archaeometallurgy - Lirias

archaeometallurgy - Lirias

FALL 2011 SAS BULLETIN American Museum of Natural History, and private collections. There are also plans for a symposium to be held at the Denver Ar...

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American Museum of Natural History, and private collections. There are also plans for a symposium to be held at the Denver Art Museum, 16-17 September 2011, “Marajó and the Ancient Amazonian World” organized by Margaret Young-Sánchez. Marajó: Ancient Ceramics from the Mouth of the Amazon an 88-page catalog of the exhibition is available through the DAM gift shop and distributed by the University of Oklahoma Press ($25.00). For details on the exhibition, forthcoming symposium, and catalog, visit the museum’s Web site at: tionDetails/exhibitionId--204117/exhibitionType--Upcoming The exhibition Shipwrecked: Tang Treasures and Monsoon Winds scheduled to travel late this year to the Smithsonian’ Institution’s Sackler Gallery in Washington, DC, has been postponed indefinitely. The catalog accompanying the exhibition was reviewed in the last SAS Bulletin 34(2):14-16 (2011): Shipwrecked: Tang Treasures and Monsoon Winds (Regina Krahl, John Guy, J. Keith Wilson, and Julian Raby (eds.), with contributions by Alison Effeny, Michael Flecker, John Guy, Jessica Hallett, Hsieh Ming-liang, Regina Krahl, Li Baoping with Chen Yuh-shiow and Nigel Wood, Liu Yang, François Louis, Qi Dongfang, Wang Gungwu, Tom Vosmer, and J. Keith Wilson; Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC; the National Heritage Board, Singapore; and the Singapore Tourism Board, 2010). Nautical archaeologist James Delgado, commented that “This shipwreck is one of the most significant shipwrecks to be found in modern times’ and added that “it is the only shipwreck to date that we have found which has direct archaeological evidence of trade between the Arab world and the Chinese world.” The objects are from the Chinese Tang dynasty of the nineteenth century and the boat is thought to be from the Middle East. Several archaeologists pointed out that these artifacts were obtained illegally beginning in 1998 when local fishermen diving for sea cucumbers found the vessel and its cargo off the island of Belitung in Indonesia. Part of the controversy is because not all the pieces have been returned to the proper authorities and “many were stolen and sold on the Internet.” The Indonesian government has engaged Seabed Explorations, a German recuperation firm to find the stolen works, the bulk of which were subsequently bought by the Singaporean government for $32.0 million (US). An investigation has begun to locate the missing objects and identify the perpetrators. At the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA are two noteworthy exhibitions. “Ancient Iranian Ceramics” opened 16 July 2011 and continues into 2010. Some 3,000 years ago, in the area south of the Caspian Sea in what is now modern Iran, craftsmen developed a distinctive type of pottery. This small installation features some of the outstanding treasures in the Sackler Gallery's collection of ancient Iranian ceramics. It celebrates the talents of ancient Iranian potters, and showcases the high quality of their crafted works. “Reinventing the Wheel: Japanese Ceramics 1930–2000” opened 23 July 2011. Modern and contemporary Japanese ceramics were among the first of many new directions in collecting made possible by the opening of the Sackler Gallery in 1987. Today, the Sackler


collection represents significant trends in Japanese ceramics since the 1930s, when traditional workshop masters took on new roles as studio potters alongside artists in other media. Potters at regional kilns revived ancient firing and glazing technology for use in expressive new vessel forms. In postwar Kyoto, ceramic artists departed from conventional ideas of function to create sculptural forms. Today's potters sample at will from these trends, blending meticulous skill with daring reinterpretations of shapes and materials. This installation of highlights spans legendary “Living National Treasures” to young virtuosos of the present day. See for more information. Online Resources Whittington Collection of Asian Ceramics. In 1987, Floyd and Carol Whittington donated more than 200 pieces of Asian ceramics to Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225, USA. This collection represents a wide range of styles and ceramic traditions from China, Thailand, Korea, and Vietnam. The Western Washington University Libraries Special Collections group digitized images of these items, and visitors can search the items by geographic category or a descriptive term, such as stoneware or porcelain or browse through items by looking at thumbnail images. First-time visitors should look at the Bencharong footed dish from Thailand and a Chinese plate with grooved cavetto. See cac for additional information. Ethnoarchaeology: Mitra Videos. Video Resources On The Net contains a list of videos from Google, Youtube, and Amazon about ethnoarchaeology and includes videos on ceramic ethnoarchaeology (a majority are less than five minutes), among these are: “paddle and anvil technique,” “coiling a pot on a turntable,” “potter making clay items,” “open firing of pottery,” “mud missive, “how to make clay bowls,” “sawdust fired ceramics,” “wood fired pottery firing,” “Kimberli pottery,” “pottery demo (Marginea, Romania),” “Sri Lankan pottery decoration, “Fairport pottery,” “firing ancient earthen ware pottery,” “Ethiopian ethnoarchaeology,” “potters of San Marcos,” “traditional women potters of the Volta, Ghana,” “la cerámica raku,” “Maria Martinez pottery of Santa Clara,” “Damili pottery,” “Korean Onggi potter” (9:45)” and “firing Ongii kiln.” New materials are constantly being added.

ARCHAEOMETALLURGY Thomas R. Fenn, Associate Editor The column in this issue includes the following categories of information on archaeometallurgy: 1) New Books; 2) New Articles/Book Chapters; 3) Previous Meetings; 4) Forthcoming Meetings; and 5) Web Resources



New Books Metallographie - Grundlagen und Anwendung, by Georg Salbert, 2010, Materialkundlich-Technische Reihe, Band 14, Gebrüder Borntraeger, Stuttgart, ix+155p., 159 figures, 21x15cm, Language: German, ISBN: 978-3-443-23017-3, Price: €29.90. Details from the publisher can br found at the following link: 30173. Metallography deals with the macroscopic and microscopic structural examination of metallic materials. As a re-emerging field of materials technology, it has a high priority, both as training material and for professionals in the practice of material production, processing and testing. This book is a modern and compact presentation of the practice of the preparation of metal samples for structural studies. It describes important macroscopic and microscopic methods for the analysis of ferrous materials and nonferrous metals such as copper, aluminum and titanium alloys. Using typical micrographs correlations between structure and material composition on the one hand and the technological treatment of the material are described on the other. The structure will be explained and the structural components identified. The presented micrographs can be used by the reader as a model for interpreting structure in their own specimens. The comparison of micrographs can be under the influence of each material treatment seen in the microstructure. The training of the primary structure during solidification and the structural transformations during cooling of the alloys used are discussed with the help of state diagrams. Treated for a variety of ferrous materials and nonferrous metals, tensile strength and other functional properties, which are a consequence of the microstructure and determine the application of specified materials. The book is divided into the following sections: specimen preparation, macroscopic examination cut, fabric unalloyed iron-carbon materials and structures of selected non-ferrous metals. Each chapter concludes with a practical part. This exercise should be suggested to strengthen the theoretical basis of the learner and improve his practical knowledge about the structure and interpretation of laboratory skills. The book is designed to prepare trainees material experts on selfemployment in material testing. It is aimed primarily at trainee materials tester, metallographers and students of material science. It can also be used as a handle for students of mechanical, production engineering, as well as for prospective business school teachers and not least as a reference book used for practicing material scientists. "All that glitters...: The Belgian Contribution to Greek Numismatics” / «Ό,τιλάμπει...:Н βελγική συνεισφορά στην ελληνική νομισματική», edited by Panagiotis P. Iossif, 2010, Belgian School at Athens, Athens, 105p., 43 figures + catalog, Language: English/Greek, ISBN: 978-960-99428-0-5.


