Annotations of The Complete Peanuts - Wikimedia Commons

Annotations of The Complete Peanuts - Wikimedia Commons

Annotations of The Complete Peanuts March 15, 2015 On the 28th of April 2012 the contents of the English as well as German Wikibo...

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Annotations of The Complete Peanuts

March 15, 2015

On the 28th of April 2012 the contents of the English as well as German Wikibooks and Wikipedia projects were licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license. A URI to this license is given in the list of figures on page 55. If this document is a derived work from the contents of one of these projects and the content was still licensed by the project under this license at the time of derivation this document has to be licensed under the same, a similar or a compatible license, as stated in section 4b of the license. The list of contributors is included in chapter Contributors on page 53. The licenses GPL, LGPL and GFDL are included in chapter Licenses on page 59, since this book and/or parts of it may or may not be licensed under one or more of these licenses, and thus require inclusion of these licenses. The licenses of the figures are given in the list of figures on page 55. This PDF was generated by the LATEX typesetting software. The LATEX source code is included as an attachment (source.7z.txt) in this PDF file. To extract the source from the PDF file, you can use the pdfdetach tool including in the poppler suite, or the http://www. utility. Some PDF viewers may also let you save the attachment to a file. After extracting it from the PDF file you have to rename it to source.7z. To uncompress the resulting archive we recommend the use of The LATEX source itself was generated by a program written by Dirk Hünniger, which is freely available under an open source license from

Contents 0.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


1 Contributors


List of Figures


2 Licenses 2.1 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 GNU Free Documentation License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 GNU Lesser General Public License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59 59 60 61

Figure 1

Charles M. Schulz, creator of Peanuts .

Since 2004, Fantagraphics Books has been republishing the complete run of the comic strip Peanuts1 in hardcover form, starting from the origin of the strip in October 1950.



Contents Charles M. Schulz2 made frequent topical references within the strip to the events and popular culture of the time, which would have required no explanation for a contemporary reader. Some of these references are now rather obscure, and might not be understood by someone not versed in the popular culture of the period. These annotations aim to provide background for such references, and explain their significance. Each chapter corresponds with a separate volume from the Fantagraphics series, corresponding to two years of the published strips. The original publication dates of the strips are given in addition to the page numbers of the collection, so this reference work can also be used by people with access to the original archives. ==1950−1952== Annotations to The Complete Peanuts: 1950 to 1952 by Charles M. Schulz (Fantagraphics Books, 2004. ISBN 156097589X) • p. 9 (October 31, 1950). One of the games of marbles3 involves shooting one marble out of a ring with another. • p. 11 (November 17, 1950). Although Peanuts is famous for its complete absence of adults, they were occasionally seen and heard in the earliest years of the strip (see June 3, 19524 ). • p. 24 (December 21, 1950). First appearance of Charlie Brown’s famous zig-zag striped shirt. (See p. 278, December 8 1952, for the ”negative” of this shirt.) • p. 25 (December 25, 1950). ”Through the woods to grandmother’s house” is from Lydia Maria Child’s 1844 song ”Over the River and Through the Woods5 ”, which the children also sing at the end of the 1973 television special A Charlie Brown Thanksgiving6 . • p. 30 (January 11, 1951). A filibuster7 is an attempt to delay the proceedings of a legislature. Shermy is stalling for time to get his homework done. • p. 38 (February 9, 1951). George Washington8 , Thomas Jefferson9 , and Abraham Lincoln10 were three of America’s greatest presidents. (Along with Theodore Roosevelt11 , they are the faces on Mount Rushmore12 .) • p. 46 (March 8, 1951). Patty is using a typewriter13 . • p. 49 (March 21, 1951). ”Mad dog” refers to a dog with rabies14 . Rabid dogs are usually killed by local authorities (c.f. To Kill a Mockingbird15 ).

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

2 Chapter on page 2

Contents • p. 67 (May 23, 1951). ”Second childhood” refers to mental impairment as a result of old age. It was a euphemism16 for such things as what we now know to be Alzheimer’s disease17 . • p. 71 (June 4, 1951). In the early 20th century, people unhappy with the squalor and crime of big cities went ”back to the soil” and became farmers. It was an attempt to re-connect with nature and enjoy ”the simple life.” What Charlie Brown was referring to was playing in his sandbox. • p. 79 (July 4, 1951). It is generally thought that the convention of a man walking nearest the curb is so that he and not the lady would be splashed by passing carriages or by someone above emptying a chamber pot18 . • p. 84 (July 21, 1951). In the early part of the 20th century, when a young lady went out on a date, she didn’t need to bring any money since the man would pay for everything. But it was recommended that she carry some ”mad money”, in case the man did something that angered her (made her mad), so she could end the date and have her own money to take a street car19 or taxi20 home. • p. 91 (August 13, 1951). ”Comic magazine” and ”comic book21 ” are used interchangeably throughout the early days of the strip, with the former eventually dropping out of use. (See p. 17, November 29, 1950 for the first use of ”comic book”.) • p. 93 (August 21, 1951). Neptune22 is the ancient Roman god of the seas. • p. 103 (September 26, 1951). Charlie Brown misunderstood; it’s the New York Phil harmonic23 , one of America’s finest symphony orchestra24 s. • p. 105 (October 2, 1951). Schroeder is playing the slow movement (Grave) from Beethoven’s25 Piano Sonata No. 8 op. 13, ”Pathetique.” • p. 108 (October 13, 1951). In a less politically sensitive time (white) children would play ”Cowboys and Indians,” a game in which they would chase and pretend to shoot each other, with either imaginary guns—a child’s index finger being the gun’s barrel and the thumb the hammer (See Volume 2’s August 7 1954, p. 250, for Lucy’s clever take on this ”hand gun”) -- or using toy weapons. (See p. 148, February 10 1952, for a full-scale production of the game.) • p. 114 (November 1, 1951). Children in the United States used to ask for money or candy on Halloween26 . In the 21st century, it’s become almost exclusively candy.

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26


Contents • p. 124 (December 6, 1951). The proper technique for ice fishing27 is to cut a hole in the ice—which is what Charlie Brown does six days later in the December 13, 1951 strip, p. 126. • p. 125 (December 10, 1951). Someone else has drawn a picture of Charlie Brown on the sidewalk. He adds the legend ”Don’t Tread on Me” so that people won’t scuff up his picture (scuffing him in effigy). The phrase ”Don’t Tread on Me” along with the image of a rattlesnake became popular during the American Revolution28 and is seen on the Gadsden flag29 . It remains a symbol of defiance against oppression. • p. 135 (January 12, 1952). Charlie Brown is ”driving” a soapbox car30 , a car made of wooden boxes, with no motor, that only goes downhill due to gravity. • p. 136 (January 13, 1952). Alexander Graham Bell31 is generally credited with the invention of the telephone. • p. 137 (January 15, 1952). The expression ”Born on the wrong side of the (railroad) tracks” means to be poor, but Charlie Brown is using it here to mean unlucky. The snow man was unlucky enough to be born where it’s sunny (because it’s melted him). • p. 137 (January 16, 1952). Prelude in C major from Johann Sebastian Bach32 ’s WellTempered Clavier33 (Book 1), BWV84634 . • p. 140 (January 23, 1952). This musical piece is more commonly referred to as Beethoven’s Piano Sonata No. 29 in B flat major 35 . This is also the music for March 25 and April 14. A Hammer-Klavier (in correct German, Hammerklavier ) is simply the German word for piano. Schulz lettered those German words in blackletter script36 , which was still in use in Germany at the time. (See also p. 206, June 24, 1952, below). • p. 144 (February 1, 1952). The large disc they are listening to is a phonograph record37 , the precursor to a compact disc38 . • p. 146 (February 4, 1952). Albert Payson Terhune39 was the author of many stories and novels about dogs, most notably Lad, a Dog . • p. 148 (February 10, 1952). Charlie Brown is mis-singing Stephen Foster40 ’s ”Old Folks at Home41 ” (More commonly know by its first line, ”Way down upon the Swanee River”).

27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41


Contents ”Old Chisel Home Trail” is the Chisholm Trail42 , a cattle drive route from Texas to Kansas in the 19th Century. • p. 159 (March 7, 1952). Charlie Brown and Snoopy are playing William Tell43 , the legendary Swiss hero who shot an apple from his son’s head with an arrow. • p. 160 (March 9, 1952). The joke is that in the three hours they played (a common length of time for a round of golf44 ), they only made it as far as the 1st (of 18) holes. • p. 162 (March 13, 1952). Banbury Cross45 is a real place in England, but Charlie Brown is undoubtedly thinking of the nursery rhyme ”Ride a Cock Horse to Banbury Cross46 .” • p.169 (March 30, 1952). The songs Lucy wants to hear are ”Three Blind Mice47 ” and ”Twinkle Twinkle Little Star48 .” • p. 171 (April 3, 1952). Charlie Brown is delivering the traditional whistle of appreciation for feminine beauty (though it usually has two notes: WEEEET-WOOO49 ), and Patty takes offense. Schroeder, being more musical, delivers a mini-concert to Violet and gets to walk off with her. It is the melody to ”Traumerei” from Schumann’s50 ”Scenes from Childhood” for piano. • p. 179 (April 21, 1952). ”Rubbers” is another term for galoshes51 . • p. 182 (April 29, 1952). Charlie Brown thinks they need him to play the card game bridge52 , which requires four people. (Six months later, p. 257, October 22 1952, that is what he’s needed for.) • p. 194 (May 27, 1952). Snoopy’s first words in the strip, as opposed to ”Smack Smack” (see p. 2,1 December 11, 1950, 2nd panel) and other animal noises. • p. 197 (June 3, 1952). The first time that adults (except for Beethoven53 ) are seen in the strip, even if only on TV. (See Volume 2, pp. 215, 218, and 221 for whole crowds of adults as Lucy plays in a golf tournament.) • p. 201 (June 14, 1952). ”Sweetmeats” is just another term for confectionery54 products, including candy. • p. 202 (June 15, 1952). Patty is misquoting William Congreve55 ’s line from his 1697 play The Mourning Bride : ”Musick has Charms to sooth a savage Breast . . .”

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55


Contents • p. 203 (June 17, 1952). ”The Gay Nineties56 ” refers to the economic expansion and rapid wealth gains experienced in parts of America in the 1890s. Likewise, ”The Roaring Twenties57 ” refers to American in the 1920s, a period of rapid social change and economic prosperity that only ended with The Great Depression58 . • p. 205 (June 22, 1952). The violent names and nature of some comic books at the time were epitomized by EC Comics59 and criticized by Fredric Wertham60 in his book Seduction of the Innocent61 . • p. 206 (June 24, 1952). ”Eine Kleine Nachtmusik62 ” is famous musical piece by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart63 . Jawohl is German for an emphatic ”Yes” (similar to ”of course” or ”you bet”). • p. 206 (June 25, 1952). Both 33 and 20 are terrible scores for any hole in golf64 . • p. 218 (July 21, 1952). Because he wrote about collies, these are almost certainly Albert Payson Terhune65 books again (see p. 146 above). • p. 225 (August 7, 1952). Schroeder is playing the first movement of Beethoven’s66 Piano Sonata No. 14 op. 27 No. 2, ”Moonlight.” • p. 228 (August 15, 1952). A shutout67 is a game in which one team wins without allowing the opposing team to score at all. So, yes, their opponents having scored 63 runs, Charlie Brown’s team has no chance of shutting them out. • p. 231 (August 22, 1952). Lucy is confusing checkers with the card game bridge68 , where a coup and grand coup 69 are various sophisticated card plays. Charlie Brown doesn’t appear to know the difference either. But he soon learns to play (See p. 257, below). • p. 243 (September 19, 1952). Linus’s first appearance (although his name wouldn’t be mentioned until September 22). Schulz: ”[O]ne day I was doodling on a piece of paper and I drew this little character with some wild hair straggling down from the top of his head and I showed it to a friend of mine... whose name was Linus Maurer. For no reason at all I had written his name under it... [t]hen I thought, why not put this character in the strip and make him Lucy’s brother?”70

56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70

6 Kenneth Wilson. A Visit with Charles SchulzA Visit with Charles Schulz. Christian Herald, September1967

Contents • p. 246 (September 25, 1952). Vasco Núñez de Balboa71 was the first European to see the Pacific Ocean from the New World. Daniel Boone72 was an 18th century American frontiersman and Indian-fighter. • p. 248 (October 1, 1952). Perfect pitch73 (also called absolute pitch) is ability to sing any individual note on command and/or recognize any individual note upon hearing it played. It is often thought to be a sign of musical genius. Charlie Brown is confusing it the pitching74 in baseball75 . • p. 264 (November 7, 1952). The strip’s first use of ”fuss-budget”, a term seldom seen outside of Peanuts. It means one who fusses over insignificant matters; a complainer. • p. 267 (November 15, 1952). Note the use of ”deep focus76 ” on both Lucy and the telephone. Quite dramatic. Right out of Citizen Kane77 , which the strip would refer to frequently in later years. • p. 268 (November 16, 1952). The first time Lucy pulls the football away from Charlie Brown. • p. 278 (December 9, 1952). Schroeder is playing the Prelude in C major from Book One of J. S. Bach’s78 ”Well Tempered Clavier.” • p. 282 (December 18, 1952). Carnegie Hall79 is one of the finest American venues for the performance of classical music. In the 1950s and 60s especially it was considered the height of musical accomplishment to perform there. Category:Annotations of The Complete Peanuts80 ==1953−1954== Annotations to The Complete Peanuts: 1953 to 1954 by Charles M. Schulz (Fantagraphics Books, 2004. ISBN 1560976144) • p. 11 (January 25, 1953). Schroeder is playing the Piano Sonata No. 29 in B-flat, op. 106 ”Hammerklavier” by Beethoven81 . This appears again on p. 110 (September 13, 1953). • p. 16 (February 5, 1953). Bela Bartok82 was one of Hungary’s83 greatest composers. • p. 52 (May 1, 1953). Schroeder is singing from the 4th movement of the Symphony No. 9 in d, Op. 125 ”Choral” by Beethoven84 .

71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84


Contents • p. 63 (May 26, 1953). ”Doggie in the Window85 ” was Patti Page’s86 #1 hit song in 1953. • p. 122 (October 11, 1953). Ben Hogan87 was a famous professional golf player. (It is interesting to note that in these pre-1960s strips, Charlie Brown can sometimes be quite self-confident.) • p. 130 (October 31, 1953). A contour sheet is a fitted bed sheet88 . • p. 133 (November 5, 1953). Lucy is exercising her rights as guaranteed by the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution89 . • p. 149 (December 13, 1953). Schroeder is playing the waltz ”On the Beautiful Blue Danube90 ” op. 314 by Johann Strauss Jr.91 . • p. 207 (April 26, 1954). Schroeder is smiling, and has a candelabra92 on his piano, as Liberace93 did in his television show at the time. • p. 215 (May 16, 1954). Sam Snead94 and Ben Hogan95 were famous professional golfers. ”Ike” refers to President Dwight D. Eisenhower96 , well-known for his love of golf. • p. 225 (June 8, 1954). Miss Frances97 was the host of a popular children’s television program. She invented the approach of talking to her young viewers as if they were in the room with her. • p. 232 (June 24, 1954). Stan Musial98 , Ted Williams99 , Roy Campanella100 were popular baseball players of the era. • p. 274 (October 2, 1954). After Lucy does some meaningless graffiti101 , Charlie Brown crosses the t. • p. 280 (October 15. 1954). Handballs102 are quite small: 1⅞inches (4.8 centimeters) in diameter. • p. 281 (October 17, 1954). Outing flannel103 is particularly soft, having a nap on both sides.

