army history - Center of Military History

army history - Center of Military History

ARMY HISTORY T il E PRO Ft::SSIONAL BULLETI N OF ARMY IIIST ORY PB. 2I}.9S. J (No. 35) Washin gton , D.C. Fa ll 1995 Army Doctrine From Cuntigny t...

6MB Sizes 0 Downloads 20 Views

Recommend Documents

army history - Center of Military History - Army.mil
Plumb Martin was attached to a forag- ... Major-General Baron Frederick William August von Steuben by Ralph Earl, .....

The Continental Army - Center of Military History
institutions developed by the American colonists, its European origins had been ...... Crane and Ebenezer Stevens, had m

Veteran's History - Center of Military History - Army.mil
Nov 5, 2002 - SSG Zelda Thomas-Gates is assigned to the 300th Mobile. Public Affairs Detachment in .... SGT Calvin Willi

the united states army - Center of Military History
and the United States concluded a "conditional and de- fensive alliance" ...... Templars and the Teutonic Knights. hands

Professional Reading List - Center of Military History
ABOuT THE PrOGrAm. The new U.S. Army Chief of Staff's Professional Reading List is .... This fictional account of the ba

Cross-Channel Attack - Center of Military History
Quebec Conference. General Montgomery . Tehran Conference. Field Marshal von Rundstedt and General JodI. German High Com

between world wars - Center of Military History
1, the ill-starred episode had created a memory the Russians never forgot and left the graves of 192 Americans ... tions

armyhistory - Center of Military History - Army.mil
Thomas Jefferson, then Virginia's of those too young for service he cut ..... ries.60 For instance, Thomas Nelson, the m

The Rucksack War - Center of Military History
Contingency Operations Series. The Rucksack War. U.S. Army Operational Logistics in Grenada, 1983 by. Edgar F. Raines Jr

Studying Military History - Military History Monthly
MA in Maritime History offers unique access not only to eminent ... Wars, the study of military history has never been m

ARMY HISTORY T il E PRO Ft::SSIONAL BULLETI N OF ARMY IIIST ORY

PB. 2I}.9S. J (No. 35)

Washin gton , D.C.

Fa ll 1995

Army Doctrine From Cuntigny to the Future M orris J. Boyd Brig. GM. Morris J. 80yd II D~pury Chir/ of Srq/f fIN Doc/rine. HctWq..a,ltrs. us. AFmy TruiltillK OM Doe/riM. CI)mmaIId (fRADOC}. FtNr MONW. Vir,lllill_ This orrick. ""hkh Is tkriW!:d 'rom II spucl! GtM.,Q/ Boyd lovd/! ~arl)'M(lrch 1995 . ..tIS Submll ' ltd 10 Army History by D r. S~/.
£my in May 1918. in Fmn. thecommandofthc AEF"s (American Ex.pcdilionary Forces) lSI Infanlry Div~ion Wi! \t;lI\~ferYed 10 the French X COrpl. About midmonlh. the ded~jon was made to dislodge the

Germans from \heir positiOns ncar Cmtigny. 'I'1w: 28th infVltryoflhc I s\ Division was!iCkctcd (Darry OUt the: • ltxk;and for 5evcral da)'lll'thc~ its plans. On 28 May the ;lnaull was launchod. All objeaivC'll _no gained despite hc:avy re.~i~Ulnce. 'The GermUlJ coun· ICrauackcd with a vengeance. bul\hc Americans hdd fast. 'The captun: of Cantigny was the r.1'l!I1~rge offen. sive operalion by an American divis ion. II was considered a brilliant exploil. a concrete ex3HIpie of !he fighlin!: abilhy of Amer'ic;an II'OOpIi. Recently, 1 hadtheopponunity LOlllcnd asymposium entitled, " Ilow World Wjr II was Rc~lIy Won," 5ponsored by U.S. NJvllllnslilUte and the McConnick Tribune FoundMIon and held al the McConn ick E.wte in Cami,ny. Illinois. The symposillm pruvkkd me with the oppollunlly [0 wort. with the Uc;Jdquaner:o;, TRADOC. his[Orims in prcp3nllion. ~nd 10 hmadly review Anny doctrine sinee Ihallimc. The NIUe forCamigny in 1918 W;JSthe 11m major victory for the United St.:IlCSin IhcGreat Waf. looking back from loday's perspective. il heralded !he dominanl role Amerlean forces would play througooullhc cenlury. It gives us a glimpse of whal we would .<;cc lime and Il:lin- the Ingenuily and bravery oholdiClS, excellence urbalUe Ic
TIle qucruons for now

arc. what did "'·clearn from

Cllnli;ny'? From World War 11 Frvm any 11IIer con_ flict? What ¥chick doCI our Anny Ulie to ~ for lIS rolc

in the fut\l~?

To answcr thls . we aglin return lu bislory. \0 look at World War 1I ;md liS al\cnnath. md lodo this from J doctrinal perspective. The body of fund;unClllal principlu which guide Anny -elions in suppon ofrwional objectivcs is Almy doctrine. II """,ilks the basle fundamefllalsof organl ution. cquipmcm. Ir.!lnlng. and employment offoras to achieve victory. Doclrine oUllines whal the scrvice is capable of doing and SCts In mOlion lhose procH5e5 and prog~s thai wiLl enable il iOdeal with !he futu~. The U.s. Anny Chkf o f Staff. Q,neflli Gordon R. Sulli~ ... , .... chanocICrtzcd doctrine .. Ihe cn!:inc of

cl'langt. On/:ort.hc major IiOUl'!:es we look to in derivin~ our doctrine Is hi$lory. Hislory. n3lional securilY slr.!teg)', I«I'InoI00Y. cum:.nt opentions. and fUlure fom:asting--4hesc lid !he Nsc pliIlC of ideas thaI lilow the Ann Y10 develop lhe ol"]lanizations. pmccdu 1'1':$. «lui pmenlo and people 10 remain rrlevanlloday and into !he fuIU~.

A !tYicwof cycnl$lcading 10 World War ll and il$ ~LCrm~ illustrate thaI doctrine Iw; IIOl al"'lIYS ..... jo~!he prominence II it given lOday. For lhe United

SlaleS_ " ad hoc-cry" ch:trxterized!he war doctrinally_ New amphibious cuN;epls, ground_ai r liaison. infanIry_tank cOOpenlion, and !he COII1bined anns we~ elements of doctrine that we~ literally developed on lhc move 10 mf(:t new, pressing. and unprtttdenied

""",. Thai doctrine was focl.lSCd on suslained land domi ·

nance and incn:asingly In !he COflle ' l uf employment with lhe Olher sclVices. l lU'oughoul the Wif. the b:lsis for SIIstaincd land dornin:lJlCt: (Iearty was lhc joint airland-sea effon. The massive marshaling nf naval

power In Oper.uJoo Neplune-Overlonl. employing artificial harbors and facilit3ting !he new tactics and equipment of amphibious 3.'lSlLUl! 3.'lsurtlllhc success oflllc inlli . 1gageofwl);u hlstorian CIwle~ M;ocDonald would c:alI"'Thc Mi~y EncIeavor." T acticalolir over Normandy, lacLiea.l air in suppon oflhc ~&out and pIIBuitllCfU$5 France, l nd tactic al airat!he U;ntJcofthe Bulge. together with the §tl'lueglc bombing of cncmy logistiCli and traruponatJon-ai l were inlJi spcnsabic element!; of vlClory. Joint f_.....ere critical contribulors 10 !he batllc$ and tamp.:aJgns!hal C$lab!w.ro and IIII5Ilinai American ]and dominance . They were crilical to the U.S. Anny'slnv;won anddefeal ofGcnnan land powe r on German soil in ]945. UUI aglin. muchofthedoculne was lid IIoc--Ocvclopcd through ne<:essh y of b.1We ndYr !han a bdo re·the-facl SllIlemtnt of how that battJc would be fOll"'I . The interwar years were noteworthy ali a hallm;uk of neglcctof mi li tary prcl»rcdnes.~. After all. the major powers had juS! fought the "war 10 end all w;u-s." 'The n:suhanl neglect included doctrine. lllcre were a fe w brighupolS. however. Inter-.ro'u doctrinal wort in 193$ by !he Infamry Schoofsusis · tant mmmandaru, Col. George M arshall, n.: ~ulled in !he dl$lll1atJon of 125 silultionai vignCLLCII of World

War I bailie actions inlo an innuemlal doctrinal telt. ftr{QNry ill Bal/lt. M arshal l. who h.ad been a pan ofOene111l John J. P\:rshing's f;Llff In World War ], remembered th.1t !he staff seemed 10 specialize in highly ciaborate. ti ghtly knit operational plans !hal h.Jd liWe 1000 wilh real ities in lhe u't:nChcI;. In hls view.lhe Anny'S mOSt perish· able skills .....:.re those lumed ~t the point of J b.1yonet. Rut those sld Us had 10 be placed in conte~t. M mhllli. ihcrefore. felt J 1hQ1\IUjl:h knowledge of military hil_ tory wtienential to thedcvelopment of J professional soldier. Following Wofld Ww: I. under Maj. Gen. Fo~ Conne r's tutelaGe . Dwight D. Eisenhower leamed 10 rt ad hi story---eSJlOXi ally that of declslonm ak inG by the cn::atlr::adcrs of the avil War- not just fo< tho:: fac:u or wluol happened but ""'Iry. Togeihc, with George S. Patk>n. lr.. he began 10 explore ihc tank ali an offcn
lions. Ore. far·steing soldicr-Ihinke rs. such as Urlly Mitchell and Adna Clutfec:. likewi5C .....:rc pu~, Illairu;t the Imerwar imagiTt;jtilXl envelope. M hcheU 's concepts of aerial anack un nayal vessels would prove

* * * Contents AFmy Ooclflnt[rom Call1lgllY III Ih t

F~I~ft

by

M oni~

J. 8oyd........................................................................... l

TlteChi efs Comcr .. .................. ..... ................................. .................... _.. .................... .......... ................ ... .. ...... ...... .5 Wrlrilll lfislory[QI' 1M Ann,,: A Cold War Vitwby Jom

L Rom;ue. ........................._.....................................7

Ed iw s Joumal ...................... .................. _.... _....... _......... _ ....................................................... ...... _... _ .............. 8 Remi~iJ('t1lCfS

c{IM Wur by Joel COltoo .. .. .................. ........... .... .... ..... ...... ... ... ............................... ..... .... ........... 9

A SI(ljJ R~k (II rhe Joint Rfadi~fSS Train /ng Cfll /f' by Paul H. Heibe rt .... ... ............. ................. ................. ...... 16 Nlllive AmtrirallS ill W()tld War II by 'Thomas D. Morg;sn .............. ...... ........... ............................... ......... ... ..... .22 M ilr'llITJ MCIIIQi" c{WQI'Id War II: It is HOI Too UJle kI Wrilt OM by Mm Edmond Oarll.........................28 Letters 10 ihc EdilO . ........................ ........... .................. ... _..................................... ..... ..........................................31 Book Revie ws .... .. ... .. ......... ................. .... ............. ..... .... ...... .. .. ................... ............... ......... .... ....... ..... .. ................. 32

2

prophetic. QuoIT",,', vision of I mcehanilCd land fighting forcesct !he most ~volutionary trend ahead in futu~ land b.al1lCII. In I desperate aucmpt 10 ~ fo r wh:at seemed incvi\ablc: Inlcrvenlion in !he second ofLhe gru t European wars, Marollall.tIle n Arm y Ollef ofStaIT. ordcred m~ corps· and lrm y-level maneuvers in 194(). TIle louisi ana and Carolina Maneuvcrs Soerved as vchicles for developing command. doctrine. leadership, and equi pment. The U.S. Arm ~, howeve r. stiU ente red !he war in 194 1 su1)stanli.tll y unprepared. Armon:d and com· biro! arms \V3ffan:. already bein, demonslr.lled by German fon:es in Wcsu:m and Easlcm Europe. Iud 1\0 ready doctrinal equivalent in !he American Army, which 11110 Jacked the equipment to ~UTy it out. /( is ironic Ihat 1\0 institutional lesson·leaming prooedun: poinling IOward modernized. doctrine arne din:ctly OIIt of !he VUl American warfigluing CIlpc:ricnce uf World Wa r II . 11 was historical studie §-lhc c ~tCll.'live "lIrte n book " volumes of The U.S. Army In World War II se rles. for e xamplo-thllt documented what wtnt right and wrong and ...·hy during that con·

By Ordoo< 01 I'" SecteUory oIlh11 Army:

0ENNlS J . REIMER Go!netiJ/. I./rIIMd SUm AImy CIIMf 01 Slafl Official.

.", .I-~

~

HE t.t. KARRISON llllWf ~istanr fa ",.

s«~ral)'

01 ",. Almy

Chid c{ Mllitary History

flict..

Bri l:. Oen. John W. M OUl1lcastle

TOOay's Army uses I varicty of mc thods to le :\tTl

from Il5Clfand ilS ilCtions. Ove r !he years. itlw tNlh

M alUJgitlg E4i/m Amold O. fisch, J r., PI1.D.

asul!stantlallesson·lcaming appantu~ wh.ich includes sendl", h.istorians and «her observers 01110 the battle· field LO document activities. The Cen~r for Army Leswns Learned h.:IS S(:nt lc:3ffiS of h istorians and observe rs 10 e vcry con n iel since DESERT StuRM. The Army's learnina and doctrine syslt!m onOOay is lOOted in the aftenna!h orthe Vic-tnam WM. Re:<:oa' nizin,g the imponaneeof history and leuons lcam:d. solid training. leadcrdevclopmcnl . .md modem equip· ment.!he Arm y n:o'lani ~ed in 1973 and Crealed the T rainina: and Doctrlne Command.. lllADOC was csublished
A,my History (pB. 2().9.'i·3) i, publ~d by the Centcr of Mili tary Iliswry for the professional development o f Army hislOrians. The reproduc· tion of mclcs fo r ed!K3lionai purpor.cs isencou r· aged. Cotrt:spondence should be addressed 10 Managing Ed iror. ,l,rmylfistory, U.S. Army Cm· lc: r of Mili Ulry lIislory . 1099 14th SI. , N.W., W;uhington. D.C. 20005
3

tempo 10 domiNie the Itd~ersllf)' In b3ltle. and spelled MIllc and forapera-

War II. 51l1dying UlCtles. ttthniques. and procc:dun:sjust what, but, li ke Elscnho_r. why. Today.the Otic( OfSu.ff ofllle Army holds key leoldc rdiSl:ussioos 00 Civil W. r balllC 5i!'cllOcnsu~ thaI :as ~ look 10 the futuTC we remember the po_rful levcf3,gc we gain from our past. In !he face of!he SI .... Ca,iC CriSiS in E\l1OpC P='ipi· lated by !he massi ~e Soviet arms hulld\lp, TRADOC based doclrine and u11n1ng ~form on lasons lcamcd from the I110Sl applicable IKent conOict- the Ion} Mideast War. ThaI inlCn5Ie IlNI $I\On armoml conmct demonstrated modem ..... ar·s g~ atly iocn:ased battie ICmpo and maleriel desll\lC1I~cfiess. lt was SUI:l.'Cs~ve most Of aU of what a NOM Allmtic T~ iUy O'l:."i~..{ion (NA TO)dcfrnsc ~g;unst!be Wars.w Pactlh~at might bring. TRADOC consequtntiy dcvelop::d I NATOfocu.fed Active De fense doctrine. whidl itcvolvcd into a deep-mildng and mon:: inillativc-orienlCd Ai rLand Battle doctrine by !he eariy 198OS. Tod ay's Anny doctrillC comes OIU (If \he worldwide straleJ:ie changQ of 191111·111 thaI ended the Q,kI Wlr, re\lllitcd Germany, broke up the Soviet Union.. and revealed, in !he 1\l9 1 G\llf War, \he IlUggcWvc cv idence of 11 ne ..... lC(hnological face of bailie. TIle co!lapIIC of Soviet power In Eumpe and world wide opened up I fie ..... strategic e ~ I world no longer bipOlar, bul for the United S\3les dwxterized by I wide divtnity ofsccLLrity Internu and conoems. Al the same lime. the waging of the Gulf War poirncd 10 new milit.ary·ttthnologk al hori wns and 10 new baltic dynamics. 1lIose considcf3liorlll led 10 devclopmenl by TRADOC, at Chief of Staff of the Army dircclion. of I new fllndament.:ll Dperllions 00etrine publlat.:d in Fuld MIlJIIIlJ1 100·5 Uune 1993). The 1993 doctrifie Inuuduced ~crsatilily in opera(iorlll, capilali'.cd 0r'I folU dominance. cmphasi,.cd lethal iIYand su rviv ability. oull ined operJIions II gTCaler

OUI ~i remenl.\' fur cootinuous tion~ shon of war.

not

New B W

k 0 11

Doctrine todl.}' muSt be fu lly devcloped and ~ 10 enable the anned fOrt:l:$l0 lrain and Iftp;!!!: for.and mobi lize IlNI deploy 10, a ~aric:ty of sillWiOll5 IfId operations. [n tod, y's infonnllion ~, time IfId tedvlolngy on the balilefield move at such a speed llIat SII1lICgiC. Dpef3tionai , and tactIcal planning and cxeCLI· tlon aI!' compressed . TIIe~ is no opponunily 10 develop doctrine or campaign plans over. period of morths and ~1l1 for future Iwllcs. nv: doctrine m\lJl be historically informed. TIle plans must be ~ady 10 execute now, and history must be embedded in all th3l ~do.