This publication represents the catalog to the exhibition at the Numismatic Museum at Athens, from September 29, 2010, to January 15, 2011, organized by the Belgian Embassy in Greece, the Belgian School at Athens (EBSA), the Royal Library of Belgium (KBR) and the Numismatic Museum at Athens. Following several short introductory notes, the editor provides a brief chapter “Introducing the exhibition ‘All that glitters…’” (Panagiotis P. Iossif; pp. 18-25). This is followed by chapters on the history and archaeometallurgy of Thorikos, an important ancient mining community near Laurion in the southern Attica peninsula, Greece. These chapters consist of “Thorikos Rich in Silver: the prehistoric periods” (Robert Laffineur; pp. 26-40), “The Early Iron Age at Thorikos” (Koen Van Gelder; pp. 4143), “Thorikos: A picture in pottery” (Roald Docter, Patrick Mansieur, Margarita Nazou, Winfred van de Put, Koen Van Gelder; pp. 44-51), and “Thorikos and the Industrial Quarter: A mine of information on the silver industry of ancient Attica” (Roald Docter and Kim Van Liefferinge; pp. 52-59). These chapters are followed by a series of numismatic chapters on Greek coinage associated with the exhibition, comprising “The monetary hoard ‘Thorikos 1969’ (IGCH 134)” (Jean Bingen; pp. 60-67), “The Tell el-Maskhuta Hoard of Athenian Tetradrachms (IGCH 1649)” (Christophe Flament; pp. 68-81), “The Brussels tetradrachm of Aitna: possibly the most precious ancient coin of the world” (François de Callataÿ; pp. 82-91), and the “Catalogue of coins and dies in the Aitna showcase: the Aitna world” (François de Callataÿ, Panagiotis P. Iossif; pp. 9297). This is followed by a Bibliography and Catalogue of Authors. Technik in der Antike, by Brigitte Cech, 2010, WBG Historischen Bibliothek series, WBG (Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft), Darmstadt, Germany, 256p. (hbk.), 134 figures, 18 tables, 17x24cm, Language: German, ISBN: 38062-2080-8, 978-3-8062-2080-3, Price: €29.90. This book covers the main aspects of ancient technology in twelve chapters: Sources (pp. 11-17); Basics of technology in antiquity (pp. 18-23); Metrology (time and land) (pp. 24-34); Tunneling (pp. 35-44); Architecture (pp. 45-79); Road- and bridge building (pp. 80-93); Water (pp. 94-144); Food production (pp. 145-154); Ship building (pp. 155-178); Mining and beneficiation (pp. 179-190); Smelting and alloying (pp. 191203); Military (pp. 204-214); Appendices (pp. 215-238); References (pp. 239-250); Index (pp. 251-255). Thilo Rehren (London) provided the following synopsis. Technik in der Antike is lavishly illustrated with purpose-made art work and colour photographs throughout. For the readers of this web site, the chapters on mining and metallurgy are probably most relevant, and I will focus on these only. The section on mining covers prospection, developments of deposits, actual mining methods, from fire setting to hydraulic mining (Roman in particular), hauling, ventilation and lighting, and the use of slaves in mining. For beneficiation, the examples from Laurion (classical Greek) and Mazarron (Spain, Roman) are presented in some detail. The chapter on smelting begins with a basic coverage of smelting principles, and then goes on to cover lead-silver, copper, tin, mercury, and gold. Iron smelting and smithing are covered, too, as are various copper-based alloys such as brass and Corinthian aes.

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The text provides an excellent overview of the basics, while the references (arranged by chapter, and without specific citation in the text) provide an entry for further reading. The book is clearly aimed at a wider public, but is very suitable for undergraduate students and scholars who need a quick entry into a subject outside their own specialisation. I liked particularly the even coverage of subjects and metals, giving a more balanced view than some other similar books do. It is to be hoped that an English-language edition will be available soon. New Book Chapters/Articles From the Proceedings of the 37th International Symposium on Archaeometry, 12th – 16th May 2008, Siena, Italy, edited by Isabella Turbanti-Memmi, Springer, London/New York, 2011, comes “Ceramic Production and Metal Working at the Trebbio Archaeological Site (Sansepolcro, Arezzo, Italy)” (E. Gliozzo, A. Comini, A. Cherubini, A. Ciacci, A. Moroni, and I. Turbanti Memmi; pp. 61-69), “Middle Guadiana River Basin (Badajoz, Spain and Alentejo, Portugal) Network Interactions: Insights from the Chemical Analysis of Bell Beaker Pottery and the Lead Isotope Analysis of Copper Items from the Third Millennium BC” (C. P. Odriozola, M. A. Hunt-Ortiz, M. I. Dias, and V. Hurtado; pp. 119-125), “XRF Analyses of Four Silver Gilded Hellenistic Epaulettes” (E. AsderakiTzoumerkioti and A. G. Karydas; pp. 569-574), “The Use of Industrial Computed Tomography in the Study of Archaeological Finds” (A. Berdondini, R. Brancaccio, V. D’Errico, A. Miceli, M. Bettuzzi, F. Casali, M. P. Morigi, M. Senn, and A. Flisch; pp. 575-578), “Arabic Coins as a Silver Source for Slavonic and Scandinavian Jewellers in the Tenth Century AD” (N. Eniosova and R. Mitoyan; pp. 579-584), “Neutron-Based Analytical Methods for the Non-Invasive Characterisation of Iron Artefacts” (E. Godfrey and W. Kockelmann; pp. 585-590), “Corrosion Studies and Lead Isotope Analyses of Musket Balls from Scottish Battlefield Sites” (A. J. Hall, R. Ellam, L. Wilson, T. Pollard, and N. Ferguson; pp. 591-597), “Non-Destructive and Minimally Invasive Analyses of Bronze Seal Boxes from Augusta Raurica by Micro X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, Raman Spectroscopy and FTIR Spectroscopy” (K. Hunger, E. Hildbrand, V. Hubert, M. Wörle, A. R. Furger, and M. Wartmann; pp. 599-604), “A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to the Study of An Assemblage of Copper-Based Finds Assigned to the Prehistory and Proto-History of Fucino, Abruzzo, Italy” (M. L. Mascelloni, G. Cerichelli, and S. Ridolfi; pp. 605-610), “Copper-Based Kettles from Brador: A Contribution to the Study of Eastern Settlements of New France on the Northern Shore of the Estuary of the Saint-Lawrence (Quebec, Canada)” (J.-F Moreau and R. G. V. Hancock; pp. 611-616), “On the Gold Adornments from Apahida-Fifth Century AD, Transylvania, Romania” (G. Niculescu, R. Oantă-Marghitu, and M. Georgescu; pp. 617-622), “Non Destructive In Situ Analysis of Gold and Silver Artifacts from Tomb 7 of Monte Alban, Oaxaca, Mexico” (G. Peñuelas, J. L. Ruvalcaba, J. Contreras, E. Hernández, and E. Ortiz; pp. 623-627), ““Harvesting” the Ore: The Use of Iron Seepages in the Early Bloomery Furnace in Ireland” (E. Photos-Jones and A. J. Hall; pp. 629-635), and


“Analysis of Gold Jewellery by PIXE and SEM–EDS: A Comparison of Ancient and Modern Productions” (V. Virgili and M. F. Guerra; pp. 637-641). From the Journal of Archaeological Science (2011, Vol. 38, No. 9) comes “Archaeometallurgical study of the brass cases from the Akko 1 shipwreck” (D. Ashkenazi, D. Cvikel, N. Iddan, E. Mentovich, Y. Kahanov, M. Levinshstein; pp. 24102419), and (2011, Vol. 38, No. 8) “The metal compositions of a series of Geistingen-type socketed axes” (H. Postma, P. Schillebeeckx, W. Kockelmann; pp. 1810-1817), and (2011, Vol. 38, No. 7) “Metallurgical analysis of copper artifacts from Cahokia” (Matthew L. Chastain, Alix C. Deymier-Black, John E. Kelly, James A. Brown, David C. Dunand; pp. 1727-1736), “Making sense out of cents: compositional variations in European coins as a control model for archaeometallurgy” (S. S. Shilsteina, S. Shalev; pp. 1690-1698), “Specialization and social inequality in Bronze Age SE Arabia: analyzing the development of production strategies and economic networks using agent-based modeling” (Lynne M. Rouse, Lloyd Weeks; pp. 1583-1590), and (2011, Vol. 38, No. 6) “A study of the Roman iron bars of Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer (Bouches-duRhône, France). A proposal for a comprehensive metallographic approach” (G. Pagès, P. Dillmann, P. Fluzin, L. Long; pp. 1234-1252), “Provenance of Early Bronze Age metal artefacts in Western Switzerland using elemental and lead isotopic compositions and their possible relation with copper minerals of the nearby Valais” (Florence Cattin, Barbara Guénette-Beck, Philippe Curdy, Nicolas Meisser, Stefan Ansermet, Beda Hofmann, Rainer Kündig, Vera Hubert, Marie Wörle, Kathrin Hametner, Detlef Günther, Adrian Wichser, Andrea Ulrich, Igor M. Villa, Marie Besse; pp. 1221-1233), and “Large-scale 2nd to 3rd century AD bloomery iron smelting in Korea” (Jang-Sik Park, Thilo Rehren; pp. 11801190). From Archaeometry (2011, Vol. 53, No. 1) comes “An Experimental Investigation on Lead Isotopic Fractionation during Metallurgical Processes” (Jianfeng Cui, Xiaohong Wu; pp. 205-214, while from Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences (2011, Vol. 3, No. 2) comes “The ancient Greek names “Magnesia” and “Magnetes” and their origin from the magnetite occurrences at the Mavrovouni mountain of Thessaly, central Greece. A mineralogical–geochemical approach” (Vasilios Melfos, Bruno Helly, Panagiotis Voudouris; pp. 165-172), and from Ancient Mesoamerica (2010, 21) comes “God of metals: Tlatlauhqui Tezcatlipoca and the sacred symbolism of metallurgy in Michoacan, Mexico” (Hans Roskamp; pp. 69-78), and “A Mazapa phase copper figurine from Atetelco, Teotihuacan: data and speculations” (Dorothy Hosler and Ruben Cabrera; pp. 249-260). From X-Ray Spectrometry (2011, 40) comes “The metal alloy of the boy from Xanten” (A. Denker, Z. Kertesz, U. Peltz; pp. 215-218), while from Zeitschrift für Waffen- und Kleidungsgeschichte (2010, 52, 1), comes “Sword parts from a Viking Age Emporium of Truso in Prussia” (M. Biborski, M. E. Jagodziński, P. Pudło, J. Stępiński, G. Zabiński; pp. 19-70), and from Journal of Microscopy (2010, 237, 3), comes “An investigation of nitride precipitates in archaeological iron



