AJV8 Engine Overview - JustAnswer

AJV8 Engine Overview - JustAnswer

AJV8 Engine Overview Introduction The AJV8 4.0 liter engine is the first of a new family of Jaguar engines. Designed to give excellent performance, re...

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AJV8 Engine Overview Introduction The AJV8 4.0 liter engine is the first of a new family of Jaguar engines. Designed to give excellent performance, refinement, economy and to conform to the strictest emission legislation, the engine is available in both normally aspirated (N/A) and supercharged (SC) versions. Weighing only 441 lb. (500 lb. SC), the engine is shorter by 12 inches (300 mm) than the AJ16 4.0 liter engine. Cylinder heads with four valves per cylinder, cylinder block, bed plate and structural sump are all cast aluminum. Cylinders have electroplated bores which reduce piston friction, improve warm-up and oil retention. A variable valve timing system has been introduced for normally aspirated engines to give improved low and high-speed engine performance, excellent idle quality and improved exhaust emissions. The valve gear is chain driven for durability. Low valve overlap improves idle speed, improves combustion efficiency and reduces hydrocarbon emissions. The normally aspirated intake manifold is a one-piece composite molding with integral fuel rails connecting to the eight side-feed fuel injectors. Combustion air flow into the engine is via an electronic throttle assembly. Throttle movement is controlled by the ECM using sensors in the throttle assembly and an electric throttle motor. Supercharged versions are similar with the belt driven supercharger located downstream of the electronic throttle assembly. The supercharger provides pressurized combustion air to the cylinders through two air to liquid charge air coolers (intercoolers). The engine has a low volume, high velocity cooling system, which achieves a very fast warm-up with reduced combustion chamber and increased cylinder bore temperatures. The generator, A/C compressor, and PAS pump are mounted to the cylinder block on rigid cradle supports. A single 7-ribbed belt drives all engine accessories. A separate 8-ribbed belt drives the supercharger, which is bolted to the engine block in the engine vee. Hydraulic engine mounts minimize noise and vibration.

AJV8 Engine Application Summary XK8 Coupe and Convertible Model Model Year

Engine

XK8 Convertible

1997 MY ON

AJV8 4.0L

XK8 Coupe

1997 MY ON

AJV8 4.0L

XJ8 Sedan Model

Model Year

Engine

XJ8

1998 MY ON

AJV8 4.0L

XJR

1998 MY ON

AJV8 SC 4.0L Supercharged

NOTES

4

AJV8 Engine Overview Cylinder Block Assembly Cylinder block

ENGINE ASSEMBLY

CYLINDER HEAD

The cylinder block is an “enclosed V” design that provides a rigid engine structure and reduces vibration levels. Nikasil (a composition of nickel and silicon) coated cylinder bores provide excellent friction, heat transfer and wear characteristics. A low volume coolant jacket improves warm-up times and piston noise transfer. The longitudinal coolant flow design, with a single cylinder head coolant transfer port in each bank, improves rigidity and head gasket sealing. The right side cylinder bank is designated as “A” bank, and the left side as “B” bank. The cylinder bores of each bank are numbered from 1 to 4, starting from the front.

CYLINDER BLOCK

BED PLATE

STRUCTURAL SUMP T180/1.02

Engine data Engine data is marked at three locations on the cylinder block. Component dimensions are represented by alphabetical and numerical codes. Refer to page 7 of the Engine Assembly section for code descriptions. ENGINE DATA CODE LOCATIONS



MAIN BEARING JOURNAL DIAMETERS



CONNECTING ROD JOURNAL DIAMETERS



CYLINDER BORE DIAMETERS



MAIN BEARING BORE DIAMETERS





SERIAL NUMBER



CYLINDER BORE DIAMETERS

EMISSIONS CODE

T108/1.03

5

AJV8 Engine Overview Cylinder Block Assembly (continued) Bed plate

CYLINDER BLOCK, CRANKSHAFT AND BED PLATE

The bed plate is a structural casting bolted to the bottom of the cylinder block to retain the crankshaft. The use of a bed plate further improves rigidity. Iron inserts cast into the bed plate main bearing supports minimize main bearing clearance changes due to heat expansion. Two hollow dowels align the bed plate with the cylinder block. The bed plate to cylinder block joint is sealed with Loctite Ultra Gray 5699 RTV.