So while our doctrine is wri llen for today's fnvj . 1OIVII(I1t. il is based on histoLicallflll )'SiS of bmles and IS l~u&ht in our $ChooIhtruses and in out ILIIllS 10 gain

in$ii:hts that will belte r infonn the process of c~ lcoldillg liS 10 the fulu re . Looking 10 the futun::. TRADOC has wrilten alld published a new pamphlel, TP 515-5. "'(}I"U XXI Of>' tTiui«ll. General Gotdon R. SUUiV;ul termed il the InteUect\l;tl \lndcrpinnings 10 move the Army inoo the twenty·fiBI cenlury. [t analyzes the S(tlltegic 1:Ind· 5C IJlC and the mpid pace of !.Cchnologie;tl ehangc. :Ind cn~isions a highly .daptive, vcl'S3lile. flexible total fOfl:e :as pan of I joint !.Cam being able 10 WlI:C war in • hlgh·tech information age. And while Iftparinefor cyber war. ~fkctillJl on the past ~mind$ u.s thal ..... ar ..... iIllargely be a human cndCll~or-lO\lgh . \lnoompromislng. and often final. As befo~ . doctrine applies 10 the be iUt and iIOUl of the fighting fOfl:c. which as fn'lnl Cmigny throuBJI Normandy and further through the Cold War', end, ~111l depends for il.l llUe~ on uncommon oour.age. commiued leaders/lip, and tile nalion '$ suppon.

lhe Huffa lo Soldicl"ll Avai lab le

St\ldcntsof the mlcof Afril;an·Americ;w; in the: U.S. Annynow have a ncw book 10 con.~idcr:

"'""y,

O~

cht Trail

oflltt Buf/aJoSoidiu: Biogrophiu. ofIifrlclJJl·~ricaflS ill 1M U.5. 1866-1917 by Frank N. Sehubcn. Dr. s.::hu~n, of the Joint OIicfs ofSlarr, Joint HISlOf)' OfflCC, uamined bolhofficial and unoffICial military rcporu and other doCLImcnts, seeling information on "'b\lff;tlo solders:' His SOIITte' include ..-uw;tl n::p01U of the Secre wy of War. wecldy papers serving African·Amcrican audiences. the journal of NAACP. and Vcter.aM Admlnlstl1ltlon files. The book is 520 pages In length and is priced (cloth only) al S 125.00. For more infonnatlon.

oontlCt Scholarly Resoun:o::l. Inc., 104 Greenhill A~e., Wilmington, DE 19805· 1897. PhMe: (8OO)772·89370r FAX (302) 654-387 1. A.G. Fisch 4

The Chier s Corner J o h n W . (j ack) Moun tcastle

"You will conduct a passage o f lines. sei~e designated objectives. and . on order. continue the IO!.Ivance."

I ",,u Wking with I gl'Ollp of j unior oman re· ctnLly abootthe diffieulties o f advancing mc:clwti«d fOn;(s in a movcmCflt tocont;!(:t, Ourdiscussion got me thinklfll about the number of limes Al'TIIOI' offian like me Nve received onkrs sud'I as the one above. "The FRAOO, or "fragmentary order." often is used to pus misslon·t~pc irullUetioru quickly and efftctively to mililary organizations that Ilready are in action or on the brink of being I;OI1lmil~ to aaicn "These ClI'lkn usually arc sIlon on details and long on responsibi1it~ forthc:rommandcrordem:llOe~tcutc the mission. The headquaners lssulnC the: orden mUSlltave a creal dul of faith in the W1it urrying thc:m OUL We lithe Center ltave ~ived I greal many of these FR AGOs in the 11lS11h= months. [Iruly feel all though the Arm~ History I'rogr.Jl1l has ngW begun lIS "movement 10 eoncact" into the future. Without knowing pfUi~l~ what obstacles await oor coming. or what ma~ ehallcnge our nfc pus""c forwanJ. we nevertheless ilJ"e determined 10 Uel:Uleour miSiliions In the bcsI possible manner and 10 mainl.l.in the: momentum of our advance. Since we pubJi1hed our last edition of Army His· lOry. the: Center o f M iUwy HistOf)' h.U been on the: mow. We have completed the comple~ sWf aaion leading 10 the Chief of SIaff5 decisions reguding n:flagglng the ten·divi sion Arm~; heloJ a eonference for lho~ museum directors affC(:ted by !he ehanges in unil designations m:I locations; and S\lpponed the Arm~ Staff in !he myriOld of detailed actions It has undcntlkcn pursuanlto the Chiefs deciliion on the size and shlIpe of the future Army. We have been decisively engaged in the major actlon dcsitned CO declassify the Ia1 million pages of operational =ntJ from the: Gulf War. ·tltl~ mission serves as a focal poim for a&re~t de~l ofinltrest from the Officc of the Sec~ary o f l)ef(;n:iC and the Executive Brand\. Lt. Col. Steve Dietrich ~ taken cha~ of a special usk force. ""hleh evenlulUy will number thiny· ftve to fony cmploycc~ working at the Skyline Bvi lding near Baileys CrossmaOs to scan, digitilC.

redact, and clear these vasl holdings. We wiU. of depend in a major w~y on the: supo:: rt1 work that iUreadyNs beendone by Dr. Rick Morris and Ills Army Knowl~ge rw.work SCaff at R.ln L.eavenwonll. 'The Center slll.ffwas dccply involy~ In $uppon · ing the h.ighly sucecssful commemoratlon o f the K .... rem War that WIS carried out in Washington I few shon monthl ago. II was an honor for me 10 meet the hundred! of vcterans with whom I lipoke during the four· dayevent. Jcb Benneu's MUl'Cum Di ~i,ion wem OUt of thei r way to provide interesting artifilCt displays for the ~eLerans. Dr. Ed Drc.·s Researeh and AniUysis Di~lslon. with suppon from Productlon Division. and Museum Division, and Histones Division JlUt togethe r I gre;at sericsofbrlefings. displ.ys. and IlI.Ii
COUISC.

,

What?" test this yelr. 1lle funding eulS progr.uncd for FY 97 and beyond are seven:. "Nice-to-h,;IV~ " pr0grams wi Ube deleted. We mustdooutlltnlO5l toell$llre that furun: gcnel1ltiOll5 of lIIudcrNs. soldiers. scholars. and nalionalludcn; are not deprivcd of!he v.t.lue we n::pn:sem. In that regan!. I !i()licit any suggestiol"l!l OT IdcOLS that you m~~ h~vc that will enable all of us, Army-,,·idc. to pruvide cv~n heuer slippon to all of those who dcKrve the best we can give them. Call, write. send a FAX ote·mail. Shan: your thoudlll wilh

loss mOSll
Inspiring luder. Similarl~, ~ had only roccml~ bid fan:wcU to S illy M os$ll1l11. one of those lrul~ an:al members oflhe CenleTleam from pn:vious years. And sliU. we presson. One oflhe abidio& nolions thill I live with dail~ lIIMJ have shared wilh my col· ltlgllCS is thai the comiog !i$Cal year is our WI dunce to prove cooclu5ivel~ that the futun:: A nn~, FORCE XX I. trul~ need:! !he best history prosram we eM «Illmivcly provide. II i. eriticallhat we ~ \he "SO

".

Call for Papers Society for Military History, Sixty-t hird Annual Meeting 18-21 April 1996 The CcntrallnLCUlgence Agency (CIA) will holt the Society for Mili!:u-y History's sixty·thinl anoual meeting, IH·21 Aprill996.atlhc Key Bridce MamOI!, Rnssl)'ll, Virginia. across the Pommac from Washington. D.C. CIA's CCOler for !he Study of ImeUiJ;clII."C hM chosen !he theme. "Intelligence and Nation;ti Securily in Peace, Crisis, and W IlI." Ove r the next tllTCC years the Unlled Slates will mart. the fl filelh anni vc rsaries 0 flhe end of!he Office of Stl1lle gi c Serv ices (OSS) i n I 94 S, Pre$ldem lI arryTruman 's clulionofthc Ccnlral lnle11igcnce Group in 1946,1I1d its tr1Ull;fOnTIallon Imo!he Cemnl lntellis;enco:: ACCncy by Ihc Naliooal SeculilY ACl of 1941. CIA has declassified virtually all oflhc OSS " 'hich h
n.e

,,1'5.

6

Writing History ror the Army A Cold WHr View John L. Rolt1jue

ilIere are. h\llldred relSOOS .... hy historilllS commit themselves to their profeMlon: h;slOry'~ longer horizons. Its rk:hdivcrsily,;1$ (ltama and romanc:c:, and the complex oflc)'l and cI\ItS;1 offers to the unde rSlanding of our own lime. aut what is the $pccial appeal ofmllllaty hiSiori' Forme, born between the two I:lnl ""lIS, and (:Qn1in& of age during the I:real c;vihalioruJ crisis Of lhe COld War, it was the over.... hclmin&; seriousness of the t_nlieth eCfuury worLd ttw drew me tOmml..., histol"1. To have lived in any pan of our cenlury i~ to gJaSp the cen\tlllily of mllilary po"~r in the fare or nations. Iftha! i$ 5(1, .... hal rlCld of history is more demanding of OIl, aUcn\ion in OIl, violent OI:JI\ury than lhe m1l$1 !kcisive m na Of an? Looking forwanl from the midccntury, .... e knew INI the miUI:lr)' powcrbalmce Vo'OUId be the foroe tNl dclennintd oor clvl1i •.alion's future. Whal did thaI fUlUn: hold? A tolalharian world? Nuclear holocaust? Or. long, l\IIilight J\ruggle whose end no one could foretell , III Winston ChurchiD 110 JICCIIrmly forecast in his 1946 "Iron t."\lMain" speech al WClD1li"-~cr Col ." Like !heouUook of many Americans oflhe middle generalions of r.hc: twentieth CCntury. my outlook was sllaped by the Cold War. Future hiS\ori;w; may well see tIw dancc:rous and protlXted conflict now put 11$ the crisis poinl of modem hislOry, more consequential for !he world even than the are.l wurld wars of our cenlUlJ. Forll5long 1'I revolulionary Soviet po_rand the Cold Warlasted.lhe threal hung overthe world Ihat a I)rutallotal itan an SUperstaIC, dcclarinl: its n:vol utlona/)' e=d lOembody mwind's final JlIl:C of development. would win dfective dominalioo of the globe. Had Ihil h~ppened, with !he Wesl JlralCgically dis;armed and "';th Soviet nuclear miniles ranged 10 comrol every C3.pilal on !he globe, ..I of humanily would have passed into i new dark a~e . 11 was our hop>-and sometimes our despairing ho\l! thi! lhe fin and independent nalions of the world could sustain the mow .... iU and mililary strtngth \0 deler and ultimately 10 prevail over WI hideous possibility, Ourhope was rellit.ed. And although ~

rusons why will be IIOned OUI for manY)'UB to come, the n: can be no dOlI bt thai chie f amonalhe cauliCS of the historic collapse of Communism was the recovery of American will and llle refonn and huildupofouranned force5 in the critical era foUowing the fall of Vielilam. It Ita been my privikge 10 wort: as. historian for the U.S. Anny for most of my profcss;on" Clrcer. Anny historians know 1Nt it is their commi$ljion to pix:.: it !hedisposal of OIIrmi]il:lr)' I~rshipthe most JICCII nile and illSi JUtI ful n:oord of which we an: npablc_ We mu~t do Ihal so 1I1:lIlOday'slead('rs and commanden; and tomOtTOw'1 can weigh their dci:isions, not only aglinsl new and "lered military-stllltegi, realities. bul "so againsl what lias bo.:en remembered and passed on from the cxpelicnoed OOIIll5Clof pn:paredncsund war. Whal QUe$Uons $hQuld I historian ask? We an: (:Qn1pelled to ask. whit i$ the special nature of the inslitu lion thaI emhOd ics American mil i\ll)' land power'? Whal makes. ;1 suocced Of fail In battle and war and,ln $0 doina, p4'tSCrve!he nalioo's freedom or place II in jeopMdy1 What is il in th:n Instil ution \hll. selfcommilJ ilS members \0 livCl of sacrifICe and mon;d peril? Whal Ire the best ways to prep=, mobiliz.e, ttain, deploy, m:uteuver, lind supply and SUJ\ain the manifold structun: of men, ...~~ and weapons systems. and IXlieal uniu7 What an: the best. training method, and training tectmologies? What are the 1cadcrsllip principlC$ that eause soldiers 10 cndun: undc:rconditionsofmuimum danger, and 10 5\ICOeI:
.

7

Editor's Journal 1lle numbe r of inquiries Ihc Center is recci~inllhcoJt Wortd War Ills declinin&:. signaling th.1t

we an: in

the wlll'lin&: days of Ihc fiftieth anniversary. Slill. the eommemol1l1ion geiler-lied oonsidcTllble interest in that war. as .... ell :as I numberor fine anicles yet 10 lpp:ar in Mmy lIislDry.

ThiS issue iTICIude$ Mart Om:', admonition 10 Wolid War II veterallS th;u il is lItill not 100 lace 10 capture thei r military memoirs . Our lead anicle. by Bria. Gcn. Morris Boy(l, eumincs the ~lIon betwc:cn tljgory and doctrinl>---the Import.lllCe of Amertca's mililary k:adcl"li thlnkin&: Min ume:' In hi 5Chic rs COmer, Gene raJ Meu ntc.aSlle calls ou r allcntion In \he fIcI \hal ..... lIil e nu r LUt 11OlU<: wu ;u the pn:s& the Cwter 10m IWQ n:s.pccted colleagues and hicnds. Mr. BlUy Mossman succumbed 10 eana:ron 3 July. He was Llld to /01 II Arlington National CCmctery. When I filSl. ani ~ed;n 1979. Billy already .... as a =pccted fi~lu n: of the Cenler, UId 1 recal Lhim fondly. Ralph (fony) Johnson. who pult"d away Sllddenly on 17 AU8llSl. wu • collcalluc in the WILe division when: we prep.1re Army lIiSiory. and WU I friend Ie all. lie w:as • valued membcT of our dcclassi ficatinn cffDn. BDth will be remem be rW f Dr IhI": ir pleasant manner and thei r PRJ fession:tllsm.

