Answer Key 1. After examining the 1850 census record, the 1850 slave schedule, and the Smith family tree, one can determine that William F. Smith was a white, wealthy, Mississippi planter from Kentucky. In 1850, his value of land was worth $40,000 which was a considerable amount of money in 1850. He owned 90 slaves while living in Mississippi. He had eight children with Laura Smith. 2. The 1850 census record and the 1850 slave schedule do not list Laura Smith. The 1850 census record does list spouses’ names; however, Laura Smith is not listed under William F. Smith. The 1850 slave schedule does not list the names of the slaves. Many slave owners had relations with their slave women, perhaps, Laura Smith was a slave. 3. According to Deed Record Vol. 36, pgs. 561-562, Laura Smith was William F. Smith’s slave. This deed records how Laura Smith is being manumitted and set free in Ohio by her slave master, William F. Smith. She was thirty-two years old at this time and was described as a mulatto woman, three fourths white and about five feet two inches. Seven of her children are listed in the deed record and were also William F. Smith’s slaves. They are being emancipated in this deed record. Laura and her children paid one hundred dollars to, William F. Smith, their slave master for their freedom. 4. The timeline and William Smith’s draft record, illustrates that he was drafted in 1863 when he was twenty years old. He was assigned to the 5th Regiment, United States Colored Heavy Artillery. According to the timeline, when the Second Confiscation and Militia Act was passed in 1862, this allowed African Americans to enlist in the Army. William Smith, who although was described in the deed record as having a light complexion, joined the colored troop regiment. As An African American soldier in the 5th Regiment of the United States Colored Heavy Artillery, William most likely was led by a white officer. The 5th Regiment provided heavy artillery for troops fighting in the Deep South and most likely served alongside white troops. 5. Margenia is described in the 1860 Greene County census record as a fourteen year old mulatto child. However, ten years later in the Grafton County, New Hampshire census record, Margenia is described as a twenty-two year old, white woman. Her husband, Edwin Archer is described as a twenty-five year old white man. Perhaps when the Greene County Census Taker arrived in 1860 to conduct the census, the taker noticed and recorded that Margenia’s mother was mulatto. Margenia is therefore recorded as mulatto also in 1860. However, Margenia is now married and living in New Hampshire with a white man. The census taker in New Hampshire probably assumed that Margenia was white. Student needs to describe what they think about this in regards to identity and
privilege. 6. Answers will vary.