times outside of class: once to collect data and a separate time to find themes in coded data. By the end of the class term, only 6 out of 12 groups had completed these tasks. The long-term dedication to the class project was further demonstrated given that the comprehensive analysis of the limited data submitted was delayed and ultimately left to three class volunteers, an intergroup triad, who worked independently past the end of the course term to turn out project findings. Another data-collection challenge was exposed as we considered the prior experience of each participant researcher in assuming the various roles. Although most students could find familiarity in their roles as part of some racial/ethnic group, for some the participant-researcher role was a new experience, and therefore a challenge. Some students had never conducted interviews, been interviewed, or developed enough skills to thoroughly record an observation.
40 Therefore, reliance on assigned and supplemental readings became central to the quality of these triad interactions and to the validity of the data. Quantity of Codes The codebooks which were ultimately analyzed by the final intergroup triad proved to be quite revealing. We recall that the themes which resulted from this final intergroup triad were based upon the final codebooks submitted by the six triads. Each codebook reflected the efforts of the triads to identify common codes in the data set (i.e., journals, interviews, observations, and profiles). Analysis of these codebooks offered a more comprehensive revelation of the class project experience and materialized the project purpose. The codebooks first revealed a tendency of intergroups to use greater quantities of codes than intragroups, specifically 38 compared to 26. The final analysts proposed that the intergroups arrived at this number because of their inability to accommodate the varying opinions being expressed in the mixed groups; opinions were much more varied. Intragroups, however, may not have found such difficulties given that they had greater success in coming to a consensus. Code Descriptions The triad of analysts also compared all intergroup codebooks to all intragroup codebooks, recognizing a differentiation in word usage. Intergroups tended to use more tempered language for their codes such as uncommon ground, altered answers, challenged, and empathy, whereas intragroups tended to use more judgmental, negative, or racy codes such as discrimination, discomfort, racial hostility, and prejudice. Triad Interactions A matter which surfaced in the data, which was scarcely given attention to in class as compared to other issues (e.g., method, purpose, and objectives), was the complexity of the triad interactions. In journals and observations, for example, there were references to the all-butneutral dynamics of an ethnically/racially labeled individual placed in ethnically/racially mixed or similar groups to ask and answer questions pertaining to race and ethnicity. Particularly among intergroup (mixed) triads, participant researchers noted a lack of candor or willingness to express themselves without inhibitions. One observer noted such suspicions: “I felt the participant researcher did not wish to say the wrong things and be considered biased, prejudiced, or racial.” An interviewer mentioned that he censored what he wrote in the journals because of fear of negative feedback from others who would read his thoughts. Final Thoughts on the Process The student researchers gained incredible insight into the amount of time and effort that is required to conduct qualitative research. They also were able to uncover some important interpersonal issues that are related to race and ethnicity. Specifically, the closer one’s race and ethnicity is to the person being observed or interviewed the more likely the truthfulness of the responses. Therefore, one’s race or ethnicity certainly seems to have an impact on data collection and analysis activities. References Alderfer, C. (1985). Taking ourselves seriously as researchers. In D. Berg. & K. Smith (Eds.), The self in social inquiry (pp. 35-70). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Alderfer, C., & Tucker, R. (1996). A field experiment for studying race relations embedded in organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17(1), 43-57. Bonilla-Silva, E. (2004). From bi-racial to tri-racial: Towards a new system of racial stratification in the USA. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 27(6), 931-950. Davis, D. (1997). Nonrandom measurement error and race of interviewer effects among African
41 Americans. Public Opinion Quarterly, 61(1), 183-207. Denzin, N. K. (1978). The research act: A theoretical introduction to sociological methods (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Gay, L. R., & Airasian, P. (2003). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and Applications (7th ed.). New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall. Krysan, M. & Couper, M. (2003). Race in the live and the virtual interview: Racial deference, social desirability, and activation effects in attitude surveys. Social Psychology Quarterly, 66(4), 364-83. Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Sherman, R. (2002). The subjective experience of race and gender in qualitative research. The American Behavioral Scientist, 45(8), 1247-1253. Taylor, J. (1992). Paved with good intentions: The failure of race relations in contemporary America. New York: Carroll and Graf.
Figure 1. The Intergroup and Intragroup analysis of each data set.
Intergroup Triad Black, White, and a Hispanic Student
Data Set 6 Interviews 6 Observations 3 Profiles 33 Journal Entries
Intragroup Triad Either 3 Black, 3 White, or 3 Hispanic Students
Figure 2. The Intergroup’s analysis of the codebooks.
Intergroup’s Analysis of the Codebooks Black, White, and a Hispanic Student
Intergroup Codebook Black, White, and a Hispanic Student
Same <-Data-> Set
Intragroup Codebook Either 3 Black, 3 White, or 3 Hispanic Students
Race, Gender, & Leadership: Perspectives of Female Secondary Leaders Gaetane Jean-Marie and Alex Martinez Florida International University, USA Abstract: Female secondary principals not only have to deal with internal and external pressures to lead successfully but are scrutinized because of their gender (Shakeshaft, 1993; Skrla & Young, 2003; Thurman, 2004). The purpose of this study was to investigate how female secondary principals from one southwestern state teased out complex views of leadership, gender, and race. Schools operate in an increasingly complex and dynamic environment (Dimmock & Walker, 2005). Secondary principals, for instance, have to make sense of and approach difficult situations to increase student achievement. This sometimes is further complicated for female secondary principals who not only have to deal with internal and external pressures to lead successfully but are also scrutinized because of their gender (Thurman, 2004). As women leaders, they face contradictory expectations that they appear female or feminine and male or masterful, depending on the context (Brunner, 1999; Fiore & Joseph, 2005; Grogan, 1994; Gronn, 2003; Shakeshaft, 1993). Despite the scrutiny, female principals are able to work with their school communities to create successful schools (Lyman, Ashby, & Tripses, 2005; Smulyan, 2000; Young & McLeod, 2001). To investigate how female secondary principals tease out complex views of leadership, gender, and race, this study was based on the experiences of eleven female leaders in one southwestern state. The research questions were: What challenges do female secondary administrators confront today? What do they recommend to eliminate these challenges? Literature Review The demand for school leaders in the United States has been growing with a forecasted 10 to 20% increase through 2005 due to retirement, turnover, and a lack of interested and qualified applicants (Logan, 1998). Despite this fact, little consideration has been given to the underutilization of women in educational leadership to help solve the crisis. More recent research (e. g., Blackman & Fenwick, 2000; Boris-Schacter & Lager, 2006) indicate that the number of women taking leadership positions in elementary schools has risen over the past ten years. However, like the superintendency, the presence of female secondary school leaders continues to remain disproportionately low (Alston, 1999; Brunner, 1999; Thurman, 2004; Young & McLeod, 2001; Young & Skrla, 2003). Furthermore, few studies of female educational leaders have considered the impact of more than one source of difference, such as race, class, gender, language, ability, sexual orientation, and level of experience (Mendez-Morse, 2003). Such a line of inquiry could inform and expand the current construction of educational leadership. Women and Educational Leadership To meet the challenges of under-representation of women in secondary school leadership roles, new efforts to recruit women and people of color are essential (Boris-Schacter & Langer, 2006). School districts would tap into an underutilized resource and more likely cultivate a leadership pool that would more closely reflect the current and future demographics of American schools. Women constitute 52% of elementary principals but only 26% of secondary school principals (Thurman, 2004). This under-representation may be due to stereotypes attached to women, more specifically, their lack of capacity to hold leadership positions (Helterbran & Rieg, Jean-Marie, G., & Martinez, A. (2007). Race, gender, & leadership: Perspectives of female secondary leaders. In S. M. Nielsen & M. S. Plakhotnik (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Annual College of Education Research Conference: Urban and International Education Section (pp. 43-48). Miami: Florida International University. http://coeweb.fiu.edu/research_conference/
44 2004; Murphey, Moss, Hannah, & Wiener, 2005; Young & McLeod, 2001). This may be due to the social perception of women as teachers but not as leaders. Teaching and leading are often treated as separate worlds, characterized by different activities and senses, employing different languages, guided by different purposes, and carried out by distinct types of people (Donaldson, 2006; Moller & Pankake, 2006). The consequential explanation, though unrealistic and commonplace, of the scarcity of female leaders in education is their lack of aspiration to occupy leadership roles. Contrary to this belief, the number of women currently enrolled and already graduated from educational administration programs since 1980 is increasing (Logan, 1998; Oakley, 2000; Valverde, 2003; Young & McLeod, 2001). Assessing the Landscape: Getting into the Principalship Females at the highest levels of leadership in education usually run a solo act but with many spectators and critics (Ah Nee-Benham & Cooper, 1998; Shakeshaft, 1993; Smulyan, 2000). For those who persevere and do become principals, marginalization and extra scrutiny due to race and gender can follow (Boris-Schacter & Langer, 2006; Mendez-Morse, 2003). Females have difficulty being accepted by colleagues in cross-racial, ethnic, or class communities and can face systemic community prejudices (Boris-Schacter & Langer, 2006). This can be a double-edged sword because once the principal is hired, she is expected to appear in charge but behave as a recognizable woman (Shakeshaft, 1993; Skrla & Young, 2003). Perhaps ironically, another study indicates that women will only accentuate female values in their leadership styles up to the level of natural acceptance in an organization’s culture (Hofstede, 1980). Appearing feminine and utilizing female caring values to lead can be perceived as two different things. Not all research agrees. Evans (2001) suggests that being in a formerly male position such as the principalship can free females from gendered expectations. We can only conclude that much more in-depth information is needed to examine this complicated issue. Method Since this study examined participants’ leadership experiences, phenomenology was chosen as the method (Creswell, 1998). From a generated list of female secondary principals obtained from the directory of education within one southwestern state, a purposive sample (Patton, 1990) of 15 female secondary school leaders (7 White American, 2 African American, 1 Native American, and 1 Portuguese American) were chosen but 11 agreed to participate. The principals were representative of six school districts that comprised these characteristics: two city contexts (i.e., urban and suburban), leaders (i.e., secondary, female, novice, and experienced), and secondary school context (i.e., two or more high schools located in each district). Openended semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Participants were asked questions concerning leadership orientation and socialization experiences and practices, issues of diversity, race and gender, and challenges they faced as female secondary school leaders. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed according to phenomenological steps (Giorgi, Fischer, & Murray, 1975). Findings and Discussion This study provides an understanding of how race and gender impact women’s accession to, and work at, the secondary school level. Three major themes emerged: gender, race, and improvement of the recruitment and retention processes. Issues of Gender Pertaining to Female Leaders Gender was a factor embedded in the leadership experiences of the principals. Several women discussed the ineffectiveness of being mentored by other women while in their
45 leadership roles. According to the novice Lebanese American suburban principal who was the first female secondary leader in that district, “Women are vicious and backstabbing. . .Unless women are on your side, they’ll turn on you real quick. I’m under a microscope as the first woman to take on a leadership role. Everybody is watching me at every moment.” Other comments on gender were articulated by an experienced White suburban principal “I find sometimes that females don’t help each other along the way like men do. It’s amazing how the men have such a network of connections, and they get jobs and do things from that…When I became principal, They thought it was a short lived thing. The perception was, As a single mother, there would be no way that I could balance my professional and personal life because of the demands and expectations.” To be successful, women need to be assertive and exhibit more male-like qualities (Helterbran & Rieg, 2004). One experienced White urban principal asserted: They like high school principals to be men. Big strong men. Big strong black men or women who are Black or Hispanic. I’m a White bred, White headed female. I’ve heard all the blond jokes that I ever want to hear in my life. But I’m intelligent and I can run a school. . . I’ve never been discriminated against. There are times, I’ve thought if I were Black or Hispanic, I’d had better luck at that. I sometimes think that people look at me and say, ‘She’s White. She’s a blond, what does she know?’ Has it ever affected me, honestly? No, I cannot say that it has. The novice Native American principal talked about the issues she confronted on a daily basis as a female leader: I still think that anytime women assert themselves, there are people who will see them as either on a power trip or they’re referred to in a derrogatory manner. I think that’s common among other females. For example, a female leader has to be able to play to the ‘choir’ who’s observing her for weaknesses because she’s a female versus ‘Oh, you’re acting like you’re all that.’ That’s a stereotype of a woman who’s in a leadership role and be ‘all that’. I don’t know that men have that challenge. . . .A man can walk into a room and doesn’t need to open his mouth to prove himself. A female sometimes has to absolutely jump through hoops and say, ‘I’m just as tough and I can do just as well as any male.’ The tragedy is that you have to prove yourself to be the best. In order to do that, we have to dismantle all of these perceptions of the female versus the male gender in school administration. In contrast, two White urban principals talked about how their gender was valuable to their leadership roles. The expereinces one explained: Being a female is the best thing in the world. I can put my arms around people. I can sit with them. I can cry with them. I can be angry with them because I don’t have to play that macho role. I’ve been told that women couldn’t do high school. I can whip a school board into shape. But, that isn’t how a school really runs. I believe women have the edge. I have so much more freedom as a female. The novice said, “Women tend to be more welcoming to the concerns and problems of the school than most male administrators that I know.” These women were constantly learning their own values and limits by unconsciously assuming that gender does not matter when it is in fact present in their own and other people’s expectations and habits (Murphey et al., 2005). Gender has been regarded as a category of experience that influences women to develop leadership values and engage in a model of
46 relational leadership (Boris-Schacter & Langer, 2006; Smulyan, 2000). The women in this study synthesize the finer quality of masculinity (i.e., I can be tough too!) and feminist perspective (i.e., warm, nurturing, sensitive, cooperative, and accommodating) (Shakeshaft, 1993; Skrla & Young, 2003). They formed a newer, stronger, and more balanced practice of leadership. Issues of Race Pertaining to Female Leaders Although issues of gender permeated the discussion, issues of race were of equal importance. Several participants assumed that race did not matter when it was in fact present in much of their discussion and race (un)consciousness resonated within their perspectives. For example, one of the experienced White urban principals raised issues about being “White bred. . . I can run a school. . . I’ve never been discriminated against.” However, she further explained if she were Black or Hispanic, it would have increased her chances of successfully running a school. She further asserted that she had never been affected by race; yet, she articulated contradictions as they pertained to her experiences. In contrast to this White urban principal, one experienced Black suburban principal expressed similar issues that pertained to differential treatments of White females and males in school leadership: Sometimes I find myself in situations where I wonder if I were a White female or male, would things be different. I’m not going to lie to you. Men tend to feel they could say things to me that they probably wouldn’t say if I were a White female or male. This happened to me this summer. A man made a comment to me and I said to him, ‘Had I been a male or White female, would you have said that?’ She felt that her experiences would differ if she were a White female or male. These women experienced a gender bias that stems from the false premise that males are dominant. The second bias is a racism rooted in the erroneous proposition of white superiority (Ah Nee-Benham & Cooper, 1998; Valverde, 2003). Because of these two historical myths, many unfair practices toward White women and women of color have surfaced and played out on a routine basis. Women of color, and to a lesser extent White women, are pressured to give up their cultural identities (Valverde, 2003). Professional women over time have come to realize that they have had to display some male-based characteristics in order to become acceptable to be selected for a leadership role such as secondary school principals. However, White and Black women may have found a collective voice. Some women feel less of a need to shape their demeanour to look and sound like men (Skrla & Young, 2003). In short, interpretations pass off as objective practice promote and entrench white privilege and male dominance (Valverde, 2003). Changing the Landscape: Approaches to Support Women Digging deeper into the complex views of leadership, race and gender, the participants discussed recommendations for improving the recruitment and retention of female secondary leaders and changing the male-dominated perspective of the secondary principalship. In the former, the participants agreed that women need to develop the confidence that they can be effective secondary school leaders and should work towards seeking leadership opportunities. They suggested, “Women have to be convinced that they can do it!”, “Lead from your heart!”, and “You have to be courageous!” While emphasizing confidence in oneself, some of the participants took this a step further by suggesting that women need to be groomed or mentored by other women and men. They believed that seeking and identifying possible leaders and giving them opportunities to lead are ways to mentor more women into the principalship. This contradicts previous research (Logan, 1998; Thurman, 2004; Young & McLeod, 2001) that suggests that women are unlikely to mentor each other once in the field. However, the absence of women in the ranks of senior management is a telling sign that the whole process of selection,
47 recruitment, and promotion in educational organizations needs an overhaul (Oakley, 2000). The participants suggested diversifying school personnel involved in the hiring process. As one participant articulated, “We need to look at a variety of people responsible for hiring school leaders. It has to broaden – more diversity within the screening panel.” Conclusions The participants in this article described the ways in which female principals interpreted their leadership experiences in terms of race and gender. An important direction for further research is that it is done simultaneously with secondary females of diverse cultural background, essential to understanding how females lead from these perspectives. Further, in order to fully capture the impact of gender, race, and culture on leadership, research must involve a greater number of organizations at extreme ends of the value dimensions for measuring leadership effectiveness. While it has been common practice for research to define the context in which leadership is studied, using simple classifications such as masculine or feminine contexts, it seems appropriate to begin refining the particular management layer that is studied. References Ah Nee-Benham, M. K. P., & Cooper, J. E. (1998). Let my spirit soar! Narratives of diverse women in school leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Alston, J. A. (2005). Tempered radicals and servant leaders: Black females persevering in the superintendency. Educational Administration Quarterly, 41(4), 675-688. Blackman, M. C., & Fenwick, L. T. (2000). The principalship: Looking for leaders in a time of change. Education Week, 19(29), 46-68. Boris-Schacter, S., & Langer, S. (2006). Balanced leadership: How effective principals manage their work. New York: Teachers College Press. Brunner, C. C. (1999). Sacred dreams: Women and the superintendency. Albany, NY: State University of New Press. Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five research traditions. Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage. Dimmock, C., & Walker, A. (2005). Educational leadership: Culture and diversity. Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage. Donaldson, G. A. (2006). Cultivating leadership in schools: Connecting people, purpose and practice. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Evans, G. A. (2001). The world on our backs. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 25, 181-192. Fiore, D. J., & Joseph, C. (2005). Making the right decisions: A guide for school leaders. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education. Giorgi, A., Fisher, C., & Murrray, E. (1975). Duquesne studies in phenomenological psychology. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press. Grogan, M. (1994, April). Aspiring to the superintendency in the public school systems: Women’s perspectives. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA. Gronn, P. (2003). The new work of educational leaders: Changing leadership practice in an era of school reform. London: Paul Chapman Publishing. Helterbran, V. R., & Rieg, S. A. (2004). Women as schools principals: What is the challenge? Journal of Women in Educational Leadership, 2(1), 13-22. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
48 Logan, J. P. (1998). School leadership of the 90s and beyond: A window of opportunity for women educators [Electronic version]. Advancing Women in Leadership Journal, 1, 165184. Lyman, L. L., Ashby, D. E., & Tripses, J. S. (2005). Leaders who dare: Pushing the boundaries. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefied Education. Mendez-Morse, S. (2003). Chicana feminism and educational leadership. In M. D. Young & L. Skrla (Eds.), Reconsidering feminist research in educational leadership (pp. 161-178). Albany: State University of New York Press. Moller, G., & Pankake, A. (2006). Lead with me: A principal’s guide to teacher leadership. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education. Murphey, K., Moss, G., Hannah, S., & Wiener, R. (2005). Women in educational leadership: Finding common ground. Journal of Women in Educational Leadership, 3(4), 273-284. Oakley, J. G. (2000). Gender-based barriers to senior management positions: Understanding the scarcity of female CEOs. Journal of Business Ethics, 27, 321-334. Patton, M. (1998). Discovering process use. Evaluation Journal, 4(2), 225-233. Shakeshaft, C. (1993). Gender equity in schools. In C. A. Capper (Ed.), Educational administration in a pluralistic society (pp. 87-109). Albany: State University of New York Press. Smulyan, L. (2000). Balancing acts: Women principals at work. Albany: State University of New York Press. Thurman, S. (2004). The glass ceiling as a mirror: How do women secondary principals support school improvement. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, Ohio. Valverde, L. A. (2003). Leaders of color in higher education: Unrecognized triumphs in harsh institutions. New York: Rowman & Littlefield. Young, M. D., & McLeod, S. (2001). Flukes, opportunities, and planned interventions: Factors affecting women’s decisions to become school administrators. Educational Administration Quarterly, 37, 462-502. Young, M. D., & Skrla, L. (2003). Reconsidering feminist research in educational leadership. Albany: State University of New York Press.
A Mixed Method Study of Spirituality and the Influence on TB Medication Adherence Regina McDade Florida International University, USA Abstract: Nonadherence to medication for tuberculosis (TB) can lead to new cases of TB and death. Interest in spirituality in healthcare has grown among adult educators, health educators and healthcare workers (Tisdell, 2003). This mixed-method study will explore spirituality and TB medication adherence among African American and Haitian populations. Globally, TB remains one of the leading causes of death from infectious disease. An estimated 2 billion persons are infected with the bacteria causing TB annually. In addition, approximately 9 million persons become ill from TB; of these, 2 million die (CDC, 2005). In the U.S., an estimated 10 to 15 million persons are infected with TB and more than two-thirds of reported cases occur in racial minority and ethnic groups such as African-Americans (CDC, 1992); unfortunately, this trend continues (CDC, 2005). In many cultures, the social stigma of tuberculosis contributes to lengthy delays in seeking professional care and abandonment of treatment (Iiongo, 1994; Rubel & Garro, 1992). TB is a curable disease that requires long-term medication therapy; however, failure to adhere to a treatment regimen creates potential for drug resistance, further spread of the disease, disability, and death. To break the cycle of TB infection and disease within the community, appropriate diagnosis, education, treatment, and follow-up care by healthcare providers caring for minority TB patients is necessary (CDC, 1998; Halverson, Mays, Miller, Kaluzny, & Richards, 1997). In adult education spirituality has gained a prominence that is reflective of an interest in spiritual matters (English & Gillen, 2000). Spirituality is an important aspect of both African Americans’ and Haitians’ lives. The purpose of this mixed-method study will be to explore the relationship between spirituality and TB medication adherence among African Americans and Haitians. A correlational study will be conducted to determine if there is a relationship between spirituality and medication adherence. Also, simultaneously a phenomenological study will be conducted to explore the influence of spirituality on TB medication adherence. The first section will discuss spirituality, spirituality in adult education and spirituality and health. The next section will discuss African Americans and Haitians. This will be followed by a description of adult learning theory, the proposed research design and summary. Spirituality There continues to be a growing interest in spirituality in health care among adult education, health educators and healthcare workers (Tisdell, 2003). Spirituality has defined as a “basic inherent quality in humans that involves a belief in something greater than the self and a faith that positively affirms life” (Musgrave, Easley, Allen, & Allen, 2002, p. 557). In addition, studies have shown support for the relationship between spirituality and health outcomes (Delgado, 2005; Kirschner, 2003; Koenig et al., 2000; Miller & Thoresen, 2003; Musgrave et al., 2002, Weaver & Ellison, 2004)). Although often used interchangeably, religion and spirituality have different meanings and may have different effects on the use of health services. Whether used together or separately, religion and spirituality provide a framework for African Americans to make sense of the world and cope with life (Musgrave et al., 2002). “Spirituality is a McDade, R. (2007). A mixed method study of spirituality and the influence on TB medication adherence. In S. M. Nielsen & M. S. Plakhotnik (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Annual College of Education Research Conference: Urban and International Education Section (pp. 54-59). Miami: Florida International University. http://coeweb.fiu.edu/research_conference/
55 relationship with a transcendent force that brings meaning and purpose to one’s existence, and affects the way in which one operates in the world” (Armstrong, 1996, p. 106). Spirituality can be described as individual focused and is not associated with involvement in a supportive community (Koenig, George, Titus & Meador, 2003). Religions are differentiated by particular beliefs and practices, requirement of membership, and modes of social organization (Miller & Thoresen, 2003). Religion and spirituality have been conceptualized to influence the development of each other. For example, religious practices encourage spiritual growth and spiritual practices are often an important aspect of religious participation (Armstrong & Crowther, 2002; Miller & Thoresen, 2003). Religion and spirituality have been linked to health behaviors and health outcomes such as decreased hospital length of stay and improved health (Hansel, Wu, Chang & Diette, 2004; Johnson, Elbert-Avila & Tulsky, 2005; King, Burgess, Akinyela, Counts-Spriggs, & Parker, 2005; Miller & Thoresen, 2003; Westlake et al., 2002). The spirituality in adult education is seen as a means of knowledge construction. Spirituality is about how people construct knowledge through largely unconscious and symbolic processes, often made more concrete in art forms such as music, art, image, symbol, and ritual, which are manifested culturally (Tisdell, 2003). Spirituality works with the individual’s affective, rational or cognitive, unconscious and symbolic domains of knowledge creation. This mixed-method research will focus on spirituality and its relationship to TB knowledge construction and health behaviors such as medication adherence. African Americans In the African American culture, spirituality expressed in the form of spiritual beliefs serves as a source of comfort, providing a coping mechanism and support. Spirituality is important in understanding disease, coping, treatment decisions and medication adherence (Johnson, Elbert-Avila & Tulsky, 2005). Spirituality expressed in the form of spiritual beliefs about health and disease treatment may interfere with TB treatment and may result in medication nonadherence. Family and extended families are important in the lives of African-Americans. Families are their primary arenas for transmission and expression of spirituality, religious practices and values to younger generations of African-Americans. African-Americans generally practice Christianity (Pamphile, 2001; Pinkney, 2000). The predominant church memberships are Baptist and Methodist (Pinkney, 2000; Trotter, 2001). Spirituality and religion has always been an important part of African-American culture. Four major themes on religion/spirituality’s influence on African-Americans’ health beliefs are as follows: (a) faith in divine healing with no human agency, (b) faith in divine healing through doctors, (c) faith in divine healing through health or religious behavior modifications, and (d) faith in acceptance of health outcomes (King et al., 2005). African Americans believe that God is responsible for physical and spiritual health and the doctor is God’s instrument (Green, Lewis, Wang, Person & Rivers, 2004; Johnson et al., 2005; Lewis & Green, 2000). African Americans believe in a strong intimate relationship with God and the ability to overcome health limitations through the power of prayer (King at al., 2005). African Americans TB patients’ medication adherence may be influenced by beliefs in God’s control over their physical and spiritual health. Haitians In the Haitian culture, TB is considered a shameful disease; as a result, patients diagnosed with TB face social exclusion, rejection by family and friends, and placement in quarantine (Farmer, Robin, Ramilus & Kim; 1991; Coreil, Lauzardo, & Heurtelou, 2004). Haitians believe that TB can be either naturally or supernaturally acquired and treated with biomedicine, natural
56 medicine and Voodoo (Miller, 2000). The majority of Haitians are Catholic, with a small number of other religions practiced (Chierici, 1991; Desrosiers & Fleurose, 2002; Pamphile, 2001). Lower class Haitians are more likely to acknowledge the belief and practice of Voodoo whereas upper class Haitians typically belong to the Catholic Church and deny Voodoo associated with lower class Haitians (Chierici, 1991; Desrosiers & Fleurose, 2002). Many Haitians believe in a spiritual world made up of good and evil spirits, spirits of the dead and many deities. To gain access to the spiritual world, many Haitians practice Voodoo, a religion with African origins, and worship the gods of Voodoo, or Loas, to gain protection and strength. Voodoo ceremonies are traditionally headed by a Voodoo priest known as a Houngan and are devoted to the worship and invocation of the invisible world. Haitian beliefs about TB include a supernatural etiology in which TB is caused by sorcery (Coreil, 2001; Farmer, 1991). Importantly, not all Haitians practice Voodoo. Haitians may practice Christianity, Voodoo, biomedical and spiritual healing (Desrosiers & Fleurose, 2002). Haitians’ belief in Voodoo gives patients a sense of optimism because they believe Voodoo provides control over their destiny. These spiritual beliefs have caused TB patients to abandon medical treatment (Farmer, 1991). If the Haitian abandons medical treatment and seeks alternative treatment, this creates a TB control challenge, such as further transmission of TB, drug resistance, and death. Adult Learning Theory Spirituality is seen as a means of finding meaning in life and of providing a source for coping with life (Miller, 1995; Reed, 1991). This quest to find meaning is a motivating force behind intellect and emotions. If individuals can find meaning in illness, suffering and death, they can find peace (Dyson, Cobb & Forman, 1997). Finding meaning in a situation is also a means for coping with stress. In adult learning, emotions and imagination are important to the construction of knowledge (Dirkx, 2001). Emotions play an important role in adult learning because emotions can either interfere with or encourage learning. Personally significant and important learning is grounded in and is derived from the adult’s emotional and imaginative connection with the self and with the broader social world. The process of mean making is essentially imaginative and extra rational, rather than merely reflective and rational (Dirkx, 2001). Emotions play an important role in how adults interpret and make sense of the events in their lives. Problem Statement Management of medication adherence by adults who require long-term medication and treatment can be a complex problem for healthcare providers. Current literature explores cultural factors that affect health beliefs about TB, but there is limited research on the relationship between spiritual factors and TB medication adherence. The field of health lacks research on spirituality, aside from religion, and its relationship to health (Thoresen & Harris, 2002). African Americans’ and Haitians’ spirituality and its influence on patients’ knowledge of TB may require different educational interventions. Intent of the Study The intent of the study will be to explore the concept of spirituality and the influence of spirituality on learning and health behaviors, such as TB medication adherence. The primary research question will be what is the influence of spirituality on African Americans’ and Haitians’ TB medication adherence? Mixed-Methods Research Design Mixing methods results in a richer and more accurate understanding of research (Greene & Caracelli, 1997). Mixed methods designs can strive to combine the characteristics of different
57 inquiry traditions, resulting in inferences grounded in participants’ lives but with credible claims about generalizability. Phenomenological Research Design The phenomenological form of inquiry shows how complex meanings are built out of simple units of direct experiences (Merriam & Simpson, 2000). This allows the researcher to attempt to deal with inner experiences not probed or explored in everyday life. This type of design will allow the researcher to explore the conscious experience of phenomena (p. 91). Creswell (2003) describes phenomenological research as the “essence” of human experiences concerning a phenomenon as described by participants in a study. This study will be based upon the phenomenological research design under the qualitative strategy of inquiry. Correlation Research Design A correlation research design will be utilized to examine the relationship between spirituality and TB medication adherence. A correlational design will be utilized to determine the relationships between spirituality and adherence to TB medication. Correlation design is useful when control over subjects is difficult to obtain. The strengths of this design are that it is economical, easy to implement, and yields results in a short period of time (Bickman & Rig, 1997). The limitations of the correlational design are that it only determines the existence of relationships, and does not investigate cause and effect relationships. Data Sources The population of interest is composed of 268 tuberculosis cases in Miami-Dade County (Florida Department of Health, 2004). In 2004, African Americans represented 107 TB cases and Haitians represented 62 TB cases in Miami-Dade County (Florida Department of Health, 2004). Permission to conduct this study will be obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the county hospital, Florida International University and the State of Florida Department of Health. The population of interest, African American and Haitian patients, will be identified and interviewed while in the hospital by the researcher. Nonprobability (convenience) sampling will be utilized in this study to select the sample. All African American and Haitian patients admitted to the county hospital with a diagnosis of TB are eligible for participation in the study. Data Collection The study will be conducted during a three-month time period in 2007. Patients will be given education about the study and permission to enroll in the study will be obtained by the researcher. The study site has a bilingual medical secretary who will be trained to assist the researcher with data collection. There will be two means of data collection: (a) voluntary completion of the questionnaire and (b) completion with the assistance of an interpreter. The spirituality questionnaire will be in booklet form in individual envelopes with labels identifying the clinic and research subject by number. Medication adherence will be based on an analysis of the patients’ medication administration records (MAR). A convenience sample of African American and Haitian patients admitted with a diagnosis of TB will be interviewed by the researcher, who will explain the purpose of the study. Haitian patients will be given the option of having an interpreter. A signed informed consent will be obtained and a copy will be given to each patient. The patients will receive the standard verbal and written explanation about their TB diagnosis, medication and treatment regimen. In addition, six African Americans and six Haitians will be selected to interview for the phenomenological phase of the study. Patients will be interviewed in the hospital and clinic to gather further understandings, themes, values and meanings of spirituality.
58 Summary This study of African Americans’ and Haitians’ knowledge of TB and the influence of spirituality on medication adherence may reveal differences and similarities between two minority populations. This knowledge will enable adult educators and healthcare providers to have a better understanding of the two minority populations. In addition, this study will add to the body of knowledge about spirituality and health behaviors. Findings from this study will help adult educators develop better educational interventions to help cure TB, interrupt further transmission of TB and prevent death. References Armstrong, T. D. (1996). Exploring spirituality: The development of the Armstrong Measure of Spirituality. In R. L. Jones (Ed.), Handbook of tests and measurements for black populations (105-115). Hampton, VA: Cobb and Henry. Armstrong, T. D., & Crowther, M. R. (2002). Spirituality among older African-Americans. Journal of Adult Development, 9(1), 3-12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2004). Reported tuberculosis in the United States. Atlanta, GA: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1998). Tuberculosis morbidity-United States. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1992). Prevention and control of tuberculosis with at-risk minority populations. Recommendations of the Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 41(RR-5). Chierici, R. (1991). Demele: “Making it” migration and adaptation among Haitian boat people in the United States. New York: AMS Press. Coreil, J. (2001). Haitian cultural study of TB/HIV Part 1(Florida Bureau of Tuberculosis and Refugee Health). Coreil, J., Lauzardo, M., & Heurtelou, M. (2004). Cultural feasibility assessment of Tuberculosis prevention among persons of Haitian origin in South Florida. Journal of Immigrant Health, 6(2), 63-69. Creswell, J. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Delgado, C. (2005). A discussion of the concept of spirituality. Nursing Science Quarterly, 18(2), 157-162. Desrosiers, A., & Fleurose, S. (2002). Treating Haitian patients: Key cultural aspects. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 56(4), 508-521. Dirkx, J. M. (2001). The power of feelings: Emotions, imagination, and the construction of meaning in adult learning. In S. Imel (Series Ed.) & S. B. Merriam (Vol. Ed.), New directions for adult and continuing education: No. 89. The new update on adult learning theory (pp. 63-72). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Dyson, J, Cobb, M., & Forman, D. (1997). The meaning of spirituality: a literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 26, 1183-1188. Farmer, P., Simon, R., Ramilus, S., & Kim, J. (1991). Tuberculosis, poverty, and compliance: Lesson from rural Haiti. Seminars in Respiratory Infections,6(4), 254-260. Florida Department of Health, Bureau of Tuberculosis and Refugee Health. (n.d.). 2004 Florida Tuberculosis Fact Sheet. Retrieved March 24, 2005, from http://www.doh.state.fl.us/disease control/tb/.
59 Greene, J., & Caracelli, V. (1997). Advances in mixed-method evaluation: The challenges and benefits of integrating diverse paradigms. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Green, B., Lewis, R., Wang, M., Person, S., & Rivers, B. (2004). Powerlessness, destiny, and control: The influence of health behaviors of African Americans. Journal of Community Health, 29(1), 15-27. Halverson, P. K., Mays, G. P., Miller, C. A., Kaluzny, A. D., & Richards, T. B. (1997). Managed care and the public health challenge of tuberculosis. Public Health Reports, 112, 22-28. Hansel, N. N., Wu, A., Chang, B., & Diette, G. (2004). Quality of life in tuberculosis: Patient and provider perspectives. Quality of Life Research, 13, 639-652. Johnson, K., Elbert-Avila, K., & Tulsky, J. (2005). The influence of spiritual beliefs and practices on the treatment preferences of African Americans: A review of the literature. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53, 711-719. King, S., Burgess, E., Akinyela, M., Counts-Spriggs., & Parker, N. (2005). Your body is God’s temple. Research of Aging, 27(4), 420-446. Kirschner, M. (2003). Spirituality and health. American Journal of Public Health, 93(2),185-186. Koenig, H. (2001). Spiritual assessment in medical practice. American Family Physician, 63, 1. Koenig, H., George, L., Titus, P., & Meador, K. (2003). Religion, spirituality, and health ser-vice use by older hospitalized patients. Journal of Religion and Health, 42(4), 301-314. Koenig, H., McCullough, M., & Larson, D. (2000). Handbook of religion and health. New York: Oxford University Press. Merriam, S., & Simpson, E. (2nd ed.). (2000). A guide to research for educators and trainers of adults. Malabar, FL. Krieger. Miller, M. A. (1995). Culture, spirituality, and women’s health. Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Neonatal Nursing, 24(3), 257-263. Miller, N. L. (2000). Haitian ethnomedical systems and biomedical practitioners: Directions for clinicians. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 11(3), 204-211. Miller, W. R., & Thoresen, C. E. (2003). Spirituality, religion and health. American Psychologist, 58(1), 24-35. Musgrave, C., Easley Allen, C., & Allen, G. (2002). Spirituality and health for women of color. American Journal of Public Health, 92(4), 557-560. Pamphile, L. (2001). Haitians and African Americans: A heritage of tragedy and hope. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Pinkney, A. (2000). Black Americans (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Reed, P. G. (1986). Religiousness among terminally ill and health adults. Research in Nursing and Health, 9, 35-42. Reed, P. G. (1991). Self-transcendence and mental health in oldest-old adults. Nursing Research, 40, 7-11. Rubel, A., & Garro, L. (1992). Social and cultural factors in the successful control of tuberculosis. Public Health Reports, 107(6), 626-635. Tisdell, E. J. (2003). Exploring spirituality and culture in adult and higher education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Weaver, A. & Ellison, C. (2004). Introduction to special issue on religion/spirituality and health. Southern Medical Journal, 97(12), 1191-1193. Westlake, C., Dracup, K, Creaser, J., Livingston, N., Heywood, T., Huiskers, B., et al. (2002). Correlates of health-related quality of life in patients with heart failure. Heart & Lung, 31(2), 85-93.