Arnold G. F"ISCII. Jr.

wiMing of the COld War wu m3de possible througll the n:~ry ItId ~rtcn« Df the American armed services in the years fnllewing the stralcll1c defeat in Vietnam. A major p;on of WMI mililary ""riter CDI. HID')' G. Summers, Jr.• h
even than the 218-yc'r-old n:J'IIblic it 5o:rvcs. The Arm~ and ilS sister armed services an: the 8IIardian power Df AmeriCil'llibcny. In the twentieth cenlUry. it has been the U.S. Anny thaI provided the major fon:e that has kept free the Western democracies.. If.. in I small way. Anny hiSlorians Will have assls~d Army !caders to know 0Uld to understand !he Army's past.SO that ilS readiness in peacetime okters and ilS will 10 conquer in ....ar pn:vails. then we ha..-c been on the side Df the anllcl~. M,.John L

ROtnj~. wltoltrv~dwith lheCoid WO''i''O

"'my In Gumony. Is Clilq. lfisroric,,/ Sludits otr.d I'r.bIicarIOlu. OjJiu of lilt Comnw./Id /IIsro,inn ar lIetJdqllllrltfs. TRAOOC. He islM/llJllu:wo{'flcArmy DrExccLlencc: 1lle Develnpment of the 1980s Army. "lid From Activc Dcfcru;e to AirLand Battle: The Devclopment of Anny Doctrine. 197]-1982.

8

Reminiscences of the Wa r Joel Collon ThiJ

lVlicl~

scrcellS. engl~rs COns1ruCled Iwo portion bridges to aid the flow of IJOO(lIS and arms. Although dlnFIOUS. it was easier 10 go o~r on the first two d.1ys than on 5Ub:llequcnt days when the Gconan bombing effon!. tile artillcry shelling. i1nd!he AmcriCltll antiaircr31\ fi~ grew even mo~ in1C1I5e. When I crtlSSed the: bridge in the late afternoon of II Martl\.llIadonlyshortlybefo~joined the CounterintcUlgencc Corps Detachment of the 78111 Infantry ("LlJ:.htning") Division, which had been ru!J\cd to Rcmal:cn. my unit allachcd 10 the hc~uanel1 of ilS 3111h Rcgimer&. A new member of the unil, I was I young second lieutenant who. like m;t./ly others. had been moved quickl)' ;nlo!he w~r :wne-from OJri~I' mas in New Yort wllh my wife 10 a peri lous walk across. bridJ:eon the driuJy Ma rchday inlo unknown. enemy territory. Our dctachmcm ', mission was 10 move fOfWlfd wilh the uoops and to SCl'Cen seleclI:d prisone iii of war, inlCrTOgm suspicious ci viIi i1nS. q UoC$' lion dlsplilCed pel'SOm (many of them bruughl b)' lhe NazIs fl'Olll allover Europe as forced 10000rers). analr«' uprured documenl1 and papers. and apprehend Nari officials (party. govenvncnt. and miliUf)'. including SS offlcel'li) who might be seeklnllto CSC3pe by blend· ing InlO the confusion of the batlle areL The American bridgehead gradually widened and deepened. not wit\loul toSIlO our llOOiJI'. The infantry fought 111 way nonh and ea.~1 on the wn1 bank or the Rhine lllrough the dcep volJICys and high ~Iiffs of the famed Sltbtngtbt' GI. or Se~n Moulllain d13in. II was a brt:allualdnJly beautiful ;un, rich in 1c~nd i1nd m)'lhoIoIlY. the inspi!1llion for Teutonic folktales and WIlP1Crian ope!1l. BUI il was not a time ror siC!llS«lng. or rorthoughL~orfolklore ormusic. A gradualc ~tudelll in European hiStory. I h;ld hoped 10 visit illc Rhinel.l11d but not under such ci rcumstances. Only later did I ~aliu: tIw "''C wtre the first Il'OOJl' 10 have crossed the Rhine in combal since Napoleon's day. The imponaoo:: of the crossing i~lf was described and Ipprttiated even 1\ the time . General Georae MinhaIJ wtole or the brid~'s discovery: "'Such. windfall had been hoped forbut notcxpc<:1ed." lie called it one of the "'Iuming ~inI5" of the war in Europe. Gencral EJsenhower SCntl meS!5age of con· graNlillions: "'Please tell all ranks how proud' 1m."

Is dUlvtd from D,. "xl Co/lOn'S

mnMl.oi /tis WlVtiMt upt!rltl/CU 4f1/forl/ IIppta.td in Duke M~gvjnc (JuIy-AwglUl 1995'. P,o/tSJOr Co/lOtI wultu W UI',usllis II'M1iUk 10 hff't1 J . Cklru. Chi([ HUlo,ian
Prelude: The Bridge at Re"",io~ On 8 Much 1945. lhe d~y ~fier I100JIS of the American 9th Annored Di~i$ion discovered lhe LudcndorlT r.lilroad bridiCat Remagenintael, l erosstd thebridge;and formed part of the small bridgehead on the easl bank of the Rhine. Only a ~k before. lhe RlIlnc ILIIlI loomed;u the last formid~ble natural barricr IObeovert:Omc by the Western Allies befo~ ruching the induwial hwtlantlofGermilfly. To the noM. the Brilish Second and Amerian Ninth Annies ...'C~ pre. IWing alarge'liCiIlc na~olJ and engineering operallon. The Germans. as a defenslye mClSUre, had system ali· nUy blown up all forty·sevtn bridges spanning the river. or SO they lhougt.. On 7 March. while probing the ~I. I a)lumn of the Fi rst Army's 9th Armored Division _ 1O ilS uncI ilIT1=mcnc~lmc u~n the Luden.clorff railro.d bridge at Remagen. t"",nly-flve mila SQUill of Bonn. Rill standing IIndama~. Ex.p10lives Md been set, but the d)'lWl1 ilC had failed 10 oktonatc. appasently by accident. possibly thlOUgh negligence or the result of a 51ray bulle1. certainly 00\ oocau$eofany undelJro.md Germ;t./l re~staoo:: erron. as $On1e l;uer claimed. R;Jdioing il1 find. the pia1000 immediately crossed the river. II W2S the duing overtu~ to a historic bfl:akthruugb. 1-1 rsl Amty headquarters. wilh Gcneral Dwighl D. l:iSC:nhowt=r's authoriution. II once redln:cled all ilS mljo r operating units tO C(ll1Verge on Remacen. Thalday. and on the following days. \lOOpS and IInil5 ~ across the bridge, okJayed only by imcrmilleJU German aniUcry shells, seve~ lI'affl c congestion. and .... recked ~ch.ides. The Germans, ra:overing from the shoxk of the: breakthrough. soon made intensiye errO
c.

9

Speaker Slim Rayburn wired gflltirude lind eongr.lIula· tlons-"un~nimously e~presscd··--oo bellalf of ('Qn· g~u.

General M;vshall described thediscovcry;and the bridgehead 011 the nst tMnk of the Rhine.originally I few lhous;and troops. 1$ ~a diversiOn of incalculolble v al ue." f acilitati ng the mai n Rhi ne crossi n,ln the nonh tWO wec kslater. IS platlllCd by Britislland AmcriC311 naval and engillt!Cring uniUl. 1lle bridgehead ensuml the Allied ~ of ClpIllrin, the indusuiaJ RuIv..d ~1ope4, ;again in Marshal l's words. Into ", springboard for the final offensive against Gennany IhlIt culminated in the Gennan surrender in May. As teacher and historian. I often Mve wondered whether anyof my Students In lalCr years evcrlro5pCCled \hal the mild-marn:rcdbespel:Ucledproku::>r lcCIurin,lOthem or guidin, their seminar discussiom mlY have ooce bee n Inned .... ith a carbine. survived on field rations. and mon: Ihan once look cover from enemy fire in carrying OUI an intelligence mission. Not c~llCIly the groves of academe. My .... lfe re=mbers Rem'l:Cn in. dirfe~nt way. Traveling tI'w "'"«k in Much on a Ne .... Vor1c subway to her job in Manhall!lll. she was 50 visibly shaken when reading in theN~ York T~, thai my unil was amon, those: fonninl: pari of lhe tiny Remlsen bridgehead now on the othet" sldc of!he Rhine !hat a fellow p;!!ISCfij;er IUrned 10 uk If something Wi$ wronl:. NO! unlil the end of the war did I .llow mysclfto describe in retrospect whal il was like 10 be under artillery shellillg and aircraft fire. Althe time I wrote only: " We are I:oing ihmugh momcntws evc:nLS, bul 5OO1e thillgS H

Ire beSt left unuid." 1lIere we~ alway. ligllier momenls in Q,lml)al. There were the chickcns rounded up from local fanners and roasted foru$ ""hiIe we waited In a reM m::. forOUT tum \0 cross the bridge. 1llert .... the wine we fooncl on iheoiher side of tile Rhinc in tile ccll~rsor the richly appointed M ~sc.eswc: (the homeofthe famoos muni. lions manufaclurer). whieh became our ~gimenlll hcJdquancrson IOMlrchllntil wc moved oullo make wly for division headquaru:rs. !be following wed; oursearch of thedcsertcd Swig eonsulatenea.Honncf yielded Suchan! Swiss chocolate bars. Such for lIS were lhe small spoilsof war. But II was ihc documents we fOUnd . the am:.51$ we made, lind !hi: liaisoru: we esublishcd wilh the ciylll;m popII1Jlion, allhDUgII OIl. eontribu\iofl$ wen: small comp;lred lo!he sacrirlCeS of 0111' inflillry soldH:r$.lhal malic !he risks worthwhile. Despite I.hc (k nnan failure 10 make I direct lilt. the bridge at Rem I,en WIIS $II weakened Ih allen da y5 I:uel'. on 17 Ma..h. ilcol1apsed and wlSnevc r n:buill. For a lOIIi lime vis ilOl'llI fter Ihc WMlAW on! Ythe Iron pi lillp on Ihc west NN;, wilhoul !lilY oiher idcnlifyina: s;gTIt. When I visited wiih my family In 197 1. Gennan residents in the 3rt! weill relieel'lt about the episode. bul' pre-World War I[ photO of the bridge was anllable for purcllase al • nearby kiosk. On the fon.lcih 1IW11versary. in 1985 .• plaque was dedicaled 10 mar1c lhe crossing. In 1995, on !he f1ftk\h anniversary, AmeriCarl military vctenllU and Ge nn;moflici~s plh_ cred al!he Site to commcmol"luc!he eVCIIL Pn:scnl II the reunion was !he son of ihe ~rman officer III command oflhe bridge. who had been execuled IS a

Defense Technical Information Center Conference Set The De fense Technicallnfonnation CCllter(DTIC) will pn:sem Its Annual U!lCrs Meeting and Training Conference. 30 Octobc:r-2 November 1995. The conference wil1 be held at !he Stouffer RenaJs= HOIc\. Arlin~. Va. This yeM'S conference will include a variCly of speakers and sessions add=sing the oomcmuSlypC:S of infonnation available 10 !he Dep;artml:n\ of Defense commllftily Ihruugll t/Ie IlllCmet. as weD IS from DTiC ;u!l\ other eoycmrncru agenciu. OTIC' s laleR prodl/Cl$ and servicu will be lIiglllightcd In Ihe emiblt """;.. For furthe r Infonnallon. COlllact Ms. Juli a t'osc\le al (103) 274.)848. or DSN 284·3848.

10

Ir.Iitor by a GennlJl firlng.squad I few d~ys after the Nnericl.n Because of other commiuncnl5. I was unable to .tlCnd the finy·year wmmemonllon of the crossin,. bul a h:II f century has not dimmed my mcrnooCII of IhoK Mmh dlYS.

crossin,.

T he: (kcup;ltion As the wat in Europedn: .... 101 cIosc iNtspOnSand we IR~ forthe miliW)'occupationof~nn;llly. 1 ~ivcd orders in April 10 rtpon to the CuunttrintelUlienee Corps Dctichmcnt of !he t02d ("'0arIt'') Divi_ lion.. ..,hlch had foo;ht its wly tIlrou&h 10 Gil\'tlclagen in north-«ntnLI (Jenn;my. nol far from the Ellie River. when:. byOcncral Eisenhower', onkl'J. it w;as \0 dl'lw up and meet the Russi;uu;. To n:ach my new posl I had to leave the eombat :tQIle in the Rhi ...dand and tl'lvel west 10 a replacement t\eflOlln V(fVitl'$. Belgium, for rea5signme ... t There I rem~lIlcd for over IwO~k5 because of ~ delay in my lr.IfISponatloo onk:rs. AI 11m thedcl~y w;lS not unwcl· OOQIe. U ke royalty and uistocracy 0( old. I tooIt the baths at neatby spa. prxliced my French, and followed the progJ6$ of uu r eontinulng Allied advances vla oor ind~ros.able army newspaper. Suus and SlripU. Bill a1llhisUme my mlil fn:m home was being directed 10 my rM;W unit. and momentous even" wcn::: takina pllICC:. I clWed II the dcby. It was 31. VeNiers \Jut I leamcd of P'rcsldefll FrankJin D. Roosevelt·s de~1Il on 12 April. S3dly. he Iud not lived 10 sec the WII(S end. 'Th
had bttn t.rlt~ling for Ihl ny·si " hours on the Ir.Iin. whlch Ittmcd 10 move for one ho\Ir.ro Slop for si". I Lhooght 10 myself{and .... rote home): "I am sealCd in a box car lUNcyinll bcmn Gennany on this 1Il.1mpor_ WlI day.R Beo;IU$C I was ttltv<:!ini\ vin u;ally alone, I could not i;hare my joy willi others. My heart quickcnrd wtw::n I ..w freight lrltil"ll .. mill/" 10 mine lraveling wut ..... .ud. I\ower-dccor.ued lIld j.mmed willi newly liberaled prisoners of wu. wartime forced laoorers. and othe r dlsplaa:d persons en IWIC back IOthei r homes. Forlhem. thexplr.llioo and anguish of the si" yean of the Wat in Europe we~ over. We grtCloo each other and c",changed V_for· ViClOf}' signs.. I can still sec !he Ii,", pa;ntc4 00 !he sides of!he Ira;l"II: "DtWlSelr.IIlM Wlllt' Al/tJ ! ~ and. In a lighler vein. "CiIll/UilJIIC Mois Privu D'''''''''''rf' (Fifly MOfths Deprived of Love!). My ral celebr;!.tionor V-E Day came ~ ftcr I joined my TlCW unit on 12 M ~y in Ganlclagen. northeast of 8 run5Vllck and a few miles we&lofthe Bbc. We wt:n: invited \0 a viaory celebration withlhe Russi;uu; II !he Elbc. And whal. celebration it wa.s--mcmorJhle for !hi: toUtS we drank (5C"VeDI each \0 T",·arklr. Slalin. rOVQri(1r. Truman. and Tovariclr. OIurd\iU!). the rousing speeches. and espc:cilily the cnlcrtairomen!- I stir. ring ~oneen by • Red Anny dance and song ensemble. climued by I joint ,ITo", 10 sing in Ro.mi;lll and in Englisll. "Ooo't Sit Under the Apple Tree Willi Anyone Hut Me!" We had scara::ly 5Cllkd in the lrea, I with ) subdetlChment of my own at OslCrburg, when we had to tlW\Sfcr our dUlles to the Drlti~h and move some miles to !hi: south. Hcre. in Thuringia. I headed I lUbdetactunentln Olmiruf. a small city on the edge of the magnificent Thuringian Foresl. ncar Gotha. within drivilli disllr1CC of the O!hcr hlstoric ~ilies of Erfun. Jcna. and Weimar {In or which in liller)'dlrs beGlne ft3 n of IIIe Soviet-dominatcd Gennan Democratic Republic, the DDR. (If unlamenled memory. It was shortly .fler aniving in Ohrdruf thai I SilW my first Nazi concentraliOn camp, the vcry first to h3~e been liber-L1ed by Amerl<:lf1 troops.. Jt had lIeenovcnun on4 April. Ohnlrufis rot as wcU known as Budlcnwald 0/ Dachau in (Jerm~!ly. or the mass dealh camps In Nali
11