85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103

8 20Constitution

Contents Category:Annotations of The Complete Peanuts104 ==1955−1956== Annotations to The Complete Peanuts: 1955 to 1956 by Charles M. Schulz (Fantagraphics Books, 2005. ISBN 1560976470) • p. 6 (January 11, 1955). A mambo105 is a very fast piece of dance music. • p. 6 (January 12, 1955). A metronome106 is a device for keeping a regulated beat to assist in the playing of music. • p. 7 (January 13, 1955). You break the sound barrier107 by traveling faster than the speed of sound108 : approximately 343 m/s109 , 1,087 ft/s110 , 761 mph111 or 1,235 km/h112 in air at sea level. The person generally credited with first doing this is Chuck Yeager113 on October 14, 1947. • p. 10 (January 22, 1955). This may be inspired by the 1940 film, Edison, the Man , which starred Spencer Tracy114 and told the story of the earlier years of inventor Thomas Edison115 . • p. 16 (February 4, 1955). An egotist is someone self-centered, who thinks they are ”the center of the universe.” • p. 21 (February 15, 1955). In actual farming116 , ”parity” was the ratio of farm income to farm expenditure with 1910-1914 as a base. Farm interests from 1920s to 1960s wanted federal programs to raise their income to parity. • p. 33 (March 15, 1955). Lucy is playing with some famous sayings. ”There’s a sucker born every minute,” (i.e. you can always find someone to con) is attributed to showman P.T. Barnum117 . ”Two’s company, but three’s a crowd.” ”If at first you don’t succeed, try, try again.” • p. 45 (April 11, 1955). Davy Crockett118 was a 19th-century American folk hero and frontiersman. The Walt Disney-produced television show about him119 launched Crockett mania in the U.S. and England. The show’s theme song, ”The Ballad of Davy Crockett120 ” was a number #1 hit record and children starting wearing coonskin cap121 s.

104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121


Contents • p. 48 (April 19, 1955). Charlie Brown is reading a Pogo122 comic book. • p. 57 (May 10, 1955) Buffalo Bill was an army scout and frontiersman who later went into the entertainment business, running his ”Wild West123 ” show. Annie Oakley124 was a female sharpshooter125 and part of the show. She was so talented that she is generally considered American’s first female superstar. Although she wasn’t actually part of the settling of the West, she dressed in buckskins to play up that image. It would not be too far a stretch to say that this strip is commentary on the rise of feminism126 that occurred after World War II127 . • p. 60 (May 16, 1955) Almost all clovers have three leafs. Due to their rarity, a four-leaf clover128 is considered a good luck charm. • p. 66 (June 1, 1955). The first appearance of one of the 1950’s hottest fads, the Davy Crockett129 coonskin cap130 .(See p. 45, above.) / Sam Snead131 was a professional golfer famous for his large straw hats. • p. 69 (June 6, 1955). The song ”The Ballad of Davy Crockett132 ” claims many fantastic things about the man, among them that he killed a bear ”when he was only three.” • p. 69 (June 8, 1955). ”The Ballad of Davy Crockett133 ” begins, ”Davy! Davy Crockett, King of the Wild Frontier . . .” Modern readers may find it odd that Schulz devoted so many strips to such a trivial phenomenon, but Davy Crockett and coonskin caps really were seemingly everywhere at the time. (See p. 78, June 28, 1955) • p. 70 (June 9, 1955). Minnesota134 is Chales Schulz’ home state. • p. 73 (June 17, 1955). A white-collar worker135 is a professional, someone who’s work is supposedly more intellectual than physical. People in manufacturing are said to be blue collar worker136 s. The joke is that even Pig Pen’s white collar is bound to be dirty. • p. 75 (June 21, 1955). ”But is it art?” is an age-old question that really has no answer. What makes a drip painting137 by Jackson Pollock138 worthy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art139 , but not a similar painting by a chimp?

122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139


Contents • p. 76 (June 25, 1955). Most recreation room140 s in suburban homes are in the basement to keep the noise down. • p. 79 (July 2, 1955). Willie Mays141 and Duke Snider142 were popular baseball players of the 1950s. • p. 98 (August 14, 1955). To ”clear the table” in the game of one turn and thus win the game.


is to sink all the balls on

• p. 99 (August 15, 1955). The umlauts over the o’s would actually be pronounced ”boowoo.” According the International Phonetic Alphabet144 , the correct way to represent ”bow wow” is: bau wau. • p. 105 (August 30, 1955) Miss Frances145 was the host of a popular children’s television program. She inventing the approach of talking to the her young viewers as if they were in the room with her. • p. 131 (October 31, 1955). The trick-or-treaters are, in order, Patty, Lucy, Shermy, Violet, Schroeder and Linus. • Lucy’s hair and shoes are visible on in panel #4, even though she had planned on dressing as a ghost on Oct 29/30. • On November 14, Pig-Pen says he was ”away” on Hallowe’en, so he is not in this strip. • Linus is behind Schroeder in panel #9; even though Charlie Brown admired Davy Crockett earlier, Linus produces a Crockett snowman on December 12. • p. 106 (November 2, 1955). This will be Sputnik146 , the first artificial satellite, launched by the then-Soviet Union147 on October 4, 1957, signaling the start of the Space Age148 and the Space Race149 . • p. 117 (September 27, 1955). Charlie Brown is shown as ”small.” The expression ”to feel small” means to be embarrassed. • p. 142 (November 26, 1955). Snoopy is imitating Mickey Mouse150 . • p. 147 (No date in strip, but is December 7, 1955). Lucy is reading a variation on the Dick and Jane151 readers popular at the time. Schulz is being sarcastic. Not much really happens in the stories, so they are far from ”fascinating.” • p. 149 (December 11, 1955). The snow man is (who else?) Davy Crockett152 .

140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152


Contents • p. 156 (December 28, 1955). All fads pass, and so did Davy Crocket mania. (See p. 187, March 8, 1956, for what became of at least one old coonskin cap.) • p. 159 (January 5, 1956). Nuclear fallout153 is radioactive contamination154 from a nuclear attack. • p. 162 (January 10, 1956). Private first class155 is the ”rank” immediately above Linus’ current one. (See p. 159, January 4, 1956) • p. 163 ( January 13, 1956). Juvenile delinquency156 is anti-social and criminal activity by those under the age of 18. It came into the public eye and interest in the 1950s (see West Side Story157 ). • p. 166 (January 19, 1956). To ”read between the lines” means to understand the subtext158 of something—not what is actually said, but rather implied. • p. 167 ( January 22, 1956). Charlie Brown is putting sand (or maybe salt, if he’s trying to melt it) on the ice to prevent anyone from slipping on it ¿ which is exactly what Snoopy wants to do. • p. 170 (January 30, 1956). A ”fair weather friend” is one who is your friend during good times (”fair weather”), but abandons you when in times of trouble (”rough weather”). • p. 178 (February 16, 1956). Rin-Tin-Tin159 and Lassie160 were the heroic canine stars of popular television shows and movies. • p. 178 (February 18, 1956). Static electricity161 seems to build up more during winter months. • p. 180 (February 20, 1956). Ding Dong School was the television program hosted by Miss Frances162 . Howdy Doody163 was arguably the pre-eminent children’s television show of the 1950s. Lassie164 was a very popular television program starring a dog. • p. 184 (March 3, 1956). Lucy is describing a scene from Peter Pan165 . Most likely the book was read to her or she saw the 1954 musical starring Mary Martin166 on stage, since she was too young to have seen the Disney film version167 in 1953.

153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167


Contents • p. 190 ( March 15, 1956). ”Asia minor168 ” the old term for Southwest Asia169 which corresponds today to the Asian170 portion of Turkey171 . Lucy has confused the term with ”Toccata and Fugue in D Minor172 ” by Johann Sebastian Bach173 . • p. 208 (April 26, 1956). In the 1950s the government paid farmers not to use their land. The idea was that this would prevent soil erosion174 and build up healthier soil when crops were eventually planted. • p. 210 ( April 30, 1956). Unlike the previous greens, which were all legitimate shades of the color, the ones in this panel are jokes. Evergreen175 and wintergreen176 , are types of plants. Herb Green was a cartoonist, and Graham Greene177 a novelist. • p. 217 (May 18, 1956). Linus has transformed his blanket into an ascot tie178 , a very sophisticated look in the 1950s, frequently worn by sporty celebrities. • p. 226 (June 8, 1956). Stephen Foster179 was arguably the most popular American composer of the 19th Century. His works include ”Oh! Susanna180 ,” ”Camptown Races181 ” and ”Beautiful Dreamer182 .” • p. 232 ( June 22, 1956). Elvis Presley183 , ”the King of Rock and Roll” had just made his first television appearances earlier that year and was a riding a huge crest of popularity. At age 21, was also, arguably, at the height of his attractiveness. And, naturally, Schroeder cares not a whit for rock music184 . • p. 233 (June 24, 1956). A dust bowl185 is an area where, due to drought and/or poor soil management, the soil has lost all nutrients turned to dust, and blown away. • p. 244 (July 19, 1956). The automatic dishwasher186 as we know it wasn’t invented until the 1920s. With the privations imposed by the Great Depression187 and then World War II188 , it didn’t become a common domestic appliance until the 1950s. And, so, of course, Violet’s great-grandmother, who was probably born in the 1880s or 1890s, didn’t have one.

168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188


Contents • p. 247 (July 27, 1956). Usually, one sticks up for the underdog not generally favored.

189 ,

the person or thing

• p. 247 (July 28, 1956). The suburban190 population in North America exploded after World War II191 . Returning veteran192 s wishing to start a settled life moved en masse to the suburbs. Between 1950 and 1956 the resident population of all U.S. suburbs increased by 46%. And, since new suburbs were built from scratch, very few had mature trees. (Though Charlie Brown’s kites never seem to have a problem finding large trees to crash into.) • p. 249 (July 30, 1956). The titles are all variations on popular books or types of books. From Rags to Fuss-Budget is a spin on any ”Rags to Riches193 ” tale (how someone started out poor but became rich; see the Horatio Alger194 novels). The Power of Positive Fussing is from Norman Vincent Peale’s195 The Power of Positive Thinking , one of most popular inspirational books of the 1950s. Great Fuss-Budgets of Our Time : the are lots of ”of Our Time” books published every year. I Was a Fuss-Budget for the F.B.I. is a take on I Was a Communist for the FBI196 , the radio show and, later, film about an undercover agent infiltrating communist197 organizations in order to disrupt them. The F.B.I.198 is the Federal Bureau of Investigations, America’s internal criminal investigation organization. In the 1950s America was particularly interested in hunting domestic communists, something which was carried to the extremes199 by U.S. senator Joseph McCarthy200 . • p. 253 (August 4, 1956). Dr. (Benjamin) Spock201 Was a leading pediatrician. The main message of his best-selling The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care202 was for parents to be more affectionate with their children, and to treat them as individuals. (See p. 300, November 26, 1956, below.) • p. 271 (September 20, 1956). Compatible color was a television broadcast standard that allowed color broadcasts to appear on black and white televisions without distortions or flickers (but still, of course, in black and white). Incompatible color was a previous color television standard developed by CBS that would have rendered all existing televisions obsolete. • p. 275 (September 30, 1956). Schroeder is playing the Prelude in C major from Book I of J. S. Bach’s203 Well-Tempered Clavier.

189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203

14 20Care

Contents • P. 283 (October 18, 1956). There’s no particular reason why Charlie Brown yelled this except that it’s dog-related and in the movie Lassie Come Home204 it gets yelled, which is what Charlie Brown is really after. • p. 300 (November 26, 1956). Lucy is reading from Dr. Benjamin Spock’s205 The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care206 . Category:Annotations of The Complete Peanuts207 ==1957−1958== Annotations to The Complete Peanuts: 1957 to 1958 by Charles M. Schulz (Fantagraphics Books, 2005. ISBN 1560976705) • p. 4 (January 7, 1957) 3rd panel (and subsequent days). Stereo208 and Hi-Fi209 equipment were the latest innovations in home audio at the time. • p. 6 (January 13, 1957) This is a reference to the nursery rhyme210 ”Three Little Kittens211 .” • p. 7 (January 16, 1957). Bastille Day212 is the French213 national holiday symbolizing the start of French democracy. • p. 20 (February 15, 1957). Hennepin county214 is in Charles M. Schulz215 ’s home state of Minnesota216 . • p. 22 (February 19, 1957). Undoubtedly Lawrence Welk217 , whose show first aired nationally in 1955. • p. 23 (February 21, 1957). Having ”both feet on the ground” means having a firm grip on reality. This pun is likely a reference to the fact that the accordion is played while standing, whereas the piano is played while seated and often with a foot on the pedals. (The accordion is also a less widely respected instrument than the piano, explaining Schroeder’s disgust at the remark.) • p. 23 (February 22, 1957). This is the first reference in Peanuts218 to the name Joseph Shlabotnik219 , later to be Charlie Brown220 ’s baseball221 hero.

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Contents • p. 33 (March 17, 1957) 1st panel and following. Charlie Brown is engaged in the ancient game of hoop rolling222 . It’s exactly what it looks like: rolling a hoop with a stick. • p. 34 (March 20, 1957). Skywriting223 is when a small airplane, expelling special smoke during flight, flies in certain patterns, creating ”writing” readable from the ground. • p.41 (April 6, 1957). A fiscal year224 is a 12-month period used for calculating annual (”yearly”) financial reports in businesses and other organizations. It covers a full 365 days, but does not begin on January 1 nor end on December 31. • p. 47 (April 20, 1957) 4th panel Casey Stengel225 was the manager of the New York Yankees226 in the 1950s and led them to many World Series227 victories. • p. 53 (May 4, 1957). Old fashioned roller skates228 did not have their own uppers. They were essentially mini skateboards that you attached to your shoes with a set of clamps that you tightened using a skate key. • p. 56 (May 10, 1957). Washboard229 s, used to wash clothes, were, of course, handoperated. • p. 58 (May 13, 1957). Calypso music230 is Caribbean231 folk music232 . It entered the American mainstream in 1956 with Harry Belafonte233 ’s very popular rendition of the ”Banana Boat Song234 ”, a traditional Jamaican235 folk tune. • p. 62 (May 23, 1957). 33 1/3 and 78 rpm were common speeds for phonograph236 records. (The implication is that Lucy speaks very quickly indeed!). • p. 77 (June 29, 1957). Buttons proclaiming ”I Like Ike237 ” were common in 1951-1952. They proclaimed support for Dwight D. Eisenhower238 for U.S. president. He was president from 1953 to 1961, during the time this panel ran. • p. 82 (July 9, 1957). Barrel staves are curved, wooden parts that make up a barrel239 . • p. 83 (July 13, 1957). ”Slacker” is a term from World War I240 and World War II241 describing men who were avoiding the military draft. 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241


Contents • p. 89 (July 25, 1957). The quotation is from the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam242 . • p. 91 (July 29, 1957). Lucy has confused ”phonetic243 ” (word sounds) with ”psychic244 ” (having the ability to read minds). • p. 98 (August 17, 1957). According to the U.S. Census Bureau 16.1 million men and women served in the U.S. armed forces from Dec. 1, 1941, and Dec. 31, 1946. So practically every U.S. family has a World War II245 veteran in it. • p. 99 (August 18, 1957). ”Geronimo!” is the traditional cry of paratrooper246 s and others as they jump out of planes. It comes from a film about the Apache leader Geronimo247 . • p. 101 (August 23, 1957). ”Thar She Blows!” is the traditional yell of whale hunters248 when they spot a whale or, more often, a whale spouting water from its blow hole. • p. 112 (September 17, 1957). Snoopy is holding his fist in the air like Benito Mussolini249 , suggesting that Lucy is behaving like the fascist250 dictator. • p. 118 (October 2, 1957). Lucy makes this statement just two days before the launch of Sputnik251 ! • p. 139 (November 18, 1957). According to Billboard252 , the number one song in the United States253 that week was ”Jailhouse Rock254 ” by Elvis Presley255 . Note: Schulz drew his strip weeks in advance. Even though he didn’t know exactly which song would be number one, he knew it would undoubtedly be a rock and roll256 tune, which Schroeder naturally dislikes. • p. 151 (December 16, 1957). The first movement of Beethoven’s257 Piano Sonata No. 1, op. 2 No. 1. • p. 152 (December 20, 1957). Pat Boone258 was a popular singer of the time. His songs were usually sweet love songs, more conventional and ”middle of the road” than the raucous rock and roll259 of Elvis Presley260 . Boone had two number one songs in 1957, ”Love Letters In the Sand” and ”April Love”.

