Accepted Version (PDF 182kB) - QUT ePrints

Accepted Version (PDF 182kB) - QUT ePrints

This is the author’s version of a work that was submitted/accepted for publication in the following source: Felton, Emma, Vichie, Krystle, & Moore, El...

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This is the author’s version of a work that was submitted/accepted for publication in the following source: Felton, Emma, Vichie, Krystle, & Moore, Eloise (2016) Widening participation creatively: Creative arts education for social inclusion. Higher Education Research and Development, 35(3), pp. 447-460. This file was downloaded from: https://eprints.qut.edu.au/89598/

c c 2015 HERDSA

Notice: Changes introduced as a result of publishing processes such as copy-editing and formatting may not be reflected in this document. For a definitive version of this work, please refer to the published source: https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2015.1107881

Emma$Felton,$Krystle$Vichie$&$Eloise$Moore$

$

Widening'participation,'creatively:'creative'arts'education' for'social'inclusion'' $ Abstract$ University*participation*among*students*from*low*socio6economic*backgrounds*in*Australia*is*low* and*nationwide*strategies*are*in*place*to*help*bridge*the*gap.*This*article*presents*a*preliminary* evaluation*of*a*creative*arts6based*outreach*program*to*raise*awareness*and*aspiration*for* university*study*among*students*from*low6income*backgrounds.*The*program*is*part*of*a*national* Australian*federally*funded*initiative,*the*Higher*Education*Participation*and*Partnerships* Program*(HEPPP).*It*reviews*Queensland*University*of*Technology’s*(QUT),*Creative*Industries* Faculty’s*(CIF)*Media*and*Communication*outreach*Advertising*program.*We*argue*that*arts* education*has*a*particular*role*in*provoking*attitudinal*change,*due*to*the*self*reflective,*meaning6 making*and*expressive*characteristics*of*arts*based*disciplines.*In*evaluating*the*Advertising* program,*the*value*of*creativity*and*trust*as*techniques*of*student*engagement,*is*considered.* Evaluation*occurred*in*two*outer*suburban*high*schools*in*Brisbane*(a*State*capital*city),*using* surveys*and*ethnographic*fieldwork.*The*findings*support*an*engagement*model*that*employs* creativity*and*uses*student*facilitators*(undergraduate*and*post6graduate)*to*deliver*the*program,* to*meet*the*programs*aims.**

' Keywords:'widening$participation;$creative$arts$education;$university$aspiration;$ university$outreach;$social$inclusion$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $

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Emma$Felton,$Krystle$Vichie$&$Eloise$Moore$

$ Introduction'' Over$a$20Ayear$period,$university$attendance$by$students$from$low$socioAeconomic$ backgrounds$(SES)$has$remained$static$at$only$15%$of$the$student$population$ (McLaughlin$et$al.,$2013).$This$statistic$is$made$more$alarming$given$the$proliferation$of$ programs$aimed$at$improving$the$postAsecondary$educational$opportunities$of$ disadvantaged$students$across$Australia$since$the$mid$1990s$(Department$of$Education,$ Employment$and$Workplace$Relations$[DEEWR]$2009).$Yet$for$various$reasons,$no$one$ program$in$Australia$has$managed$to$achieve$a$significant$impact$across$the$sector.$In$an$ effort$to$remedy$this$situation,$targets$have$been$set$by$the$Australian$Federal$ Government$to$increase$university$participation$rates$of$low$SES$students$to$20%$by$ 2020$and$all$Australian$universities$received$significant$Federal$government$funding$ through$the$Higher$Education$Participation$and$Partnerships$Program$(HEPPP)$scheme$ in$2009,$to$develop$programs$and$strategies$to$raise$awareness$and$aspiration$for$ university,$for$students$from$lowAincome$families.$$ $ How$this$might$be$achieved$is$largely$the$responsibility$of$individual$universities,$their$ relevant$equity$units$and$faculties$to$determine.$The$range$of$strategies$across$the$ university$sector$vary$considerably,$from$programs$that$target$specific$equity$groups$ such$as$Indigenous$students,$to$those$involving$industry$and$communities,$to$activities$ based$in$university$faculties.$This$article$critically$examines$one$of$Queensland$ University$of$Technology’s$(QUT)$Creative$Industries$Faculty$(CIF)$Widening$ Participation$programs$(WP)$in$Advertising.$We$argue$that$the$unique$characteristic$of$ arts$based$and$creative$industries$disciplines,$with$their$emphasis$on$selfAreflection,$ meaningAmaking$and$selfAexpression,$have$the$capacity$to$provoke$profound$attitudinal$ change$in$students.$Thus$the$framework$through$which$we$evaluate$the$program$is$ through$the$twin$lens$of$creativity$and$trust:$in$the$process$and$facilitators$who$ implement$the$program.$QUT’s$model$of$engagement$includes$the$delivery$of$programs$ by$student$facilitators$often$from$low$SES$backgrounds$themselves,$who$provide$an$ accessible$role$model$for$the$school$students$for$whom$they$teach.$$ $ The'importance'of'access'to'post'secondary'education'' There$are$compelling$arguments$for$post$secondary$education$for$young$people$from$ lower$socioAeconomic$backgrounds.$Young$people$aged$20A24$living$in$the$most$ $

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Emma$Felton,$Krystle$Vichie$&$Eloise$Moore$