1beycollapKd and perished. W IlIlin I f~w d~)'S after the 11bc:r.u.ion. Gener.u Eistnhower p::rsonnlly ~1~lted Ohrdrufto see for hlmKlf the emacialed skeletal faces and IIp.nofthe pitiflllllUrvivon. and the mw Br.1ve5 oftho$e who hid died. For mc. my fil'"5t camp visli (I later v l~jted others) was a wrenching sigll. brutal evidence of the cruelly lind beS/;ality of Adolf H jtlcr '~ llIird Reid.. NO( surprisingly. the Jews wcre !he prinr:i~ victims. Hitler and the Nwshld committed IhemK lvn to an ideology or anti ·Semitism for de· cades and. when lhcy could . they pulinto jll3edcc with ruthless effICiency thei r program of annlllllaLion_ 1hc "Final Solution" The helL<:d dcba\e among profes· slon.tllliS1Orians bctW«ll "int(;ntiona/iSlS'" and ··fvnc· 1iOIl~1JSIS ..- that is. as to whethe:r the sbugllter c;un~ about Q I result Onong_Ierm pt;mnlng or ofincrcmcn· Lal bureaucratic (\e(:lsions--h:lS alwa)'S seemed to me incidental . As to those who would deny the Holocaust. their treumcnu fly In the faa: of the overwhelm ing eyewilness ~vldcnce ofthosc whl.! were in Europe al Lhe time. My new dcL:U:hmcnl w;u. congenial OIIC. To my immense n:li~f!he:y accepted me.evcn Lhou~ they hid gone through many months ofbauk ordeal ~r. (It llelped tIw I /!.:Id crossed the Remagen B ridse In combat!) As with other counterintelligence unlt~. the ortlcers and the enlbL<:d mw came from l variety of ci villin bKkgrounds, {;ill;ng m;ai nl y into three categories: n.1live-speaking German-born n:fu~C$ whose famil lu IIad fled Germany fortlle Uniled Slatell In !he 1930$: those who,lilte myself. had !iOm~ academic Dr profession.tl training: and iodivldWils willl polic~ Dr investigative experierlcc:. Our dctachmc:1ll Capuin. al read y a joumOlJ ist.late r became the Ira vel edi tororthe SIlIWday R~ vl~ o{t.';fUlllur~. tic had aln:ady been responsible fo r uncovering an cgrcgiou~ 5et of NilZi luoeltles aI. G;ude:lagm. Unlik~ most of the army. the counterintelligence dettcl"unenl5 worked to~ther closely with lillie Of no distinction I)ctWeen officers and enliSted men. 11tc c:nlistcd meo and nonoomminiolled officers were au· thoriud ID ~t U.S. imignia with no indication of tank. and could be taken forcivilians in unifotm. wlilch proved useful in dealing with the (;(rmans or. on rarer oa:asions. with ou r own Army personnel on security m lUCri. The dctattwTtent' s folk..lore incl uOcd one amusing (and eml»rrassingl episode. 115 ebullient. redheaded scrgeant. fonner Bostonpolia:manJoeOTook. received a direct battle field commis:>ion as scoond lieutenant for e xtl"1Ordinal)'lc;Jdclllhip in comb:tt durin, the advance eutward-itntil then willl his U.S.

iMignia he had IIobnobbed willl the field·grade majors ;u¥J colonels! To our regular personnel the detachment added otlw: rs. notably a )'DUng Dutch di$placcd worker named Mid f.1a.asen. who had fough!: in the undcrJ100Cl ~s­ I3nCe in the Netheriands. M33.S(n spoke perfect En· glish and German. It was lie who retrained a former GUIIJf'O German shepherd dog. ASiI. so lIlat she too bccamc I member of the detaehmenl. geruJe and abed~ (bul who cDllid Nm intimidating if calkd upon to pl.y IhIIt rol~). "l'wo survivorl of Ollrdruf now joined us. infOl11lally attaching themselves to ou r unit. there being mudlladludc in such mattcrs I I the time. One w.leo Koch (known to all ;as Cookie). M unicll· bom. lIai f-Calholie. II2lf·J~wi5h. who had codured the war )'
12

Our mlulon ill the OIXUpation, which our detach· mmt helped 10 cury out in its own smlll way in OImllllf ;wi In our subsequent SUlion$ In Bayaria (II Passau);meI in Badell. Wiirttcmberg III southwCiiI Ger· man)' (at Pfordl~im. Vaihlnacn. Wcinheim. and Mannhelm) was noI only to contl!lllC !he seardl for CitNazi xtiyl§!.< (includin, SS otnceQ), hut also to walt now with the military eovemmcnt ill carryinll oul the Allied dc-Nulflcation provarn. Wc _~ 10 screen pn:ISfIC(:tivc Bilrgcrm(is~rJ. police chiefs. and other munici~ officials. tca(:he~. journali§!.<. CIC .• t:/Je(:kina the vcr;w:il)' of the qucslionnai~s (or Fr(Jgtbog~lI) the)'weIt requiredlO fillout. Tmsions~1opcd with our military govemmcnt colleagues, who were prima· rily concerned With Ileuilli: local aClivhleg bad to nonna!. 10 etUU~ food. water. and medical 51Jpplies. Iranspolt.1tion. the opening of schools. and the likc. Anyone who could call)' out these funetions received their blcssings. Yel, our mandate was 10 bar frum t\UU~ public acliville. men ;wi women ""ho hJd played an acti~ rolc III the Nazi «simc. We fouilhl a losing battlc. The 10Ialit.;uian comrols of the Third Rcich Wl:tc Such that almost all OC11'!1W with adv.ncaI education or tcehniCilJ tnlnlng had be<:ome mcmbcrsofthe pany. and at a 10Clllevei, even officials or the party. In 50DJC IOW1C1 and villages the !»fly officials ""hom we intcrrogated Wl:~ indeed Wlall fry. Anyonewith. reasotUIble level oflilcl1lC)' Of who oould keep fillancial aC(:OuntsOf maiN,in mailing 11515 """ becomc pan of the local bureaLICracyOnJl"'PPt:"lcu,rJ. An!tJleituJ. KQ.Ssc"lt/rus. etc. Those ""hom we IIOUghi 10 rejcct-('Jr even \0 detain under our ;utoma~c arJ'!:st instruClions--h:u.l not nee· fssuil)' been the most fmuical Nazis. 11Iat calegory was now rapidly di$3ppfaring. meltint inlO the popu. lation in the largcr ciliC5, some even nccing the coun·

'ry. Noone we 'POkc 10 in the: spring of 1945 defended the ~gime. To the question why 5OO100ne lladjoincd the NS DAP the am; we r. almost monotonollsJ)' ~cei vC(j,

was pressu~litital. and economic--to ktcp one's

-',/r

job. 10 survive in the community. maSS/c~ (I hlId to) was the invariable ftllponse. Those who had joined befo~30 January 1933. when Hitler became chanc:el. lor. and wc encountered man)" """ a hankr time with their expillUltiOllll. AI 10 atrocities, the local inhabitants In Ohrdruf and el5C when: c~presscd completc ig:nor.tnce or the: oonccmr:atiOll camps in thei r area. even thou", !he prisonef$ in their striped gam wo"'cd OIl nllmeroos projects OUtside the camps. In our weekl)' ~poru and polil ical 3SKssments_

geneTilly described the populaliOll as aeqll;escent and doci le. and;as frequentlyCKprcssing gratitude that the Americans had behaved toward thetn in I ~latively humane way. Repeatedly we heard, somewh81 to our aRnO),1InCC. how pIcasc:d the)' we re that we """ arrived first, and not the RUSSians.. wllox behavior, as the Red A11'!1y hid Idv;m;C(l in Ea$tcm Europe. and especially in Berlin. """ ~n brutal. Many of u, we~ stllllOO trateful for the Soviet contributions 10 the winning of the war 10 fcd much sympathy forthe Gcnnms. Yet we all knew inwardly that older crimes lhould not be an excuse for new wrongdolllgs. Wc n:scnlCd most the satisfaction that some Gcnnans wen:: taking at the growing rin bct""eenthe Western AUies and the SoYi·

'". Ourdclachmem's SLay in Otudlllf came 10 an end In July 1945. Thuringia was lowed in w!\at had been agreed upon I t Yalt.a and Potsdam u the SoviCl OC<.;\Ipalion wnc, and the British and Americans we~ 10 1lIoOW;8OUthand ~ Aswepotpan:d IOleaveOhrdruf in a small COIlvO)' of jeeps. the quc!l1.iOll camc up of what todo withCookic and lIenry. ourfaithfulrtUln. CIS. who pleaded to accompany us. I tried to argue. although 0Il1)' half-convinc:cd myself. that they """ nothillj to fear from the Ru.'\Sllnli. but the)' multiplied thei r cnl~atics. Relellting al the last moment, I looked the other WI)" and the IWO kft with US u pan of our coovoy. Wc tIC"t set up ~hop in P~ssau. a smllli Bavarian city where the Danube is joined by !he Inn and other rivcrs 10 begin its longjoumty 10 the Blac]; ForeS! and IhcnIO the BlacJc Sell. \'ass;\u I, IlOl fadrom Rtgensburg and from the C'7.cch bendt<, nor from Braunau. whe~ Hitler's f:uhef had served as I customs officer. By Au Jl\IiR we were om ci aU)' pan of the oc:cu pal ion forces, nolonger affiliated with a dlvisinn, but aunil ina elC ICllion. It WIS he~. In AUJl\lSl. that we kamc:d thai our ai~raft had dropped an "atomic'" bomb. and then a :lecond, on Japan. Altho~gh we weIC now Kpar:ued from 11'1)' divisional ufilillion, we were almost all ~signcd to iJlipmcnl to the Pacirlc;n the ntar MUA: to tal:.c: paZ'lln the last phases of the warthcre. Everyone e"pcC1ed a last·ditch suicid~ Marld by the hpanese when we Invadc(l their horne islands. the kind they hlld. shown themselves eapah~ of at lwo Jima earlier in 1945. An)' word W i the JapartCSe govemment was crumbling andquietlysuine forpeacc: would have been news 10 us. and 10 many al homc iU welL When. ill Augu~t. word ~amc thai we had dropped the a10mic bomM. truth 10 lell. we hlld. • str.vt~ feeling of Iollis·

\3

f3Ction. Thert was I se~ of awe atxM.tt lht new weapon. but lin Ie shame. rtmorlC. or guilL A..... e saw il. the Japanese and OcITTHW hOld begun the bombing of civilian populations. horrible as!hal. W;U, and .... e had been compelled 10 ~taIilte. The new and myskrioos weapon seemed only 10 be I IIIOf"C powerful one. capable of hUlCnil\i lht war', end, but no!: quali talivel)' or mor.tlly different from other weapons of .... ar. Yet I did have a scnseof fO~bodlng. I wrou: home at Ihc time: '1l!e inc~lble alOmic bomb is iIIQ lweinspiring and !erri f)li ng tlw one Il3nil)' dues 10 thi Ilk of its implicltions--but please. let one or them be • shoncninl oflhc war!"' Onl)' in later years did m3l1)' of u~ in ~trosPCCI wonder .... tlc!her!heromhmigtIlTlOl have been dropped fOf danOflW"llloo purposes on somc Uninh.abiled is1;0;1 inslCld of causing Ihc deaths of hundreds of thousands of men, women, and chikllVl (no!: 10 speak of!he radioactive al\crefferu for those .... ho survived). But little orlhis lroubled any of my romradcs_in_anns. nor, [ suspect. our fami lies II home. Even for Ihc gentlest amonJl us, W)J blunu one's scmltlvlties. The ~;llCight mont.h5. from Ihc end Of hostilities in AuJlUSl 1945 10 ble April 1946..... hen I bcg;m my joumey home. passed slo ....1y. Our detaclLmcnt moved from Bavaria wesl 10 Badcn·WOmembe'l in south· west GcnnlJly, where I he;Kkd units in and ncar Mannheim. Pfort.hcim. and Stuugan. lnut hcase we octUpied comfonablc villas requisitioned from the Gcnnans. None of us, I am ashollllCd now 10 confess. knew .... ho the owners we~ or where dlCy had Jlooc. We lived well. with a Gennan kitchen ~urr who creatively lrul5fonncd our anny provisJoos. During my Sl3y in the Mamhcim.rea I witnessed the beginnings of the WiracMf/swlutdu, the Gennm "ea)Il(lmlt mir3Cle. " Theelty been devastated by Allied hombing and had bct:n reduced \0 rubble when we fit$! saw il But sJowly and skillfully the Gcnnans In these initi;J] su~ of ICCOJ\$Iruaion-weU befoll: the M3J5/laI1 Plan---had beJlUn rebuilding. D-c:f~ I left, the reaJnstrUction was begiMill8 10 be vi~iblc. Incredibly, the GcnnarlS also were absorbing a Ooodof refugees from the east.upclled by tl"o:: Soviets from the Sudetco aruofCzechosLovakil and fmm Easl"russia. The time came in Ille April 1946 ",hen I had acaJmullled enough "poinl$~ for my dcpanure and Il:lum 10 civilian life. When I lefl Gennany I liad no addll:S8 for either L..co Koch or H~nry F..hrenberg. and all tl"o::y knew ",bout me Wllj that I was Il:lUm\ng to New Yon; . But. within '" ~1r. l leR New Yon;. In 1941 my wife and I moved 10 Durtwn . NorthCamliru.. whl:ll: I

'*'

~ac:hing

at Duke UnlveBlly. In periodie Europe, begiMing in 19S8 when I had a Guggenheim fellowship, I made spor.u!ic cLTons \0 locate my warume friends. but no lySlemalic scarch. My .... ife knew how devoted I was to them as my personal survivQlS" of Iht: Naris. ~1eanwttilc. mCl!M)o riesor Iht: Will" r;Kkd. At limes I wondered if! WOIIId ever see them again Then came an unupected chain of events. In 1974. after many yean at Durh.lm , I returned 10 New Yon; on an ulcno:kd lea~ from Duke so !hat I might KfVC with the ItocUfelJer Foundllion lIS dlreclOr of its humanilic:s program. Sometime in the late 1970:s t.lmt an unc~pcclCd telephone call \0 our New Yon; ;Jpanmclll:. heavily accented male voice asked IfI .... en: the: loc;I Cobon who served in Gc:nnany during Wond War II. NOI~rprisingl)' I answered ~sJwuJy, but in Iht: affinn.1live. Ii W1IS Leo Koch. who, whilt visiting New Yon;, had located me in !he ManIl3ttan telephone directory. II was ove r thi ny yearn since we had said goodhye In Weinhcim . He now ran a leather manufaclwing business. lived in Welnheim, and Iud I villa in Maj<)
ll:~archlrip51O

H

14

1980s

fonnally dC

  • Illave been rudin, Calherine Drinker Bowen's oography of Associ ate: Justice. 01 ivc r Wendc 1I 1101mcs, Yanl:tt/rom Ol}mp ..... I don', think \h;It I've come across a more monlc-raisin& thought m;u"l this sentence by Holmes rcnCCling on hls 0\1.11 three years in unifonn in the American Civi l Wu. when he was appnlxim mly my aac: . 'Ufe is action and passion. I think iL is rrquiml of I man that he iihould sII= the action and passion of his timc peril ofhl:inl:judged IlOl to have lived:

    a'

