AIl.CHITECTUItAL STYLE BOO~ FOil. LAHAINA - Maui County

AIl.CHITECTUItAL STYLE BOO~ FOil. LAHAINA - Maui County

• I I . .THE >- AIl.CHITECTUItAL STYLE BOO~ FOil. LAHAINA COUNTY OF MAUl HISTORIC COMMIS'SION , . .'. .. .... ," ,. ,' ~, . :' . "',.,...

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96791

THE ARCmTECTURAL STYLE BOOK FOR LAHAINA

An mustrated Guideline for

Historic Districts No.1 and No.2

Prepared for

THE COUNTY OF MAUl IDSTORIC COMMISSION

By JOHN T. JACOBSEN, Al.A.

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Architect

PUBUC HEARING: ADOPTED:

September 8, 1969

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October 6, 1969

By COUNTY OF MAUl mSTORlC COMMISSION "

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Mn. Virginia W~rtz, Chairman •

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CONTENTS

I II

INTRODUCTION...

. . . ,

. .

Page 1

HISTORIC ARCHITECTURAL STYLES, LAHAINA AREA.

2-3

III

COLOR, PAINTING AND FINISH . . . . .

4-5

IV

BUILDING MATERIALS: RESEARCH DATA.

6-7

COMMERCIAL SIGNS IN THE HISTORIC DISTRICTS

8

V VI

THE DRAWINGS MAP OF LAHAINA - CIRCA 1900

VII VIII

A

LAHAINA SCENES

B

HAWAIIAN STRUCTURES

C

COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

D

DWELLINGS

E

PUBLIC BUILDINGS

F

ACCESSORIES AND DETAILS

G

ADAPTATIONS : HISTORIC STYLES TO CONTEMPORARY USES

POSTSCRIPT AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS MAP OF LAHAINA HISTORIC DISTRICTS No. 1 and No.2

INTRODUCTION

Herein is delineated and described the various styles and methods of construction of buildings which are characteristric of the historic periods in Lahaina employed for shops, dwellings and lodgings, work and recreation.

The exhibits depicted herein are derived from old photographs, drawings and writings of the period as well as old structures still standing in and about Lahaina and Maui

The plates are contrived to show pictorially the architectural styles of building and decoration, materials and methods of construction which were available in those times.

The handbook is presented as a guideline for use in conjunction with the Maui County Historic Districts Ordinance No . 514 referring to reconstruction, repair, remodeling and new construction in and about the Lahaina Historic Districts 1 & 2

. .

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HISTORIC ARCHITECTURAL STYLES - LAHAINA AREA

Research into the architectural styles of Lahaina indicates that the styles fall into three overlapping periods which are generally characterized by the building materials available at the time. 1.

2.

3.

Before 1820 - Native Hawaiian Materials:

Native poles and timber Thatched walls and roofs Local field stone platforms and enGlosures

Use:

Dwellings, shelters, religious structures.

19th Century Missionary Materials:

Stone, coral, clay adobe for walls Mortar and plaster - burned coral and beach sand Native timber framing Thatched and shingle roofs Stock "New England" doors and sash.

General Use:

One and two-story dwellings, churches, public buildings Simple walls - gable roofs and imported millwork give an early New England character. A few all wood structures show their New England sources.

Middle 1800 thru early 1900 - Victorian (including "Monterey" or "Western" types) Materials:

West Coast sawn lumber, shingles, millwork, hardware and miscellaneous building parts. This was essentially a "carpenter" style of post, beam, studs, joists and wood finishes. Wood decoration derived from current mainland styles. Wood mouldings, stock millwork, siding, shingles and corrugated iron prevailed. Jigsaw and scroll work characterized the style. Paint and stain finishes. Oriental decoration also appears in this period as applied fOnTIS and architectural embellishment, employing the same wood materials and construction methods.

General Use:

Dwellings, stores, shops, offices, churches and public buildings. One or twostory heigh t. Note: Circa 1915. Some concrete buildings were erected. These are generally in character and scale with the local Victorian style.

Page 2

Also used in a few instances are wrought iron and "stock" cast iron ornaments and structural members. This modified and freely adapted Victorian style which is associated with Lahaina's historical background provides the basic material for preservation, restoration and rebuilding. The style is simple, picturesque, colorful - often amusing, and adaptable to the current trends and needs of tourism, as well as local uses. Fortunately it is an inexpensive construction, and materials are readily available. The Victorian style is therefore recommended in the Lahaina core. However, all three styles are acceptable, if appropriately and properly used, and generally compatible with adjacent structures.