$ disadvantaged$areas$are$over$twice$as$likely$to$have$finished$school$prior$to$Year$12$and$ not$be$engaged$in$further$education$(34%$compared$with$16%)$(Australian$Bureau$of$ Statistics$[ABS],$2009).$Career$and$life$opportunities$and$outcomes$are$thus$more$ limited$for$this$group.$Similarly,$the$proportion$of$25A64$year$olds$with$low$levels$of$ formal$education$is$much$higher$in$the$most$disadvantaged$areas$(44%)$than$on$ average$(30%)$(ABS,$2009),$and$disengagement$from$tertiary$education$can$also$point$ to$the$risk$of$longAterm$cycles$of$poverty.$The$Australian$experience$is$not$unique$and$is$ representative$of$educational$participation$and$social$outcomes$in$many$other$ developed$countries.$Several$British$studies$confirm$that$the$gap$between$students$from$ poorer$families$to$wealthier$families$represented$in$higher$education$is$significant.$ (GalindoARueda$et$al.,$2004).$$Attitudes$towards$university$study$by$students$in$lower$ socioAeconomic$areas$starts$very$early$in$life,$making$early$intervention$more$effective.$ One$study$concludes,$“…much$of$the$impact$from$social$class$on$university$attendance$ actually$occurs$well$before$entry$into$Higher$Education…$Students$may$look$forward$ and$anticipate$barriers$to$participation$in$Higher$Education$and$(consequently)$make$ less$effort$in$school…”$(GalindoARueda$et$al.,$2004,$p.19).$$ $ A$variety$of$factors$contribute$to$low$demand$for$tertiary$study$by$students$from$low$ SES$backgrounds$in$countries$where$higher$education$appears$accessible$to$most.$ Students$do$not$always$have$easy$access$to$information$about$tertiary$education,$ families$are$not$supportive$of$its$value$because$no$one$in$their$family$has$been$to$ university$before,$or$financial$hardship.$Thus$‘family$background,$social$status$and$social$ class’$are$significant$determinants$of$educational$achievement$(Hillmert$&$Jacob,$2010,$ p.64).$A$South$African$study$found$that$students$from$low$socioAeconomic$areas$tended$ to$fall$into$two$groups:$those$who$‘show$little$knowledge$of$the$opportunities$open$to$ them$in$terms$of$studying,$coupled$with$very$little$motivation’$and$those$who$‘indicate$ that$their$main$aim$is$to$escape$the$circumstances$in$which$they$currently$find$ themselves,$hoping$that$obtaining$an$education$will$be$key$to$this’$(Bonnema$&$Van$der$ Waldt$2008,$p.323).$Cycles$of$poverty$and$low$expectation$are$all$too$easily$reproduced$ in$families,$making$a$generational$underclass$an$intransigent$social,$cultural$and$ economic$problem.$$It$is$widely$recognized$that$education$is$the$most$effective$way$of$ raising$children$out$of$disadvantage,$and$that$the$involvement$of$schools,$families$and$ local$communities$makes$this$aim$all$the$more$achievable$(Fuller,$2014;$Machin,$2006).$

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Emma$Felton,$Krystle$Vichie$&$Eloise$Moore$

$ $ Widening$Participation’s$(WP)$objective$to$‘break$the$cycle’$by$demonstrating$to$school$ students$that$attending$and$succeeding$at$university$is$an$attainable$goal,$and$that$ university$is$a$socially$inclusive$place,$demands$a$practical$set$of$strategies$many$of$ which$are$campus$based.$Participating$in$WP$disciplineAspecific$activities$presents$a$ student$with$handsAon$experiences$of$how$they$might$‘achieve$academic$and$vocational$ success$which$offers$a$sense$of$coherence$and$progression$for$the$youngster’s$career$ and$learning$pathway,’$(Kinder$&$Harland,$2004,$p.52).$This$is$particularly$important$in$ arts$based$education$where$boys$from$lower$socioAeconomic$backgrounds$are$identified$ as$nonAparticipating$and$consequently$missing$out$on$the$positive$contributions$this$ type$of$education$can$have$on$their$lives$(Ewing,$2010).$The$subsequent$effect$is$that$ high$school$students,$particularly$males,$do$not$see$university$or$creative$professions$as$ possible$pathways$for$their$future$(Marks,$Fleming,$Long$&$MacMillan,$2000).$$ $$ The$WP$approach$therefore$confronts$unmotivated$students$with$opportunities,$and$ motivates$those$who$value$their$educational$future.$This$also$highlights$the$need$for$the$ discipline$based$approach$that$the$WPP$provides$when$presenting$these$socioAeconomic$ groups$with$information$about$tertiary$education$(Bonnema$&$Van$der$Waldt,$2008).$ $$$ Creative'Arts'based'interventions'' It$is$within$this$wider$national$framework$that$QUT’s$Creative$Industries$Faculty$ initiated$the$design$and$development$of$a$suite$of$discipline$based$programs.$$Across$the$ university$QUT$has$developed$a$range$of$engagement$strategies$in$its$aim$to$meet$the$ outcomes$of$HEPPP.$The$university’s$commitment$to$social$inclusion$meant$that$some$ strategies$were$already$in$place,$and$in$some$cases,$these$could$be$built$upon.$New$ strategies$were$introduced$such$as$the$‘Explore$Uni$Days’,$where$school$students$visit$ QUT$campuses$and$experience$discipline$based$workshops,$talks$about$university$life$ from$various$perspectives$and$undertake$campus$tours.$Other$strategies$are$aimed$at$ increasing$student$retention,$such$as$reviewing$admissions$policies,$career$counselling$ and$bursaries.$Some$budgetary$and$development$responsibility$is$devolved$to$the$ faculties$to$implement$HEPPP$objectives,$providing$funds$on$an$annual$basis$and$over$ an$initial$threeAyear$period.$A$faculty$HEPPP$coordinator$is$responsible$for$the$initiation,$ development$and$management$of$programs.$The$brief$to$the$faculties$is$broad,$providing$

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Emma$Felton,$Krystle$Vichie$&$Eloise$Moore$