    IL may have been easier for us in World War 11 10 have acCt:pled our role because the Axis-Na..zi5ll1 In Gcnnany, Fascism In Italy, and mil itarism in Japanwen: 10 palp;ilbly men:w:ing 10 all \lui we cherished. Our American democtllCy nel1hc:r was oor is perfcct or complete. (The SoviclS, for all their mi!iuri sm, never threaw:ncd us d;l«lly in !he intcrwar yem). BUI we were IlOl deceived about the thteal front the Axis and the need to fi&ht the war. What is $ad it: th31 50 m;u"ly In I94S (not unlike 1919) believed Ihal dcmocf3Cy and peace _re safeoncc the .... xls powers wen: i:~. 1M wa.'i IlOILO tx:. No new world wareruptcd. bulthere did follow the breakup of the WCSlcm-Soviet coalition. the ensu ing Cnld War.1.he c$Calation ofnudcar annammuof unparalleled deslructive powcr . .m new wlrs. Many II. the ope"'ng of lhe lwentielh «ntul")' had $et!n thll lime IS the inevit~ble coni inuaL inn 0 f an "'C of progress and had predicted Lhat it ....ould be the best century yet. Howmisguided and naive 5Ucb predictions wen:. Bill all who helped, even in a small way, 0iS civilians, In IS civilians In unifonn, LO bring down !he A~is IYr";tn/l;eS in ihc: midpoint in our ocntul")' can uke pride in Llut IC(;()nIplisllmcm. Peace: in I94S mcant th.aI weeould. leu! once )galn think of CTeating I bener world . Dr. /otl CO/IOn ~g{Jn 1~{Jrhln, E/U'op~iIIl history III D..u Univusll)'Ut 1947.and cMiud Ih~ DtptVtmcfll e/ HiJrory from 196710 J974. lit btt:amt pre/tsSOf' ~mcTlrru In 1989. While on /clWtfrom DuJ:e (19741981) ht UTYtd as Dir«/OT for Hwnanilits. ,ht Rod;tfelur F(}II.N)(lliall. N~ Yori, N.Y. Ht iJ 1M cwr/wr '"flJUllLr(J14 boots a1ld arfk Iu, in(;hMJillg Leon Blum: lI umani~1 in T'olilics.aM, with R.R. "almu, he coalU/wrtd IItt .."tll-bw",·,. colltge rar. A IlislOl)' of !he Modem World . ...·hlch Nu bU1I trallJlattd i1l1O J~~n /mtgU4ga aN/which Is its eighth tdll101l.

    _i"

    l'

    A Staff Ride at the Joint Readiness Trai ning Center Paul H . H trbtrt

    As 11 5enior~m:r
    of the Ww 0{ Ihl RtmllltJlt: II COfftPi4uiQn. 0{ 1M 0jJIc101 R«ards Of rJu: UrolmI andConfetk'~ AFmlu (OR). Also. the library arranged through imcrllbJ3ry ICWl to btmow several key primary and secondary SDtitOI:I from nearby NonhWntcm SUle Uni~rslly In NatchitQChes. Louisiana. FInally, the libtary set &$Ide aI] of 0\11" OJequi red references 00 dOKl! n:st.noc for \he dUJ2liOll of our eJcn:ise. 6a:aux. 1Ilen: was Pftelous link: lime belween TOI.llions. as well as mmy othcrdemarili 00 my omeers. an early stan was impcrati~e. We COllected the neecIed n:ferences and published thestaffridc din:ctive in February ]')94, bYl did not condUCIIhe aew;!! lemlln walk umi] !he foUow;n& June. Thi~ inlerv31 pcrmilled the ofllcers to integrate successfully !heir n:3Carch and prcparallon with their OIhcr activitles. TIle Or:;ani1,a. tion of the staff ride: followed the COIlttplS laid out in !he Cemer of Military HiStory's publication, 1M Staff Ride, by William G. RobertsOn. which weobtain.ed:\l no cost from the ComNI Studies institute, Fon Leavenworth, Kansas. 1lIe staff ride c:onsistcd of pn:liminary study, Held study. md !he integr.ulon ph.ase. TIle field study w)., subdivided further InlO "slands," or Slops at imporuru sites atT1IliOO 10 follow the campaign ~gleaUy. Thecentr.ll purpose orthls sWTride was '10 train officers in the an of war by critically eumining a hl$l.Oric31 military campOllgn In great detai l." and this pufJlOSt' dIU'll: all !he pallicul= of actual CJlCClllion. (I) I wanted the OffiOCT51O Improve their laCtical and operon ional j udglllcm lh roo gh the vicarious e~ peric:nce or comb.lt Wt one can achieve during a Slafr ride. To do this. I WlIIltw them to analyze critically the leader· ship 00 both sitJc:s-.-at k~enl key junctures In !he camp;lign- by pl acing !hemselves as histOrical actors InlO!he "ven SiIUIliOll. In this w~y. liloped to convey 10 !hem the powerful dyrwnics of warf=. where Issues RIch as logistiCS. II*Uigomcc:, morale, and $0 fonh, an: no! separate, hul are interdependent and simultaneous inHuenceson the appasina forces physi· c&lly laded in theirrespectiyc commanOcT5' conlestot wills. Sevtral requin:ments dcri~cd directly from this goal and defioc
    ness Training eenler (JRTC). Fon Polk, I..OIllslana, I w;as dIaIlengcd \0 proyiik: n.:levant leader develop· ment training to my inflll1\l')' obscnoCf-controlier wk roree of some Wny apuins and tlllO majorL AU of the$e officers wen: brighl and la!cnled and, because

    they spcnllWO 10 two-anr,I ·a·hAlf ~of c~cry month in the roc:ld MOO rowion," h.Jd limiled time for tfllinina. one of the teacllina: Ikvices IIIIiCd was !he sW"f rick. 11 visit to a hi&l()rie battlefield following 11 sySlematic st\ldy of the operation. While my approxl! to the mIT ride ...is hardly unique, the uperience ronfirmcd in my mind the legitimacy of this le~r devclopmcfll tOQl. From Ihis upericnce. I can mne sevcntl obscr· ~aliO!l.'l to guide o!hen: In the use of the staff ride in de~c1oping l~n; for!he Army of the fulure. I was drawn 10 !he mff ride for x.~cral rusons.. Fi rsl. my previous experiell(e as aSia IT ri de pOlll it Ip;mt and Icaderln ~vious assil:runenlS. and my background as a military hl5lOl")' instructor '" West Po;1U, predis· posed me 10 consider the inle&r:ttion of mil ;\.Iry h;$lOry InlO ouroveraJlleadl:rdc~dopmcnt program. Second. lhe fonul\O\ls proximity of Fort Polk 10 !he scene of Maj. Gen. Natlwlicl Banb' Red River campaign of April 1864 a(forded an opportunily that was logisti· cally simple. I w;as pleased \0 find lhat lhe lemln Is largely unchanged since the Civil War and Ihal the blnle siteS ha~e been pl"ekrvw larte1y intact by the SUIC Of 1..OIl1$1:m.J and by private entilies. Third. I lhought that I Slillride eould boJild 00 and uti]iu the skillsofthe ol)server-controJlers, who are trair>ed in the Irts of tactical arI.iIysi$ and of the afler'lClioo re~icw. Thus. the staff ride could km: t.ht 4ual purposes of supporting our mission CS5Cnli31 ta.;k list (METL) proficiclI(Yas well as contriboJling to the de~e1opmeru of my officers for !heir futUrt Te$pOrlSibililics.. Ha~ina decided Ilw a 5I.ifT ride was • feasible tranin& c~ereise for my Wlil, I set iIbout the practlcll mailer of o'llaniljng IL I found the service ortlle post library al Fon Polk lObe Invlluable. To myvery grell surprise and pleasure. an tI1lClprisin& reference: libr.u· ian there, Mr. Fn:eman Schell, had n.:oognil.c:d Wt pcT!lOOS assigned to Fon Pulk likely would be Irller· «ted in the Civil War, and h;\(j ilCquin:d I complete sel

    16

    theofficers had II) _pprtti;tte ~:lr1 of1ho;: possible in 1864. I found W I some selective read;n, in I¥k ~'Amtf DIId Eq.. ~rtlO/w C/vi/War made lhem $ufIicienLly familiar with weapons. nrsaniz.a1ion, 10,00(:5. communications. and Ial:tical doctrine. SeeDIld, each offlccr needed to oomprehencllhc hiSlOrical conteXI of the cam~gn. Alvin Joscphy's T1uI Ci.i/ Wo>r ill ~ AlMrican We.1"! provided IWO exceUcl1l ctl3pters I(l (ulfiU this pu~. (2) Third, I wanted the officers 10 Mudy flOOl primary sources. princi~ly the OR. This k:d 10 some fruslnuion. as anyone wOO has wor"-ed in the OR will undel"SUlrd, but it WU(X)lllpcnwed for by ~ opponunity 10 I;XlfISider !he lCIual panicipants' words. Foonh, 1&$Si~each5tand tol team thai consisted of one: or more offi cers to reprc;senl each side, Union and COnfederate. at that particular ",,~ I enjoined the officers 10 focus on le.1dership and command by asking the right qlK'Stions of the IIOUrces: Whal was the mission? What WIS the situ.lllon, lICIual and pen:eivo:d? Whll ao:tlons did !he klldcn: uke, if my"! Why? What otherchoicc~did thcyhave7 What wastheoutcome(lfthciractionorinaaion? Why? By addr=;j",Ihc&~of dccisiorvnaking in teami, from the simultaneou.s and aHTLpaTlLtive perspectlveof each combat:Lnt, [ hoped II) capture IIOII1C of the ··force 00 fon:e·· dynamics of combat. Each team opened;tS ~ by hricfil\l: what happened there u a prelude I(l ,eneral discussion and group analysis. This te<:hniquc allowed U$IO futthe eamPiiill unfold as wt: folt(lwed il chronoIOlicaUy from $l.and to swxI 00 the lCtual ground . It is not my purpose to recounl !he Red River campaiill, except as may be n«e$.Ur)' to iUustnte some points about the opponunilies an(! pitfalls of the staIT ride. Because It was leampaignof retllively liwe consequcR,."e in the Civil War, and because Unkm General Banks ret:Llns I weU cIesc~ reputation lOr having fumbled its uccution l"3!her Ihorou~y, I at tirst feared Lhat!here miJ:ht be liwe my officcrs could

    "m.AI fi

    rst elace. the CIIT1 paiill seemed sim pic enough: General Banks sct out from NcwOrlearu;. Loui sian~, in thesprin&(lf 1864 II) seize SlIrevcpon. in tho:;: nonhwcst come. of the stolte. by ld"II1ciTli up !he Red Ri~ •. ao:companied by a flotilla of gunboatS and tlanSpons under Rear Adm. David Porter. JUSI above N.lldlitocoo. more lhlIn two-thirds of the diillance 10 S/u"evepon, Banks· Inny left the immediate riverbank \0 fOllow. single tr.ICt road wcSland nonhlhroughthe fore.u. nll:re they ellCOWltered three Confedel"3tc

    divisions hiUlU YronctmralCd fA,lI1I AJUns;ts and T elas and under the command of Maj. Gen. lllcllard Taylor. In tW() 5IIarp fi&hl$lI1 Sabine Crossroad, and Pleasant Hill. the UniOIl fortes were narTQwly defeated. withdrew and eventually retreated all the way to New Drleani. never to \hrealen QlnfedetaIC Louisiana, or TexIS. apin 1lle tw() main b.ittlefields, though weD prel'Crved, are vcry small compared \0 any of \hose moo. often the focus of wI! rides. As I Studied the campaign as a prospective S\.lIT ride sub.fCct, my fi 1111 impre!llions or n::Iative infertility gave way U) cwtious optimism and then to enthusbsm (Uleued. no
    17

    confederates. Hnally, b«ausc it btcamc such. sIgnificant factor In !he llller oond\lCl of the !>allies, we l()()i::. dellllied look ill. Union wmbat llC .... ice suppan (CSS) arrangements. One ofouroffioen made !he poinl with 111 tKoelknI, detailed dlagr3lll based on ori&inal n:seatdI in !he OR that BWI' army wu barely flllly deployed along !he f!)ad. from Grande Soon: when ilS lead elements made COIll,)C\: th~t il was 8l~tchcd 0\11 liong twenty miles of trude road with dense woods on ei!her side: and W I !he bulk of tlw kn&th was !he tnlns of!he variou$ kadilll elelMnlJ, iIlen: being noovtrall org.ni.ulion or doctrine for ballieroeid CSS. Hcn: is ;JI1 example ofoow the staff ride can scrvc to give us !he son of detail tlw mues O\IrhiSUlty comc alive, while ill the AIIIC timcconfruntlng lIS with issues oflmmcdiilk n:kvance.. As obIicrvcr-«llltrolkn. we had sc:cn time IIId qain how inattention to the org;uUution of. unit's CSS had fruStrated ucanion of;Jl1 otherwise good plan. To sec the same phenomcnon in a historical setling hclpc confinn iIle validity ofone'l pcrcepcions, while pR)Yldlng a basis for comparison that sharpens judgmall.-
    from his lead (:Ivalry IIwI security. The Confedetlille perspcclivc was no less ill.W"\l(:!lve as .... c considered the del~y mission CKCC\llC(! by Brig. Gen. HamiltOn Dec's c;av.t!l")'. Here, understandIng of illlCIll, OfI:;uUution of terrain il1llQYativc 1ICllcs, ;md an cxcclkl1l. CVo:n .~, scnscoftiming were the key flClOtli. I bcUcyc that the situation of[...o forces in mOllon matln81niti~1 contact with cach Diller is one of immcnsc instrUClional value in thedcvclopment of tllClical and operationa1leadctS. and In the Civil War OR we haYC llC3r1y complctC record!; of both sida in the urnc language. This situ.tion Is Ideally suited 10 the com~lve shuatiun:.! (\ccision·nwdng model of conducting a staff ride described earlier. Our longest sund. and Lhc centerpiece of our staff ride, was II the socne uf!he hauJe of Sabine CIOllStOads (or Mansfield). now I Louisiana Slate Commemorative .... ~a. I had arnn!;Cd for the patk historian. Mr. $cOil Deannan to ICWtI1pany lIS as a puticipant and resident cxpc:n. and his services wc~ invaluable. I made It clcar, however ,!hat I did not walll him \0 se .... e as _ \O\Ir l:Uidc:. I have experienced lIOe sk.lpe of a gentle east-~ ridge line ealled 1I0ney<.;ull Hill. whlth iIle Union anny ~ \0 CIOSll as Itmoved nonh. 11lc Union forccsdetocled \he Confw, t rate pOIIi I ions and be gan to OIl:ani 1.t tllel r line of b,utle alon; this ridgc. Udon: they could completc their
    18