Comparison of Common Field/Clinical Measures to Standard Laboratory Measures of Hydration Status Dawn M. Minton, Lindsey E. Eberman, Michelle A. Cleary, Charles C. Emerson Florida International University, Miami, FL Context: Accurately determining hydration status is a preventative measure for exertional heat illnesses (EHI). Objective: To determine the validity of various field measures of urine specific gravity (Usg) compared to laboratory instruments. Design: Observational research design to compare measures of hydration status: urine reagent strips (URS) and a urine color (Ucol) chart to a refractometer. Setting: We utilized the athletic training room of a Division I-A collegiate American football team. Participants: Trial 1 involved urine samples of 69 veteran football players (age=20.1+1.2yr; body mass=229.7+44.4lb; height=72.2+2.1in). Trial 2 involved samples from 5 football players (age=20.4+0.5yr; body mass=261.4+39.2lb; height=72.3+2.3in). Interventions: We administered the Heat Illness Index Score (HIIS) Risk Assessment, to identify athletes at-risk for EHI (Trial 1). For individuals “at-risk” (Trial 2), we collected urine samples before and after 15 days of pre-season “two-a-day” practices in a hot, humid environment(mean on-field WBGT=28.84+2.36oC). Main Outcome Measures: Urine samples were immediately analyzed for Usg using a refractometer, Diascreen 7® (URS1), Multistix® (URS2), and Chemstrip10® (URS3). Ucol was measured using Ucol chart. We calculated descriptive statistics for all main measures; Pearson correlations to assess relationships between the refractometer, each URS, and Ucol, and transformed Ucol data to Z-scores for comparison to the refractometer. Results: In Trial 1, we found a moderate relationship (r=0.491, p<.01) between URS1 (1.020+0.006μg) and the refractometer (1.026+0.010μg). In Trial 2, we found marked relationships for Ucol (5.6+1.6shades, r=0.619, p<0.01), URS2 (1.019+0.008μg, r=0.712, p<0.01), and URS3 (1.022+0.007μg, r=0.689, p<0.01) compared to the refractometer (1.028+0.008μg). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that URS were inconsistent between manufacturers, suggesting practitioners use the clinical refractometer to accurately determine Usg and monitor hydration status. Key Words: urine color, urine reagent strip, urine specific gravity Both the National Athletic Trainers’ Association and American College of Sports Medicine have released position statements regarding hydration in athletes and the risks associated with hypohydration.1,2 Hypohydration and heat related injuries may result in loss of playing time, decrease in performance, decrease in overall health, and death.3 The National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injuries reports since 2000 there have been 13 fatalities due to heat stroke, and in 2005 alone 5 heat related fatalities.4 Because hypohydration is one of the leading signs of exertional heat illness,1 allied health professionals treating high risk populations should be measuring hydration status as a preventative priority. Change in body mass, urine color (Ucol), urine osmolality (Uosm), plasma osmolality (Posm), and urine specific gravity (Usg) are all common measures of hydration status, and each method presents advantages and limitations. Based upon the methods available, clinicians should develop assessment protocols to assess pre-participation hydration levels and subsequently monitor high risk athletes over the course of activity.3 Some measures of hydration status, osmolality, are more appropriate for a laboratory setting, yet others, change in body mass and urine color, are more commonly associated with
clinical measures of hydration. Researchers often look for tools that provide the greatest accuracy and reliability for laboratory investigations.5 However, in a clinical setting, tools that require little technician expertise and expense are more customary. The “gold standard” for the measurement of hydration status in the clinical setting is unclear. Several researchers state that the use of a clinical refractometer for Usg is more accurate than urine reagent strips (URS),6-10 while others state that URS are equally reliable.11-13 As research continues to examine hydration indices to determine the most reliable and valid measurement of hydration status, the purpose of this research was to determine the validity of URS compared to refractometers in detecting accurate measures of Usg in the clinical setting. Methods Participants For Trial 1, 69 Division I-A collegiate American football players (age=20.1+1.2yr; body mass=229.7+44.4lb; height=72.2+2.1in) participated in the pilot implementation of the Heat Illness Index Score(HIIS) Risk Assessment to identify athletes at-risk for exertional heat illness. Five football players (age=20.4+0.5yr; body mass=261.4+39.2lb; height=72.3+2.3in) were identified as moderate-risk, and urine samples and body mass changes were continuously monitored throughout preseason “two-a-day” practices (Trial 2) in a hot, humid environment (mean on-field WBGT=28.84+2.36oC). Research Design We used a non-experimental, observational research design to compare three brands of URS and Ucol to a refractometer. Experimental Procedures As part of the HIIS, participants were asked to provide a urine sample (Trial 1). The sample was immediately analyzed for Usg using a clinical refractometer (model 300CL, Atago Inc., Japan) and the Diascreen 7® (Hypogaurd, Minneapolis, MN) reagent strip (URS1). Urine samples were then collected before and after each practice for fifteen days of practices (Trial 2). Usg was measured using the clinical refractometer, Multistix® (Bayer Corporation, Elkhart, IN) reagent strip (URS2), and Chemstrip 10® (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN) reagent strip (URS3). Urine color was measured using a Ucol chart (Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL). Usg and Ucol were immediately measured with the refractometer and Ucol chart, respectively. Then, two researchers analyzed the specimens with the URS. One researcher immersed the strip in the specimen, as recommended by each manufacturer and the other researcher read the results at the times specified by the manufacturer. Statistical Analysis Descriptive statistics were calculated for all urine indices. Pearson correlations were calculated to assess the strength of the relationship between the clinical refractometer and the URS. Subsequently, z-scores were calculated for the urine color and the clinical refractometer measures of Usg. Pearson correlations were then calculated to identify the strength of the relationship between these variables. Significance was set α-priori at p<0.05. Results Measures of urine indices demonstrated that our participants were significantly hypohydrated (Table 1). A moderate correlation was found for the relationship between URS1 and the clinical refractometer (Table 2). Marked correlations were found for the relationship between URS2 and URS3 (Table 2). The correlation analysis of z-scores revealed the clinical refractometer measure of Usg and urine color were moderately correlated (r=0.619, p<0.01).
Discussion Urine Specific Gravity The NCAA suggests Usg as the most practical, cost-efficient measurement of hydration status in athletes.14 Usg is a measure of the ratio between the density of urine and the density of water.3,5,6,15 Urinary concentration depends on the presence of particles (electrolytes, phosphate, urea, uric acid, proteins, glucose, and radiographic contrast media) per unit of urine volume.3,7 Small amounts of urine can be used for rapid, non-invasive, and inexpensive measurements.5,7 Fluid denser than water will have a measurement greater than 1.000Gm/mL.5 In the average healthy person Usg ranges between 1.002 to 1.030,15 with minimal hypohydration measure set at 1.010 to 1.020 (1% to 3% loss of body weight)1,16 and severe hypohydration above 1.030.1,5,17 Two popular Usg measurement techniques are URS and refractometry. URS are cost-efficient, easily accessible, and easy to use7,10 to estimate Usg.3 When immersed in urine, an analytic reaction occurs in the small pads between an ion exchanger, bromthymol, and buffers with the urine concentration of hydrogen ions and sodium ions. The protons are released in the presence of cations and react with the bromthymol blue, changing the color of the strip.3,6,7,10 Urine refractometry identifies when concentrated fluid breaks normal light differently than water and measuring the refraction of the beam,3,7 detecting particles according to weight rather than number.7 Research has demonstrated that Usg measurement by refractometry is a more sensitive indicator of hydration status than blood plasma or hematocrit measurements18-20 and should be used when determining hydration status of athletes.1 Refractometry is the preferred method of Usg measurement as compared to URS.9,10 However, previous literature is contradictory concerning the use of URS. Some studies have shown a positive correlation between the two types of measurements, while others have shown no correlation. Correlation between URS and refractometry has been found to be low (r=.573).15 Refractometry is consistently more accurate and reagent strip results are often unpredictable.6 We also ascertained that URS were unpredictable between manufacturer types. Further research is necessary to determine the validity of URS as a measure for Usg.5 Our research confirmed inconsistent results for Usg within different URS tested and the overall moderate correlations leads us to suggest that refractometry continues to be the preferred clinical method of Usg measurement. However, URS are a psychomotor skill required in educational competencies and therefore, a common clinical practice taught in athletic training education programs.21 Change in Body Mass Water comprises 50-70% of the body’s total mass.3 Change in body mass is the most common clinical technique used to determine hydration status in athletes and utilizes pre and post-exercise body mass measurements to calculate the amount of body water lost. Although the most commonly used, change in body mass has limitations. Immediate ingestion of fluid equal to 5% body loss did not return Posm to baseline measurements.9 Fluids ingested following 6% body loss required 48-72 hours to demonstrate a euhydrated status.22 These results show that while change in body mass is an inexpensive, practical, method for hydration measurement, it may not be valid or reliable. Urine Color Ucol is an inexpensive, yet reliable5method for hydration measurement. Normal urine color should be described as light yellow3,5 with severe hypohydration described as brownish green.5 Ucol does not provide the accuracy or precision of Usg or Uosm5 and has a tendency to underestimate the level of hydration,17 but it may be a valid self-assessment of hydration level.
However, Ucol can be misleading if a large amount of fluid is consumed rapidly, causing the kidneys to excrete dilute urine even if hypohydration exists.5 Urine Osmolality Uosm and Usg are accurate measures of hydration status.19 Uosm measures the amount of osmoles of dissociated solute particle per kilogram of solution.3,6 Uosm measurements require a osmometer and trained technician, therefore may not be practical for clinical use.5 Normal Uosm equals <500mOsm/L.3 While osmolality is the most accurate measurement of total solute concentration, Uosm may not accurately determine hydration status immediately after activity. Water turnover, intercultural differences, regulative mechanisms all contribute to an inaccuracy of Uosm measurements.5 Plasma Osmolality Posm is the most widely used hematological index of hydration and is considered the “gold standard” of hydration status.5 Posm accurately tracks acute changes in hydration status during exercise in a warm environment. Posm linearly increased from 283 mosmo/kg when euhydrated by > 30mosmol/kg after hypohydrated by 15% of total body water.23 This shows that Posm is positively correlated with hydration status. When hypohydrated, Posm will proportionally decrease and increase when euhydrated. Osmolality increases because sweat is ordinarily hypotonic relative to plasma.23 Posm measurements increase with progressive hypohydration and return toward euhydration during hydration recovery, while Usg and Uosm lag in response to hypohydration and rehydration.9,16 As with Uosm, Posm is measured using an osmometer, requiring expensive equipment and training, which again may not be clinically practical.5 Also, Posm can be influenced by sports drinks or meals.9 Urine Reagent Strips A variety of manufacturers produce reagent strips, each with specific instructions for proper techniques for immersion and reading of results. Failure to follow manufacturer’s specifications is a common cause of inaccurate test results.10,28 Leaving the reagent strip immersed in the specimen too long may cause the reagents to dissolve and become inaccurate.10 Reagent strips must also be protected against ambient moisture, heat, and light, may not be stored in alternate containers, and will be inaccurate if expired.28 In addition, specimen containers must be free of detergents and other contaminants.10 URS measurements were typically greater than refractometer measurements (mean difference of 0.002 + 0.007) and although the URS were specific (83%) they were not sensitive (38%).15 One researcher reported strong correlations (r=.906 and r=.911) when comparing URS and 2 refractometers.11 Several other researchers suggest that reagent strips are not a valid measure for Usg, reporting correlations well below .800,24-29 which are not suitable for clinical practice. Further, a wide dispersion of data has been demonstrated when comparing reagent strips (Clinitek-50) with a refractometer.7 This research, among our moderate correlations, further support the use of refractometry for measuring Usg instead of inconsistent and unreliable URS. Conclusions Hydration status is instrumental in preventing heat related illness. When choosing a measurement technique in the clinical setting it is important the clinician use a tool that is practical, inexpensive, and does not require technical operation, yet also provides the practitioner with a reliable and accurate measure. We suggest a urinary refractometer is a more reliable clinical measure of Usg and should be used in conjunction with change in body mass and Ucol to monitor the hydration status of at-risk athletes exercising in extreme environmental conditions.
References 1. Casa DJ, Armstrong LE, Hillman SK, et al. National Athletic Trainers’ Association position statement: fluid replacement for athletes. J Athl Train. 2000;35:212-224. 2. American College of Sports Medicine. Joint position statement: nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32:2130-2145. 3. Oppliger RA, Bartok C. Hydration testing of athletes. Sports Med. 2002;32:959-971. 4. National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research. Twenty-third annual report fall 1982-spring 2005. 5. Armstrong LE. Hydration Assessment Techniques. Nutr Rev. 2005;63:S40-S54. 6. Chadha V, Garg U, Alon US. Measurement of urinary concentration: a critical appraisal of methodologies. Pediatr Nephrol. 2000;16:374-382. 7. de Buys Roessingh AS, Drukker A, Guignard J-P. Dipstick measurements of urine specific gravity are unreliable. Arch Dis Child. 2001;85:155-157. 8. McCrossin T, Roy LP. Comparison of hydrometery, refractometry, osmometry, and Ames NMultistix SG in estimation of urinary concentration. Aust Paediatr J. 1985;21:185-188 9. Popowski LA, Oppliger RA, Lambert GP, Johnson RF, Johnson AK, Gisolfi CV. Blood and urinary measures of hydration status during progressive acute hypohydration. Med Sci. 2000;747-753. 10. Zaloga GP. Part 1: Rapid, accurate urine testing at the bedside. 11. Gounden D, Newall RG. Urine specific gravity measurements: comparison of a new reagent strip method with exisiting methodologies, as applied to the water concentration/dilution tests. Curr Med Res Opin. 1983;8:375-381. 12. Hensey OJ, Cooke RW. Estimation of urine specific gravity and osmolality using a simple reagent strip. Br Med J. 1983;286:6358. 13. Ito K, Niwa M, Koba T. Study of urinary specific gravity by reagent strip method. Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 1983;8:247-255. 14. National Collegiate Athletic Association Wrestling Rules Committee. 1998-1999 wrestling weight certification program. Indianapolis, IN: National Collegiate Athletic Assocation; 1998. 15. Stuempfle KJ, Drury DG. Comparison of 3 methods to assess urine specific gravity in collegiate wrestlers. J Athl Train. 2003;38(4):315-319. 16. Oppliger RA, Magnes SA, Popwoski LA, and Gisolfi CV. Accuracy of urine specific gravity and osmolality as indicators of hydration status. Int J Sport Nutr. 2005;15:236-251. 17. Finn JP, Wood RJ. Incidence of pre-game hypohydration in athletes competing at international event in dry tropical conditions. Nutr Deit. 2004;61:221-225. 18. Armstrong LE, Maresh CM, Castellani JW, et al. Urinary indices of hydration status. Int J Sport Nutr. 1994;4:265–279. 19. Armstrong LE, Soto JAH, Hacker FT Jr, Casa DJ, Kavouras SA, Maresh CM. Urinary indices during hypohydration, exercise, and rehydration. Int J Sport Nutr. 1998;8:345–355. 20. Shirreffs SM. Markers of hydration status. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57:S6-S9. 21. National Athletic Trainers’ Association Education Council. Clinical Proficiency Definitions. Retrieved on March 13, 2006. www.nataec.org 22. Costill DL, Sparks KE. Rapid fluid replacement following thermal hypohydration. J Appl Physiol. 1973;34:299-303. 23. Sawka MN, Convertino VA, Eichner ER, Schnieder SM, Young AJ. Blood volume: importance and adaptations to exercise training, environmental stresses, and trauma/sickness. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32:332-348. 24. Adams LJ. Evaluation of Ames Multistix-SG for urine specific gravity versus refractometer specific gravity. Am J Clin Pathol. 1983;25:512-514. 25. Brandon CA. Urine specific gravity measurement: reagent strip versus refractometer. Clin Lab Sci. 1994;7:308-310. 26. Dorizzi RM, Caputo M. Measurement of urine relative density using refractometer and reagent strips. Clin Chem Lab Med. 1998;36:925-928.
27. McCrossin T, Roy LP. Comparison of hydrometery, refractometry, osmometry, and Ames NMultistix SG in estimation of urinary concentration. Aust Paediatr J. 1985;21:185-188. 28. Wilson LA. Urinalysis. Nurs Stand. 2005;19(35):51-54. 29. Zack JF Jr. Evaluation of a specific gravity test strip. Clin Chem. 1983;29:210.
Table 1. Urine Indices Trial 1 n=55 USG Clinical Refractometer RS1 Trial 2 n=5 USG Clinical Refractometer RS2 RS3 Urine Color Table 2. Pearson r Correlations Trial 1 n= 69 USG Clinical URS1 Refractometer r= 0.491 p< 0.01
Mean 1.026 1.020 Mean 1.028 1.019 1.022 5.6
SD 0.010 0.006 SD 0.008 0.008 0.007 1.6
Trial 2 n= 55 URS2 URS3 r= 0.712 p< 0.01
r= 0.689 p< 0.01
Review of Research on Spiritual and Religious Formation in Higher Education Angelique Montgomery-Goodnough and Suzanne J. Gallagher St. Thomas University, USA Abstract: College students have diverse ways of expressing their spirituality. The purpose of this review is to examine and critique the research used to study college students’ spiritual and religious formation. Implications for faculty, student affairs professionals, and ministers doing research on spiritual formation in higher education are discussed. The current generation of college students’ spiritual and religious development is markedly different from that of previous generations as evidenced by their decreased church attendance and lack of identification with a particular denomination (Zinnbauer & Pargament, 1998). However, “students have very high levels of spiritual interest and involvement. Many are actively engaged in a spiritual quest and in exploring the meaning and purpose of life” (Higher Education Research Institute [HERI], 2005, Executive Summary, ¶ 4). College students report that a significant amount of their religious experiences and discussions occur with friends (78%), in nature (73%), and while listening to music (64%), or participating in athletic events (30%), meditating (30%), or viewing art (36%), which have not always been classified as religious experiences in past research (HERI, 2005). College students are spiritual and religious seekers that are less inclined to attend church as they progress through education, more inclined to talk to friends about their experiences and doubts, and likely to undergo a significant amount of psychic trauma as they develop (HERI, 2005; Hindman, 2002; Schafer, 1997; Zinnbauer & Pargament, 1998). The purpose of this review is to examine and critique the research used to study college students’ spiritual and religious formation. Method A review of the literature for a 9-year period was conducted. This period was chosen to encompass both the studies which define and measure college student spirituality and religiosity and well as the most current research of college students’ spirituality and religiosity (HERI, 2006; Shafer, 1997; Zinnbauer & Pargament, 1998). The descriptors used were students’ religious life, conversion, higher education, and spirituality. The studies were selected from the Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Review of Religious Research, International Journal for the Psychology of Religion Journal of College and Character, and Religious Education, and two additional studies were chosen from ERIC, for a total of 11 research studies. An analysis of the research method of each study was conducted based on a critique of the research design, data collection method, data analysis, and results of the research. Discussion The Higher Education Research Institute (2005) at the University of California at Los Angeles has initiated a multi-year mixed model longitudinal study of college students’ search for meaning and purpose. The most recent phase of the study is based on a survey administered to a representative sample of 112,000 college freshmen at 240 colleges and universities in the fall of 2004. This survey was followed by a qualitative component “designed to assess the spiritual life of college students in more depth by conducting individual and focus group interviews” (HERI, 2005, The Survey ¶ 3). The survey instrument was developed based on a pilot survey completed Montgomery-Goodnough, A., & Gallagher, S. J. (2007). Review of research on spiritual and religious formation in higher education. In S. M. Nielsen & M. S. Plakhotnik (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Annual College of Education Research Conference: Urban and International Education Section (pp. 60-65). Miami: Florida International University. http://coeweb.fiu.edu/research_conference/
61 in 2003. The survey was designed to be sensitive to religious affiliation, gender, political orientation and engagement, socioeconomic status, and spiritual quest. The survey and sample is silent on ethnicity, cultural diversity, and the unchurched (except to note the spectrum of more religious to less religious). The results are correlated to academic performance, degree aspirations, self-esteem, physical health, satisfaction with college, and psychological distress. The determinations of spirituality, physical health and psychological distress were self-rated. This study will continue with the same student population in the spring of 2007 (junior year) for longitudinal comparison. The resources applied to this study make it significant in the on-going study of college student spiritual formation; however, the limitations of sampling criteria make it less valuable for ethnically diverse and multi-cultural populations. The limits of survey complexity (even in a 4 page, 32 question format) leave gaps in the description of students’ spiritual and religious experience and do not address the spiritual formation or needs of those who do not self-identify as religious. Another national longitudinal study that is related to student spiritual and religious development and used by many of the subsequent studies is College Students Helping America (Corporation for National & Community Service, 2006). This study is often cited as evidence of increased student spirituality by virtue of increased student volunteerism. Drawn from the Current Population Survey of 60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, this study reveals that the rate of volunteering by college students has risen 2002 to 2005 by 20%, over twice the increase of the adult population. Although the study states that its strength is in the size of the sample which “permits narrowly defined subpopulations” (p. 18), the research did not identify the demographics of any subpopulations except by age of the students. Zinnbauer and Pargament’s (1998) research is also a foundational study for much of the current research on college student spirituality in a mixed method design. Participants at a Midwestern state university were identified by a screening questionnaire about religious experience that identified Christian undergraduates (214) who had responded positively to the question: Do you consider yourself to be a religious person? The participants, who were then selected by a nonrandom process of being identified by teaching assistants as verbally skilled, were given research credit in psychology for participation in a more detailed survey and openended interview. The interview questions were designed by the researcher to “allow the students to tell their own story” (Zinnbauer & Pargament, 1998, 170). The results were analyzed on the basis of self-reported religious change over time. The initial hypothesis that students experiencing religious conversion would present with high psychological stress was moderately supported by the research. Correlations were made to gender, age, and class status. The study was silent on ethnic and multi-cultural populations and did not attempt to measure religious or spiritual experiences or psychological distress in students who did not self-identify as religious. Genia (2001) published an evaluation of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (Paloutzain & Ellison, 1982), with a religiously heterogeneous sample of college students. According to Genia, the scale is widely used in psychological study of religion, is not based on a specific religious orientation, and has been tested for consistency and construct validity. However, it has been found to be less reliable with use among evangelical Protestants (ceiling effect) and has not been verified with use in non-Protestant populations. The participants for this study were recruited by faculty, campus ministers, and residence hall assistants at American University in Washington, DC. Even with the attempt to identify a religiously heterogeneous sample, 47% of the respondents were not Protestant and 24% identified themselves as unaffiliated or non-JudeoChristian. A new category was developed for the last group and identified as “nontraditionally
62 religious”(p.26). The sample was predominantly female (69%) and predominantly white (81%). Although the scales used were described in detail, as well as the measures used to analyze the data, the study does not describe how the scales were administered. The hypothesized ceiling effects were supported by the research in Christian respondents; however, the research on Jewish and nontraditional students was inconclusive. No attempt was made to isolate the data for the non-White respondents. The study supported the assumption that the results being measured by the Spiritual Well Being Scale are not reliable for most of the populations identified. Winings (1999) summarizes a study of college students’ response to the efficacy of campus ministry and religious groups. The researcher surveyed four religious groups (i.e., Protestant-Methodist, Catholic, Jewish, and Evangelical-Baptist) with personal interviews and a multi-page questionnaire. The sample criteria considered the geographic location of the respondent, gender, ethnicity, and type and size of the university. She also surveyed campus ministers and spiritual directors with the same criteria. The data was analyzed by religious group and student versus professional. The study results were described as a list of students’ responses, resulting in specific recommendations including a service-learning program outline. The study findings included the students’ lack of interest in denominationalism and their desire to learn in a service-oriented environment. The professionals were less forthcoming in their responses while the “students often wrote on the back of the page and on additional sheets” (Winings, 1999, 334). McCrohan and Bernt (2004) utilized the Catholic Faith Inventory and the Religious Life Inventory at a Catholic university. This study differentiated between religion and spirituality and based on traditional worship and service models among groups identified as a service group, a worship group, and an uncommitted group. The service and worship group participants were identified by campus ministry, and the uncommitted group was drawn from the school’s human subjects pool in a psychology class. A questionnaire was administered to the three groups and results were quantified based on sex, age, religious denomination (except for the uncommitted group), and year in school. The criteria were silent on ethnicity and culture of the participants. The findings were mixed and revealed that the “uncommitted group may not be accurately described and completely uninvolved, but rather not so intensely involved” as either of the other two groups (McCrohan & Brent, 2004, 282). Further findings indicated that the “values identified as important [by the students] was clearly a function of the specific values of the particular university and of the programs identified by the institution.” (p. 283). Dalton, Eberhardt, and Echols (2006) attempt to identify “contemporary forms and patterns of student spirituality” (p.1) related to spiritual search using ethnographic methods of review of student blogs and content analysis of university websites regarding activities and course content on spirituality. The study was silent on sampling criteria. The student comments derived from online blogs was descriptive but unverifiable as to author and biographic make up. However, this study did attempt to be responsive to student-driven needs and expressions of spirituality in an open format, albeit loosely defined. The study was silent on how the blogs were derived and identified as spiritual in nature. The review of institutional spiritual content was taken from the institution’s website and no attempt was described to verify the offerings or evaluate their efficacy. This study was most informative in illustrating the difficulty in identifying college students’ spiritual development in an objective, verifiable method that provides for the wide range of spiritual definitions and practices. Continuing on the topic of spirituality and service, Andolina, Meents-Decaigny, and Nass (2006) explored the relationship of civic engagement to spiritual attitudes. The study relied upon unspecified scales adapted from other national studies (the study cites the HERI study in other
63 places), and then compared the responses to other national studies. The survey was administered by email to all degree-seeking undergraduates at DePaul University. The survey results only weakly supported the hypothesis that students who placed a high value on religion or spirituality would also be more politically active. There was a relationship between religiosity and volunteering, but it did not extend to civic engagement such as voting, protesting, or petitioning. Researchers at a medium-sized Midwestern Evangelical university studied student spirituality as expressed in three different intentional communities where students, and in some cases, faculty have chosen to live out a life of daily prayer, shared meals, and service to the immediate neighborhood (Mulder, Bouman, Marion, & DeBraaf, 2006). This ethnographic study was conducted by means of telephone interviews to 45 participants selected through snowball sampling for two of the communities and random sampling for the third community. The respondents (almost equally divided between men and women) had lived in one of three intentional communities existing at the college during different periods from 1971 to the present. The interviews focused on the students’ experiences living in poor neighborhoods and interacting with the community, rather than on the students’ own spiritual development. Therefore, the findings are negatively skewed to the students who did not have a positive experience interacting with the neighborhood or did not feel that they were effective in the neighborhood. When the respondents focused on their own spiritual development, however, the responses were overwhelming positive with regard to the growth the students’ experienced by living in community and how this growth was either enhanced or limited by the involvement of the mentors and the institution. The generalizability of the study is limited due to the convenience sampling and the small sample size. However, the findings do indicate that intentional community is a viable option for student spiritual development, especially when the concept is supported and fostered by the institution administration and faculty. Another model of intentional community was presented in a Jesuit university setting by Calderwood (2005). The qualitative study reviewed a sample of students, staff, and faculty at a foundation-funded residential learning community which houses 130 students representing 25% of the sophomore class called Ignatian Residential College (IRC). The ethnographic research utilized interviews with students, staff, and faculty, surveys and other media such as student essays, bulletin boards, website, and artwork within the community. The findings had a number of implications for current and future structure and development of the IRC which has been deemed an overall success in its first two years of operation. One interesting finding was that with no intentional diversity criteria, the IRC population had a higher percentage of AfricanAmerican, Hispanic, Asian, and Native American students than the campus average. These students indicated that they were drawn to the community concept to establish relationships that had eluded them in their first year on campus. All students reported a need for community and connection as primary criteria for choosing the IRC. It should be noted that the institutional goal for the IRC is to develop student leaders in this intense environment that will then return to the general population and no attempt is made to identify students who may have spiritual and development needs that would be best served in the intentional community environment Implications Research in college student spiritual and religious development is evolving in an attempt to quantify and describe the changing nature of how students define, express, and search for spiritual and religious meaning. The HERI (2006) study provides a platform for some of the research, but important sampling and design questions are raised in a number of the studies researched.
64 Sampling criteria relied upon students self-identifying as religious or students were selected by campus ministers. In large quantitative studies the sampling could be better controlled by first establishing objective criteria for religiosity for use in screening participants. Within the participant pool the demographics are heavily weighted towards white, Midwestern Protestants, especially if total sample size in all studies is considered. United States college demographics should be studied to determine how to select a sample that includes ethnic, religious, and cultural diversity. The studies reveal the diminishing role of denominalism among college students, and this trend should be honored in the research. Quantitative research has dominated the literature on college student spirituality until the last three years when ethnographic research has begun to appear. Future research methods need to take into account the innate complexity and individuation of the exploration of religious and spiritual issues and to allow for new expressions of the religion and spirituality on the part of students. Ethnographic research, including participant-observer research, would offer the flexibility needed to capture the specific and distinct descriptions and manners of expression of student spiritual development (Adler & Adler, 1994). Current research on college student spirituality focuses primarily on those students who self-identify as spiritual or religious and ignores the reality that spiritual formation is the pursuit of personal identity, making it problematic for many students to self-identify as subjects for research. Most of the studies did not consider the unchurched in the sample or data analysis until that population surfaced as problematic for the research. Since the student population is redefining religious expression as something that may occur outside the church itself, the unchurched student must be specifically identified as a discreet participant group and studied in a wide variety of settings. In any comprehensive approach to spirituality that takes place outside the church building the students’ residential environment must be considered. Intentional and learning communities are an excellent starting point for future ethnographic and participantobserver research (Adler & Adler, 1994). What once was thought to be a distinct rebellion against religion by our youth is now identified as a paradigm shift in an engaged and questing generation that is overtly spiritual (Dalton, 2006). What an exciting time in the college student community to initiate research that is not only revelatory but transformational. References Adler, P. A., & Adler, P. (1994). Observational techniques. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 377-392). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Andolina, M., Meents-Decaigny, E., & Nass, K. (2006). College students, faith and the public realm: The relationship between religious attitudes and civic and political engagement. Journal of College and Character, 8, 1-10. Calderwood, P. (2006). Living and learning in community: Blending intentional and learning community on campus. Journal of College and Character, 7, 1-15. Corporation for National & Community Service. (2006). College students helping America. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.nationalservice.gov/pdf/06_1016 _RPD_college_full.pdf Dalton, J. C. (2006). The place of spirituality in the mission of work of college student affairs. In A. W. Chickering, J. C. Dalton, & L. Stam (Eds.), Encouraging authenticity and spirituality in higher education (pp.145-164). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Dalton, J. C., Eberhardt, J. B., & Echols, K. (2006). Inward journeys: Forms and patterns of college student spirituality. Journal of College and Character, 8, 1-22.
65 Genia, V. (2001). Evaluation of the spiritual well-being scale in a sample of college students. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 11, 25-33. Higher Education Research Institute. (2006). Spirituality in higher education: A national study of college students' search for meaning and purpose. Los Angeles: Author. Retrieved from http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/heri/spirituality.html Hindman, David M. (2002). From splintered lives to whole persons: facilitating spiritual development in college students. Religious Education, 97, 165-182. McCrohan, B., & Bernt, F. M. (2004). Service and worship as modes of religious expression among Catholic college students. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 14, 273-284. Mulder, M., Bouman, J., Marion J. V., & DeBraaf, D. (2006). Connecting the mind, heart and hands through intentional community at Calvin College. Journal of College and Character, 8, 1-13. Paloutzian, R.F., & Ellison, C.W. (1982). Loneliness, spiritual well-being and the quality of life. In L.A. Peplan & D. Pearlman (Eds.), Loneliness: a sourcebook of current theory, research and therapy. New York: Wiley. Schafer, W. E. (1997). Religiosity, spirituality, and personal distress among college students. Journal of College Student Development, 38, 633-644. Winings, K. (1999). Campus ministries and new paradigms for educating religiously. Religious Education, 94, 329-344. Zinnbauer, B. J., & Pargament, K. I. (1998). Spiritual conversion: A study of religious change among college students. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 37, 161-180.
Special Education Teachers: What Keeps Them in the Field? Whitney Moores-Abdool and Jorine Voigt Florida International University, USA Abstract: The dilemma of securing a special education teacher supply is a critical issue. Understanding causes of attrition is vital to addressing the problem. This review analyzes literature and identifies factors for teacher retention/attrition while overlaying the concept of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to understand this phenomenon from a psychological perspective. Between 1992 to 1999, students identified for special education swelled by 20.3%, while the general education population increased by only 6.8% (McLeskey, Tyler, & Flippin, 2004). Annually, the federal government appropriates about $90 million on recruitment of special education teachers for students with disabilities (Brownell, Hirsh, & Seo, 2004). Despite government spending, from 1999 through 2001, there were 28,300 special education teachers who left the field, and 33,000 who moved from their current positions (National Center for Education for Education Statistics, 2000-01). Across the country, 98% of school districts indicated special education teacher shortages; the projected need for these teachers by 2008 exceeds 135,000 (Center on Personnel Studies in Special Education, 2005). The national dilemma of securing a solid special education teacher supply has become a leading educational policy concern (Allen, 2004). As a result, researchers and legislators have focused on teacher attrition. Persistent turnover is attributed equally between attrition, those who desert the field; and migration, those who transfer to other teaching positions (Ingersoll & Smith, 2003). Special education crossover rates to general education are 10 times higher than crossover rates from general education to special education (Council for Exceptional Children, 2005). Reasons attributed to teacher attrition and migration includes school personnel staffing issues, teachers’ family concerns, and undesirable work environments (Ingersoll, 2003). Understanding reasons teachers abandon special education is important; moreover, it is critical for school districts and administrators to identify and cultivate teacher retention strategies. This paper is divided in two sections: method and discussion of themes. The method section will describe the process used in the structured literature review. The discussion of themes will include a review of literature that identifies (a) causal factors for teacher retention and attrition in special education, (b) ingredients for establishing effective mentoring relationships, and (c) a rationale for teachers’ mentoring needs using Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Method The structured literature review consisted of the following process: deciding on keyword descriptors, choosing databases, establishing database search criteria, performing the database searches, choosing relevant articles, and evaluating articles. Deciding on Keyword Descriptors The two search descriptors chosen for the database searches were special education teacher and retention. Although retention is usually discussed within the context of teacher shortage, this descriptor was avoided to prevent unrelated articles to special education teachers exclusively. Descriptors from IDEA were chosen for the database search to be combined individually with special education teacher and retention. These descriptors included other health impaired, emotionally disturbed, orthopedic impairment, autism, specific learning Moores-Abdool, W., & Voigt, J. (2007). Special education teachers: What keeps them in the field? In S. M. Nielsen & M. S. Plakhotnik (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Annual College of Education Research Conference: Urban and International Education Section (pp. 66-71). Miami: Florida International University. http://coeweb.fiu.edu/research_conference/
67 disability, mentally retarded, deaf, speech and language impairment, blind, multiple handicap, developmental delays, deaf and blind, and traumatic brain injury. Choosing Databases Six educational databases were selected: ERIC- Education Resource Information Center, Expanded Academic ASAP, Social Sciences Full Text, PsychINFO, Social Science Full Text, and ISI Web of Knowledge. Establishing Database Search Criteria Database searches consisting of all types of articles using the previously indicated descriptors were performed. This was done not to exclude information from symposiums, national surveys, and research briefs which might be relevant to our research topic. Database records chosen had to contain reasons contributing to attrition or retention of special education teachers. Search dates were limited to 2000 through 2006 to coincide with the federal No Child Left Behind Act, which put into law that special education teachers must be highly qualified, and may therefore be a factor correlated with teacher retention. Performing Database Searches Database searches were conducted on May 31, 2006. Articles associated with teacher retention, programs to support new teachers, and teacher preparation programs were selected for review. The combined database searches yielded 260 hits. The search that resulted in the highest number of hits was Social Sciences (111). Thereafter, the database hits occurred in the following descending order: ERIC (107), PsychINFO (32), Expanded Academic Info (5), ISI Web of Knowledge (4), and Social Sciences Full Text Omni (1). An additional search was performed on June 7, 2006 designed to refine the literature review to determine if one disability was associated with an increased rate of teacher attrition or retention. Students identified in IDEA legislation represent the student population that special education teachers instruct. This search was comprised of IDEA (2004) disability descriptors which included mental retardation, deaf, blind, orthopedic impairment, other health impaired, emotionally disturbed, specific learning disability, speech and language impairment, mental health, developmental disability, deaf and blind, autism, and traumatic brain injury. Each word was combined in a Boolean search with the descriptors special education teacher and retention. However, it should be noted that the second series of searches resulted in no significant hits. Choosing Relevant Articles Following the database search, we chose articles germane to our topic, special education and teacher retention. Articles not related specifically to special education and teacher retention were removed from further consideration. Identifying Themes in the Literature Recurring themes were reviewed in the literature to determine factors correlated to teacher retention. “A theme is a pattern found in the information that describes and organizes observations” (Rocco, 2003, p. 7). Emerging patterns in the text are then identified, grouped, and condensed to represent the most significant ideas in the research. Discussion of Themes The emerging themes included lack of administrative support, overwhelming caseloads and teacher isolation, which continues to contribute to the increasing rates of teacher attrition (Carpenter & Dyal, 2001; Kennedy & Burstein, 2004; Otto & Arnold, 2005). These factors all seem to point to unmet psychological needs in the workplace. Causal Factors for Teacher Retention and Attrition in Special Education
68 Evidence suggests that overwhelming caseloads continue to exacerbate the retention problem in the field of special education (Russ, Chiang, Rylance, & Bongers, 2001). When one feels overwhelmed by work, it leads to feelings of stress. People generally avoid stress because it creates a psychological imbalance that affects optimal functioning (Kaplan & Sadock, 1998). If less time were devoted to paperwork, teachers and support personnel could spend more time designing quality lessons and programs that are aimed to remediate rather than compensate. Special education paperwork is becoming increasingly difficult to manage. Special education teachers are frustrated by both the amount and nature of the paperwork required (Haser & Nasser, 2003). Induction programs are a structured form of support for beginning educators. Teachers who participate in induction programs are more committed, having higher satisfaction with their jobs; therefore they are more likely to remain in the profession (Kennedy and Burstein, 2004). It is widely accepted that people who feel supported have a sense of psychological well being, increase their productivity, and have a higher likelihood of being motivated (Ormrod, 2006). Therefore, induction programs should be designed according to the needs and characteristics of different groups of educators, keeping psychological factors in mind. A teacher induction program can help new teachers improve practice, learn professional responsibilities and ultimately positively affect student learning (Wong, 2002). Induction programs also have the potential of elevating the teaching profession and fostering a collaborative learning community for all educators. Good induction practices, including mentoring, will increase teacher effectiveness, improve student achievement and retain teachers in the profession. More experienced teachers mentoring less experienced teachers has become a relatively common practice in many states and school districts, particularly as a part of induction programs for new teachers (Westling & Duffy, 2003). Ingredients for Establishing Effective Mentoring Relationships The literature illustrates an effort to decrease negative aspects of mentoring by outlining necessary ingredients for establishing effective mentoring relationships. A definition of the mentoring relationship offered by Amos (2005) combined with new teacher insights and corroboration in the literature for this framework will be presented. Amos (2005) applies a journalistic definition of the mentoring relationship by using the five W’s of (a) Who? (b) When? (c) Where? (d) What? and (e) Why? to set parameters. “Who” refers to a competent, experienced, professional special educator possessing a global understanding of all aspects of special education related to instruction, laws, curriculum, resources, and district policies (Amos, 2005). Professionalism of the mentor is an important piece of the mentor relationship. Building relationships that allow for growth and return on investment allows a district to grow and become a solid support system for both novice and veteran teachers alike. The second question, “When,” corresponds to the time factor which comprises mentor availability for one-on-one communication opportunities and provision of emotional support to the mentee (Amos, 2005). A correlation between frequency of mentor contact and the perception of mentor effectiveness was found in one South Carolina study on mentoring (Whitaker, 2000a). Likewise, six school districts in the Georgia Systematic Teacher Education Program who surveyed new teachers in 2003 and 2004 discovered that new teachers wanted the opportunity observe their more experienced colleagues; this finding supports national surveys on the same subject (Gilbert, 2005).