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Contents • p. 157 (December 30, 1957). Snoopy’s ears are forming a square. ”Square261 ” is a slang term for someone who is old fashioned and not ”hip262 .” Schroeder’s love of classical music marks him as definite square. • p. 160 (January 8, 1958). Another reading from the gentle and encouraging Dr. Benjamin Spock’s263 revolutionary book, The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care264 . • p. 164 (January 17, 1958). Peter Rabbit265 by Beatrix Potter266 and Alice in Wonderland267 by Lewis Carroll268 are both children’s books, and so easy reads (though Alice is actually a complex satire, although it is doubtful that Charlie Brown would get the references). • p. 164 (January 18, 1958). ”Pioneer Days” would be the 1800s when the American Old West269 was first settled by white men (”pioneers”). That would anywhere from 50 to 150 years before World War II270 . • p. 170 (February 1, 1958). This appears to be a reference to the movie I Was a Teenage Werewolf271 from 1957. • p. 172 (February 4, 1958). Another reference to Sputnik272 , the first artificial satellite. • p. 175 (February 10, 1958). Linus knows that carrying around a blanket makes him look crazy, and crazy people are not drafted into the army. • p. 175 (February 11, 1958). Lucy is mis-quoting Karl Marx273 who said, ”Religion is the opium of the people274 .” Like most people, she has mis-interpreted that saying to mean that religion is a tool used by the bourgeoisie to keep the masses quiet and complacent. • p. 181 (February 25, 1958). To be ”blackballed275 ” is to forbidden to join an organization. The Blue Birds were a children’s club, part of the Camp Fire Organization276 (similar to Scouting277 ), and so, theoretically not that picky. (Blue Birds were started in 1913 as an organization for girls. In 1989 the Blue Bird level became the ”Starflight” level serving both boys and girls.)

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Contents • p. 186 (March 9, 1958). The Asian Flu278 was a strain of influenza279 that caused a pandemic280 in 1957-58. • p. 188 (March 13, 1958). A strop281 is a piece of leather used to sharpen an old-fashioned straight razor282 . They were also used to spank children with when they misbehaved. Schroeder’s grandfather is arguing for more discipline. Electric razors don’t have strops. • p. 190 (March 17, 1958). Jim Hagerty was President Eisenhower’s283 press secretary. As such, any reporter would love to interview him. • p. 196 (March 31, 1958). The quotation is from the chlidren’s book Little Black Sambo284 , which would now be considered racially offensive. • p. 199 (April 8, 1958). A parasol can not be hi-fi285 , but, like the term ”high tech286 ”, ”hifi” was bandied about in lots of inappropriate places in attempts to suggest that whatever was being sold was on the cutting edge of science. • p. 200 (April 10, 1958). See above. • p. 221 (May 30, 1958). The Beat Generation287 refers to a group of American writers of the 1950s, most notably Jack Kerouac288 . But here Charlie Brown is referring to himself as beaten down by life in general. • p. 222 (June 1, 1958). ”Dear Agnes” is a play on Dear Abby289 , the advice columnist (or ”agony aunt290 ”), whose column began running in 1956. • p. 224 (June 6, 1958). A gila monster291 is a venomous lizard found in the Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico. • p. 238 (July 8, 1958). Fugue in C major from Johann Sebastian Bach292 ’s Well-Tempered Clavier293 (Book 1), BWV846294 . • p. 239 (July 12, 1958). Van Cliburn295 was a well known classical pianist of the late fifties. • p. 268 (September 17, 1958). See p. 232, June 25, 1958. Odd that Schulz recycles an idea not four months after he first uses it.

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Contents • p. 269 (September 19, 1958). ”The fastest gun in the west” was a claim made by many an Old West296 gunslinger297 . It literally meant that you were able to draw your gun and shoot faster than any opponent, thus killing them. • p. 217 (September 22, 1958). ”I don’t pretend to be able to give advice.” All that would change with the coming of her psychiatric advice booth (Vol. 5, p. 37, March 27, 1959). • p. 274 (September 29, 1958) Hula hoop298 s! The only thing more ubiquitous than Davy Crockett299 in the 1950s was hula hoops. Peanuts is a veritable index to the pop culture of the second half of the 20th century. • p. 275 (October 3, 1958). The ticking of a clock supposedly simulates the heartbeat of the mother, which a puppy would have heard in the womb and while snuggled up against the mother after birth, in order to reassure it. • p. 289 (November 3, 1958). The underdog300 is the person or team not expected to win a contest. The word’s origin, in ship construction, actually does make its opposite ”overdog.” • p. 289 (November 4, 1958). Beethoven301 did not belong to a country club302 , so he never had the chance to become ”club champion”: the member of the club who is the best at a particular sport, usually golf303 or tennis304 . • p. 289 (November 5, 1958). Irving Berlin305 was a well known American composer and lyricist, author of, among other songs, ”God Bless America306 ,” ”White Christmas307 ,” and ’ ”There’s No Business Like Show Business308 .” • p. 307 (December 16, 1958). Johann is the first name of classical composer (and, along with Mozart309 , rival of Beethoven310 ’s for the title of greatest classical composer) Johann Sebastian Bach311 . Note: there are several Johann Bachs312 who were composers, including a Johann Ludwig Bach313 . • p. 310 (December 24, 1958). The age of accountability314 is the age at which a child knows right from wrong and is responsible for his/her own actions. In the Catholic Church it’s 7. 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314


Contents Category:Annotations of The Complete Peanuts315 ==1959−1960== Annotations to The Complete Peanuts: 1959 to 1960 by Charles M. Schulz (Fantagraphics Books, 2006. ISBN 1560976713) • p. 3 (January 6, 1959) 4th panel. Popular songs316 were the music that ”everybody” was familiar with during the first half of the 20th century, until rock and roll replaced it as the music of the general public. • ”Stardust317 ”, written by Hoagy Carmichael318 , and recorded thousands of times, was one of the most popular of these ”popular songs.” During the 1940s - 50s many older pieces of music (including some classical) were jazzed up, given lyrics and became ”hits.” For example, ”Stranger in Paradise319 ” from the 1953 musical Kismet320 is based on Alexander Borodin321 ’s Polovetsian Dances322 and Tchaikovsky323 ’s Piano Concerto in B-Flat Minor became “Tonight We Love.” The joke is that the children are so young that they don’t know ”Stardust” has already been around a while and in fact started out as a pop song. • p. 18 (February 11, 1959) 3rd panel. ”Tennessee Ernie” is Tennessee Ernie Ford324 , a popular singer and TV variety show host. • p. 30 (March 9, 1959) 2nd panel. Deep focus325 again. (See also Vol. 1, p. 267, November 15, 1952.) • p. 34 (March 20, 1959). Joseph Haydn’s326 Symphony No. 94 is nicknamed the Surprise Symphony327 due to the sudden appearance of a loud chord during the second movement. • p. 37 (March 27, 1959). The first appearance of Lucy’s psychiatric help booth. • p. 38 (March 29, 1959). Commercial use of jet aircraft in the United States began with the Boeing 707328 , first used in international service in October 1958 and for domestic flights in January 1959. Jets were louder than the propeller-driven aircraft they replaced, and in many places, people living near airports distributed petitions in an attempt to reduce the number of jet flights and/or reroute jet traffic away from their homes. • p. 42 (April 6, 1959) 3rd and 4th panels. Almost certainly Peter Gunn329 , which had premiered on TV the year before. Gunn was a cool detective, hip330 to all the lingo.

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Contents “Mommy-O” is a spin on ”Daddy-O”, what one cool331 cat might call another. The 1958 film Daddy-O332 features a truck driver who turns detective. • p. 60 (May 18, 1959). Telephone booth stuffing333 , in which as many people as possible tried to cram into the same glass-walled phone booth, was a fad in the late 1950s, primarily on college campuses. • p. 67 (June 6, 1959). ”I was an only dog.” Schulz would later change his mind on this (or, he simply forgot the line). Over the years (see May 5, 1965), we would learn that Snoopy had seven siblings334 . • p. 68 (June 7, 1959). The first movement of Beethoven’s335 Piano Sonata No. 1, op. 2 No. 1. • p. 79 (July 4, 1959) 4th panel. Charlie Brown is suggesting that his father will have to drastically raise the price of haircuts at his barber shop in order to cover the increased cost of living that comes with an expanded family. At the time, haircuts typically cost less than $2.00. • p. 81 (July 6, 1959). The Soviet Union was well-known for sending dogs into space336 , experiments which were continuing as of this date. The American space program had actually sent mice into space in the early 1950s; by 1959, they had moved on to monkeys, with a pair surviving a flight in May of that year. Various other animals also made space flights337 . • p. 87 (July 20, 1959). The back sides of boxes of breakfast cereals338 aimed at children often had brief stories or comic strips printed on them. • p. 87 (July 22, 1959). The Continental League339 was proposed in 1959 as a competitor to the American340 and National341 baseball leagues. It was to have begun play in 1961, but the existing leagues soon announced plans for expansion teams342 in some of the Continental League cities, thus eliminating much of the new league’s reason for being. • p. 99 (August 19, 1959). ”Hot summer nights”: the name given to racial riots of the 1950s and 60s. • p. 101 (August 23, 1959). Note that it was three months between the first mention of Charlie Brown’s new baby sister (May 26, 1959) and this, her first actual appearance in the strip. • p. 120 (October 6, 1959). First mention of ”Miss Othmar.”

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Contents • p. 124 (October 16, 1959) 4th panel. The Brothers Grimm343 popularized the legend of the Pied Piper344 , who is reputed to have used his pipe to play music to lure an infestation of rats out of the town of Hamelin, Germany; when he was not paid by the townspeople, he later returned and lured the town’s children away. • p. 126 (October 21, 1959). Lucy is reading the mythological story of King Midas345 . Linus is correct that things backfired for the king. • p. 129 (October 26, 1959). First mention of ”the Great Pumpkin346 .” • p. 131 (November 1, 1959) 5th through 7th panels. Dr. Benjamin Spock’s347 bestselling book Baby and Child Care348 , first published in 1946, advocated a more loving approach -- some would say ”permissive” -- to raising a baby than had previously been in vogue. • p. 137 (November 15, 1959) 4th and 5th panels. The Soviet Union349 launched several Sputnik350 satellites between 1957 and 1960, apparently enough that Charlie Brown and Lucy could use ”Sputnik” as a generic term meaning ”artificial satellite.” • p. 138 (November 17, 1959) 1st panel. A score of 300351 -- 12 strikes in a row -- is the best possible score in a single game of ten-pin bowling352 . • p. 142 (November 26, 1959) 3rd panel. Babylon353 was a city in ancient Mesopotamia354 . • p. 142 (November 27, 1959) 2nd panel. Solomon355 -- king of the United Kingdom of Israel356 , approximately 970 to 928 BCE. Nebuchadnezzar357 -- more common name of Nebuchadrezzar II, ruler of Babylon (see previous strip) from about 605 to 562 BCE. Genghis Khan358 -- founder of the Mongol Empire359 circa 1206. • p. 145 (December 5, 1959) 2nd and 3rd panels. Horsehide is another name for a baseball360 and pigskin is another name for an American football361 , in both cases due to the material traditionally used for each ball’s cover. Both are now much more commonly made from either cow leather362 or synthetic materials.

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Contents • p. 150 (December 14, 1959) 4th panel. Beethoven’s first name was actually Ludwig363 . • p. 152 (December 20, 1959) 6th panel. Linus’s quote is Luke 2:10364 from the King James Version365 of the Bible. He expands upon it in A Charlie Brown Christmas366 , quoting verses 8 through 14. • p. 160 (January 7, 1960) 4th panel. Indoor antennas intended primarily for receiving VHF367 television broadcasts were frequently in the form of a dipole antenna368 placed on top of the TV set, each pole a separate telescoping metal rod. Often set at a 45-degree angle to the set and a 90-degree angle to each other, these antennas were nicknamed ”rabbit ears.” • p. 162 (January 12, 1960). ”Rabbit ears” antennas often had to be adjusted to a different position in order to improve the quality of the television picture, when changing to a channel that was transmitting from a different location than the previous channel, or as a result of changing atmospheric conditions. • p. 164 (January 17, 1960). The first iteration of what would become a recurring theme: Snoopy and his doomed relationship with a snowman. See also February 2, 1961; January 15−20, 1962; and, most memorably, February 18, 1962. • p. 174 (February 8, 1960). Snoopy’s doghouse had not previously been shown as being this close to a house -- see January 2, 1960, for example. • p. 189 (March 14, 1960). ”Whirlybird” is a nickname for helicopters369 . • p. 207 (April 25, 1960) 4th panel. The phrase ”happiness is a warm puppy” led to an explosion in Peanuts merchandise and entered the consciousness of the public at large, even inspiring a Beatles song370 . (Also see the April 27 and April 30 strips.) • p. 224 (June 5, 1960). Linus starts singing the traditional spiritual ”Dem Bones371 .” • p. 240 (July 12, 1960). The picture tube372 is the main part of a traditional television set. • p. 243 (July 18, 1960). Uncle Sam373 is the traditional personification of the United States. The elephant is a symbol for the Republican party374 , and the donkey is a symbol for its counterpart, the Democratic party375 . A snake with the phrase ”Don’t tread on me” is an image from early American history, most notably seen on the Gadsden flag376 .

