THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS I O W A
C H A P T E R
Celebrating the Past, Designing the Future | 1857 - 2007
This year, the members of the American Institute of Architects mark the AIA’s 150 years of service to the profession and the nation. On February 23, 1857, thirteen architects met in an office in New York City to form what would become The American Institute of Architects. The group sought to create an architecture organization that would “promote the scientific and practical perfection of its members” and “elevate the standing of the profession.” Today, the AIA has more than 300 components in the United States and its territories, as well as in the United Kingdom, Continental Europe, and Hong Kong. This includes the Iowa Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, established in 1904 and headquartered in Des Moines. AIA members share a commitment to producing excellence in design and helping our state and our nation create better places to live, work, and play.
TOP LEFT: Old Capitol, Iowa City, OPN Architects Inc. Photo by Tom Langdon Photography TOP CENTER: Pappajohn Higher Education Center, Des Moines, Herbert Lewis Kruse Blunck Architecture Photo by Farshid Assassi, Hon. AIA, Assassi Productions TOP RIGHT: Citizens Community Center, Huxley, Wells+ Associates Photo by Timothy Hursley BOTTOM: School of Art , University of Iowa, Iowa City, Stephen Holl / Herbert Lewis Kruse Blunck Architecture Photo by Andy Ryan Photography
Architecture of the Century In 2004 a panel of distinguished Iowans selected 50 buildings that represent the best of Iowa Architecture, 1900-1999. The buildings selected celebrate a small portion of Iowa’s exceptional architecture and the high quality of the communities which created them. 1900 St. Paul's Episcopal Church Proudfoot & Bird Harlan
1903 Des Moines Public Library Smith & Gutterson Des Moines
1905 Kendall Young Library Patton & Miller Webster City
1906 Polk County Courthouse Proudfoot & Bird Des Moines
1909 City National Bank Building / Park Inn Hotel Frank Lloyd Wright Mason City
Architects … more than designers of buildings AIA architects advocate design excellence for a better, more sustainable, more economically vibrant Iowa Through education and professional training architects are … perceptive listeners, planners, problem solvers, creative thinkers and pragmatic visionaries who, as advocates for their clients, are facilitators of a planning and design process focused on place-making and creating better places to live, work and play. As organizers of both internal and external space, architects are responsible for creating a sense of place in the communities they serve. The American Institute of Architects, Iowa Chapter (AIA Iowa) has established an advocacy platform which embraces many of the issues important to the economic viability of Iowa as identified in the “Iowa 2010 Plan”promoted by Iowans for a Better Future. AIA Iowa advocates a holistic approach to the planning, design and construction process; this approach embraces the principles of sustainability to create more livable communities. These communities are of the highest quality that will meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
the quality of life for all Iowans will be realized and Iowa could be recognized as America’s Most Livable State.
Quality Design Design is both a process and a product, which in the context of architecture and the built environment has a significant impact on quality of life issues that touch all of us where we live, work and play. Investment in a well-designed Iowa will benefit all Iowans by attracting new businesses, residents and visitors to Iowa; by creating a positive socio-economic and cultural impact on our communities; and, by sustaining economic growth and vitality through environmentally and ecologically sensitive and responsive solutions.
So what is AIA Iowa doing to promote our advocacy positions? AIA Iowa is collaborating with other agencies and associations representing the myriad of elected officials, appointees and professionals within government, planning, development, design and construction throughout the State of Iowa to help create a win-win for all Iowans.
AIA members have consistently championed the principles of …
Our Goal Sustainability
IOWA — America’s Most Livable State
Preserving Iowa’s rich natural resources for future generations will require a conscious, holistic approach to integrating energy efficiency, utilizing resources responsibly and creating a symbiotic relationship between the built and natural environments.To accomplish this, we need: 1) new regulations governing project delivery—from planning through construction, 2) the establishment of design and construction requirements to meet an industry-wide acceptable minimum standard of energy, and 3) environmental and land use. These new standards should apply to all public architecture in Iowa, including all State-owned buildings and public schools, to ensure that all Iowans, present and future, are the benefactors of the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental benefits that are gained.
So how is AIA Iowa going to help achieve this lofty, yet attainable goal? As an organization, we are supporting efforts and legislation that … • embrace the principles of Green Architecture promoting sustainability and the responsible use of our state resources; • provide for the research and development of alternative and renewable energy sources for use throughout the state; • allocate income tax credits for historic preservation and rehabilitation; • create a state-wide comprehensive energy code and establish an energy fund providing financial assistance to building owners to help offset the additional costs (design, documentation and commissioning) of the design and construction of state-funded projects that meet minimum criteria for energy efficiency and ecologically responsible design and construction.