artifacts from Poland” (Z. Kędzierski, J. Stępiński, A. Zielińska-Lipiec; pp. 271-274). From the Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry (2010, 283, 3) comes “Non-destructive bulk analysis of the Buggenum sword by neutron resonance capture analysis and neutron diffraction” (H. Postma, L. Amkreutz, A. Borella, M. Clarijs, H. Kamermans, W. Kockelmann, A. Paradowska, P. Schillebeeckx, D. Vissar; pp. 641-652), while from the journal Gladius (2009, 29) comes “Contribution to the history of technology and weaponry: experimental forging of arrowheads using ancient iron bars” (G. Renoux, F. Dabosi, P. Lavaud; pp. 39-70), and from Materials Science Forum (2010, 652) comes “Non destructive characterisation of phase distribution and residual strain/stress map of two ancient (Koto) age Japanese swords” (F. Grazzi, L. Bartoli, F. Civita, A. M. Paradowska, A. Scherillo, M. Zoppi; pp. 167-178). Forthcoming Meetings and Conferences The International Centre for Chinese Heritage and Archaeology (ICCHA), the Institute of Archaeology, University College London, Peking University and Baoji Municipal People’s Government, Shaanxi province, China, invite scholars to participate in the conference The Emergence of Bronze Age Societies: A Global Perspective to be held from November 812, 2011, at the Baoji Museum of Bronze, Shaanxi, China. The conference aims at enhancing our understanding of the background and development of Bronze Age societies on a global scale. It will trace the beginnings of the use of copper and bronze throughout Eurasia and beyond, and investigate the societies that developed metallurgy. Questions to be raised are: What constitutes a Bronze Age? Which characteristics share early bronze using cultures? Is the use of bronze sufficient to define a Bronze Age society? What kinds of artefacts were predominantly produced? Which technological solutions were found in different bronze-using cultures to source raw materials and to produce alloys and artefacts? What was the role of crosscultural exchange in the development of Bronze Age societies? The conference especially seeks to provide a platform for integrating the achievements of Chinese archaeological research on the Bronze Age into a world wide context. For this reason the conference will be held in Baoji, Shaanxi province, China, where a major bronze producing centre was located 3000 years ago, and where one of the largest collections of bronze artefacts in all of Asia is stored. The conference will be held from 08 to 12 November 2011. The costs of local accommodation and conference fees will be met by the organisers. Foreign participants are responsible for their travel and visa costs. The deadline for the submission of abstracts is January 31, 2011. Successful candidates are expected to give a talk of 15 minutes and to present a poster of their research during a poster session. Individual posters are welcome as well. Conference languages: English/Chinese with translation. The conference proceedings will be published as a peer-reviewed volume. For more information see:


The N.C.S.R. “Demokritos”/Institute of Materials Science and the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA)/Department of Chemical Engineering are organizing an International Symposium on the “History, Technology and Conservation of Ancient Metals, Glasses and Enamels”, to be held November 16-19, 2011, in Athens, Greece. The Symposium is expected to be an interdisciplinary meeting of researchers, scientists, archaeologists, conservation scientists and executives who are involved in the history, technology and conservation of ancient materials in Greece and the adjacent areas. The official language of the Symposium will be English. The deadline for submission of abstracts has been extended until Friday, July 15, 2011. More information can be found at: Previous Meetings and Conferences The Society for American Archaeology annual meeting was held March 30-April 2, 2011, in Sacramento California. A number of presented papers and posters relating to historic and ancient mining, metallurgy and metallic mineral use were presented. These included “XRF Analysis on Ancient Copper from a Great Kiva in the Central Mesa Verde Region” (Steve Copeland), “Archaeological Investigation of the Thule Sequence at Cape Espenberg, Alaska” (Jeremy Foin, Christyann Darwent and Frederic Dussault), “Arrowheads and Projectile Points from the Ancient Middle East: Indicators of Regional Metalworking Tradition and Imposed Imperial Demand” (Elizabeth Friedman, Lynn Swartz Dodd, Carlo Segre, Sarah Butler and Jon Almer), “Framing the Sacred: Craig Mound Sacred Bundles” (Elizabeth Horton and George Sabo, III), “New Standards in the Analysis of Archaeological Metalwork using LA-ICP-MS: A Case Study from the South Caucasus Archaeometallurgy Project” (Clayton Meredith, Monica Tromp, David Peterson, John Dudgeon and Khachatur Meliksetian), “Mining Archaeology in the Nasca and Palpa region, south coast of Peru” (Markus Reindel and Thomas Stoellner), “Crafting Resonance: Third Millennium BC Copper Arrowheads from Ganeshwar, Rajasthan” (Uzma Rizvi), “The organization of copper mining during the Late Period in the Loa River (northern Chile)” (Diego Salazar, Hernán Salinas, José Berenguer and Diego Morata), “Mining of copper and copper-bearing minerals in ancient Peru: New evidence from the Upper Ica Valley” (Hendrik Van Gijseghem, Kevin Vaughn, Verity Whalen, Moises Linares Grados and Jorge Olano Canales), “Piecing together a history of goldworking in Pre-Columbian Panama: the XRF contribution” (Harriet Beaubien, Ainslie Harrison, Kim Cullen Cobb and Richard Cooke), “Amalgamation and Small-Scale Gold Mining in the Ancient Andes” (William Brooks), “Ancient Yunnan Metals in Current Studies of Bronze/Iron Age Asia” (TzeHuey ChiouPeng), “Crafting Continuity: Delineating (Social) Actions in Metal Artifacts” (Praveena Gullapalli), “Forging Social Relations, Producing Metals: Investigating Scale and Context in the Socio-material Landscape of Iron/Steel Production in Iron Age Karnataka” (Peter Johansen), “Metallurgical responses to Deforestation: Alloy sequencing and environmental proxy data from the EBIV-MBII Southern Levant” (Brett Kaufman), “On the cutting edge? Obsidian and Iron Use and Exchange in Pre-Islamic Highland Yemen”