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Contents All of this means that Lucy has crammed a bunch of symbols commonly used by editorial cartoonists into the same cartoon. • p. 245 (July 24, 1960) 13th panel. Lucy’s microphone377 is a lavalier378 -type condenser microphone, commonly worn by television personalities who would have to move around too much to use a fixed microphone and didn’t need to use a handheld type. This type of microphone later became much smaller, to the point where it can now be clipped to a lapel or even hidden beneath a shirt. • p. 253 (August 11, 1960). The spitball379 was banned in professional baseball in 1920. Schulz and/or his syndicate may have worried about some client newspapers’ acceptance of the word ”spit” on their comics page, hence the use of the euphemism380 ”expectorate ball.” • p. 254 (August 14, 1960) 4th panel. British Honduras381 is now known as Belize382 , after having become a self-governing colony in 1964 and fully independent of the United Kingdom in 1981. • p. 257 (August 21, 1960) 6th panel. ”Rain Rain Go Away383 ” is a traditional nursery rhyme that normally doesn’t work this quickly. (Also see the following two Sunday strips, August 28 and September 4.) • p. 264 (September 6, 1960). This storyline may have been inspired by an upgrade of U.S. 101384 through Sonoma County, California385 , upgraded to a freeway386 in the 1960s. Since freeways are wider than traditional roads and require additional space for gradeseparated interchanges at intersections, their construction often results in the need for the local government to use eminent domain387 powers to purchase significant amounts of land on and around the route of the road. • p. 273 (September 28, 1960). Comedian Mort Sahl388 took much of his material from current events. • p. 282 (October 17, 1960). ”Population explosion” was a term commonly used to describe conditions that could be leading to overpopulation389 , in the news at the time due to the baby boom390 following World War II. • p. 287 (October 30, 1960). This strip was rewritten, with Sally put in place of Charlie Brown, and used as the climax of It’s the Great Pumpkin, Charlie Brown391 . 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391


Contents • p. 305 (December 11, 1960), p. 308 (December 18, 1960), and p. 311 (December 25, 1960). This year, Linus’s piece to memorize for the Christmas program is Luke 2:1392 , and Charlie Brown has Luke 2:8. • p. 313 (December 30, 1960). A container for restaurant leftovers393 is sometimes known as a doggie bag. Category:Annotations of The Complete Peanuts394 ==1961−1962== Annotations to The Complete Peanuts: 1961 to 1962 by Charles M. Schulz (Fantagraphics Books, 2006. ISBN 1560976721) • p. 1 (January 1, 1961). In ten pin bowling395 , the bowler gets two tries to knock down ten pins; if he/she gets the remainder of pins on the second roll, it is called a “spare”. Lucy is “picking up the spare” by knocking down Charlie Brown, the last boy standing. • p. 2 (January 2, 1961). This strip begins what would be the longest continued narrative in Peanuts up to that time: three weeks. • p. 3 (January 6, 1961). The end of this strip and the following three dailies are sly references to drug withdrawal, specifically heroin396 —an amusingly mature theme for the comics pages, especially at a time where comics were expected to have nothing to do with political and social issues, although not surprising for Peanuts , as it would explicitly tackle those kinds of issues later on, such as the Vietnam War and tear gas at campaign protests of the early 70’s and late 60’s, runaway licensing, and once in 1985, even triple bypass surgery. • p. 4 (January 11, 1961). Hyannis Port (sometimes written “Hyannisport”) is an affluent residential village southwest of Hyannis397 . It is best known as the ancestral home of the Kennedy family398 , including then−President-elect John F. Kennedy399 , who would be inaugurated nine days later, on January 20. • p. 10 (January 22, 1961). A reference to the biblical story of David and Goliath400 . The diminutive Israeli shepherd David401 slew the giant Philistine warrior Goliath402 with a rock hurled from a sling, as Linus does here with a snowball from his blanket. • p. 11 (January 24, 1961403 ). Higher Criticism404 , which in the context of this strip is synonymous to Source Criticism405 , is a Bible study method that is based on pulling apart the traditional text into component pieces. Richard Elliot Friedman, a modern-day

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Contents practitioner of Higher Criticism, has published a book that reprints the Bible with each source distinguished by typeface and formatting406 . • p. 12 (January 28, 1961). The second appearance of Lucy’s psychiatric booth in the strip proper (the first was on March 27, 1959407 , after appearing on the back cover of the strip collection book You’re Out of Your Mind, Charlie Brown , published in February 1959), and the first time it is drawn with its familiar canopy. Also note the redundant “5¢” sign at the bottom; this would later be replaced. • p. 14 (January 30, 1961). Linus is tabulating the combined gifts from the song “The Twelve Days of Christmas408 ”. The song has twelve verses, each listing the gifts given by “my true love”; the gifts cumulate with each day/verse. Linus’s math is correct; however, the song is more commonly sung to refer to “drummers drumming” rather than “fiddlers fiddling”. • p. 17 (February 8, 1961). Pasteurization409 is the process of heating liquids for the purpose of destroying viruses and harmful organisms, named for its inventor, chemist Louis Pasteur410 (1822−1895). It is most commonly used on milk, hence Lucy’s pun here. Puns of this sort would later be almost completely delegated to Snoopy once he began typing. • p. 18 (February 11, 1961). Speculating on the effects of television on American culture, which Snoopy parodies here, was a common theme in the early days of the Kennedy administration. It would culminate three months later with Federal Communications Commission411 chairman Newton N. Minow412 ’s “Television and the Public Interest413 ” speech, where he famously argued that television was often a “vast wasteland” with detrimental effects on the viewing public. • p. 21 (February 16, 1961). For the rest of 1961, Linus and (less often) the other characters will sometimes be wearing American Civil War414 −style hats, due to its centennial (specifically referred to on July 8 and November 23, 1961). • p. 21 (February 16, 1961). First instance of a note in Linus’ lunch. • p. 29 (March 6, 1961). The first appearance of Frieda. Like Charlie Brown and Linus, she was named after one of Schulz’s fellow instructors at the Art Instruction School in Minneapolis415 . • p. 34 (March 19, 1961). A flannelgraph416 is a method of telling stories, used in real life as Lucy does here. It is generally associated with American evangelical Sunday school lessons, as a means of telling Bible stories to young children. Schulz was undoubtedly

406 407 Chapter on page 21 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 Peanuts Jubilee: My Life and Art with Charlie Brown and Others. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, , 1975 416


Contents aware of the practice from his own experiences teaching Sunday school. Christian writer John Fischer said, “[t]hough it has largely disappeared from the scene, flannelgraph may very well be the closest thing to a strictly evangelical art form, for I never encountered it anywhere but in Christian endeavors, and I haven’t seen it anywhere else since. It was an evangelical quirk of the 1950s that soon went the way of sword drills and the family altar”417 . • p. 36 (March 23, 1961). In 1961, a television small enough to be portable was still a relative novelty. • p. 47 (April 17, 1961). National Library Week419 was started in 1958 amid concerns that television was reducing reading by children420 . • p. 48 (April 21, 1961). Theodor “Dr. Seuss” Geisel422 (1904−1991) was a popular American children’s book author, best known for his 1957 book The Cat in the Hat . • p. 54 (May 4, 1961). Lucy’s psychiatrist booth takes on its final appearance with the addition of the “The doctor is in” sign. • p. 60 (May 19, 1961). The H-Bomb is the common form of referring to hydrogen bomb423 s. • p. 62 (May 23, 1961). Frieda’s cat Faron was the only cat that would ever appear in Peanuts . Schulz wrote later: “One day, while searching for some kind of new story to work on, I decided to have the character named Frieda... threaten Snoopy with bringing a cat into the neighborhood. Snoopy was horrified, and, when the cat arrived, did not like it at all. Fortunately for him, I also discovered that I didn’t care much for the cat. For one thing, I realized that I don’t draw a cat very well, and secondly, if I were to keep up the relationship, I would have a traditional cat-and-dog strip, which was something I certainly wanted to avoid... the cat brought Snoopy back to being too much of a real dog. By the time the cat had come into the strip, Snoopy was drifting further and further into his fantasy life, and it was important that he continue in that direction. To take him back to his earlier days would not work, so I did the obvious and removed the cat. (My only regret was that I had named the cat after Faron Young, a country-and-western singer whom I admired very much...)”424 Schulz would later introduce an “offstage” cat. • p. 63 (May 26, 1961). “Sandbagging425 ” is a term mainly used in gaming or sporting contexts, meaning to feign weakness to obtain an advantage. • p. 64 (May 28, 1961). “Just Before the Battle426 ” was an 1864 song written by George F. Root427 ; it was a pro-Union song but was popular throughout America, including in the Confederacy. Linus is singing it in keeping with his Civil War centennial428 interest. He has gotten the lyrics wrong slightly: the second line is actually “I am thinking most of 417 In Praise of Flannelgraph 418 . Prison Fellowship Ministries . Retrieved 2007-05-18 419 420 National Library Week Fact Sheet 421 . American Library Association . Retrieved 2007-05-18 422 423 424 Peanuts Jubilee: My Life and Art with Charlie Brown and Others. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, , 1975 425 426 427 428 Chapter on page 26


Contents you”. Schulz would often refer to this strip as one of his favorites, and also as one of the few that was based on an idea he had gotten from his children: “We were at the dinner table and Amy was talking away on a real talking streak and finally I said, ‘Can’t you please be quiet?’ and she was silent for a moment and then picked up a piece of bread and began to butter it, saying, ‘Am I buttering too loud for you?’ ”429 The punchline would be repeated by Schulz on August 5, 1998, in honor of Amy’s birthday430 . • p. 66 (June 1, 1961). See May 16, 1954432 . • p. 67 (June 4, 1961). In keeping with Schulz’s attention to detail, all of Lucy’s definitions are accurate. • p. 75 (June 22, 1961). The “little girl” referred to in this and the next two strips is President Kennedy’s daughter Caroline433 , who was three years old at the time they were published. • p. 80 (July 4, 1961). Shrimp Louie (or Louis) is a type of salad with shrimp and hardboiled eggs. The recipe is based on the better-known Crab Louie434 . • p. 81 (July 8, 1961). Another reference to the Civil War Centennial. Charlie Brown is singing the “Battle Cry of Freedom435 ”, a pro-Union song written by George F. Root in 1862; it was the most popular song of its day. Schroeder is singing “The Bonnie Blue Flag436 ”, a pro-Confederacy song written by Harry McCarthy437 in 1861. See also May 28, 1961438 . • p. 83 (July 10, 1961). The Flabby American was a television program about the physical fitness of Americans broadcast on May 30, 1961. • p. 85 (July 16, 1961). Snoopy’s first appearance as a vulture439 . • p. 102 (August 25, 1961). ”Clam diggers” are pants that are longer than shorts but are not as long as long pants. • p. 121 (October 8, 1961). Blackbeard440 refers to the famous 18th century pirate Edward Teach, best known as Blackbeard. • p. 139 (November 19, 1961). The first reference to Charlie Brown’s unrequited love, The Little Red-Haired Girl. Schulz based her on Donna Johnson, a fellow teacher of his at the Art Instruction School, whom he dated in 1950. He had wanted to marry her, but later that year she married another man. Schulz said in 1997, “I was sitting home one night with my kids, and I was listening to some Hank Williams songs, and I was listening

429 Barnaby Conrad. You’re a Good Man, Charlie SchulzYou’re a Good Man, Charlie Schulz. The New York Times Magazine, 430 alt.comics.peanuts FAQ431 . . Retrieved 2007-06-02 432 Chapter on page 7 433 434 435 436 437 438 Chapter on page 26 439 440


Contents to Joni James singing, ‘Today I met you on the street, my heart fell at your feet,’ you know, and those songs were so depressing. And that was the mindset that got me going on Charlie Brown sitting at the playground, eating his lunch, and he looks across the playground, and he sees the Little Red-Haired Girl, and from that, that whole series came, one thing after another.”441 • p. 151 and 154 (December 17 and 24, 1961). Linus’ quotation is Matthew 2:17-18. • p. 170 (January 31, 1962). Linus refers to a queen snake442 for the first time. • p. 204 (April 20, 1962). Myopic refers to myopia443 , or nearsightedness, which is presumably why Linus requires glasses. • p. 212 (May 8, 1962). ”A pretty girl is like a melody” is the title of a popular song by Irving Berlin444 , originally published in 1919. • p. 204 (June 28, 1962). An SC-54 is the search and rescue445 variant of the C-54 Skymaster446 transport aircraft. Lieutenant Commander Carpenter is Mercury447 astronaut Scott Carpenter448 , rescued under similar circumstances on May 24, 1962. • p. 240 (July 12, 1962). Sam Snead449 was a legendary professional golfer from the thirties into the sixties, while Don Carter450 was a well known professional bowler during the fifties and early sixties. • p. 251 (August 6, 1962). Casey Stengel451 was a baseball452 player and manger, best known for managing the New York Yankees453 between 1949 and 1960, and the New York Mets454 from 1962 to 1965. • p. 258 (August 25, 1962). Atmospheric testing refers to the testing of nuclear weapons455 within the atmosphere, as opposed to underground testing. Atmospheric testing was banned under the Limited Test Ban Treaty456 , signed in August 1963. • p. 264 (September 8, 1962). Knute Rockne457 was a well known football coach at Notre Dame University458 from 1918 to 1930. • p. 270 (September 20, 1962). The quotation is by Anatole France459 . 441 . An Interview with Cartoonist Charles M. SchulzAn Interview with Cartoonist Charles M. Schulz. , 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459


Contents • p. 273 (September 27, 1962). Gargoyles460 are ornamental sculptures of grotesque figures, used to convey rainwater away from a building. • p. 281 (October 15, 1962). The Sabin oral polio vaccine was a poliomyelitis461 vaccine developed by Albert Sabin462 that could be taken orally. It replaced the earlier Salk463 vaccine, which needed to be injected with a syringe. • p. 288 (November 2, 1962). Linus is alluding to the expression ”Hell hath no fury like a woman scorned”. The original phrase is ”Heaven has no rage like love to hatred turned / Nor hell a fury like a woman scorned.”, taken from ”The Mourning Bride” (1697) by William Congreve464 . • p. 293 (November 12, 1962). Rachel Carson465 was the author of the early environmentalist book Silent Spring466 . As a well known author and scientist at the time, Carson will be frequently referenced in future strips as a female role model. • p. 309 (December 22, 1962). Charlie Brown is referring to the last game of the 1962 World Series467 , in which the San Francisco Giants468 lost to the New York Yankees in the seventh game, after Willie McCovey’s469 line drive was caught by Bobby Richardson470 . Category:Annotations of The Complete Peanuts471 ==1963−1964== Annotations to The Complete Peanuts: 1963 to 1964 by Charles M. Schulz (Fantagraphics Books, 2007. ISBN 1560977230) • p. 10 (January 23, 1963). A googol is 10 to the power 100, or 1 with 100 zeros after it. It was given this name by nine year old Milton Sirotta, nephew of mathematician Edward Kasner472 . • p. 13 (January 28, 1963). See December 22, 1962473 . • p. 16 (February 5, 1963). 4 H474 is a youth agricultural organization affiliated with the United States Department of Agriculture475 . • p. 19 (February 11, 1963). Divinity476 is a nougat-like confectionery made mainly with egg white, corn syrup, and sugar.