Crankshaft Manufactured in nodular cast iron, the five main bearing crankshaft has six counterbalance weights to ensure smooth rotation. The five main bearing and four connecting rod journals have undercut and rolled fillets for improved strength. The crankshaft is not hardened and should be handled carefully to prevent damage to the bearing surfaces. It should not be reground. Regrinding will damage the rolled fillets and weaken the crankshaft. The main bearings are aluminum / tin split plain bearings. An oil groove in the top half of each bearing transfers oil into the crankshaft for lubrication of the connecting rod bearings. A lead / bronze thrust washer is installed on each side of the top half of the center main bearing.

Crankshaft rear oil seal

T180/1.04

The crankshaft rear oil seal (a lip seal similar to that used on the AJ16 engine) is a press fit in the bedplate to cylinder block interface. NOTES

CRANKSHAFT REAR OIL SEAL

T180/1.05

6

AJV8 Engine Overview

Structural sump The aluminum alloy structural sump bolts to the bed plate and a pressed steel oil pan bolts to the structural sump. A windage tray attached to the top of the structural sump prevents oil aeration caused by crankshaft rotation and improves oil drainage. A rubber plug at the rear of the structural sump provides access to the torque converter securing bolts. The engine oil drain plug is located at the front right corner of the oil pan. NOTE: The drain plug washer must not be reused. The structural sump to bed plate joint is sealed with Loctite Ultra Gray 5699 RTV. A silicon rubber ingroove gasket is used between the oil pan and the structural sump. STRUCTURAL SUMP AND OIL PAN WINDAGE TRAY

STRUCTURAL SUMP

TORQUE CONVERTER ACCESS PLUG

OIL PAN

DRAIN PLUG T180/1.06

NOTES

7

AJV8 Engine Overview Connecting Rods and Pistons Connecting rods

CONNECTING RODS AND PISTON

The connecting rods are manufactured of sinter forged steel. The precision manufacturing process requires no balancing and little machining. The bearing caps are produced by fracturing the opposing sides of the connecting rod at the bearing horizontal center-line. When reassembled, the fractured surfaces interlock to form a strong seamless joint. The cylinder position is etched on adjoining sides of the joint to identify matching connecting rods and bearing caps. The connecting rod bearings are lead / bronze split plain bearings. The wrist pin bushings are lead / bronze.

Pistons The pistons are designed with short skirts to reduce friction and offset full floating wrist pins to reduce noise. Three piston rings, two compression and one oil control, are installed on each piston. Supercharged pistons are dished to reduce the compression ratio from 10.75 : 1 to 9.00 : 1. The top piston ring land is also thicker to resist the additional thermal and mechanical loads produced by supercharging. T180/1.07

PISTONS TOP RING LAND

NORMALLY ASPIRATED

SUPERCHARGED

T180/1.08

8

NOTES

AJV8 Engine Overview Starter and Drive Plate Starter motor

STARTER MOTOR

The engine starter motor is located at the rear left side of the engine, bolted to the cylinder block and the bed plate.

Torque converter drive plate The ring gear is attached to the torque converter drive plate. A timing disc for the crankshaft position sensor (CKPS) is spot welded to the front face of the drive plate.

Timing disc The timing disc contains one elongated slot designed to accept the camshaft timing tool JD 216. The tool is used to align the crankshaft at 45º ATDC when timing the camshafts.

CAUTION: Do not rotate the crankshaft while tool JD 216 is installed. The drive plate and timing disc will be damaged.