    field. Bank..s was no! able to n:,nforce his units in contilCt because ofthc congeslivn along the single mad cruto:d by the long line of wag\>R tn.ins. Panic ensued whrn I:$Wllting Confederate infantry n:ached thc$c men. and !he Union forces gellel;\Uy ned ROme fourIttn miles south 10 the vi lbge of Plnsant Hill. As with any maJorcng~gcmCl1t ... vastnumbcrof i~s can be studied about this battlc. The te1JII lISSiplCd the SWId did an excellent jobof capturing the mon: salient points. Prob;ibly the riche5t diS(:ussiun of the d.y centered ;m>und the que~lion ofwmmandc l 's inlCn~ We asked ourselves whal Taylor intended by S(:locting thi~ particlllar slie, allowinS the Uniorl army \0 deploy for IWO hoIIrs, and then launching the MID al the lime and in the manner bc did. Gene~ Taylor, of OOUIllC, has nol ;mswered thiS question in the docu· ments and, therefore, mueh must be carefully coaxed from the available evidence;. Allhough thls Is the histOrian's cran, il also is highly insuuaivc 10 tho:: profcssion31 officer. and is the 0011 ofexperience where the historian and the $Oldler hoIh call benefit. Theevidcncc thal15laff ridcoftcrs is inthe temill, and Ihis is I factor \1131 must be eoosidered on sile for one lrul), \0 appn:ciale the prob.lble minds of the commanders. To this end, two points are imponanl. First. military 01 U.S. Geologic;JJ Su ..... cy topog ... phic31 map! help ucmcndousiy in confinninS histOric31 local ions. by allowing one lOeompan: .... ith IIistorical maps. Second, u is the cue at Mansrleld. historic31 vcgCl..ltlon p.:Iltems often have changed dramaticall)' and mU~1 be idemified for starf ride participants to apPleclate cover, conCUlmenl, Inle!Visibility. tn.fficabilil)" and roclds of fin:. 'Thc5c:.~ impulWll considellitions fOlthe ~limilW)' $Iud)' phase. as well all a potential se ..... ice 10 • local JW"k historian. Our 5undsnexi followed the reU"ulllI8 Unionand PUlluillll Confederate fonx:s back ;JJong the mute by whid! the)'{;uxI wc)~ advanced ill the morning. The Confclerate as.~ault aI Sabine CI\)$Srwds lOOk pla.cc at aboUI lbOO, and so lhe multing pursull occuned io the fading IIghtofS April. We convened IStand at a ~pot caDed Pkasant Grove. some 1...-0 miles south of the main bllllcr1C:ld. when: Orig. Gen. William H. Emory's lSI DlYls ion. XIXth Corps. ""H able to form I line of baitie and cheek. the Confo:der:lle pursuil, buyin; time for lhe Union commanders \0 pin conlrol of theil fractured and dcmonIiud forces. Here a numbel of issues allo-."cd our ;roop 10 feel the d~namiC$ o f oornbal. From the Conf~-dcrale po!llpccti ye, we conSidered ...·helller a pursuit M:tulll), h;!d been intended or or·

    de~.onimply resulted from ioltial momentwngaioed

    and the desi n: of ualou" successful fronlline com · man..lt:1l and soldiers to keep all enem)' on the run. II appears that il was the lalter. We identirled five factors that most likcly (tIOUnd the punult to a IWt: the !emin did not lend itself to IlIpid chase, boc~use the onl)' road .... ~ congested .... ith no .... c.aplured Union trains; lIIe Cooraicr.lles lost conlrol of man)' o f their forward clemenlS. as the 5Uldiersllopped to looI the ITaillS; the ~ was no rcstJppI)' of .... aler: daylight was fadine: Ind, of course,:some Union fo=s n:slstcd. ThaI Taylor lippears not 10 have lnticipalCd the magnitude of his s"ca:n by organizing III immaliately Iy,;lable pursuil foroc: bcarson hU; originallnlall diseu$SQ,\ earlier. II is thiuort of uample lhatad.dSlbe Ycry ~;JJ friction ofwalto the officcr"JdoctIinal n:pcrtoi~, and macs military history on location ijI,) instructive. Gcnc:~ Emory', Union soldiers at Ple2S3ll1 Grovc mIlS! gel very high mub fOI COUI"a£C and steldinc:ss under the worst ofconditJons. He and his brll:ade commandl:rs len us an e xcellent, firsthand account of their withdra""al under ~$$U~ :md clandestine diS(:n~gemem.

    ''l

    The lrail clement in General Banks' lonS column .... u the XVI COrps under Maj. Gen. A.J. Smith. (5) Hearing the sound or bailie to hi! fmnl on 8 April. he moved IntO posiLion at the village or Pleasanl il ill. a piece of high ground dominatins the ro;!d junaiorl where the tn.iI back to Grande Econ: mel the nollhleading road on whleh the Union army had ady:mced. He thus proyided 81/1ks with an organi~d forte 011 which 10 fall back and orgOllliu a dcfmsc.. Thi$ i, what too/I; place on the night of 8 April. IICIt;nS up the b.lnle o f Plcasanl Hill on 9 April. our neXI S\lInd . 1"hc hatllc of Pleasant Hill .... a.~ much lcss • set piece: aff.:lir than had b..'cn the batlle at Sabine Cross· roads. The undulMingtcmin. patehworll: ofwoods and. fields. and Ihc villase itself. m;,de for I vcry diuedcO baLtJeficld. Neither fome was n:ad)' when the ensagemem began al lSOOon 9 April. Many Union soldiers wen: still straggling into (JJSltlon from the previous daY'1i dis.ster, mdetemerusofthe XV I and XIX Army COfJli were intenniftiled. The ConfcderaLcS we~ ill little beller shape. the 1""0 assauhing divisions having condueted a forue!J march from north of M:IIIlIfield during the night. (6) The n.:suhinl: baltic was 1()O$C1)' coonIinated and bec:une a mclceofvicioussm3l1 unil actiOl1$ on both sides. 11lc Confeocrates. despite a desperale attempt and heavy casuahies, neither seized the road junctioo nor deslroyed the Union rorce and so broke off the fight that nlghl,e.o.hauSled.1O n:(tIOUp. To

    19

    thei r considc rable su rpri se. Il mk$ IIC'lIa led the prospect of a bal~c lhe following day b~ unlering a &cno::ral n:trral during !hi: nlJl'l b3c:k 10 Grande Ecore. l~ving many Ofltis dead and wounckd 0Il1h1: field. Ona: again. the baltle provided mon: lCxhing points Ilwl could easily be coven:d in amIT ride. The mDS! valuable leuons In this stand involved .mall unil actions and !he geroc:ralship of Na\h.anicl R:vW In m&kina Ih!: decl5lon 10 withdraw. To the deg= Ih.U the Confeder:ues ~n: able 10 mount a IXlOI'dlrwed Inaclr on the Union positioo. II was during an ailempled envelOjlll\ent of the Union kft nank by a d;visioo under Btlg. Gcn Thomas H. Churchill. This c:ommand bc:camt misdi~ in Ihc dense undergrowth. and Tllmed 100 C3rl~ loward wtllu lhcy ~­ ,umed W;15 an open Union len nank. AllhoUllh lhcy ovel'T'an an isolated Union brigade. they emerged flQlll the woods in fmnl of Union troops and ~n: Lhtmselves WCTI WKlcr enfilading fin:. COUIUCnuxkw in nant. and driven frum the focld. This action appea", 10 Mve been 3tlhe inilia1ive of COl. William F. l.yl'lCh. commanding the: 1$1 Brigade. 3d Oivision. of A.J. Smith', corps. luckily posled far 10 \he Union len.. Meanwhile. 0Il1h!: other side of \he battlcfocld. Whal amounJcd 10 a Confeder.lle supponing atlilek ovel'T'an the: forward Union eJemenls. CIIusing the 32d Iowa lnfanuy Regiment. u.ndc:r Col . Jolin SCUD. 10 be surI'O\Indcd and forced IOm.u.e ils way bid: 10 Unkln lines by moving with !he Confederale anack . Sud'l actions brinl1hc: real fog and friction of lhe Nl\leficld InlO the p,ankifW1IJl' study of leader.ship. and provide In.
    n:latively fJeSh troops in !he commands o f A.J. Smith and Brig. Gen. T. Kilhy Smilh's provisional division IIHI embarked OIl Poner's nOlilla. His wbordirwe commando:", seemed ID expect exploiting thl:lr advanIlIle with a pIIlWit the re.ll moming. That Banklc:ouJd not bring himSIClf 10 order an)'lhlng uf thl: kind underscores KvenoJ eOrllinuing themes In his genc:r:J.Isl'lIp of this campaign. Banks' inl.elllgwcc and n:«If1fLlissance were pOOI', prObably beclUiC: B;v]ks himself did not think about his enemy very mUCh. and sodid not okmand information. lie did !lOt know the enemy's situation. He was unable III overoomc 10listkal difficulties such as !he shonage of water. rations and ammunition. and !he tnC\Imbr.mccofllJ!C numbersof dead and WOUnded. b«:ause he had given IInle Ihoughllo \he: o~anIulion:ll delails of sustaining his forces In the fleld . ....lthough he showed pel'!iOfW (lOUrage on more than one occasion OIl Ihc biu.iIefieid. he seemed 10 lack the wamor's inSllnct for wini: the fighi 10 the mcmy. In (;lirness. scveml e xternal f"",1o'" weighed on Banks thai om: hi&h1y inslluctive fur illustrallng the diffe~ inperspeaJve between theopcrationalcommando:r lhat he was and his subonlillalcsoexupying the t.xticallevel. He h;xl a fast-approaching suspense dale for releasing A.J. Smith·~ corps naek 10 Miij . Oen. William T . Sherman's command II Vicksbu'l. Mississippi : he knew the W;de r in the Red River was f;illin£. lhus thn:aleningthe ncct with captun: and mUing the prublcm ofsuslalnlng his fOIl% II Sl1tevepon-should he I:et thefC-1JfObiematic: and he had beenorden:d by an im patienl Oeroc:ral Gr:I.lIt 10 complcte his Clpedilion by 30 April. even If il meant living up the obj«tive. 'These cin:umstances cannot ucuse Banks, however. bec~use thcy clearly were fon:seeable and sht!uld have bten fully OOI1S'dered in his decision 10 launch the expedilion in !hi: first place. lie commilled hJs fon:cs. !\IX on !he basis of a deliberately accepted risk. but on wishful optimism, and then lacked both !he technical oompctcnce and lenacily 10 prevail over !he ~rv:my. 11131 many !iOldiers died I i • !Uull is a powerful oondcmnati(IIL Such insil:hll Ilc:lp )'OWlil offICers gfUII !IOOle Of !he essenlials of i:croc:ralship. made aD the: more clcar by a roc:g3l.ive example. (8) Our final SlOp W;15 back al Grande Ecore. 'The entrenched pOSilion Banks occup;ed for arolhcr len days on I bluff above the Red River il still very visible In !.he laq:ely undeveloped land. We lathered 1/ , vanb!;e po;ot above the rivcr not f3l' from where Hanks' hcadquaners probably sal. and conducted wlull Dr. WiUiamG. Robcrtsoncallcd the"integnlion phase,"

    20

    pony show thal di str~cu from the OOjecti~e. which is le;uning. J'l:1'II.tpS the most cogent lcSSOIl5 I took .WlY from the nperiencc were those ~bout \he profession of arms and how !.O develop !hose .... ho follow it. First. past miliwy OpIll1llions involvin, thousuids of soIdlen: and saIlors camot fail 10 be valuable IcaminE e~peri .. cnces,lf properly IpproacilN. Nomll1cr lhal \hI:y may 1101 be the best known or most studied. or may IIOIliavc ;n~oI~ any of our legendary &n:at soldiers. SCOOnd, the IO.1XIl or !in Americans of both sides who died for caux and country In the failed Red River campaign mUt even the 1Iard"SCT1.bble pinewood. of western Louisiana hallowOO erour>d. and pmfoundly W1der.. soon: \he moral imperative of competence in our cho5C1I profusion. Few InIining LeCllniques can under.. scon: these pointl lS ckarly or profoundly iI5 \hi: ...·ell. conducted st.aff rilie .

    and whatobscrver . a:mlfollcr'1< ~ld know as the ancr.. action n:vic .... It was a IClIospective summing up of wlW _ ~ individually and colkctlvcly gained from ourexpcricroee on the b;illielicld~. lllc: le!l.'iOns rorcach offi«r "''CIC many: leadcnhip. geJV:ralship,IOl:istics, inl£Uigence. Cllmpai&n plannlnl.joirll Dperalions. dis .. cipline Vld mining of t!'OOpS. aUdacity . combined arms. perseverance . as well asotherissues. An equally Important oomberorissves, not uplon:d in thls essay. awall fulUIC suff ridc:TS 01 the Red River ampaign. II sccmsIiUing.lhen. LO make lOme brief ob!;erva . lions 1000l the Sl.1ff ride as a Icadcr-devclopmem 1001 In a miliLary unit lllc: suff ride can be Ilrtat trainin, multiplier. lL w.cs some piaMin, and OrganizaliQn, hut the doctrine for all of lhal is available in Dr. Roben.son·1 met ride book (CMH Pub 70-21) in rtadily usable fonn. With I lilLIe im~inaliQn, I suff rilk can be u.ilortd !.O I particular unil 's nccd$. (9) Because staff rides may be viewed by some partid .. panu as an elUrll-cumcular aclivity distracllng from the primary mission. \hey should be n:kv;u!l. fun, and fairly painless. but wiLltoull1ansrerring the burden for professional ,rowth away from the parti~;pam. lllc: lcader can t.:lp uemcnclously by carefully arr.t/Iging \he SOUIU material and by din:ctlng the pn:liminary study pIwc LO aVOid wasted tIme. Suff rides c;J:t include very valuable public n:lations opponunities. but these 5hould 1101 become \he proverbial dog.. and ..

    u .. Col. PO
    WiLat Hi\!; LOBe Done: General William E. DePuy and the 1976 Edition ofJ'M \00-5. Operalions (LtavtIf\
    ~iding

    Not" n:$pCctively) In OR. scrie~ 1. pan 34. ~ol. 1. pp. 389.. 424. S. XV I Anny Corp:s "'as on loan 10 Banks from Maj . Gen .. WilIi= T. Shennllll"S Annyofthe Te:nnesscc 31 ViCUOO!i. MissiMi ppi. and was due 10 he relUmcd to Shennan not later th:ln Apri l. 6. lllc: two diviSions were o.urchiU·s and Walker·s. They wen: held bXk from lhe actiQn at S3binc Cross . roads unlillOO lalC by L1. OCR Edmund Kirby Smith, led; not 10 be confused with Union Gen. T . Kilby Smilh. mentioned In te_l] Taylor' s SlIperior, iIllls.Lral" ing the [menor lines dilemma Smith faced by the simuiLancous bul IIncoordilUl£d advance of Union General Steele"S forcewuth from Atlcan$U. Rek2Scd 10Taylor'$ col11rollalc on 8 April,lhcsc divisions made a hW march or fony or so mlles to be: 11 Pleasant Hill on 9 April. The liming of their release: was one Of several dis.:agrcemcnt.s th3t wen: sources of ICrimony between Taylor and Smith fnrlhe rcm:tinderoflhc war and afterwards.

    L. Memo,Pli ul H. llemen 10 All Officcn.. Task Fora: I. Sub: Sla/'f Ritlc. 14 June 1994, Ig Feb 94. 2. In addilion 10 the OR. Other titles in our PfCliminary SLudy phase included Nonnan D. Brown. ed.,JOIV~'" IOPIt(JJON Hill: Tht unuJ ofCoploi~ E:.'lijah Petry; Ludwell Johmon.Rtd Hi.e'C"",poig~; Jolin D. Win .. lel'$, ~ Civil WII' III Lbuuiuna: and Roben U.. Johnson and Oan:nce C. Buel, cds .. 801t1u /lnd UwJ. ((I of lilt eMI Wa,. vol. 4. RlirC/l/ willi lIoltOT.

    3.