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(Lamya Khalidi, Krista Lewis, Bernard Gratuze and H. Xander Veldhuijzen), “Innovations in technology and political economy during the Central Anatolian Iron Age” (Joseph Lehner), “Methods for the Analysis of Ancient Coins” (Brandi Lee MacDonald, Fiona McNeill, Michael Farquharson, Diane de Kerckhove and Spencer Pope), “Reassessing the "Ceremonial Plaza" on the North Coast of Peru” (Go Matsumoto and Izumi Shimada), “Silver Mines of the Northern Lake Titicaca Basin, Peru” (Carol Schultze), “The Metallurgy of Iron Mine Hill: The Economic Implications of the Use of Cumberlandite in Colonial Era Iron Artifacts from Rhode Island” (Alexander Smith and Danielle Raad), “Geoarchaeological and paleoenvironmental archives of ancient cinnabar mining in the Andes” (Colin Cooke), “Comparison of Miner Encampments in the Black Range Mountains, New Mexico” (Aben, Kathrina), “Hunter-Gatherer-Fisher Mining during the Archaic Period in Coastal Northern Chile” (Hernan Salinas, Diego Salazar, Jean-Louis Guendon, Valentina Figueroa and Donald Jackson), “Attempts to stabilize Archaeological Iron Objects: A Moessbauer Study” (Ursel Wagner, Thibault Demoulin, Rupert Gebhard, Werner Haeusler and Cristina Mazzola), “Inca Mining and Control in NorthCentral Chile: The Los infieles Mining Complex” (Gabriel Cantarutti), “The Structure and Organization of Mining in Nasca from the Early Intermediate Period through the Middle Horizon: Recent Evidence from Mina Primavera” (Kevin Vaughn, Hendrik Van Gijseghem, Jelmer Eerkens and Moises Linares Grados), “Sourcing Homol‘ovi I Turquoise Through Lead and Strontium Isotopic Analyses” (Saul Hedquist, Alyson Thibodeau, E. Charles Adams and David Killick), “Determining the source of turquoise at Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico” (Alyson Thibodeau, John Chesley and Joaquin Ruiz), “Turquoise Procurement and Exchange Patterns between Three Ancestral Puebloan Great Houses” (Sharon Hull, Mostafa Fayek and F. Joan Mathien), and “The way to make a mirror, an experimental archaeology project” (Emiliano Gallaga). The abstracts for these papers can be found at: acts/tabid/1440/Default.aspx. The workshop Marking Coin Issues: Mint Administration and Mint Archives in Antiquity, was held May 13, 2011 at the Lucien de Hirsch-Conference Room in the Coin Cabinet of the Royal Library, Brussels, Belgium. Contact Johan van Heesch or François de Callataÿ for more details. The meeting “Indices et traces : la mémoire des gestes” : Colloque international à la Faculté d'Odontologie, was held Thursday, June 16 to Saturday, June 18, 2011, at the Faculté d'Odontologie, Nancy-Université, Université Henri Poincaré, Nancy, France. This international conference, organized by the Professors Francis Janot, Gerard Giuliato and Doctor Denis Morin, in partnership with the HISCANT-MA Laboratory of the University of Nancy 2, the University Institute of France, and the Laboratory of Archaeology TRACES (UMR 5608), aimed at gathering specialists in disciplines interested in the analysis and interpretation of macroscopic and microscopic traces left by human activity through any support, as well ecological, biological, as archaeological and data-processing.


Presentations of archaeometallurgical interest included “Les techniques d'exploitation des ressources minières dans l'Antiquité: Restitution des techniques d'aérage et d'extraction d'après l'analyse des traces” (Denis Morin, Richard Herbach), “Prehistoric metallurgy and smelting. Archeometallurgical traces and evidence from peat bog sediments cores in the British Isles: Archaeology of the sites, the dating and recent Baysian modelling of the dates, and the scientific studies on the types of ores worked in prehistory” (Simon Timberlake), “Paleoenvironmental work (pollen and geochemistry and their implications carried out at the sites of Bronze Age and Roman mining and smelting) in Wales” (Timothy Mighall), “Exploitations anciennes et récentes de formations superficielles : minières, sablières, gravières” (Dominique Harmand, Jean-Paul Fizaine, Simon Edelblutte), and “Prehistoric mining : geochemical traces and evidence from sediment core at Mynydd Parys, Anglesey” (David A. Jenkins). More aspects of the colloquium and presented papers can be http://www.uhpfound at the following link: memoire_des_gestes_colloque_international_a_la_faculte_d_o dontologie. The 3rd International Conference “Archaeometallurgy in Europe” 2011, was held from June 29-July 1, 2011 at the Deutsches Bergbau-Museum, Bochum, Germany. This represents the third such conference in the “Archaeometallurgy in Europe” series, and this was by far the largest so far with three concurrent sessions of oral presentations being given over the three days of the conference. Several excrusions also were included in the program with the highlight being a visit on the final day of the conference to a former modern iron production site with several large intact furnaces still present. The program and abstracts from the conference were published in a special issue of Metalla (Bochum). Details of that issue are as follows: International Conference Archaeometallurgy in Europe III: Abstracts, edited by Andreas Hauptmann, Diana Modarressi-Tehrani and Michael Prange, 2011, Metalla, Sonderheft 4, Deutsches Bergbau-Museum Bochum, Germany, 294p., ISSN: 0947-6229. Papers presented on Wednesday, June 29th, consisted of “New Approaches in Isotope Archaeometallurgy” (E. Pernicka), “Accurate Highres Lead Isotope Ratio Maps of Germany for Provenience Studies” (R. Lehmann, C. Vogt), “Radiocarbon Dating Of Ancient Iron Alloys By AMS” (S. Leroy, Ph. Dillmann, E. Delqué-Koli, C. Moreau), “Historical steel from Japan, India and Ottoman Turkey: a non invasive comparative study through Time of Flight Neutron Diffraction” (Alan Williams, Francesco Grazzi, Francesco Civita, Antonella Scherillo, Elisa Barzagli, Laura Bartoli, David Edge, Marco Zoppi), “West European Bronze Age gold ornaments: first results of a combined analytical and technological approach” (B. Gratuze, B. Armbruster, M. Blet-Lamarquand, J. F. Piningre), “Early mining settlement at the Great Copper Mountain, Falun, Sweden: a geoecological study of lake sediment records” (R. Bindler, J. Karlsson, F. De Vleeschouwer), “Finding the invisible smelt: using new attributes to find the furnace” (T. Birch, B. Cech, R. Scholger, G. Walach, F. Stremke), “3D model of slag heap based on



induced polarization at Castel-Minier (France): a way to quantify iron production?” (M. Llubes, N. Florsch, F. Téreygeol), “Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Metallurgy – First Results of X-Ray Diffraction Experiments on Copper and Bronze Axes” (M. Freudenberg, L. Glaser), “Metallurgical innovation in early metallurgy in Europe: from the Neolithic to the Medieval period” (M. Pearce), “How and Why: The Beginnings of Metallurgy in Europe” (M. Radivojević, Th. Rehren, E. Pernicka, D. Šljivar, J. Kuzmanović-Cvetković, N. Tasić, Lj. Jevtić, A. Pravidur), “The diversity and similarity of chemical and typological features of halberds as a measure for identifying metallurgical innovation areas in Early Bronze Age Europe” (K. Rassmann, R. Gauß), “The Development of Metallurgy in Apulia from the Beginning of the Copper Age to the End of the Bronze Age” (A. M. Bietti Sestieri, C. Giardino, M. Gorgoglione), “The evolution of metallurgy in PreProtohistoric Northern Italy during the Early Bronze Age: Investigation on finds from Trentino and Emilia-Romagna” (I. Angelini, R. C. Marinis, I. Giunti, G. Artioli), “Copper networks at the beginning of the Early Bronze Age in the Northalpine area: compositional data from Singen am Hohentwiel (Germany) and the Central Valais (Switzerland)” (F. Cattin, M. Merkl, C. Strahm, I. M. Villa, P. Degryse), “Production techniques of gold objects from Varna Chalcolithic Necropolis and the growing social complexity in the 5th millennium B.C.” (K. Dimitrov, I. Kulev), “The origin and spread of iron objects and metallurgy on the Iberian Peninsula” (D. P. Mielke), “Iron - A Driving Force for Early Urbanisation” (H. Andersson), “Rethinking the origins of metallurgy in the central Mediterranean” (A. Dolfini), “Learning from ancient metallurgical technologies in Colombia. The study of surface treatment techniques” (N. Bustamantea, G. Rojasb, J. Escobarc, S. Archilad), “Prehispanic Gold Metallurgy: The Arqueomeb Research Project” (A. Perea, P. Fernández-Esquivel, S. RoviraLlorens, J.L. Ruvalcaba-Sil, A. Verde, O. García-Vuelta, F. Cuesta-Gómez), “The smelting site of Kobo (Mali): a quantitative approach” (S. Perret), “New Fieldwork Results from Smelting Sites in Mali and Burkina Faso” (V. Serneels,), “An Assessment of the Role of Tunisian Ores in Local Metal Consumption during Punic and Roman Times” (T. R. Fenn, S. Skaggs, D. Killick, E. Garrison, N. Norman, S. Bouhlel, J. Ruiz), “- Slags and ‘Slags’ - The Metallurgical Inventory from Tel Miqne” (K. Franke, Th. Rehen, S. Gitin), “New Evidence for Iron Production in the Iron Age of the Levant” (A. EliyahuBehar, N. Yahalom-Mack, Y.Gadot, I. Finkelstein, S. Weiner), “Deconstructing the chaine operatoire of the copper industry in Arisman, Central Iran” (B. Helwing), “Large-scale speiss production in Early Bronze Age Arisman, Iran” (L. Boscher, Th. Rehren, E. Pernicka), and “Investigation on pre-Islamic coins from Sumhuram (southern Oman): first results” (L. Chiarantini, M. Benvenuti, A. V. Sedov, A. Avanzin, A. Pavan). Papers present on Thursday, June 30th, consisted of “Roman Copper - A Study of Coins, Ingots, and Ores based on modern chemical and isotope analysis” (S. Klein), “Augustus’ gold coinage: mints and gold provenance” (M. Blet-Lamarquand, A. Suspène, M. Amandry), “Anglo-Saxon Warrior Gold” (D. Hook, S. La Niece, G. Williams), “High Medieval copper, lead and silver from the Rammelsberg near Goslar, Germany” (B.