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Contents • p. 19 (February 13, 1963). In ten pin bowling477 , 300 represents a perfect score. As there are 10 frames in a game, Violet’s Dad is clearly getting ahead of himself. • p. 22 (February 19 - 20, 1963). See November 12, 1962478 . • p. 34 - 35 (March 18 - 23, 1963). An Honor roll is a list of students at a school recognized for their academic achievements. • p. 50 (April 25, 1963). See July 12, 1962479 . • p. 57 (May 12, 1963). See November 12, 1962480 . • p. 61 (May 20, 1963). The ”movie” Snoopy refers to is the classic Alfred Hitchcock movie The Birds481 , which opened in the spring of 1963. The film was shot on location in Bodega, California - not far from Schulz’s residence in Sebastopol. • p. 64 (May 28, 1963). Snoopy is mimicking a set of “rabbit ear” antennae on top of a contemporary television set, which needed to be adjusted in this fashion to tune in distant stations; this is still true for direct-reception even today. • p. 85 - 86 (July 15 - 20, 1963). A total solar eclipse occurred over North America on July 20, 1963. • p. 94 (August 5 and 6, 1963). In baseball, a pitcher is restricted in the kind of motions he can make while pitching. If he makes an illegal movement, a balk is called and runners on base can advance one base. • p. 116 (September 27, 1963). The US Post Office introduced the 5-digit ZIP code482 on July 1, 1963. • p. 118 (October 1, 1963). 5’s last name is his ZIP code483 (95472), which is the ZIP code for Sebastopol, California. • p. 126 (October 20, 1963). Prayer in American public schools was declared unconstitutional in the case of Abington School District v. Schempp484 , decided on June 23, 1963. • p. 150 (December 15, 1963). Albert Schweitzer485 won the 1952 Nobel Peace Prize for his medical missionary work. • p. 164 (January 17, 1964). Schulz has made an error here - the figure should be ”sixty million” and not ”sixty billion.” • p. 173 (February 8, 1964). The AMA is the American Medical Association486 .

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Contents • p. 175 (February 10, 1964). The quotations are from the book The Gulistan487 by the 13th century Persian poet Sa-di488 . • p. 177 (February 16, 1964). Doctor Horwich refers to Frances Horwich489 , the educator and children’s TV show hostess also known as ”Miss Frances.” • P. 182 (February 29, 1964). First mention of Snoopy being the owner of a painting by Van Gogh. • p. 205 (April 22, 1964). “New Math490 ” refers to the change in how mathematics was taught in public schools in the United States during the 1960s. • p. 207 (April 26, 1964). Willie Mays491 , Alvin Dark492 and Orlando Cepeda493 were players on the San Francisco Giants494 baseball team. Schulz moved to northern California in 1958. • p. 221 (May 28, 1964). See August 6, 1962495 . • p. 227 (June 11, 1964. A beanball496 is a pitch that aims at the batter’s body. • p. 230 (June 18, 1964). “Highbrow497 is a term derived from Phrenology498 , implying that an art form is intellectual, while Lowbrow is supposedly non-intellectual, and Middlebrow is somewhere in between. • p. 238 (July 7, 1964). Mickey Mantle499 was a baseball player with the New York Yankees500 . A tape measure home run501 is a particularly long home run. • p. 239 (July 11, 1964). Birds are now considered to be dinosaurs502 . So in fact, Linus actually has found a dinosaur bone! • p. 241 (July 14, 1964). Willard Mullin503 was an American sports cartoonist, best known for his creation of the “Brooklyn Bum”, a characterization of the Brooklyn Dodgers504 baseball team.

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Contents • p. 271 (September 23, 1964). The Maccabees505 were Jewish rebels who ruled Judea506 from 164 BCE to 63 BCE. Antiochus Epiphanes507 was the ruler they were rebelling against. • p. 274 (September 28, 1964). Willie Mays508 was one of the finest baseball players of his time, and indeed, of all time. Linus has thus set his ambitions very high. • p. 298 (November 25, 1964). Pebble Beach is a coastal resort town in northern California between Monterey and Carmel. It has several well-regarded golf courses. • p. 307 (December 14, 1964). Ipanema is a neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A recording of the song ”The Girl From Ipanema” became an international hit in 1964. • p. 310 (December 21, 1964). Luke 2:8 Category:Annotations of The Complete Peanuts509 ==1965−1966== Annotations to The Complete Peanuts: 1965 to 1966 by Charles M. Schulz (Fantagraphics Books, 2007. ISBN 1560977247) • p. 2 (January 3, 1965). Billiard balls were made from elephant ivory from the 17th century until the early 20th century. English510 is a term referring to putting a spin on the cue ball by striking the ball off-center with the cue. • p. 4 (January 9, 1965). Annette Funicello511 was an original cast member of The Mickey Mouse Club512 TV show in 1955, when she was 13 years old. • p. 13 (January 30, 1965). “I could have skated all night“ presumably refers to the song ”I Could Have Danced All Night513 ” from the musical My Fair Lady514 . • p. 28 (March 4, 1965). A cinch notice is an official notice from a teacher that your grades are unsatisfactory. • p. 32 (March 14, 1965). The first reference in Peanuts to the kite-eating tree. • p. 47 (April 18, 1965). In baseball, a bean ball515 is a ball thrown by a pitcher directly at a player with the intent of hitting them. The Children‘s Crusade516 was a possibly legendary event that occurred in 1212 during The Crusades517 . The incident at Harper’s Ferry518 was an attempt by abolitionist John Brown to start a slave revolt in 1859.

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Contents • p. 52 (April 30, 1965). In the sixth chapter of Daniel519 , Daniel is thrown into a lions’ den for refusing to stop praying to his god. See also October 20, 1963. • p. 54 (May 5, 1965). First mention of Snoopy’s siblings. First mention of the ”Daisy Hill Puppy Farm.” • p. 70 (June 11, 1965). Roy’s first appearance. Roy was best known for later introducing Peppermint Patty520 to the rest of the cast. See August 22, 1966. • p. 75 (June 23, 1965). At the time of this strip, the phrase À gogo521 was supposed to mean modern or up-to-date. The actual meaning of À gogo is “plenty” or “galore”. • p. 84 (July 12, 1965). First instance of Snoopy writing ”It was a dark and stormy night.” The sentence is taken from the novel Paul Clifford522 by Edward Bulwer-Lytton523 . • p. 96 (August 9, 1965). There are several meanings claimed for ’hodad’, but it appears that Schulz is referring to someone who brings a surfboard to the beach but never surfs, i.e. a poser. • p. 97 (August 14, 1965). It is difficult to know if this is a reference to the Houston Astrodome, which opened in April 1965 with natural grass as the playing surface. The grass soon died due to painted-over skylights, but artificial grass was not installed until 1966. • p. 98 (August 15, 1965). The phone number given in the last panel was actually the phone number of producer Lee Mendelson524 , who at the time was working on the very first animated Peanuts special, A Charlie Brown Christmas525 . • p. 99 (August 19, 1965). Brahms’ Symphony No. 4 in e minor, op. 98.526 • p. 102 (August 24, 1965). An Australian phrase meaning an all-out effort. ”Bush” is Australian slang for a sparsely populated area or for wilderness. An equivalent phrase in American English would be ”The Super Bowl or bust!” • p. 107 (September 5, 1965). Lucy’s comments on the relationship between sin and personal misfortune reflects the conception of happiness in the Old Testament. She will often come back to it again, for example in the doghouse fire series (see p. 271, September 24, 1966). • p. 109 (September 9, 1965). The phrase “Better to light a single candle than to curse the darkness” is thought to originate in an ancient Chinese proverb. It is also closely associated with 527 .

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Contents • p. 113 (September 19, 1965). Lord Jim528 is a novel by Joseph Conrad529 , while the 1812 Overture530 is a well known piece of orchestral music composed by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky531 . • p. 120 (October 6, 1965). See April 22, 1964. • p. 122 (October 10, 1965). Snoopy’s first appearance in his most famous persona, the World War I flying ace. The Sopwith Camel532 was a British single seat fighter aircraft employed by the allies at the end of World War I. The Red Baron533 was a nickname for German fighter pilot Manfred von Richthofen, the highest scoring German ace of the First World War. • p. 129 (October 26, 1965). In the last panel, the phrase “ you try harder” is a reference to the corporate motto of Avis Rent a Car534 . At the time, Avis conducted an extensive advertising campaign around the phrase “We’re number two because we try harder” versus the leading rental car company, Hertz535 . • p. 135 (November 8, 1965). The beginning of Mark Antony’s speech in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar536 , Act III scene 2. • p. 144 (November 29, 1965). Amblyopia537 is a visual deficiency in an eye that is otherwise physically normal. Schulz calls Sally’s condition Amblyopia ex anopsia, but the symptoms and treatment sound more like Stabismic amblyopia. Sally will continue to wear the eye patch in most strips until May 1966. • p. 147 (December 6, 1965). In 1951, the Hathaway shirt company538 ran its first advertisement that featured a distinguished man in a shirt and tie and wearing an eyepatch. The ad campaign was extremely successful and ”The Man in the Hathaway Shirt” became the icon for the company. • p. 147 (December 8, 1965). Long John Silver539 is a pirate character from the novel Treasure Island540 by Robert Louis Stevenson541 . • p. 168 (January 24, 1966). Schulz repeats the same gag on December 20, 1966. See p. 309. • p. 175 (February 12, 1966). The quotation in panel 3 is from Psalm 35, verses 1 and 15. • p. 177 (February 15, 1966). See September 28, 1964.

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Contents • p. 192 (March 21, 1966). Fort Zinderneuf is the main setting of the novel and film Beau Geste542 , which is about French Foreign Legionnaires. Other references to Beau Geste appear in April 1966 strips. • p. 194 (March 27, 1966). The baseball teams that Linus lists are the National League543 and the American League544 second place winner for each year. • p. 210 (May 3, 1966). Commissioner Eckert was Commissioner of Baseball William Eckert545 , who was commissioner between 1965 and 1968. • p. 215 (May 15, 1966). There is an interesting mismatch between the daily strip and the Sunday strip here -- Linus, who has moved away in the daily strip is present for the baseball game in the Sunday strip! • p. 216 (May 18, 1966). In the last panel, Schroeder is referring to another piece of music from the musical My Fair Lady546 , ”I’ve Grown Accustomed to Her Face547 ”. • p. 232 (June 23, 1966). The quotation is from Jeremiah 31, verses 16-17. Linus’ speech happens at a time of rising anxiety in America about the sudden escalation of the Vietname War548 . • p. 248 (July 31, 1966). K.P.549 stands for ”kitchen patrol” or “kitchen police“, military slang for kitchen duties. • p.253 (August 11, 1966). Snoopy describes the Allies position at the battle of saintMihiel550 . • p. 255 (August 16, 1966). Apparently a reference to the German word ”Kamerad” (comrade) which was used as a term for surrender. • p. 258 (August 22, 1966). The first appearance of Peppermint Patty551 . • p. 262 (September 1, 1966). Leonard Bernstein552 was a famous conductor and composer of the time. • p. 307 (December 17, 1966). The quotation is from Act II, Scene II of Romeo and Juliet553 . • p. 309 (December 20, 1966). Schulz had drawn the same gag on January 24, 1966. See p. 168. Category:Annotations of The Complete Peanuts554

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Contents ==1967−1968== Annotations to The Complete Peanuts: 1967 to 1968 by Charles M. Schulz (Fantagraphics Books, 2008. ISBN 1560978260) • p. 8 (January 18, 1967). The Fokker D7555 (actually Fokker D.VII) was an advanced German biplane that came into service at the end of World War I556 , while Nieuports557 were French-built biplanes widely flown by the Allies. The Unter Den Linden558 is a grand boulevard in Berlin, and is here being used as a German substitution for Broadway in the famous song. • p. 14 (February 1, 1967). Barnstorming559 was an ancestor of the modern Airshow during the 1920s, where First World War pilots flying military surplus aircraft demonstrated aerobatics and were paid to take passengers on brief flights. • p. 46 (April 16, 1967). Sandy Koufax560 was a well known pitcher for the Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers, who had retired in 1966. • p. 69 (June 8, 1967). General Pershing561 was the commander of the United States Army in Europe during the First World War. • p. 121 (October 8, 1967). Bobby Hull562 was one of the finest hockey players of all time, and at the time was playing Left Wing for the Chicago Black Hawks. • p. 141 (November 25, 1967). At the time of this strip, the New York Mets563 were a recent expansion Baseball club with a terrible win-loss record, which is what Linus is referring to here. • p. 146 (December 4, 1967). Sonja Henie564 was a three-time gold medal winning Olympic figure skater from Norway, who later became a professional figure skater and film star. • p. 200 (April 9, 1968). “Arnold and Winnie” refers to golfer Arnold Palmer565 , one of the best known golfers of the era, and his wife Winifred. • p. 200 (April 10, 1968). The golfers being referred to here are Arnold Palmer566 , Sam Snead567 , and Ben Hogan568 . • p. 201 (April 9, 1968). “Snoopy‘s Squad” presumably refers to the many fans of Arnold Palmer, who were collectively known as “Arnie’s Army”. • p. 206 (April 22, 1968). Petaluma, Ca.569 , has held the world wrist wrestling championships from 1952 to 2003. 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569


Contents • p. 226 (June 9, 1968). Schroeder is playing the first movement of Beethoven’s piano sonata No. 8 in c minor, op. 13, the ”Pathethique”. • p. 227 (June 10, 1968). The phrase in the final frame is a spoof on the then current television spy show Mission: Impossible570 , in which the leader of the Impossible Mission Force is delivered a mission at the beginning of each show in the form of a tape recording. After describing the mission, the recording then warns that it will “self-destruct in five seconds” before it disintegrates in a puff of smoke. • p. 248 (July 31, 1968). Franklin’s first appearance in the strip. • p. 250 (August 4, 1968). Muscle Beach571 is a beachfront area in the Los Angeles, California area, known for demonstrations by weightlifters and acrobats. • p. 250 (August 4, 1968). ”Chloe572 ” is a Jazz standard from 1927 with music by Neil Moret and lyrics by Gus Kahn. • p. 266 (September 10, 1968). Tiny Tim573 was the stage name of Herbert Khaury, a popular novelty musician of the time. • p. 268 (September 15, 1968). Love beads574 were a frequent fashion accessory of the time worn by both male and female hippies575 . • p. 273 (September 28, 1968). A holding pattern576 is a circling manoeuvre used by aircraft that are waiting to land at an overcrowded airport. • p. 279 (October 11, 1968). Snoopy is acknowledging some of the best hockey players of the era: Stan (Mikita577 ), Bobby (Hull578 or Orr579 ) , and Maurice (‘Rocket’ Richard)580 . • p. 289 (September 28, 1968). Minnesota Fats581 is the nickname of fictional pool hustler George Hegerman, created by author Walter Tevis582 in the novels The Hustler583 and The Color of Money584 . • p. 305 (December 11, 1968). Jack Nicklaus585 was one of the finest professional golfers of all time. • p. 308 (December 18, 1968). Rosebud is a reference to the film Citizen Kane586 by Orson Welles. 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586


Contents • p. 310 (December 22, 1968). Linus is taking Lucy’s dictation with shorthand587 , an abbreviated form of writing that was more commonly used before the wide availability of voice recording equipment. In this era, secretaries were almost inevitably female, and a female with a male secretary would have been considered most unusual. Category:Annotations of The Complete Peanuts588 ==1969−1970== Annotations to The Complete Peanuts: 1969 to 1970 by Charles M. Schulz (Fantagraphics Books, 2008. ISBN 1560978279) • p. 2 (January 4, 1969). 1984 refers to the dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four589 by George Orwell590 . Linus is presumably comparing Lucy to Big Brother591 . • p. 4 (January 8, 1969). Peggy Fleming592 was a famous figure skater, who had won the gold medal for figure skating at the 1968 Winter Olympics in Grenoble, France . • p. 8 (January 16, 1969). See December 4, 1967 and October 8, 1967. • p. 14 (February 1, 1969). Joe Garagioloa593 was a former baseball player who had become a broadcaster, and at this time was a panelist on The Today Show594 . • p. 17 (February 6, 1969). The height of the pitcher’s mound595 in Major League Baseball was lowered by five inches after the 1968 baseball season. As Charlie Brown relates, this was designed to lower the dominance of pitching in baseball by reducing the advantage held by the pitcher. See also March 25, 1969. • p. 22 (February 18, 1969). In Genesis 19:26, Lot’s Wife596 looks back as they flee the city of Sodom (defying the angels who told them not to look back), and is turned to a pillar of salt. • p. 29, 31–32 (March 8–15, 1969). Schulz features Snoopy travelling to the moon in his astronaut persona as the genuine Apollo program597 approached its climax. This series of strips ran during the Apollo 9598 mission, with the dress rehearsal Apollo 10599 following in May and the first moon landing on Apollo 11600 in July. • p. 32 (March 13, 1969). Snoopy is alluding to comments made by astronauts Bill Anders601 and Jim Lovell602 during the Apollo 8603 mission the previous December.