STYLES NOT RECOMMENDED IN THE mSTORIC ZONES AND VICINITY

Unacceptable styles and structures are generally all those not in character with the three basic period styles described above. . It js recognized that adaptation of modern uses to the old styles or vice-versa may necessitate compromises. However, the basic character of "Old Lahaina" must not be compromised, and the designer must contrive to preserve traditional appearances.

SPECIFICALLY TO BE AVOIDED

European styles in general; All modernistic styles and forms; Materials not listed in the old records and documents; Materials and forms such as English half timber, "Spanish" stucco, skintled brick, exposed cement block or concrete; Large plate glass or aluminum sash, jalousies and projected casement sash; Flat roofs, asbestos, tile or shake roofs; All "imitation" effects and materials; Colors and finishes not described in the color guide. All acceptable materials and construction are to be employed in conformity to original examples and styles.

Page 3

COLOR, PAINTING AND FINISH - LAHAINA AREA

1.

Early Hawaiian Early Hawaiian structures used no paints except in the decorative arts.

2.

Early Missionary The early missionary stYles - stone, coral and plaster were generally natural lime color or painted white. Wood trim was painted, stained or sometimes left "natural". There is evidence on some of the old plaster walls of several coast of lime paint (whitewash) using a variety of colors in ·successive periods. The colors were generally light, muted or "pastel" shades of yellow, blue, green or pink.

3.

Victorian Wood frame buildings were fmished with pigmented stain walls and painted trim. The treatment was primarily for preservation. Colors were limited, by practical considerations of availabilty and maintenance. This very limitation contributes to the harmonious appearance of buildings of this period. The stains - limited to (1) a dark green and (2) reddish brown "earth" color are certainly practical for the pupose but they also display a certain artistic sense on the part <;>f those who selected them as the standard colors for structures of the period. Aside from the practical economics of this limited choice, the two strong dark colors are generally a desirable visual contrast to the brilliant colors found in Hawaiian surroundings. The wood trim of most structures, consisting of posts, railings, cornices, brackets, sash and doors is almost invariably painted white, presenting a pleasing contrast with dark stained walls, which bring out characteristic features of the local Victorian style. The three basic colors are: (I) (2) (3)

"Plantation" green stain Red-brown earth color stain VVtrite paint

Colored finishes "weather" quickly in the Hawaiian sun and rain. This "weathered" patina is characteristic of the older wood structures and adds to the picturesque appeal.

] ]

Note: In new or restored buildings, means of imitating or speeding up the "weathering" process is desirable and recommended. Oriental buildings of wood construction generally used the same paints and colors as other wood structures of the period. Exception: some Japanese wood religious structures use no finish. Painted decoration is also characteristic in oriental buildings.

]

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Page 4

In later years as more variety of paints became available, other colors were used. They were generally, however, toned down to neutral shades of yellows, greys, tans, blues and greens. Often the entire building and trim may be painted one color overall. Bright primary colors are not generally characteristic of early Lahaina styles, either in walls or trim. "Natural" woodcolored stains are not used - except on shingles, probably because paint was considerated a better protective finish. In new or remodeled structures, the decorator may not necessarily be limited to these colors, especially in accents, signs and furnishings. However, he is obligated to achieve the characteristric appearances described herein, in order to conform to the historic Lahaina character. NOTE:

Samples of approved colors and stains are available at the office of the Maui County Planning Department.

Page 5

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BUILDING MATERIALS: RESEARCH DATA List of building materials employed in Lahaina 1820 through 1916. NOTE: These materials are mentioned in old documents and records, (dates noted) from the Hawaiian Children's Mission Society. r ...

1820

Pole and grass houses - mat floors. 1300 bricks from Boston (for ovens and hearths). Box of window glass.

1833

Cedar shingles - koa shingles (problem of nails rusting). Plank roof (l-1/2x 12) tapa and tar under - long nails. Roof - tapa, tar and sand. 50 ft. of 7x9 window glass.

1834

Lumber for doors and windows. Native or adobe houses. 10,000 ft. of lumber, 10,500 shingles to Lahaina. Pine lumber, koa boards.

1835

2934 ft. cedar lumber. Various iron shapes for blacksmithing. (Olowalu - stOlle walls for new meeting house 53'x29') (3' thick - earth for mortar, ti leaf thatch ) (Plastered (coral lime and sand) )

]

New Zealand timber - sawed in Honolulu. Kukui oil for paint (substitute for linseed). 43 sheets of zinc (for roofing).