Asmus), “Silvering process in the Holy Roman Empire: coin study from a hoard of the 16th century found in Alsace (France) and archaeometallurgical replications” (L. Beck, E. Alloin, A. Michelin, F. Téreygeol, C. Berthier, D. Robcis, T. Borel, U. Klein), “Silver Plated Mycenaean Bronze Artifacts - Burial Offerings from the Tholos and Chamber Tombs at the Region of Pylos in Peloponnese” (C. Tselios, E. Filippaki, Y. Bassiakos, G. Korres), “Archaeometallurgical research at the tell Çukuriçi Höyük/Western Turkey” (M. Mehofer), “Copperbased metals from El Calvari (Tarragona, Spain): local ores, imported ingots or object trade? ” (X.-L. Armada, R. Graells, M. Hunt, I. Montero-Ruiz, M. Murillo-Barroso, N. Rafel, M. Renzi, M. Carme Rovira), “Technical Studies on the LM I Copper-based Finds from Gournia, Crete” (A. Giumlia-Mair, S. Ferrence, P. P. Betancourt), “Bronze Age defensive armour in Hungary: new aspects of manufacture” (M. Mödlinger, Z. Kasztovszky, V. Szilágyi, P. Piccardo, A. Kocsonya, I. Kovács, Z. Szőkefalvi-Nagy, Z. Sánta), “Chemical Composition of Fibulae from Iron Age in Thrace (Bulgaria) ” (V. Bonev, B. Zlateva, I. Kuleff),” Roman Bronze Statues from the UNESCO World Heritage Limes” (F. Willer, R. Schwab, K. Bott), “Research in Siegerland region/Germany: Preliminary results of surveys, excavations and archaeometallurgical studies about production of iron during the La Tène period” (T. Stöllner, M. Zeiler, Ü. Yalçın), “Reconstructing ancient technologies” (D. Killick), “Portable XRF - Possibilities and limitations” (D. Böhme), “From the single piece to serial production – notes on improvements in fine metal working technology (third millennium BC – first millennium AD) ” (B. Armbruster), “Precious metalwork from the Viking age – the manufacturing of the Hiddensee jewellery” (H. Eilbracht, B. Armbruster, M. Radtke, I. Reiche), “Some thoughts on the interpretation of elemental compositions of Chalcolithic copper finds” (M. B. Merkl), “Observations on technology of Bronze Age copper and copper alloy finds from Bulgaria” (S. Ivanova, I. Kuleff, V. Rangelova), “Metal Technology at Akrotiri on Thera: analytical studies on metallurgical implements and by-products” (Y. Bassiakos, A. Michailidou), “Ancient brasses: misconceptions and new insights” (D. Bourgarit, N. Thomas), “Reconstruction of the Lombard Fibula from Arcisa” (A. Pacini), “The fusion welding process: a study of the joining techniques used on the Greek and Roman Large Bronze Statues” (A. Azéma, B. Mille), “The Bronze Age crucibles from Iolkos – Palaio Kastro, Volos – a contradiction of form and function? ” (Th. Rehren, E. Asderaki, E. Skafida), “Material properties of pyrotechnical ceramics used in the Bronze Age Aegean and implications on metallurgical technologies” (A. Hein, I. Karatasios, N. S. Müller, V. Kilikoglou), “Copper Slags and Crucibles of Copper Metallurgy in The Middle Bronze Age Site (El Argar Culture) of Peñalosa (Baños de la Encina, Jaen, Spain) ” (S. Rovira, M. Renzi, A. Moreno, F. Contreras), “Tinned Bronzes and Gold Granulation Artifacts Found in North West China and Mediterranean Area before 221 BC – Preliminary Technical and Archaeological Considerations” (H. Wie), “The Southeast Asian Lead Isotope Project: Towards Geochemical Proxies for Local, Regional, and Inter-Regional Social Interactions c. 1000 BCE to c. 500 CE” (O. Pryce), “Golden Hair Ribbons from the Royal Tombs of Ur, 600/500 BCE” (A. Hauptmann, Dirk Kirchner, Sabine Klein, Richard Zettler), “Old World Mining Between Technological Innovation, Social Change and

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economical structures” (Th. Stöllner), “Drainage Water Wheels from Alburnus Maior Au-Ag Mines, Roman Dacia (Roşia Montana, NW Romania) ” (B. Cauuet, B. Ancel, C. Tamas, M. Boussicault, C. Orcel), “The “chessboard” classification scheme of mineral deposits: Its use in archeometallurgy” (H. G. Dill), “Alda Tepe (Krumovgrad, Bulgaria): Late Bronze Age and early Iron Age Gold Minig in the Eastern Rhodopes Preliminary Reports” (A. Jockenhövel), “The “Barrencs” (South France). A copper and silver mine of the late Republic (IInd-Ist c. BC). About the archaeological researches 20092010” (Argitxu Beyrie, Jean-Marc Fabre, Éric Kammenthaler, Julien Mantenant, Gabriel Munteanu, Christian Rico), “Extraction of copper in Sweden during the Bronze Age? Possibility, myth or reality? ” (J. Ling, E. Hjärthner-Holdar, L. Grandin), “Medieval Mining areas in Sweden” (I.-M. Pettersson Jensen), “Experimental Archaeometallurgy” (B. Ottaway), “The Nepal-Process - Ethnoarchaeology meets Experimental Archaeometallurgy” (N. Anfinset, Gert Goldenberg, Elena Silvestri), and “Smelting of Sulfidic Ore During the Bronze Age in the Eastern Alpine Region: An Experimental Approach” (E. Hanning). Papers present on Friday, July 1st, consisted of “Metallurgical Studies and Manufacturing of the Sanzeno karnykes (Trentino, Italy)” (P. Piccardo, B. Mille, A. Ervas, E. Silvestri, P. Bellintani, R. Melini, R. Roncador), “A Bar Ingot Hoard from Kingsway, London” (J. Bayley, J. Cotton, T. Rehren, E. Pernicka), “Roman metalworking in Northern Italy between archaeology and archaeometry: two casestudies” (E. M. Grassi), “The Stanley Grange Medieval Iron Project” (P. de Rijk), “Ironmetallurgy of The Pannonian Avars of the 7-9th Century Based on Excavations and Material Examinations” (B. Török, Z. Gallina, Á. Kovács), “The Dieulouard clamps : a case of geochemical compatibility questioning for the Lorraine early-medieval iron production activities” (A. Disser, Ph. Dillmann, M. Leroy, P. Merluzzo), “Iron production and modernization in Sweden 1150–1350” (B. Berglund), “A 13th Century Blast Furnace near Langenbruck (BL, Switzerland) ” (J. Tauber), “The sixteenth century blast furnace and finery forge of Glinet at Compainville (Normandy, France): archaeological study” (D. Arribet-Deroin), “The Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Dover Buckland, Kent, UK: a metallographic examination of some iron artefacts” (J. Lang), “Rewriting the story of tin in Early Bronze Age Britain and Ireland: Science, theory and moving beyond biography” (P. Bray), “Iron Age Crucibles and Bronzeworking at Eberdingen Hochdorf” (D. Modarressi-Tehrani, J. Biel), “The Roman Brass-Melting Crucibles of Autun/France: A Petrological and Geochemical Approach” (D. König, V. Serneels), “Archaeometrical investigations of the post-reduction process: synthesis of recent interpretation in France, for the Iron Age” (S. Bauvais, M. Berranger, P. Fluzin), “Byzantine small finds and their workshops in Ephesus – with particular reference to technological studies on Byzantine metalwork” (B. Bühler, A. M. Pülz, F. Kat), “The Alsatian Altenberg : a seven centuries laboratory for silver metallurgy” (P. Fluck, J. Gauthier, A. Disser), “A new step towards a better understanding of smithing slags: the complementarity of ethnoarchaeology and petrological techniques” (R. Soulignac, V. Serneels), “Developing a methodology for metallurgical remains from