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Contents • p. 37 (March 24, 1969). Expansion clubs604 are new teams that have just been added to a sports league, and usually have less experienced players and staff. At this time, Major League Baseball had just undergone significant expansion, with four new teams added in Montreal, San Diego, Kansas City and Seattle for the 1969 season. • p. 37–38 (March 26–29, 1969). Hyponatremia605 is indeed the term for the condition Linus describes. The special balanced electrolyte solution that Linus prescribes for the condition was already available in commercial form as Gatorade606 . • p. 58 (May 13, 1969). “Play it again, Sam” is a reference to the classic motion picture Casablanca607 . This line is not actually in the film: the actual quotation is ”If she can stand it, I can! Play it!”. • p. 60 (May 18, 1969). Kermit Zarley608 was a professional golfer on the PGA tour. Also see February 1, 1969 and October 8, 1967. • p. 74 (June 21, 1969). Eddie Rickenbacker609 was the highest scoring American fighter pilot during World War I, after a previous career as a racing driver. • p. 77 (June 26, 1969). See June 8, 1967. • p. 80 (July 4, 1969). Roller Derby610 is a sport involving teams of five players roller skating around a track. At this time, Roller Derby was closer to sports entertainment611 (similar to professional wrestling) than an actual competitive sport, which explains Snoopy’s outfit. • p. 93 (August 3, 1969). Babe Ruth612 was one of the best known baseball players in history. See also September 28, 1964. • p. 112 (September 15, 1969). At the time of this strip, the United States military still practiced conscription613 , and the military draft was a concern for all males as their 18th birthday approached. Conscription was subsequently eliminated in favor of an allvolunteer military in 1973. • p. 113 (September 19, 1969). Vince Lombardi614 was a famous football coach, best known as the coach of the Green Bay Packers615 between 1959 and 1967. At the time of this strip, he was the coach of the Washington Redskins616 . • p. 119 (October 3, 1969). Rod McKuen617 was best known as a poet and songwriter. Sally is confused, as usual. 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617


Contents • p. 136 (November 11, 1969). Bill Mauldin618 was an American soldier and cartoonist, best known for creating the characters Willie and Joe for cartoons that appeared in Stars and Stripes619 during World War II. • p. 151 (December 16, 1969). Snoopy has confused his terminology somewhat; the usual term for the easy ski hill that beginners use is the “bunny hill”, rather than “rabbit slope”. • p. 153 (December 21, 1969). The quotation on the descent of Jesus that Linus recites is Matthew 1:1–18. • p. 157 (December 31, 1969). Fred Glover620 was a hockey player and coach (at the time, coach of the Oakland Seals621 of the NHL. Hank Aaron622 was a baseball player with the Atlanta Braves623 . Pancho Gonzales624 was a famous professional tennis player. See also January 8, 1969, February 1, 1969, December 11, 1968 and October 11, 1968. • p. 190 (March 18, 1970). ”I was born one bright spring morning...” Yet Snoopy’s birthday was celebrated in the strip of August 10,1968. • p. 206 (April 24, 1970). Lucy should have looked up ”Arbor Day625 ” instead. • p. 246 (July 26, 1970). First mention of ”The Six Bunny-wunnies” fictional series of books. • P. 308 (December 17, 1970). Ouija boards626 enjoyed a bit of popularity among the general population in the late 1960s and early 1970s, after their commercialization as a toy by Parker Brothers in 1966. Category:Annotations of The Complete Peanuts627 ==1971−1972== Annotations to The Complete Peanuts: 1971 to 1972 by Charles M. Schulz (Fantagraphics Books, 2009. ISBN 1606991450) • p. 49 (April 23, 1971). Herman Hesse628 was a German-Swiss poet, novelist, and painter, and winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1946. Snoopy’s interest in this rather heavy literary figure is meant to contrast amusingly with his former preoccupation with the more lighthearted subject matter of Miss Sweetstory’s Bunny-Wunnie books. • p. 57 (May 10, 1971). It is almost impossible to convey how huge an impact the movie Love Story 629 had on popular culture when it was released. The book630 , the movie itself, its theme song, were best-sellers. They were referred to in every media; individuals would talk about it at every occasion. It practically saturated the entertainment space.

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Contents • p. 64 (May 27, 1971). First mention of ”Joe Cool”. That persona of Snoopy may have had a longer life outside the strip as a merchandising theme (sweaters, posters, etc.) than inside it. • p. 87 (July 20, 1971). First appearance of Marcie, without her being named. • p. 97 (August 12, 1971). Although commonly despised as a somewhat vulgar feat, crushing an empty can of beer was indeed considered by some a sign of muscular strength. The steel walls of beer cans were then thicker and harder than those of aluminium we have today. • p. 107 (September 5, 1971). Many of the first names mentioned by Lucy are from Schulz’ own life: ”...Lee, and Bill, ...” probably for Lee Mendelson631 and Bill Melendez632 , ”...Amy, and Jill, and Meredith, ...” are names of Schulz633 ’s children, ”...Donna” for Donna Mae Johnson634 , etc. • p. 123 (October 11, 1971). First time Marcie is named. • p. 163 (January 15, 1972). First mention of ”Peppermint” Patty’s full name. • p. 174 (February 7, 1972). The original series of Star Trek 635 , featuring starship ”Enterprise”, had disapointing ratings when it first aired between 1966 and 1969. Through syndication, however, its ratings surged and by 1972 it aired in more than 100 American cities. • p. 180 (February 21, 1972). ”Another unmarried marriage counselor...”: 1972 is the year Schulz separated from his wife. The divorce proceedings completed in 1973. • p. 186 (March 3, 1972). ”Johnny Horizon”636 was the rugged, outdoorsy mascot of the Bureau of Land Management in the 1970’s. Similar to the more well-known Woodsy the Owl and Smokey the Bear, Johnny Horizon encouraged young people to respect and preserve the environment. Category:Annotations of The Complete Peanuts637 ==1973−1974== Annotations to The Complete Peanuts: 1973 to 1974 by Charles M. Schulz (Fantagraphics Books, 2009. ISBN 1606992864) • p. 17 (February 8, 1973). One of the rare occasions, if not the only one, where ”Peppermint” Patty does not call Charlie Brown ”Chuck.” • p. 35 (March 24, 1973). ”I’m in the alpha state.” The early 1970s saw a great amount of media attention and popular interest in the field of electroencephalography. Biofeedback638 techniques were believed to have a great future helping people alleviate their anxiety or achieve better mental performances.

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Contents • p. 63 (May 23, 1973). The author of Love Story639 is Erich Segal640 . • p. 68 (June 7, 1973). The book Jonathan Livingston Seagull641 achieved its peak popularity in 1972. At the time, it had a considerable impact on popular culture. • p. 80 (July 5, 1973). Mad magazine642 , whose mascot is of course Alfred E. Neuman643 , was at its peak circulation in 1973 and 1974. • p. 93 (August 5, 1973). ”Happy birthday, Amy!” Amy is the name of one of Schulz’s daughters. • p. 95 (August 10, 1973). In 1973, Hank Aaron received received death threats644 because of his becoming close to tie and subsequently breaking Babe Ruth’s record. • p. 130 (October 30, 1973). ”Peppermint” Patty forgets her past acquaintance with the Great Pumpkin story. On October 24, 1966, she even declared herself a believer. • p. 157 (January 1, 1974). The Grand Marshal Lucy doesn’t suppose Linus knows was none other than Charles M. Schulz645 . • p. 250 (August 5, 1974). See note on page 93. • p. 269 (September 20, 1974). Acupuncture was nearly unknown to the general public before 1970. From then it grew quickly in popularity until, in the mid-1970s, it became common knowledge. Category:Annotations of The Complete Peanuts646 ==1975−1976== Annotations to The Complete Peanuts: 1975 to 1976 by Charles M. Schulz (Fantagraphics Books, 2010. ISBN 1606993453) • p. 94 (August 4, 1975). Schulz lived with his family in Needles, Ca.647 , from 1929 to 1931. They went there to join his mother’s brother Monte Halverson. Her other brother Silas, her sister Ella, and her mother also joined them.648 • p. 207 (April 25, 1976). Today not so well-known because of more advanced wireless communication systems, Citizen’s Band649 (CB) radio became very popular in the mid1970s. Its users had a notorious way of expressing themselves in coded650 and slang651 language. They organized themselves in clubs and many invested considerable time and resources in their hobby. CB radio enthusiasts eventually formed a kind of alternate culture.

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44 20Parade%231970s Schulz and Peanuts. HarperCollins, , 2007

Contents • p. 268 September 13-October 28, 1976 The strip’s longest storyline: almost seven weeks. • p. 268 September 14 Peppermint Patty is confusing George Washington and presentational election to ophthalmologist and sports. Bunker Hill652 was a famous battle during the American Revolution, a war that spotlighted Washington. Category:Annotations of The Complete Peanuts653 ==1977−1978== Annotations to The Complete Peanuts: 1977 to 1978 by Charles M. Schulz (Fantagraphics Books, 2010. ISBN 1606993755) • p. 117 (September 26, 1977). Plains, Georgia654 is a small town of around 700 people. Its claim to fame in 1977 was that it was the birthplace of Jimmy Carter655 , who was elected President of the United States a year before. • p. 132 (November 1, 1977). ”Deprogramming”656 was often discussed in the American media in the mid-1970s. At the time, some anxiety arose in the population concerning a perception of increased recruiting by fringe cults. Those cults allegedly brainwashed young and weak individuals into leaving their families to follow them. Numerous books and movies were also written on the topics of cults and deprogramming. • p. 261 (August 28-29, 1978). How Charlie Brown obtained the Little Red-Haired Girl’s phone number is a mystery. She had left Charlie Brown’s neighborhood on July 18, 1969, without him knowing at all where she went (see July 17, 1969 and April 30, 1970). After that, Charlie Brown saw her only on a ski trip and at summer camps. In later strips, she is even back in the neighborhood (December 27, 1978) without explanations on exactly when and why she returned. Category:Annotations of The Complete Peanuts657 ==1979−1980== Annotations to The Complete Peanuts: 1979 to 1980 by Charles M. Schulz (Fantagraphics Books, 2011. ISBN 1606994387) • p. 139 (November 20, 1979). Although common today thanks to personal computers, writing in more than one typeface was not generally possible with typewriters. Only high-end typewriters would offer that feature. • p. 230 (June 21, 1980). In the United States as in many other countries, the end of the 1970s had seen a new phenomenon that generated much media interest: religious groups and cults supported by strong public relations and marketing strategies. The secular population, as well as Christian churches and individuals that were rather ”mainstream” (like Schulz himself), generally disapproved of those organisations. The comments offered in previous strips respectively by the intellectual wing and the street-smart wing of the Peanuts gang epitomize that disapproval. Category:Annotations of The Complete Peanuts658 652 653 654 655 656 657 658


Contents ==1981−1982== Annotations to The Complete Peanuts: 1981 to 1982 by Charles M. Schulz (Fantagraphics Books, 2011. ISBN 1606994719) • p. 39 (March 30, 1981). First instance of Marcie calling Charlie Brown ”Charles.” She will persist in that habit. • p. 127 (October 24, 1981). ”Psychiatric help: 34 cents.” In the late 1970s and early 1980s, price inflation in most western countries surged to peacetime records. In the United States, it soared to 15% per year in 1980, generating considerable anxiety in the population. Lucy’s rates followed the trend and increased dramatically in 1981: they were 10 cents on March 15, 34 cents on October 24 and 50 cents on December 16. They returned to their historical level of 5 cents on June 27, 1982. Category:Annotations of The Complete Peanuts659 ==1983−1984== Annotations to The Complete Peanuts: 1983 to 1984 by Charles M. Schulz (Fantagraphics Books, 2011. ISBN 1606995235) • p. 102 (August 24, 1983) As the strip indicates, the French term esprit de l’escalier translates as ”wit of the stairway”. Schulz used French terms several times during the course of his strip, mainly during its later half, and all of them were authentic. • p. 144 (November 29, 1983) The motion picture Flashdance660 was released in April 1983 in the United States and enjoyed a large success at the box office. Bill Melendez released an animated parody of it (and of other dance films) in April 1984, under the title It’s Flashbeagle, Charlie Brown661 . • p. 151 (December 16, 1983) It seems that Sally’s script refers to the Christmas carol ”Hark! The Herald Angels Sing”662 , well known in English speaking countries. • p. 156 (December 27, 1983) ”Snowperson”: political correctness in the early 80s had gone quite far in its attempts to erase gender-biased expressions from the common language. At that time, many tried to be gender-neutral to the point of sacrificing clarity, for example in sentences such as ”Every man/woman shall don his/her life jacket and report to the steward/stewardess nearest to him/her.” Some common nouns disappeared at that time, for example, ”fireman” was replaced by ”firefighter.” In a somewhat related gag, Jim Unger663 in his cartoon Herman664 had a sales clerk telling a customer: ”We live in a very strange era,” with in the background a banner saying ”Grandperson clocks.” • p. 193 (March 23, 1984) There is a ”Highland Park” and a ”Selby Avenue” in Saint Paul, Minnesota. Schulz lived at the corner of Selby and Snelling, where his father’s barber shop was also located. • p. 220 (May 25, 1984) ”Playing trivia”: Trivia games started in the early 80s, with Isaac Asimov665 ’s Super Quiz666 possibly being the first of them in 1982. They became very popular by the mid-80s.