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Examples of architecture that make Iowa a better, more sustainable, more economically vibrant place to live: TOP: Marion Arts & Entertainment Center, Marion, RDG Planning & Design Photo by Kun Zhang, RDG Planning & Design ABOVE: Grand River Center, Dubuque, HOK Architects (Durrant-Interiors, Steve Ulstad-Landscape) Photo by David Grissel, HOK Architects
Livable Communities Well-planned and well-designed communities must: 1) provide a physical environment that promotes inclusiveness and accessibility; 2) offer affordable, appropriate, and accessible housing; 3) provide accessible, affordable, reliable, and safe alternative transportation systems; 4) promote business, volunteer, and educational
opportunities; 5) provide access to key health and support services; and, 6) encourage participation in civic, cultural, social and recreational activities. Within each of these six areas, a livable community strives to maximize people's independence, assure safety and security, promote inclusiveness and provide choice. As a result, extraordinary improvements in
1910 Iowa State Historical Memorial and Art Building Smith & Gutterson and Smith & Gage Des Moines
1913 Masonic Temple Proudfoot Bird & Rawson Des Moines
1914 Joshua G. Melson House Walter Burley Griffin Architect Mason City
1915 Merchants National Bank Building Louis H. Sullivan Grinnell
1918 Woodbury County Courthouse William Steels and Purcell & Elmslie Sioux City
1920 C.B. Baldwin House G.M. Kerns Farson
1922 Roosevelt High School Proudfoot Bird & Rawson Des Moines
THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS
1923 Equitable Building Proudfoot Bird & Rawson Des Moines
1923 First National Bank Building Frank A. Childs & William Jones Smith Davenport
AIA Iowa thanks the following azsponsors for making this publication possible.
Join Us in Celebrating the Past, Designing the Future | 1857 - 2007 This year, the members of the American Institute of Architects mark the AIA’s 150 years of service to the profession and the nation. You are invited to participate in the special AIA150 celebration.
Online Visit www.IowaArchitecture.org to learn more about contemporary and historical architecture in Iowa. Visit www.AIAIowa.org to learn more about The American Institute of Architects.
At the State Fair Iowa Architecture is a special class in the 2007 Iowa State Fair Photography Salon. All Iowans are invited to participate, and your assignment is to photograph a piece of the built environment within the borders of the state, a place where we live, work, or play. The Iowa Architecture special class is open to both adults and youth, black & white or color photographs. Remember the judges are looking for creativity and entries that convey emotion. The entry deadline is July 1. For more information, visit the Iowa State Fair website at www.iowastatefair.com.
At Your Local Library Local libraries around the state have copies of A Century of Iowa Architecture, a special book focusing on Iowa buildings during the 20th century, in addition to a special architecture puzzle that will be on display this year. If your local library does not have a copy of the book or puzzle display, ask them to contact AIA Iowa to request one!
In a Walking Tour Learn about Des Moines’ history and architectural heritage during the Iowa Architectural Foundation’s Architecture at Hand walking tours. These summer tours are a great way to learn from a local architect what makes Iowa’s capitol unique, and they are perfect for both Des Moines natives who want to learn more about their hometown and for out-oftown visitors who would like to spend a day in the city. Participants may choose from three routes, North, West and Des Moines’ East Village. All tours start at 5:30 p.m. at the Crusoe Umbrella on Nollen Plaza every other Thursday evening starting June 14, 2007. Suggested donation: $10 per person
Tour dates are: • June 14 & 28 • July 12 & 26 • August 9 & 23 • September 6 Walking tours are sponsored by the Iowa Architectural Foundation, an independent, non-profit group dedicated to fostering an appreciation of design excellence and working for preservation of Iowa’s cultural heritage.