intensive surface surveys: the Kythera Island Project case study” (M. Georgakopoulou), “Ancient mines in Cyprus : The contribution of charcoal analysis to the study of the ancient copper industry” (M. A. Socratous, V. Kassianidou, G. Di Paquale), “Distinguishing iron production sites by chemical signature of bloomery slag in Southeastern Norway - The iron clench nails in the Gokstad ship – only local production or of various origin? ” (J. H. Larsen, B. Rundberget, J. Bill, L. Grandin), “Mineralogical-Petrological investigations of metallurgical slags from the Late Bronze Age copper-smelting site Mauken (Tyrol, Austria) ” (M. Krismer, G. Goldenberg, P. Tropper), “Archaeometric Investigations on Late Bronze Age Slags from Copper Smelting Sites in Trentino (Northern Italy) ” (A. Addis, I. Angelini, I. Giunti, E. Silvestri, G. Artioli), “The identification and characterization of pre-Bessemer iron and steel, applying the slag-analytical method” (V. F. Buchwald), “Some Comments on Perceptions in Archaeometallurgy” (T. Kienlin, A. Hauptmann), “COLORANDO AURO: Laboratory experiments and examination of a medieval practise to modify gilded silver surfaces” (A. Crabbé, G. Dewanckel, I. Vandendael, M.-A. Languille, H. Terryn, H. J. M. Wouters), “Copper-silver alloy minting from modern time : nondestructive distinction of ancient processes” (I. Guillot, F. Téreygeol, A.-L. Helbert, D. Solas), “Bismuth behaviour during ancient processes of silver-lead production” (M. L’Héritier, S. Baron, L. Cassayre, F. Téreygeol), “Co-Smelting, the Beginning of Fahlore Metallurgy - Evidence from the Inn Valley (Austria) and from Smelting Experiments” (K.-P. Martinek), “High lead in copper alloys: why does it help casting?” (B. Mille, P. Piccardo, R. Amendola, A. Adobati), “New horizons: archaeometallurgy in eastern Europe and beyond” (R. Krause), “The First Industrial Revolution?: Reconsidering transitional Bronze Age/early Iron Age metal production in Georgia. Interim results of the September/October 2010 field survey in Guria” (B. Gilmour, N. Khakhutaishvili), “Chemical, lead isotope and metallographic analysis of extraordinary arsenic-rich alloys used for jewellery in Bronze Age Armenia” (K. Meliksetian, R. Schwab, S. Kraus, E. Pernicka, M. Brauns), “The South Caucasus Archaeometallurgy Project: Investigation of Early Mining and Metal Production on the Armenian Plateau. An Interim Report” (D. Peterson, A. Gevorkyan, K. Meliksetian, A. Bobokhyan, J. Dudgeon, M. Tromp, S. Hovakimyan, A. Vardanyan, C. Meredith, T. Schneyder), “The Scandinavian traditions in the blacksmith craft of Northern Rus’” (N.N. Terekhova, V.I. Zavyalov), “Late Bronze Age axe traffic from Volga-Kama to Scandinavia? The riddle of the KAM axes revisited” (L. Melheim), “Bronze Age Tin Mines in Central Asia” (J. Garner), and “Gold in Georgia - Preliminary Results” (I. Gambaschidze, A. Hauptmann, Th. Stöllner). Posters were presented on all three days of the conference and were organized into eight thematic groups. The groups and posters included Group 1, Metallurgical Innovation Stages of Early Metallurgy in Europe with “The first metallurgy in North-Eastern Iberia. Origin, use and social implications” (I. Soriano), “Bell Beaker Metallurgy in Central Spain: Technology, Natural Alloys and Provenance” (C. Blasco, A. Climent-Font, I. Montero-Ruiz, R. Flores, M. Murillo-Barroso, P. Rios, S. Rovira, A. Zucchiatti), “The Vinča culture mining



complex in Jarmovac, southwest Serbia” (S. Derikonjić, M. Radivojević, E. Pernicka, Th. Rehren), and from Group 2, Regional Studies, included “Ancient metals provenancing in the Eastern Alps: a chemical and isotopic database” (I. Giunti, P. Nimis, I. Angelini, G. Artioli, I. M. Villa), “Metallographic investigation on copper nails of the Roman age” (C. Mapelli, S. Barella, A. Gruttadauria, D. Mombelli, C. Baldizzone), “Copper production around AD1300 in Meråker, Norway” (A. Espelund), “The Bronzi del Garda Project (Verona – Italy) ” (P. Salzani, E. Pernicka), “Investigation of bronze votive offerings from the Early Iron Age sanctuary of Ancient Pherae, mainland Greece” (S. Orfanou), “Solveira Hoard (Northern Portugal): a multidisciplinary approach” (C. E. Bottaini, C. Giardino, G. Paternoster), “Going in Circles: The use of lead metal through time in Magnesia” (E. Asderaki-Tzoumerkioti, Th. Rehren), “Lead ingots, lead isotopes and the history of Roman lead trade – the Corpus Massarum Plumbearum Romanarum (CMPR) – running results” (M. Bode, N. Hanel, A. Hauptmann, P. Rothenhöfer), “The Republican Shipwreck of Mal di Ventre (Sardinia) and its Lead Ingots” (N. Hanel), “A Roman silver ore washing plant in Carthago Nova. The excavations of Cabezo del Pino (La Unión-Portmán, Murcia, Spain), 20082010” (J. A. Antolinos Marín, J.-M. Fabre, C. Rico), “Mines, mints, forced currency and invalidated coins in the middle Rhinelands. A challenge to archaeometrical investigations of mediaeval silver coins” (S. Kötz, N. Lockhoff, S. Lorenz, G. Markl, E. Pernicka), “Trace-element and lead-isotope fingerprinting of silver from the medieval mine at Melle (France) ” (G. Sarah, F. Téreygeol, M. Bompaire, B. Gratuze), “From wood and bones: a methodological approach to set apart the materials used for silver refining” (M.-P. Guirado, F. Téreygeoland, P. Dillmann), “Circulation of Iron Products in the Iron-Age of Eastern France and Southern Germany: Multidisciplinary and Methodological Approaches Towards the Provenance of Ancient Iron A DFG-ANR-Project” (S. Bauvais, R. Schwab, M. Brauns, P. Dillmann), “Archaeometallurgical studies on iron production from the site of Priniatikos Pyrgos, Mirabello Gulf , Northeastern Crete” (E. Filippaki, Y. Bassiakos, B. Hayden), “Iron slags from the Late Iron Age/Early Roman site of Pintia (Las Quintanas, Padilla de Duero, Valladolid, Spain)” (M. Gener, S. Rovira, C. Sanz, F. Romero), “Excavation and preliminary archaeometric investigations of iron smithing slags from the Roman workshops at Montebelluna (Treviso, Italy) ” (I. Angelini, M. S. Busana, D. Francisci, L. Bernardi, A. Bacchin, G. Molin), “The metallography of two Roman swords from Mušov, Czech Republic” (J. Hošek, V. Beran, B. Komoróczy), “Primary pieces of iron metal in the Roman port of Narbonne (Aude, France): export, importation, transformation” (G. Pagès, , Ph. Dillmann, C. Sanchez), “The Sunken Smelter in Ireland Grange 2, Co. Meath” (A. Wallace, L. Anguilano), “Evidence of Small-Scale Iron Smelting in Early Islamic SW Portugal? Preliminary Results of the Excavation of the Chaminé Workshop (São Luís, Odemira) ” (M. Grangé), “Iron production founding the country” (L. Bentell), “From the Bloomery Furnace to the Building Yard. Iron Supply for the Construction of the Cathedral of Bourges” (M. L’Héritier, C. Dunikowski, J.-M. Bordeloup, B. Gratuze, Ph. Dillmann), and “The Furnace "Canecchio" of Fornovolasco” (W. Nicodemi, C. Mapelli, S. Barella, A. Gruttadauria, M. Bonini, C. Da Prato).