69 The third question of “Where” means the proximity of the mentor to the mentee, which would preferably be in the same school to facilitate modeling and observation opportunities (Amos, 2005). The administration needs to ensure that the mentor has time and coverage to observe and meet with the mentee throughout the school year to provide continuous professional development to the novice teacher. Professional development of special educators must include the component of collaboration with experienced teachers (Carpenter & Dyal, 2001). Many districts understand that having a mentor in the special education field is important, but they are not always able to assign a teacher at the same school. An innovative strategy dealing with the dilemma of the need to assign a special education mentor from another school has been to also assign a co-mentor at the beginning teachers’ school campus. Other forms of support through email and the telephone can be used to supplement communication when direct contact cannot be made. Principal or administrative support also play a very important role in the retention of special education teachers to help reduce the frustrations the teacher feels. When special educators feel their administrator engages in meaningful, substantive conversions with them, they do not feel as isolated from the other teachers (Otto & Arnold, 2005). Administrators must be familiar with available resources to support the diverse needs of students, families and staff and must know how to access additional support to ensure appropriate education for all students and support for all teachers. If schools are to succeed in retaining teachers, proper infrastructure should be in place that allows teachers to focus most of their time and energy on teaching. With this in mind, school leaders should give new teachers less of a workload, and fewer responsibilities so they can concentrate on their students. Induction programs typically provide an array of supports to facilitate the transition into teaching (Boyer & Gillespie, 2002). Teachers who participate in induction programs are more committed and satisfied with their jobs and more likely to remain in the profession (Kennedy & Burstein, 2004). “What” involves a mentor program that is structured, but affords flexibility for the mentor and mentee to determine meeting times and topics to be addressed (Amos, 2005). Mentors should be able to maintain regular contact with new teachers, and a shared planning time provides needed support for the new teacher (Whitaker, 2000b). Mentors can also help new teachers in finding scarce classroom supplies or classroom resources as most novice teachers enter the classroom with only a handful of lesson plans that were written in college and little else. Novice teachers should be able to use the mentor as a sounding board for ideas as well as someone they can aspire to become. Lastly, “Why” focuses on the correlation between good mentoring and special education teacher retention. Experienced teachers may have instructional expertise, but the ability to selfassess, defining good teaching, and to talk to colleagues in an unbiased manner is critical to developing good mentors. Since many new teachers have little confidence in their ability to effectively manage a classroom, mentoring these new teachers not only gives them the extra training and confidence that they need but may also help district retention of novice teachers. A Rationale for Teachers’ Mentoring Needs Using Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Emerging themes in our literature review of special education teacher retention appeared to have one overriding commonality: teachers’ psychological needs. Simply put, when psychological needs were met, teachers were more likely to stay. However, when psychological needs went unmet, teachers were more likely to leave. It was decided that interlocking Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs with uncovered themes in the literature would result in peeling away the
70 layers of complexity surrounding the special education teacher retention challenge. Therefore, themes related to administrative support, mentoring, induction and retention will be placed in the psychological context of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (Kaplan & Sadock, 1998). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (1998) outlines five levels of need: the first four categories include deficiency needs, and the fifth category defines the need for growth. This section will define the five categories of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (1998) fitting relevant items from each theme into corresponding levels of the hierarchy. Physiological needs comprise the first level of need in the hierarchy. This level consists of needs related to biological functions like breathing, eating, sleeping, and regulation of body temperature. Safety needs, which are dependent on physiological needs being met, are listed on the second level of the hierarchy. Love/belonging needs, which is Maslow’s third level, comprise social relatedness, acceptance and inclusion in the larger community. Beginning teachers especially need to feel supported by peers and administration to build the fourth level of Maslow’s hierarchy, self esteem. Special educators feel that when their administrator engages in meaningful, substantive conversations with them, they are not as isolated from other teachers (Otto & Arnold, 2005). This support allows the novice teacher to feel safe and confident in his or her role. It is clear that mentoring/induction programs help to provide social relatedness by allowing for growth of new and veteran teachers. However, in our society, especially in the field of education, it has been assumed that a teacher's sense of self-worth can be developed from a sense of personal achievement that is independent of the teacher's sense of belonging. If we concur with Maslow, however, we see that self-worth can arise only when an individual is grounded in community, in our case a school. Teachers in the field of special education benefit from induction programs and guidance from veteran teachers. A sense of belonging is needed for teachers to stay committed to the field. This sense of belongingness will evolve into a more confident and committed teacher. Ultimately, when teachers reach the last level of Maslow’s hierarchy, self-actualization, their need for supports decreases because they are able to problem solve, exerting their professional and knowledge creatively with confidence. References Allen, M., (2002). Improving teacher preparation, recruitment, and retention. In G. J. Whitehurst . (Ed.), Symposium: Trends in Education Reform: Vol. 75. Spectrum: The Journal of State Government (pp. 8-11). Lexington, KY: The Council of State Governments. Boyer, L., & Gillespie P. (2002). Keeping the committed. Teaching Exceptional Children, 33(1), 10-15. Brownwell, M. T., Hirsch, E., & Seo, S. (2004). Meeting the demands for highly qualified special education teachers during severe shortages: What should policymakers consider? Journal of Special Education, 38, 56-62. Carpenter, L. B., & Dyal, A. (2001). Retaining quality special education: A prescription for school principals in the 21st century. Catalyst for Change, 30(3), 5-7. Center for Personnel Studies in Special Education (2005, February).Growing and improving the special education teacher workforce; A focus on beginning teachers can help (Issue Brief No. PB-22). Gainesville, Fl: Author. Council for Exceptional Children, (2005, November 11). New study on special education working conditions. Retrieved May 17, 2006 from http://www.cec.sped.org. Haser, S. G., & Nasser, I. (2003). Teacher job satisfaction in a year-round school. Educational Leadership, 60(8), 65-67.
71 Kaplan, H. I., & Sadock, B. J. (1998). Kaplan and Sadock's synopsis of psychiatry; Behavioral sciences/ Clinical psychiatry (8th ed.). Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins. Kennedy, V. & Burstein, N. (2004). An induction program for special education teachers. Teacher Education and Special Education, 27(4), 444-447. Ingersoll, R. M., & Smith, T. M. (2003). The wrong solution to the teacher shortage. Educational Leadership, 60(8), 30-33. Ingersoll, R. M. (2003). The teacher shortage: Myth or reality? Educational Horizons 81(3), 146-152. McLeskey, J., Tyler, N., & Flippin, S. S. (2004). The supply and demand for special education teachers: A review of research regarding the chronic shortage of special education teachers. Journal of Special Education, 38, 5-22. National Center for Education Statistics. (2004). Teacher attrition and mobility: Results from the follow-up survey, 2000-01 (NCES Publication No. NCES 2004-301). Washington, DC: Author. Omrod, J. E. (2006). Educational psychology, developing learners (5th ed.). NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall. Otto, S. J., & Arnold, M. (2005). A study of experienced special education teachers’ perceptions of administrative support. College Student Journal, 39(2), 253-259. Russ, S., Chiang, B., Rylance, B., & Bongers, J. (2001). Caseload in special education: An integration of research findings. The Council for Exceptional Children, 67(2), 161-172. Westling, D. L., & Duffy, K. C. (2003). The Western Carolina University teacher support program: A multi-component program to improve and retain special educators. Teacher Education and Special Education, 26(2), 154-158. Wong, H. (2002). Induction: The best form of professional development. Educational Leadership, 59(6), 52-54.
Social Justice as a Disposition for Teacher Education Programs: Why is it Such a Problem? Hilary Landorf and Ann Nevin Florida International University, USA Abstract: The authors question the actions of National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) leadership for removing social justice in the glossary of terms to describe dispositions for education graduates, trace the origins of the multiple discourses surrounding social justice, and argue for problematizing social justice issues. “The challenge of social justice is to evoke a sense of community that we need to make our nation a better place, just as we need to make it a safe place” (Edelman, n.d.). The challenge of social justice as described by Marian Edelman in the quote above has been addressed by many scholars and practitioners who are re-conceptualizing teaching and teacher education in terms of social justice (Cochran-Smith, 1999; Noddings, 2005). Previously, we have raised a series of thorny questions that permeate the social justice discourses (Landorf & Nevin, under review; Landorf, Rocco, & Nevin, 2007). Is social justice about leveling the playing field or giving the same rights to everyone? Are there cases where one person’s demand for social justice takes away another person’s equal rights? Where do issues of cultural difference fit into the notion of social justice? In other words, what does social justice mean? Social justice is a complicated, knotty concept which teacher educators as well as k-12 teachers and their students must constantly question. Ironically, social justice for teacher education has become a politically incorrect term in the United States. For the last decade or so, the term social justice was included in a glossary that the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) provided as an example of a disposition a program might consider when evaluating a teaching candidate’s disposition and classroom readiness. Professional dispositions are defined as behaviors that support student learning and development and are consistent with ideas of fairness and the belief that all students can learn, and are important ways of interacting that undergird professional interactions with students, colleagues, parents, and community. However, when appearing before the U. S. Education Department’s National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity in June, Wise (2006), the president of NCATE, categorically denied that NCATE has a mandatory social justice standard, saying instead that NCATE does not endorse any political and social ideologies. Wise’s statement makes it very clear that there is no professional mandate or national policy with respect to the role of social justice in teacher education. NCATE leadership’s decision to remove references to social justice from descriptions of NCATE accreditation standards stands in sharp contrast with leading educational researchers who call for social justice in teacher education (e.g., Banks, 2003; 2004; Cochran-Smith, 1999). Although tracing other sources and the history of the term in the glossary is beyond the scope of this article, we believe that part of the reason there is resistance to include social justice in national policy is precisely that it is a complicated notion. As the term social justice is usually used, it implies the increase of rights for the marginalized, which by so doing, may seem to exclude the majority, who then become the other. Landorf, H., & Nevin, A. (2007). Social justice as a disposition for teacher education programs: Why is it such a problem? In S. M. Nielsen & M. S. Plakhotnik (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Annual College of Education Research Conference: Urban and International Education Section (pp. 49-53). Miami: Florida International University. http://coeweb.fiu.edu/research_conference/
50 Problematizing Social Justice For some, social justice is a virtue, defined as moral excellence (Merriam-Webster, 2007). When social justice is defined in this way, the term can be ascribed only to the reflective and deliberate acts of individuals rather than to a social system. Social justice as a virtue refers to processes in which an individual works with and/or organizes others for the good of a community. Social justice rooted in individual virtue is not a goal toward which individuals and institutions should converge by law. Others define social justice as a societal ideal, based on the idea of a society which gives fair treatment a just share of its benefits to all individuals and groups. When social justice is defined in this way, the term refers to an egalitarian notion in which historical inequities insofar as they affect current injustices should be corrected until the actual inequities no longer exist or have been perceptively "negated." We do not take a stand on the definition of social justice. Instead, we recognize, and embrace, the dialectic in the processes of social justice. One way to frame the dialectic is in terms of equity vs. equality. That is, the promotion of equity typically addresses injustices suffered by oppressed classes, whereas the promotion of equality typically attempts to meet the needs of all members of society. Another way to frame the dialectic is in terms of the placement of morals. Typically, morals within the individual reflect issues of equity, whereas morals placed within the community reflect issues of equality. We recognize the dialectic of social justice and encourage teacher educators, teachers, and students to wrestle with different notions of social justice as part of the curriculum. We use the term ironically when referring to the NCATE decision to remove the term social justice as one example of dispositions precisely because the history of American education can trace changes that have resulted on behalf of marginalized others gaining access to education. The very existence of schools in the 13 colonies can be laid on the doorstep of activists who sought refuge on the shores of the frontier so as to free themselves from religious oppression in England and Europe. In fact, Uriah Levy, an American naval hero who banned flogging as an example of an egregious failure of social justice, once said, “Social justice is the hallmark of democracy” (as cited in a documentary aired by the Public Broadcasting System, 2006, December).The extension of the right to an education to women as per the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution (1920), children from culturally and linguistically diverse families as per Brown vs. Board of Education (1954), and children with disabilities as per P.L. 94-142, Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975) stem from a sense of social justice. Social Justice Dispositions in Teacher Education Programs Johnson (n.d.), a professor of history at CUNY-Brooklyn, searched the mission statements of teacher education programs which included social justice terminology for their teacher candidates. Excerpts from mission statements from two programs identified by Johnson (n.d.) illustrate the terminology and intent of the term. At George Mason University in Virginia, teachers must demonstrate a disposition for a “commitment to democratic values and social justice,” including such inherently political requirements as understanding “systemic issues that prevent full participation” and “advocate for practices that promote equity and access” (Johnson, n.d., ¶ 35). At the University of Vermont, “The ultimate purpose of these activities [in the Education Program] is to create a more humane and just society, free from oppression, that fosters respect for ethnic and cultural diversity, and maximizes human potential and the quality of life for all individuals , families and communities” (Johnson, n.d., ¶ 34). The particular virtues related to social justice that were cited, although different, included democratic values, humane and just communities, educational equity, and social responsibility.
51 As a conceptual framework, social justice is alive and well. We conclude that social justice issues continue to intrigue scholars, researchers, and teacher educators. As shown in the excerpted mission statements, both undergraduate and graduate programs in the preparation of education professionals indicate that social justice as a conceptual framework is alive and well. Examples of Social Justice Issues for Teacher Educators In this section, to anchor the concepts of social justice, we describe two current issues facing American educators, notably k-12 public schools as well as universities where teacher education programs are housed, that remain unresolved — racial preference quotas and inclusion of special education students in mainstream classrooms. Both issues illustrate the complexity of the notion and implementation of social justice, and for this reason, we find them to be ripe for study in teacher education programs. Issue #1: Racial Preference Quotas On December 4, 2006, the U.S. Supreme Court heard two K - 12 cases involving the use of race in deciding school assignments. The high court heard appeals from a Seattle parents group and a Kentucky parent. Both appellants claim public schools implemented programs to achieve racial diversity that unjustly discriminated when selecting students for acceptance. Issue #2: Inclusion of Special Education Students in Mainstream Classrooms Multiple forces such as legal and legislative mandates drive the inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classrooms. One reason is the disproportionate placement of Blacks in segregated special education classrooms nationwide, as well as Hispanic students who are taken out of mainstream classes and placed into special education classes in certain states (USDOE: Office for Civil Rights, 1997). Historically, Reid and Knight (2006) argue that the disproportionality problem in k-12 special education can be traced to the intersection of disability and other identity factors with the ideology of normalcy and the dominant medical model approach to special education. Implications This issues represent the complexities of the diverse notions of social justice. They both offer many points of entry into the process of problematizing social justice. The first issue concerns using race as a factor in school plans. Currently, in both Louisville, KY and Seattle, WA, students are offered a choice of schools but can be denied admission based on their race if their enrollment at a particular school would upset the pre-established racial balance of that school. In both cases, the issue is denial of entry into school based on race. The question for the Supreme Court justices is whether measures designed to achieve or maintain racial integration should be subjected to the same scrutiny as measures that were put into place after Brown vs. Board of Education to end segregation. In other words, in Brown vs. Board of Education, the Supreme Court ruled that students cannot be denied entry into school because of race. The social justice issue in that case was one of equity, in which the Supreme Court ruling addressed an injustice suffered by an oppressed class. In the current cases, the plaintiffs are framing the social justice issue as one of equality – they think that entry into their local school should be regardless of race. In Brown vs. Board of Education and the current cases, a plaintiff advocates for not being excluded from school on the basis of race. Yet, those arguments in Brown vs. Board of Education and those arguing in the current cases are polar opposites in their perspectives of what constitutes social justice. The second issue focuses on the policies and practices of including students with disabilities in the general education classroom. This issue, similar to the first, is rife with arguments that appear to be polar opposites—perhaps the hallmarks of what critical pedagogy
52 theory refers to as conscientization (Freire, 1990). For example, Smith (2004) refers to the multiple histories of special education and researchers in the area of the sociology of disability who document how meaning is ascribed to individuals through labeling and stereotyping and how all aspects of a culture pervade its treatment of individuals with disabilities. This has led to a general dissatisfaction with the way that special education has been conceptualised, how research and service delivery are conducted, and how results often pathologize and further their exclusion and their marginal identities. In fact, some people with disabilities, in their role as self-advocates, say, “Nothing about us without us!” In contrast, inclusive education offers a process that sets up a sense of belonging for all children and youth with differences. In a critical analysis of the discourses of inclusion, Dyson (1999) categorized the discourses as either justification (reasons for an inclusive educational system) or implementation (ways to carry out an inclusive model). Artiles, Harris-Murri, and Rostenberg (2006) point out that the justification discourse, based on a rights and ethics discourse, critiques the dual educational system as a barrier to systemic changes that would make education responsive to an increasingly diverse society and privileges professional groups who resist inclusion efforts. In comparison, an efficacy discourse critiques segregated models on the grounds of its failure to promote student learning while the implementation discourse, built on the political discourse, argues that political actions must address inequitable conditions. Finally, a pragmatic discourse focuses on the classroom practices that provide effective instruction (e.g., Skrtic, 1991). Polar opposites such as represented by the multiple discourses must be openly discussed in order to gain a democratic resolution which leads to the query, “Can a democracy exist in the absence of social justice?” In conclusion, regardless of which moral stance teacher educators choose, we contend that it is wrong to remove the term social justice from the NCATE glossary of terms that serve as examples of dispositions for teacher educators. In fact, even if the term never reappears, the concepts and mission statements of those teacher education programs and teachers who have graduated are likely to keep the social justice issue at the forefront of their work. They believe, as do we, that it is imperative to advance the multiple discourses of social justice so that both teacher education faculty and prospective teachers learn to grapple with the complexity of social justice because, as an issue, social justice discourse is emblematic of democratic discourse. References Artiles, A. J., Harris-Murri, N, & Rostenberg, D. (2006). Inclusion as social justice: Critical notes on discourses, assumptions, and the road ahead. Theory into Practice, 45(3), 260268. Banks, J. (2004). Teaching for social justice, diversity, and citizenship in a global world. The Educational Forum, 68, 289-298. Banks, J. (2003). Teaching literacy for social justice and global citizenship. Language Arts, 81(1), 18-19. Cochran-Smith, M. (1999). Learning to teach for social justice. In G. Griffin (Ed.), Ninety-eighth yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education—Part 1 (pp. 114-144). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Dyson, A. (1999). Inclusion and inclusions: Theories and discourses in inclusive education. In H. Daniels and P. Garner (Eds.), World yearbook of education 1999: Inclusive education (pp. 36-53). London: Kogan Page. Edelman, M. W. (n.d.). Children’s Defense Fund. Retrieved March 22, 2007 from http://www.childrensdefense.org/site/PageServer Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. NY: Seabury.
53 Johnson, K. C. (n.d.). History of Dispositions, Education Programs, and the Social Justice Requirement. Retrieved March 22, 2007 from http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/history/johnson/dispositions.html. Landorf, H., & Nevin, A. (under review). Global education and special education: Worlds apart? COMPARE: The Journal of the British Association of International and Cultural Education. Landorf, H., Rocco, T., & Nevin, A. (2007). Creating permeable boundaries: Teaching & learning for social justice in a global society. Teacher Education Quarterly, Winter. Levy, U. (as cited in Documentary aired by Public Broadcasting System, 2006, December). They Came for Good—Jews in US from mid-17th Century to 1880. Retrieved March 22, 2007 from http://www.pbs.org/ Merriam-Webster. (2007). Definition for virtue. Retrieved March 22, 2007 from http://www.mw.com/dictionary/virtue Noddings, N. (2005). Global citizenship: Promises and problems. In N. Noddings (Ed.). Educating citizens for global awareness (pp. 1-21). NY: Teachers College. Reid, D. K., & Knight, M. G. (2006). Disability justifies exclusion of minority students: A critical history grounded in disability studies. Educational Researcher, 35(6), 18-23. Skrtic, T. M. (1991). The special education paradox: Equity as the way to excellence. Harvard Educational Review, 61, 148-206. Smith, J. D. (2006). The historical contexts of special education: Framing our understanding of contemporary issues. In Critical issues in special education: Access, diversity, and accountability (pp. 1-15). NY: Pearson. United States Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. (1997). Washington, DC: Author. Wise, A. (2006). Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved March 22, 2007 from http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2006/06/06/disposition
Female Secondary School Leaders: At the Helm of Democratic Schooling and Social Justice Anthony H. Normore and Gaetane Jean-Marie Florida International University, USA Abstract: We chose the philosophical tradition of phenomenology as the qualitative methodology to study four women school leaders. Semi-structured interview data indicated that their professional experiences impacted how their leadership practices advance social justice in their education organizations, espouse the belief that equity matter, and exemplify the torchbearers of democratic ideals. The impact of major political agendas and policies that emerged since the 1954 landmark Brown v. Board of Education (Ogletree, 2004) decision have prompted many school leaders to assume a more active role with respect to the economic, social, and political struggles of marginalized students (Jean-Marie, James, & Bynum, 2006; Valverde, 2003). Based on interviews with four female secondary school leaders (two Black, two White) who are committed to social justice and democracy, this paper begins to document how these women engage in their work within two specific contexts, urban and suburban. The study aims to: (a) identify how these four women leaders engaged in social justice leadership and democratic schooling with focus on ethical responsibilities as guiding forces in their actions, and (b) capture their motivations and actions for engaging in core values of social justice, democracy, and equity. Theoretical Framework The theoretical framework was drawn from three themes: (a) socialization, (b) social justice, and (c) democratic schooling. Socialization and Women Socialization involves the processes by which school leaders learn the skills, knowledge, and dispositions required to perform their role in an effective manner (Normore, 2004). Because of how the socialization process unfolds, women have developed values and beliefs that translate into specific behaviours arising in their leadership styles (Furman & Sheilds, 2005; Noddings, 1992; Trinidad & Normore, 2005). Research has indicated that women are socialized to show their emotions, feelings, compassion, patience, and intuition - that female leadership styles in education are more democratic, participative, inclusive and collaborative (Shakeshaft, 1993). Furthermore, women leaders value having influence more than having power (Brunner, 1998). This is where the non-traditional view of power meets the gender-role expectations that women are not dominant or in charge. When teaching in classrooms, women have learned to motivate students without the need to use domination. Other researchers (e.g., Trinidad & Normore, 2005) have asserted that women leaders in education incorporate ‘power with’ into the transformational leadership model through empowerment. Power also serves to build an environment of mutual trust and respect and is linked to the principles of social justice, fairness, and responsible behaviour towards others (Noguera, 2003). Social Justice Leadership The discourse of social justice and leadership are inextricably linked which calls to question if there exists a definition for social justice leadership. Some research (e.g., Bogotch, 2005) insists that social justice has no one specific meaning. According to Bogotch (2005), “its multiple a posterori meanings emerge[d] differently from experiences and contexts” (p. 7). Normore, A. H., & Jean-Marie, G. (2007). Female secondary school leaders: At the helm of democratic schooling and social justice. In S. M. Nielsen & M. S. Plakhotnik (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Annual College of Education Research Conference: Urban and International Education Section (pp. 72-77). Miami: Florida International University. http://coeweb.fiu.edu/research_conference/
73 Furman and Shields (2005) argue the “need for social justice to encompass education that is not only just, democratic, emphatic, and optimistic, but also academically excellent” (p. 123). While a review of the literature on leadership and/or social justice does not present a clear definition of social justice, there is a general framework for delineating social justice leadership. Lee and McKerrow (2005) offer such framework in two dimensions: First, social justice is defined “not only by what it is but also by what it is not, namely injustice. . . by seeking justice, we anticipate the ideal. . .by questioning injustice, we approach it. . . by integrating both, we achieve it” (p. 1). The second dimension focuses on the practice of social justice. Individuals for social justice seek to challenge political, economic, and social structures that privilege some and disadvantage others. They challenge unequal power relationships based on gender, social class, race, ethnicity, religion, disability, sexual orientation, language, and other systems of oppression. Interest in social justice is a renewed, and many women in leadership are advancing its causes. Democratic Schooling Lum (1993) suggests that “human beings are not objectively determined in their existential condition by universal laws of nature, but they are phenomenal ‘happenings’ as a consequence of a plurality of socio-historical effective forces, mindful purposes, and cultural conditions” (p. 39). Such a claim suggests that for democratic leaders, their being and becoming are socially constructed through the very practices in which they engage, thereby encouraging a leadership praxis of self-reflection (Lather, 1986) and ethical self-understanding not gained through merely observing facts but in their value-laden narrative renderings of those facts (Lightfoot & Gourd, 2004). Consequently, a transformation of the democratic leader’s self unfolds through the interaction with the social relations and daily struggles considered necessary for promoting a democratic culture in schools. Democratic schooling includes issues related to civil, political, and social rights (Freire, 1998; Giroux, 2002) as well as values associated with concepts such as “deep democracy” (Furman & Shields, 2005, p. 126). According to Furman and Shields, social justice is not possible without deep democracy nor is democracy possible without social justice because each holds within itself the notion of both individual rights and the good of the community. These and other (e.g., Lather, 1986; Valverde, 2003) researchers further assert that educational leaders need to create conditions under which all children can learn well, within a socially just, moral, and democratic context. Research Design We chose the philosophical tradition of phenomenology as the qualitative methodology for this study. Because the phenomenological approach probes only for participants’ perceptions of a subject, in this case, how leadership evolved in the professional experiences of school practitioners, it was an appropriate construct to guide the interviews (Creswell, 1998; Moustakas, 1994). The original study examined the professional experiences of eleven female secondary principals. The purposeful sampling of female principals represented six urban and suburban districts with two or more high schools located in each district. Aligned with Patton (1990), the participants in the original study were generated from a purposeful sample of 15 women (i.e., secondary school principals), of which eleven chose to participate. Open-ended semi-structured interviews were used to guide the original research. Similar to Skrla, Reyes, & Scheurich (2000), all participants were provided with opportunities to reflect on their experiences as female secondary school leaders. Interviews were subsequently transcribed and analyzed according to Giorgi, Fischer, & Murray (1975) phenomenological steps. For purposes of this article, we revisited the original data to conduct secondary analyses (Heaton, 1998) of specific experiences of four women – two Black (pseudonyms - Gertrude and
74 Jocelyn) and two White (pseudonyms - Linda and Annette). These women were selected because they exemplified a values-orientation around issues of social justice in their leadership practices and warranted further analysis. First, we revisited each transcript to get an overall sense of the whole and then identified transitions in the experience (each transition signifying a separate unit of meaning). Second, we eliminated redundancies in the units of meaning and began to relate the remaining units to one another. As further themes and patterns were developed, we transformed the participants’ language into the language of science (Giorgi et al., 1975). Finally, we synthesized the insights into a description of the entire experience of leadership practices. Findings and Discussion The four female principals in our study identified how they engaged in transformative leadership that supports social justice, democratic, and equitable schools. They described their leadership experiences through their own understanding of social justice and democratic schooling, motivations, and actions from a values-orientation exemplified in their practices. They closely paid attention to the silenced voice of marginalized students and brought their struggles to the forefront of school policies and initiatives without negating the needs of more privileged students. For these women, their interest in students’ success began with how they engaged in self-reflection and how they developed an authentic relationship between themselves as school leaders and their students. Two dominant themes emerged from data analysis: (a) a social justice agenda for democratic schooling and (b) leadership praxis. A Social Justice Agenda for Democratic Schooling All four women promoted discourse through their leadership practices about various aspects of social justice. The discourse had a huge influence toward gaining a better understanding of experiences that best promoted democratic schooling, equity, and social justice. They were opened to critique and engaged in democratic discourse and practices by creating identities informed by principles of equality and social justice (Giroux, 2002). In support of Furman and Sheilds (2005) and Noddings (1992), these women leaders worked to create a climate, culture, and community that exemplified values they espoused. Gertrude explained that she provided instructional time and development programs for low-performing students: “Some of the programs to help students succeed include ‘Saturday for Success’ – which is a two hour program scheduled on Saturdays for students who have less than a C average. We also have academic lunchtime for students who need individualized instruction by the myself and assistant principal, and, some afterschool tutoring.” Gertrude articulated the importance of fostering high academic achievement for all students by rewarding students (i.e., academic lunch bunch), recognizing higher achievers as an ‘academic bowl’ (i.e., all subject-area preparation for ACTs), and giving a ‘letter jacket’ (i.e., indication of school pride) at school assemblies to motivate students. Echoing a similar sentiment, Linda emphasized an equity focus for ‘all’ students. She explained: There’s no elitism. We don’t engage in the practice of ‘good for some kids, and not good for others’. . . the kind of education provided for all children ought to be one that ‘touches another person’s life’. . . raising students’ self esteem. . . broadening horizons and awareness of diverse issues. . . providing opportunities to change a life…doing something right for each child – as long as each child has a fair chance for success. They continued to critique the definition and enactment of democracy in order to develop school initiatives that were inclusive, understanding, and supportive of diverse constructs and knowledge of all students and parents. Both Annette and Jocelyn shared their perspectives about quality education for every student despite students’ past and present life circumstances. Annette
75 discussed a commitment to recruit teachers who were interested in her Black, Latino, Asian students – all students. She commented: “My school is 88% Black.” With a cynicism towards culturally insensitive teachers, she asserted: I call administration at the Board and request that they not send me teachers who don’t want to come to my Black school because they’re uncomfortable. They’re also culturally disconnected and can’t make it here…anyone who is recuited for this school must want to be here. Otherwise, an unhappy teacher makes an unhappy student which is reflected in the teaching and learning process. Jocelyn believed the responsibility for educating and caring for all students is attainable through a collective commitment with her staff. Drawing from research-based knowledge (i.e., Marzano et al’s., 2001 instructional strategies, Pass Key, Skill Banks, etc.), she asserted, “We [teachers] are doing book studies on classroom instructions that work and on building background knowledge. We also engage in professional learning communities really stressing the emphasis on teacher professional development.” Similarly, Annette challenged her staff to be the ‘experts’ of their content areas, to be civil rights advocates, continuously ‘work in the ideas’ and set high expectations for all students. For both Annette and Jocelyn, the critical focus of attention was on the behavior of teachers as they engage in instructional practices and activities that directly improve the students’ quality of life. The actions of the four women leaders were representative of how they instructed, guided, and led on a daily basis (i.e., Gertrude’s hands-on approach on teaching about and modeling diverse learning styles; Linda’s study groups on instruction, black achievement, and diversity issues; Jocelyn’s staff development on Marzano’s instructional strategies for the organizational health of her faculty; Annette’s recruitment of culturally sensitive teachers and practice of teaching students about the Civil Rights Movement). These actions are further supported by a growing number of scholars who have pointed out that in order to address inequities for diverse student populations, educational leaders must be reflective practitioners and have a heightened awareness of social justice issues in a field struggling to meet the needs of all children (Bogotch, 2005). Leadership Praxis According to a body of research, praxis involves self-reflection, critical thinking (Freire, 1998; Lather, 1986), values-orientation within democracy (Furman & Shields, 2005), and social justice and equity (Freire, 1998; Giroux, 2002; Valverde, 2003). The four women in this study were concerned with exercising democracy in their leadership practices. They engaged in forms of self reflective, critical, and collaborative work relationships which created conditions that empowered people with whom they worked. To ensure that their schools were led in a democratic and ethical manner, they encouraged leadership practices among many actors (i.e. teachers, students, parents, and community). The learning and democratic leading practices of the four women helped them to foster a transformative culture. Notions of caring and collaborative working relationships resonated with the principals because they believed that their teachers needed to take ownership of the school. The choices these women made on a daily basis in their actions and interactions shaped their ability to affect change beyond the school into the broader local school community. Practicing an ethic of care towards those who work for and with them was a critical dimension of their transformative leadership style. As leaders, these women demonstrated a selfless desire to both serve and prepare others and simultaneously created an organizational system that was committed to developing relationships that drove goodness. Annette stated:
76 Recently, a teacher committed suicide. It was tragic for the school community. I met with my teachers and invited ministers to come and lead us in prayer. After the prayer, I explained to the children the importance of sharing truths about suicide. We talked about what happened and shared some positive things about the teacher. While it’s risky to do that in public schools, I believe if you live in a God-like fashion, then your spiritual connection is solid. Upon reflecting on their roles as school leaders, Linda explained that her spiritual beliefs helped and guided her work as a school leader. She stated, “The Lord doesn’t promise us it’s [leadership] going to be an easy path. . . sometimes I just wish it were easier. . . I think that you develop a following by being kind to people. I try to guide them on the right path – even if I’ve helped a few kids I’ve made a difference.” Jocelyn echoed a similar belief: “My relationship with my Lord determines how I interact with everybody.” Gertrude mentioned, “I didn’t talk about my religious belief during our conversation because I didn’t think it was appropriate to do so. But, how I lead is influenced by my religious beliefs and values, and practices.” Although Gertrude was silenced about how her religion connected to her leadership, she was sensitive to her beliefs and sometimes was willing to refrain from engaging in a religious-oriented discourse in their schools. These women leaders’ acts of hope were extensions of their spiritual and religious beliefs and practices. Conclusion and Implications In broad terms, there are implications from this study that have to do with school reform – a need to shift the focus from the leadership of the principal alone to a more inclusive form of leadership, to the collaborative empowerment of school leaders, and to the recognition of the importance of community and commitment in promoting social justice, democratic schooling, and positive relationships. There is a clear focus on leadership praxis that includes critical reflection about issues of inclusion, social justice, diversity, and expansion of the opportunities for diverse leadership styles and religious convictions. Efforts to increase the capacity of schools by broadening educators’ work beyond conventional notions of teaching and administration would be improved by paying attention to how, in concert, a social justice and democracy agenda shape and influence possibilities and desires for careers in education and educational leadership. These mutually inclusive concepts are indispensable ingredients to improving schools for the benefit of all students and for a democratic society. Given the demographic shift of the U.S. population, which is becoming increasingly more diverse, and to commit to Brown’s 1954 legacy of advancing social justice and democracy, there is a need to look at practices (i.e., the types of discourse, experiences, processes, and structures) that promote the development and support of principals committed to social justice and democratic principles. Policy makers and practitioners have an opportunity to share in discourse about how to shape the quality of leaders they help produce for the good of society if the Brown legacy is to resume its advance. References Bogotch, I. E. (2005, November). Social justice as an educational construct: Problems and possibilities. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the University Council of Educational Administration, Nashville, TN. Brunner, C. C. (1998). Women superintendents: Strategies for success. Journal of Educational Administration, 36(4), 160-182. Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five research traditions. Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage.
77 Freire, P. (1998). Pedagogy of freedom: Ethics, democracy and civic courage. (P. Clarke, Trans.) Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Furman, G. C., & Sheilds, C. M. (2005). How can educational leaders promote and support social justice and democratic community in schools? In W. A. Firestone & C. Riehl (Eds.), A new agenda for educational leadership (pp. 119-137). New York: Teachers College Press. Giorgi, A., Fisher, C., & Murrray, E. (1975). Duquesne studies in phenomenological psychology. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press. Giroux, H. (2002). Democracy, freedom and justice after September 11th: Rethinking the role of educators and the politics of schooling. Teachers College Record, 104(6), 1138-1162. Heaton, J. (1998). Secondary analysis of qualitative data. Social Research Update, 22. University of Surrey, Guildford: England. Jean-Marie, G., James, C., & Bynum, S. (2006). Black women activists, leaders, and educators: Transforming urban educational practice. In J. L. Kincheloe, k. hayes, K. Rose, & P. M. Anderson (Eds.), The Praeger handbook of urban education (pp. 59-69). Westport, CT: Greenwood. Lather, L. (1986). Research as praxis. Harvard Education Review, 56(3), 257-277. Lee, S. S., & McKerrow, K. (2005, Fall). Advancing social justice: Women's work. Advancing Women in Leadership Online Journal, 19, 1-2. Lightfoot, J. D., & Gourd, K. M. (2004, September). Miseducating for inequity: Fifty years after Brown. Paper presented at the Patterson Research Conference, Washington, D.C. Lum, J. (1993). Philosophical praxis in educational leadership: The need for revitalization of the foundations curriculum. Thresholds in Education, 19(1/2), 32-42. Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D. J., & Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works. Alexandria, VA: Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development. Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Noddings, N. (1992). The challenge to care in schools. New York: Teachers College Press. Noguera, P. (2003). City schools and the American dream: Reclaiming the promise of public education. New York: Teachers College Press. Normore, A. H. (2004). Socializing school administrators to meet leadership challenges that doom all but the most heroic and talented leaders to failure. International Journal of Leadership in Education, Theory and Practice, 7(2), 107-125. Ogletree, C. J., Jr. (2004). All deliberate speed: Reflections on the first half century of Brown v. Board of Education. New York: W. W. Norton. Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Shakeshaft, C. (1993). Gender equity in schools. In C. A. Capper (Ed.), Educational administration in a pluralistic society (pp. 87-109). Albany: State University of New York Press. Skrla, L., Reyes, P., & Scheurich, J. J. (2000). Sexism, silence, and solutions: Women superintendents speak up and speak out. Educational Administration Quarterly, 36(1), 44-75. Trinidad, C., & Normore, A. H. (2005). Leadership and gender: A dangerous liaison? Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 26(7), 574-590. Valverde, L. A. (2003). Leaders of color in higher education: Unrecognized triumphs in harsh institutions. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.