In Print Iowa Architect is a national awardwinning magazine published four times a year by AIA Iowa. Each issue includes reviews of new construction and historically significant buildings in Iowa, along with additional information for noteworthy events and achievements in the arts. Subscriptions are available to the public at a cost of $25 per year or $45 for two years. To subscribe, contact AIA Iowa at 515-244-7502 or [email protected]
Why You Should Hire an AIA Architect Architects solve problems in creative ways. An AIA architect… • can see the big picture and create a total environment. • can help you meet your needs and work within your budget and time frame. • has broad knowledge of design and construction. • can show you alternatives and options you might have never thought of on your own. • can save you money. • can design space that meets your needs today and is flexible enough to meet your needs tomorrow. • will provide services that are a wise investment for your money. • will conceive a project that can be built more efficiently and economically. • can design an energy efficient building
that can save you money on fuel bills down the road. • can help you choose materials and finishes that are durable as well as beautiful, saving on frequent maintenance and replacement costs. • looks out for your interests and finds ways to make the building process run smoothly. • can coordinate an appropriate team of quality experts for your project so you don’t have to. • can take a large amount of information and synthesize it into a focus and direction. The architect is the one professional who has the education, training, experience, and vision to guide you through the entire design and construction process by helping you get the most for your construction dollar…good design is good business.
TOP: St. Paul's Lutheran Church, Winterset, RDG Planning & Design Photo by Farshid Assassi, Hon. AIA, Assassi Productions BOTTOM: Novak Residence, Cedar Rapids, Novak Design Group, P.L.C. Photo by Novak Design Group, P.L.C.
Copyright © 2007 AIA Iowa. Publication prepared by the AIA Iowa Public Relations Committee. www.AIAIowa.org
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1928 Salisbury House Boyd & Moore and Rasmussen & Wayland Des Moines
1930 Badgerow Building Knute Westerlind Sioux City
1932 Iowa-Des Moines National Bank Building Proudfoot Rawson Souers & Thomas Des Moines
1935 Grandview Park Band Shell Henry L. Kamphoefner Sioux City
1936 Eagle Point Park Shelters Alfred Caldwell Dubuque
1937 Earl Butler House Kraetsch & Kraetsch Des Moines
1941 High School Auditorium and Gymnasium Thorwald Thorson Ventura
1943 Julien Dubuque Bridge Edward L. Ashton Dubuque
1944 Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Station Holabird & Root Burlington
LEFT: Great places to live provide choices and vibrant public spaces, example: Village of Ponderosa, West Des Moines, BSB Design Rendering by Milo Olea, Olea Studio RIGHT: Good design can revitalize urban centers, example: Durrant Office, Des Moines, Durrant Photo by Rick Peters, InsideOut Studios
Livable Community = a well-planned, welldesigned community that supports inclusiveness, accessibility, affordability, health, and opportunity for all; a great place to live
Iowa: Becoming America’s Best Place to Live By Matt Cole, AIA and Tim Hielkema, AIA
What will it take to make Iowa America’s Most Livable State? The answer lies in the design and planning of our communities and neighborhoods. What makes Iowa special? Most people reminisce about a small Iowa town that they grew up in or visited as a child. Whether they describe the Amana Colonies, Winterset’s covered bridges or the quaint Dutch architecture of Pella, the response is typically the same; they describe a community that grew through the generations to typify the social her-
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itage of the residents. Some people may recall landmarks of the larger cities, such as the State Capitol or a Regent’s University, or a specific neighborhood within an urban core like Cedar Rapids’ Czech Village or the East Village in Des Moines. Still others refer to naturally occurring phenomena such as the Iowa Great Lakes, the Loess Hills or the Rivers that bracket Iowa’s borders. Although these answers are diverse, they paint an appropriate framework for the continuance of the underlying principles that make Iowa such a great
place to live and raise a family. The American Institute of Architects has published a list of 10 Principles for Livable Communities.These tenets work together to maximize people’s independence, assure safety and security, promote inclusiveness and provide choice. Communities that are truly great places to live do not happen by accident. They must be carefully planned and consistently promote the highest quality of design. Members of The American Institute of Architects provide their services to help communities accomplish this.
1948 1948 Des Moines Art Center Fitch Pharmacy Hall, Saarinen Swanson & Saarinen Drake University Architects and Brooks Borg, Saarinen, Saarinen, Swanson Architects-Engineers and Associates Des Moines Des Moines
1950 "Cedar Rock" (Lowell Walter House) Frank Lloyd Wright Quasqueton
1951 Jack Lamberson House Frank Lloyd Wright Oskaloosa
1955 Charles Medbury Hall and Oreon E. Scott Chapel, Drake University Eero Saarinen & Associates Des Moines
1959 Central YMCA Building Wetherell & Harrison Des Moines
1959 Crites House No. 1 Crites & McConnell Cedar Rapids
1962 Home Federal Savings & Loan Building Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Des Moines
1966 American Republic Insurance Building Skidmore, Owings & Merrill Des Moines
The American Institute of Architects’ 10 Principles for Livable Communities 1 Design on a Human Scale Compact, pedestrian-friendly communities allow residents to walk to shops, services, cultural resources, and jobs and can reduce traffic congestion and benefit people’s health. 2 Provides Choices People want variety in housing, shopping, recreation, transportation, and employment. Variety creates lively neighborhoods and accommodates residents in different stages of their lives.