$ ample$autonomy$to$develop$programs,$as$each$faculty$considers$the$best$way$to$achieve$ the$program’s$goals.$ $$ In$2012,$QUT’s$Creative$Industries$Faculty$commenced$its$Widening$Participation$ programs.$The$faculty$is$large,$with$20$subAdisciplines$across$performance$studies,$ visual$arts$and$interactive$and$visual$design,$music,$media,$journalism,$creative$writing$ and$several$design$industries$including$architecture,$interior$and$industrial$design.$ Currently$ten$inAschool$programs$are$offered$in$the$disciplines$of$design,$dance,$drama,$ entertainment,$fashion,$creative$writing,$media$and$communication$and$digital$ storytelling.$QUT$undergraduate$and$postgraduate$students,$recommended$by$academic$ staff$deliver$the$Faculties’$programs$both$in$school$and$on$campus.$Students$receive$ some$informal$training$and$the$programs$are$overseen$by$the$Widening$Participation$ coordinator$(an$academic$with$teaching$experience$and$qualifications),$who$also$ debriefs$with$QUT$students$throughout$the$programs’$delivery.$Students$are$paid$for$the$ delivery$of$programs,$which$are$delivered$to$schools$in$QUT’s$Equity$targeted$areas$in$ Brisbane’s$outer$Northern$Region.$Student$involvement$in$Widening$Participation$ provides$students$with$the$benefit$of$professional$learning$and$helps$to$meet$the$ university’s$targets$for$graduate$attributes$of$professional$learning.$$ $ One$of$the$key$distinctions$for$the$Creative$Industries$faculty$is$the$unique$opportunity$ afforded$by$most$of$its$disciplines$for$embodied$and$rich$learning$experiences.$ Embedded$in$several$creative$arts$curricular$is$the$capacity$for$exploration$of$personal$ reflection,$expression$and$performance$through$disciplines$such$as$drama,$dance$and$ the$visual$and$media$arts.$$Creative$arts$based$education$engages$not$only$with$cognitive$ and$skills$based$learning,$but$also$significantly$with$the$emotional$dimension$of$students.$ This$type$of$learning$can$provide$students$with$‘…strategies$for$exploring$and$ expressing$emotions$(with$an)$emphasis$on$time$for$reflection$and$constructive$ feedback’$(Ewing,$2010,$p.25).$It$is$the$expressive$and$affective$characteristics$that$ produce$the$potential$for$‘transformative$learning’$to$occur$in$which$students$may$ experience$deep$structural$shifts$in$attitudes$and$beliefs$(Mezirow,$2003).$Programs$ that$work$across$both$affective$and$cognitive$domains$and$that$offer$the$capacity$for$ authentic$levels$of$engagement$increase$the$likelihood$of$attitudinal$and$behavioural$ change,$creating$the$potential$for$truly$life$shifting$attitudes$(Holloway$&$Krensky,$2001).$

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Emma$Felton,$Krystle$Vichie$&$Eloise$Moore$

$ This$is$particularly$useful$for$Widening$Participation’s$target$students$who$might$not$ see$the$value$of$tertiary$education$and$whose$families$and$local$communities$may$ endorse$this$view.$Research$also$shows$that$creative$education$provides$opportunities$ for$less$motivated$students$to$achieve$academically$in$an$enjoyable$learning$experience$ as$it$centralizes$strengths$and$intelligences$other$curriculum$areas$undervalue$(Ewing,$ 2010).$$ $$ Advertising'program'case'study:'methods$$ The$Creative$Industries$Faculties’$Widening$Participation$programs$are$significantly$ immersive,$running$from$three$to$six$week$periods;$as$such$they$differ$from$other$ faculty$programs$which$are$shorter$with$school$visits$limited$to$one$day.$The$extended$ period$of$engagement$enables$time$for$students$to$either$produce$an$artefact$or$a$ performance,$and$we$suggest,$enables$greater$commitment$and$attitudinal$change$in$ part$due$to$the$transformative$capacity$of$creative$arts$based$disciplines.$The$program$ initially$ran$as$a$sixAhour$inAschool$program$and$has$been$delivered$to$six$schools$from$ years$six$to$twelve,$of$221$students$in$total.$ $ Analysis$of$the$advertising$program$focuses$on$the$ways$in$which$the$concepts$of$trust* and$creativity$are$encouraged$to$engender$motivation$and$authentic$engagement$and$ thus$encourage$the$ultimate$aim$–$aspiration$for$university$study$and$optimum$career$ opportunities.$The$program,$‘The$Pitch’$is$very$similar$to$‘The$Pitch’$segment$on$ABC$ television’s$Gruen*Transfer,$in$which$students$learn$the$elements$of$advertising$and$ work$in$groups$to$create$their$own$advertisement$using$moviemaker$software,$for$an$ idea$or$product$that$is$hard$to$sell,$such$as$‘Cancelling$Christmas$or$‘Extending$school$ hours’.$ $$ A$team$comprising$two$third$year$undergraduate$students$(facilitators)$from$Media$and$ Communication$studies$and$two$academics$developed$the$program,$drawing$on$ knowledge$acquired$by$QUT$students$during$their$studies.$Programs$are$designed$with$ consideration$of$the$age$level,$interests$and$environment$of$school$students$to$whom$ they$are$targeted.$The$program$does$more$for$students$than$give$them$a$taste$of$ university;$it$provides$students$with$the$opportunity$to$enhance$their$digital$ competencies,$teamwork$and$creativity,$skills$that$are$increasingly$in$demand$in$

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Emma$Felton,$Krystle$Vichie$&$Eloise$Moore$

$ contemporary$and$emerging$work$places$(Cunningham$&$Bridgstock,$2012).$$While$the$ advertising$program$does$not$require$the$same$level$of$selfAreflection$and$expression$as$ disciplines$such$as$performance$studies,$it$does$nonetheless$demand$a$high$level$of$ creative$thinking,$application$and$teamwork.$$ $$ The$program$commences$with$a$traditionally$structured$lesson,$showing$examples$of$ advertisements$as$a$springboard$for$analysis,$including$discussion$of$target$audiences$ and$how$emotion$is$used$as$technique$of$persuasion.$The$remaining$sessions$are$largely$ unstructured$although$students$are$given$clear$tasks$and$deadlines$for$those$tasks.$The$ first$is$to$complete$a$storyboard,$essential$for$the$students$to$finish$before$they$are$able$ to$take$photos$or$shoot$video$for$their$ads.$Working$in$groups,$students$develop$a$ PowerPoint$to$accompany$their$advertisement$for$their$final$pitch.$In$the$final$session$ the$students$present$their$advertisements$and$pitch$to$the$QUT$facilitators,$who$are$ representatives$of$the$mock$‘QUT$advertising$board’.$$$ $ All$Widening$Participation$programs$in$the$faculty$are$evaluated$in$line$with$the$ university$wide$evaluation$methodologies.$At$the$conclusion$of$a$program$staff$and$ students$complete$a$oneApage$anonymous$survey$that$encourages$reflection$on$the$ learning$experience$and$seeks$to$determine$in$what$ways$the$experience$may$have$ changed$their$perspective$on$their$attitudes$about$their$future.$The$survey$asks$ questions$about$the$students’$knowledge$of$university$before$the$program,$what$they$ learnt,$how$they$feel$about$university$and$their$knowledge$of$it$after$the$program,$and$ how$the$program$could$be$improved.$Ethnographic$fieldwork$is$conducted$by$ facilitators$who$spend$substantial$time$with$students,$including$before$and$after$the$ formal$part$of$the$program.$The$facilitators$are$involved$in$discussions$with$students$ and$staff$and$are$privy$to$much$informal$communication$and$behaviour.$Field$notes$ were$recorded.$ $$ For$our$analysis$we$chose$two$participating$high$schools,$first$to$identify$the$extent$to$ which$the$programs$met$the$objectives$of$the$HEPPP$initiative,$and$second,$to$ investigate$in$what$ways$building$creativity$and$trust$enabled$us$to$meet$those$ objectives.$The$two$schools$chosen$had$similar$modes$of$delivery$with$School$A’s$ program$conducted$at$the$school$for$one$hour$a$week$over$six$weeks,$and$School$B$