T108/1.09

DRIVE PLATE AND RING GEAR

NOTES

T180/1.10

CYLINDER BLOCK SIDE OF DRIVE PLATE AND TIMING DISC TIMING DISC

ELONGATED SLOT

T180/1.11

9

AJV8 Engine Overview Cylinder Heads The aluminum alloy cylinder heads are unique to each cylinder bank. They are cast using a process that precisely controls combustion chamber volumes and coolant passages. Deep seated head bolts reduce distortion and provide stable gasket clamping forces. Two hollow dowels align each cylinder head with the cylinder block. The cylinder head gaskets consist of a silicon beaded composite gasket with metal eyelets for the cylinder bores. The normally aspirated head gasket eyelets are mild steel; the supercharged eyelets are stainless steel. Each cylinder head incorporates dual overhead camshafts operating four valves per cylinder via aluminum alloy valve lifters. Steel shims in the top of the valve lifters enable valve clearance adjustment. The lightweight valve gear provides good economy and noise levels. Valve head diameters are 31 mm for the exhaust and 35 mm for the intake. All valves have 5 mm diameter stems supported in sintered metal valve guides. Valve spring collars, keepers and spring seats locate single valve springs for both intake and exhaust valves. Valve stem seals are integrated into the spring seats. The camshafts are manufactured in chilled cast iron and center drilled to reduce weight. Five aluminum alloy caps retain each camshaft. The caps are numbered for location: 0 to 4 for the intake camshaft and 5 to 9 for the exhaust camshaft. The rear of the ‘B’ bank intake camshaft has a timing ring for the camshaft position sensor (CMPS). A flat is machined near the front of each camshaft to lock the camshafts during valve timing. 14 mm spark plugs, one per cylinder, locate in recesses down the center-line of each cylinder head. An engine lifting eye is cast into the front of each cylinder head (the rear lifting eyes, one on each cylinder head, are bolt-on tools). NOTES

10

AJV8 Engine Overview

‘A’ BANK CYLINDER HEAD

SHIM VALVE LIFTER

VALVE SPRING SEAT WITH SEAL EXHAUST CAMSHAFT INTAKE CAMSHAFT

HEAD GASKET EYELET – STEEL (N/A); STAINLESS STEEL (SC)

T180/1.12

11

AJV8 Engine Overview Timing Gear Primary Timing Gear Single row primary and secondary chains drive the camshafts of each cylinder bank. The primary chains transmit the drive from two crankshaft sprockets to the intake camshaft variable valve timing (VVT) units (supercharged engines do not use VVT units). Secondary chains transmit the drive from the intake camshaft sprockets to sprockets on the exhaust camshafts. A key locates the two drive sprockets on the crankshaft. The crankshaft vibration damper retains the sprockets in position. PRIMARY TIMING GEAR: N/A CHAIN TENSIONING BLADES

GUIDE RAILS

PRIMARY CHAIN TENSIONERS PRIMARY CHAIN

CRANKSHAFT SPROCKETS T180/1.13

NOTES

12

AJV8 Engine Overview

Secondary Timing Gear and Chain Tensioners Normally aspirated (N/A) The variable valve timing units and the exhaust camshaft sprockets drive the camshafts via the face to face friction load produced by the valve timing unit / sprocket securing bolts.

SECONDARY TIMING GEAR: N/A

VVT UNIT

SECONDARY CHAIN TENSIONER

Each chain has a hydraulic tensioner operated by engine oil pressure. A jet of oil from the end of each tensioner lubricates the chains. The primary chain tensioners act on pivoting flexible tensioner blades. The secondary chain tensioners act directly on the chains. Guide rails are installed on the drive side of the primary chains.

Supercharged (SC) Supercharged engine timing gear is the same as normally aspirated versions with the exception of the variable valve timing mechanism and associated components. A flywheel is used on the intake camshaft sprockets to dampen camshaft and chain oscillations. NOTES

SPROCKET SECURING BOLTS SECONDARY CHAIN T180/1.14

SECONDARY TIMING GEAR: SC CAMSHAFT FLYWHEEL

SECONDARY CHAIN TENSIONER

SECONDARY CHAIN

SPROCKET SECURING BOLTS T180/1.15

13

AJV8 Engine Overview Timing Gear (continued) Timing cover The aluminum alloy timing cover accommodates the crankshaft front oil seal (a PTFE lip seal) and the two variable valve timing solenoids. Silicon rubber in-groove gaskets seal the joint between the timing cover and the front face of the engine. TIMING COVER: N/A GASKETS