Iowa must continue to keep an eye on the past as we look forward to the future. We must celebrate the land and culture that has made this state so beautiful.This cannot be attained alone, without the support of both the public and private sectors. It must be embraced by small cities as well as by major metropolitan areas. It must be championed by farmers as well as financiers, by mayors as well as mailmen, by educators as well as students. Iowans must band together to create a groundswell of support for these guidelines through integrated policies and action. As a result, Iowa can improve upon its successes and become America’s “Most Livable State”.
3 Encourage Mixed-Use Development Integrating different land uses and varied building types creates vibrant, pedestrian-friendly and diverse communities. 4 Preserve Urban Centers Restoring, revitalizing, and infilling urban centers takes advantage of existing streets, services and buildings and avoids the need for new infrastructure. This helps to curb sprawl and promote stability for city neighborhoods. 5 Vary Transportation Options Giving people the option of walking, biking and using public transit, in addition to driving, reduces traffic congestion, protects the environment and encourages physical activity.
6 Build Vibrant Public Spaces Citizens need welcoming, well-defined public spaces to stimulate face-to-face interaction, collectively celebrate and mourn, encourage civic participation, admire public art, and gather for public events. 7 Create a Neighborhood Identity A “sense of place” gives neighborhoods a unique character, enhances the walking environment, and creates pride in the community. 8 Protect Environmental Resources A well-designed balance of nature and development preserves natural systems, protects waterways from pollution, reduces air pollution, and protects property values. 9 Conserve Landscapes Open space, farms, and wildlife habitat are essential for environmental, recreational, and cultural reasons. 10 Design Matters Design excellence is the foundation of successful and healthy communities.
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1968 Des Moines Art Center Addition I.M. Pei & Partners Des Moines
1969 C.Y. Stephens Auditorium, Iowa State University Crites & McConnell and Brooks Borg & Skiles, Architects-Engineers Ames
1969 Maucker Union Building, University of Northern Iowa Hunter, Rice & Engelbrecht and Brooks, Borg & Skiles Architects-Engineers Cedar Falls
1971 A.H. and Theo Blank Performing Arts Center, Simpson College Charles Herbert & Associates Indianola
1972 Brenton Bank & Trust Company Building Charles Herbert & Associates Urbandale
1972 Iowa Society of Christian Churches Building Smith, Voorhees, Jensen Des Moines
1975 Ruan Center, Bankers Trust Building Kendall Griffith Russell Artiaga Des Moines
1979 Civic Center of Greater Des Moines Charles Herbert & Associates Des Moines
Examples of investments in design that improve business identity, efficiency, and productivity: FAR LEFT: Plaza Towers, Iowa City, Neumann Monson Architects, Photo by Farshid Assassi, Hon. AIA, Assassi Productions LEFT: Wells Fargo Home Mortgage, West Des Moines, SVPA Architects, Photo by Cameron Campbell, AIA
Good Design is Good Business By Matt Ostanik, AIA, Greg Kanz, APR, and Jessica Reinert
A building is a building, right? It is common to hear ads on the radio for steel buildings constructed for less money and delivered in a shorter time frame than traditional construction. More and more it seems, buildings are like commodities—no difference other than price. Research is painting a different picture. In fact, studies indicate that well designed buildings actually enhance an organization’s bottom line, and this is getting the attention of businesses and organizations throughout Iowa. A team of researchers at Iowa State University noted that the relationship between good architecture and good business is critical, but often overlooked. The researchers found that in many organizations, decisions about the design of facilities or offices were made on the basis of technical, financial, or political concerns, without looking at the broader perspective of how the overall design shapes and influences every aspect of the workplace.
Identity Architecture can provide a sense of identity for businesses and organizations, identity that strengthens relationships and perceptions among customers, local communities and employees. In an era of generic office buildings, architectural identity might seem way down the list of priorities,
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1982 Carver-Hawkeye Arena, University of Iowa Caudill Rowlett Scott Architects and Durrant Iowa City
but it has become even more important and rewarding to those who invest in it. An example can be seen in the Meredith Corporate Expansion project in Des Moines, which was recognized for the sense of corporate and community identity it provides as it welcomes visitors to the downtown district. The project was credited with helping to spur other development in the Gateway West area, including a new downtown library, performing arts and higher education centers, and other corporate expansions. As an added bonus the building saved costs for its owner with energy efficiencies, including a 46 percent reduction in lighting costs that earned it MidAmerican Energy’s highest award for energy conservation.