    Throughoulthi5~r. 1

    u5(:culTCllldocllinai terms 10 describe aclions tNt lOOk place in 1864. One muS! be cartful of the inhertnt Icndcocy in ~ s\llrf ride 10

    impose rnodocrn dOClrine on hiStorical evenu, whicli is .... lIy the PfClimilW)' 5tudy phase must ewbIish I ba.~linc koowkdgl: among the partidpants of the lilstorical an of the possible. Willi this caveat in mir>d. the hiSLOricl1 action cln be of tremendous value in slI3I'penin, our judgment aboul our own doctrine. 4. See rpuorBrig.Gens. William II. Emory.Jamc:sW. M:u:Minan. and Willi:un Ow;&lIl (nos. 60 . 68. and 69

    21

    7. N.P. Banks 10 U . Gen. U.S. Grant, 13 Apr 64. ON. series 1. pall 34, vol. I , PI'- ISI-SS. S. My ortlCle" were
    provides the OflIXlnunity 10 discuss the duality In oor annyor pmfeWOO.1Iism :and militia ruolS.1Ild 10 emplluize W I compele~. howevcr pined. is the issue. II. I have oonducted staff rides fOf" soldiers an.! SlCfeeams. facully members. (lOIIIbat k;adcn, Reservc COmponeru officc". and advisers in • Readiness O~.

    Native Americans in World War II Thomas D. Morgan In 1936. President Frrilin D. Rooscvt h said. '1"hQ;icne~ has a rende~ wilhdestiny." When ROO$Cvell said that he had no idea o r how much Worla War ll woold make his poopheq rin& true. Morelhan r,ny years later, Amt ricans arc rt:memberinl the sxri licc. of that acncration, wh.ich tool< up IIlTTIS In de· ftnse o f !he nation. Pan of tII:u IcnentJon W:lS ~ t1Cglecled minority. N:ttive Amcrican Indi:ms, who nockcd \0 the 001015 In dcfcnse of their country. No group th~t ~nlc1p;!ted In Worid War II m:Jde a grealer per caplla contri bution. and no group Will changw more by Lhe war. As panof thecommclJIOmlonof !he nlUcth annlvcrsary of World War II. It Is nuing forthe nallon 10 rec:tJI !he comtibutions of hs own " first chlttnS.'·

    , 'hc' Vanishinl A mer ica n At the t1mcor Ouistopher Columbus' arriv:tJ In the: Ncw World. the Nallve American population living in whal is now !he Uniltd StateS was estimated :It lbollt one million. By 1880,ooIy 1lO,c:nl Indi:ms remained and this ,ave rise 10 the "Vanishing American" theory. 8 y 1940, this population hlld ri~n HI allout JSO.OClO. Durinll World War [1 morc lhan 44,(XX) N~llve Amc ri · cans saw military servicc . Tllcy scn/cd on all fronts In 1iJ:: oonmcc and were honon:d by receiving numcrous I'u!plt Heins, Air Medals, Di~linglll~hed Flying Croues, Bron;a: Stars, SilverSu.rs, Di stinguished Se r· viocCroucs, and thnxCoogtCSSional McdllsofHoror. Indian participation in World Wlr II wU50UtCMlve that il latcr became pall of American folklore and popular cultllre.

    wammmccstral waniorspiril in mllly Native ArlKri·

    cans. 1lIousmdsof)'OUflg Indi.os weill lmothe oumed rOfUS or 10 won. in 1hc Wlf production plmts th:tt :abruptJycme'1led durin, military and IndllSlriaJ mobi· liution A 1942su1"V(:Y indicaled that40pcrecntmore Nwve Americans voluntarily enlisted thcqucntly, he defUted three Gennan IriS and carried tlOlO woonded men \0 safety. All of these exploits reinforced the "warrior" image in the American mind . Maj . Gen. OarenceTInkcr, anOsa,cand a career pilot. was the higheSt ranking Illdian in the iI11Il«l fQn.::es at lite beginning of \he wat. He died leadillg a m ghl of hombcrs In the Pacific durin, the Battle of Midway. Joseph 1. "locko" O l rlr, the first indian (OIcrokee) \0 puate frum Annapolis, panlci· ~ed in carrier ballleS In the Pacific and became an admiral, Brumen Echolu ..... k (pawnee). I renowned CApen in hand-Io-hand combal,lJIined c(Jmmando$. A Tradition a.~ . i,h le rs 1lIc IroqllOis Confcdc rxy , hlIvins declared 1I'1ron (knnallY in 1917, h1d never made pl:acCind 50 auto-

    TM Wurior I 'na~ 1llc lapancsc attaCk on Peari Harbor 5e('med to

    22

    maticJJly became pany to World War II . 11Ie Navajo and ocher tribes wen: so e~r 10 go 10 war thM they S1()()(l for hours in bad weather to sign l.heirdraft cards. wllile Ollv.:r,; camed Ihcir own rifles SO they would be n;.Jy furbank wh;:n they joined up. Unwilling 10 wail for th;:ir dnl'l numbe~. (lOt·fooM of the M~alem Apaches in New Me ll.iCII enlisted. Nearly all the able-bodied Olippcwas atl.hc CI1IIld Pon.agc Reserva· tion enIi$u:d. In ~ slOrythatllas bo;:cn attributed to m."y o!henrilx:l as well. Iltxkfect IndiiIM mocked Ihc: need for a COfl$Cription biU. ··Slnce when:' their mcmben cried. '1w; ;1 bo;:cn necessasy for Blaclr.fect 10 draw 1001 \() fighl1" 11Ie annu;l] enllstmcTl! for N~llve Americ;&T\S jumped from 7,500 In the $IImmc r of1942 10 22.ooo;u the beginning of 1945. According to the Sclective Service in 1942, II lease 99 percent o f .11 eligible Indians. healllly males aged 2 110 44 , had n::tiltered fnr !.he draft. War Depamnenl officials maintai ned llI~t if the entire popul ~tLon had enlisted in the urne propor· tion as Indiill\!l, the: response would tuve n::ncIen:d Selective Service unneoessary. The overwhelming majnrily ortndians welcomed the opportunity to IC~. On Pearl Harbor Day. there were 5,000 Indians in the milit.aT)'. By the end nfthe war, 24"21 rescrvllion Indians, exclusive of officers. and annthcr 20.000 o((·~rvalion Indians had served. The combined figure of 44,500 was more titan ten percent o f the Native Amerkan pApulation during the war )'I:ars. This ..:presemed one·lhlrd of all able-bodied Indian mcn fn:)m 18 10 SO yurs of age . In 3OII1e trllx:J, the pcn::cntage of men in the military rcached ;JS high IS 70 pcrtcnt. Also, sevcral hundred Indian women ~rvcd in the WACS, WA YES. and Army NUTSe Corps. TIw "Chlers" Go 10 War In $pile of yeaf1 o f inefficient and oflen corrupt managc~nt

    of Indian affairs, Nativc ready 10 fighl the "while mm's war." Am~rican Indians oYetamt pas! disappoinuncnt, rescrumcm, and suspicion to respond \() thei r nalion's need in World War II . II was I grand $hnw orloy~Uy on the part of NI~ve Americans and many Indi.., rtcruits we..: aITectionately ealkd "chiefs:' Native Amcric~M responded to America', call for soldiel$ because they understood the na:oi 10 defend one', own land. and !hey undc ntood fllndamcnw conoepI.s o f "glllinJl for life, liberty, prope ny , and the pursulI of luppincss. Even the cl;umlsh Pueblo tribe. whose members exhibited I historical suspicion of the wllile world, bulClucratie

    Amcrican~ stood

    contriooted 213 men, to petttnt o f their populMion of 2,20S, 10 the iIllTICd forces. Wisconsin Olippewas 31 the Lac Oreilles Rescrvatioru;ontributed I oomen from a pop.ilation of 1.700. Nearly all the able-bodied Chippewas 11 the Grw>d Potu.g:e Ro:terv.tion enlisted. BllIdfeet Indians enlistcd in droves. Navajo Indians responded by sending 3.600 into military service; 300 losl their lives. Many VOlunteem! from the Fan Peel< Sloox_Assinibuis ReselValJon in Monuna, thedescen · danlS oft/Ie Indians 1lI;u defeated Custer. TIIC Iroquois took It as an ir1$lllt to be callc:o.l up IIIlCk:r compuWon. They passed lhei r own dran act and sent their young hraves inlO N~tion.ll Guard units. T he rt were m any disappointments as well-intentioned Indians we n: rejected for the dr.lfi.. Years of poveny. illiteracy. ill- health. and general Du.nucn.llc nesleet had Uken lIS 1011. A ChippeWI Indian wis fuOouli whc:n n:jectell bccIu~ he had no toeth. ·'1 don ·t want to bite ·em:· he said. ··Ijust warn to shoot 'em!"' Anot/lcr Ind;;JIl, rejcacd for beilli 100 fat 10 run, Aid Ill3t he had not comc 10 nm, bulto fight.

    The S"'IIJ/ikQ Sha dow OVfr Nathe AmtI'"iCllftS World War \I signalled I majorbreak fn:wn !.he p;ISt and oITem! unpaJ;l!lele(\ opponuniliel for Indians 10 compete lnw whlte man·s WOrld. lkcau.'iCIhcCboluw language Iud beNddled Getman code-breakcrs in World War I, the Getman govemmcm feared the likelihood nf Indian rommunicalions speclallsts as World War II loomed . During the 19n, Nazi Il:cnts posing as anthropnlogiru and writcrs on reservalions tried to subvert some Indian tribes and learn thei r language . Pin · Nazi .ei t uu rs from Ihe Gennan_American BUIld tried to persuade Indians 001 to register for the dran . lltird R~lch Propag:lJ1da Minister Josef Ciocbbels pralictc:o.l Indians would reo volt rather than fipw. Gennany because the SlWIJliia was similarto 8n Indian mystical hinl symbol depicting ,00II luck. Goebbcls WCnt so far as 10 declare the Sioo~ 10 be "Aryans:· but the Indians knew llIat as a Mongoloid ma:, they would be enslaved by \he Nuis. Fascist auempu 10 convert IndiamlO their c ause TIOI ooIy met with r.ilu..:. but It may havc clKOllmgcd IIlIlians to reglsler for the draft in the: i 3~ numbef1 lhcy did. Ahoul 20petttnt nfthc Indian population. SO.ooomcn and women, marcl"lCd oITto fight In the armed forces and ;u!he home front Bgainst Adolph Hitkr .• man they callcd. ·'he who smells his moustache.'· BenilO Mussnlini fared little heuer, u the Indians tailed him "Gourd Oli rt."

    23

    Dan Waupoouo. a Mrnaminu: clti~f. paU'd in 194J ..·iIIl 'ifI~ ami hrndlJ~ular" U.S, Navy phoial5mph. (l'boIo cmJit: Nalional Archl~es" go..G-I~J131). ropy in author', files, India". "lIW the Axis PoWCl"S as a thrUI [Q their libelly. and the Indian tribe!; re .•ponded patrilllic~lIy, ThcChippewa:llld Siouxjoincd lhe Iroquois in dt:dar_ ing war on lhe Axis. Indianslooke~treme mr3SUre~tO into lhe war. IIilterJle rapaJ:u looian~ memorize<.! a few EtIJ:Ii'h phra!oeS and ler lhe defense of lheir cou nuy. drdfl sct Indiaru on a new course where they would be illlcgrillcd inlO milil,try life wnh their " 'IUI<' counlerp'ulS. Their IiV(:$ ;LOd lhe ir Iand.. ba."'
    "eI

    ""mcdw

    n.e

    Thr- IIOIIIC ~'ront Wcll·I.:oown A .... ric~n humorist Will Rogers. a Cherokee from Oklaho",,'. s.:l.Id. '"The Unlled Slates nevc. broke a lreaty wilh a foreign ,,,,.-emtrlc,,, and

    ne~r kepi ooe with the Indians:" Nc~nheless. lhe go"emmenl of the United Slalell (00,,><11>0 more loy~1 ciliun! Ihan Iheir own "firsl Americans:' When President Roo~"cll mobIlized ihc CUIInt., ;LOd decI~red war on I .... Axi. Powers. It Ktmed as ;rhe ~po.ke to each Cilizen individllally. Therefore. Hccording 10 100 Indians' way of Pl""",iving. 31[ mtlst be .1\Qwed [Q ""n icip.ne. About 40.00II Indian mrn aJ>lI

    team aI the Sanla Fe Indian SCI"ooL volunteen:d for !he :umed rorces !he 1942 h>mecoming g;lflM:. Women lOOk. ovcr traditiom! men ', dulies on !he n:servatlon, manning fin: Iookoul $IatioRS. ar\I,I becoming mechanics. lumberjacks. farmers. and delivery pel"$O!"l1lel. Indian women, aLlhoush reluctant to Leave !he reservation. worked as welders in ai rel1ll"l plants. Many Indian women ~lve !heIr tim e as voLunleers for American Womc:ns' Volun!CC r Service. Red CIIJ55, and Civil Oc:fensc. They abo tended llvCSlocl<. ~w victory gardens, cannetl food. and i\ewed uniforms. A ~thy Kiowa woman in OLtLlhoma scm I SUXK! chcd; to !he Nayy Relie f slgned with her thumbprint ALaskan wome n I/1Ippcd animaLs to eam war bond money. Dy 1943, the YWCA{Young Women's Ouis' [iln Association) e:stimalOO 12 ,(1)) )'OIIng Indian women Mod IeI'! !he R":SIervmon to worlr: in defense industries. By 1945. an estimaled 150,000 Native Americans h.ad direaly panicipalc:d In indu$trill. ~ri · cuhur.ll. and milit.ary aspects o f lhe Amerion WM

    ana

    m.

    effort. The lndi:lll Service S<.:nt I ,119 of its 7.ooocmployccs into miliu.ryservice, Of!hese, 22died. wl>ile 7 won Silver Or Bronze Sl1rs. ln 1942. !he Japanesccllptu~ 4S A1cut~ on Anu. Only 24 rchnned fmm captivity in Ja(Wl, where !hey hOld worked in c lay pits. The fcdcr.ll government desi~ some Indilll lands and even tribes !hemsclves as essential nalural ~urccs. appropriating triWl miner:l.ls, lumber, and lands for !he warcffo n . Afier the war, Native Americaru; discovered IMt !heir service for!he ...;u- effon had depleted their resources " 'ithout rewald. lndla n l~ndS provided essc:ntill war material! s uch as oi l. gas, lead. zinc, copper. y3llldium, asbestos. ~m. and coal. The Manhluan Project used Navajo helium in Ncw M c ~ico to make !he atomic bomb. TIle war eITon depleted the Blackfeet'$ trib
    an:! because of !heIr warrior rcpuwion. The Navljo

    marines ended thelr ccn:moni;u chant.s by 5ingJn, the Marine Corps Hymn in Navajo. Thc:ireloque1"lOe came nalUraUy to I ndi~ns because theirs is;m oral cul[u~. Nayajos fo rmed special all.Navajo Marine Corps silnal uniLii LIw encoded Ir\CSSal;CI in Lhcirn:ative [oosue, Takinllldvantagl: of the fiCAibilily and range of the Na~ajo llUlgtQge. they wOrkOO OO[ trlInS1.3[kln.~ of military tnd IQV;U terms so that on.iefs and l/lSltUC1ions could be l.-ansmitled by yoice over !he radio in a code the Japanese were never able to break. They were U$Cd flm IRlate 1942 anGuadalcan.al. Speci;uCodeTaiker units wen: evttlIu;uly assieocd [0 each of the Mari ne Corps' si A Pacific divISiOns. By war', end, over 400 Navajo had scNed as Code Talkers. Untold numbersof Mari nes o ...-e !heir lives 10 !he Navajo Code TaLkClJ. Indians alw t~ceUed I[ basic tn.ining. Maj. Lee GilsltOpo{OLtLahoml, who Lrlined2.(XX)NaliYc Americans at his post. uid, '''The Indian is the bc:sI. damn soldier in !he Anny. ~ Their lIIents inc:h>dcd ba)"OTCt fight ing, mMtsm aMhip, I!roII ting. and pal11)1Iinl' Na· tlve Americans look III commando tr:I.ining: aflCr all. theiuncestOn in~ i1. OncSiouA soldier, Kenneth SCiliSOTl of South Da!r:ou.. became an American com· mando unit', luding G\:rman·ldUcr. On a si ngle p,atrol , SCisson added ten ~chcs 10 his Garand rifle. Native Amern:ans endured thirst and lack or food bclterthan lhe average soldie r. Thc y had anaculesense of perception and uccllem endu rance. along .. ith superior li'ysical cooldimlkln.. Ind illlS first saw action In the Pacific theater. (h'er :lOO Indians, includi~ a dcsa::ndal1t of !he fllJTloo Apache c hief Geronimo. look par! in !he defense of B31~ and Corre!;ioor. Over 2.000 Indian fOll1TlC I1., WOLters. and busillCS5men in O1J2hom~ and New Mex ico tlllined and fought as pan Qfthe 4SIh Infanlry Diviskln. for S II da)'S of combat in Italy and Central Europe, The "'1lIundclbi n1t·, had the highest propor. lion of Indian soldie~ of any division, bul Indi:ms KNed conspicuously in the4th and 881h Diyisions,the 19ihand 180Ih InflntryRcglmenl$.,and!he 147lh l-l eld Anilkry Regimenl . and in sundry OkWloma Nallonal Guard IInil$. For Native Americans. WorW W. II signalled I majorbttak frum the~. Many Indians inme military mOlde , decenlliylng fm!he first timc in lheir livcs. By [944 . the . yel1lge Indlan'S annual income was $2.500. up twO and one-half times sl1"lOe 1940. Mililary life provided a steady job. money. S1.JIII$, and a taste of the white man's world. Indians learned ilSSC rti~enc:" they could lise in !heIr fight for eqlllI righu I fler!he war,