Leadership Styles, Behaviors, and Outcomes of Athletic Training Education Program Directors Michelle L. Odai, Jennifer L. Doherty-Restrepo Florida International University, Miami, FL Context: With the increase in athletic training education programs, the demand for a highly qualified faculty member to serve as program director (PD) and fill the multiple roles and responsibilities of the position has increased. A successful PD must possess leadership skills crucial for the evolving academic environment. Research suggests that educational leaders must provide both transactional and transformational leadership if athletic trainers are to secure a legitimate place as healthcare providers. Objective: To describe the leadership styles and behaviors of athletic training education PDs and to describe the associations between leadership style, behavior, outcome, and experience. Design: We will utilize a survey design to identify the leadership styles, behaviors, outcomes, and experiences of athletic training education PDs. Setting: On-line questionnaire. Participants: The population of this study will be limited to the academic PDs of the 360 accredited entry-level athletic training education programs in the United States. Intervention The investigation will utilize the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ). The MLQ is a validated tool composed of 45 items that identify and measure key leadership and effectiveness behaviors shown to be strongly linked with both individual and organizational success. In addition to the leader, it is recommended that all persons working above, below, and directly at the same organizational level as the leader rate the leader. Raters evaluate how frequently, or to what degree, they have observed the leader engage in 32 specific behaviors. Main Outcome Measure(s): Statistical analysis will be utilized to describe the associations between leadership styles, behaviors, outcomes, and experiences. Key words: Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Full-Range Model, 3600 measurement Athletic Training was officially recognized by the American Medical Association as an allied health profession in 1990. Certified Athletic Trainers (AT) are allied healthcare professionals whose scope of practice includes meeting the healthcare needs of individuals involved in physical activity. To practice as an AT, one must be certified by the Board of Certification, Inc., which is the national professional credentialing agency for the athletic training profession. In addition, many states also require the AT to obtain licensure to practice. ATs practice in a variety of settings, including secondary schools, colleges and universities, professional sports organizations, hospitals, sports medicine clinics, and corporate and industrial work settings.1 An aspiring AT must be educated and skilled in several practice domains including: prevention of athletic injuries, recognition, evaluation, immediate care, rehabilitation, healthcare administration, and education and guidance.1 To be eligible to sit for the national certification exam, one must graduate from an accredited entry-level program, either at the undergraduate or graduate level. Currently, there are 345 Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE) accredited undergraduate athletic training education programs in the United States. In addition, there are fifteen CAATE accredited entry-level master degree programs and twenty programs applying for accreditation. Just ten years ago, there were only 84 accredited programs. With this influx of accredited programs comes an influx of program directors.
With the growth of athletic training education programs in colleges and universities, the demand for a highly qualified faculty member to serve as the program director (PD) and fill the multiple roles and responsibilities of the position has increased. The athletic training education PD is the AT responsible for the organization and administration of all aspects of the educational program. This includes, but is not limited to, curricula planning and development, fiscal and budgetary input and management as determined by the institution, distribution of educational opportunities at all clinical and classroom sites, and recognizable institutional responsibility or oversight for the day-to-day operation, coordination, supervision, and evaluation of all components of the athletic training education program (ATEP).2 The 2005 CAATE standards require that the PD be a full-time employee of the sponsoring institution and have faculty status, rights, responsibilities, and privileges as defined by institution policy, consistent with other similar positions at the institution. The PD must also have programmatic administrative and supervisory responsibility recognized as a department assignment consistent with other similar assignments at the institution and must have an amount of released/reassigned workload that is necessary to meet the administrative responsibilities of the assignment, also consistent with similar assignments at the institution. In addition, the PD must hold current national certification, have a minimum of five years experience as a BOC certified AT, possess a current state athletic training credential for those states that require professional credentialing for athletic trainers, and must demonstrate teaching, scholarship, and service consistent with institutional standards.2 In the past 20 years, the PD position has undergone significant changes in administrative responsibilities and institutional expectations.3 The duties and responsibilities of PDs are multiple and highly diversified. In addition to the minimal CAATE requirements, the PD is involved in recruiting and retaining students; mentoring; assessing; resolving conflicts; innovating and monitoring change; supervising students and staff; abiding by and applying regulations; preparing accreditation materials; and teaching.3,4 Educational reform in the field of athletic training has placed great demands upon PDs and their faculty members to adapt to new didactic and clinical accreditation standards.5 A successful PD must possess leadership skills crucial for the evolving academic environment.4 Modifications to the Standards for the Accreditation of Entry-Level Athletic Training Education Programs have strengthened the position of the PD, yet the requirements for PDs fail to equal the rigor of other health care professions. Athletic Training is a relatively new profession (as compared to its health care profession counterparts) and is still striving for recognition and respect amongst other health care professions. To be perceived as equal in stature, Athletic Training PDs must be held to the same standards as other health care professions. The Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE) is the accrediting body for physical therapy programs and outlines in great detail the requirements for their program administrator (program director).6 One major difference is that an athletic training education PD must only possess a bachelor’s degree, whereas a physical therapy program administrator (program director) must possess a doctoral degree. In 1997, the National Athletic Trainers’ Association Education Task Force made several recommendations to reform athletic training education.7 This task force included three reasons for the need for more doctoraleducated ATs. First, there needs to be an increase in doctoral-educated ATs in senior faculty and administration positions to affect higher education policy. Second, athletic training doctoral programs provide leadership in guiding research pertinent to the advancement of the athletic
training profession. Third, athletic training doctoral education programs will provide the next generation of athletic training educators. Currently, there are a few schools that offer doctoral degrees in the area of Athletic Training. Earning a terminal degree has been recommended for those ATs aspiring to become PDs.8 Doctoral programs designed specifically for ATs must continue to evolve. In conjunction with educational facets and advanced clinical knowledge, an athletic training doctoral program should also provide the student with thorough research, leadership, and administrative training to prepare the student for a career in higher education.9 Another major difference between athletic training and physical therapy accreditation standards is that CAPTE requires that the program administrator (program director) provides effective leadership for the program. The standards for an athletic training education PD do not refer to leadership. Leadership in athletic training has become an important issue facing the profession because of the rapidly changing educational environment. PDs must possess effective leadership skills that inspire and allow faculty members and students to perform at high levels.10 Leadership Leadership can be viewed as the focus of group processes, from a personality perspective, or as an act or behavior. It can also be defined in terms of the power relationship between leaders and followers, as an instrument of goal achievement, or from a skills perspective.11 Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal.11 Leadership is different, however, from management. According to Nellis (1994), leadership has five main points which differentiate it from management.12 A leader must really know his or herself and have a realistic, pragmatic understanding of his or her skills, abilities, and attributes. An effective leader must also lead by example. Commitment, professionalism, enthusiasm, dependability, and courage are examples of actions and behaviors that may be contagious. A good leader must also know their profession and their people to be able to gain confidence and trust from his/her followers. The final aspect of leadership described by the author is “loyalty, encouragement, reprimand”.12 By practicing these skills, the leader can build greater trust, confidence, and motivation in their followers. Management skills are necessary for any organization to run efficiently, and athletic training is no different. Management is concerned with organization, communication, and the development of the facility’s mission. Effective management skills combined with effective leadership skills can provide a solid base for organizational success.12 Transactional Leadership Transactional leaders motivate associates by exchanging rewards for services rendered.13 Bass extended the definition of a transactional leader to the military, industrial, public, and educational sectors.14,15 He described transactional leaders as those who: 1) recognize what their associates want to get from their work, and try to see that they get it, if their performance warrants; 2) exchange rewards and promises of reward for appropriate levels of effort; and 3) respond to the needs and desires of associates as long as they are getting the job done.14,15 Transactional leadership can also be described as working with individuals or groups, setting up and defining agreements or contracts to achieve specific work objectives, discovering individual’s capabilities, and specifying the compensation and rewards that can be expected upon successful completion of the tasks.16 Transformational Leadership Transformational leadership is a new and encompassing approach to leadership. It is concerned with the process of how certain leaders are able to inspire followers to accomplish great things. This approach stresses that leaders need to understand and adapt to the needs and
motives of followers. Transformational leaders are change agents, are good role models, can create and articulate a clear vision for an organization, empower followers to achieve at higher standards, act in ways that make others want to trust them, and give meaning to organizational life.11 A transformational leader differs from a transactional one by not merely recognizing associates’ needs, but by attempting to develop those needs from lower to higher levels of maturity.16 Bass described transformational leaders as those who: 1) raise associates’ level of awareness of the importance of achieving valued outcomes and the strategies for reaching them; 2) encourage associates’ to transcend their self-interest for the sake of the team, organization, or larger policy; and 3) develop associates’ needs to higher level in such areas as achievement, autonomy, and affiliation, which can be both work related and not work related.14,15 Transformational leadership encourages others to develop and perform beyond standard expectations.16 Bass’ Full-Range of Leadership Model Bass proposed a model for the relationship between transactional and transformational leadership.14 The full-range of leadership model incorporates a broad continuum of behaviors used to assess one’s leadership style through the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ). Bass’ model includes nine distinct leadership behaviors which form this continuum and includes five transformational behaviors [idealized influence (attributed), idealized influence (behavior), inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, individualized consideration], two transactional behaviors [contingent reward, management-by-exception (active)], and two passive avoidant behaviors [management-by-exception (passive), and laissez-faire]. The MLQ also measures three leadership outcomes: follower extra effort, leader effectiveness, and follower satisfaction.16 Transactional leadership provides a basis for effective leadership, but a greater amount of extra effort, effectiveness, and satisfaction is possible from followers by augmenting transactional leadership with transformational leadership.14 As educational reform and growth continues in athletic training, the characteristics and roles and responsibilities of PDs are constantly evolving. Peer and Rakich stated that educational leaders must provide both transactional and transformational leadership if ATs are to secure a legitimate place as healthcare providers in a highly competitive managed care environment.17 Although present at all times, transformational leaders are more likely to emerge in times of growth, change, and crisis; flourishing under these conditions to initiate change and improvements.16 The purpose of this study is to describe the leadership styles and behaviors of the current population of athletic training PDs. Another purpose is to describe the associations between leadership style, behavior, outcome, and experience. Methods Experimental Design This research investigation will utilize a survey research design. The research questions that we will attempt to answer through this investigation are: (1) What is the association between leadership style and leadership outcome? (2) What is the association between leadership behavior and leadership outcome? (3) What is the association between experience and leadership outcome? Participants The population of this study was limited to the PDs of the 360 accredited entry-level athletic training education programs in the United States. Institutions were identified using the list of accredited athletic training education programs posted on the Commission on Accreditation of
Athletic Training Education (CAATE) website (www.caate.net). The investigators will seek approval from the Florida International University Institutional Review Board. Instrument The investigation will utilize the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (5X-Short). The MLQ is a validated tool composed of 45 items that identify and measure key leadership and effectiveness behaviors shown in prior research to be strongly linked with both individual and organizational success. The factor structure of the MLQ has been validated by both discriminatory and confirmatory factor analysis. In addition to the leader completing the questionnaire, it is recommended that all persons working above, below, and directly at the same organizational level as the leader rate the leader. Raters completing the MLQ evaluate how frequently, or to what degree, they have observed the leader engage in 32 specific behaviors. It should take each rater approximately 15 minutes to complete the questionnaire.16 Procedures The principal investigator will send an email to each academic PD requesting their participation in this study. The purpose of the study and an explanation of the PD’s role in the study will be contained in the body of the email. If the PD agrees to participate, he or she will be instructed to reply to the initial email, identify an approximate number of participants from their respective institution, and complete the demographic questionnaire attached to the email. The principal investigator will email the PDs who agree to participate in the study a survey webpage created by Mind Garden, Inc. The PD they will complete the MLQ survey and enter the email addresses of the raters (one immediate supervisor, all students in their final year of the program, and at least 3 colleagues) who will also participate in the study. Each rater will receive a separate survey webpage from Mind Garden, Inc., from which they can complete the MLQ survey and submit it directly to Mind Garden, Inc. Two weeks from the initial email, a reminder will be sent to those that did not respond to the request for participation. A reminder will also be sent to those who did agree to participate but who have not completed the surveys approximately two weeks after receiving the survey webpage. Statistical Analysis Statistical analysis for the quantitative data will be completed in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 13.0) utilizing descriptive statistics and correlational analysis. Null Hypothesis 1. There will be no association between leadership style and leadership outcome. 2. There will be no association between leadership behavior and leadership outcome. 3. There will be no association between experience and leadership outcome. References 1. The National Athletic Trainers’ Association. Available at: http://nata.org. Accessed December 1, 2006. 2. The Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. The Accreditation Standards page. Available at: http://caate.net/ss_docs/standards.6.8.2006.pdf. Accessed December 1, 2006. 3. Perkins SA, Judd MR. Dilemmas of program directors: then and now. J Athl Train. 2001;36:396-400. 4. Bordage G, Foley R, Goldyn S. Skills and attributes of directors of educational programmes. Medical Education. 2000; 34:106-110.
5. Mangus B. The evolving roles of athletic training educators and clinicians. J Athl Train. 1998; 22:308-309. 6. The Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education. The Accreditation Handbook page. Available at: http://www.apta.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=CAPTE1&TEMPLATE=/CM/Content Display.cfm&CONTENTID=35141. Accessed December 1, 2006. 7. National Athletic Trainers’ Association Education Task Force. Recommendations to reform athletic training education. NATA News. 1997; 2:16-24. 8. Leard JS, Booth CS, Johnson JC. A study of career pathways of NATA curriculum program directors. J Athl Train. 1991; 26:211-214. 9. Hertel J, West T, Buckley W, Denegar C. Educational history, employment characteristics, and desired competencies of doctoral-educated athletic trainers. J Athl Train. 2001; 36(1):49-57. 10. Zuest G. Transformational and Transactional Leadership by Athletic Training Education Program Directors [dissertation]. Gainesville, Fl: University of Florida; 2003. 11. Northouse PG. Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.; 2004. 12. Nellis SM. Leadership and management: techniques and principles for athletic training. J Athl Train. 1995; 29(4):328-335. 13. Burns JM. Leadership. New York, NY: Harper Colophon; 1978. 14. Bass BM. Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York, NY: Free Press; 1985. 15. Bass BM. Leadership: good, better, best. Organizational Dynamics. 1985; 13:26-41. 16. Avolio BJ, Bass BM. Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Sampler Set. Palo Alto, CA: Mind Garden, Inc.; 2006
Figure 1. Bass’ Full-Range of Leadership Model Legend Passive/Avoidant
LF Laissez-Faire MBE-P Mgmt by Exception Passive
MBE-A Mgmt by Exception Active CR Contingent Reward
Passive MBE- A MBE- P
Transformational Idealized Influence Inspirational Motivation Intellectual Stimulation Individualized Consideration
Third Space Theory: Reconceptualizing Content Literacy Learning Debra M. Pane Florida International University, USA Abstract: This paper develops, through a literature review, a conceptual framework for a study in process of the literacy views and practices of youth offenders. The framework offers a reconceptualized view of literacy to increase opportunities for content literacy learning with marginalized youth. Twenty-first century literacy in the United States is a paradoxical phenomenon evident in the discrepancy between youths’ in-school and out-of-school literacy engagement and success. In-School Literacy In-school literacy is defined and sustained by current legislation, government reports, and regular mass media stories about failure in literacy (Strickland & Alvermann, 2004). The notion of illiteracy supports an autonomous model of literacy based on a predetermined set of cognitive skills and competencies. An autonomous model of literacy is a “‘neutral’ mechanism for achieving functional ends…to ensure the mechanical functioning of [the state’s] institutions” (Street, 1997, p. 11). According to this view, people who are marginalized, or unsuccessful, in school fail to reach the correct literacy standards (Pardoe, 2000). Out-of-School Literacy Out-of-school literacy, on the other hand, is a dynamic construct developed by youth and their communities. Literacy occurs in everyday cultural, social, linguistic, and community contexts. Youth proactively engage in and successfully learn new literacies with social networks in particular situations for authentic reasons (e.g., spoken- word performance, My Space). An ideological model of literacy acknowledges literacy as social practices, embedded in culture and power relationships (Street, 1997). The multiple resources, or everyday funds of knowledge (e.g., prior knowledge, cultural practices), that students bring to school and draw on to try to make sense of classroom texts are valued as important influences on how oral and written texts are understood or produced in and out of school (Moll, 1992). Statement of the Problem Culturally responsive teaching is an ideological approach for in-school literacy learning used successfully with younger students, but is underutilized with youth, ages 14 to 18 (Lee, 2005). Culturally responsive teachers are aware of, place value on, and build on the everyday “funds of knowledge and Discourse that shape and inform literate practice of youth learners” (Moje & Hinchman, 2004, p. 322). Discourses with a capital “D” (Gee, 1996) are shared ways of knowing “thinking, believing, acting, and communicating” (Moje & Lewis, 2007, p. 3) that are present in and out of school and influence how people teach and learn in school. Responsive teachers continually draw from students’ everyday funds and Discourses to integrate “different, and sometimes competing, academic and everyday knowledges and Discourses” (Moje et al., 2004, p. 42). Integrating funds is essential when teachers and their students draw from different backgrounds and experiences. The field of youth content literacy has begun to focus on how youths’ out-of-school literacy practices may inform in-school literacy learning (Strickland & Alvermann, 2004). Literacy practices and Discourses of incarcerated youth have rarely been studied (Wilson, 2003). Pane, D. (2007). Third space theory: Reconceptualizing content literacy learning. In S. M. Nielsen & M. S. Plakhotnik (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Annual College of Education Research Conference: Urban and International Education Section (pp. 78-83). Miami: Florida International University. http://coeweb.fiu.edu/research_conference/
79 Literacy practices and Discourses of youth offenders—a particular culture of other students who are in-between incarceration and education—have not been studied. Conceptual Framework Conceptualized with critical social theory (Foucault, 1977; Freire, 1970) and hybridity theory (Bhabha, 1994; Soja, 1996), third space theory (Lefebvre, 1991) will frame this study. Third space theory (Lefebvre, 1991) is (a) situated in postcolonial Discourse, (b) related to culturally responsive teaching, (c) defined by power relations, and (d) applicable to marginalized youth literacy learning. Critical Social Theory A critical social theory of literacy reconceptualizes literacy learning as an ideological construct rather than as an autonomous set of cognitive skills students possess or lack. Literacy practices are (a) culturally constructed and historically situated, (b) representative of people’s social identities, and (c) produced in and shaped by social institutions and power relationships. Some “literacies [e.g., Standard English] are more dominant, visible, and influential than others [e.g., vernacular language]” (Barton & Hamilton, 2000, p. 12). Hybridity Theory Hybridity theory acknowledges the difficulty of examining people’s different “spaces and literacies” (Moje et al., 2004, p. 42). People in any community are assumed to have access to and draw from multiple funds or resources to make sense of the world. Being “in-between” (Moje et al., 2004, p. 1) various funds of knowledge and Discourses can be both fruitful and limiting for development of identities and literate, social, and cultural practices. Third Space Theory Third space theory, like hybridity theory, reconceptualizes the first and second spaces of human interaction (Moje et al., 2004). First and second spaces are binary, often competing, categories where people interact physically and socially. Binaries in literacy are the first and second spaces of everyday versus academic knowledges. Third spaces are the in-between, or hybrid, spaces where the seemingly oppositional first and second spaces work together to generate new third space knowledges, Discourses, and literacy forms. Situated in postcolonial Discourse. Drawing from postcolonial Discourse, third space challenges the fixed notions of certain signs and symbols which represent the dominant views of culture and language. Third space generates new interpretations of both everyday and academic knowledges as it is “produced in and through language as people come together” (Moje et al., 2004, p. 43). The struggle to integrate competing knowledges and Discourses can be fruitful if the people are not defined according to the dominant Discourse. Related to culturally responsive teaching. Third space can be used to explore literacy learning as a bridge, or scaffold, and navigational tool to move students through their zones of proximal development from marginalized (e.g., everyday) to privileged (e.g., dominant) content academic knowledges and Discourses (Gutiérrez, Baquedano-López, & Tejeda, 2003). Furthermore, third space can be used in ways to “challenge, destabilize, and expand literacy practices that are typically valued in school” (Moje et al., 2004, p. 44). Defined by power relations. Third space theory is practical for studying the complexity of spaces populated by groups of unequal power (Wilson, 2003). It has been used to understand the dissonance between the first space of official prison discourse and the second spaces of prisoners’ intense, unvoiced thoughts about families, identities, and time. For example, juveniles used third spaces they created while incarcerated (e.g., writing letters and poetry, taping greeting cards to cell walls) to reflect on life with new possibilities.
80 Applied to marginalized youth literacy learning. The construction of third space in the field of youth content literacy learning “merges the ‘first space’ of people’s home, community, and peer networks with the ‘second space’ of the Discourses they encounter in more formalized institutions such as…school…” (Moje et al., 2004, p. 41). In this study, first space will be the space which is marginalized—the everyday world and literacy views and practices common to juvenile offenders; second space will be the privileged or dominant space of the official curriculum in an alternative education program (Wilson, 2003). Literature Review The New Literacy Studies (NLS) and Youth Literacies, Cultures, and Identities (YLCI) Studies support the framework for this study. The New Literacy Studies The NLS challenge taken-for-granted deficit accounts of literacy found in mass media, political discourse, and research (Pardoe, 2000). In the NLS, “reading, writing, and meaning are always situated within specific social practices within specific Discourses” (Gee, 2000, p. 189) and focus on the idea that reading and writing make sense only when studied in the context of social, cultural, historical, political, and economic practices rather than of individual cognitive tasks. Recent NLS focus on “local situated literacies [where local means] the site at which people – in tandem with words, deeds, objects, tools, symbols, settings, times, and ways of being, doing, thinking, and valuing – work out…work on…and rework the projects” (Gee, 2000, p. 194). Youth Literacies, Cultures, and Identities Studies YLCI studies support a critical sociocultural stance which suggests that literacy is found in multiple contexts and forms, makes sense to those involved, and is “always part of other social, cultural, and political practices, and is therefore, never autonomous or decontextualized” (Moje, draft, in press, 2007, p. 5). YLCI approaches begin with what youth already and want to know, do, read, and write outside of what they struggle with in academic literacy learning. The focus is on “what and why texts matter to youth and on how youth texts and literacy practices might inform academic literacy development” (Moje, draft, in press, 2007, p. 1). The notion of the so-called struggling secondary reader and writer and how to teach them is reconsidered. All students from mainstream and nonmainstream backgrounds are assumed to bring rich funds of knowledge, cultural practices, and Discourses to school. Purpose of the Study This critical ethnographic study will describe how interactions among Discourses within the classroom cultures of an alternative school inform teachers’ pedagogies and youth offenders’ in-school literacy learning. Research Questions The primary research questions are: How do Discourses interact within the classroom cultures of an alternative education school for youth offenders? How do interactions among Discourses inform teachers’ pedagogies and youth offenders’ in-school literacy learning? Research Design This critical ethnographic study will embed an ecologically valid design (Lee, 2005), the methodological principle of symmetry (Pardoe, 2000), and critical sociocultural methods of analysis for literacy learning (Moje & Lewis, 2007) within five recommended stages of critical ethnographic, or qualitative, research (Carspecken, 1996). Ecologically valid designs are sensitive to the uniqueness of real students in real situations with real teachers. The principle of symmetry validates marginalized youths’ literacy practices and texts as rational, coherent, and true in specific contexts rather than dismissing them as unsuccessful in deficit terms.
81 Critical Ethnographic Research Critical ethnography is a particular genre of qualitative social research framed within critical social theory (Carspecken, 1996). Qualitative social researchers attempts to “understand, interpret, and explain complex and highly contextualized social phenomena such as classroom cultures” (Kamberelis & Dimitriadis, 2005, p. 17) by focusing on the meanings and practices involved in how people experience themselves in their worlds. Critical epistemology links power, knowledge, and truth. Critical ethnography emphasizes the innovative production of cultural themes and cultural structures from social actors (Carspecken, 1996). Research Stages Five recommended stages of critical ethnographic research are (a) data collection for the primary record, (b) preliminary reconstructive analysis, (c) dialogical data generation, (d) examination of systems relations, and (e) explanation of findings (Carspecken, 1996). Data Collection and Analysis “Stages one through three emphasize social integration….four and five emphasize system integration and the relationship between social and system integration” (Carspecken, 1996, p. 190). In stage four, several related sites will be examined; in stage five, findings will be explained through social-theoretical models and may yield revisions. For this study, ethnographic methods will document the details of people, actions, things, and accounts to enable the researcher to articulate specific literacy practices, events, and Discourses of people in a classroom culture rather than their skills and competencies (Maybin, 2000). Details will enable the researcher to clearly express the link between everyday literacies and the social institutions and power relations that are more dominant than them. Data Collection Passive observations will be the method for compiling the primary record, using a primary record notebook and a field journal as recording tools. Methods for generating dialogical data will be (a) interviews, using an interview protocol for guidance; (b) group discussions; (c) artifacts, such as written texts produced by students, body literacy, and clothing (Moja et al., 2004); and (d) Interpersonal Process Recall (IPR), with videotapes as the recording tool. IPR solicits metacognitive thoughts from participants (Carspecken, 1996). Analysis Critical sociocultural theory, informed by cultural historical activity, critical discourse, and cultural studies theories, provides the rationale for analysis in this study. Cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) highlights how hybrid contexts mediate teaching and learning, calling for practice and activity to be the units of analysis (Lee & Ball, 2005). Critical discourse theory provides tools for understanding how interactions among Discourses both shape and are informed by power relationships and ideologies in people’s learning lives. Cultural studies provides a basis for studying cultural practices from the people’s perspectives and for recognizing that power is produced in everyday lives in and through societal institutions. Various types of interactions in the classroom will be coded, pulled together into themes, and categorized through rigorous reconstructive principles (Carspecken, 1996). Systems analysis is open to as many cultural contributions as possible, influenced by cultural, political, and economic power. For example, hybrid examples of counterscripts, often considered off task Discourse in classrooms, will be analyzed as third space opportunities for learning situated in content area literacy (Gutiérrez et al., 2003).
82 Findings, Results, and Implications This study will contribute to third space theory and critical sociocultural literacy research with implications for curriculum development and teacher preparation. Third Space Theory Third space may be developed most fully by building on everyday and/or popular culture funds linked to academic funds (Lee, 2005). In this study, multiple outside-of-school texts may be tools for connecting youth offenders to the commonly unwelcoming official space of content area literacy learning (Strickland, & Alvermann, 2004). Critical Sociocultural Literacy Research Attempts will be made to connect youth offenders’ everyday funds, ethnic identity, and Discourses of community networking to academic content area funds as they relate to the social, political, and economic realm. For example, marginalized youth whose families worked in the dry cleaning or farming business understood the implications of poor water quality on their lives even when the academic concepts were taught as simple definitions (Moje et al., 2004). Curriculum Development Insights may be yielded into developing and enacting responsive curricula and teaching for youth offenders when the current focus for all students is on high-stakes accountability measures and discipline. The ways everyday funds do or do not connect to academic funds have implications for curriculum development and for developing third space “in which everyday and school knowledges and Discourses inform one another” (Moje et al., 2004, p. 64). Teacher Preparation Teacher preparation programs which address ways for engaging, supporting, and enhancing youth offenders’ literacy learning by linking out-of-school literacies with in-school literacy expectations are nonexistent. It is rare for students, especially youth offenders, to volunteer their everyday funds unless the teacher understands deeply and welcomes hybridity and third space in the classroom. Teachers who actively construct third space (a) understand literacy as a complex construct which consists of social and cultural practices, and (b) are able to connect academic content to the lives of their students and help them strategically renegotiate knowledge for increased opportunities in learning (Gutiérrez et al., 2003). This study offers practical implications for teacher preparation. Teachers can be encouraged to “confront why they think as they do about themselves as teachers— especially in relation to the social, cultural, political, economic, and historical world around them” (Kincheloe, 2005, p. 155). Critically reflecting on how one’s ethnic identities and Discourses have been socially constructed can empower teachers to be able to reconceptualize literacy learning and, subsequently, transform their own lives and the lives of their students. References Barton, D., & Hamilton, M. (2000). Literacy practices. In D. Barton, M. Hamilton, & R. Ivanič (Eds.), Situated literacies: Reading and writing in context (pp. 7-15). New York: Routledge. Gee, J. P. (1996). Social linguistics and literacies: Ideology in discourses (2nd ed.). London: Falmer. Gee, J. P. (2000). The new literacy studies: From ‘socially situated’ to the work of the social. In D. Barton, M. Hamilton, & R. Ivanič (Eds.), Situated literacies: Reading and writing in context (pp. 180-196). New York: Routledge. Gutiérrez, K. D., Baquedano-López, P., & Tejeda, C. (2003). Rethinking diversity: Hybridity and hybrid language practices in the third space. In S. Goodman, T. Lillis, J. Maybin, & N.
83 Mercer (Eds.), Language, literacy and education: A reader (pp. 171-187). Trent, UK: Trentham Books. Kamberelis, G., & Dimitriadis, G. (2005). Qualitative inquiry: Approaches to language and literacy research. New York: Teachers College Press. Kincheloe, J. (2005). Auto/biography and Critical Ontology: Being a Teacher, Developing a Reflective Teacher Persona. In W.-M. Roth (Ed.), Auto/biography and Auto/ ethnography:Praxis of Research Method (pp. 155-174). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense. Lee, C. (2005). The state of knowledge about the education of African Americans. In J. E. King (Ed.), Black education: A transformative research and action agenda for the new century (pp. 45-72). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Lee, C., & Ball, A. (2005). All that glitters ain’t gold: CHAT as a design and analytical tool in literacy research. In R. Beach, J. L. Green, M. L. Kamil, & T. Shanahan (Eds.), Multidisciplinary perspectives in literacy research (2nd ed.) (pp. 101-132). Urbana, IL: National conference on Research in English & National Council of Teachers of English. Maybin, J. (2000). The New Literacy Studies: Context, intertextuality and discourse. In D. Barton, M. Hamilton, & R. Ivanič (Eds.), Situated literacies: Reading and writing in context (pp. 197-211). New York: Routledge. Moje, E. B. (Draft, in press, 2007). Youth literacies, identities, and cultures in and out of school. Handbook of Research in Teaching the Visual and Communicative Arts, 1-36. Retrieved November 14, 2006, from http://wwwpersonal.umich.edu/~moje/pdf/Book/YouthLiteracyCultureIdentity.pdf Moje, E. B., Ciechanowski, K. M., Kramer, K., Ellis, L., Carrillo, R., & Collazo, T. (2004). Working toward third space in content area literacy: An examination of everyday funds of knowledge and Discourse. Reading Research Quarterly, 39(1), 38-70. Moje, E. B., & Hinchman, K. (2004). Culturally responsive practices for youth literacy learning. Retrieved November 3, 2006, from http://www-personal.umich.edu/~moje/publicationsChapters.html Moje, E. B., & Lewis, C. (2007). Examining opportunities to learn literacy: The role of critical sociocultural literacy research. Retrieved November 1, 2006, from http://wwwpersonal.umich.edu/~moje/pdf/Journal/ExaminingOpportunitiesToLeanLiteracy.pdf Moll, L. C. (1992). Literacy research in community and classrooms: A sociocultural approach. In R. Beach, J. L. Green, M. L. Kamil, & T. shanahan (Eds.), Multidisciplinary perspectives in literacy research (pp. 211-244). Urbana, IL: NCTE. Pardoe, S. (2000). Respect and the pursuit of ‘symmetry’ in researching literacy and student writing. In D. Barton, M. Hamilton, & R. Ivanič (Eds.), Situated literacies: Reading and writing in context, (pp. 149-166). New York: Routledge. Street, B. (1997). Introduction: the new literacy studies. In B. Street (Ed.), Cross-cultural approaches to literacy, (pp. 1-21). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Strickland, D. S., & D. E. Alvermann. (2004). Learning and teaching literacy in grades 4-12: Issues and challenges. In D. S. Strickland & D. E. Alvermann (Eds.), Bridging the literacy achievement gap grades 4-12, (pp1-14). New York: Teachers College Press. Wilson, A. (2000). There is no escape from third-space theory: borderland discourse and the ‘inbetween’ literacies of prisons, In D. Barton, M. Hamilton, & R. Ivanič (Eds.), Situated literacies: Reading and writing in context, (pp. 54-69). New York: Routledge.