VVT SOLENOID CRANKSHAFT FRONT OIL SEAL

VVT SOLENOID T180/1.16

TIMING COVER: SC

NO VVT SOLENOID

NO VVT SOLENOID

T180/1.17

14

AJV8 Engine Overview Camshaft Covers The camshaft covers are manufactured from vinyl ester plastic. The ‘A’ bank camshaft cover incorporates an outlet for the full load engine breather. The ‘B’ bank camshaft cover incorporates the engine oil filler cap and an outlet for the part load engine breather. Identical oil separators are incorporated below the breather outlet in each cover. Silicon rubber in-groove gaskets seal the camshaft cover to cylinder head joints. The gaskets and the spacers and seals on the camshaft cover fasteners isolate the covers from direct contact with the cylinder heads to reduce noise. ‘B’ BANK CAMSHAFT COVER PART LOAD BREATHER

SEAL

GASKETS

GASKET

T180/1.18

NOTES

15

AJV8 Engine Overview Exhaust Manifolds The thin-wall cast iron manifolds are unique for each cylinder bank. On engines with EGR, the ‘A’ bank manifold has a connection for the transfer pipe. Spacers on the securing bolts allow the bolts to maintain optimum gasket clamping loads as the components expand and contract with temperature changes. Heat shields are integrated into the exhaust manifold gaskets. EXHAUST MANIFOLD

GASKET / HEAT SHIELD

SPACER T180/1.19

NOTES

16

AJV8 Engine Overview Engine Cooling System The cooling system is a low volume, high velocity system with good warm-up and temperature profile characteristics. ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM: N/A

BYPASS BLEED

HEATER SUPPLY EGR (IF FITTED) COOLANT PUMP

RADIATOR

ELECTRONIC THROTTLE HEATER RETURN

THERMOSTAT

T180/1.20

From the pump, the coolant flows into each bank of the cylinder block. In each bank, 50% of the coolant cools the cylinder bores and 50% is diverted through a bypass gallery. At the rear of the banks the two flows mix and enter the cylinder heads. The coolant then flows forward to the outlet ports, cooling the cylinder heads. When the thermostat is closed, the coolant returns directly to the pump through the bypass on the thermostat housing and recirculates through the engine. When the thermostat is open, the coolant flows through the radiator before returning to the pump. Cylinder block coolant also flows from a pipe attached to the block behind the starter motor to the electronic throttle assembly and EGR valve (if fitted). The coolant returns to the pump by joining the heater return flow. NOTES

17

AJV8 Engine Overview Engine Cooling System (continued) The SC engine cooling system is similar to the N/A system. A separate radiator and cooling system is added for the supercharger charge air coolers. The charge air cooler system incorporates an electrically operated pump to circulate coolant. A bleed line from the supercharger radiator and filler point prevents air being trapped in the system. The SC cooling system is connected to the engine cooling system to allow the two systems to share coolant from the common reservoir. ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM: SC SC PUMP SC FILL POINT

THERMOSTAT

HEATER SUPPLY ENGINE RADIATOR

CHARGE AIR COOLER COOLANT PUMP

ELECTRONIC THROTTLE

EGR

SC RADIATOR

CHARGE AIR COOLER

HEATER RETURN

RESERVOIR

BLEED T180/1.21

Engine coolant drain points

ENGINE COOLANT DRAIN POINTS THROTTLE / EGR COOLANT SUPPLY PIPE

Coolant is drained from the ‘A’ bank by removing the throttle / EGR coolant supply pipe behind the starter motor. Coolant is drained from the ‘B’ bank by a drain plug is installed on the rear left side of the cylinder block. On vehicles with the cold climate package, a cylinder block heater replaces the drain plug.

‘A’ BANK

NOTES ‘B’ BANK

DRAIN PLUG (BLOCK HEATER SHOWN) T180/1.22 A & B

18

AJV8 Engine Overview

Coolant pump

COOLANT PUMP

The coolant pump is installed on the front face of the cylinder block between the two cylinder banks. The pumping element is a shrouded plastic impeller. Coolant escapes from seal breather holes in the housing if the pump bearing seal fails.

‘O’ RING GASKET

PUMP ASSEMBLY

An ‘O’ ring and an edge bonded rubber / aluminum alloy gasket seal the pump to cylinder block interface. The ‘O’ ring seals the inlet port from the thermostat. The gasket seals the outlet ports into the cylinder banks.

