• Mosaics were a popular art form in the Roman Empire and were used to decorate the floors and walls of homes and public buildings. Students can create mosaic designs by gluing pieces of colored paper, small tiles or stones into designs from nature or Roman mythology. Refer to books with pictures of Roman mosaics. Pompeii excavations have excellent examples. • As a class project or individually, have students create a diorama of Pompeii showing what archaeologists were able to recreate. • Research the original Egyptian calendar; then compare it with Ceasar’s version and the calendar we use today. • Hold a Roman banquet and have students dress as Roman citizens. Togas were robes only worn by Roman citizens and were folded in a particular way so citizens were easily identified. Students can follow a pattern for making a toga out of a sheet or large piece of material. Have the class plan a menu for a Roman banquet and prepare some ancient Roman dishes. Roman banquets were the ultimate expression of luxury as guests reclined and ate dozens of courses while enjoying entertainment. Wear togas and enjoy a performance of a play. See Suggested Teacher Resources for the toga pattern, banquet menu and scripts. • Many of the rulers in Ancient Rome were corrupt, weak and ineffective leaders. Diocletian was one ruler who managed to effectively reorganize the Roman Empire and implement many positive reforms. However, Diocletian was also responsible for persecuting many Christians living in Rome during his rule. Have students research Diocletian, and as a class, generate and discuss a list of the positive and negative aspects of his reign.
Suggested Teacher Resources ____________________ • Baker, Charles and Rosalie. The Classical Companion. Cobblestone Publishing, Peterborough, NH; 1988. A sourcebook for teachers and students with projects, plays, a Roman banquet and toga pattern. • Baker, Charles and Rosalie. Classical Ingenuity. Cobblestone Publishing, Peterborough, NH; 1996. Art, architecture and inventions; projects on mosaics and Roman roads. • Ancient Rome: Thematic Unit.Teacher Created Materials, Huntington Beach, CA; 1996.
Suggested Student Resources ____________________ • Beisty, Stephen. Rome: In Spectacular Cross Section. Scholastic, New York, NY; 2003. • Chrisp, Peter. Ancient Rome. Raintree, Chicago, IL; 2005. • Hart,Avery, Sandra Gallagher & Michael P. Kline. Ancient Rome!: Exploring the Culture, People and Ideas of This Powerful Empire. Williamson Publishing Company, Charlotte,VT; 2001. • James, Simon, Christi Graham & Nick Nicholas. Eyewitness: Ancient Rome. DK Publishing, Inc., New York, NY; 2000. • Osborne, Mary Pope. Ancient Rome and Pompeii: A Nonfiction Companion to Vacation under the Volcano. Random House, New York, NY; 2006.
TEACHER’S GUIDE CONSULTANT Jan Bufkin 6th Grade Teacher Westland Middle School Bethesda, MD
Suggested Internet Resources __________________ Periodically, Internet Resources are updated on our web site at www.LibraryVideo.com • www.carlos.emory.edu/ODYSSEY/ — The Odyssey Online web site features information on ancient civilizations for students and teachers including sections on archaeology, mythology and daily life. • members.aol.com/donnandlee/SiteIndex.html — Mr. Donn’s History Pages. Created by a teacher, this site includes teaching units, games and web links on Rome and other ancient civilizations. • www.bbc.co.uk/schools/romans/ — The BBC’s “The Romans” offers students a detailed history of life in ancient Rome. • www.julen.net/ancient/ — The Ancient World Web provides many links to sites on ancient civilizations.
TITLES • ANCIENT AEGEAN • ANCIENT AFRICA • ANCIENT CHINA
• ANCIENT EGYPT • ANCIENT GREECE • ANCIENT INCA
Teacher’s Guides Included and Available Online at:
• ANCIENT MAYA • ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA • ANCIENT ROME
Teacher’s Guide and Program Copyright 1998 by Schlessinger Media, a division of Library Video Company P.O. Box 580,Wynnewood, PA 19096 • 800-843-3620 Executive Producer,Andrew Schlessinger K6729 Program produced and directed by JWM Productions, Inc. V7159 All rights reserved
Ancient Rome Grades 3–7 his guide is a supplement designed for teachers to use when presenting this program.The guide provides you with a summary of the program, previewing and follow-up questions, activities, vocabulary and resources. Before Viewing: Give students an overview of the program. Use the program summary to help provide this introduction. Select pre-viewing discussion questions and vocabulary to provide a focus for students when they view the program. After Viewing: Review the program and vocabulary and discuss what students learned. Use follow-up questions and activities, and encourage students to research the topic further with the Internet and reading resources provided.