Posters presented in Group 3, Early Mining in Europe and the Distribution of Raw Sources, included “Archaeometallurgical Investigations in Gold Mining Districts of Armenia” (R. Kunze, D. Wolf, A. Bobokyan, Kh. Meliksetian, E. Pernicka), “Roman non-ferrous and noble metal mining in Kosovo” (G. Gassmannn, G. Körlin), “Prehistoric Copper Mining in Derekutugun, Anatolia” (Ü. Yalçın, S. Acar, B. Fındık, C. Groer, Ö. İpek, G. Körlin, A. Maass, C. Schoch), “New Evidence for Roman Mining in Britain” (S. Timberlake), “PreRoman Mining and Metallurgy in Ibiza” (M. Hermann, M. Prange, Ü. Yalcin), and “If you look for a mine, look near an ancient smelter - Archeometallurgical studies and economic geology at the western edge of the Bohemian Massif, SE Germany” (H. G. Dill), while posters in Group 4, Experimental Archaeometallurgy, posters included “Minters strike again: an in-depth study of the French medieval minting techniques from an historical, archaeometric and experimental point of view” (A. Arles, F. Téreygeol, B. Gratuze), “An experimental approach to the copper axes with central shaft-hole from SouthEastern Europe” (J. Heeb), “Shaping the bronze: An experimental reproduction of prehistoric copper alloy working techniques” (N. Nerantzis), and “Studies of medieval iron consumption by experimental Metallurgy and Archaeology” (C. Karlsson). Posters presented in Group 5, Reconstructiong Ancient Technologies, consisted of “New excavations in smelting sites in Trentino, Italy: archaeological and archaeobotanical data” (E. Silvestri, P. Bellintani, F. Nicolis, M. Bassetti, S. Biagioni, N. Cappellozza, N. Degasperi, M. Marchesini, N. Martinelli, S. Marvelli, O. Pignatelli), “Archaeometallurgical studies on slags of the Middle Bronze Age Copper Smelting Site S1, Styria, Austria” (S. Kraus, S. Klemm, E. Pernicka), “Roman alloying tradidions ant the use of copper alloys in Denmark” (A. Jouttijärvi), “New Insights into the Manufacturing Process and Decoration Technique of the Axe from Thun-Renzenbühl” (D. Berger, K. Hunger, S. Bolliger-Schreyer, D. Grolimund, S. Hartmann, J. Hovind, F. Müller, E. H. Lehmann, P. Vontobel, M. Wörle), “A technological study of 50 protohistoric bronze discs with concentric decoration from the Fucino area, in Abruzzo” (M. L. Mascelloni, C. Giardino), “Comparison of compositional variations in modern european bronze coins with variations in some ancient bronze and gold coins” (S. Shilstein, S. Shalev), “New tools for old metallurgical proceses: mouth blowpipes in 4th century BC Iberia” (A. Perea, B. Armbruster), “The technology and materials of the gothic goldsmith” (O. Mecking), “Life and work at a medieval blast furnace site” (G. Magnusson), “S-shaped temple rings from Vrbno, characterization of manufacturing processes” (E. Ottenwelter, J. Hošek, J. Děd), “Contact tinning: a laboratory investigation of an old plating technique” (J.-M. Welter), and “Analysis of firing conditions of ancient ceramics and refractories” (R. Telle, M. Thönissen), while posters in Group 6, New Horizons: Archaeometallurgy in Eastern Europe and Beyond, comprised “Ancient Furnace Discovered On The South Caucasus - (New Excavations)” (A. Hasanova), “The Composition of Early Iron Age Copper-Alloy Metalwork from Aral region” (S. A. Ruzanova), and “The mirrors of the early nomads of South Urals: a complex archaeotechnological study” (I. Ravich, M. Treister).

FALL 2011


Poster presented in Group 7, New Approaches, New Technologies in Archaeometallurgy, included “Osmium Inclusions in Ancient Gold Products from South Urals burial mounds” (V. Zaykov, E. V. Zaykova), “The use of copper isotopes for characterisation of Cypriot copper ores and oxhide ingots” (F. Hasendonckx, Ph. Muchez, P. Degryse, I. Angelini, G. Artioli, F. Vanhaecke), “Provenance implications from trace element, Pb- and Cu-isotope signatures of Early Bronze Age hoards from Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany” (M. Frotzscher, N. Lockhoff, G. Borg, E. Pernicka, R. Mathur), “High energy XRay tomography of Bronze Age copper ingots” (G. Artioli), “Workshops in Mecklenburg - can new metal analyses prove the presence of local production centers? ” (H. W. Nørgaard), “Embrittlement of European and Near Eastern Silver” (R. Wanhill), “Predating of the Mining in the Harz Mountains to the Bronze Ages and the Silver Circulation in Germany in the Medieval Times” (R. Lehmann, C. Vogt), “Geochemical fingerprint of iron ores from Elba Island: a new potential tool for iron archaeometallurgy in the Mediterranean region” (M. Benvenuti, A. Dini, M. D'Orazio, A. Corretti, L. Chiarantini, P. Costagliola), “Using pollen and geochemistry in lake sediment to trace early mining activities and settlements, a study of the Gladhammar area in south-east Sweden” (J. Karlsson), “Multidisciplinary Analytical Approach And First Development Of Multivariate Analyses: Depiction Of The Medieval Iron Market In Ariège (France) ” (S. Leroy, Ph. Dillmann, S. Cohen, L. Bertrand, F. Téreygeol, C. Verna), “Characterization of Ancient Japanese Sword Hand Guards through Time of Flight Neutron Diffraction and X-Ray Fluorescence” (F. Grazzi, F. Civita, E. Barzagli, A. Agostino, A. Benzonelli, A. Scherillo, M. Zoppi), and “Ra-226 Dating and Authenticity of Ancient Metals” (I. M. C. Liritzis, N. Zacharias), while posters in Group 8, Archaeometallurgy in Non-European Countries, included “Provenance of ancient metallurgical artifacts: Implications of new Pb isotope data from Timna ores” (I. Segal, M. Bar-Matthews, A. Matthews, Y. Harlavan, D. Asael), “Levantine Middle Bronze Age Metallurgy: A case study of the socketed spearheads” (Z. El Morr, F. Cattin, Y. Lefrais, M. Pernot), “Microstructural and Chemical Interpretation of Bronze Artefacts from Sangtarashan Iron Age Site, Luristan, Western Iran” (O. Oudbaschi, S. M. Emami, P. Davami), “New Investigations on the Early Bronze Age Royal Tombs of Alacahöyük, Turkey” (Ü. Yalçın, L. Özen, A. Zararsiz), and “Interdisciplinary Research in Prehistoric Mining and Metallurgy in Northern Chile (Atacama Desert)” (D. Salazar, V. Figueroa, B. Mille, G. Manríquez, H. Salinas, J. L. Guendon, D. Morata, H. Carrion, A. Cifuentes, J. Berenguer, Y. P. Corrales). Web Resources The Association for the Protection of Afghan Archaeology (APAA) has a link on their website to information about the ancient copper mine at Mess Aynak, Afghanistan. At this link is an open-access ebook about the mine, edited by Prof. Zemaryalai Tarzi, which is being threatened for destruction by development of the copper deposits by a Chinese mining company. The AAPA have started an online petition drive to gain signatures in support of saving at least some of the archaeological components at Mess Aynak, which include


much more than just the copper mine. The ebook, online petition, and more information about Mess Aynak can be found at the AAPA website link:

BIOARCHAEOLOGY Gordon F.M. Rakita, Associate Editor Bias & Science: the Gould-Morton Controversy The bioanthropological blogosphere (Hawks 2011; Horgan 2011; Killgrove 2011; and Meyers 2011) was alive in June with discussions of a published re-analysis of Stephen Jay Gould’s classic dissection of early American physician and craniometrist Samuel George Morton (Lewis et al. 2011). Even the Gray Lady got into the act with an article in its June 13th edition (Wade 2011) and an editorial in its pages. What was the controversy about and why is this important to readers of the SAS Bulletin? At issue were the craniometric studies Morton conducted in the early 1800s (Morton 1839). Morton examined a large (if problematic) sample of human skulls from around the world in an effort to test his ideas regarding whether humans were one species or many. As pointed out by Lewis and colleagues (2011), Morton’s collection of empirical data and testing of his ideas (nascent hypotheses?) was “groundbreaking.” In his 1981, highly lauded (and rightfully so) book The Mismeasure of Man, Stephen Jay Gould uses Morton’s Crania Americana as an example of a scientist’s (racist) bias influencing his research. While Gould does not recollect Morton’s data, he does re-analyze it and concludes that Morton consciously or unconsciously succumbed to three flaws. Specifically, he claimed that Morton (1) selectively reported data, (2) manipulated the make-up of his sample groups, and (3) mis-measured skulls in ways that supported his intellectual bias. The authors of this new re-analysis of Morton’s work (Lewis et al. 2011: 2) correctly note that Gould’s re-examination of Morton’s work “is widely read, frequently cited, and still commonly assigned in university courses.” This is all true. Indeed, I read Gould’s critique of Morton as an undergraduate and have lectured about his argument in my own courses. Yet, Lewis and his colleagues cogently and successfully refute each of Gould’s indictments of Morton’s work. They do so through a careful recollection of craniometric data from 308 of Morton’s original 670 skulls (46%). They conclude (2011: 5-6) that their “..results falsify Gould’s hypothesis that Morton manipulated his data to conform with his a priori views.” Morton may indeed have been a racist, though the jury is out on that assertion. Certainly Horgan (2011) is correct when he writes that “Defenders of slavery embraced Morton’s work.” If only all scientists were able to safeguard their work from being misused by others. However Cook (2006: 36) notes that the “..literature on scientific racism has largely ignored Morton’s scientific contributions, but physical anthropologists claim him