The Predictive Power of Homework Assignments on Student Achievement in Mathematics Raquel Pelletier and Anthony H. Normore Florida International University, USA
Abstract: This study examined the relationship between homework performance (percent of homework completed and percent of homework correct), student characteristics (Stanford Achievement Test score, gender, ethnicity, and socio-economic status), perceptions, and challenges and academic achievement determined by the students’ average score on weekly tests and their score on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) Norm Reference Test (NRT) mathematics assessment. Homework has been a subject of controversy to education researchers for the past 75 years (Cooper & Valentine, 2001). The literature demonstrates that homework practices have been popularized notions tied to changing educational philosophies and theories. Early in the 20th century, homework was seen as exercise for the mind, and memorization was the key to acquiring new knowledge. Since memorization could be easily accomplished at home, homework was the answer. The 1940s brought a shift in attitude towards homework. Increasing and improving student initiative along with interest in learning was the focus. Homework was viewed as an intrusion on student’s extracurricular activities (Cooper, 2001). However, the launch of Sputnik by the Russians in 1957 sparked the movement for increased academic rigor and encouraged homework as a means to accelerate learning. However, by the mid 1960s the movement once again reversed, and homework was seen as too much pressure for students (Cooper, Lindsay, Nye, & Greathouse, 1998). Another reversal was brought on in the mid 1980s by the publication of A Nation at Risk (National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983) that cited homework as a means to end the mediocrity of U.S. education. However, in recent years homework has been once again viewed by many as an inconvenience and intrusion into family life and as an impediment to a full and active social life for children (Cooper, 2001). The purpose of this study was to examine variables related to homework that appear to make the most difference in results of academic achievement among grade levels: (a) difficulty, (b) length, (c) objectives, (d) feedback, (e) support, and (f) scheduling time. This study also investigated the differences in the academic success of students in grade three and the relationship of those differences to: (a) the student’s homework performance (i.e., the percentage of completed mathematics assignments turned in and the percentage of mathematics problems completed correctly), (b) student characteristics (Stanford Achievement Test 9th ed. mathematics application score [SAT-9], gender, ethnicity, and socio-economic status), (c) perceptions (i.e., difficulty of assignment, amount of homework, and objectives of homework), and (d) challenges (i.e., homework feedback, support for doing homework, and scheduling time). Review of Literature Due to the increase in local, state, and national accountability models requirements, such as those in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002, school administrators and teachers must develop homework policies that are successful, interact with other goals, and lead to enhanced achievement in academic areas. Although homework has taken on new significance in light of various comparisons between or among schools, the importance of this study also takes on added Pelletier, R., & Normore, A. H. (2007). The predictive power of homework assignments on student achievement in mathematics. In S. M. Nielsen & M. S. Plakhotnik (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Annual College of Education Research Conference: Urban and International Education Section (pp. 84-89). Miami: Florida International University. http://coeweb.fiu.edu/research_conference/
85 significance as it evaluates the extent to which, and how homework is useful in aiding elementary students’ success in mathematics Understanding the nature of homework and its influences on school achievement can be attributed to isolating the effects of numerous and complex variables affecting homework assignments and their completion (Cooper & Valentine, 2001). These influences include: (a) the ways teachers structure and monitor assignments, (b) students’ discretion about whether, when, and how to complete the assignments, (c) conducive home environments for completing homework, and (d) competition with community leisure activities competing for the students’ attention. Homework works because it increases time-on-task. Effective time-on-task is most important and often depends upon what is done by the student in processing the homework. Homework should have an effect on memory because of practice requirements. It should have an effect on transfer to the extent that properly devised application problems are included. The effectiveness of assignments depends on the difficulty of the assignment, the facilities for doing the assignment, and interferences. What is learned (i.e., effectiveness) may be dependent upon standards (i.e., objectives or goals) represented in the content of the assignment and the nature of the processing required. The extent to what is learned depends on whether the assignment is completed and on the amount of accuracy and constructive feedback provided to the student. The amount of homework completed has been linked to achievement (Cooper, 1994; Cooper et al., 1998) with increasing benefits over grades. The benefits of homework are differentially related to school achievement according to grade level (Muhlenbruck, Cooper, Nye, & Lindsey, 2000). Such benefits are necessary under conditions of good monitoring, parental involvement, ease in doing assignments, and completion of assignments (Callahan, Rademacher, & Hildreth, 1998). The developmental trend is attributed to such explanations that young children: (a) take longer to finish assignments, (b) have limited ability to keep their attention focused, and (c) lack good study skills (Cooper, Jackson, & Nye, 2001). The relationship between homework completion and test scores is indicated in a positive relation between the frequency of completed homework assignments and mathematics achievement gains; lengthy homework assignments, on the other hand, tend to be negatively related to achievement gains (Trautwein, Koller, & Schmitz, 2002). Yet, another study by Swank and Greenwood (1999) showed no relationship between academic performance and homework completion. A review of 100 homework studies (Black, 1997) showed less than expected improvement on standardized test scores, especially at the lower grades. These varying results suggest the need to include individual differences in student attitudes toward homework (i.e., motivation and study habits), the relation of homework and classroom work, the contributions of home environment, and the kind of feedback given on assignments (Muhlenbruck et al., 2000). Methodology The main analysis was based on a multiple regression of average test scores and FCAT NRT scores on the predictor variables: (a) homework performance, (b) student characteristics, (c) perceptions and, (d) challenges. Archived data were obtained from a district maintained database, including gender, ethnicity, SAT-9 score, socio economic status, parent, student, and teacher questionnaires; classroom test/quiz scores; and standardized test results based on the statewide test (FCAT). The sample was taken from an elementary school with 928 students representing a diversity of ethnic backgrounds and socioeconomic levels. One hundred fortythree third grade students in five different homerooms taught by seven different mathematics
86 teachers were studied. The data for this study were collected using non-experimental methods. The subjects were measured on a variety of variables. Therefore, the variables were called predictors and criterion rather than independent variables and dependent variables, respectively. This study involved unordered sets of predictors which were divided into five different sets: (a) student characteristics, (b) homework accuracy, (c) homework completion, (d) perceptions, and (e) challenges. The multiple regression analysis provides a tool to determine the predictive power of some variables over a criterion variable. Hierarchical regression analysis, on the other hand, provides a mechanism of capturing the combined relationship between a set of variables and the criterion variable in incremental steps with a series of more inclusive sets of variables at each step. The order in which the predictor variables were entered in the hierarchical regression was determined by the researcher based on logical considerations and the purpose of this study. Descriptive statistics including means, standard deviations, frequencies, and percentages were used to summarize data of all subjects for student characteristics, homework performance, perceptions, challenges, average test scores, and FCAT NRT scores. Two theoretical constructs were proposed in this study: perceptions and challenges of homework. Pearson’s correlations examined the relationship among the survey items in each construct. The associations for the perception items categorized as difficulty, objective, and amount were all significant. Likewise, the associations for the challenge items categorized as support, feedback, and scheduling were also significant. Pearson’s correlations were used to examine associations of the predictor variables (student characteristics, homework performance, perceptions, and challenges) with the average test scores and the FCAT NRT scores. Additional Pearson’s correlations were computed to examine the relationships between the different predictor variables. Regression analyses were carried out to examine the influence of all of the predictor variables (student characteristics, perceptions, challenges, and homework performance) on each of the criterion variables (FCAT NRT score and average test score). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed on the FCAT NRT score and average test score from the predictor variables. Sets of ordered predictors were entered in three steps. At step one, the student characteristics were entered and tested for significance. At step two, perceptions and challenges were entered, and at step three, homework performance was added. Correlational and regression analyses results were considered statistically significant at p < .05. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS Version 13.0. Findings The study explored the effects of the percent of homework completed as opposed to the amount of time spent on homework as suggested by Cooper et al. (1998). It also looked at the effects of the students’ attitudes about homework based on their responses to the survey administered which was also suggested by Cooper et al. (1998). This study additionally addressed the need for further studies using elementary students as the present number of these studies is limited. In contrast to Muhlenbuck et al. (2000), this study indicates significant correlations between homework completion and students’ academic success in Grade 3. In addition, controlling for student characteristics, perceptions and challenges, the percent of homework completed was a strong predictor of students’ average test score. The review of the literature, specifically Muhlenbruck et al. (2000), indicated that the correlation between homework and academic achievement is weak in the lower grades and grows stronger as children age. Cooper’s (1989) meta-analysis of research on the effects of homework found that the correlation between homework and academic success of students in
87 Grades 3-5 was nearly zero. Yet, it was .07 for students in Grades 5-9 and .25 for high school students. In contrast, this study of students in Grade 3 found that the correlations between percent of homework completed with average test score (r = .61, p < .01) and with the students’ score on the FCAT NRT (r = .41, p < .01) were significant. Similarly, average homework correct was significantly correlated to average test score (r = .64, p < .01) and to FCAT NRT (r = .46, p < .01). The higher correlations with average test score could be attributed to fact that the two sets of scores were assigned by the same source, the teacher. This study suggests a positive relation between the portion of homework completed and student achievement and supports the research by Cooper et al. (1998), which focused on five sets of questions regarding homework and student achievement. Cooper et al. made a differentiation between the amount of assigned homework and the amount that was actually completed. In contrast to previous studies that did not make this differentiation, the amount of homework completed was related to student achievement. Analysis of the regression results indicated that for Grade 3 students the percent of homework completed was a statistically significant predictor of how the students scored on the weekly tests and the second most important predictor of how the students would perform on the FCAT NRT. The hierarchical regression analysis demonstrated that homework performance was significantly related to the students’ average test score and their score on the FCAT NRT after controlling for the other variables. These findings support those by Cooper et al. (1998), which suggested a positive relationship between the portion of homework completed by students and their achievement. As in Cooper’s study this relationship was stronger for teacher-made tests than standardized test scores. This study, however, differed from Swank and Greenwood (1999) who concluded that homework was not, in general, a significant factor in academic achievement as demonstrated by teacher-made test scores in math at the fourth grade level. Cooper et al. (1998) suggested that the causal link between the attitudes of the role players and student achievement should be examined by research. This study found that student perceptions and student challenges explained 2.7% of the variance in average test scores when student characteristics were controlled, indicating that student attitudes play a limited role in their academic achievement. When student characteristics were controlled for, student perceptions and student challenges explained only 1% of the variance of FCAT score, indicating it had less importance in predicting students’ FCAT score than average test score. Educational Importance: Conclusions and Implications This study provided evidence that students’ homework performance is a strong predictor of students’ academic success in mathematics, most notably in the performance in classroom evaluations developed by the teacher. In addition to homework performance, the students’ scores on the SAT-9 were also a significant predictor of their academic success. Specifically, controlling for student characteristics, including the level of the students’ academic aptitude from their score on the SAT-9, students’ perceptions, and students’ challenges, the percent of homework completed was still a strong predictor of the students’ average test score. The literature supports the view that homework completion has a positive effect on student academic achievement (Cooper et al., 1998 Muhlenbuck et al., 2000). This study was based on the assumption that a combination of homework performance, student demographics, perceptions, and challenges would be strong predictor of academic success. Several ideas related to homework can be learned from this study. First, homework performance is a significant predictor of students’ performance on teacher-made tests but not for standardized tests, such as the FCAT. Although there are much more stringent accountability
88 standards imposed on schools today by all levels of government, more homework is not the answer to higher standardized test scores. This study suggests that two hypotheses are plausible for why the correlation between homework performance and average test score is stronger than the relationship between homework performance and FCAT. First, the teacher designs, creates, and scores both the classroom evaluations and the homework. Thus, it is likely that both are very similar and that the teacher emphasizes those objectives which will be tested. In contrast, the FCAT and any other standardized test is developed by a publisher and the teacher is never exactly certain what topics will be covered and how the questions will be phrased. Second, the scores for students on classroom tests may be artificially inflated. Specifically, the students may be permitted to retake tests, may receive assistance from peers or the teacher, may be permitted to use notes or the text, or may be scored on a curve. However, standardized tests are only administered once and scored objectively by computers or persons who are not familiar with the students. Future research should utilize a larger set of criteria to determine the effectiveness of homework on achievement. Researchers should not only look at performance on evaluations, whether teacher developed or standardized, but also at other outcomes that can be viewed as successes. Some of these other outcomes are improved motivation, better study habits, and improved critical thinking skills. Homework is a universal practice in many areas of education. It is a variable of manipulability. Teachers and administrators control whether to assign homework, what homework to assign, and how much to assign. Its design and purpose should be clearly understood. The research on homework has been limited, specifically at the elementary level, thus future studies should examine a larger population across different grade levels to assist in the determination of amount, design, and purpose of homework assignments. References Black, S. (1997). Doing our homework on homework. The Education Digest, 62, 36-39. Callahan, K., Rademacher, J. A., & Hildreth, B. L. (1998). The effect of parent participation in strategies to improve the homework performance of students who were at risk. Remedial and Special Education, 19(3), 131-141. Cooper, H. M. (1994). Homework research and policy: A review of the literature. Center for Research and Educational Improvement, 2, 2. Retrieved June 1, 2004, from http://Education.unm.edu/CAREI/Reports/Rpractice/Summer94/Homework/htm. Cooper, H. M. (2001). Homework for all-in moderation. Educational Leadership, 58(7), 34-38. Cooper, H. M., Jackson, K., & Nye, B. A. (2001). A model of homework’s influence on the performance evaluations of elementary school students. Journal of Experimental Education, 69(2), 181-99. Cooper, H. M., Lindsay, J. J., Nye, B. A., & Greathouse, S. (1998). Relationships among attitudes about homework assigned and completed and student achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 70-83. Cooper, H. M., & Valentine, J. C. (2001). Using research to answer practical questions about homework. Educational Psychologist, 36(3), 143-53. Muhlenbruck, L., Cooper, H. M., Nye, B., & Lindsay, J. J. (2000). Homework and achievement: Explaining the different strengths of relation at the elementary and secondary school levels. Social Psychology of Education, 3, 295-317. National Commission on Excellence in Education. (1983). A nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Education. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-110, 115 Stat. 1425. (2002). Retrieved
89 September 6, 2005, from http://www.ed.gov/legislation/ESEA02/ Norusis, M. (2005). SPSS 13.0 guide to data analysis. Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon. Swank, A., & Greenwood, L. (1999). The effects of weekly math homework on fourth grade student math performance. Tennessee: Johnson Bible College. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED433234) Trautwein, U., Koller, O., & Schmitz, B. (2002). Do homework assignments enhance achievement? A multilevel analysis in 7th grade mathematics. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 27(1), 26-50.
Unity and Diversity: High School Students’ Perceptions on Multiculturalism and the Intercultural University of the State of Guerrero, Mexico M. Fernanda Pineda Florida International University, USA Abstract: This is a mixed methods study conducted in Guerrero, Mexico, at the end of the academic year 2005-2006. The purpose of this study was to capture the perceptions held by high school students, of both indigenous and nonindigenous background, regarding the intercultural university, as well as their conceptualization of multiculturalism. The indigenous population in Mexico has long struggled to be recognized inclusively in the nation, especially in the field of education. Nowadays, the public education system is transforming itself to address a multicultural Mexico in higher education. The gradual creation of intercultural universities exemplifies this transformation. One of these intercultural universities, the Intercultural University of the State of Guerrero, will be created in the state of Guerrero, forming part of the intercultural universities network. The university seeks to acknowledge the diverse voices of Mexico, and for students to gain an understanding of their culture and those of others (CNDPI, 2006). The modest but ambitious project of IUSG (and of the intercultural universities, in general), represents a landmark in the education system of the nation. President Fox (2006) stated that the project sought to create “universities… of high quality for indigenous youth. In doing this, a debt that dates from long ago is being paid. This is a debt that the country has with the indigenous communities, this debt of forgetting… [and] discriminating…” (CNDPI, 2006). Taylor (1994) adequately frames Fox’s words regarding the project in his theoretical discussion of politics of recognition. His guiding principles on interculturalism, and notions of unity and diversity, steered the research presented here. According to him, “The demand for recognition… is given urgency by the supposed links between recognition and identity” (p. 25). He argues that “our identity is partly shaped by recognition or… by the misrecognition of others… Nonrecognition or misrecognition… can be a form of oppression, imprisoning someone in a… distorted… mode of being” (p. 25). Cushner (1998), Giles (1947), and Banks (1981, 1996, 2004) also provide guiding principles for educators and for implementing education, as noted in the discussion. The purpose of the study was to explore and capture high school students’ perceptions, of both indigenous and non-indigenous background, regarding the intercultural institution, and their conceptualization of multiculturalism. The study was conducted in five locations in Guerrero (in 2006), in eight public high schools. The instrument used to explore their perceptions was a questionnaire of 15 items, including open-ended questions. Students’ responses provided insight on their attitudes toward national unity and diversity, specifically the open-ended questions. The responses of the Likert scale-only items will be presented as percentages for discussion purposes, but a more in-depth discussion of these will be considered during future research endeavors. Method This is a mixed-methods research study that sought to explore high school students’ perceptions using a questionnaire. Out of the fifteen items in the questionnaire, twelve statements had a Likert scale format only, one had both a Likert scale and an open-ended section (item #12) Pineda, M. F. (2007). Unity and diversity: High school students’ perceptions on multiculturalism and the intercultural university of the State of Guerrero, Mexico. In S. M. Nielsen & M. S. Plakhotnik (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Annual College of Education Research Conference: Urban and International Education Section (pp. 90-95). Miami: Florida International University. http://coeweb.fiu.edu/research_conference/
91 and two were open-ended (#14 and #15). The author personally visited each of the schools, and distributed the questionnaire to participants, ages 18 to 23. Using SPSS and Excel, the author obtained descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests, searched for repeated words/ideas, grouped these in categories, and turned them into percentages. Categories Item #12 stated, “If everybody in Mexico were from the same culture or spoke the same language, we would be united. Yes/No, and Why?” Items #14 and #15 dealt with the students’ tentative enrollment in the intercultural university. After a description of the project, they were asked (#14), “If this institution were to be established, would you like to enroll? Yes/No, and Why?” Question #15 asked, “Would you feel more part or less part of Mexico if you attended this school? More/Less, and Why?” These open-ended responses were placed in categories. The responses of #15 were combined with #14 in the categories. The Sample The questionnaire was distributed in eight public high schools to students 18 to 23 years of age. High schools #1, 9, and 33 are located in the city of Chilpancingo, and #7 and 27 are in Acapulco. School #11 is in the city of Tlapa, #26 in Chilapa, and #29 in Tixtla. For the purpose of this study, an urban high school will be that in a large city in which the percentage of indigenous language speakers is small, and rural/semi rural is a school in a smaller location, less populated, and in which the percentage of indigenous language speakers is larger than in the urban. For example, in Tlapa, 56.1% of the population speaks an indigenous language (INEGI, 2006). Limitations of the Study Out of the eight high schools, the observed questionnaires of four did not match or surpass the number of expected questionnaires, according to the Chi-Square tests. An additional 128 participants would have met the requirements for the study to be representative. Results The findings of the study revealed that although only a small percentage (17.33%) of students considered the project as a means to fight for ethnic and cultural representation, their responses highlighted the rationale for the creation of the IUSG and the urgency for recognition. In general, the students’ answers to question # 14 (see Method section) were to preserve dialects/cultures, to highlight cultural diversity, and to foster respect and tolerance. They also mentioned being proud of one's origins, and to learn how to interact better with people different from you. Participants also said they will enroll in the IUSG to counteract cultural imperialism, racism or "homogenization,” and to give indigenous communities larger representation in society. In the case of indigenous students, frequent answers were to practice and strengthen their dialect, learn it better and teach it to others, and to develop skills to serve a community. Discussion Taylor (1994) argued that “the demand for equal recognition extends beyond acknowledging equal value of all humans potentially, and comes to include the equal value of what [cultures] have made of this potential” (p. 42). The concept of potentiality highlights culture as not only a present value, but suggests the long-term vision of the culture’s contribution as a whole. It denotes a procedural inclusiveness that considers multiple, positive reasons for appreciation and integration. The IUSG represents more than just institutional recognition of multicultural students. It also addresses notions of equality, respect, the issues of “nonrecognition” or “misrecognition” of the Mexican society towards ethnic minorities, something that Taylor (1994) denounced as harmful and oppressive. Similarly, the university
92 gives students the opportunity to develop an understanding of their own identities, their contributions in their communities and their nation. The students will be able to discover their originality as individuals through a rich process of interpersonal relations. For instance, in expressing his views regarding enrollment, a student of Náhuatl descent stated, “We would have interconnections of diverse cultures… [and] This [school] will… help us to know ourselves better as Mexican indigenous people” (Male, urban high school, strongly agrees to identify himself as indigenous). Intercultural Education, Identity and Unity One participant pointed out that “Being Mexican is something to be proud of, but there are some people that instead of highlighting this, they feel embarrassed about it” (Female, rural/semi rural high school, strongly agrees to identify herself as indigenous). Her schoolmate comments that “many are ashamed of their roots and this should not be; but the opposite, we have to show the greatness of our Mexico” (Male, rural/semi rural high school, strongly disagrees to identify himself as indigenous). Responses such as these suggest that projects like the IUSG will foster identity construction through dialogue and interaction. In Taylor’s (1994) words, our “own identity crucially depends on [our] dialogical relations with others” (p. 34). Interpreted in other words, we will know ourselves as we have meaningful, personal encounters or discussions (“dialogical relations”) with others. Vázquez (1994) provides a transition between these dialogical relations that conduce to identity development and the notion of unity. He argues that a “… fundamental assumption [of]… intercultural action… is the one of identity,” that, according to him, “organizes the individual and collective life… [and] Identity provides unity” (p. 34). Likewise, the responses seem to indicate that there might be more than a transition towards recognition taking place, but also a discovery of our “strength in diversity” (Banks, 1981, p. 266). For example, one of the students expressed, “I believe that it is necessary to know more about our own culture and this will help us respond to the bad conceptualizations we have about indigenous people” (male, urban high school, neutral about identifying himself as indigenous). This participant’s comment suggests that knowing oneself better invites others to view you differently, and challenges misconceptions regarding other people. A Tlapaneco student, who expressed an interest in enrollment at the university, elaborated on the concepts of restoration and maintenance of identity. He/she would like to attend IUSG so as “to not lose a culture like mine: Tlapaneca…” and added that “Mexico is… [composed of] indigenous communities and they should be respected.” Unity and Diversity, or Just Unity, and No Diversity? Banks (1981) encourages educators to “explore ethnic pluralism in positive, realistic ways [to] … help students to understand that there is strength in diversity, and that social cooperation among ethnic groups is not… having identical beliefs, behaviors, and values” (p. 266). In other words, students need educational opportunities to understand that one can be different and united at the same time. Taylor argues the same, using the idea of politics of equal dignity and politics of difference in his writings on urgency for recognition. Oftentimes, these two conflict with each other. One emerges from the other, but they also diverge (Taylor, 1994). The politics of equal dignity deals with the universal notion that we are all the same in terms of rights (dignity). On the other hand, the politics of difference is a call “to recognize… the unique identity of [an] individual or a group, their distinctness from everyone else” (Taylor, 1994, p. 38). This kind of politics counteracts cultural homogenization; it seeks to highlight our uniqueness.
93 IUSG may represent the opportunity to explore ethnic pluralism, unity and diversity, opening a forum for the politics of equal dignity and difference to take place. For instance, in response to item #12 (see Method section), several students make reference to the strength found within cultural diversity. In summary, students believed that cultural diversity is more relevant or important than having just one language, their main arguments being that each culture has something to contribute, no matter the race, color, or language. Many agreed that heterogeneity must exist to have social diversity, and that differences make Mexico richer. In a very powerful statement, one of the students said, “If we all had the same language and the same culture, Mexico's cultural diversity will simply fade away.” Not all students, however, considered IUSG as an opportunity to explore cultural pluralism. Their responses could be interpreted as voicing the conflict between equal dignity and difference. A high percentage of participants revealed a pattern of highlighting unity by overlooking diversity. They used phrases that expressed their concern with inequalities (i.e., “to end racism,” “to increase understanding”), while articulating at the same time what in Taylor’s (1994) words, represents “difference-blindness.” As stated before, many responses on item #12 dealt with unity as cultural homogenization. A large percentage of students made reference to unity stemming from “understanding” each other better linguistically, ideologically, and culturally. Others said that there would be “more” or “better” communication among us if we were from the same culture or spoke the same language. Others even said that disagreements would not exist because there would be a sharing of similar ideas, knowledge, opinion, language, and even problems, allowing also for better decision-making. Surprisingly, many students outwardly expressed that having the same culture will put an end to racism or discrimination. However, although the students seemed, on paper, to highlight the positives, they may have inadvertently overlooked the negative effects (socially and culturally speaking) of cultural assimilation of homogenization. Students’ responses suggest that they are being taught to passively accept assimilation of minority groups. Internalizing this, they conclude that linguistic and even cultural differences represent obstacles to “good” communication, progress, or even national unity. A student voiced her concern about the possible uncritical acceptance of assimilation: “[IUSG] will allow all students from ethnic groups to be accepted [to be enrolled]…” and she expressed that she would feel more part of Mexico because “As a student, I would be able to speak my dialect without anybody telling me not to” (urban high school, Mixteco descent, identifies as indigenous). Another student, remaining neutral about his indigenous identification, wrote that he would enroll in the IUSG “because all communities will have the opportunity to propose their ideas and of being heard; because right now they are not being heard…” (male, rural/semi rural high school). As mentioned earlier, intercultural education “strives to eliminate prejudice and racism by creating an awareness of the diversity [and] … thus a rejection of absolute ethnocentrism” (Cushner, 1998, p. 2). The key herein, and in contrast to some of the students’ beliefs, is that eliminating prejudice and racism does not occur through cultural assimilation, but namely through the celebration of differences. Giles’ (1947) contributing definition adds a powerful note about democracy: Intercultural education “posits the goal of democracy, understood as a process of furthering the maximum growth for all” (p. 13). He believes that intercultural education serves as a catalyst for democracy, assuming that all people will take part in it. He also highlights that unity occurs when interculturalism is acknowledged, and mutual understanding is fostered. This contradicts some of the rather inexperienced solutions provided by the students. They answered that we will “understand each other better,” if the same culture existed (culturally
94 homogeneity).” However, Cushner and Giles suggest that understanding comes from knowing ourselves as unique individuals within a democratic context, where cultural diversity awareness arises. Banks (1981) surmises both Cushner’s and Giles’ definitions as he states that schools should assist students in developing insight into “their ethnic group identifications,” forging connections among ethnicities, and recognizing “implications of their ethnic group identifications …” (Banks, 1981, p. 215). Banks creates a scenario where neither ethnic minority students nor ethnic majority students are forced to turn into something they are not. For instance, 97% of the students strongly agreed/agreed to identify themselves as Mexicans, and 94.8% strongly agreed/agreed to feel part of Mexico. These percentages can be labeled as the students’ “identification with the [majority] ethic group” (Banks, 1981, p. 215). On the other hand, 77.67% responded they would actually feel more part of Mexico by enrolling in IUSG. In projects like IUSG, differences are not only respected, but celebrated, and national identities will not be put in conflict with ethnic, individual, or community identities. Here is where the power of unity and diversity emerges. The Rationale for the Intercultural University (IUSG) For a long time, the education system failed to address differences amongst its students. As a result, they have not had the opportunity to experience the implementation of intercultural practices or curricula at school. Some responses suggest that the educational practices of the mainstream educational system (of homogeneity) may have resulted in learned attitudes of rejection. For this reason, students given the option to attend an intercultural institution picture it as “useless.” A comment of this nature was: “Honestly, I wouldn’t like to learn dialects, but rather a language like English or French, which are more useful” (Female, urban high school, disagreed to identify herself as indigenous). On the other hand, many expressed that this university will be of much “use,” in the sense that they will grow in awareness of Mexico’s roots, interact with different cultures, and be sensitive towards minorities. A Náhuatl descent student expressed, “I would like to interact with people that have another way of thinking” and “I would create relationships with people of different traditions and I would learn from them” (female, urban high school, identifies herself as indigenous). Another student would like to enroll in the IUSG to not lose his Tlapaneca culture, and added that, “Mexico is also [composed of] indigenous communities and they should be respected and saved from foreign languages.” (urban high school, identifies herself as indigenous). Comments as the following also reflect these young people’s desire to keep their culture alive (in the case of indigenous students), and to learn about each other’s culture. For example, a Mixteco descent student said, “[Attending an intercultural university] will encourage my dialect not to go extinct [to disappear]” (Mixteco descent, urban high school, strongly agrees to identify himself as indigenous). A non-indigenous student expressed her desire to learn an indigenous language, saying: “I don’t speak any dialect and I would like to learn one [to]… understand… my friends” because “their dialects are what makes Mexico to be recognized, and makes us proud…” (rural/semi rural high school, strongly disagrees to identify herself as indigenous). Some students, as expressed earlier, do not consider indigenous culture, knowledge or language of much “use.” However, initiatives like the IUSG will encourage recognition and understanding as well as embrace the argumentations for intercultural education. Banks (2004) invites educators to engage in pedagogical initiatives that foster multiculturalism, through which students develop their identity and establish stronger connections with their cultural communities. In summary, one student’s comment highlights the rationale of having IUSG; he/she would like to enroll “to know about Prehispanic cultures and in this way, create a synergy
95 between the modern and the historical so they prevail over time, cultures and languages that are almost extinct.” He also said, “I will know how our ancestors lived… and it would fill the empty void that many people [have] for not knowing their culture but that now could be the right moment.” (urban high school, disagrees to identify as indigenous). Projects like IUSG might open opportunities for students to develop skills to function in a multicultural, democratic, and more just society. IUSG will allow for recognition of minorities in a Mexican context. The success of a project like the IUSG may not be determined quantitatively (i.e., massive enrollment). As this study showed, only a small percentage of students considered IUSG a relevant forum for diversity to flourish. A larger number of participants considered it more a language center or regular institution, and yet others did not consider it as an option for higher education. However, the recommendation for further planning on projects like the IUSG is to consider striving for quality, not necessarily quantity. Since these kinds of institutions are pioneering an unexplored educational alternative, the intercultural university finds strength in students who view it as a tool for cultural representation and exchange. Hopefully, the IUSG will foster the value of differences within the nation’s reality, as well as equal dignity. For without any of these, we would miss the opportunity to have unity and diversity in Mexico. References Banks, J. (1981). Multiethnic education: Theory and practice. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Banks, J. (Ed.). (1996). Multicultural education, transformative knowledge, and action: Historical and contemporary perspectives. New York: Teachers College Press. Banks, J. (Ed.). (2004). Diversity and citizenship education: Global perspectives. San Francisco: Wiley. Casillas, M. de L. (2005). Proyecto universidad intercultural. Creación de nuevas IES. Retrieved February 9, 2006 from http://eib.sep.gob.mx/files/universidad_intercultural (apertura).doc Cushner, K. (1998). Intercultural education from an international perspective. In K. Cushner (Ed.), International perspectives on intercultural education (pp. 1-13). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Educational Research Information Center. (ERIC). Thesaurus. Retrieved December 3, 2006, from http://www.eric.ed.gov. Giles, H. H. (1947). Basic purposes and problems in evaluation of intercultural education. Journal of Educational Sociology, 21(1), 12-18. Retrieved November 28, 2006, from http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0885525%28194709%2921%3A1 %3C12%3ABPAPIE%3E2.0.CO%3B2-4 Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas (CNDPI). (2006). Colocan la primera piedra de la Universidad Intercultural de Tabasco. Retrieved November 28, 2006, from http://cdi.gob.mx/index.php?id_seccion=1531 National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Data Processing (INEGI). (2000). Data of the National Census of 2000. Retrieved February 6, 2006, from http://www.inegi.gob.mx Office of Intercultural and Bilingual Education (Coordinación General de Educación Intercultural Bilíngüe, CGIEB). Retrieved February 6, 2006, from http://eib.sep.gob.mx/ Taylor, C. (1994). The politics of recognition. In A. Gutmann (Ed.), Multiculturalism (pp. 2573). Princenton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Vázquez Gómez, G. (1994). Es posible una teoría de la educación intercultural? In M. Santos Rego (Ed.), Teoría y práctica de la educación intercultural (pp. 24-41). Barcelona, Spain: Promociones y Publicaciones Universitarias, S. A.
Pilot Implementation of a Heat Illness Prevention Program in the Southeastern US Daniel J. Ruiz, Lindsey E. Eberman, Michelle A. Cleary, Brady L. Tripp Florida International University, Miami, FL Objective: To evaluate the ease of application of a heat illness prevention program (HIPP). Design: A mixed-method research design was used: questionnaire and semistructured interview. Setting: Eleven South Florida high schools in August (mean ambient temperature=84.0˚F, mean relative humidity=69.5%) participated in the HIPP. Participants: Certified Athletic Trainers (AT) (n=11; age=22.2+1.2yr; 63.6% female, 36.4% male; 63.6%) implemented the HIPP with their football athletes which included a pre-screening tool, the Heat Illness Index Score- Risk Assessment. Data Collection and Analysis: Participants completed a 17-item questionnaire, 4 of which provided space for open-ended responses. Additionally, semi-structured interviews were voice recorded, and separately transcribed. Results: Three participants (27.7%) were unable to implement the HIPP with any of their athletes. Of the 7 participants (63.6%) who implemented the HIPP to greater than 50% of their athletes, a majority reported that the HIPP was difficult (54.5%) or exceedingly difficult (18.2%) to implement. Lack of appropriate instrumentation (81.8%, n=9/11), lack of coaching staff/administrative support (54.5%, n=6/11), insufficient support staff (54.5%, n=6/11), too many athletes (45.5%, n=5/11), and financial restrictions (36.4%, n=4/11) deterred complete implementation of the HIPP. Conclusions: Because AT in the high school setting often lack the resources, time, and coaches’ support to identify risk factors, predisposing athletes to exertional heat Illnesses (EHI) researchers should develop and validate a suitable screening tool. Further, ATs charged with the health care of high school athletes should seek out prevention programs and screening tools to identify high-risk athletes and monitor athletes throughout exercise in extreme environments. Key Words: Exertional heat illness, high school football, prevention program, Heat Illness Index Score High schools students account for the largest proportion of athletes in the United States today, contributing approximately 6 million athletes from 20,000 schools.1 The National Federation of State High School Association estimates 53.5% of high school students participate in athletics.2 Evidence suggests, however, that secondary schools fail to provide adequate medical coverage from physicians, certified athletic trainers (AT), emergency medical technicians (EMT) or paramedics.3 Compared to collegiate and professional athletes, the inadequate medical coverage provided to high school athletes may lead to injuries and medical conditions going undetected and untreated. Only 10.6% of high school football games in Chicago have a physician present and only 8.5% have an AT on-site.3 In North Carolina, only 56% of private or public high schools provided medical coverage through an AT and only 27% of schools believed the coverage in place was adequate.4 Currently, high school students outnumber ATs 800:15 and it is nearly impossible to cover every game, let alone every practice. Compounding the issues caused by inadequate coverage is the frequency of injuries occurring during practice and not competition.6 The lack of medical coverage becomes alarming in sports with elevated risks for catastrophic injury such as football.1,6 Poor medical coverage during athletics concerns health care providers and parents of high school participants. The American Academy of Family Physicians recommends the employment of ATs at all secondary school
settings “as an integral part of the high school athletic program,” to help prevent and manage athletic injuries.7 Further, research also indicates that prevention can begin with the preparticipation physical examination (PPE).8 Health care professionals use PPEs to screen the large number of students participating in high school sports. PPEs help detect underlying pathologies and pre-disposing conditions which could be exacerbated with athletics.8-11 The latest research indicates that 49 states require PPEs before high school students are allowed to participate in athletics.12 Unfortunately, 78% of athletes use the PPE as their yearly check-up,11,13 which may significantly add to the care required when administering a PPE. In addition, certain states allow a variety of medical professionals the right to conduct a PPE with standards fluctuating between areas of specialization.14 Controversy exists about extending the scope of the PPE to include screening for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions.8-10 Although cardiovascular abnormalities and asthma are potential deadly conditions if not immediately detected, prevention may be beyond the scope of a sports medicine professional. Additionally, the PPE is neither sport–specific nor geographically sensitive to the environmental conditions an athlete will endure. Therefore, current PPE tests and criteria may fail to adequately detect potentially catastrophic conditions associated with football due to the rising number of participants, lack of standardized PPE forms, and the exclusion of environmental factors that lead to injury. Football places unique demands on athletes that far surpass most other sports, and increase the incidence of mild head injuries,14 cervical fractures,15 and exertional heat illnesses (EHI).16 Exertional heat illnesses commonly occur in football because of the intense training performed during the warm summer months, the protective equipment, and the chronic dehydration that occurs over the course of pre-season conditioning. Although research has improved training strategies and altered coaching philosophies, many high school coaches still practice at mid-day, and use water as a reward rather than a necessity. This lack of education creates an advantageous environment for an EHI to occur and is evident by the high number of deaths occurring in the secondary school setting.17 The tragic death of two professional football players has raised public awareness about the consequences of EHI and football. Although EHIs are preventable, risk factors may be present precipitating an EHI incident. Such risk factors include hydration status, body mass index, acclimatization, ergogenic aids, and pathophysiological conditions such as sickle cell trait.16 Recent research has demonstrated that football players report to pre-season conditioning mildly dehydrated (69 veteran football players; age= 20.1+1.2yr; body mass= 229.7+44.4lb; height= 72.2+2.1in; urine specific gravity= 1.026+0.010μg) (Minton DM, Eberman LE, Cleary MA, Emerson CC, unpublished data, August, 2006). Therefore, the National Athletic Trainers’ Association (NATA) suggests ATs should monitor weight changes, and attempt to prevent dehydration levels above 2% during the course of pre-season conditioning.16 However, few states recommend a urinalysis be performed during a PPE and it is not recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics as part of a routine screening.13 Professional organizations have sought to address the shortcoming of PPEs by publishing position statements outlining proper medical treatment and the appropriate standard of care.16 For example, the NATA published recommendations for the prevention, recognition, and treatment of EHI.16 The NATA recommends performing a physician-supervised PPE before the beginning of the season to identify athletes at risk for EHI.16 The NATA also recommends educating athletes and coaches regarding all aspects of EHI.16 Although an abundance of information is available regarding the effects of EHI on performance, little is known on how ATs
implement the recommendations prescribed by the NATA and even less is known about how effectively ATs comply with the standard of care at secondary school settings in the US. The purpose of this investigation was to implement a heat illness prevention program (HIPP) and evaluate the ease of application at a secondary school setting in the subtropical environment of South Florida. Methods Research Design We used a mixed-methods research design. We surveyed ATs after the first two weeks of preseason football practice. The data collection form used was a 17-item questionnaire, with 4 questions allowing opened ended responses. Following completion of the questionnaire, participants scheduled an individual semi-structured interview with the primary investigator. The primary investigator and secondary investigator voice recorded each interview session. The primary investigator and secondary investigator separately transcribed the interviews to ensure trustworthiness. Participants Eleven AT (age=22.2+1.2yr; 63.6% female, 36.4% male; 63.6%) were conveniently sampled to participate in implementing the HIPP at their current place of employment. All ATs were certified and licensed in the state of Florida and held graduate assistantship positions at Florida International University. All participants graduated from an accredited athletic training education program and all currently worked in a secondary school setting. The majority of participants (72.7%, n=8/11) had one year or less experience working in a subtropical environment. Instruments The HIPP is a comprehensive program designed to help athletic trainers identify and mitigate athletes at risk for developing an EHI often associated with exercise in a hot, humid environment. The HIPP is comprised of two screening forms and two reporting forms. The screening forms consist of the Initial Athlete Screen, and the Heat Illness Index Score (HIIS) Risk Assessment. The two reporting forms are the Heat Illness Incident Reporting Form and a Practitioner Evaluation form. Additional resources in the HIPP include a hydration chart, a urine color chart, and educational resources for the coaches and athletes. The primary evaluation tool within the HIPP is the HIIS, recently validated by a panel of 6 EHI experts using the Delphi survey method. After 3 rounds of revisions, 100% of the panelists reported agreeing (n=3/6) or strongly agreeing (n=3/6) with the final instrument. In addition, researchers validated the HIIS through clinical implementation. Three ATs implemented the HIIS in a pilot investigation to a team of Division I-A collegiate American football players. During this pilot investigation, investigators excluded seventeen participants (27.4%) because the athletes failed to complete all parts of the HIIS. The ATs used four indicators to identify 6 at-risk athletes: total HIIS score (14 participants, 33.3%, score>20), previous history (11 participants, 24.4%, HIIS score>2), body mass index (19 participants, 42.2%, HIIS score=4) and VO2max Run Test (27 participants, 60.0%, HIIS score=4). And, over 15 days of preseason practices, 13 incidents of EHI occurred with 61.5% (8/13) of the incidents occurred to the at-risk individuals (Eberman & Cleary, 2006, unpublished data). Procedures Researchers provided participants with a policies and procedures manual for the implementation of the HIPP as well as verbal and written directions during a brief familiarization session. Participants were then instructed to return to their high schools and implement the HIPP
to the best of their abilities. The primary investigator instructed ATs to administer the Initial Athlete Screen to the entire football team. Information from the Initial Athlete Screen aided the ATs in red flagging athletes who possessed characteristics that may predispose them to an EHI. Subsequently, the AT completed the HIIS Risk Assessment with any athlete identified as potentially at-risk. After the AT completed the HIIS with each the red flagged athlete, the AT tallied the results and allotted a score. The AT categorized the athlete as low, moderate, or high risk for developing an EHI. Following the completion of the HIIS, the score was calculated and the athlete was categorized as low, moderate, or high risk for developing an EHI. Following preseason football practices, the primary investigator asked each participant to complete a 17-item questionnaire designed to identify the ease of application of the HIPP. Participants were also asked to contribute additional feedback in a semi-structured interview to elaborate on their experience of implementing the HIPP. Statistical Analysis To analyze the quantitative responses from the HIPP Practitioner Feedback Form, we used descriptive statistics and frequencies of responses. The primary investigator and secondary investigator transcribed the responses from the open ended questions and semi-structured interviews which were voice recorded and separately transcribed with peer-checking to ensure trustworthiness. Data were analyzed using open- and closed-coding techniques. The researchers established and compared themes found within the transcribed interviews and open ended questions. Results All participants attempted to implement the HIPP in a high school setting using the athlete screen with individual follow-up. Three participants (27.7%) were unable to implement the HIPP to any athletes; however, several ATs were able to implement the HIPP to at least part of their populations. A majority of participants (81.8%, n=9/11) also reported several factors that prevented their full implementation of the HIPP (Table 1). Participants reported that implementing the HIPP was difficult (27.3%, n=3/11), exceedingly difficult (18.2%, n=2/11), or easy (18.2%, n=2/11). Further evaluation suggested that the following deterrents prevented full implementation of the HIPP: lack of appropriate instrumentation (81.8%, n=9/11), lack of coaching staff/administrative support (54.5%, n=6/11), insufficient support staff (54.5%, n=6/11), too many athletes (45.5%, n=5/11), and financial restrictions (36.4%, n=4/11). Specific sections prevented ATs from fully implementing the HIIS (Table 2) including the VO2max Run Test and obtaining urine samples. Participants reported that collection and analysis of urine was difficult: “The urine samples were difficult to collect so we resorted to utilizing the urine color chart which was very beneficial in student-athletes monitoring their hydration status.” A lack of coaching/administrative support was a common theme found in the open ended responses: “One head coach stated we did not have time to do the HIPP since the uniforms were not even given out yet.” One AT stated that “We were unable to conduct the 12 minute run as the coach indicated that the student-athletes were running the entire summer. It would not be fair to test them on it now nor did he want to take the time out of practices to implement the test.” He said he feels he does a great job of giving the athletes water breaks and keeping them hydrated.” Another theme found that deterred ATs from implementing the program was lack of time. One AT stated that the appropriate time required for a prevention program of this magnitude was an obstacle: “It’s a little time consuming… requires a lot of help… if the only one there working with your football team at a high school and you’ve got to get you team ready for practice, you don’t have time to be monitoring urine.”