Thermostat housing The composite N/A thermostat housing is installed between the two cylinder banks above the coolant pump. The aluminum alloy SC thermostat housing is combined with the coolant outlet duct. Refer to page 21. On both systems the thermostat starts to open at 80 – 84 °C (176 – 183 °F) and is fully open at 96 ºC (205 ºF).

T180/1.23

THERMOSTAT HOUSING: N/A

A duct in the cylinder block connects the thermostat housing outlet to the pump inlet. A stub pipe connects the duct to the air conditioning heater matrix return line. An in-groove gasket seals the joint between the thermostat housing and the cylinder block.

BYPASS CAP

BLEED

In addition to containing the thermostat, the plastic thermostat housing incorporates connections for the bleed, bypass and radiator bottom hoses. The bleed outlet vents any air in the system into the vehicle’s coolant reservoir.

FROM RADIATOR

The cap of the thermostat housing is removable to allow air out of the system when filling from empty. CAUTION: Use the correct torque (marked on the cap) when reinstalling the cap, or the cap / thermostat housing could be damaged.

HEATER RETURN SEAL T180/1.24

NOTES

19

AJV8 Engine Overview Engine Cooling System (continued) Coolant hoses Supply and return hoses for the air conditioning heater matrix are installed between the cylinder banks. A connection at the rear of ‘A’ bank provides the coolant supply for the electronic throttle and the EGR valve (where fitted). The outlet from the electronic throttle connects to the return hose of the air conditioning heater matrix. ENGINE COOLANT HOSES: N/A WITHOUT EGR

WITH EGR

HEATER

T180/1.25

NOTES

20

AJV8 Engine Overview

Coolant outlet duct: N/A

COOLANT OUTLET DUCT / THERMOSTAT HOUSING: N/A

The plastic coolant outlet duct connects to the outlet port of each cylinder head to provide a common connection point for the radiator top hose. It also incorporates connections for the coolant temperature sensor, the supply to the heater matrix and the bypass flow to the thermostat housing.

BYPASS

FROM RADIATOR

An in-groove gasket seals each of the joints between the outlet duct and the cylinder heads.

Coolant outlet duct and thermostat housing: SC The aluminum alloy coolant outlet duct and thermostat housing for supercharged vehicles are combined to allow room for mounting the charge air coolers and supercharger.

ECT SENSOR HEATER SUPPLY

SEAL

NOTES

T180/1.26

COOLANT OUTLET DUCT / THERMOSTAT HOUSING: SC ECT SENSOR BLEED THERMOSTAT

BYPASS SEAL FROM RADIATOR

BYPASS SUPERCHARGER T180/1.27

21

AJV8 Engine Overview Engine Lubrication Oil is drawn from the reservoir in the oil pan and pressurized by the oil pump. The output from the oil pump is then filtered and distributed through internal oil passages. If an oil cooler is fitted, the oil is cooled before entering the filter. All moving parts are lubricated by pressure or splash oil. Pressurized oil is also provided for operation of the VVT units and the timing chain tensioners. The oil returns to the oil pan under gravity. Large drain holes through the cylinder heads and cylinder block ensure the quick return of the oil, reducing the volume of oil required and enabling an accurate level check soon after the engine stops. Oil replenishment is through the oil filler cap on the ‘B’ bank camshaft cover. With the exception of the pump and oil level gauge (dip stick), all lubrication system components are installed on the structural sump.

Key to Engine Lubrication System Layout (facing page) 1

Valve lifter supply

10

Bed plate / cylinder block interface

2

Main bearing supply

11

Oil pump

3

Connecting rod bearing supply

12

Primary chain tensioner supply

4

Bed plate / cylinder block interface

13

Cylinder block / cylinder head interface

5

Oil pickup

14

Variable valve timing supply

6

Pressure relief valve

15

Camshaft bearing supply

7

Oil pressure switch

16

Secondary chain tensioner supply

8

Oil filter

17

Oil diverter valve (with oil cooler only)

9

Structural sump / bed plate interface

18

Oil cooler supply and return

NOTES

22

AJV8 Engine Overview

ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM LAYOUT

16

15

1

13 2 14

12

10

11 3

9

4 8 6

OIL COOLER VEHICLES

7

17

5

8

7

18

T180/1.28

23

AJV8 Engine Overview Engine Lubrication (continued) Oil pump The oil pump is installed on the crankshaft at the front of the engine. The pump inlet and outlet ports align with oil passages in the bedplate. A rubber coated metal gasket seals the pump to bedplate interface. The eccentric rotor pump is directly driven by flats on the crankshaft. An integral pressure relief valve regulates maximum pump outlet pressure at 4.5 bar (65 psi).