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Contents • p. 240 (July 9, 1984) ”Girls Just Want to Have Fun667 ” was a popular song in early 1984, sung by Cyndi Lauper668 . • p. 255 (August 14, 1984) ”Roy Hobbs”: Although the novel The Natural669 , by Bernard Malamud, was released in 1952, the movie based on it670 was produced and released only in 1984. Category:Annotations of The Complete Peanuts671 ==1985−1986== Annotations to The Complete Peanuts: 1985 to 1986 by Charles M. Schulz (Fantagraphics Books, 2011. ISBN 1606995723) • p. xi (Foreword by Patton Oswald) ”Snoopy even adds a new make-believe character to his repertoire (...) a bowtie-wearing, bowler-topped attorney.” That sentence is misleading, as the attorney persona of Snoopy in fact appeared many years before 1985/1986. • p. 47 (April 19, 1985) It seems Snoopy is cured of the ”weed claustrophobia” that plagued him in 1956. See the strips of October 27, November 3, and November 6 to 9 of that year. • p. 94 (August 7, 1985). A ”punker” is ”a punk rock musician or a devotee of punk rock or punk styles.”. They were especially prevalent during the late 70’s and 80’s. • p. 94-95 (August 7, 1985-August 9, 1985) Although the term ”mallies” doesn’t actually exist, the type of people Schulz was referring to did. In the 80’s, and still today, there are several people who can be possibly referred to as ”mallies”. • p. 97 (August 12, 1985) YUPpies672 (from ”Young Urban Professional”) defined the 1980s more than any other social group. Their way of life (expensive tastes and professional ambition) was fueled by the financial and economic optimism of the era and was the subject of many books, movies, and television series (The Bonfire of the Vanities673 , Family Ties674 , Wall Street675 ). • p. 127-128 (October 23, 1985-October 25, 1985) ”The Lone Eagle”, as the first strip of this series explicitly indicates, was Charles Lindbergh, who, as this strip also indicates, made the first nonstop solo flight from New York to Paris. Snoopy’s ”Lone Beagle” outfit is also his World War One Flying Ace outfit as well. • p. 128 (October 26, 1985) Wayne Gretzky is a Canadian former professional ice hockey player and former head coach. The joke is that Rerun’s helmet looks like a hockey mask. • p. 128 (October 27, 1985) One of the rare instances where an adult’s speech appears in Peanuts.

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Contents • p. 131 (November 1, 1985) ”Beagle Blaster” refers to ghetto blasters, an 80’s slang term referring to ”a large, powerful portable radio, especially as carried and played by a pedestrian or used outdoors in an urban area.”. • p. 133-134 (November 6, 1985-November 9, 1985) Halley’s Comet, officially designated 1P/Halley, is the best-known of the short-period comets and is visible from Earth every 75–76 years. Halley is the only short-period comet that is clearly visible to the naked eye from Earth, and thus the only naked-eye comet that might appear twice in a human lifetime. Other naked-eye comets may be brighter and more spectacular, but will appear only once in thousands of years. As this strip series explicitly indicates, Sally has the date at least a month too early, and the comet’s actual arrival was on February 1986. • p. 170 (February 1, 1986) She has what is known as a ten-speed.. A ten speed is ”a system of gears having ten forward gear ratios, especially on a bicycle. ”. These types of bikes were particularly popular during the 70’s and 80’s. • p. 174 (February 9, 1986) The poems Snoopy writes down are plays on a classic love poem that may be traced at least as far back as to the following lines written in 1590 by Sir Edmund Spenser from his epic The Faerie Queene (Book Three, Canto 6, Stanza 6): It was upon a Sommers shynie day, When Titan faire his beames did display, In a fresh fountaine, farre from all mens vew, She bath’d her brest, the boyling heat t’allay; She bath’d with roses red, and violets blew, And all the sweetest flowres, that in the forrest grew. The version Snoopy is lampooning is the most popular one: Roses are red, Violets are blue, Sugar is sweet, And so are you. • P. 175 (February 10, 1986) About the political correctness of the 1980s concerning gender bias in language, see also the strip of December 27, 1983. • P. 175-176, 178-179 (February 10, 1986-February 15, 1986, and February 16, 1986 February 21, 1986) As the series explicitly indicates, the flu Snoopy(as the World War One Ace)catches is the great influenza epidemic of 1918-1919. As it also states, before it ended in 1919, twenty million people had died from the disease.. The armistice that was to mark the end of World War One that was mentioned February 19, was also signed during those years of death and disease. • P. 178 (February 19, 1986) ”The war is over!!” Actually, the war is not over for Snoopy’s pilot persona. It will return to fight on October 4, 1986. • p. 179 (February 22, 1986) The national anthem of the Unites States of America is the Star Spangled Banner, of which lyrics come from ”Defence of Fort McHenry”, a


Contents poem written in 1814 by the 35-year-old lawyer and amateur poet, Francis Scott Key, after witnessing the bombardment of Fort McHenry by the British Royal Navy ships in Chesapeake Bay during the Battle of Fort McHenry in the War of 1812. The poem was set to the tune of a popular British song written by John Stafford Smith for the Anacreontic Society, a men’s social club in London. ”The Anacreontic Song” (or ”To Anacreon in Heaven”), with various lyrics, was already popular in the United States. Set to Key’s poem and renamed ”The Star-Spangled Banner”, it would soon become a well-known American patriotic song. With a range (tessitura) of one and a half octaves, it is known for being difficult to sing. Although the poem has four stanzas, only the first is commonly sung today. ”The Star-Spangled Banner” was recognized for official use by the Navy in 1889, and by President Woodrow Wilson in 1916, and was made the national anthem by a congressional resolution on March 3, 1931 (46 Stat. 1508, codified at 36 U.S.C. § 301), which was signed by President Herbert Hoover. Before 1931, other songs served as the hymns of American officialdom. ”Hail, Columbia” served this purpose at official functions for most of the 19th century. ”My Country, ’Tis of Thee”, whose melody is identical to ”God Save the Queen”, the British national anthem, also served as a de facto anthem. Following the War of 1812 and subsequent American wars, other songs would emerge to compete for popularity at public events, among them ”The Star-Spangled Banner”. • p. 184 (March 5, 1986) ”Baby on Bike” is a reference to the rising popularity of ”Baby on Board” warning signs in the 1980s. • p. 185 ((March 7, 1986) This strip is a little bit confusing, as at first glance it appears that Snoopy is talking in the last panel. However, on closer inspection, it is revealed that it is in fact the body of Snoopy talking. One of the possible hint to this is the scrunched up line directing the thought balloon to its bearer that only Snoopy’s body parts have. • p. 188 (March 15, 1986) James Gould Cozzens was, as this strip indicates, the author of ”By Love Possessed”. • p. 192 (March 23, 1986) Medic is slang for doctor. • p. 195 (March 30, 1986) The definition of the word ”ganglion” Linus is referring to is the less known one, meaning ”a small lump most commonly on the hand or foot”. • p. 202-203 (April 15, 1986) What have we done to Fort Zinderneuf ?! Fort Zinderneuf is the main setting of the 1966 film Beau Geste and the 1924 novel it is based on. • p. 208 (April 28, 1986-May 3, 1986) The Maypole Dance that is celebrated in U.S. in Secondary or High School dances as part of a May Day celebration are nearly identical to that celebrated in the United Kingdom. Often the Maypole dance will be accompanied by other dances as part of a presentation to the public.The earliest use of the Maypole in America occurred in 1628, where William Bradford, governor of New Plymouth, wrote of an incident where a number of servants, together with the aid of an agent, broke free from their indentured service to create their own colony, setting up a maypole in the center of the settlement, and behaving in such a way as to receive the scorn and disapproval of the nearby colonies, as well as an official officer of the king, bearing patent for the state of Massachusetts. The May Queen or Queen of May is a term which has two distinct but related meanings, as a mythical figure and as a holiday personification. This series is referring to the latter, the May Queen who is a girl who must ride or walk at the front of a parade for May Day celebrations. She wears a white gown to symbolize purity and


Contents usually a tiara or crown. Her duty is to begin the May Day celebrations. She is generally crowned by flowers and makes a speech before the dancing begins. Certain age groups dance round a Maypole celebrating youth and the spring time. • p.226 (June 9, 1985) This the first appearance of Lydia. • p. 247 (July 29, 1986) Maynard is misquoting the Scripture Luke 10:7(The laborer is worthy of his hire) as Luke 10:4. • p. 252 (August 10, 1986) Mozart, Rachmaninoff, Prokofiev, Franck, Lehar, Tchaikovsky, Elgar, Schubert, and Gershwin were all famous composers. • p. 253 (August 12, 1986) Buck Beagle in the 25th century is a parody of the famous 1930s comic strip Buck Rogers in the 25th century, which also was a favorite of Schulz’s as a youth. • p. 254 (August 16, 1986) Joe Garagiola is an American former catcher in Major League Baseball who later became an announcer and television host, popular for his colorful personality. He was well known for being one of the regular panelists of The Today Show on NBC for many years. He also happened to be a good friend of Schulz’s. • p. 258 Fort Zinderneuf See annotation on pages 202-203 • p. 263, 265-266, 268, 289, 292, 301 (September 4, 1986-September 6, 1986, September 8, 1986, September 13, 1986, September 15, 1986-September 17, 1986, November 5, 1986, November 10, 1986, and December 3, 1986) Tapioca Pudding is a satirical remark on runaway licensing, and her name is a likely parody on Strawberry Shortcake, as both of them are named after a dessert item. • p. 274 (October 1, 1986) The first balls were made of natural materials, such as an inflated pig bladder, sometimes inside a leather cover, which has given rise to the slang term ”pigskin”. Modern balls are designed by teams of engineers to exacting specifications, with rubber or plastic bladders, and often with plastic covers. Various leagues and games use different balls, though they all have one of the following basic shapes: | a sphere: used in Association football and Gaelic football | a prolate spheroid | either with rounded ends: used in the rugby codes and Australian football | or with more pointed ends: used in American football and Canadian football The precise shape and construction of footballs is typically specified as part of the rules and regulations. The oldest football still in existence, which is thought to have been made circa 1540, was discovered in the roof of Stirling Castle, Scotland, in 1981. The ball is made of leather (possibly from a deer) and a pig’s bladder. It has a diameter of between 14–16 cm (5.5–6.3 in), weighs 125 g (4.4 oz) and is currently on display at the Smith Art Gallery and Museum in Stirling. • p. 277 (October 8, 1986) A zamboni is an ice resurfacer, which is a vehicle used to clean and smooth the surface of an ice sheet, usually in an ice rink. The first ice resurfacer was developed by Frank Zamboni in 1949 in the city of Paramount, California. Zamboni /zæmˈboʊni/ is an internationally registered trademark, though the term is often used as a generic colloquialism for any ice resurfacer. • p. 283 (October 22, 1986) Fog is a 1916 poem by Carl Sandburg that reads:


Contents THE FOG comes on little cat feet. It sits looking over harbor and city on silent haunches and then moves on. • p 293 I’ll eat first, and then I’ll call the Humane Society! The Humane Society is a group that aims to stop human or animal suffering due to cruelty or other reasons, although in many countries, it is now used mostly for societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals (SPCAs). • p.301 (December 3, 1986) This the last appearance of Tapioca Pudding. • p. 308, 310 (December 19, 1986-December 20, 1986, and December 22, 1986, and December 24, 1986) This unnamed kid closely resembles Shermy, a character who disappeared in the year 1976. Category:Annotations of The Complete Peanuts676 ==1987−1988== Annotations to The Complete Peanuts: 1987 to 1988 by Charles M. Schulz (Fantagraphics Books, 2013. ISBN 1606996348) • p. 4 (January 10, 1987) Although it has almost completely disappeared today, ”Kilroy was here”677 used to be a ubiquitous graffiti in the North American urban landscape. Its original meaning is quite obscure. • p. 13 (January 29, 1987) ”I was born in October.” This is not implausible, as the first appearance of Linus is on September 19, 1952, and he then appears a bit younger than one year old. In any case, Peanuts characters are known to age much more slowly than real-world people. • p. 15 (February 2, 1987) The chosen Valedictorian678 is usually the student with the highest ranking among his or her graduating class. Salutatorian679 is an academic title given in the United States to the second highest graduate of the entire graduating class of a specific discipline. • p. 34 (March 19, 1987) Mrs. Nelson and Mrs. Bartley are regulars of the golf club. They used to hire Peppermint Patty and Marcie as caddies (see for example the strip of July 17, 1983, The Complete Peanuts 1983 to 1984 , p. 86.) • p. 227 (June 12, 1988) 1988 is the year when Fax machines became known at large to the general public. They were then expensive and rather big, so they were considered as being primarily office machines.

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Contents • p. 231 (June 21, 1988) After years of legal arguments, the estate of Margaret Mitchell finally announced on February 3, 1987, that a sequel to Gone with the wind would be authorized.680 The news was a sensation, and generated feverish interest and speculation in the public. On April 26, 1988, the project was formally launched when Warner Books purchased the rights to the sequel for US$4.94 million.681 It was finally published in September 1991, under the title Scarlett682 , by author Alexandra Ripley. • p. 249 (August 2, 1988) Although nearly inescapable today, answering machines became affordable to the general public only in 1988. Before that, they were not even common in an office environment: rather, the secretary of a department had the charge of receiving calls and taking messages. • p. 291 (November 8, 1988) Tuesday, November 8, 1988, was a Presidential election day in the United States. George H.W. Bush won against Michael Dukakis. That Sally rooted for Abraham Lincoln is not unexpected, as he is often referred to with reverence by various characters in Peanuts . He must be the favorite president of the gang.

0.1 References Category:Annotations of The Complete Peanuts683 =References=

680 Kenneth Wilson. A Visit with Charles SchulzA Visit with Charles Schulz. Christian Herald, September1967 681 . ’Gone with the wind’ sequel brings 4.94 million bid’Gone with the wind’ sequel brings 4.94 million bid. The Miami News, April1988 682 683


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Chapter 2 on page 59

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2 Licenses 2.1 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 3, 29 June 2007 Copyright © 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. Preamble The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for software and other kinds of works. The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed to take away your freedom to share and change the works. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change all versions of a program–to make sure it remains free software for all its users. We, the Free Software Foundation, use the GNU General Public License for most of our software; it applies also to any other work released this way by its authors. You can apply it to your programs, too. When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for them if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs, and that you know you can do these things. To protect your rights, we need to prevent others from denying you these rights or asking you to surrender the rights. Therefore, you have certain responsibilities if you distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it: responsibilities to respect the freedom of others. For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for a fee, you must pass on to the recipients the same freedoms that you received. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. Developers that use the GNU GPL protect your rights with two steps: (1) assert copyright on the software, and (2) offer you this License giving you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify it. For the developers’ and authors’ protection, the GPL clearly explains that there is no warranty for this free software. For both users’ and authors’ sake, the GPL requires that modified versions be marked as changed, so that their problems will not be attributed erroneously to authors of previous versions. Some devices are designed to deny users access to install or run modified versions of the software inside them, although the manufacturer can do so. This is fundamentally incompatible with the aim of protecting users’ freedom to change the software. The systematic pattern of such abuse occurs in the area of products for individuals to use, which is precisely where it is most unacceptable. Therefore, we have designed this version of the GPL to prohibit the practice for those products. If such problems arise substantially in other domains, we stand ready to extend this provision to those domains in future versions of the GPL, as needed to protect the freedom of users. Finally, every program is threatened constantly by software patents. States should not allow patents to restrict development and use of software on general-purpose computers, but in those that do, we wish to avoid the special danger that patents applied to a free program could make it effectively proprietary. To prevent this, the GPL assures that patents cannot be used to render the program non-free. The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow. TERMS AND CONDITIONS 0. Definitions. “This License” refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public License. “Copyright” also means copyright-like laws that apply to other kinds of works, such as semiconductor masks. “The Program” refers to any copyrightable work licensed under this License. Each licensee is addressed as “you”. “Licensees” and “recipients” may be individuals or organizations. To “modify” a work means to copy from or adapt all or part of the work in a fashion requiring copyright permission, other than the making of an exact copy. The resulting work is called a “modified version” of the earlier work or a work “based on” the earlier work. A “covered work” means either the unmodified Program or a work based on the Program. To “propagate” a work means to do anything with it that, without permission, would make you directly or secondarily liable for infringement under applicable copyright law, except executing it on a computer or modifying a private copy. Propagation includes copying, distribution (with or without modification), making available to the public, and in some countries other activities as well. To “convey” a work means any kind of propagation that enables other parties to make or receive copies. Mere interaction with a user through a computer network, with no transfer of a copy, is not conveying. An interactive user interface displays “Appropriate Legal Notices” to the extent that it includes a convenient and prominently visible feature that (1) displays an appropriate copyright notice, and (2) tells the user that there is no warranty for the work (except to the extent that warranties are provided), that licensees may convey the work under this License, and how to view a copy of this License. If the interface presents a list of user commands or options, such as a menu, a prominent item in the list meets this criterion. 1. Source Code. The “source code” for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. “Object code” means any non-source form of a work. A “Standard Interface” means an interface that either is an official standard defined by a recognized standards body, or, in the case of interfaces specified for a particular programming language, one that is widely used among developers working in that language. The “System Libraries” of an executable work include anything, other than the work as a whole, that (a) is included in the normal form of packaging a Major Component, but which is not part of that Major Component, and (b) serves only to enable use of the work with that Major Component, or to implement a Standard Interface for which an implementation is available to the public in source code form. A “Major Component”, in this context, means a major essential component (kernel, window system, and so on) of the specific operating system (if any) on which the executable work runs, or a compiler used to produce the work, or an object code interpreter used to run it.