Discussion The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the ease of application of the HIPP in a secondary school setting. Our results suggest that trained ATs had difficulty implementing the HIPP because of obstacles found within their employment setting. A lack of support from the administration and coaching staff suggests that football coaches are not well educated on the risks of EHI during the early days of pre-season football. Lack of additional support staff during pre-season football created a dichotomy for the role and responsibilities of a high school AT. ATs often face the challenges of prioritizing among several responsibilities, yet implementing the HIPP may have eliminated incidents of EHI. Our ATs found the lack of support provided by the coaching staff and administrative staff severely impeded the implementation of the program. Financial restrictions were also identified as an obstruction in the implementation of our prevention program. However, further education about the cost-effectiveness of preventative equipment may enlighten ATs, athletic directors, and coaching staff about how money should be allocated. Overall, ATs reported that the HIPP was difficult to implement, but more than half, (n=7/11) believed the HIPP was a practical approach to preventing EHI. Many ATs appreciated that HIPP provided greater insight into athletes’ health status before beginning pre-season football. ATs also suggested they were more aware of which athletes may be at higher risk because the HIPP required them to discuss risk factors for EHI with all their athletes. Clinical Implications Exertional heat illnesses are preventable, yet catastrophic events continue to occur in high risk environments. Coaches and school administrators have to be educated on the prevention of EHI. Athletic Trainers play a key role in the educational process and should work to reshape coaches’ common misconceptions and myths regarding EHI. For instance, it is well known that dehydration leads to the development of an EHI and maintaining fluid balance for young adults is difficult.18 However, coaches may not be aware that numerous risk factors exists that have the potential to increase the likelihood of an EHI; such as the intensity of practice, duration, schedule of fluid breaks, uniform configuration, and number of practices per day.16 All of the aforementioned are circumstances that a head coach controls but may not necessarily be aware that in combination with each other could exacerbate the chance of developing an EHI. In addition to further educating coaches and parents, and increasing the educational standards for becoming a coach could aid in the prevention of EHI. Currently, the state of Florida requires all coaches become certified in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, regardless of whether the high school has an AT or not.19 The Florida High School Association treats all sports uniformly. Research suggests that coaches can only recognize approximately 45% of practice injuries and approximately 85% of game injuries,20 clearly suggesting a need for coaching education. According to the National Youth Sports Safety Foundation, fewer than 10% of the 2.5 million volunteer coaches and 33% of interscholastic coaches have any type of formal coaching education.21 These figures are alarming when taking into consideration the amount of exposure coaches have with athletes and that the majority of injuries occur during practice times.4 Currently, the NATA,16 National Center for Sports Safety,21 and the Inter-Association Task Force on Exertional Heat Illness22 are in favor of increasing the standards for coach education and if a greater emphasis is placed on sports safety, then the possibility of reducing an EHI may be exponentially increased. Increasing awareness is a responsibility that falls on the shoulders of each AT. The NATA in cooperation with other organizations should to continue their quest to educate all individuals that are involved in
physical activity or coaching the physically active. References 1. Powell JW, Barber-Foss KD. Injury Patterns in Selected High School Sports: A review of the 1995-1997 Seasons. J Athl Train. 1999;34(3):277-284. 2. National Federation of State High School Association. NFHS 2006 high school athletics participation survey. Kansas City, MO: National Federation of State High School Associations, 2006. 3. Tonino PM, Bollier MJ. Medical supervision of high school football in Chicago: Does inadequate staffing compromise healthcare? Phys Sportmed. 2004;32(2):37-40. 4. Aukerman DF, Aukerman MM, Browning D. Medical coverage of high school athletics in North Carolina. South Med. 2006;99(2):132-136. 5. Almquist J. A secondary option: Earning a teaching certificate in addition to your ATC title can help pave the way for a rewarding career in secondary education. Train Conditioning. 2002:12(5):4. 6. Beachy G, Akau CK, Martinson M, Olderr TF. High school sports injuries: A longitudinal study at Punahou school: 1988 to 1996. AM J Sports Med. 1997;25(5):675-681. 7. American Academy of Family Physicians. Athletic trainers for high school athletes. Available at www.aafp.org/online/en/home/policy/policies/s/sports.html#Parsys0001. Accessed November 20, 2006. 8. Carek PJ, Mainous A. The preparticipation physical examination for athletics: A systematic review of current recommendations. Br Med J. 2003;327:170-173. 9. Cromer BA, Mclean SC, Heald FP. Preparticipation sports evaluation. J Adolesc Health. 1992;13:61S-65S. 10. Goldberg B, Saranti A, Witman P. Pre-participation sports assessment: An objective evaluation. Pediatrics. 1980;66:736-745. 11. Glover DW, Maron BJ. Profile of preparticipation cardiovascular screening for high school athletes. J Am Med Assoc. 1998;279:1817-1819. 12. Risser WL, Hoffman HM, Bellah GG JR. Frequency of preparticipation sports examination in secondary school athletes: Are the University Interscholastic League guidelines appropriate? Tex Med. 1985;81(7):35-39. 13. Feinstein RA, Soileau EJ, Daniel WA. A national survey of preparticipation physical examination requirements. Phys Sportmed. 1988;16(5):51-59. 14. Guskiewicz KM, Weaver NL, Padua DA, Garrett WE. Epidemiology of concussion in collegiate and high school football players. Am J Sports Med. 2000;28(5):643-650. 15. Torg JS, Guille JT, Jaffe S. Injuries to the cervical spine in American football players. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2002;84:112-122. 16. Binkley HM, Beckett J, Casa DJ, Kleiner DM, Plummer PE. National Athletic Trainers’ Association position statement: Exertional heat illnesses. J Athl Train. 2002;37(3):329-343. 17. Mueller FO, Cantu RC. Twentieth Annual Report: Fall 1982-Spring 2005: National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research, 2003. Available at http://www.unc.edu/depts/nccsi/AllSport.htm. Accessed on November 20, 2006. 18. Stover EA, Zachwieja J, Stofan J, Murray R, Horswill CA. Consistently high urine specific gravity in adolescent American football players and the impact of an acute drinking strategy. Int J Sports Med. 2006;27(4):330-335. 19. Hage P, Moore M. Medical care for athletes: What is the coach’s role? Phys Sportsmed.
1991;9(5):140-151. 20. Garrick J, Requa R. Paramedical surveillance of high school football practices and games. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1974;6:78-82 21. National Youth Sport Safety Foundation. Did You Know. Available at http://www.nyssf.org/wframeset.html. Accessed February 25, 2007. 22. Casa DJ, Almquist J, Anderson S, Cleary MA et al. Inter-association task force on exertional heat illness consensus statement. NATA News. 2003;8:24-29 Table 1. Instruments Available to ATs % Able to Access Instrument Triple Beam Physician Scale 36.4 Digital Physician Scale 9.1 Sadiometer 9.1 Tape Measure 27.3 Clinical Refroctometer 9.1 Urine Reagent Strips 9.1 Urine Color Chart 63.6 Weigh-in Chart 81.8 Sling Psychrometer 0.0 Digital Psychrometer 18.2 Specimen Cups 36.4 Access to the Internet 36.4 Table 2. HIIS Sections that deterred full implementation Section Unable to % Implement: Affected Patient History 36.4 Baseline Height 54.5 Baseline Body Mass 54.5 Urine Specific Gravity with 72.7 Clinical Refractometer Body Mass Index 63.6 VO2max Run Test 45.5 Sickle Cell Trait Test 100.0
Fashion and the Professional Image Juan M. Santelises Miami Dade College
Abstract Appearance is a growing concern in professional settings where fashion—an integral aspect of self-image—plays a vital role. This study suggests that fashion and the conceptualization of the workplace as a field of symbolic interaction may enhance or impair credibility and the way the consumer perceives career practitioners and organizations. Attire can be a critical aspect of the career-image and helps establish strong professional connections and maintain business networks (Santelises, 2004). Women who intend to create a positive workplace image need to maintain a business wardrobe (Santelises, 2006), and “dressing with appropriateness frequently seeks to tone down one’s appearance by showing regard and sensibility for others” (Post, 2004, p. 45). Communication Theory and Communication Studies articles reviewed echo the intrinsic relationship between body language, self-image, appearance, personal hygiene, and perception with regards to the professional image (Adler, 2005; Adler, 2006; Hybels & Weaver, 2007; Verderber & Verderber, 2005). The professional image should begin in the classroom—not at the workplace—bridging academe with the career practice. A new conceptualization of human resource development (HRD) should link undergraduate and graduate programs at colleges, polytechnics, and universities with the design of new career-specific curriculum and instruction that integrate professional development programs, interactive seminars, and workshops as part of academia. HRD should re-evaluate and redefine the concepts of appearance and image and, hence, how institutions gain respect and credibility from the consumer. References Adler, R. B. (2005). Communicating at work (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Companies. Adler, R. B. (2006). Understanding human communication (9th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. Hybels, S., & Weaver II, R. L. (2007). Communicating effectively (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Post, P. (2004). Etiquette (17th ed.). New York: HarperCollins Publishers. Santelises, J. (2006). [Written notes gathered from survey on business fashion and formal attire at Brooks Brothers]. Unpublished raw data. Santelises, J. (2004). [Written notes gathered from survey on women’s business attire and body adornment at Ann Taylor]. Unpublished raw data. Verderber, K. S., & Verderber, R. F. (2005). Communiate! (11th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Santelises, J. M. (2007, April). Fashion and the professional image. Poster session presented at the Sixth Annual College of Education Research Conference: Urban and International Education Section, Florida International University, Miami. http://coeweb.fiu.edu/research_conference/
Does core strength training influence kinetic efficiency, lower extremity stability, and 5000m performance in runners? Kimitake Sato, Monique Mokha Barry University, Miami Shores, FL Context: Core strength training (CST) has been popular in the fitness industry for a decade. Although strong core muscles are believed to enhance athletic performance, only few scientific studies have been conducted to identify the effectiveness of CST on improving athletic performance. Objective: Identify the effects of a 6-wk CST on running kinetics, lower extremity stability, and running performance in recreational and competitive runners. Design and Setting: A test-retest, randomized control design was used to assess the effect of CST and no CST on ground reaction force (GRF), lower extremity stability scores, and running performance. Participants: Twenty-eight healthy adults (age, 36.9+9.4yrs, height, 168.4+9.6cm, mass, 70.1+15.3kg) were recruited and randomly divided into two groups. Main outcome Measures: GRF was determined by calculating peak impact vertical GRF (vGRF), peak active vGRF, duration of the breaking or horizontal GRF (hGRF), and duration of the propulsive hGRF as measured while running across a force plate. Lower extremity stability in three directions (anterior, posterior, lateral) was assessed using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Running performance was determined by 5000 meter run measured on selected outdoor tracks. Six 2 (time) X 2 (condition) mixed-design ANOVA were used to determine if CST influences on each dependent variable, p < .05. Results: No significant interactions were found for any kinetic variables and SEBT score, p>.05. But 5000m run time showed significant interaction, p < .05. SEBT scores improved in both groups, but more in the experimental group. Conclusion: CST did not significantly influence kinetic efficiency and lower extremity stability, but did influence running performance. Key Words: core exercise, stability, running performance Core strength training (CST) is widely practiced by professionals with the goals of enhancing core stability and increasing core muscular strength, thereby improving athletic performance.1-3 It is believed among the health and fitness professionals that in order to improve athletic performance and prevent risk of injury, CST is a vital component of strength and conditioning. Limited scientific studies have been conducted to determine the effect of CST on lower extremity stability and athletic performance.1-3 Significant improvement in core strength have been documented as a result of CST.1-3 However, these same studies failed to find significant changes in lower extremity stability, mechanics, or performance.1-3 Results indicates that CST is a useful tool for strengthening core muscles, but the carryover to performance needs further investigation. In a biomechanical analysis of running, abnormal range of vertical ground reaction forces (vGRFs) and horizontal GRFs (hGRFs) have been associated with overuse injuries.4-6 Adequate stability in the lower extremity may have an important role in running efficiency, since poor stability may be linked to injuries in both athletics and daily living. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 6-weeks of CST on GRFs, lower extremity stability, and overall running performance in runners. We hypothesized that CST would have the following positive influences: (a) decrease 5000meter run time, (b) increase star excursion balance test (SEBT) scores, (c) decrease peak impact vGRF, (d) increase peak active vGRF, (e) decrease the duration of breaking hGRF, and (f) increase the duration of propulsive hGRF.
Methods Recreational and competitive runners were recruited via flyers from running clubs and running shoe stores in south Florida. An initial screening took place where potential participants were tested for core stability using the Sahrmann core stability test in accordance with Stanton et al.3 Sahrmann scores are given in levels (1-5) with 5 being the highest level of core stability. Reliability for this test has been reported between .86 and .95.3,9 Those with scores level 2 or lower were retained in the study since they would have the potential to benefit from the CST. Only one potential participant scored above level 2 and thus was omitted. Twenty-eight rear-foot striking runners (10 males, 18 females) volunteered for the study (age, 36.9+9.4yrs, height, 1.68+0.09m, mass, 70.1+15.3kg). To identify their running background, they answered specific questions about training strategies, pace, past injury history, and type of footwear used. Participants were then randomly divided into two groups; control and CST. Data were collected in a laboratory except the 5000m run which was completed at selected outdoor tracks. To determine measures of GRF, participants were asked to run across an embedded AMTI force plate (Advanced Medical Technologies, Inc., Watertown, MA) that sampled at 600Hz. After warm-up, participants performed at least two trials making left foot contact on the plate at a comfortable running speed (2.65-3.35m/s = 8-10 minutes per mile pace). If they had abnormal steps prior to reaching the force plate, the trial was discarded, and they performed another. Peak Motus software (ver. 8.2, ViconPeak, Centennial, CO) was used to reduce the kinetic variables (peak impact vGRF, peak active vGRF, breaking hGRF, propulsive hGRF) with a Fast Fourier Analysis completing the smoothing. The peak impact vGRF and the peak active vGRF were obtained at initial contact and push-off, and were normalized to body weight (BW), and averaged for the groups (Figure 1). The duration of breaking hGRF and propulsive hGRF were standardized by percentage (e.g. total foot contact time @ 0.30 secs = 0.15 secs of breaking hGRF and 0.15 secs of propulsive hGRF; thus 50% & 50%). Lower extremity stability was assessed using the SEBT according to procedures described by Gribble and Hertel8 (Figure 2) that includes a measure of leg length. The SEBT was completed barefoot on both legs. Kinzey and Armstrong recommended that the instruction and demonstration improved the reliability of the test (from .67 to .86) with practice sessions; thus, adequate practice time was provided.9 Only one trial of the 5000m run test was conducted pre- and post-6 weeks since maximal effort was expected. A 5000m run was completed at a 400m measured track. The run was done on a separate day than the laboratory test, but within seven days before and after. After warm-up, the 5000m run was timed with a stopwatch in mins and secs (e.g., 5000m = 19 min 43 sec). Temperature and humidity level were recorded for descriptive purposes. Both groups performed pre- and post-training tests in the same order. The control group was instructed to maintain their training routine and report any alterations. The experimental group received the CST program that consists of five core-related exercises performed four times per week for six weeks. The CST protocol was created based upon previous published protocols, and experts advise from doctoral-level exercise physiologists and strength and conditioning specialists. The following exercises were visually demonstrated and verbally instructed by the investigator after the pre-training test: (a) abdominal crunch on a stability ball to target abdominal muscles, (b) back extension on stability ball to target back extensor muscles, (c) supine opposite 1-arm/1-leg raise to target back/hip extensors muscles, (d) hip raise on stability ball to target back/hip extensors muscles, and (e) Russian twist on a stability ball to target abdominal muscles. In addition, the CST group received a hard copy of exercise instructions including pictures and a training log. Stability balls were provided to the CST group as this training is considered to be a home
training. They were instructed to fill out the training log after each session and were also contacted by the investigator at the end of each week to ensure adherence or answer any concerns. Each CST session took approximately 20 to 30 min. The group performed each exercise for two sets of ten repetitions during the first two weeks of the treatment period. Then, they performed each exercise for two sets of fifteen repetitions during the third and fourth week. Finally, they performed each exercise for three sets of twelve repetitions during the final two weeks of treatment period. Approximately 30 to 60 sec of rest periods were provided if desired. According to a past study1, total session volume should increase to challenge strength improvement rather than performing the same volume throughout the treatment. Therefore, this study was designed to increase the volume of exercise sessions every two weeks. All dependent variables were input into Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Six 2 x 2 (group by time) mixed-design analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures were performed to determine any significant effect of CST on the dependent variables: (a) peak impact vGRF, (b) peak active vGRF, (c) duration of breaking hGRF, (d) duration of propulsive hGRF, (e) the scores of the SEBT, and (f) 5000m run time. Significance was defined as p < 0.05. Results Twenty participants (n con=8, n exp=12) completed the study (n con: age 39.25 + 10.81yrs, height 1.67 + 0.84m, mass 63.03 + 12.02kg; n exp: age 37.75 + 10.63yrs, height 1.67 + 0.10m, mass 75.95 + 16.89kg). Table 1 depicts the mean and standard deviations of the dependent variables of both groups pre- and post-training. There was a significant interaction in 5000m run time (F(1,18)= 56.09, p<.05). CST had no significant influence on SEBT scores, or any aspects of the GRF variables. However, SEBT scores did show greater improvements in the CST group (n exp: + 21.92cm, n con: + 10.25cm). Discussion and Conclusion We sought to determine the influence of CST on running kinetics, lower extremity stability, and performance in runners. Results supported the hypothesis that CST would improve 5000m run time; however, there was no significant effect on the SEBT or kinetic variables. Times significantly decreased in the 5000m run in the CST group. This is a positive outcome, and the first finding that shows CST affects performance. Weather conditions may have affected the times (pre=860 F, 64% humidity; post=730 F, 58% humidity). Conditions for maximal running effort were better at the post-test. SEBT scores improved in the both groups possibly from a test-retest effect. However, the CST group did show greater improvement (n exp: +21.92cm; n con: +10.25cm). Better SEBT scores indicate enhanced dynamic stability. Peak active vGRF changes were minimal in both groups (n con: +0.03BW, n exp: +0.01BW differences). Large active forces negatively affect runners, putting high pressure to the midfoot and forefoot. When a foot lands in front of the body while running (which often happens at downhill running and faster running velocity), it leads to longer duration of breaking hGRF because the body becomes more stiff to accept greater foot impact.5 Reducing the duration of breaking hGRF and increasing the duration of propulsive hGRF would help carry forward momentum. Our results showed no significant effect, with both groups’ increasing in duration of breaking forces (n con: +1.37%, n exp: +2.03%) and decreasing the duration of propulsive forces (n con: -1.37%, n exp: -3.45%). One limitation that may have affected the results was the group differences (body mass and typical running pace) due to the randomized selection. In average, the control group weighted more and typical running pace was slower. Another limitation was the change in running velocity at GRF tests. During the GRF test, running velocity was not controlled (it was a self-selected pace). Although the participants were instructed not to
change running speed while crossing the force plate, the running speed was varied between the pre- and post-training GRF tests (n con: pre-test 2.99m/s, post-test, 3.08m/s; n exp: pre-test 2.64m/s, post-test 2.81m/s). Thus, it is questionable to compare changes in kinetic variables to past studies.4-6 Further control in consistent running velocity may be required by using a treadmill. We chose not to use a treadmill since treadmill running mechanics have been found to differ from actual ground running. It is also possible that the training frequency and duration were not enough to elicit the hypothesized effects. CST is considered a vital component of the strength and conditioning as well as rehabilitation, but only limited studies were conducted to reveal the true effects of the CST.1-3 The core strength related studies can be approached not only in the athletic population, but also in the general population who suffer pain and injuries which relate to postural alignment.
Peak active vGRF Peak impact vGRF Propulsive hGRF Breaking hGRF
Figure 1: Kinetic variables of ground reaction forces
Figure 2: Star Excursion Balance Test
Table 1. Summary of the descriptive results with significance. n exp = 12 n con = 8 Pre post dif pre post dif Impact 1.65 + 0.38 1.74 + 0.46 +0.09 1.99 + 0.38 1.89 + 0.24 -0.10 vGRF: BW Active 2.30 + 0.36 2.31 + 0.42 +0.01 2.49 + 0.26 2.52 + 0.24 +0.03 vGRF: BW Breaking 47.30 + 5.91 49.33 + 6.81 +2.03 53.11 + 4.77 54.48 + 4.76 +1.37 hGRF: % *** Propulsive 52.70 + 5.92 49.25 + 6.70 -3.45 46.89 + 4.77 45.52 + 4.57 -1.37 hGRF: % *** SEBT:cm 198.75+26.70 220.67+26.90 +21.9 199.13+26.34 209.38+26.89 +10.2 5 ** 5000m 29:29 + 2:38 28:42 + 2:23 -0:47 26:30 + 1:59 26:13 + 1:54 -0:17 run: min:sec * Note. * denote significant interaction, p < .05, ** denote significant main effect: training, p > .05, *** denote significant main effect: group, p > .05. References 1. Cosio-Lima LM, Reynolds KL, Winter C, Paolone V, Jones MT. Effects of physioball and conventional floor exercises on early phase adaptations in back and abdominal core stability and balance in women. J Strength Cond Res. 2003;17(4):721–5. 2. Scibek JS, Guskiewicz KM, Prentice WE, Mays S, Davis JM. The effects of core stabilization training on functional performance in swimming. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. 2001. 3. Stanton R, Reaburn PR, Humphries B. The effects of short-term swiss ball training on core stability and running economy. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18(3):522–8. 4. Bus SA. Ground reaction forces and kinematics in distance running in older-aged men. Med Sci Sport Exer. 2003;35:1167–75. 5. Gottschall JS, Kram R. Ground reaction forces during downhill and uphill running. J Biomech. 2005;38:445–52. 6. Hreljac A. Impact and overuse injuries in runners. Med Sci Sport Exer. 2004;36(5):845–9. 7. Olmsted LC, Carcia CR, Hertel J, Shultz SJ. Efficacy of the star excursion balance tests in detecting reach deficits in subjects with chronic ankle instability. J Athl Train. 2002;37:501–6. 8. Gribble PH, Hertel J. Considerations for normalizing measures of the star excursion balance test. Meas Phys Educ Exer Sci. 2003;7(2):89–100.
Mentor in the Third Age: A Learning Perspective Rehana Seepersad and Marlyn Bailey-Watson Florida International University, USA Abstract: Older adults can bring decades of knowledge and expertise to the mentoring table. We explore where older adults serve as mentors and the educational benefits they derive from mentoring, in light of prejudices ascribed through ageism. As mentors, older adults can remain engaged and continue to find meaning beyond retirement. Prejudice based on age, or ageism, is a socially-condoned and institutionalized form of bias in the United States (Nelson, 2005). This “dislike of aging and older people [is] based on the belief that aging makes people unattractive, unintelligent, asexual, unemployable, and senile” (Atchley, 1991, p. 291). Stereotypes stemming from ageism can be detrimental to the psychological, social and physiological well-being of older adults. We tend to marginalize, institutionalize, and strip older adults of responsibility, power, and ultimately dignity (Nelson, 2002). Appearance and clothing, television commercials, and individual behaviors perpetuate ageism, societal attitudes and negative stereotypes towards older adults (Skinner & Chowdhary, 1998). Despite negative stereotypes, adults in the third age are now taking advantage of educational opportunities, changing careers, and seeking developmental avenues to positively influence the lives of others (Weiss & Gomperts, 2005). The third age is described as adults around age 55 “post-work… [who are] no longer primarily involved in earning a living or with major family responsibilities,” (Withnall, 2000, p. 1) and in the process of making decisions regarding future working life (Rocco, Stein & Lee, 2003). Purposeful involvement which frequently occurs at the community level (Karpiak, 1992) extends older adults’ ability to continue to learn, to be creative, and to fill leadership roles. When individuals in the third age become mentors they may, through the exchange of knowledge, remain engaged in learning while continuing to serve society. We believe that older adults, being experienced and knowledgeable, can serve as excellent mentors to others. Mentoring occurs when a more experienced person, or mentor, supports and guides another, the protégé (Levinson, Darrow, Klein, Levinson & McKee, 1978). It is a learning relationship that develops knowledge and empowerment. As mentors, older adults bring decades of knowledge and expertise to the mentoring table, empowering both mentor and protégé through the exchange of knowledge. The protégés can connect this knowledge to new information and skills and construct meaning for themselves by interacting with the mentor (Kerka, 1998). The mentor, through interaction with the mentee or protégé, becomes a catalyst for learning, through engagement, loving care, and societal contributions (Bennetts, 2001; Erikson, 1980). We believe that older adults who serve as mentors can find positive educational benefits from interaction with protégés and others involved in the mentoring relationship. We explore situations where older adults serve as mentors, whether they benefit from the mentoring relationship, and implications to adults in the third age. The paper will be organized into four main sections: conceptual framework, method, discussion, and implications. First is the conceptual framework, which shows the constructivist aspects of mentoring. Second is the method section, which describes the processes used to conduct database searches into mentoring Seepersad, R., & Bailey-Watson, M. (2007). Mentor in the third age: A learning perspective. In S. M. Nielsen & M. S. Plakhotnik (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Annual College of Education Research Conference: Urban and International Education Section (pp. 96-101). Miami: Florida International University. http://coeweb.fiu.edu/research_conference/
97 among older adults. Third is discussion, showing where older adults serve as mentors, and whether they benefit from doing so. Finally, we present implications on mentoring in the third age. Conceptual Framework As a social and reciprocal relationship, mentoring provides a learning mechanism, personally, professionally and psychologically, for those involved (Golian & Galbraith, 1996). Mentors and protégés learn from each other through close interaction. The networking, counseling, guiding, instructing and modeling (ibid., 1996, p. 100) that occur in mentoring relationships enable learning. Such learning is guided by constructivist thought wherein “learning means constructing, creating, inventing and developing our own knowledge” (Campbell & Brummett, 2007, p. 50) through relational interaction with others. Piaget’s constructivism (1950) describes internalization of knowledge through accommodation, where we reframe what we already know, and assimilation, wherein we align new learning, within our existing frameworks. As older adults interact with others, they have the opportunity to gainfully apply previous experiences and knowledge. Combining existing knowledge with other information, they can learn from the mentoring relationship to construct meaning. In constructivist theory, learning is most effective when new knowledge and skills are combined with existing knowledge, within the context of interaction with others (Kerka, 1997). Method AgeLine, ERIC, ABI Inform Global, and OmniFile Full Text Mega were selected because a preliminary search showed that these databases contained extant literature on mentoring, engagement of older adults and ageism. Since older adults are involved as mentors across education, business, and interdisciplinary fields, these databases were selected as sources that contained literature on mentoring in those fields. The key descriptor of mentor was included in every search since the focus of this paper is mentoring, and our goal is to explore mentoring as a benefit to older adults. Additional descriptors of older people, older adults, learning, retired, and volunteers were then searched using various combinations, to identify all possible avenues where older adults serve as mentors. Titles were scanned for initial relevance to mentoring and older adults, and abstracts from articles supporting our research, based on availability of our key descriptors, were read. This produced a list of records that were then read for details on mentors; articles not specific to older adults serving as mentors were eliminated. Articles were then sorted into education, business and healthcare, being three broad categories which emerged, showing older adults serving as mentors. Additional articles were obtained using Internet searches for information representative of multiple organizations invested in aging, elderly, gerontology, older adults, generational and retiree information and development. This approach allowed us to expand our search to private and public organizations to further explore avenues where older adults serve as mentors. Discussion Where Older Adults Serve As Mentors Older adults constitute 81% of mentors in the United States, serving primarily in education, business, and healthcare (Greene, 2005; O’Connor, 2006; Thompson, 2005). Children, young adults, employees, and even other older adults become protégés, in productive and beneficial mentoring relationships, both formal--created and maintained as a corporate function, and informal--not as function of an organization (Kent, 2001). Volunteers aged 65 and above averaged 96 hours annually on activities such as mentoring and counseling (Division of
98 Labor Force Statistics, 2005). Practitioners, researchers, and foundations are both formally and informally engaging older adults as mentors. Mentoring in education. Retired teachers served as mentors to beginning teachers and helped them improve teaching performance by explaining students’ behaviors, by sharing technical skills, and by inducting them into the social system of schools (Azzara, 2001). This support, up to two years in some cases, helped to reduce attrition among new teachers. School principals and other administrators also benefited from retiree mentors (Goddard, Habermann & Reimer, 2001) who guided them on administrative and instructional practices. Retired adult mentors were matched with young adults enduring crisis periods including the danger of dropping out of school (Freedman & Jaffe, 1993). A four-year research study of this group found some dissatisfaction with interaction styles, content and timing of the mentoring relationships, although where content and timing were youth-driven however, there was greater satisfaction (Styles & Marrow, 1992). In another instance, older adults who were paired with inner city kids, teenage mothers, youth offenders and other kids who dropped out of school worked with them to forge powerful bonds, and became gainfully occupied while doing so. The youngsters reported that elders helped them “weather potentially debilitating crises,” bolstered their stability and sense of competence, and became advocates on their behalf (Quinn, 1990, p. 5). Mentoring in business. Businesses benefit from older workers’ high levels of loyalty, attendance, and morale, commitment, flexibility in scheduling, skills, and experience (Crampton, Hodge & Mishra, 1996). Mentoring is a beneficial way to retain such employees and attract new employees who may have retired earlier on, whether voluntarily or involuntarily. Young entrepreneurs in business are turning to older parents, teachers and colleagues as mentors who can share experience (Poe & Couter, 2000). Employees with mentor support reach the executive level an average of two years earlier than counterparts without such help (Kent, 2001). Through paid sabbaticals, flexible work schedules and even phased retirement, corporations might encourage older workers to remain gainfully engaged as mentors (Rocco et al., 2003). Mentoring in health care. In another study, medical students who discussed health care challenges and integrated classroom material into clinical settings through pairings with healthy elderly individuals gained valuable experiences not found in school (Huang, Thornhill, Roberts, Hajjar, Richeson. & Eleazer, 2004). A Canadian study found that 71% of older adults sought input from peer seniors on how to stay healthy while aging (Ellis, 1995). As many as 67% wanted trained older adult volunteers to help them to cope with specific diseases and 64% would use the services of trained peer counselors and exercise group leaders (Ellis, 1995). Healthrelated agencies and organizations were willing to use trained older adults as volunteer mentors and counselors even though no other programs used older adults in these roles (Ellis, 1995). How Older Adults Benefit from Mentoring Older adult mentors who are assimilated into organizations or teams find social interaction, encouragement and support through increased involvement and active participation in the development of others (Kent, 2001). Active participation encourages productivity and involvement, enhances self-esteem, transfers knowledge, skills, and values, and stimulates learning. It also helps mitigate the negative effects of physical and psychological problems often experienced after retirement (Generations United, 2002). Mentors’ self esteem is enhanced when they become role models and can support and help build a high-performance culture among peers, new employees and children.
99 Intergenerational mentoring programs support developmental needs of young adults (VanderVen, 2004) since they benefit from the experience and the emotional support of older adult mentors. The nurturing, attention, social and life skills, practical skills (especially in reading and math), and the opportunity to learn about other age groups (Dubois, Holloway, Valentine & Cooper, 2002) are also benefits. These exchanges enhance reciprocity between generations where knowledge and care extends across age groups and cohorts (Cornman & Kingson, 1998–99). Through effective communication, active listening skills, compassion and understanding, mentors help protégés resolve stressful situations and problems (Paraprofessional Healthcare Institute, 2003), while remaining engaged, active and useful. Implications Improved health and increased longevity have increased the amount of time older adults have to devote to new pursuits (Rogers & Taylor, 1997). Enhanced community life and lifelong learning have also improved the quality of life and well-being of older adults. As mentors, they can stay engaged as active learners and teachers and can contribute to society, yet few existing public policies encourage intergenerational partnerships. Instead of retiring completely, many older adults prefer to work part-time as mentors or as volunteers (AARP, 2003) to connect with and to assist others (Rowland, Lederhouse & Satterfield, 2004). Sixty million Americans are currently over age 55, and the growth rate of those 60 and over is expected to remain above average (Weiss & Gomperts, 2005). Earlier predictions estimated that by 2025, America will have over 82 million adults age 60 and over (U.S. Census Bureau, 2002). These “older adults constitute the healthiest…and best-educated American generation ever” (Weiss & Gomperts, 2005, p. 22). Retirement frees up 25 hours a week for men and 18 hours a week for women; about 6 to 14 million older retired Americans currently seek part-time volunteer opportunities—without success (Henkin & Taylor, 2006). For a majority of adults, sharing knowledge and learning new things are vital (Rowland et al., 2004). Specific goals, action plans and structure are needed (Wild & O’Sullivan, 2003) within all mentoring activities. Teaching and learning strategies can be used to increase mentors’ and protégés’ competence in communication skills and styles, and to encourage engagement through formal and informal mentoring (Rowland et al., 2004). Since each mentor and protégé has different values, emotions, and identities, there is scope for deeper levels of interpersonal development from advising, counseling, planning and decision making (Kerka, 1997). Older adults can gain greater satisfaction, increased health and psychological benefits, by remaining actively engaged as mentors, by interacting and by supporting others (Freedman & Jaffe, 1993). Mentoring programs can fully utilize the knowledge, skills, time, love, care and commitment that many older adults are eager to share while they renew positive emotions, learn and construct meaning in their lives. References AARP. (2003). Multicultural community service survey. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved November 11, 2006 from http://www.aarp.org/research/press-center Atchley, R. C. (1991). Social forces and aging (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Azzara, J. R. (2001). Ecstasy or emptiness? Reflections of a retired school principal. Principal, 80(5), 33-35. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ627876) Bennetts, C. (2001). Lifelong learners: In their own words. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 20(4), 272-288. Campbell, M. R., & Brummett, V. M. (2007). Mentoring preservice teachers for development and growth of professional knowledge. Music Educators Journal, 93(3), 50.
100 Cornman, J., & Kingson, E. R. (1998/99). What is a social compact? How would we know one if we saw it? Yes, John, there is a social compact. Generations, 22(4), 10–14. Crampton, S., Hodge, J., & Mishra, J. (1996). Transition--ready or not: The aging of America’s workforce. Public Personnel Management, 25(2), 243-257. Division of Labor Force Statistics. (2005). Volunteering in the United States, 2005. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved December 3, 2006, from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/volun.nr0.htm Dubois, D. L., Holloway, B. E., Valentine, J. C., & Cooper, H. (2002). Effectiveness of mentoring programs for youth: A meta-analytic review. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30(2),157–197. Ellis, C. (1995). Seniors serving seniors: Volunteers promoting healthy aging project. Feasibility Study Report. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED402449) Erikson, E. H. (1980). Identity and the life cycle. New York: W. W. Norton. Freedman, M., & Jaffe, N. (1993). Elder mentors: Giving schools a hand. NASSP Bulletin, 76(549), 22-28. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ457249) Galbraith, M. W. (2003). Celebrating mentoring. Adult Learning, 14(1), 2. Generations United. (2002). The benefits of intergenerational program, fact sheet. Washington, DC: Generations United. Retrieved November 4, 2006, from http://ipath.gu.org/documents/A0/Benefits_IG_Programs.pdf Greene, K. (2005, December 25). Baby boomers as tomorrow's volunteers. Wall Street Journal, p. 2. Glod, M. (2006, February 21). Wisdom, knowledge of elders stream into area classrooms; students, seniors benefit from volunteer programs. The Washington Post, p. B.01. Goddard, J., Habermann, T., & Reimer, S. (2001). Accessing the knowledge base of retired teachers: Experiences in establishing a formal mentoring program in a rural school division. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 17(2), 92-101. Golian, L. M., & Galbraith, M. W. (1996). Effective mentoring programs for professional library development. In D. E. Williams & E. D. Garten (Eds.), Advances in library administration and development (pp. 95-124). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Hanna, G. (2006). Focus on creativity and aging in the United States. Generations, 30(1), 47. Henkin, N. Z., & Taylor, A. (2006). Intergenerational strategies series powerful allies: Mobilizing older adults to build strong communities. Retrieved Nov 4, 2006 from http://www.aecf.org/initiatives/mc/readingroom/documents/PowerfulAllies.pdf Huang, T., Thornhill. J., Roberts. E., Hajjar. S. C. I., Richeson. N., & Eleazer, G. (2004). Seniors as teachers: The senior mentor program. The Gerontologist, 44(1), 302. Karpiak, I. E. (1992). Beyond competence: continuing education and the evolving self. Supplement au Travailler Social, 60(1), 53–57. Kent, S. (2001). Mentoring: An age old idea whose time has come. The Canadian Manager, 26(4), 24. Kerka, S. (1998). New perspectives on mentoring. ERIC Digest 194. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED418249) Kerka, S. (1997). Constructivism, workplace learning, and vocational education. ERIC Digest No. 181. Columbus: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service ED407573) Larkin, E., Sadler, S., & Mahler, J. (2003). Benefits of volunteering for older adults mentoring at-risk youth. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 44(3/4), 23-37.