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Emma$Felton,$Krystle$Vichie$&$Eloise$Moore$

$ received$two$twoAhour$sessions$in$school$to$complete$their$advertisements.$$School$A$ involved$a$year$10$English$class$of$28$students,$as$a$supplementary$activity$at$the$end$of$ Term$4$that$did$not$form$part$of$assessment.$The$subject$matter$of$advertisements$or$ the$$‘unsellables’$were$to$Increase*school*hours*adding*a*half6day*on*Saturday$and$ Increase*the*learner*driver*age*to*18.$School$B$was$delivered$to$16$Year$10$students$as$ part$of$their$business$studies$and$was$a$preliminary$activity$to$an$assessment.$The$ ‘unsellables’$were:$Cancel*Christmas$and$Increase*school*hours*adding*a*half6day*on* Saturday.**Students$used$QUT’s$digital$storytelling$kits$(a$Macbook,$digital$camera$and$ voice$recorder)$to$work$on$their$advertisements,$taking$photos,$shooting$footage$and$ compiling$their$advertisements.$The$program$ended$with$a$presentation$of$all$the$ advertisements$and$their$pitches.$$ $$ Another$model$of$delivery$combines$a$school$based$and$on$campus$experience,$where$ students$are$bussed$to$a$QUT$campus$for$the$day$to$complete$their$program.$Here$ they$,participate$in$campus$tours$and$experience$university$life$for$the$day.$Evaluations$ and$informal$feedback$from$teachers$indicate$that$the$campus$experience$is$highly$ valued$by$students.$The$university’s$target$schools$are$located$in$Brisbane’s$outer$ northern$suburbs$and$many$school$students$rarely,$sometimes$never,$visit$the$city.$The$ change$of$location$and$experience$of$coming$to$university,$working$for$the$day$and$ exploring$the$campus$can$provide$significant$motivation$and$encouragement.$ $ Analysis$ Our$analysis$is$situated$within$a$framework$of$the$two$key$concepts$which$were$formed$ from$evidence$that$emerged$during$fieldwork.$On$critical$reflection$from$their$ experience$with$students$in$the$classroom,$the$two$program$facilitators$identified$the$ importance$of$trust$and$creativity$as$central$concepts$to$meeting$the$objectives$of$the$ program.$Both$were$crucial$to$student$engagement$in$the$activities$and$receptivity$to$the$ ideas$discussed,$not$just$in$relation$to$the$program,$but$also$in$the$macro$and$more$ subtle$message$of$university$aspiration$and$awareness$about$career$outcomes.$We$ define$the$concepts$in$detail$below,$and$discuss$the$ways$in$which$they$are$relevant$to$ the$Widening$Participation$program’s$impact$on$school$students.$ * Creativity'

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Emma$Felton,$Krystle$Vichie$&$Eloise$Moore$

$ Creativity$is$a$frequently$used$term$with$a$multitude$of$definitions$and$approaches$with$ widespread$use$in$discourses$of$education,$technology,$psychology.$$We$refer$to$ creativity$here,$as$the$ability$to$create$something$new$or$unique,$which$frequently$ involves$some$sort$of$artistic$expression$and$the$production$of$an$artefact$(an$ad$ campaign$or$a$song$for$instance).$For$Makel$and$Plucker$(2008),$as$a$learning$construct,$ creativity$allows$students$to$learn$more$effectively,$as$they$must$understand$what$they$ are$learning$in$order$to$replicate$and$innovate$on$their$own$terms.$Furthermore,$a$ fusion$of$the$central$learning$objectives$for$the$program$is$that$‘collaborative$creativity’,$ that$is,$‘encouraging$(students)$to$evaluate$their$own$ideas$and$the$ideas$of$others’$ (Craft,$2005,$p.74)$is$encouraged$throughout$the$program.$ $$ Creativity,$collaboration$and$digital$literacy$are$the$central$learning$tenants$of$the$ advertising$program,$which$challenges$students$to$develop$and$create$their$own$ advertising$concept$using$a$combination$of$images$and$sound.$Students$are$provided$ with$a$context$for$creative$expression$in$a$semiAstructured$way,$allowing$space$for$ creative$collaboration$and$reflection.$The$advertising$program$is$often$incorporated$into$ English$classes$and$studies$have$demonstrated$a$link$between$creativity$and$learning$in$ English$at$a$secondary$level,$in$that$students$develop$a$better$understanding$of$concepts$ by$creatively$replicating$them$$(McCallum,$2012).$Understanding$the$strategies$of$ advertising,$watching$and$discussing$examples$of$advertisements$and$the$ABC’s$ program,$the$Gruen*Transfer’s*‘Pitch’,$provides$a$scaffold$from$which$students$can$ navigate$their$own$creative$path$by$reAcreating$an$advertisement$of$their$own.$ $ Students$have$the$opportunity$to$further$develop$digital$literacy$skills$that$help$to$equip$ them$with$the$knowledge$required$to$communicate$with$digital$tools$and$express$ themselves$creatively$(SeftonAGreen$&$Sinker,$2000).$The$program$requires$students$to$ express$their$ideas$in$a$digital$format,$appropriate$and$relevant$to$the$new$media$world$ they$are$growing$up$in.$$As$schools$are$part$of$an$acculturation$and$social$process$which$ equips$students$to$active$and$functional$members$of$society,$it$is$important$to$gain$skills$ in$digital$communication$and$multiAmedia$expression.$ $$ The$delivery$of$the$program$by$university$students$(facilitators)$rather$than$traditional$ teachers$tends$to$produce$a$more$relaxed$classroom$environment.$$The$facilitators$are$