Oil pickup

OIL PUMP CAMSHAFT DRIVE SPROCKETS OIL PUMP CRANKSHAFT PUMP DRIVE FLATS

The molded oil pickup is immersed in the oil reservoir to provide a supply to the oil pump during all normal vehicle attitudes. The castellated inlet allows the supply to be maintained even if the oil pan is deformed. A mesh screen in the inlet prevents debris from entering the oil system.

Oil filter A replaceable canister oil filter installs on an adapter. An internal bypass in the filter permits full flow if the filter element is blocked.

Oil pressure switch The oil pressure switch connects a ground input to the instrument cluster when oil pressure is present. The switch operates at a pressure of 0.15 to 0.41 bar (2.17 – 5.94 psi).

GASKET

TO OIL FILTER

FROM OIL PAN PICKUP T180/1.29

Oil diverter valve (oil cooler vehicles only) OIL LEVEL GAUGE (DIP STICK)

MAXIMUM

MINIMUM

The oil diverter valve is installed in the passage from the pump outlet to the filter inlet. The thermostatically operated valve diverts the oil through the vehicle mounted oil cooler at higher temperatures. The valve begins to open between 103 and 107 ºC (217 – 225 ºF), and is fully open, diverting 100% of the oil, at 119 ºC (246 ºF).

Oil level gauge

T180/1.30

NOTES

24

The oil level gauge locates midway along the left side of the oil pan, supported in a tube installed in the bedplate. Two holes in the end of the gauge indicate the minimum and maximum oil levels. There is a difference of approximately 1 liter between the two levels.

AJV8 Engine Overview

STRUCTURAL SUMP AND OIL PAN LUBRICATION SYSTEM COMPONENTS OIL PRESSURE SWITCH FILTER

ADAPTER

STRUCTURAL SUMP

DIVERTER VALVE (OIL COOLER ONLY)

PICKUP

OIL PAN

DRAIN PLUG T180/1.31

25

AJV8 Engine Overview Valve Timing A variable valve timing system (VVT) is used on N/A engines to improve low and high speed engine performance, engine idle quality and exhaust emissions. Because of VVT, N/A engines do not require EGR. VVT is a two position system that operates on the intake camshafts only. There are 30º of crankshaft movement between the retarded and advanced positions. Engine oil pressure operates the system under the control of the ECM. For each intake camshaft there is a valve timing unit, a bush carrier assembly and a valve timing solenoid. VALVE TIMING WITH VVT: N/A

RETARDED

ADVANCED

TDC

TDC

5˚ 35˚

5˚ 10˚

25˚

INTAKE

EXHAUST

10˚

INTAKE

EXHAUST

65˚

50˚

50˚

35˚

BDC

BDC T180/1.32

Supercharged engine valve timing

VALVE TIMING: SC

Supercharged engines are not equipped with variable valve timing. Because the additional manifold pressure boost provided by the supercharger substantially increases power and torque throughout the full operating range of the engine, it is not necessary to vary valve timing to provide additional overlap during mid engine speed operating conditions.