101 Levinson, D., Darrow, C., Klein E., Levinson, M., & McKee, B. (1978). The seasons of a man’s life. New York, NY: Knopf. Merriam, S., & Caffarella, R. (1999). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide (2nd ed., pp. 235-236). San Francisco: Jossey- Bass. Nelson, T. D. (Ed.). (2002). Ageism: Stereotyping and prejudice against older adults. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Nelson T. D. (2005). Ageism: Prejudice against our feared future self. Journal of Social Issues, California State University, 61(2), 207-221. O’Connor, R. (2006). Mentoring in America 2005: A snapshot of the current state of mentoring. Retrieved December 3, 2006 from http://www.mentoring.org/leaders/files/pollreport.pdf Paraprofessional Healthcare Institute. (2003). Introducing peer mentoring in long-term care settings. Workforce Strategies, No. 2, Paraprofessional Healthcare Institute, Bronx, NY. Piaget, J. (1950). The psychology of intelligence. New York: Routledge. Poe, R., & Couter, C. (2000). Fast forward me: young CEOs are turning to older adults as mentors. Across the Board, 5(9). Quinn, T. (1990). Listening for answers: Shaping programs that work. Nonprofit World, 8(5), 16. Rocco, T. S., Stein, D., & Lee, C. (2003). An exploratory examination of the literature on age and HRD policy development. Human Resource Development Review, 2(2), 155-180. Rogers, A. & Taylor, A. (1997). Intergenerational mentoring: A viable strategy for meeting the needs of vulnerable youth. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, (28) 128-140. Rowland, G., Lederhous, A., & Satterfield, D. (2004). Powerful learning experiences within coherent learner groups. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 17(2), 46. S. Rep. No. 107-12 at 32 (2001). Our greatest generation: Continuing a lifetime of service. Hearing before the Special Committee on Ageing. United States Senate, 107th Congress, First Session. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 467879) Skinner, S. L., & Chowdhary, U. (1998). Testing the myths of aging stereotyping: Reflection through clothing an appearance related information in compendium. Educational Gerontology, 24, 175-190. Styles, M. B., & Morrow, K. V. (1992). Understanding how youth and elders form relationships: A study of four linking lifetimes programs. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED348425) Thompson, L. (2005). The EQUAL project. Working With Older People, 9(4), 35. US Census Bureau. (2002). Aging in the Americas into the XXI century. PAHO/WHO National Institute on Aging, Bureau of the Census. Retrieved Nov 4, 2006 from http://www.census.gov/ipc/prod/ageame.pdf VanderVen, K. (2004). Adults are still needed! Intergenerational and mentoring activities. Reclaiming children and youth. The Journal of Strength-based Interventions, 13(2), 94. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ725749) Weiss, S. C., & Gomperts, J. S. (2005). The value of experience. Educational Leadership, 62(6), 22-7. Wild, R., & O’Sullivan, S. (2003). Great jobs. AARP The Magazine, 46(6A), 45-48. Withnall, A. (2000). The debate continues: Integrating educational gerontology and life long learning. In F. Glendenning (Ed.) Teaching and learning in later life: Theoretical implications. (pp. 87-98) Aldershot, England: Ashgate.
Cross-Cultural Mentoring: Exploration through the Lens of African American Students Rehana Seepersad, Kimberly Hagood-Elliott, Kathy-Ann Lewis, and Samantha L. Strickland Florida International University, USA Abstract: Culture, trust and prejudice may impact cross-cultural mentoring relationships among African American students attending colleges in the United States. By recognizing the cultural perceptions and differences that exist, mentors and protégés may develop a better understanding of each other’s culture so as to enhance mentoring outcomes and student success. Proponents of diversity in the 1980s argued that “only through an education that emphasized diversity could individuals understand the world, recognize inequities, and gain the tools needed to remedy those inequities” (Baez, 2000, p. 44). Cross-cultural mentoring in academe is one such tool that can promote the exploration of freedom, to cross cultural boundaries and affirm ethnic identities (Cotton, 1993). Cross-cultural mentoring occurs when diverse cultures including Asians, Pacific Islanders, Hispanics, African Americans or Whites serve as mentors to students of other cultures. Today’s culturally pluralistic institutions require mentors who can identify with and understand the needs of all students. Cultural pluralism has emerged during the last two decades; Asians and Pacific Islanders accounted for 7% of college enrollment, African American students for 14%, and Hispanic enrollment, 9% in 2000 (US Census Bureau, 2005). This shift requires that support systems, including mentorships specifically, within university settings become socially inclusive so as to equitably increase enrollment and success of all students. Comprehensive enrollment and graduation rates, unfortunately, are not recorded for all the aforementioned groups at this time. Data shows, however, that racial/ethnic composition of the freshman cohort at US baccalaureate institutions in 1998 was 72% White, 11% African American, 6% each Hispanic and Asian, and 1% American Indian students (NCES, 2006). The difference in graduation rates between White and African American students was 18 percentage points and between White and Hispanic students, approximately 12 percentage points (NCSE, 2006). These disparities make us question whether stronger support for minority cultural groups may encourage higher college enrollment and success rates. Mentoring may be considered one form of support that can benefit these cultural groups. Mentoring occurs when more knowledgeable and experienced individuals assist the development and growth of others (Caffarella, 1992). Mentees, also known as protégés, benefit from mentors’ knowledge, contacts, support, and guidance and also find internal value from interpersonal dialogue, collaborative critical thinking, planning, reflection, and feedback (Galbraith & Cohen, 1995). “The idea of learning as a transaction--an interactive and evolving process between mentors and adult learners--is considered a fundamental component of the adult mentoring relationship” (ibid., p. 17). We contend that in cross-cultural mentoring, where mentors of one culture support mentees of a different culture, the outcomes of the mentoring relationship may differ because of variations in socio-cultural dynamics. These dynamics reflect specific values, beliefs, norms, and even negative behaviors or attitudes that can affect academic achievement of cultural groups (Van Den Berg & Crisp, 2004). The purpose of this paper is to explore cross-cultural mentoring of African Americans students, toward identifying the factors that need to be understood, so as to Seepersad, R., Hagood-Elliott, K., Lewis, K., & Strickland, S. L. (2007). Cross-cultural mentoring: Exploration through the lens of African American students. In S. M. Nielsen & M. S. Plakhotnik (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Annual College of Education Research Conference: Urban and International Education Section (pp. 102-107). Miami: Florida International University. http://coeweb.fiu.edu/research_conference/
103 enhance cross-cultural mentoring relationships in higher education. African American students refer to those of African descent, who are born in the Western hemisphere and are United States citizens. This study will serve as a foundation for further inquiry into cross-cultural mentoring in light of increasing diversity in US colleges. Research questions are: What are the cultural factors that may impact cross-cultural mentoring of African American students? Do prejudicial attitudes arise within cross-cultural mentoring relationships? The paper will be organized into four main sections: conceptual framework, method, discussion and implications. First, we present the conceptual framework which explores the sociocultural, constructivist and transformative dynamics of cross-cultural mentoring. Second is the method section, which describes the process used to obtain research for this paper. Third is discussion on cultural factors, perceptions, trust and prejudicial attitudes as they impact cross-cultural mentoring. Finally, we present implications into cross-cultural mentoring within multi-ethnic academic climates. Conceptual Framework Collaborative learning by way of mentoring is grounded in socio-cultural and socioconstructive theories through interactions among peers, experts, and teachers, i.e., physical contexts (Shi, Mishra & Bonk, 2004). Through assimilation and accommodation, mentors and protégés connect their experiences and create new knowledge (Jonassen, 1996). They also try new ideas, skills, and roles with minimal risk (Kaye & Jacobson, 1996). The psycho-social function is the internal value of ongoing interpersonal dialogue, collaborative critical thinking, planning, reflection, and feedback (Galbraith & Cohen, 1995). According to constructivist theory, learning is most effective when situated in a context where new knowledge and skills may be used so that individuals may construct meaning for themselves, within the context of interaction with others (Kerka, 1998). The cross-racial mentoring relationship departs from an isolated individual self, toward an interactional process where human beings experience a primary need for connection with others (Beyene, Anglin, Sanchez, & Ballou, 2002). Through a transformative learning approach, the mentor can facilitate emancipatory learning, by challenging, stimulating, and provoking critical thinking, to help the mentee become aware of any limiting habits of mind, values or actions (Cranton, 2002). Personal agency, the “freedom of adults to act toward their own growth and development” (Clark, 1993, p. 50), enables the mentee to feel empowered while maintaining his/her autonomy. Effective mentors, empathetic to mentees’ challenges, can enhance learning by helping the mentee find ways to overcome personal resistance emanating from unconscious, internalized dimensions, lack of empowerment and feelings of inequity. A harmonious, cross-cultural mentoring relationship, achieved through mutuality within common interests, will enable the mentee’s academic, and personal and professional success (Levinson, Darrow, Klein, Levinson, & McKee, 1978). Method A preliminary search for literature was conducted through educational (ERIC), and interdisciplinary (Proquest and OmniFile Full Text Mega) databases using the keywords mentor and culture. These two key words allowed us to source a wide range of articles related to our main concept of mentoring and culture, without narrowing the search too closely around the key terms in our research questions. We found 120 articles in ERIC, 65 from Proquest and 540 articles from OmniFile Full Text Mega. The titles and abstracts from these papers were then scanned for frequently recurring terms including African American, cross-cultural mentoring, culture, attitudes, and perceptions, which were chosen because they were directly related to our
104 research questions. Papers that provided insight into mentoring involving African Americans, cross-cultural mentoring, culture, attitudes, and perceptions were then read and used to develop this literature review. Articles with discussion on multicultural groups were also read since they supported discussion within this paper. Discussion Cultural Factors Surrounding Cross-Cultural Mentoring of African American Students African American college students are often first generation, the first in their family to attend college. They frequently experience difficulties when confronted with cultural values and norms that contradict their own, and can benefit from the guidance of a mentor in these instances (Galbraith & Cohen, 1995). Culture clash occurs when socialization within another’s culture is absent, therefore constraining the thinking, behaviors and beliefs of persons who may have been exposed to a “limited repertoire of practices, views and expectations” (Cleminson & Bradford, 1996, p. 255). Through a strongly developmental relationship (Galbraith & Cohen, 1995) mentor and mentee can explore cultural experiences from each other’s point of view, and can develop a stronger understanding of each other’s needs and expectations. African American women experience an even harder time because of their “double minority status” (Jackson, 1996, p. 4) since being African American and being female pose a greater difficulty within the college environment. African American women typically prefer other African American women as mentors and as mentees (Jackson, 1996). Unfortunately, there are a limited number of African American women faculty in higher education, stemming from discord surrounding affirmative action and recruitment and retention of faculty of color (Cross & Lincoln, 2005). This, therefore, reduces the probability of African American mentees finding a mentor who understands the “hidden injuries” of race as well as the “hidden injuries” of gender (ibid., p. 45). Perceptions. Mentors in cross-cultural mentoring relationships should recognize that their perspectives may differ socially and culturally from the mentee. This divide exists between the “haves” and “have-nots”; a mere 11% of students come from families in the lowest income quartile (about $27,000 a year and under) and only 6% are first generation students (Merisotis, 2005) who may not readily accept support when they feel inferior. It is perceived by some cultures that social power is diminished when the culture and social standing of others is considered superior. Internalized perceptions of those who consider themselves inferior because of social standing, cultural and racial perceptions, and gender disparities in college settings require mentoring relationships built upon solid foundations of trust, understanding and respect. Trust. Within the cross-cultural mentor-protégé relationship, a lack of trust may arise from historical and cultural biases, racial taboos, latent hostilities, and societal protocols (Bailey & Cervero, 2002; Lynch, 2002). Such feelings originated with the ancestors of today’s African Americans, but fragments of the powerlessness they felt when they were enslaved have remained and have been deeply internalized (Foucault, 1980). Emotions stemming from trust or mistrust first need to be explored so that both mentor and mentee can find common ground, where cultural similarities and differences, and the proximal causes of those differences, must first be established (Dyal, 1984). Any resulting doubt or suspicion, or lack of confidence in the other, will negatively impact the relationship between mentors and mentees, their status, rights and duties to each other (Rusbult, Martz, & Agnew, 1998). The lack of trust brings misunderstanding, misinterpretation, and possibilities of offending others based on potentially false assumptions. Trust provides an underlying sense of interpersonal comfort and can be described as a feeling that arises when we can interact freely without fear of repercussions (Rusbult et al.,
105 1998). Without this interpersonal comfort, the mentoring relationship will continue to be undermined by suppressed emotions. Trust is therefore a necessary ingredient for learning within multi-cultural adult education contexts (Barlas, 2001). Trust encourages learners to question what they believe to be true, to affirm their and others’ thoughts and actions (Barlas, 2001) and to be proactive in addressing insecurities, while continuing to learn. Trust becomes a cathartic connection as it strengthens the mentoring bond (Gasman, Gerstl-Pepin, Anderson-Thompkins, Rasheed, & Hathawa, 2004). Prejudicial Attitudes that Arise Within Cross-Cultural Mentoring Relationships Prejudice is defined as “an aversive or hostile attitude toward a person who belongs to a group, simply because he belongs to that group, and is therefore presumed to have the objectionable qualities ascribed to the group” (Allport, 1954, p. 8). African Americans often feel “stereotyped and perceived as unintelligent, unmotivated, and unable of succeeding” in the higher education environment (Lynch, 2002, p. 8). Prejudicial feelings or presumptions about African Americans, which may be rooted in historical biases, can evoke feelings of mistrust, and undermine the mentoring relationship. These feelings can cause African Americans to remain on the “periphery of the educational experience” (ibid., 2002, p. 8). Knowledge of existing prejudices among cultural groups can help the mentor differentiate between honest and prejudicial actions, reactions or comments. By addressing and confronting personal prejudice, the mentor helps to remove any mental barriers that African American students may have constructed to protect themselves from ridicule, jealousy and racism (Gasman et al., 2004). Mentors may often believe that mentees’ behaviors in educational settings indicate indifference or stereotypical presumptions surrounding the mentor. For instance, many believe that African Americans are accepted into educational programs as token African Americans who boost minority statistics and fulfill funding requirements. This is frequently interpreted as African Americans being less intelligent, poor, and dependent on a dominant culture for academic enlightenment. These assumptions may negatively affect the mentoring relationship. Implications Culturally biased events on college campuses and within society in general, publicized via the media, expand the divide between mentors and their potential or respective mentees (Beyene et. al., 2002). Cultural perceptions can create biased assumptions from either side of the mentoring relationship. Empathy, developed through mutual understanding and respect, enables mentors and protégés to become more trusting and supportive (Jordan, 1997, p. 20). Deeper dialogues into culturally relevant education can inspire and motivate African American mentees toward persistence within a more inclusive and transformational mentoring environment, where participants can learn, grow and succeed. Although there is support for same sex, same race mentoring relationships (Casto, Caldwell, & Salazar, 2005; Szelenyi, 2001; Thomas, Bierema, & Landau, 2004), mentoring amid diverse cultures encourages awareness and acceptance of others (Galbraith & Cohen, 1995). A homogenous approach to mentorship, which assumes that the dominant culture has the upper hand and is capable of being the better mentor, cannot sufficiently support all mentees. Both mentors and mentees bring to the mentoring process a “complex set of experiences, mental models, social and cultural identities, expertise, goals, expectations, values, and beliefs, all of which make for potential areas of conflict” (Cross, 2005, p. 44). Studies on cultural perspectives focusing on a mutual understanding of attitudes and perceptions are necessary toward an enhanced understanding of cross-cultural mentoring.
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Emotions and Their Effect on Adult Learning: A Constructivist Perspective Brad Shuck, Carlos Albornoz, and Marina Winberg Florida International University, USA Abstract: Adult educators are only beginning to understand the interaction between learning and emotion (Dirkx, 2006; O’Regan, 2003). Understanding these concepts and their interaction through the constructivist perspective presents a unique opportunity to appreciate the learner’s perspective and the construction of knowledge through experience. Learning is primal. As one of the most basic human behaviors, learning occurs instinctively at all times. Our minds actively engage new ideas, new facts, and new behaviors, allowing new truths and principles to be applied in our lives. Humans continuously seek information about circumstances they encounter to help make meaning of what they have experienced. Learning is not only primal; it is constant and significant; survival is at the primal core of learning. Adults look for ways of understanding experiences as they are occurring, hoping to learn something applicable to interactions and challenges in life (Goffman, 1959). Experience is not isolated, but connected to previous opportunities for learning often associated with emotions. Emotions, the cognitive manifestations of behavioral acts, are at our deepest core. Emotion serves as a cognitive guide and helps adults make decisions every day (Goleman, 1997). A frown, a smile, or tears give different cognitive cues regarding what is affecting the behavior of people surrounding us. Humans react and learn through the lens of emotionally laden experiences. Emotions guide humans on how to console a sad friend, show happiness at a party, or ask a question in a classroom. Emotions are extraordinarily powerful, permeating perspective and helping to make meaning of physical and social surroundings (Callahan, 2004; Dirkx, 2006; Goleman, 1997; Lutz, 1988). Shaping our experience, emotions bias learning. By shaping experience, emotion angles the learning perspective and consequently the recollection of actual events later in life. “Emotions are important in adult learning because they can either impede or motivate learning” (Dirkx, 2001, p. 63). Serving as motivation to pursue desires, emotion creates purpose and shapes the context of learning experiences (Merriam & Caffarella, 1999; Reeve, 2001). Emotion plays a critical role in the construction of meaning and knowledge of the self in the adult learning process (Dirkx, 2001). Entering the cognitive system, emotions are recognized and as a result alter thought patterns, affecting the experience of how adults learn (Opengart, 2005). Poor engagement with the topic of emotions and learning has resulted in little literature on the topic (Dirkx, 2006). “Relatively few scholars and practitioners in adult and higher education regard emotion as integral to the meaning-making process” (Dirkx, 2006, p. 16). The importance of emotion in cognitive processes is only now being recognized (O’Regan, 2003). Information available on how emotion affects learning suggests a linkage between the two, but the scholarly scope in adult education literature is narrow (Dirkx, 2006). The purpose of this paper is to explore how emotions affect learning in adults. First, we explore how learning is defined using the constructivist perspective. Second, we look at how emotions are constructed both biologically and cognitively. Lastly, implications for teaching and learning as well as suggestions for further research are explored. Shuck, B., Albornoz, C., & Winberg, M. (2007). Emotions and their effect on adult learning: A constructivist perspective. In S. M. Nielsen & M. S. Plakhotnik (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Annual College of Education Research Conference: Urban and International Education Section (pp. 108-113). Miami: Florida International University. http://coeweb.fiu.edu/research_conference/
109 Constructivist Learning Perspective Promoting change in cognition parallels that of change in evolution. Constant adjustments occur until an individual reaches congruency with the environment. Without adjustment and congruency, the individual dies. Individuals change ideas and learn to preserve their life. The mechanism promoting change in cognition is the same as in evolution, namely equilibration. Dynamic processes of self-regulated behavior balance two intrinsic polarities: assimilation and accommodation (Piaget, 1970). Assimilation is the organization of experience, understanding how to and act to preserve autonomy as a part of a whole system. Accommodation is comprised of reflective, integrative behavior serving to change the self and explicate the object to function with cognitive equilibrium (Twomey, 2005). Learning from the constructivist perspective involves both the perception of experiences through constructed reality and the encouragement to develop new knowledge schemas through adapted experience. Stimuli are interpreted and received, constructing the very ideas of reality. Ideas are created internally and are assembled through mental structures that represent some aspect of the world. People use these mental structures to organize current knowledge and provide a framework for future understanding. For constructivists, human beings have no access to an objective reality (von Glaserfeld, 2005); we have access only to our mental structures. Social, physical, and emotional conditions are always changing. Therefore, developing strategies for learning and adaptation are essential to survival. Permanent reflection on learned mental structures and behaviors must be completed to respond to environmental challenges. Learning occurs through this adaptive function. Understanding how organisms adapt and evolve is central to understanding the psychological basis of learning (Twomey & Randall, 2005). Transferring the constructivist principles to the educational setting, it is possible to say that a student will learn only what he or she perceives as necessary to survive. Learning becomes of value in relation to a student’s experiences and construction of reality, underscoring the adaptive behaviors of learning. If learning is not seen as survival, nothing objective specifies how or what a student takes away. Learning must be constructed through interpreting, organizing, and transforming deeply personal perspectives of experience. Students’ beliefs, based on formative experiences, are always acting as a filter for understanding what is presented in an educational setting (Cranton, 2005). Students are, under this perspective, active constructors of the self according to the specific needs that they have. Deep understanding of students’ internal worlds through experience is needed to achieve effective learning and engagement. People have a natural tendency to develop cognitive structures that allow for physical and emotional survival. Learning through constructivism can be understood as a tool providing adaptive behaviors through learning. Development of Emotion Biological Construction of Emotion Our bodies are designed to take in sensory information from all around us. Our brains are designed to process, store, and act on information received from both external and internal stimuli (Perry, 2006). Biological emotional response is guided by a structure in the brain called the amygdala (Wolfe, 2006). Preparing our bodies to react to potential challenges, the amygdala releases chemicals in the blood stream resulting in sweaty palms, tense muscles, an occasional spike in blood pressure, and mobilized movement to the fight or flight response (Wolfe, 2006). Emotions occur very rapidly, lasting only a short time (Reeve, 2001). Humans act emotionally before the conscious awareness of emotion can occur; we react before we know we
110 are reacting. Our minds respond cognitively as the biological response for emotions reacts to the physical environment. Biologically, emotion affects the mind. “A traumatized person in a state of alarm is less capable of concentrating, more anxious, and more attentive to nonverbal cues such as tone of voice, body posture, and facial expressions” (Perry, 2006, p. 24). Cognitive Construction of Emotion Researchers who study emotion from a socio-cultural, behavioral, or constructivist’s point of view do not believe biological processes are important in understanding emotion (Reeve, 2001). “Emotions do emerge from biological processes, but emotions also emerge from information processing, social interaction, and cultural contexts” (Reeve, 2001, p. 452). The creation of experience is formed through the cognitive construction of emotions. “Through the experience of emotions, [we] come to recognize what is cognitively and affectively of value,” helping determine how and why we respond to the world around us (Dirkx, 2006, p. 31). Cognitive construction of emotions allows for the creation and understanding of our world. Cognitively we assign values, make judgments, and work in the context of cultural norms to take action. Emotional cognitive development plays a large role in learner development. “If people are anxious, uncomfortable, or fearful, they do not learn” (Perry, 2006, p. 26). Encountering negative emotions impacts a learner’s future. Students who have experienced negative cognitive emotional moments avoid certain behaviors when faced with new challenges in the classroom, responding to problems with peers or assignments, and seeing another’s viewpoint. Behavioral manifestations of avoidance can be witnessed in high absenteeism, little or no engagement with classroom discussion, or an abundance of missing assignments. Emotions influence self-esteem, affecting the development of avoidance behaviors. The recollection of negative emotions and the emergence of fear can be too much for some students to risk emotionally. Experiencing strong negative feelings can influence students to avoid situations that previously resulted in negative emotions (Perry, 2006). The Creation of Feeling Emotions are a part of the learning process and part of our everyday experiences (Callahan, 2002; Dirkx, 2006; Kasl & Yorks, 2002; Perry, 2006; Reeve, 2001; Wolfe, 2006). Although the concepts are explained separately, biological and cognitive processes work together to create our experience and meaning. As our bodies respond biologically, our minds respond cognitively to create the affective component of feeling. The experience of emotion revolves around the creation of feeling and is operationally defined as the participatory effect of the biological and cognitive response (Heron, 1992). Expression of emotion within the learning experience suggests deep involvement of the learner's psyche (Dirkx, 2006). Holistic by definition, feelings are the manifestations of both biological and cognitive processes working in tandem. Feelings determine why we cry and why we laugh, successfully creating opportunities for creating meaning in context of the learner’s experience. Implications for Teaching and Learning Teaching Educators can use the power of emotion to affect learning (Wolfe, 2006). Emotions serve as filters anticipating threats to the self-image protecting self-esteem. Emotionally, the freedom to learn is heavily dependent on emotions experienced while learning, a framework that educators have some control over. Trust toward the person offering new knowledge or the belief that current experiences will not be harmful is central to learners’ availability to transform.
111 Learning, as an adaptive filter, is powerful and sensitive. Meaningful learning occurs after emotional factors facilitate personal transformation. Some emotions have a positive effect on learning, and others block the learning process. No list of these emotions and their effects exists due to the individual construction of emotion and feeling, but we can speculate. Emotions like anxiety or fear could have positive effects, while other emotions, like anger or arrogance, could have negative effects. Some emotions blind us to evident deficiencies, allowing others to take advantage of our kindness. Identifying, analyzing, and managing emotion takes more than emotional intelligence. Emotional awareness requires a deeper understanding of the subconscious dimensions of emotional organization and the flow that keeps emotions dynamic in our life (Gabriel & Griffiths, 2002). Today’s knowledge is tomorrow’s unawareness (Drucker, 1998). As new challenges occur, an adult learner is forced to sharpen and renew their skills. Admitting something might be wrong with how one sees the world can be challenging and feel personally vulnerable (Cranton, 2006). Leaving old knowledge behind implies not only cognitive transformation, but also an emotional transformation to accept changes, differences, and most fearful, uncertainty. Understanding of the constructivist emotional learning perspective would open new transformative teaching possibilities. Educators should give thought to current paradigms when teaching. The right answers in class are often praised, but what about the courageous answer or genuinely personal response? A deeper reflection on how to create the adequate emotional tone to facilitate learning is necessary to overcome the challenges of apathy, passiveness, or stress commanding attention in classroom settings today. The blending of emotions and learning in the classroom promotes secure, emotionally engaging environments that challenge and test as well as encourage knowledge acquisition. Learning Emotion is the framework adults use to make meaning, allowing for the expression of personal values as well as an understanding of surrounding cultural meaning systems (Lutz, 1998). The meanings we associate with experience inform us about the self and broader social world; how we feel about an experience is reflective of value systems and personal perspectives of society (Denzin, 1984). Emotion refers to the self, and understanding its dynamics allows for the development of self-knowledge. Understanding the emotional effect of learning allows us to more holistically reveal our inner beings to the outside world. Although emotion and learning are symbiotic in the cognitive experience, the two constructs are just as vital in creating the settings in which learning will take place. Anecdotal experiences show that adult students can feel uniquely threatened within the walls of a classroom. A sense of vulnerability and fear can permeate the learning lens, blocking or delaying significant pieces of the learning experience. Educators should give thought to the types of environment they create and to the emotionality of the classroom. Settings low in emotional awareness that fail to produce a sense of engagement do not fully develop the student’s potential. From the constructivist perspective, classroom settings allow ideas to interact in the mind and with the environment, creating value and meaning. Students must feel safe to interact, experiment, and explore new topics and constructs. In dichotomist fashion, they must feel safe to succeed as well as to fail. Further Research Research on the effects of emotions and learning, concentrated on the creation of positive learning environments and emotional teaching strategies, would benefit the field. A closer look
112 at the construction of emotions in learner centered arenas, both qualitatively and quantitatively, would greatly enhance how adult educators understand emotion and learning, as well as their effects. Additionally, adult educators should focus on the practice of creating emotionally safe environments where learners are free to construct their realities; however, research must indicate how this can and should occur (Callahan, 2004; Dirkx, 2001, 2006). Currently, there are limited resources available in this area and most are commentary in nature. The field would benefit form research on teaching strategies that lead to the creation of emotionally aware environments and that give pragmatic techniques to adult educators in the field. References Callahan, J. L. (2004). Breaking the cult of rationality: Mindful awareness of emotion in the critical theory classroom. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 102, 75-83. Callahan, J. L. (2002). Masking the need for organizational change: Emotion structuration in a nonprofit organization. Organization Studies, 23(2), 281-297. Cranton P. (2006). Understanding and promoting transformative learning: A guide for educators of adults. San-Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Denzin, N. (1984). On understanding emotion. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Dirkx, J. (1997) Nurturing soul in adult learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 74, 79-88. Dirkx, J. (2000). Transformative learning and the journey of individuation. ERIC Digest No. 223. Dirkx, J. (2001). The power of feelings: Emotion, imagination, and the construction of meaning in adult learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 89, 63-72. Dirkx J. (2005). Fostering ethical practice in HRD: Towards an ethic of the inner voice. Proceedings of Academy of Human Resource Development, 23-30. Dirkx, J. (2006). Engaging emotions in adult learning: A Jungian perspective on emotion and transformative learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 109, 15-26. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Drucker, P. (1998). The future that has already happened. The Futurist, 32, 16-18. Gabriel, Y., & Griffiths, D. (2002). Emotion, learning and organizing. The Learning Organization, 9(5), 214 -221. Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. Goleman, D. (2002). Primal leadership: Realizing the power of emotional intelligence. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Heron, J. (1992). Feeling and personhood: Psychology in another key. London: Sage. Lutz, C. (1998). Unnatural emotions: Everyday sentiments on a micronesian atoll and their challenges to western theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Maturana, H. (2000). The nature of the laws of nature. System Research and Behavioral Sciences, 17, 459-468. Merriam, S. B., & Caffarella, R. S. (1999). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Opengart, R. (2005) Emotional intelligence and emotion work: Examining constructs from an interdisciplinary framework. Human Resource Development Review, 4, 49-62. Perry, B. D. (2006). Fear and learning: Trauma related factors in adult learning. New
113 Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 110, 21-27. Piaget, J. (1970). Structuralism. New York: Basic Books. Reeve, J. (2001). Understanding motivation and emotion. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College. Twomey, C., & Stewart, R. (2005). Constructivism: A psychological theory of learning. In C. Twomey (Ed.), Constructivism: Theory, perspectives, and practices (2nd ed., pp.838). New York: Teacher College, Columbia University. Von Glaserfeld, E. (2005). Introduction: Aspects of constructivism. In C. Twomey (Ed.), Constructivism: Theory, perspectives, and practices (2nd ed., pp. 3-7). New York: Teacher College, Columbia University. Wolfe, P. (2006). The role of meaning and emotion in learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 110, 35-41. Yorks, L., & Kasl, E. (2002). Toward a theory and practice for whole person learning: Reconceptualizing experience and the role of affect. Adult Education Quarterly, 53(3), 176-192.