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Emma$Felton,$Krystle$Vichie$&$Eloise$Moore$

$ similar$in$age$to$many$of$the$senior$school$students$and$their$educational$experience$is$ closer$to$those$of$the$students$they$teach.$When$the$program$is$delivered$by$student$ facilitators$rather$than$teachers,$the$relative$freedom$from$traditional$assessment$and$ critique,$disciplinary$techniques,$and$the$expectations$of$a$daily$classroom$experience,$ the$opportunity$exists$to$create$a$unique$learning$environment.$$A$student$is$more$likely$ to$be$selfAconfident$and$willing$to$take$risks$in$an$open$and$nurturing$environment$ (Cropley,$2001).$Therefore$it$is$important$to$foster$openness$that$helps$to$generate$an$ environment$which$leads$to$creativity$(Cropley,$2001).$In$the$Widening$Participation$ program,$this$is$largely$achieved$through$fostering$acceptance$and$a$positive$ environment$in$the$classroom.$ $ Most$students$from$both$schools$produced$original,$persuasive$and$technically$ accomplished$advertisements.$In$evaluations,$a$small$number$of$students$(14.6%)$noted$ that$creativity$was$one$of$the$best$elements$of$the$program$but$the$comments$section$of$ the$survey$suggested$that$this$element$was$more$appreciated$than$the$percentage$ indicates.$When$asked$what$they$most$enjoyed$most$about$the$program,$students$noted$ ‘the$creative$things$we$came$up$with,’$‘I$have$learnt$a$lot$in$this$program$like$the$creative$ part,’$and$‘the$creativity$of$the$program,$the$whole$idea$of$selling$the$unsellable.’$A$ learning$strategy$that$students$identified$as$one$of$the$best$attributes$of$the$program$ was$group$work,$where$all$students$worked$in$groups$of$three$to$five.$Teams$working$ collaboratively$can$harbour$substantial$talents$and$creativity,$and$their$combined$efforts$ can$produce$significant$results$(Dzurick,$2001).$Students$reflected$that$some$of$the$main$ skills$they$developed$were$‘the$skills$and$teamwork$we$have$learnt,’$‘how$to$work$in$a$ group,’$and$‘good$opportunity$to$do$team$work.’$Students$overall$stated$that$‘[the$ program]$was$fun$and$different.’$ $$ Trust' $It$is$almost$a$truism$to$say$that$a$leader$or$teacher$of$students$can$only$be$effective$once$ students’$trust$and$respect$is$gained.$The$term$trust$is$used$in$psychology$and$social$ sciences$to$refer$to$a$dynamic$of$interApersonal$relationships$and$can$mean$a$belief$in$ the$honesty,$integrity$and$benevolence$of$another$person.$It$implies$belief$in$the$ competence$of$the$other$person.$While$the$importance$of$trust$is$evident$enough,$it$is$ not$always$easy$to$achieve,$particularly$for$people$who$are$inexperienced$in$working$

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Emma$Felton,$Krystle$Vichie$&$Eloise$Moore$

$ with$school$age$students.$The$programs$success$relies$to$a$large$extent$on$the$ commitment$and$integrity$of$facilitators$for$effective$delivery,$when$they$frequently$ have$had$very$little$training$or$experience$with$school$students.$Although$some$training$ is$provided,$the$facilitators$must$mostly$‘learn$on$the$job’.$The$development$of$trust$is$ therefore$something$that$needs$to$be$established$straight$away,$as$Gregory$observes:$ ‘…students$begin$making$judgments$not$only$about$trustworthiness$and$respect$but$also$ about$competence,$commitment,$dedication,$and$fairness$from$the$moment$the$teacher$ walks$into$the$classroom$on$the$very$first$day…’(2001,$p.78).$ $ Indeed,$the$facilitators$in$this$study$soon$found$that$the$ability$to$gain$trust$and$respect$ with$school$students$was$fundamental$to$students’$effective$engagement$with$the$ program;$it.could$mean$the$difference$between$success$and$failure.$Facilitators$found$ the$best$way$to$achieve$respect$was$to$show$themselves$as$capable,$knowledgeable$and$ approachable$people.$If$students$feel$comfortable$in$the$classroom$they$will$talk$openly,$ ask$questions$and$engage$with$the$material.$Creative$and$arts$based$education$in$ particular,$that$has$the$ability$to$build$‘positive$personal$relationships$(between$ students$and)$adults$(the$latter$of$which)$can$represent$and$model$proAsocial$values$and$ offer$respect$to$the$young$person’$(Kinder$&$Harland,$2004,$p.53).$One$of$the$ways$the$ facilitators$made$an$effort$to$earn$trust$was$by$learning$and$referring$to$students$by$ their$names,$and$taking$a$guiding$role$rather$than$a$disciplined$teaching$role.$$Issues$of$ trust$and$respect$are$perhaps$more$salient$among$many$students$from$lower$socioA economic$areas$because$there$may$be$students$who$have$few$or$no$role$models$they$can$ look$up$to$for$guidance$(James,$2002).$$ $ In$order$for$this$relationship$of$trust$to$be$gained,$the$presenter’s$and$the$audiences’$ objectives$must$be$aligned$(Weissman,$2009).$Consequently$it$is$important$to$present$ material$in$such$a$way$that$the$messages$resonate$with$students$(Coopman$and$Lull,$ 2009).$If$this$initial$engagement$is$achieved,$there$is$more$of$a$possibility$to$‘…create$ students$who$are$willing$to$take$the$risk$of$real$engagement,$the$risk$of$failure,$and$the$ commitment$to$practice...’(Gregory,$2001,$p.83).$Arguably,$creative$arts$teaching$with$its$ focus$on$ideas,$tolerance$and$expression$more$readily$lends$itself$to$inclusive$ behaviours$in$the$classroom$than$some$other$subjects.$Studies$have$shown$that$art$ teaching$is$often$imbued$with$strategies$and$behaviour$that$encourages$inclusion,$