TDC



INTAKE

EXHAUST

NOTES

65˚

50˚ BDC T180/1.33

26

AJV8 Engine Overview

Variable valve timing unit The variable valve timing unit turns the intake camshaft in relation to the primary chain to advance and retard the timing. The unit consists of a body and sprocket assembly separated from an inner sleeve by a ring piston and two ‘O’ ring gears. A bolt secures the inner sleeve to the camshaft. The ring gears engage in opposing helical splines on the body and sprocket assembly and on the inner sleeve. VALVE TIMING UNIT

BODY AND SPROCKET ASSEMBLY

INNER SLEEVE

RETURN SPRING OIL PRESSURE

PISTON

OIL PRESSURE

RING GEARS

T180/1.34

The ring gears transmit the drive from the body and sprocket assembly to the inner sleeve and, when moved axially, turn the inner sleeve in relation to the body and sprocket assembly. Engine oil pressure moves the piston and ring gears to turn the inner sleeve in the advanced timing direction. A return spring moves the ring gears and piston to turn the inner sleeve in the retarded timing direction. Additional springs absorb backlash to reduce noise and wear. The springs between the ring gears absorb rotational backlash. The spring between the inner sleeve and the end of the body and sprocket assembly absorbs axial backlash.

27

AJV8 Engine Overview Valve Timing (continued) Bush carrier

BUSH CARRIERS

The bush carrier contains oil passages that link the engine oil supply to the valve timing unit. A lug on the bush carrier locates in the central bore of the valve timing unit. Two hollow dowels at the bush carrier to cylinder block interface ensure the lug is accurately located. A scarf-jointed fiber ring seals the joint between the lug and the valve timing unit. An integral shuttle valve, biased by a coil spring, controls the flow of oil through the oil passages.

Valve timing solenoid

T180/1.35

NOTES

VALVE TIMING SOLENOID

T180/1.36

28

The valve timing solenoid controls the position of the shuttle valve in the bush carrier. A plunger on the solenoid extends when the solenoid is energized and retracts when the solenoid is deenergized.

AJV8 Engine Overview

Variable Valve Timing Operation When the valve timing solenoids are energized, the solenoid plungers position the shuttle valves to direct engine oil to the valve timing units. In the valve timing units, the oil pressure overcomes the force of the return springs and moves the gears and ring pistons to the advanced position. System response times are 1.0 second maximum for advancing and 0.7 second maximum for retarding the camshaft timing. While the valve timing is in the retarded mode, the ECM produces a periodic lubrication pulse. This pulse momentarily energizes the valve timing solenoids to allow a spurt of oil into the valve timing units. The lubrication pulse occurs once every 5 minutes. NOTE: With the vehicle stationary and the hood open, operation of the valve timing solenoids may be audible when the lubrication pulse occurs at engine idle speed. VARIABLE VALVE TIMING OPERATION

RETARDED

ADVANCED

INTAKE CAMSHAFT

VVT SOLENOID

INTAKE CAMSHAFT

VVT SOLENOID ENGINE OIL PRESSURE

SHUTTLE VALVE

ENGINE OIL PRESSURE

SHUTTLE VALVE

T180/1.37

NOTES

29

AJV8 Engine Overview Air Intake System Normally Aspirated Air Intake System Filtered air from the vehicle’s intake ducting is metered by the electronic throttle, then directed through the induction elbow into the intake manifold. ASPIRATED AIR INTAKE SYSTEM: N/A

ELECTRONIC THROTTLE ASSEMBLY INTAKE MANIFOLD

INDUCTION ELBOW

T180/1.38

NOTES

30

AJV8 Engine Overview

Supercharged Air Intake System

AIR INTAKE SYSTEM LAYOUT: SC

Combustion air, metered by the electronic throttle, passes through the induction elbow to the supercharger. Depending on engine operating demands, the supercharger increases the air pressure up to a maximum of 0.8 bar (11.6 psi) above atmospheric pressure. The pressurized air is cooled by the charge air coolers on its way to the cylinders.

ELECTRONIC THROTTLE

BYPASS VALVE AND ACTUATOR

M SUPERCHARGER EGR OUTLET DUCT

A vacuum controlled bypass valve attaches to an opening in the induction elbow to control bypass air flow from the charge air coolers to the supercharger intake to regulate boost pressure. NOTES

CHARGE AIR COOLERS

T180/1.39

AIR INTAKE SYSTEM COMPONENTS: SC CHARGE AIR COOLERS

ELECTRONIC THROTTLE OUTLET DUCT INDUCTION ELBOW / BYPASS VALVE AND ACTUATOR

SUPERCHARGER

T180/1.40

31

AJV8 Engine Overview Engine Specifications Except where noted, specifications are for both normally aspirated and supercharged engines. Configuration

90º V8

Number of cylinders

8 (two banks: ‘A’ bank right, ‘B’ bank left, cylinder number 1 at front)

Displacement

3996 cc (243.9 cu. in.)