Efficiency Good design of a workplace can play a key role in improving efficiency by reducing the costs of construction materials,
energy usage and other direct costs. At the Iowa Association of Municipal Utilities Training and Office Facility in Ankeny, the
realized that by combining a library with town offices, educational spaces, and a recreational complex, greater efficiencies could be a achieved for those organizations and for all the citizens of Huxley who rely on them. In the first year alone, recreation center revenue came in three times higher than anticipated, the city saved countless dollars in operational efficiencies, and the library was able to expand their staff, hours and book collection.
In a world of global markets and increasingly intense competition, business can’t afford to not invest in good design. design strived for maximum energy performance. The results were stunning: the facility uses 28,000 BTU/square foot per year, a savings of 65 percent compared to a similar building in the same climate. Other means of efficiency can also be found with visionary thinking about opportunities for partnerships and economies of scale. The Citizen’s Community Center in Huxley started as a simple idea for a new library. But it was
Productivity Just as design can affect an organization’s inputs and reduce costs, it can also boost the outputs by increasing overall organizational productivity. In many cases, this productivity enhancement may be much more significant
1985 Des Moines Convention Center Brooks Borg & Skiles, Architects-Engineers and Loschky Marquardt and Nesholm Des Moines
1985 Des Moines Art Center Addition Richard Meier Des Moines
1986 Agronomy Hall Expansion and Remodeling, Iowa State University Bussard / Dikis Associates Ames
1987 Coppola House Douglas A. Wells Architect Des Moines
1991 801 Grand Building Hellmuth, Obata & Kassabaum Des Moines
Kemin Industries, Des Moines, Shive-Hattery Architecture-Engineering with Architetto Ken Sowerby, Rendering by Architetto Ken Sowerby
than any direct cost savings from reduced energy use or other efficiencies. The Rocky Mountain Institute’s (RMI) Greening the Building and the Bottom Line, noted that the costs of human capital are much higher than the resources spent on building maintenance and energy usage. According to RMI’s research, a typical U.S. office building in the 1990s spent $1.81/SF on energy, $1.37/SF on maintenance, $21/SF for rent, and $130/SF for employee salaries. In an article published
in the October 2004 Environmental Building News, author Alex Smith noted that a building design that creates even a tiny improvement in employee productivity or reduces staff absenteeism ultimately has a tremendously significant impact on the organization’s bottom line. Research continues into the exact links between design and productivity, but most experts agree there is ample evidence to show they are interrelated. Various national studies have shown links
1992 Iowa Advanced Technologies Laboratory, University of Iowa Frank O. Gehry & Associates and Herbert Lewis Kruse Blunck Architecture Iowa City
1992 Forest Avenue Library, Public Library of Des Moines Baldwin Clause Architects Des Moines
between productivity and design elements such as daylighting, access to outside views and environmental controls that can be customized at each employee’s workstation. In one famous example, the design of a new, daylit Lockheed-Martin facility was credited with reducing employee absenteeism by 15 percent and improving organizational efficiency and creativity such that the company was able to land significant new contracts—all as a result of good design. Iowa State University researchers noted that many design variables contribute to job satisfaction and overall productivity, including office layout, air quality, noise, temperature and lighting. In addition, design also shapes how different components of the organization relate to each other, how communication occurs and how basic operational tasks are accomplished.
1997 EMC Insurance Building Brooks Borg Skiles Architecture-Engineering Des Moines
1998 Meredith Corporation Headquarters Expansion Herbert Lewis Kruse Blunck Architecture Des Moines
Good Design Means a Competitive Edge The results are in, and the verdict is clear. In a world of global markets and increasingly intense competition, business can’t afford to not invest in good design. A number of companies and organizations have led the way in demonstrating how working closely with architects to focus on the value of good design can result in real, meaningful improvements to their business model. Will others follow suit? How can they afford not to? RESOURCES “Good Design is Good Business.” Published by AIA Iowa. Created by the Department of Architecture, College of Design, Iowa State University. Kate Schwennsen, Editor. Jamie Horwitz, PhD., Research Consultant. 1997.
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Celebrating the Past, Designing the Future |