Historical Overview ______________________________ The Roman Empire has had such a major impact upon world history that historians are inclined to measure all empires before and since against the Romans with regard to both size and influence. Lasting for nearly a millennium, Rome formed a republic in 509 BC, creating a form of government that is widely emulated today. Rome grew under the republic until the relatively brief but dramatic rule of Julius Caesar; it entered a period of civil war after Caesar’s assassination in 44 BC. Augustus was crowned emperor in 29 BC, beginning a period known as the Pax Romana, or “Roman Peace,” during which the empire reached its greatest size, stretching from the Near East across North Africa and as far north as Britain. Internal and external pressures led to the Empire’s division into eastern and western parts, the western half falling to invaders from the north in AD 476. Rome’s legacy to Western civilization includes ideas on government, architecture, engineering, language and literature.
Vocabulary ______________________________________ archaeologist — A scientist who studies past cultures by analyzing their remains. empire — A number of nations or peoples united under one central power. Pompeii — An ancient Roman town on the Bay of Naples destroyed by the eruption of Mt.Vesuvius in AD 79. mosaic — A decorative design or picture created from small pieces of tile, stone or glass. Romulus and Remus — Legendary twin brothers (and sons of Mars, the Roman god of war) who founded Rome. republic — A form of government in which citizens entitled to vote elect officials to represent them and share power. Forum — Ancient Rome’s center of government and commerce. Julius Caesar — A popular Roman general who declared himself dictator for life; he was assassinated by members of the Roman Senate. Augustus — Julius Caesar’s adopted son who became emperor and began the Pax Romana, a period of relative peace which lasted for almost 200 years. aqueduct — A complex system of channels built to carry water from one place to another. oculus — An opening at the top of a dome. Latin — The official language of the Roman Empire. patrician — A member of the wealthy social class in ancient Rome. plebeian — A commoner in ancient Rome. stylus — A writing instrument used for inscribing wax tablets. (Continued) 2
abacus — A mathematical calculator invented by the Chinese and used in ancient Rome. toga — A robe worn by Romans that denoted citizenship. gladiator — A professional athlete, often a slave or prisoner of war, who fought to provide entertainment for ancient Romans. barbarians — Nomadic peoples from the north who conquered the western half of the Roman Empire in AD 476. Greco-Roman — A term describing the closely connected cultures of ancient Greece and Rome.
Timeline ________________________________________ 753 BC 509 – 31 BC 44 BC AD 79 31 BC – AD 476
Founding of Rome The Roman Republic Caesar is assassinated/civil war begins Eruption of Mt.Vesuvius buries Pompeii Imperial Rome
Pre-viewing Discussion __________________________ • Refer to a map of Europe, North Africa and the Near East, and indicate the territories that belonged to the Roman Empire at its height in the 1st century AD.Ask students to suggest methods that the Romans would have needed to keep such a huge empire united under one government. • Discuss the famous saying “All roads lead to Rome.”What do students think it means? Inform students that the comment is attributed to Emperor Augustus and that the saying was largely true for nearly a thousand years of European history.
Focus Questions ________________________________
8. How extensive was the Roman Empire? Why was a system of roads critical to keeping the Empire? 9. Ancient Romans were clever engineers. Describe some of their most significant engineering successes in the building of Rome. 10. Describe some of the discoveries archaeologists have made at Hadrian’s Wall on the Empire’s northern frontier. 11. What was the official language of the Roman Empire? How has the language of the Romans influenced modern languages? 12. Describe the foods served at a banquet in ancient Rome. 13. What pastimes did children enjoy in ancient Rome? How were boys educated? Girls? 14. Describe the Colosseum and the popular events that took place there. 15. Why did Emperor Diocletian divide the Empire into two parts? To whom did the western half of the Empire fall?
Follow-up Discussion __________________________ • Discuss some of the many contributions the Romans made to Western civilization.What Roman influences can students see in our society today? • Name ideas that the ancient Romans borrowed from the Greeks in architecture, religion, education and the arts that have led to the coining of the term “Greco-Roman.” Discuss ways that cultures borrow from each other. • Archaeologists use different techniques to reveal what life was like in different areas of the Roman Empire. Compare and contrast Roman excavations at Pompeii in southern Italy to that of Vindolanda in Britain.
1. What natural disaster occurred on the Bay of Naples in AD 79? How did this create one of the greatest archaeological sites ever studied? 2. What have archaeologists learned about life at the height of the Roman Empire from the excavations at Pompeii? 3. What technique did archaeologists use to reconstruct the forms of the people who were buried at Pompeii? 4. What legend tells of the founding of Rome? 5. How was the Roman government organized under the Republic? What influence has the Roman Republic had upon modern governments like that of the United States? 6. What role did the Roman Forum play in the life of the city? 7. Why was Julius Caesar assassinated by members of the Roman Senate? Who succeeded him as Emperor unified? (Continued)
Follow-up Activities ____________________________
• Teach students to read and write Roman numerals. It’s a skill that is still useful today. • Many of our modern government institutions are modeled after the Roman system, as is much of our public architecture. As a class research project, students can compare the architecture of the nation’s capital with that of ancient Rome and ancient Greece. Classical columns, pediments, domes and arches are some of the classical forms commonly used in monuments and buildings. Students can also take pictures of buildings in their area such as churches, schools and universities, public buildings and homes that have similar classical features. (Continued on Page 5)