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Emma$Felton,$Krystle$Vichie$&$Eloise$Moore$

$ focusing$on$respect$and$encouragement$(Kinder$&$Harland,$2004).$The$students$in$the$ study$responded$well$to$this$safe$environment$as$they$mostly$engaged$with$the$program$ from$the$first$session.$One$student$noted:$‘[In$the$program$we’re]$able$to$do$many$things.$ You're$not$restricted$too$much.’$Embedded$in$the$program$curriculum$was$also$to$the$ idea$to$challenge$students$by$tacitly$raising$awareness$about$university$and$ demonstrating$that$university$study$is$possible$for$them,$and$has$the$potential$for$life$ changing$outcomes.$Several$students$picked$up$on$this,$with$comments$such$as:$‘It$is$a$ great$opportunity$for$students$to$learn$more$about$uni$assessment$and$to$have$fun.’$ $$ Reflecting$on$their$most$memorable$experiences$of$the$program,$one$student$ commented,$‘The$instructors$are$very$helpful.$It$was$interesting$and$fun$to$create$a$ video$advertisement.’$Another$student$similarly$reflected$‘This$program$was$fun$and$ allowed$me$to$learn$more$about$doing$a$business$subject$at$uni.’$$Comments$such$as$this$ highlight$the$effective$approach$the$facilitators$used$to$create$a$relationship$with$ students$that$allowed$them$to$engage$in$the$program$in$a$positive$way.$Further$evidence$ is$in$students’$responses$when$asked$about$their$favourite$elements$of$the$programs$as$ they$generally$thought$it$was$‘fun,$different$from$normal$classes$and$interesting’.$ Students$were$also$asked$to$give$feedback$about$how$the$program$could$be$improved.$ Several$(43.7%)$School$B$students$suggested$more$time$would$have$been$good,$but$the$ majority$of$students$said$that$nothing$could$be$improved:$‘…it’s$great.’$ $$ Despite$the$evidence$of$positive$relationships,$many$of$the$boys$in$the$School$A$class$ exhibited$disruptive$behaviour.$$It$is$not$uncommon$for$facilitators$to$confront$preA existing$behavioural$problems$that$can$be$difficult$to$address$in$the$short$time$they$are$ at$the$school.$$Similarly$there$were$students$who$appeared$to$limit$themselves$creatively$ according$to$who$was$in$their$group,$how$they$fitted$in$the$class$cohort,$and$what$their$ peers$deemed$socially$acceptable.$Initially$extrinsic$motivation$was$used$for$many$of$the$ groups$with$the$announcement$of$prizes$for$the$various$types$of$involvement$and$best$ advertisement$and$presentation,$which$generated$enthusiasm$at$the$beginning.$One$of$ the$most$unexpected$observations$made$by$the$facilitators$is$that$it$became$evident$that$ what$mattered$to$the$students$was$that$the$facilitators$knew$their$names$and$addressed$ them$personally$and$were$interested$in$their$work.$This$tended$to$have$the$effect$of$ enhancing$their$engagement$and$emphasizes$the$importance$of$the$relationship$

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Emma$Felton,$Krystle$Vichie$&$Eloise$Moore$

$ between$student$and$facilitator.$ $$ Alternatively$School$B$Students$were$well$behaved$and$were$responsive$from$the$outset$ making$it$relatively$easy$to$establish$trust$and$respect.$The$quality$of$advertisements$ reflected$their$level$of$engagement$and$enthusiasm,$while$many$asked$for$advice$on$ university$courses,$entry$requirements$and$so$forth.$$ $$ Students’'reflections' The$program$aimed$to$show$students$the$possibilities$university$offers$through$courses$ and$career$opportunities,$and$that$university$is$an$option$for$many$people,$not$just$the$ ‘smartest’$people$in$the$class.$It$was$evident$from$the$one$page$survey$administered$at$ the$completion$of$each$program$that$students$in$both$schools$had$widely$varying$ attitudes$towards$university$and$tertiary$education$prior$to$the$program.$ $ The$survey$asks$a$range$of$questions$about$students’$perceptions$of$university,$including$ what$they$knew$about$university$prior$to$the$program,$what$they$found$out$about$ university$after$the$program$and$whether$they$consider$it$possible$to$go$to$university.$ Students$rated$their$responses:$agree,$not$sure$and$disagree.$They$are$also$asked$what$ they$like$and$dislike$about$the$program$in$short$answer$format$and$were$asked$to$rate$it$ on$a$scale$of$one$to$five,$with$five$being$‘awesome’.$ $ While$numerous$students$had$ideas$about$university,$not$many$considered$it$an$option$ for$their$future.$Students$were$generally$able$to$identify$learning$something$about$QUT$ and$university$in$general$and$advertising$and$making$advertisements.$Responses$overall$ varied,$with$100%$of$School$A’s$year$10s$and$75%$of$School$B’s$year$10s,$identifying$ learning$something$valuable$about$university$and$about$$advertising$a$result$that$ indicates$a$strong$level$of$engagement.$Students$noted$other$things$they$learnt,$such$as$ ‘teamwork’,$‘that$schoolwork$can$be$fun’$and$‘how$to$make$an$ad,$what$uni$is$all$about$ [and]$anyone$can$go$to$uni.’$$ $ The$key$questions$aimed$to$measure$the$impact$of$the$program$for$raising$aspiration$ and$knowledge$about$tertiary$study$are:$before*this*program,*I*knew*a*lot*about*uni*in$ which$45.8%$of$School$A’s$year$10$and$43.75%$of$School$B’s$year$10$students$agreed$