FALL 2011

In the Heat of the Moment


According to the masthead, this is the fall issue of the Bulletin, but the thermometer in my car says otherwise. In this part of the world, the heat index has passed triple digits and shows little sign of slowing down. The conditions certainly concentrate one’s attention to just how much fieldwork must be done with respect to the amount of shade available. The heat is on within the pages of this newsletter as well. First, I hope that you have noticed the amount of information within these pages that references material available on the Internet. In an effort to keep you up-to-date, the Bulletin has moved beyond the paper version mailed to your home or office. It is also accessible immediately through the SAS website found at The advantage to offering a digital copy of the Bulletin is that you can now click on the hot links appearing as underlined text throughout the sections. No longer do you need to bring the Bulletin to your computer and meticulously type in the long web address. Instead, bookmark the SAS home page and let the hot link do the work for you. Other hot topics in these pages include Gordon Rakita’s opinion piece on the current debate regarding work done by Stephen Jay Gould on the introduction of bias in science. Several books hot off the presses are also reviewed, and Tom Fenn asks readers to turn up the heat on a Chinese mining company that threatens the archaeological significance at Mess Aynak. Find these and more burning issues within. Jay VanderVeen, Editor-in-Chief


Call for Papers 2011 Developing International Geoarchaeology Conference. The University of Tennessee’s Archaeological Research Laboratory and the Department of Anthropology will be hosting the 2011 Developing International Geoarchaeology (DIG) conference in Knoxville, Tennessee from September 20 to the 24 2011. This includes a field trip based workshop held September 20, 21, and 22 and general session held September 23 and 24. The conference blends archaeological topics, such as land use practices, human-environmental interactions, landscape reconstruction, site formation processes, and trade and exchange, with geoscience and environmental based topics, such as geomorphology soil science, sedimentology, petrography, paleobotany, and archaeometry. Online registration, abstract submission, detailed conference information, and travel information is now available at: Travel assistance is available for conference presenters from non-Western countries through a Wenner-Gren Conference Grant. Limited funding may also be available for attendees from Europe and Canada. In order to apply, you must submit a 500 word abstract for either a podium or poster presentation. Any questions can either be sent to Calla McNamee at [email protected] or to Howard Cyr at [email protected] Call for Associate Editor

Announcements Predictive Modelling of the Buried Archaeology of Aggregate Bearing Landscapes (K. Challis, et al.) Archaeological Ceramics (C.C. Kolb) Archaeometallurgy (T.R. Fenn) Bioarchaeology (G.F.M Rakita) Remote Sensing and GIS (A. Sarris) Book Reviews (D. Hill) Scientific Methods and Cultural Heritage (R.H. Tykot) Glass Along the Silk Road (S. Simpson) Visualizing the Sacred (B.J. Skousen) Upcoming Conferences (R.S. Popelka-Filcoff)

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Speaking of geoarchaeology, the SAS Bulletin, this fine newsletter you are holding in your hand (or now conveniently viewing on the screen at, is seeking an individual to serve as Associate Editor for Geoarchaeology. Responsibilities include soliciting articles, delegating short reviews of books and articles, bringing attention to previous and forthcoming meetings, and generally letting the membership know what is going on with all things geoarchaeological. Contact Jay VanderVeen at [email protected] if you are interested in learning more about the position.

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SAS BULLETIN STAFF Editor: James M. VanderVeen, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Indiana University South Bend, 1700 Mishawaka Ave, South Bend, IN 46634-7111, USA; tel 574-520-4618; email [email protected] Associate Editor, Archaeological Ceramics: Charles C. Kolb, Division of Preservation and Access, National Endowment for the Humanities, Room 411, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20506, USA; tel 202-606-8250; email [email protected] Associate Editor, Archaeological Chemistry: Ruth Ann Armitage, Department of Chemistry, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI 48197, USA; tel 734-487-0290; email [email protected] Associate Editor, Archaeometallurgy: Thomas R. Fenn, Centre for Archaeological Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E – Bus 2410, BE-3001 Heverlee, Belgium; tel +32 16 32 72 59; email [email protected] Associate Editor, Bioarchaeology: Gordon F.M. Rakita, Department of Sociology, Anthropology, & Criminal Justice, University of North Florida, 4567 St. Johns Bluff Rd., South Jacksonville, FL 32224-2659, USA; tel 904-620-1658; email [email protected] Associate Editor, Book Reviews: David V. Hill, 2770 S. Elmira St., #38, Denver, CO 80321, USA; tel (303) 337-2947; email [email protected] Associate Editor, Dating: Gregory W.L. Hodgins, Physics and Atmospheric Sciences, NSF Arizona AMS Facility, 1118 E. 4th Street, University of Arizona, Box 0081, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA; tel 520626-3619; email [email protected] Associate Editor, Geoarchaeology: Jane A. Entwistle, Geography, School of Applied Sciences, Northumbria University, Sandyford Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK; tel 44(0)191-227-3017; email [email protected] Associate Editor, Meeting Calendar: Rachel S. Popelka-Filcoff, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Physical Sciences Building, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia 5001, Australia; tel (61) 8 8201 5526; email [email protected] Associate Editor, Remote Sensing and GIS: Apostolos Sarris, Laboratory of Geophysical-Satellite Remote Sensing & Archaeoenvironment, Foundation of Research & Technology Hellas, Melissinou & Nikiforou Foka 130, P.O. Box 119, Rethymnon 74100, Crete, Greece; tel (30)-831-25146; email [email protected]

SAS EXECUTIVE OFFICERS President: Patrick Degryse, Geology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 E, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium; tel +32-16-326460; email [email protected] Vice President/President-elect: Robert H. Tykot, Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., Tampa, FL 33620-8100, USA; tel 813-974-7279; email [email protected] Past President: Sandra L. López Varela, Departamento de Antropología, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62209 México; tel 01-777-329-7082; email [email protected] SASweb & SASnet: Destiny L. Crider, Archaeological Research Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-2402, USA; tel 602-965-9231; email [email protected] SASblog: Robert S. Sternberg, Department of Earth and Environment, Franklin & Marshall College, Lancaster, PA 17604- 3003, USA; tel 717-291-4134; email [email protected] Vice President for Intersociety Relations: Adrian L. Burke, Département d’Anthropologie, Université de Montréal, C.P.6128, succursale Centreville. Montréal QC H3C 3J7, Canada; tel 514-3436909; email [email protected] Vice President for Membership Development: Michael W. Gregg, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, 3260 South Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; tel 215-253-8747; email [email protected] Publications Coordinator: SAS Editor for Archaeometry: James H. Burton, Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706-1393, USA; tel 608-262-4505; email [email protected] SAS Representative on the International Symposium on Archaeometry Committee: Sarah U. Wisseman, Program on Ancient Technologies and Archaeological Materials, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, 78 Bevier Hall, 905 S. Goodwin, MC 187, Urbana, IL 61801, USA; tel 217-333-6629; email [email protected]

SAS ADMINISTRATION General Secretary: Robert S. Sternberg, Department of Earth and Environment, Franklin & Marshall College, Lancaster, PA 176043003, USA; tel 717-291-4134; email [email protected] Published quarterly by the Society for Archaeological Sciences Distributed to subscribers: $20/yr regular membership; $15/yr student and retired; $35/yr institutional; $300 lifetime. Individuals add $110/yr for J. of Archaeological Science; $40/yr each for Archaeometry and Archaeological & Anthropological Sciences. ISSN 0899-8922.