The “Corresponding Source” for a work in object code form means all the source code needed to generate, install, and (for an executable work) run the object code and to modify the work, including scripts to control those activities. However, it does not include the work’s System Libraries, or general-purpose tools or generally available free programs which are used unmodified in performing those activities but which are not part of the work. For example, Corresponding Source includes interface definition files associated with source files for the work, and the source code for shared libraries and dynamically linked subprograms that the work is specifically designed to require, such as by intimate data communication or control flow between those subprograms and other parts of the work. The Corresponding Source need not include anything that users can regenerate automatically from other parts of the Corresponding Source. The Corresponding Source for a work in source code form is that same work. 2. Basic Permissions. All rights granted under this License are granted for the term of copyright on the Program, and are irrevocable provided the stated conditions are met. This License explicitly affirms your unlimited permission to run the unmodified Program. The output from running a covered work is covered by this License only if the output, given its content, constitutes a covered work. This License acknowledges your rights of fair use or other equivalent, as provided by copyright law. You may make, run and propagate covered works that you do not convey, without conditions so long as your license otherwise remains in force. You may convey covered works to others for the sole purpose of having them make modifications exclusively for you, or provide you with facilities for running those works, provided that you comply with the terms of this License in conveying all material for which you do not control copyright. Those thus making or running the covered works for you must do so exclusively on your behalf, under your direction and control, on terms that prohibit them from making any copies of your copyrighted material outside their relationship with you. Conveying under any other circumstances is permitted solely under the conditions stated below. Sublicensing is not allowed; section 10 makes it unnecessary. 3. Protecting Users’ Legal Rights From AntiCircumvention Law. No covered work shall be deemed part of an effective technological measure under any applicable law fulfilling obligations under article 11 of the WIPO copyright treaty adopted on 20 December 1996, or similar laws prohibiting or restricting circumvention of such measures. When you convey a covered work, you waive any legal power to forbid circumvention of technological measures to the extent such circumvention is effected by exercising rights under this License with respect to the covered work, and you disclaim any intention to limit operation or modification of the work as a means of enforcing, against the work’s users, your or third parties’ legal rights to forbid circumvention of technological measures. 4. Conveying Verbatim Copies. You may convey verbatim copies of the Program’s source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice; keep intact all notices stating that this License and any non-permissive terms added in accord with section 7 apply to the code; keep intact all notices of the absence of any warranty; and give all recipients a copy of this License along with the Program. You may charge any price or no price for each copy that you convey, and you may offer support or warranty protection for a fee. 5. Conveying Modified Source Versions. You may convey a work based on the Program, or the modifications to produce it from the Program, in the form of source code under the terms of section 4, provided that you also meet all of these conditions: * a) The work must carry prominent notices stating that you modified it, and giving a relevant date. * b) The work must carry prominent notices stating that it is released under this License and any conditions added under section 7. This requirement modifies the requirement in section 4 to “keep intact all notices”. * c) You must license the entire work, as a whole, under this License to anyone who comes into possession of a copy. This License will therefore apply, along with any applicable section 7 additional terms, to the whole of the work, and all its parts, regardless of how they are packaged. This License gives no permission to license the work in any other way, but it does not invalidate such permission if you have separately received it. * d) If the work has interactive user interfaces, each must display Appropriate Legal Notices; however, if the Program has interactive interfaces that do not display Appropriate Legal Notices, your work need not make them do so. A compilation of a covered work with other separate and independent works, which are not by their nature extensions of the covered work, and which are not combined with it such as to form a larger program, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the compilation and its resulting copyright are not used to limit the access or legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. Inclusion of a covered work in an aggregate does not cause this License to apply to the other parts of the aggregate. 6. Conveying Non-Source Forms. You may convey a covered work in object code form under the terms of sections 4 and 5, provided that you also convey the machine-readable Corresponding Source under the terms of this License, in one of these ways: * a) Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by the Corresponding Source fixed on a durable physical medium customarily used for software interchange. * b) Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by a written offer, valid for at least three years and valid for as long as you offer spare parts or customer support for that product model, to give anyone who possesses the object code either (1) a copy of the Corresponding Source for all the software in the product that is covered by this License, on a durable physical medium customarily used for software interchange, for a price no more than your reasonable cost of physically performing this conveying of source, or (2) access to copy the Corresponding Source from a network server at no charge. * c) Convey individual copies of the object code with a copy of the written offer to provide the Corresponding Source. This alternative is allowed only occasionally and noncommercially, and only if you received the object code with such an offer, in accord with subsection 6b. * d) Convey the object code by offering access from a designated place (gratis or for a charge), and offer equivalent access to the Corresponding Source in the same way through the same place at no further charge. You need not require recipients to copy the Corresponding Source along with the object code. If the place to copy the object code is a network server, the Corresponding Source may be on a

different server (operated by you or a third party) that supports equivalent copying facilities, provided you maintain clear directions next to the object code saying where to find the Corresponding Source. Regardless of what server hosts the Corresponding Source, you remain obligated to ensure that it is available for as long as needed to satisfy these requirements. * e) Convey the object code using peer-to-peer transmission, provided you inform other peers where the object code and Corresponding Source of the work are being offered to the general public at no charge under subsection 6d. A separable portion of the object code, whose source code is excluded from the Corresponding Source as a System Library, need not be included in conveying the object code work. A “User Product” is either (1) a “consumer product”, which means any tangible personal property which is normally used for personal, family, or household purposes, or (2) anything designed or sold for incorporation into a dwelling. In determining whether a product is a consumer product, doubtful cases shall be resolved in favor of coverage. For a particular product received by a particular user, “normally used” refers to a typical or common use of that class of product, regardless of the status of the particular user or of the way in which the particular user actually uses, or expects or is expected to use, the product. A product is a consumer product regardless of whether the product has substantial commercial, industrial or non-consumer uses, unless such uses represent the only significant mode of use of the product. “Installation Information” for a User Product means any methods, procedures, authorization keys, or other information required to install and execute modified versions of a covered work in that User Product from a modified version of its Corresponding Source. The information must suffice to ensure that the continued functioning of the modified object code is in no case prevented or interfered with solely because modification has been made. If you convey an object code work under this section in, or with, or specifically for use in, a User Product, and the conveying occurs as part of a transaction in which the right of possession and use of the User Product is transferred to the recipient in perpetuity or for a fixed term (regardless of how the transaction is characterized), the Corresponding Source conveyed under this section must be accompanied by the Installation Information. But this requirement does not apply if neither you nor any third party retains the ability to install modified object code on the User Product (for example, the work has been installed in ROM). The requirement to provide Installation Information does not include a requirement to continue to provide support service, warranty, or updates for a work that has been modified or installed by the recipient, or for the User Product in which it has been modified or installed. Access to a network may be denied when the modification itself materially and adversely affects the operation of the network or violates the rules and protocols for communication across the network. Corresponding Source conveyed, and Installation Information provided, in accord with this section must be in a format that is publicly documented (and with an implementation available to the public in source code form), and must require no special password or key for unpacking, reading or copying. 7. Additional Terms. “Additional permissions” are terms that supplement the terms of this License by making exceptions from one or more of its conditions. Additional permissions that are applicable to the entire Program shall be treated as though they were included in this License, to the extent that they are valid under applicable law. If additional permissions apply only to part of the Program, that part may be used separately under those permissions, but the entire Program remains governed by this License without regard to the additional permissions. When you convey a copy of a covered work, you may at your option remove any additional permissions from that copy, or from any part of it. (Additional permissions may be written to require their own removal in certain cases when you modify the work.) You may place additional permissions on material, added by you to a covered work, for which you have or can give appropriate copyright permission. Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, for material you add to a covered work, you may (if authorized by the copyright holders of that material) supplement the terms of this License with terms: * a) Disclaiming warranty or limiting liability differently from the terms of sections 15 and 16 of this License; or * b) Requiring preservation of specified reasonable legal notices or author attributions in that material or in the Appropriate Legal Notices displayed by works containing it; or * c) Prohibiting misrepresentation of the origin of that material, or requiring that modified versions of such material be marked in reasonable ways as different from the original version; or * d) Limiting the use for publicity purposes of names of licensors or authors of the material; or * e) Declining to grant rights under trademark law for use of some trade names, trademarks, or service marks; or * f) Requiring indemnification of licensors and authors of that material by anyone who conveys the material (or modified versions of it) with contractual assumptions of liability to the recipient, for any liability that these contractual assumptions directly impose on those licensors and authors. All other non-permissive additional terms are considered “further restrictions” within the meaning of section 10. If the Program as you received it, or any part of it, contains a notice stating that it is governed by this License along with a term that is a further restriction, you may remove that term. If a license document contains a further restriction but permits relicensing or conveying under this License, you may add to a covered work material governed by the terms of that license document, provided that the further restriction does not survive such relicensing or conveying. If you add terms to a covered work in accord with this section, you must place, in the relevant source files, a statement of the additional terms that apply to those files, or a notice indicating where to find the applicable terms. Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in the form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions; the above requirements apply either way. 8. Termination. You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to propagate or modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License (including any patent licenses granted under the third paragraph of section 11). However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates

your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation. Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice. Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same material under section 10. 9. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies. You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or run a copy of the Program. Ancillary propagation of a covered work occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance. However, nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or modify any covered work. These actions infringe copyright if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or propagating a covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. 10. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients. Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and propagate that work, subject to this License. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License. An “entity transaction” is a transaction transferring control of an organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an organization, or merging organizations. If propagation of a covered work results from an entity transaction, each party to that transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever licenses to the work the party’s predecessor in interest had or could give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts. You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the rights granted or affirmed under this License. For example, you may not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate litigation (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it. 11. Patents. A “contributor” is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based. The work thus licensed is called the contributor’s “contributor version”. A contributor’s “essential patent claims” are all patent claims owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version, but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a consequence of further modification of the contributor version. For purposes of this definition, “control” includes the right to grant patent sublicenses in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License. Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free patent license under the contributor’s essential patent claims, to make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and propagate the contents of its contributor version. In the following three paragraphs, a “patent license” is any express agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent (such as an express permission to practice a patent or covenant not to sue for patent infringement). To “grant” such a patent license to a party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a patent against the party. If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license, and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a publicly available network server or other readily accessible means, then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent license to downstream recipients. “Knowingly relying” means you have actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the covered work in a country, or your recipient’s use of the covered work in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that country that you have reason to believe are valid. If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered work and works based on it. A patent license is “discriminatory” if it does not include within the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are specifically granted under this License. You may not convey a covered work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily for and in connection with specific products or compilations that contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement, or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007. Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law. 12. No Surrender of Others’ Freedom. If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot convey a covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not convey it at all. For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey the Program, the only way you could satisfy

both those terms and this License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program. 13. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License. Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a single combined work, and to convey the resulting work. The terms of this License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work, but the special requirements of the GNU Affero General Public License, section 13, concerning interaction through a network will apply to the combination as such. 14. Revised Versions of this License. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the GNU General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU General Public License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of the GNU General Public License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that proxy’s public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Program.

Later license versions may give you additional or different permissions. However, no additional obligations are imposed on any author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a later version. 15. Disclaimer of Warranty.



If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms, reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a copy of the Program in return for a fee.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see .

END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:

If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

Copyright (C) This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type ‘show w’. This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions; type ‘show c’ for details.

To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the “copyright” line and a pointer to where the full notice is found. Copyright (C) This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

The hypothetical commands ‘show w’ and ‘show c’ should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, your program’s commands might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an “about box”. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school, if any, to sign a “copyright disclaimer” for the program, if necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see . The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. But first, please read .

2.2 GNU Free Documentation License Version 1.3, 3 November 2008 Copyright © 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc. Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. 0. PREAMBLE The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document ”free” in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others. This License is a kind of ”copyleft”, which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software. We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference. 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The ”Document”, below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as ”you”. You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law. A ”Modified Version” of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language. A ”Secondary Section” is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document’s overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them. The ”Invariant Sections” are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none. The ”Cover Texts” are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words. A ”Transparent” copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not ”Transparent” is called ”Opaque”. Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standardconforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only. The ”Title Page” means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, ”Title Page” means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work’s title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text. The ”publisher” means any person or entity that distributes copies of the Document to the public. A section ”Entitled XYZ” means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses

following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as ”Acknowledgements”, ”Dedications”, ”Endorsements”, or ”History”.) To ”Preserve the Title” of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section ”Entitled XYZ” according to this definition. The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License. 2. VERBATIM COPYING You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3. You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies. 3. 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2.3 GNU Lesser General Public License GNU LESSER GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 3, 29 June 2007 Copyright © 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

The “Corresponding Application Code” for a Combined Work means the object code and/or source code for the Application, including any data and utility programs needed for reproducing the Combined Work from the Application, but excluding the System Libraries of the Combined Work. 1. Exception to Section 3 of the GNU GPL.

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

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This version of the GNU Lesser General Public License incorporates the terms and conditions of version 3 of the GNU General Public License, supplemented by the additional permissions listed below. 0. Additional Definitions.

If you modify a copy of the Library, and, in your modifications, a facility refers to a function or data to be supplied by an Application that uses the facility (other than as an argument passed when the facility is invoked), then you may convey a copy of the modified version:

As used herein, “this License” refers to version 3 of the GNU Lesser General Public License, and the “GNU GPL” refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public License.

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