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Emma$Felton,$Krystle$Vichie$&$Eloise$Moore$

$ that$they$knew$‘a$lot’$about$university.$When$asked$to$respond$to$the$statement,*after* this*program*I'm*motivated*to*do*my*best*at*school*so*I*have*more*choices*when*I*leave,$ 57.1%$of$School$A$year$10$students$agreed,$and$81.3%$of$School$B’s$year$10$students$ agreed.$When$asked$to$respond$to$the$statement$after*this*program,*I*think*it’s*possible* for*me*to*go*to*uni,$75%$of$both$School$A’s$and$School$B’s$year$10$students$agreed.$ Nonetheless$there$were$still$Year$10$students$who$were$not$persuaded$university$was$a$ place$for$them,$citing$reasons$such$as$$it’s$‘waste$of$time’,$‘pointless’$and$‘I’m$too$dumb$ anyway’.$There$were$however,$many$comments$indicating$the$contrary$to$negative$ views$about$the$value$of$university,$or$selfAperceptions$about$the$ability$to$undertake$ university$study.$One$student$described$how$the$program$had$demonstrated$to$them$ ‘how$good$the$uni$is$(and)$the$different$uni$courses$I$could$do.’$This$was$shared$by$other$ students$who$stated,$‘(The$program)$is$fun$and$encourages$us$to$go$(to$uni).’$The$ facilitators$observed$that$students$in$years$10A12$compared$with$those$in$the$lower$ grades$are$more$likely$to$speak$to$them$about$options$at$university$and$then$follow$up$ with$their$own$research.$$ $ In$response$to$the$question$what*do*you*like*about*the*program?$students$had$varying$ responses$generally$with$the$same$positive$theme:$‘That$it$is$very$educational,$that$it$is$ important…$I$should$try$to$go$to$uni,’$5$year$10$students$explicitly$stated,$$‘…anyone$can$ go$to$uni.’$Overall$ratings$of$the$advertising$program$by$both$school$students$and$staff$ indicate$a$very$positive$learning$experience,$with$an$average$rating$of$3.90$on$a$scale$of$ five.$$$ $$ Clearly,$short$interventions$such$as$the$advertising$program$are$part$of$a$broader,$ sustained$strategy$to$target$school$students$over$a$period$of$years$and$as$such$the$value$ of$interventions$are$not$easily$recognized$in$isolation.$$Given$the$constraints$of$time$and$ the$level$of$engagement$with$schools,$it$can$be$seen$that$the$advertising$program$clearly$ did$raise$awareness$and$aspiration$among$many$of$the$students$–$at$least$at$the$time$of$ the$survey$–$for$university$study.$Consistent$follow$up$with$similar$interventions$across$ the$primary$and$secondary$school$life$of$students$is$required$to$maintain$awareness$and$ motivation$for$the$opportunities$post$secondary$education$can$provide.$ $ Conclusion'$

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Emma$Felton,$Krystle$Vichie$&$Eloise$Moore$

$ In$order$to$help$address$social$and$structural$inequalities$by$providing$greater$ opportunities$for$career$pathways,$some$form$of$post$secondary$education$is$imperative.$ The$Federal$government’s$Widening$Participation$Program$is$an$important$part$of$ shaping$the$aspirations$and$outcomes$of$future$of$students$in$lower$socioAeconomic$ areas$and$thus$in$shaping$the$future$of$the$country.$As$a$long$term,$nationwide$policy$ strategy,$the$program$has$the$potential$to$meet$its$targets$and$to$have$an$impact$on$the$ lives$of$many$students.$$QUT’s$Creative$Industries$faculty’s$arts$based$programs,$have$ the$potential$to$produce$transformative$learning$experiences,$aligning$with$Widening$ Participation’s$goal$for$attitudinal$change.$The$Advertising$$program$provides$students$ with$an$engaging$and$creative$activity,$which$is$also$embedded$in$the$National$ Curriculum.$$The$value$of$creative$arts$based$education$is$manifold,$with$its$capacity$to:$ engage$students$through$‘non$academic’$activities,$to$foster$transformational$learning$ and$attitudinal$change,$and$the$ability$to:$“(develop)$transferable$skills$to$the$workplace,$ enhanced$employability,$increased$creativity,$increased$enjoyment$of$arts$activities$and$ stimulated$lifeAlong$interest$in$culture$and$the$arts”$(Ewing,$2010,$p.49).$$$$ $ Widening$Participation$works$on$both$a$skills$base$and$tacit$level,$providing$an$ enjoyable$learning$experience$conducted$by$university$students$who$are$similar$in$age$ to$school$students,$while$addressing$the$larger$question$of$university$participation$and$ its$accessibility$for$students$who$might$have$dismissed$the$idea.$The$less$formal$and$ open$environment$enables$students$to$feel$at$ease$with$facilitators$and$by$example$and$ modelling,$can$generate$a$genuine$interest$in$university$study.$Evaluation$data$and$ ethnographic$fieldwork$shows$that$many$students$did$become$more$aware$of$university$ as$a$result$of$the$program,$and$that$this$will$need$to$be$built$upon$with$follow$up$ interventions.$The$program$is$an$active$example$of$creative$arts$education$that$has$“the$ potential$to$offer$cultural,$educational$and$even$economic$inclusion”$(Kinder$&$Harland,$ 2004,$54).$$$ ' ' ' ' ' '