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1836

Lead, solder, pewter, tin (hard to obtain). Cedar boat boards 50 rafters - planed by local (Lahaina) workmen.

1839

Hana lumber - matched, tongued, grooved. Chalk for putty - "Diamond Hill" chalk.

1840

20 rafters 44 1/2 ft. long. 8x 10 large end, 7x9 small end. "Send logs to be sawn in Oahu" 20 beams 42 ft. long 8xlO. Spruce, pine, cedar or cypress.

1841

Russian or Swedish iron. 1 barrel sea coal. Adobe boxes 24"x 18"x 16".

1842

Redwood from California - 45 logs. Red cedar - square logs. American soft pine boards. Pine spars 40 ft. long - $1.00/ft. Window springs.

Page 6

BUILDING MATERIALS: RESEARCH DATA (Cont'd.)

1843

Twine for thatching.

1846

Brick (generally imported by ship). Lead, zinc, tin for church steeple.

1847

Wailuku - adobe bricks made for building. Carpenters specification for a house. Columbia river sawed pickets. "Pit-sawed" koa boards.

1847

List of material for sale: Astoria pine timber (Fir?) American pine boards Koa lumber, California boards American pine clapboards. Shingles - American lath Wrought spikes - cut nails Sash weights - line Brass & iron butts, hinges, locks, latches, bolts. Window glass.

1847

Advertisement - material on hand to sell: American Mfg. sash, blinds, door frames, fir lumber, boards, planks, scantlings, prime pine lumber, oak and maple plank & boards, Pine, cedar, shingles, koa boards, planks & joists, Ohia planks and posts, oak, ash.

1850

12'x4' house - wood - painted with locks, doors, hinges, glass sash, blinds (a prebuilt house shipped to Lahaina for 135.00 each to be used by missionaries).

1850

Stone church, making lime from coral. Roof timbers - thatch.

1853

Shingles - lime New saw mill at Hilo. Ohia, koa

1854

"Puget Sound" lumber, pine, shingles Building aquaduct to Lahaina (wood) Saw mill in Honolulu - 2000 bd. ft!day.

1855

Adobe houses and fences washed out by rain.

1865

Bricks - imported by ship.

1915

Reinforced concrete used.

Page 7

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COMMERCIAL SIGNS IN THE HISTORIC DISTRICTS Commercial graphics in the Victorian period were artistic, interesting, sometimes amusing and generally provided architectural embellishment to buildings. The sign builders and painters of the period were artists in their craft and much in demand. The simple mediums were painting on wood, carving and occasionally wrought metal. The proper use of signs in Lahaina Town will help to provide atmosphere, color and interest. Signs may show: Name of business (2) The product or service provided. (3) A trade mark or pictorial device pertinent to the business conducted. (1)

Descriptive advertising is not recommended: Materials:

generally wood or other material characteristic and appropriate to the historic period. Modem materials and plastics are not permitted.

Graphics:

period types - painted, carved, raised, incised or similar appropriate techniques.

Colors:

appropriate to the store design and historic colors (Section III). Luminous paints and reflective materials are not permitted.

IUumination: if desired should be limited to low level flood lighting, with light source reasonably concealed. Neon signs, direct or indirect, and moving signs are not permitted. Drawings or designs must be approved by the Historic Commission before installation on the premises. It is recognized that exact criteria for signing may be unnecessarily restrictive and the Commission shall use its discretion in granting variances for designs which are appropriate and characteristric to the historic periods.

Page 8

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VII

POSTSCRIPT TIle intention and use of this handbook is to guide and encourage architects, designers and builders to employ the styles and methods of the named historic periods within the Lahaina Historic Districts No. 1 and No.2. New structures, renovations, and furnishings are not necessarily limited to the examples shown herein; but all construction must be visually characteristic and appropriate to the historic image of Lahaina Town. The Maui Historic Commission is charged with the responsibility to direct the physical rehabilitation of the historic districts. The Commission will, with the aid of its consultants and advisors, cooperate and assist owners and builders to achieve the highest quality in the historic preservation of this unique example of early Hawaiiana.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The Baker Collection The Montsarrat Collection The Van' Dyke Collection Bishop Museum Baldwin House Wailuku Museum State Archives Hawaiian Children's Mission Community Planning, Inc.

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