Engine weight Normally aspirated Supercharged

200 kg (441 lb.) 227 kg (500 lb.)

Bore and stroke

86 mm x 86 mm (3.386 in. x 3.386 in.)

Cylinder head

4 valves per cylinder

Compression ratio Normally aspirated Supercharged

10.75 : 1 9.00 : 1

Power output Normally aspirated Supercharged

Horsepower (DIN) 290 @ 6100 rpm Torque 393 Nm (290 lb. ft.) @ 4250 rpm Horsepower (DIN) 365 @ 6000 rpm Torque 525 Nm (384 lb. ft.) @ 3600 rpm

Firing order

1A, 1B, 4A, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B, 4B

Valve clearances (cold)

Intake 0.20 mm (0.008 in.) Exhaust 0.25 mm (0.010 in.)

Compression pressure

12 bar (180 psi) ± 10%

Spark plugs Normally aspirated Supercharged

PFR56 - 13E gap 1.3 mm (0.051 in.) PFR66 - 13E gap 1.3 mm (0.051 in.)

Valve operation

Hydraulically actuated two position variable valve timing for intake camshafts

Supercharged

No variable valve timing

Crankshaft Number of main bearings journals Main bearing journal diameter Main bearing width Main bearing oil clearance

5 62 mm (2.441 in.) 20 mm (0.787 in.) 0.025 – 0.050mm (0.001– 0.002 in.)

Crankshaft end float

0.07 – 0.27 mm (0.0027 – 0.010 in.)

Number of connecting rod journals Connecting rod journal diameter Connecting rod bearing width Connecting rod bearings oil clearance

4 56 mm (2.204 in.) 16 mm (0.630 in.) 0.035 – 0.063 mm (0.0014 – 0.0025 in.)

Connecting rods Number of connecting rods Center to center dimension

32

Twin overhead camshafts; chain driven

Normally aspirated

8 151.75 mm (5.974 in.)

AJV8 Engine Overview

Pistons Bare weight

334 ± 5 g (11.75 ± 0.18 oz.)

Piston rings Top Middle Bottom

Barrel faced plasma sprayed compression Napier taper compression Two piece spring assisted oil control

Valves Valve stem diameter Valve head diameter Valve lift Valve springs Free length Valve timing Normally aspirated Intake opens Intake closes Exhaust closes Exhaust opens Supercharged Intake opens Intake closes Exhaust closes Exhaust opens

5 mm (0.197 in.) Intake 34.9 mm (1.374 in.) Exhaust 30.9 mm (1.217 in.) 9.0 mm (0.354 in.) 45.5 mm (1.791 in.) maximum

retarded – 5º ATDC advanced – 25º BTDC retarded – 65º ABDC advanced – 35º ABDC 50º BBDC 10º ATDC 5º ATDC 65º ABDC 50º BBDC 10º ATDC

Camshafts Bearing diameters

30 mm (1.181 in.)

Timing gear Primary timing chain Crankshaft timing sprocket Intake camshaft primary sprocket Secondary timing chain Intake camshaft secondary sprocket Exhaust camshaft secondary sprocket

Single roller chain endless riveted 106 links 19 teeth 38 teeth Single roller chain endless riveted 44 links 23 teeth 23 teeth

Lubrication system Oil capacity Oil pressure Maximum oil flow Maximum oil pressure Oil pressure relief valve Oil pressure switch operation Oil diverter valve (oil cooler engine only) Start opening Fully open

Without oil cooler – 6.5 liters (6.87 qt.) With oil cooler – 7.3 liters (7.71 qt.) 3000 rpm / hot – 3.8 bar (55.1 psi) Idle / hot – 0.7 bar (10.15 psi) 45 liter / min. (10 gallons / min.) 6.8 bar (98.6 psi) 4.5 bar (65.25 psi) 0.15 – 0.41 bar (2.17 – 6 psi) 105 ºC (221 ºF) 119 ºC (246 ºF)

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