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$ ' References$ Australian$Bureau$of$Statistics.$(2009).$Perspectives*on*Education*and*Training:*Social* Inclusion,*2009.$Retrieved$from$ http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/[email protected]f/Lookup/4250.0.55.001Main+Features3200 9$ $ Bonnema,$J.$&$Van$der$Waldt,$D.L.R.$(2008).$Information$and$Source$Preferences$of$a$ Student$Market$in$Higher$Education.$The*International*Journal*of*Educational* Management,*22(4),$314A327.$doi:$10.1108/09513540810875653$ $ Coopman,$S.J.$&$Lull,$J.$(2009).$Public*Speaking:*The*Evolving*Art.*Boston:$Wadsworth$ Cengage$Learning.' $$ Craft,$A.$(2005).$Creativity*in*Schools:*Tensions*and*Dilemmas.$New$York:$Routledge.$ $$ Cropley,$A.J.$(2001).$Creativity*in*Education*and*learning:*A*guide*for*teachers*and* educators.$London:$Kogan$Page.$$$ $ Cunningham,$S.$&$Bridgstock,$R.$(2012).$Say$goodbye$to$the$fries:$Graduate$careers$in$ media,$cultural$and$communication$studies.$Media*International*Australia,*Incorporating* Culture*&*Policy,$145(Nov$2012),$6A17.$Retrieved$from$Informit:$ http://search.informit.com.au.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/documentSummary;dn=992176 695295982;res=IELLCC$ $ Department$of$Education,$Employment$and$Workplace$Relations.$(2009).$Measuring*the* Socio6economic*Status*of*Higher*Education*Students.$Retrieved$from$Department$of$ Education,$Employment$and$Workplace$Relations:$$ http://www.innovation.gov.au/highereducation/Equity/HigherEducationParticipation AndPartnershipsProgram/Pages/default.aspx$ $ Drake,$G.$(2003).$This$Place$Gives$Me$Space:$Place$and$Creativity$in$the$Creative$ Industries.$Geoforum,$34(4),$511A524.$doi:$10.1016/S0016A7185(03)00029A0$

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$ $ Dzurick,$D.$(2001).$Who’s*Watching*the*Store?*The*Great*American*Teamwork*and* Creativity*Giveaway$(Doctoral$dissertation).$Retrieved$from$ http://search.proquest.com/docview/304777652?accountid=13380.$(304777652)$ $ Ewing,$R.$(2010).$The$Arts$and$Australian$Education:$Realising$Potential.$Australian* Education*Review,*58.$Retrieved$from$http://www.acer.edu.au/documents/AERA58.pdf.$ $$ Fuller,$C.$(2014).$Social$Capital$and$the$role$of$trust$in$aspirations$for$higher$education.$ Educational*Review,*66(2),$131A147.$doi:$10.1080/00131911.2013.768956$ $ $GalindoARueda,$F.,$MarcenaroAGutierrez,$O.$&$Vignoles,$A.$(2004).$The*Widening*Socio6 economic*Gap*in*UK*Higher*Education.*Retrieved$from$The$London$School$of$Economics$ and$Political$Science$ http://www.lse.ac.uk/intranet/LSEServices/ERD/pressAndInformationOffice/PDF/Hig herEducationPaperJuneAmended.pdf$ $ Gregory,$M.W.$(2001).$Curriculum,$Pedagogy,$and$Teacherly$Ethos.$Pedagogy:*Critical* Approaches*to*Teaching,*Literature,*Language,*Composition,*and*Culture,*1(1),$69A89.$ Retrieved$from$Ebsco$Host,$Accession$no:$9317900.$ $ Hillmert,$S.$&$Jacob,$M.$(2010).$Selections$and$Social$Selectivity$on$the$Academic$Track:$A$ LifeACourse$Analysis$of$Educational$Attainment$in$Germany.$New*Directions*in*Education* Transitions*Research,*28(1),$59A76.$doi:$10.1016/j.rssm.2009.12.006$ $$ Holloway,$D.$&$Krensky,$B.$(2001).$Introduction:$The$Arts,$Urban$Education$and$Social$ Change.$Education*and*Urban*Society,*33(4),$354A365.$doi:$10.1177/0013124501334002$ $ Kinder,$K.$&$Harland,$J.$(2004).$The$arts$and$social$inclusion:$what’s$the$evidence?$ Support*for*Learning$19(2),$52A56.$doi:$10.1111/j.0268A2141.2004.00320.x$ $ McCallum,$A.$(2012).$Creativity*and*learning*in*secondary*English:*Teaching*for*a*creative* classroom.*Hoboken:$Taylor$and$Francis.$

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$ $ McLaughlin,$P.,$Mills,$A.,$Davis,$P.,$Saha,$S.,$Smith,$P.$&$Hardie,$M.$(2013).$Lifelong* learning*pathways.*Addressing*participation*and*diversity*in*higher*education.*Retrieved$ from$Office$for$Learning$and$Teaching$ http://www.olt.gov.au/system/files/resources/CG10_1504_McLaughlin_Report_2013.p df$ $$ Machin,$S.$(2006),$Social*Disadvantage*and*Education*Experiences.$(OECD$Social,$ Employment$and$Migration$Working$Papers,$No.$32).$Retrieved$from$OECD$ http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/13/60/36165298.pdf$ $ Makel,$M.$&$Plucker,$J.$(2008).$Ch.$13:$Creativity.$In$S.$Pfeiffer$(Ed.),$Handbook*of* Giftedness*in*Children:*Psycho6educational*Theory,*Research,*and*Best*Practices*[EBL$ Version].$247A270.$Retrieved$from$http://www.eblib.com$ $$ Marks,$G.,$Fleming,$N.,$Long,$M.$&$McMillan,$J.$$(2000).$Patterns$of$participation$in$year$ 12$and$higher$education$in$Australia:$trends$and$issues".$(LSAY$Research$Reports.$ Longitudinal$surveys$of$Australian$youth$research$report$no.$17).$Retrieved$from$ Australian$Council$for$Educational$Research$ http://research.acer.edu.au/lsay_research/66$$ $ Mezirow,$J.$(2003).$Transformative$Learning$as$Discourse.$Journal*of*Transformative* Education,$1(1),$58A63.$doi:$10.1177/1541344603252172$ $$ Richard,$J.$(2002).$Socioeconomic*Background*and*Higher*Education*Participation:*An* analysis*of*school*students’*aspirations*and*expectations.$(Evaluations$and$Investigations$ Programme;$no.$02/05).*Retrieved$from$VOCED$Plus$ http://www.voced.edu.au/content/ngv2433.$$$ $ SeftonAGreen,$J.$&$Sinker,$R.$(2000).$Evaluating*creativity:*making*and*learning*by*young* people.*London:$Routledge.$$ $ Weissman,$J.$(2009).$Presenting*to*Win:!The*Art*of*Telling*Your*Story,*Updated*and*

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