A Case Study of the Assignment of Withdrawal Codes for Reporting Dropouts in Two Disciplinary Alternative Schools Barbara Thompson-Hawkins and Anthony H. Normore Florida International University, USA Abstract: This study examined assignment of withdrawal codes by school administrators in two disciplinary alternative schools. Findings revealed: (a) codes were inaccurately assigned intentionally to keep students from returning to a regular school without notification, and (b) administrators improperly tracked students and failed to ascertain students’ reasons for dropping out. In 1986, Florida enacted the Dropout Prevention Act, Florida statute 230.2316, which authorized and encouraged district school boards to establish comprehensive dropout prevention programs designed to meet the needs of an increasing number of at-risk students who “were not being effectively served by traditional education in the public schools” (Schargel & Smink, 2001, p. 111). As a result of this act, disciplinary alternative schools were established particularly for at-risk students with a history of disruptive behaviors. These schools enforce compulsory school attendance through the use of codes to identify and record a student’s reason for withdrawing from public school in the State of Florida (Butler, Davison, & Denbroeder, 2003). These withdrawal codes directly affect the accuracy of reporting dropouts. This study begins to identify and investigate the range of types of inaccuracies with a particular focus on inaccuracies in the assignment of withdrawal codes by school administrators in a large urban school district in Florida. Review of Literature A review of extant literature (i.e., professional and academic journals, books, ERIC Clearinghouse, reports, internet, magazines, newspapers, and policy briefs) on student dropouts in the last decade indicates that dropout rates are decreasing (Horne, 2002: McMillen, Kaufman, & Whitener, 1996). However, the research on decreasing dropout rates has been challenged by many researchers (Clements, Ligon, & Paredes, 2000; Greene, 2003). Clements et al. (2000) asserted that “the definitions, instructions, leaving/dropout codes, and other administrative overhead are too complex” (p. 3). Boozer (1995) asserts that withdrawal codes can be used as an expedient measure by school authorities to show a decreasing dropout rate, even though the actual number may be rising. Historically, there have been problems comparing dropout data across states due to the lack of common definitions and reporting procedures (Clements et al., 2000). After extensive study, Greene (2003) concluded that dropout rates nationwide are higher than reported by the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) because of the counting methods generally employed. Therefore, the accuracy of reporting withdrawal codes by administrators would help explain why counting methods are important. Since accuracy is arbitrary, and school districts like to put their best face forward, making comparison across states of dropouts can be meaningless without a systematically applied definition. Therefore, accuracy of administrators' codes directly affects reported dropout rates. Greene’s (2003) study found that the national graduation rate for the class of 2000 was 69%. In contrast, in Florida, the graduation rate in 2003 was the lowest in the nation, 56% (Greene, 2003; Greene & Winters, 2004) for mostly at risk students. Thompson-Hawkins, B., & Normore, A. H. (2007). A case study of the assignment of withdrawal codes for reporting dropouts in two disciplinary alternative schools. In S. M. Nielsen & M. S. Plakhotnik (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Annual College of Education Research Conference: Urban and International Education Section (pp. 114-119). Miami: Florida International University. http://coeweb.fiu.edu/research_conference/
115 Researchers often use the term at-risk or marginalization to include descriptors such as poverty, low self-esteem, learning and physical disabilities, ethnicity, language barriers, socially deviant behavior in both school and society, low socioeconomic status, single-parent homes, grade retention, low academic performance, evidence of disengagement and maladjustment, and dysfunctional communities and homes (Deschamps, 1992; Owings & Magliaro, 1998). Peck, Law, and Mills (1987) asserted that the issues of dropping out and dropout prevention cannot be separated from issues affecting our total economic and social structure. These issues include poverty, unemployment, discrimination, the role of the family, social values, the welfare cycle, child abuse, and drug abuse (p. 3). Records derived from statistical reports reveal that Southern states educate a vast number of Hispanics, African Americans, and Native Americans. Further research indicates that in Southeastern states in which the Hispanic population has greatly increased during the past decade, Hispanic students have the lowest graduation rate in the nation (Greene & Winters, 2004). In recent years, the educational system has appropriately paid greater attention to techniques for preventing migrant students from leaving school (Migrant Attrition Project, 1987). Calculating Dropout Rates Specialists in dropouts recognize that the high school completion rate goes hand in hand with the dropout rate (Swanson & Chaplin, 2003). The Common Core of Data (CCD) collection used by NCES is used in dropout studies as a means of uniformity and standardization of data. The CCD dropout rate is calculated by dividing the number of dropout students from public schools in a given state by the total number of students enrolled in that state. Still, the Current Population Surveys (CPS) rate is based not only on public school enrollment but also on private school enrollment. CPS data include all students living in a state regardless of their school enrollment status. Another very important difference in the method of calculation between these two agencies is that the CCD includes grades 7 through 12, whereas CPS uses grades 10 through 12. In addition, the CCD data collection relies on administrative records instead of the household surveys used by the CPS. CCD counts General Education Diploma (GED) recipients as dropouts, whereas the CPS does not count GED candidates as dropouts (Kaufman, Alt, & Chapman, 2001). Given the discrepancies and methods of collection, research shows that only 46 states currently report dropout data annually to the CCD and only 40 states currently use the NCES definition (Clements et al., 2000). This gap has caused many adjustments to be made for the nonstandard reporting and in turn has made it difficult for statistics to be used for accurately counting dropouts across the nation. According to the NCES reports, it is common practice for a state to take a “snapshot” of the dropout rate at the conclusion of the year rather than at the beginning. States that usually understate high school dropout rates have a history of collecting their data across their own fiscal year, normally starting July 1, versus the Federal government’s fiscal year, starting October 1 (Kaufman, Kwon, Klein, & Chapman, 2000). Summer dropouts are not reported in some districts, but are in others whether or not the student returned after the summer. Districts also vary in the way nontraditional students (i.e., students who leave school to enroll in GED programs, correction institutions, or other facilities) are counted (McMillen et al., 1996). With the large discrepancies and variant methods of counting dropouts, the calculation and reporting of dropout rates is, as Greene and Winters (2004) stated, the “public schools’ dirty little secret” (p. 3). Disciplinary Alternative Schools Public disciplinary alternative schools provide a second chance for students identified as being at risk of dropping out of school for any of a number of reasons, including poor grades,
116 truancy, suspension, expulsion, and pregnancy (Paglin & Fager, 1997). According to Paglin and Fager (1997) the schools are widespread in the Southeast, and less prevalent in the West. Most poor states (e.g., Mississippi, Alabama) exist in the South than the wealthier West. The majority of students in disciplinary alternative schools come from schools and communities where poverty exists and students qualify for the free/reduced lunch program. The majority of students who are assigned to the disciplinary alternative schools have had a family member attend the same school or another alternative school who may have graduated or dropped out. Disciplinary alternative schools were designed to offer students a high school education for entry to postsecondary education and the labor market, and this education is a key element as to whether students will remain in poverty-level jobs (Paglin & Fager, 1997). Antisocial behavioral conduct, anti-morality and values of social acceptance by deviant peers are significant negative predictors of high school dropout (Caspi, Wright, Moffit, & Silva, 1998). Provisionally, these schools have been instituted because social leaders recognize the value of teaching students to learn discipline, gain citizenship, and possess democratic values (Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, 1989). Students who are assigned to disciplinary alternative secondary schools have limited choices as to what other schools they can attend. In addition, attending school is important to the well-being of most students because of the number of restrictions placed upon them by state statutes, such as driver’s license privileges and inability to obtain a job without a high school diploma. Profile of school x. School X is located in a remote part of the district where there is little public transportation to and from the site. The building consists of portables that have been attached to simulate the appearance of a school. The student population consists of 85% African American students, 11.5% Hispanic, 2.5% Caucasian, and 1% with the majority of students eligible for free/reduced lunch. The school has a history of drug and/or gang problems that cause many students to be on suspension. The faculty and staff are well distributed in gender but predominantly African American in composition. The administrative staff is composed of three males, two African American and one Caucasian, and one African American female. The faculty is predominantly African American. Most of the students range between the ages of 18 and 19 and are living with relatives, boyfriends or girlfriends, other peers, or independently. Most of the students attend school sporadically, exhibit behavior problems, demonstrate low academic skills, have been retained in one or more grades, are behind in their grade placement, and use profanity as accepted communication. Profile of school y. School Y is housed in the buildings of an old vacant hospital site, which clearly calls for replacement or renovation. The buildings are spread far apart, causing the students to spend much time traveling to and from classes. The student population is comprised of 45 % African American, 45% Hispanic, 8% Caucasian, and 2% other. The majority of these students are eligible for free/reduced lunch. The staff and faculty are male-dominant and predominantly African American, and administrators are Caucasian and African American. Research indicates that African American males are known to demonstrate good classroom management skills in supervising predominantly African American students (Druian & Butler, 1987). There was a deliberate attempt to assign African American assistant principals to handle most of the disciplinary problems at the school, including suspensions, and the Caucasian female registrar decides what withdrawal codes should be assigned to most of the students and enters suspensions and withdrawal coding into the computer. For the most part, participants from School Y have similar characteristics as those in School X, especially the African American students. Many of the Hispanic students, who come primarily from migrant and extended
117 families, have some difficulties in understanding English. As part of migrant families and without a fixed residence, some of the students traveled back and forth to their home countries with their families to maintain their legal status in the United States. The adults had blue collar jobs and the families lived in substandard housing located in the farming area on the south end of the district. Research Design This study used the case study approach that involved two disciplinary alternative schools, X and Y, in the Florida school system. These schools were investigated for accuracy in their use of withdrawal codes. The primary codes examined were as follows: Code 05, any students over the age of 16 who leaves school voluntarily with no intention of returning; Code 15, any PK-12 student who is withdrawn from school due to nonattendance; Code 22, whereabouts unknown; Code 23, no other code can be used to identify the student’s reason for leaving school, and Code 26, entering an adult program. To investigate the extent to which withdrawal codes are accurately or inaccurately reported, two similar disciplinary alternative schools located in the northern and southern region of a large urban school district were selected because of the similar underlying principles of the schools. A sample of 19 school personnel (i.e., school administrators, counselors, teachers) and 25 students who withdrew from Schools X and Y during August 2003-June 2004 was used in this study. Students from both schools came from diverse backgrounds, but were predominately African Americans and Hispanics. Parents were not willing to participate in the study, largely because students 18 years and older did not live with the parents. The data collection included the acquisition of demographic data and recorded withdrawal codes to determine accuracy of codes assigned. Attendance documents of student withdrawal codes were acquired from Information Technology Services (ITS) at Schools X and Y and used with permission from the administrators of both schools and the district. Semistructured interviews were conducted with students, administrators, counselors, and teachers. Observations, field-notes and documents (i.e., school and district reports) were secondary sources. The researcher compiled and transcribed all taped interviews and categorized the data into coded interpretation and abstraction (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). With documents, observations, interviews, and field notes, a progressive method of data analysis was used. During data analysis, the researcher used a matrix to develop common patterns and themes that emerged from the data and linked to the literature. Findings Findings revealed inaccurate reporting of dropout in both schools. School X reported withdrawal codes inaccurately because of inability to track the students while school Y reported withdrawal codes inaccurately to keep students from re-entering a regular school without the district being notified. Neither school had a standard procedure as to how the school accounted for reporting students who withdrew from their school prior to graduating. The registrars, assistant principals, and counselors decided what withdrawal code should be assigned to students who withdrew for reasons other than graduation. Both principals were uncertain if any of the withdrawal codes were accurate. One principal commented, “It’s the attendance registrar who records the codes so I can only rely on what she reports. I don’t check it.” Neither school was able to enter the withdrawal code of W22, whereabouts unknown, because this particular code was controlled at the district level. District control of withdrawal code W22 stems from a need to accurately reflect that all measures had been taken to locate the student prior to sending final data to the state. Therefore, when the state assigned the student a
118 withdrawal code W23, no other code could be used to identify the student’s reason for leaving school. Oftentimes, School X received information by word of mouth from other students and staff members, and based on that information, withdrawal codes were assigned. The School X registrar worked closely with the counselor and the assistant principal in deciding which withdrawal code should be assigned to any student, either before or after leaving. School Y used withdrawal codes W05 - any student over compulsory attendance age who leaves school voluntarily with no intention of returning, and DNE - any PK-12 student who was expected to attend a school but did not enter as expected for unknown reasons. The withdrawal code W05 was used to prohibit students from returning to a regular school without being reassigned from a disciplinary alternative school. Code DNE was assigned by the district. The consensus of school personnel in both schools was that since the students were no longer in their school, they were no longer their concern. A district staff member emphasized: “Once the schools assign the withdrawal code, the student is no longer of interest to that school….sometimes they move out of the country and there’s no way the principal can track them…they can easily get misplaced in the system.” Students in both schools were often unaware which withdrawal code was assigned to them. In most cases, students left both schools without notification to any school personnel. The career specialists did not interview the students using the district’s dropout survey record. Because of this omission, information was missing that could have aided accuracy of code assignments to students. Both schools used different withdrawal codes for reporting data to the district, even though the district provided a uniform policy that the schools were supposed to follow. School X used withdrawal codes closely aligned with the district policy, whereas School Y assigned one basic code regardless of why the student left school. Conclusions and Implications This study concludes that withdrawal codes are assigned arbitrarily in these two disciplinary alternative schools, causing the district dropout reporting to be inaccurate. The documents used to acquire the assigned withdrawal codes of students from both Schools X and Y in 2003-2004 indicate that the district policies and procedures need to be examined for modification and a system in place to track students. Implications for Policy and Practice If the district controls withdrawal codes as well as those with high profile for at-risk students, the problem of accurately counting dropouts from disciplinary alternative schools may significantly decrease. Withdrawal code W22 - whereabouts unknown, and W23 - no other code can be used to identify the student’s reason for leaving school, were controlled by the district. All withdrawal codes having a negative impact on dropout data should perhaps be entered and controlled at the district level and then transmitted to the state tracking system, which subsequently reports the state dropout rate to the NCES. This study points to the need for more precise and conscientious definitions and assignments of withdrawal codes, so that dropout rates are reported more accurately at district, state, and national levels. The alarming results of students incarcerated or deceased justify the need for different procedures for school administrators. Such a change may mean that district offices should control all negative codes since it is at this level that all requests are intercepted from other schools, other counties, and other countries. References Boozer, R. (1995). Delaware's dropouts and high school completers. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
119 Butler, M. J., Davison, G., & Denbroeder K. (2003). Attendance, withdrawal codes and exceptional student education, proposal for withdrawal code deletion. Tallahassee, Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development (1989). Turning points: Preparing American youth for the 21st century. New York: Carnegie Corporation of New York. Caspi, A., Wright, B.R.E., Moffitt, T.E., & Silva, P.A. (1998). Early failure in the labor market: Childhood and adolescent predictors of unemployment in the transition to adulthood. American Sociological Review, 63(3), 424–451. Clements, B., Ligon, G., & Paredes, V. (2000). Flaws and remedies: Improving local, state, and federal evaluations. Denver: Evaluation Software Publishing. Deschamps, A. B. (1992). An integrative review of research on characteristics of dropouts. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC. Florida Statute 1003, 21-29. (2002). Enforcement of attendance. Tallahassee, FL: State Office Building. Greene, J. P. (2003, October 29). Experts: Consistency needed in counting dropouts. All things considered [Radio broadcast]. New York: National Public Radio. Greene, J. P., &. Winters, M. (2004). The public schools’ dirty little secret. Retrieved August 14, 2004, from http://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/nypost-public_schools.htm Horne, J. (2002, November 27). Graduation rates are higher than study reports. Miami Herald, p. A22. McMillen, M. M., Kaufman P., & Whitener, S. (1996). Dropout rates in the United States: 1994. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Government Printing Office. Migrant Attrition Project. (1987). Interstate migrant education council. Migrant education: A consolidated view. Denver: Education Commission of the States. Owings, W., & Magliaro, S. (1998). Grade retention: A history of failure. Educational Leadership, 56(1), 86-88. Paglin, C., & Fager, J. (1997). Alternative schools: Approaches for students at risk. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved May 15 2004, from http://www.nwrelorg/request/sept97/ Peck, N., Law, A., & Mills, R. (1987). Dropout prevention: What we have learned. Report from Educational Resources Information Center/Counseling and Personnel Services Clearinghouse. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED 279 989). Schargel, F., & Smink, J. (2001). Strategies to help solve our school dropout problem. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education. Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research (2nd ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Swanson, C., & Chaplin, C. (2003). Graduation time for accountability reporting. Retrieved May 20, 2004, from http://www.schoolwisepress.com/feedback /owl_ archive/owl_57.html
Stereotype Threat and the Standardized Test Performance of Black Children: When Does the Threat Become a Relevant Performance Inhibitor? Martin J. Wasserberg Florida International University, USA Abstract: As Black students become more invested in the outcome of standardized tests, stereotypes become salient, subsequently depressing performance (Steele, 1997). As federal law has increased the importance of standardized testing at the elementary level, research is needed to determine when the stereotype threat becomes a relevant performance inhibitor. The standardized test underperformance of Black students is a serious concern and source of debate (Herrnstein & Murray, 1994; Jencks & Phillips, 1998). Each year, statistics from statewide and national testing programs reiterate a troubling test score gap between White and Black Americans at every grade level (College Board, 2006; Florida Department of Education, 2006). Prevailing stereotypes about the intellectual and cognitive abilities of certain groups salient for individuals who belong to those groups leads to lower performance (Croizet & Claire, 1998; Gonzales, Blanton, & Williams, 2002; Spencer, Steele, & Quinn, 1999; Steele, 1997; Steele & Aronson, 1995). Specifically, Steele & Aronson (1995) found that Black college students performed significantly worse than their White counterparts on a standardized test when the test was presented as diagnostic of their intellectual abilities. However, they performed about as well as Whites when the same test was presented as a nondiagnostic problem-solving task. The possibility of confirming the common stereotype of Black intellectual inferiority became salient when the test was framed as diagnostic, disrupting cognitive processes and depressing performance. Racial performance gaps may be a product of situational cognitive processes that may be amenable to intervention. Stereotype threat refers to being in a social situation where a stereotype about one’s group could apply. The theory assumes that underperformance is triggered by the possibility of being judged in terms of said stereotype. Given the ubiquity of stereotype threat effects and the possibility of positive intervention, a necessary next step is to determine when, developmentally, people begin to experience them. The purpose of this paper is to explore the literature on the topic and propose a future study. The research questions that guided this paper are: When do Black children begin to experience the effects of stereotype threat as related to standardized testing? How are these effects mediated by performance domain-identification, goal-orientation, self-efficacy, and anxiety? Standardized testing is becoming increasingly important at the elementary level. Therefore, it is of relevant interest to determine when exactly the disruptive cognitive processes induced by stereotype threat begin to negatively influence the standardized test performance of Black students. If child test performance is significantly affected, it is of additional interest to determine specifically what cognitive processes are involved. This information will provide educators with the means to intervene to mitigate the maladaptive performance of their students. Domain Identification A stereotype could be threatening only when a student is invested in performing well on a standardized test (Spencer, Steele, & Quinn, 1999; Steele, 1997). How threatening the standardized testing situation can be depends on a person’s identification with that stereotypeWasserberg, M. J. (2007). Stereotype threat and the standardized test performance of Black children: When does the threat become a relevant performance inhibitor? In S. M. Nielsen & M. S. Plakhotnik (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Annual College of Education Research Conference: Urban and International Education Section (pp. 120-126). Miami: Florida International University. http://coeweb.fiu.edu/research_conference/
121 relevant domain that is an area where one knows they may be seen through a stereotypical lens. Performance is lessened only when the stereotype threatens a student’s self-concept. Threatening situational pressure thus affects a subset of the stereotyped group that places higher importance on the standardized test results. In such cases, cognitive processes are disrupted because students who are domain-identified not only have traditional testing concerns but also the added pressure of not confirming a prevailing stereotype about their group. If students care about doing well on a standardized test, the prospect of being viewed stereotypically is upsetting and disturbing, resulting in a deleterious effect on their performance. High school and college students understand that their performance on standardized tests is important for their academic future and that such a high-stakes evaluative environment makes salient their social identity and relevant stereotypes (Good, Aronson, & Inzlicht, 2003). No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001 emphasized standardized testing in elementary grades. As a result, young children are made acutely aware of standardized tests at an earlier age and have a heightened investment in high performance on such tests, as low performance may result in retention. Assuming that retention is an undesirable result (Jimerson, Ferguson, Whipple, Anderson, & Dalton, 2002), adequate performance on standardized tests would be more selfrelevant to young children. Thus, a pressing need is present for research on how the standardized test performance of early children is now influenced by the situational pressures outlined in stereotype threat theory. Children’s awareness of stereotypes increases dramatically between the ages of 6 and 10, and Black children of all ages are more likely to be aware of academic stereotypes than White children (McKown & Weinstein, 2003). This phenomenon, combined with an increased level of domain-identification, enhances stereotype threat effects during elementary grade standardized testing. For example, NCLB requires third-graders to be retained, with few exceptions, if they do not receive state mandated scores, which makes third-graders more domain-identified than firstgraders (decisions on first grade retention are largely based on teacher judgment). Black thirdgraders experience more deleterious stereotype threat effects than Black first-graders. BlackWhite test score gap would be more pronounced in third grade than in first grade. Children’s investment in performance may also be relevant to their value for successful performance, another important part of their self-definition (Wigfield & Eccles, 1992). Therefore, even students without exceptional academic capabilities who highly value their success on a standardized test may be sensitive to stereotypes and stereotype threat effects (Ryan & Ryan, 2005). Students would value adequate standardized test performance more as they approach third-grade due to the NCLB decision on retention at that grade. Achievement Goal Theory Achievement goal theory addresses the reasons students attribute to their achievement behaviors (Dweck, 1986). Achievement goals refer to a schema regarding beliefs about purpose, ability, and probability of success that influence an individual’s attitude towards and engagement in an achievement task (Dweck & Leggett, 1988). More specifically, a mastery goal concerns a focus on evaluating one’s competence regarding if one has mastered a task or completely developed one’s skills. A performance goal concerns a focus on normative standards and one’s competence is evaluated regarding how well one has done compared to others (Elliot & McGregor, 2001). Anxiety Some researchers have found no association between stereotype threat and self-reported test anxiety. Schmader (2002) suggested that the performance impairment of women on a math
122 assessment was not paralleled by self-reported feelings of anxiety. However, stereotypethreatened individuals do not always present non-verbally expressed anxiety in self-reports (Bosson, Haymovitz, & Pinel, 2004). Other research (Inzlicht & Ben Zeev, 2003; Spencer, Steele, & Quinn, 1999; Steele & Aronson, 1995) asserts than when students experience stereotype threat, they show increased anxiety. The possibility of being judged according to a stereotype during a standardized test adds pressure, increases anxiety, threatens an individual’s self-worth, and leads to worry regarding performance evaluation and decreased test performance. In relation to achievement goal theory, this frames their goal as performance-avoid: children focus on avoiding negative judgments, instead of on mastering the task. Performance-avoid goals have been linked to increased anxiety and lower levels of performance (Elliot & McGregor, 2001; Elliot, McGregor, & Gable, 1999; McGregor & Elliot, 2002; Skaalvik, 1997). Related to standardized testing, Ryan & Ryan (2005) suggest a model in which the situational cues that initiate stereotype threat orient an individual towards a performance-avoid achievement goal, leading to increased test anxiety and diminished performance. Given the stereotype awareness of Black children (McKown & Weinstein, 2003) and the increasing importance of standardized testing at the elementary level, Black children may orient themselves towards a performanceavoid goal in a standardized testing situation, which may lead increased anxiety and depressed performance. Self-Efficacy Stereotype threat situations do not lower expectancies for test success and set up selffulfilling prophecies (Aronson, Quinn, & Spencer, 1998; Shih, Pittinsky, & Ambady, 1999; Steele & Aronson, 1995). Instead, the situations introduce negative stereotypical thoughts which individuals must contend with during an exam. Thus, stereotype threat may not instantly influence self-efficacy (i.e., individuals beliefs about their own abilities) for the exam but rather set up an interpretive framework for continuous self-evaluation, so that when difficulty is experienced, self-efficacy falters, and performance is depressed (Steele, 1997). Stereotype threat has been also shown to cause self-doubt immediately prior to exam (Spencer, Steele, & Quinn, 1999). More specifically, Black standardized test participants displayed significantly more selfdoubt than White participants or than Black participants in a nondiagnostic condition (Steele & Aronson, 1995). When difficulty is encountered during a diagnostic standardized test, the selfefficacy of invested Black students falters, although further research seems necessary. Performance-avoid goal sets up a situation that undermines self-efficacy (Skaalvik, 1997). If stereotype threat leads to a performance-avoid achievement goal, then when difficulty is experienced during a standardized test, Black students are likely to be concerned that this might indicate low ability, which undermines self-efficacy (Ryan & Ryan, 2005). Given the stereotype awareness of Black children (McKown & Weinstein, 2003) and the importance of standardized testing at the elementary level, Black children might experience similar stereotype threat results. Stereotype Threat Theory and Achievement Goal Research Ryan and Ryan (2005) have proposed a model (see Figure 1) that integrates stereotype threat theory with achievement goal research. I have adapted this model to apply to the standardized test performance of Black children. The researchers suggest that such a stereotype threat situation heightens performance-avoid goal orientation. A performance-avoid goal orientation in turn heightens the maladaptive effects of increased anxiety (Elliot & McGregor, 2001; Elliot, McGregor, & Gable, 1999; McGregor & Elliot, 2002; Skaalvik, 1997) and diminished self-efficacy (Skaalvik, 1997). These resulting effects depress the performance on
123 exams for domain-identified members of stereotyped groups. It could be, therefore, expected that Black children would increasingly experience anxiety and diminished self-efficacy as they approach third grade, where students become more invested in their standardized test performance. Standardized Test Achievement Stereotype Threat DomainIdentification
Achievement Goal Orientation
Anxiety Standardized Test Performance
-performance avoid Self-Efficacy
Figure 1. Conceptual model of the processes underlying stereotype threat and standardized test performance. Extending Stereotype Threat Research to Children Although research has focused mainly on college populations, the effects of stereotype threat have been replicated several times, for several different cultural populations, and in a variety of performance domains (Aronson, Lustina, Good, Keough, Steele, & Brown, 1999; Inzlicht & Ben-Zeev, 2002; Gonzales, Blanton, & Williams, 2002; Stone, Sjomeling, Lynch, & Darley, 1999). Much previous stereotype threat research has focused on standardized testing and college students. High performing college students are likely to be domain-identified with academic performance. Little attention, however, has been given to early children, despite the fact that they have a developed social identity and are aware of stereotypes (McKown & Weinstein, 2003; Phinney, 1990). The recent No Child Left Behind Act imposed high-stakes standardized testing in elementary grades. As a result, young children are made highly aware of standardized test significance at an earlier age and have a heightened investment in their test performance. Low performance may result in retention. Thus, a pressing need for research is present on how the standardized test performance of early children is influenced by the situational pressures outlined in stereotype threat theory. This is of particular importance because, as outlined, stereotype threat research has demonstrated that racial performance gaps are influenced by cognitive processes that may be amenable to intervention. Limited research has already demonstrated the success of such intervention. Specifically, stereotyped seventh grade students who were mentored to either view intelligence as malleable, or to attribute academic difficulties in the seventh grade to the novelty of the educational setting, experienced significantly reduced stereotype threat effects, and improved exam performance (Good, Aronson, & Inzlicht, 2003). I propose future research to investigate the impact of stereotype threat manipulations on the standardized test performance of Black children, who are targeted by the negative stereotype of Black intellectual inferiority. Research on the concept of stereotype threat suggests that the salience of the negative stereotype about racial identity induced by the standardized testing situation can impede performance, causing invested Black college students to perform more poorly than they would in a neutral context (Steele & Aronson, 1995). I propose that similar effects will occur in an elementary school setting. My proposed research would examine the mediating cognitive processes. My hypothesis is that all children will report increased domain-
124 identification as they approach third-grade. This would make Black children more susceptible to negative stereotype threat effects (Steele, 1997). Therefore, I also expect that Black children will orient themselves towards a performance-avoid goal, demonstrate increased anxiety, and report decreased self-efficacy in regard to standardized testing situations as they approach third-grade. As a result I expect the Black-White gap in standardized test scores to increase as children move toward this grade level. Lastly, I hypothesize that stereotype threat effects, and the performance gap, can be mitigated by presenting exams as nondiagnostic. In order to test my hypotheses, I propose a quasi-experimental 2 x 2 design, at two grade levels (first grade and third grade), adapted from Steele & Aronson (1995). Participants will be elementary school students in Miami-Dade or Broward County. The factors will be the race of the participants, Black or White, and a test description factor where the test will presented as either a practice standardized test (the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test), or as a nondiagnostic problem-solving activity. The foremost dependent variable will be participants’ performance on the practice test items derived from moderate to difficult grade level reading comprehension study guides. Participants will also be asked a series of questions before the test administration to determine their domain-identification and self-efficacy. Self-efficacy will be reassessed at a midway point during testing. Self-reported anxiety will also be measured for all participants using established anxiety scales after the test. Although research has established that stigmatized individuals suffer impaired performance under stereotype threat conditions, the anxiety presumed to help mediate this effect has proven difficult to establish through self-reports. Therefore, following the model of Bosson, Haymovitz, and Pinel (2004), anxiety will also be assessed by a judge blind to all procedures directed to look for behaviors that communicate anxiety during the test. Results should demonstrate the standardized test performance effects of stereotype threat on Black first- and third-graders, and also highlight mediating psychological factors. References Aronson, J., Lustina, M. J., Good, C., Keough, K., Steele, C. M., & Brown, J. (1999). When white men can't do math: Necessary and sufficient factors in stereotype threat. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 29-46. Bosson, J. K., Haymoviz, E. L., & Pinel, E. C. (2004). When saying and doing diverge: The effects of stereotype threat on self-reported versus non-verbal anxiety. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40(2), 247-255. The College Board. (2006). 2006 College bound seniors: Total group profile report [On-line]. Retrieved December 1, 2006, from: http://www.collegeboard.com/prod_downloads/about/news_info/cbsenior/yr20 06/national-report.pdf. Croizet, J. C., & Claire, T. (1998). Extending the concept of stereotype threat to social class: The intellectual underperformance of students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 588-594. Dweck, C. S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 40, 1040–1048. Dweck, C., & Leggett, E. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256–273. Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 X 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(3), 501–519.
125 Elliot, A. J., McGregor, H. A., & Gable, S. (1999). Achievement goals, study strategies, and exam performance: A mediational analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(3), 549-563. Florida Department of Education. (2006). 2006 FCAT Reading and Mathematics [On-line]. Retrieved December 1, 2006, from http://fcat.fldoe.org/pdf/mediapdf/FCAT_06_media_complete.pdf. Gonzales, P. M., Blanton, H., & Williams, K. J. (2002). The effects of stereotype threat and double-minority status on the test performance of Latino women. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(5), 659-670. Good, C., Aronson, J., & Inzlicht, M. (2003). Improving children’ standardized test performance: An intervention to reduce the effects of stereotype threat. Applied Developmental Psychology, 24, 645-662. Herrnstein R., & Murray, C. (1994). The bell curve: Intelligence and class structure in American life. New York: Free Press. Inzlicht, M., & Ben-Zeev, T. (2003). Do high-achieving female students underperform in private? The implications of threatening environments on intellectual processing. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(4), 796-805. Jencks, C., & Phillips, M. (1998). The black-white test score gap. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. Jimerson, S. R., Ferguson, P., Whipple, A. D., Anderson, G. E., & Dalton, M. J. (2002). Exploring the association between grade retention and dropout: A longitudinal study examining socio-emotional, behavioral, and achievement characteristics of retained students. The California School Psychologist, 7, 51-62. Marx, D. M., & Stapel, D. A. (2006). Distinguishing stereotype threat from priming effects: On the role of the social self and threat-based concerns. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(2), 243-254. McKown, C., & Weinstein, R. (2003). The development and consequences of stereotypeconsciousness in middle childhood. Child Development, 74, 498–515. McGregor, H. A., & Elliot, A. J. (2002). Achievement goals as predictors of achievementrelevant processes prior to task engagement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(2), 381-395. Middleton, M., & Midgley, C. (1997, March). Avoiding the demonstration of lack of ability: An under-explored aspect of goal theory. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL. Phinney, J. (1990). Ethnic identity in children and adults: A review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 448–514. Ryan, K. E., & Ryan, A. M. (2005). Psychological processes underlying stereotype threat and standardized math test performance. Educational Psychologist, 40(1), 53-63. Schmaeder, T. (2002). Gender identification moderates stereotype effects on women’s math performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 194-201. Schmader, T., & Johns, M. (2003). Converging evidence that stereotype threat reduces working memory capacity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(3), 440-452. Seibt, B., & Förster, J. (2004). Stereotype threat and performance: How self-stereotypes influence processing by inducing regulatory foci. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(1), 38-56. Shih, M., Pittinsky, T. L., & Ambady, N. (1999). Stereotype susceptibility: Identity salience and
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Learning from Exemplary Service Providers Karen Kelly Wollard Florida International University, USA Abstract: Twelve exemplary service providers from the most highly-acclaimed resorts discussed and demonstrated how they deliver award-winning service. Three emergent themes offer insights to improve service quality: emotional generosity, exemplary communication, and effective interactions of culture, tradition and control. These themes support current literature on human resource development and service quality. Service delivery is different from product delivery in important ways. Products can be counted, measured and shipped; services are created and consumed at the point of interaction between the provider and the customer (Pine & Gilmore, 1999). It is the process of service delivery, rather than the product, that affects consumer satisfaction (Zeithaml, Berry, & Parasuraman, 1988). Consumer satisfaction has become an increasingly competitive way for organizations to differentiate themselves (Gould-Williams, 1999), and organizations that are viewed as delivering highly satisfying services often position themselves as more expensive, but worth the price premium (Enz & Siguaw, 2000). Just as services are different from products in important ways, exemplary service is quite different from average or acceptable service. Top service providers think and act differently (Walsh, 2000), grasping service’s complexity and manifesting extraordinary interpersonal skills. They also see the big picture, infusing meaning and commitment into their work. For example, the proprietor of the Inn at Little Washington, Patrick O’Connell, discusses his beliefs: It is important to understand the ultimate potential of the dining experience. It can be a life-changing, transcendental experience that takes you completely away from your own reality. It can raise your level of self-esteem, it can be a sort of healing process, and it can make you feel that life is worth living. That is what we aim for (Levin, 2000, p. 50). The Inn at Little Washington is one of only two restaurants to maintain the American Automobile Association’s highest distinction of Five Diamonds for 19 consecutive years (American Automobile Association, 2006). The standard of excellence for this exemplary organization is not just serving the finest meal in the most luxurious manner; the standard is rewarding every guest with a memory that delights each individual physically, mentally and emotionally. Consistently delivering exemplary service is a rare occurrence (Zeithaml, 2000), even though much is known about how to improve service quality. More than 19 models of service quality have been postulated since the early 1980s (Seth, Deshmukh, & Vrat, 2005), including many that support the Gaps Model (Zeithaml et al., 1988), and those facilitated by growth in information technologies. The Gaps Model postulates five gaps that contribute to the disconnect between customer expectations and customer perceptions. In addition, the Service-Profit Chain (Heskett, Sasser & Schlesinger, 1997), clearly indicated the need for effective human resource management and development in creating quality service, a need clearly echoed in the extensive study of best practices in hotels (Dube, Enz, Renaghan & Siguaw, 1999). In spite of the numerous research approaches in existence, the Academy of Management in 2002 created a special issue to encourage further academic research into comprehensive service-management strategies, addressing continuing customer dissatisfaction with service quality (Bowen & Wollard, K. K. (2007). Learning from exemplary service providers. In S. M. Nielsen & M. S. Plakhotnik (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Annual College of Education Research Conference: Urban and International Education Section (pp. 127-132). Miami: Florida International University. http://coeweb.fiu.edu/research_conference/
128 Hallowell, 2002). Even in luxury hotels, where guests expect high service quality, research has found that few have instituted many of the human resource and services marketing concepts in their service strategy (McColl-Kennedy & White, 1997; Presbury, 2004). The purpose of this paper is to explain how three exemplary service organizations deliver consistently excellent service, and to discuss the alignment of their best practices with the existing literature. The research focused on exemplary service providers in organizations that are objectively judged to be superlative in their service quality, yet the findings suggest that the bigger issue is whether practice could be enhanced with more dissemination of research theories and findings, or more collaboration between researchers and practitioners. Method A qualitative, explanatory, multiple-case study design was adopted. This method allowed for collection of multiple sources of data, increasing the likelihood of being able to understand the complex interactions involved in creating exemplary service. Case selection sought resorts that highly manifest the phenomenon of interest, exemplary customer service. The hospitality industry has two independent and long-standing ratings systems, the Mobil Stars (49 years of ratings) and the American Automobile Association Diamond Awards (70 years of ratings). Only those properties considered to represent the ultimate in world-class service are awarded the highest honors. In 2006, 137 establishments qualified for the Five-Diamond Award, representing just 0.27 percent of 50,000 screened properties (American Automobile Association, 2006). The Five-Star Award was given to 37 lodgings from the 9,000 that qualified for a recommendation in the United States and Canada (Exxon-Mobil Corporation, 2006). Florida has 11 lodging properties that won either honor in 2006, with only 2 receiving the Five-Star designation. The resorts selected for this study have received the Five-Star Award and/or the Five-Diamond Award annually for at least five years, making them appropriate cases for analysis. One is a city resort; the others are located 60 miles from the city. Two are part of luxury chains, while the other property is family-owned. All three cater to an upscale, savvy guest and often host celebrities, socialites, and even royalty. Multiple sources of collected data included interviews with the general manager and three exemplary service providers, observations of the exemplary individuals, and a review of publicly available documentation, in an effort to probe how each individual and group thought about and created exemplary service experiences. Case studies typically combine data collection methods to provide “stronger substantiation of constructs and hypotheses” (Eisenhardt, 1989, p. 538). Interview protocols were based on the literature and approved by subject experts. Data analysis involved reading and re-reading the data collected and coding it beginning with the individual interviews. Codes were allowed to emerge from the data. Once the interviews, observation notes, documentation and field notes were coded, coding reports were created and several codes were collapsed. The analysis yielded 19 coding categories. The coding categories were arranged into categories following the theoretical framework of formal and informal controls. The categorization facilitated comparisons across the data. Findings Three themes emerged from the analysis across cases and represented best practices of these luxury service leaders. These themes and their interactions will be briefly discussed. Emotional Generosity or Love as a Business Strategy Throughout the interviews, individuals described the very best service providers as passionate, committed, interpersonally sensitive, insightful, caring, and considerate of others. A serendipitous search uncovered a term, emotional generosity, which seemed appropriate to sum
129 up the many traits of the best service people. Emotionally generous people “feel genuine pleasure in uplifting others through their caring words … The occupation doesn’t matter, as long as they have opportunities to reach out to people and build emotional bridges” (Millman, 1995, p. 185). The managers interviewed for this research were particularly attuned to the importance of being emotionally generous with employees as well as guests, and viewed employees as their most valued assets. All three resorts require associates to treat each other with the same respect as they show toward guests; being rude to a co-worker is considered grounds for termination. These findings are consistent with the literature on emotional intelligence (Goleman, 1995), love in the business arena (Sanders, 2002), the need for service-focused human resource management (Schneider, 1994), and the importance of employee satisfaction (Dube et al., 1999; Heskett et al., 1997). Top service providers have “a passion to serve” (Dube & Renaghan, 1999, p. 35) that sets them apart and this passion requires employees’ functional, social and emotional labor. Sanders (2002) talks about love as “the ability to involve ourselves emotionally in the support of another person’s growth” (p. 18). Goleman (1995) discusses the need for empathy, for sensing how others are feeling, as an essential skill, finding that top performers work as part of a team, build consensus, understand other’s perspectives, and promote cooperation. Exemplary and Ubiquitous Communication Extraordinary and effective communication at all three resorts is an essential component of service delivery. All of the interviewees displayed and discussed remarkable listening skills, never interrupting and often pausing before answering, to organize their thoughts. One concierge commented, “The thing is to listen to the guests. Really listen to the guests and then from what they ask you, evaluate what they want.” Communication has been shown to be one of the eight essential competencies for hospitality managers, and interpersonal and communication skills are even more essential for students and non-managers. (Chung-Herrera, Enz, & Lankau, 2003). Communication at these resorts is not only an individual skill. The resorts’ personnel communicate with each other, management communicates with individual staffers, and corporate communicates with management and staff. Daily meetings involve sharing of news, guest arrivals and departures, and a special focus on any slight occurrence that might interfere with a guest’s experience. Management maintains an open-door policy that encourages interaction and suggestions. One resort maintains a single database of information that includes guest feedback, preferences, and requests, along with employee input, anonymous or attributed. One simple phone number allows anyone to add to the database, and a full-time Guest Information Coordinator compiles over 80 daily inputs, quickly addressing immediate concerns and creating reports regularly to focus on trends, suggest areas for improvement, and provide daily feedback on how well the resort is meeting guest and employee expectations. The resorts have standards requiring personnel to communicate with each other, and cultures which encourage this. Employees greet each other pleasantly, and during shift changes share information about guests, schedules, changes, tangibles, and challenges, to ensure a smooth transition. Positive, proactive communication is part of the culture, as is the use of storytelling to demonstrate creative solutions to service challenges. The result of this constant formal and informal communication is a spirit of collaboration that encourages teamwork and openness. The goal, according to one general manager, is that “a guest should never have to bring something to our attention twice.” During observations of shift changes and in discussions with managers and staff, there was always polite conversation. Even in the chaos of changing shifts, people were observed discussing work-related issues. Storytelling is so much a part of the organizational culture that
130 every one of the interview participants repeated at least one or two stories they use for training purposes, or that have affected the way they conceptualize service. Effective Interactions of Culture, Tradition, and Control Culture reflects what an organization stands for, its mission, vision, and values, in the daily actions of its people (Davidson, 2003). Traditions further shape the culture by adding stories, legends and customs as part of an organizational memory. Controls are the means by which management attempts to influence performance, including policies, procedures, standards and other formal and informal strategies to direct behavior (Jaworski, 1988). Each resort has a distinct culture. One resort maintains a list of the elements of their culture, which include “respect for all people, accountability, energy, great work ethic, customer orientation, financial orientation, recognition and rewards, commitment, and others” according to the hotel manager. The resorts have extensive lists of standards, or controls, that direct how things are to be done, but these are only the framework. Customizing and personalizing the delivery of service adds the human element that sets these exemplary service organizations apart. The interactions of culture, tradition, and control demonstrated by management show how carefully and consistently they work toward integration and alignment. For example, one resort has developed a system to address any service bottleneck: A call goes out whenever the volume of business is so large that it actually takes away from performance. The goal is to quickly take back control. The system is based on teamwork, and available help comes from whatever department can spare it. When the general manager arrives to answer a call to the restaurant, he doesn’t take over. He leaves the management to the restaurant managers, and instead goes to the back to plate desserts or do dishes. This alleviates the bottleneck and leaves the busboys marveling about how well the general manager can assist. This practice only works in an environment conducive to solving problems and creating service stories, not feeding egos and placing blame. A second example of integration is one resort’s practice of correlating their colleague commitment survey to their guest satisfaction surveys, in an effort to identify inconsistencies in cohesiveness and flow. This helps them view and manage the organization as an organic system of interactive parts, only thriving when everyone is synchronized and moving together. The interaction of culture and control is facilitated by attention to employee recruitment, training and retention. Interviewing and selection is an extensive process of multiple interviews, careful background checks and testing. New employee training heavily focuses on culture and tradition, while specific job-related procedures are taught on the job. Conclusions and Recommendations In a comprehensive survey of hospitality industry best practices conducted with 13,400 managers in U.S. lodging companies (Dube et al., 1999), the conclusion was that the following qualities are what set the champions apart: “passion, compassion, vision, organization, and innovation” (Dube & Renaghan, 1999, p. 41). These three case studies support these findings for top-service quality resorts. All of these qualities: emotional generosity, exemplary communication skills, and a melding of control and culture, can and should be nurtured in any organization wishing to differentiate itself through service. So why have so few organizations made the commitment to being or becoming service champions? The American Consumer Satisfaction Index continues to show that Americans are more dissatisfied with service quality every year (Bowen & Hallowell, 2002), and that consumer expectations are growing faster than organizations can meet those expectations (Foster, 1998). Human resource management practices may be the key to creating service champions.
131 Luxury hotels in Australia were found to have four negative human resource practices: long-term commitment to people is lacking, training is not utilized to develop staff competencies, recruiting is deficient and managers lack of faith in existing employees (Presbury, 2004). Pre-employment testing, incentive plans, and employees who feel they have the opportunity to influence the management of their organization are less likely to leave. This is important, as turnover is believed to be one of the most serious problems in the hospitality industry (Cho, Woods, Jang, & Erdem, 2006). Excellent human resource practices have been shown to increase employee motivation to provide high quality service, and become enthusiastic supporters of their organization and its offerings (Tsaur & Lin, 2004). This research demonstrates that organizations wishing to make the commitment to excellence in service can learn from best practices of exemplary providers, and from the service quality literature. Trust in and commitment to employees must be part of a strategy that includes intelligent job design, careful employee selection, and effective training in skills known to enhance service performance (Chenet, Tynan & Money, 2000). For example, one of the resorts refers to employees as colleagues and carefully nurtures their relationships. These three resorts can be considered early adopters of the idea of co-creating value with customers, by personalizing experiences and creating organizational supports that allow for the use of imagination, involvement, and expertise (Prahalad & Ramaswamy, 2004). The resorts also reflect the theoretical orientation of the Service-Profit Chain (Heskett, Jones, Loveman, Sasser, & Schlesinger, 1994), reflecting the new paradigm: commitment to and investment in people, technology that supports frontline workers, revamped recruiting and training practices, and compensation linked to performance for employees at every level (p. 164). The three resorts all maintain operating and service strategies that are driven by employee satisfaction, training, capability, and commitment, yet none of the interviewees indicated any familiarity with the Service-Profit Chain (Heskett et al., 1994) concept when questioned. There is a need to continue research into the human resource practices in service organizations at many levels, as these practices have been ignored by both managers and researchers (Chung & Schneider, 2002). The current research looked at top service organizations and found that they are implementing many of the recommendations of researchers, often without prior knowledge of the theory and concepts underlying their decisions. Coordination of research and practice could effectively enhance both service quality and employee satisfaction. References American Automobile Association (2006). Guide to AAA Ratings. Retrieved September 22, 2006 from http://www.aaasouth.com/diamond_ratings.asp. Bowen, D., & Hallowell, R. (2002). Suppose we took service seriously? An introduction to the special issue. Academy of Management Executive,18(4), 69-72. Chenet, P., Tynan, C., & Money, A. (2000). The service performance gap: Testing the redeveloped causal model. European Journal of Marketing, 34(3/ 4), 472-495. Cho, S., Woods, R., Jang, S., & Erdem, M. (2006). Measuring the impact of human resource management practices on hospitality firms’ performances. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 25, 262-277. Chung, B., & Schneider, B. (2002). Serving multiple masters: Role conflict experienced by service employees. The Journal of Services Marketing, 16(1), 70-87. Chung-Herrera, B., Enz, C., & Lankau, M. (2003). Grooming future hospitality leaders. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 44(3), 17-25. Davidson, M. (2003). Does organizational climate add to service quality in hotels? International
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