    2S

    T M Warriors .n d Wa r Wl)rk~rs Ket urn The war.ther'l!for'l!. pmvided new opponunitiu fw Am~rican Indians. ~ LIlese opponuniLies di$l\IpLcd old p;tuems. 'The wanimc ecollomy and military ICrvioe lOOk Ihousands o fl ndians aWly from the rutTvalions. Many o f these lrldiaru; 5etLled InlO!he main5tn:am. adapcing pennanemly LO the cilies and to • lIOrI·lndim way of life.. Moreover. thousands relurned to the ICSCrvaLlOl'l even after they IRd prUVtd themselves capable of malting the adjustment 10 white America. 1l>osc who left tnditional cultun:s did ~ rr«ISOrily rejc(:t their heritage. Insteiid. they forged a IICW Pan· lJldim idemi. y 10 cope with the difCer'l!n()C$ !hey perceived bet~n themselves and " ·hites. World War II became a IUmint point f(ll' both IndIans and Cauc lIlti an~ because ils impact OIl each was sogrratanddi({cn:nl. WllilC5bclleYed that World war II had oomplcted the process of Indian Inlegration inlO malTl$llum American socielY. Urge numbers of Indl;uJS. on the other hand. saw for Lhe fi~ LIme the oon · lndim world ~t close ranllC. It hOlh l unctcd and repelled them. The positive 'spects irv::luded a higher sund.3nI of Hvillj;. with education. heallh care. and job opponunitics.. The IICtal.ives wen: the Ie.ucnln,g of tribal influence and lhe threat of forfeiting Lhe $/Xurity of th.: n:8CrvllliOll. Indians did not wanl equality with whiles at the price of losing group id<'ntificalion. In SlIm. the war caused the grea1eSl chanJ,'e in Indi.n life

    sin« the be,inni". of the reservation eQ -.ld !lugJ'I Natlvc Americans they could aspin: to walk IlUcoeufully in IWO worlds. A good deal of eredil mllst go to \he N.tiye Americans for \heir OUlSlandlng lUll In America'. viCIOry In World War II . 1lley sacrificed mon: than I1'IOSt-bolh individually and IS a gmup. They left lhe l;and they knew to traycllO ~nnge places. wheTC people did not atwa)'!! wndcrsland \heir WI)'!!. 'They had 10 fortgo the dances and riluals tholl were an imporum IUllofthcir life. They had 10 learn to wurt. under non -Indi;m superviSOrs In sllU~lioru; tml wen: wholly new to them. It was. tn::mcndously difficullldjUSunCTU; more Lhan f(ll' white America. whidl had known modem war and mOO;lil.ation befon:. BUI in the process. N:uive Americans became Indi:tn_Amcricans. not JUSl American Irldl;uJS. LI. Col. nom.u D . MOTgI:III. USA (Ref.). is G "';/i4lry OfHfGfloru GM/lst at Fo;l UaveffM,1mh. KanslU • ...ilII a leading ddffu~ COIII'OCUJr. '" grod/Wle uflM U.S. Mllliary M WQJ' commissioned in 1M. Field A,tlilery. and gN(d 011 oc/ille duly Q/ "ariollJ wsigll_flU III rheUfUledSIQ/es.Ge""""". VI_ .P...........a.

    "'"uumy.

    tlnd Br/giwrl_ He 1ID1d.1 tlll M .P A . rUg,ee/rom Ihe Ulliw:rlily nf MIs.soufl and I:In M A . deg'u /11 If/Slory f'om Pocific u.lheran Ulliversiry.

    C hrunul u!:y 1918 -I roquois lndlansdeclare waron ~nn;tMy. Sincc they were not included in the 1919 ~;JCCTrelly. they simply TCOCWOO their Declaralim of War in 1941 and

    SelKti~

    included Italy and l apron.

    Scp 1940- Coniln;,; passe$ Selective Service Act.

    1919 - Indillll soldiers and sailon rtaive citi%Cnship.

    Oct 1940 - Congn:SII pUSCI NatlONlities Act J:ranting c1li7.enshlp to all Native Americans withoul impliring

    192~ -The Snyder Act granlli full citiztruhip to all AlI\cricm Indians.

    trih.1l authority.

    Service n:pn:scnt)tives 10 dc:tmnine how 10

    n::glstcr Indi3f\5.

    - For the filSltimc. American lndi;uJS register f(ll'the

    19)8 -Bureau of Indian AfC.irs ( BIA) estim:ues rwmber of poIemi.1l rtllistnmlS fOf • (ltlift in case of war.

    d.'

    19)9 - BIA updates male Indian age groups.

    Jan 194 1- The Fwrt!, Signal Company recruits Ihlny Qllalloma ComilllCho.': Indians 10 be part of. special

    5iJ:flal COrps Detxhmct1l_ 19~0-11Ie Navajo tribe Inoounccs Ihat any un-American activity amonil ils people will Ix de.1lt ... ilh severely.

    Oct 1940- The annoo

    Aug 1940- B IA COflImissioncr John COlliermttt:l with

    Dec 1941 - There an: S'(xx) Native Amerieans In the

    lun

    rorce~

    have induc«:d 1.78S

    Native Americans.

    26

    ~

    fo= wilen

    J~se

    forces anad PUrl Hu·

    bo •.

    1944 - CM:r46JlOO Indian men and women have left \hc:ir reservations for dcfense-re]atc4 johs.

    Jan 1942 . Accordi1l31ll Selecti\'(: Scl'Yiee offieials. 99 pc'ra:ruof all eligible Nauve Amcrie;w h.ad re,islCrro for !he dran. 1lti, ration set the: national Sl.llldard for

    Nov 1944- fift}' tribcscWlblish!he Nallonal Con~55 of Americat1Indi:uu (NCA I) in Denver. COlorado.

    !he nation.

    Jan 194.5-John CoJIier =lprs as Indian CommiSSioner af~r years of political ronln)Vcrsy.

    Jan 1942 - The Navajo Tribal Council eaUs a spe<:ial oonvention \0 dra""li« theIr support for !.he war dfort; SO,(xx) ItICOO.

    1946 - 1beTrumanCommi$$ionon Civil RlIPlIS ufJ:C$ humanitarian oonslderation for Nolllve Ameli·

    mo~ ,~

    Jul l942 -The Si~ Nltions(MohaWks. Oneida,S<:I"I«(;l. Cayup.C>nonIbp.I942 and In;Kf,IOis)declan:waron !he Alis

    - Indian Claims Commission Act ereated by Congre,..; to adjudica~ Indian land cbimlln 1111: ll'lcrmath or WWIl .

    Powers.

    1942· 1943- The Army Air Corps NIlS a litency pmgram in Allantic Cily. NJ .. for native Americ:ans who could not mect military UICrac:y standards.

    1947 _ Army lndlanSooulSdisoonllnuedaslscpante element of!he U.S. atm(:d fon;es. 1bey had last been used on bonia pllroL du(~ .

    -.

    Apr 1943- S«reu.ry of !he Interior Haruld kkC$ an-

    nounce. that Indians have bought S12.6 million In war

    19~7

    """",.

    - Wah becomes 1Iw: IW Slale 10 pc'rmh Indians 10

    Sour«s DllIard, Jules B.• ed. TM WOI"Id of rM Nne,,,",,,, {~d/a" (W:iShin&lon. D.C.: National Gcoar:1ph.ie SOCiety. 1974).

    Elh~lc

    Srudits 18 (1990): 1·27.

    Holm. Tom. "Fi;hlling a White Man's WIr. The E~lCnt and I..e gacy of American Indian Panicipalion In WOI"ld Wu II. "TM. JOImwJ of1:."lhnic S""J-

    Remsleio. Alison Riek.y. ··Wallr.ing in Two Worlds: American Indi_ and W01Id W&rTwo:· PII.D. diss .• Columbia Univershy, 1986.

    ies 9(2) ( 1981 ):69-8] . La Faq,'e, Oliver. The Ame,lcanltldillrc (N. Y.: Golden

    Press.

    Ocbo. Angie. A HulOryofw /1I(/i(urs ofw Ulliltd

    Slaltl(Norman, OK: University of Oklahoml Press. 1970).

    19~6).

    ---------.--..'The~ WereGoodEnough fOllheArmy.·· HtlTfHr' ~

    Dennis, Henry C . cd. ~ AMtrican {/!dian, 14921970 (Dobbs Ferry. N.Y.: Occlll1a Publications. Inc., 1971).

    (November 1947): 22-27.

    McCoy. Roo. ·'Navajo Code Tal kers of World Wu II.'· MIt',ican Wm \8(6)(198 1): 67-73.705.

    Franco. Jere. "Native Americans in Wortd War II ." Ph.D. dlss .. Univcrsily of Aro.ool, ]990.

    Murny. Paul T. "Who is an Indi m ? Who lSI Nc&ru?· · The VI,,11Iia MIl,aziM ofHis/Qry aN181(},raplly 9S(2) (Apri] 1987): 2 U-3\.

    -----------. "Loyal and Heroic S<:rvicc: The Navajo and World War lJ." The JOIUnoh.l/Arizona HislOry 27(]986): 391-406.

    Nelson. Guy. Tltu/ldub/,d: A Ifislllry 0{ Iht 45th InfllllUY DMs/Dil (OtJahoma 01y. OK: 4Sth In· ranlty Division ASS()o;;iation. 1970).

    --.--- - .. --.--. "Rringing Them Rack Alive: SClective Scrvkc and Nllive Americans." TM. JOII"ta/ of

    27

    Military Memoirs of World War II Ills Not Too Late 10 Write One Mark Ed mond Cla rk

    hav~ maned 1M fi ftieth anniof World War 11 for Americans. Around the IUllon. privaJ.eorpniutions, vlriOU$ iWOCialions. and agencies of govenvn-ent ...11 levels have commemorated theoecasion. Thi s lias bcer1tl"Ue e.~peciaJly forthe Dcpa~nt ofDcferue and the armed !lervices. DurIn,lhe!le yun:, m;ny military hiAOrians have offe1"t4 new worlui on this period of American and WOI"kI hblory. Aniclu rcoountln, batlle~, grut and smal l, lind other notable cvents and personalities have been provided. Some journals and oche r periudiuls have placed spa;ial features In lhel rissucs for 199I-9S. 5Udl as "_my HIs'ory's"Worid W~r II Chn)O(llllgy.·· Formany ~sean:hel"1. an ideal sourceofinfonn ation on Ihe war has been the many miliW)l memoirs thai have been provided over the pi$! flfty yun by veterans. Good military memoirs pmvidc boll! inlerestln, and Infonnati~ lIC(X)UtllS of evcnl~. Manyeven offer Inwuction for profC$$ional soldiers. Nevcrtheleu. this appm:iation for mililary memoirs isee:ruinly not ",nanimous. Some historians consider a grru number of 1M military memoir'll which have been produced 10 be of lillie vIIIIC. Indeed . memoirs that have been wrillen tWO decades or mote afler the war's end can expect to reo::civc • 1ICry wary rrccpti\lfl. Howeve r. one should not be biascd against mo~ ~ee:nt memoir effo.-u. Such worts by our veterans should be 'featly tI"ICOUr.agcd. !"lIMr than i~. Perhaps one of the strungest negative perspeclives on the wrillngof post·Worid War 11 military memoirs was put fonh by Douglas Southall F=man (lg86I \lS3). Freeman was considem:l to be one of the g~;u: military bio,raphers orhlslime. In his introduction 10 Lt. Gen. Gcora:e S. POlnon. Jr.·s War (IS I K~", II. lie wrute:

    1"IIe )'Cml99I-\lS

    irTadlcable [1/cllmpu.1so:: of. ccnalo typo; of mind 10 n:ad intO Ihe planning of military operations. purpose thai cou1.:l 001 ha~ been fOttSCCII. A~r I\l6S or 1970 &1amour will bepn loenvelopmemoil"l. Few wlU be val",.ble; mO$l oflhem will decei~ more !.han they will enli~ten. ( I)

    v~rsary

    f reeman ·scommrou .... nainly deserve considcrllion. Howeve r, I brief review of Ihe nawre of millwy memoirs publi8hed since he made hi! obseN:Illon g~atJy weakens hi$ argument or similar QOI:S. Memoi r wrilel"l usc many resoun::cs. Memory is a primary 0lIl: . Memories of cvenll cm somelimCi overwhelm one with 1M power 10 evoke a vivid past thai vinually dlspl;tCCS the present moment. Yet. ~;anlIQSor ..·hcn I memory iscvot.cd,lhe individual is much more likely 10 ~m<:mber only thc outline oran event. or one'~ general fcelings, and I few small IIcllill. Great dfon must be made 10 fiU the lIpS. PIIn/w;r. whalC'I(:rls rem<:mbe1"t4 m~ be included in the III('moi r. Military memoir writers whol5c -..-orb have bct:n published afler 1965 luwe had success in u~inl memory alone when wriling about IMir wanime e~pc:ricnccs.

    GcneI"1ll Douglas M3CAnh ur is laid 10 h.1'IC c:om. plcted hi s memoir. Remj~jlC(ItCU. pubHshcd in 1\164. on pad a~r pad ofkgal size paper. (2) The manuSCript is rathcr remattable in chal thefe are almost llOerasurcs ordclcliOllS. (3) The prose fiowed from him inmeven, immutable stream. (4) His book has pro-,.idc
    ,real

    About 1%0, Americansm~y e~P:X:t more deliberIte worb of i charocter similar 10 the memoirs of Grant. of Sherman. and of Sheridan. Some of IMSC fUlure -.ol",mes willlle mote ilCCUr11C hi5lorically than the military wtobiogr.lphies i$SUed immediately afin tile war. Gain In this re~pcct may be offset by thc failures of memory and by the: treacherous and

    28

    Ine Corps. From these and other similar ewn~s, it should be deat \hal time 11Il0l1 critlc.al factor In the quality of a military memoir, and that' oorrelalioo bct""'CCn time and the tendency of • memoir writer to euucl1llC or to be jnsl~~ docs not really elC.ist. While focusingon memory, it does IlOl appear thai. FT'(:(::mUl lXIII5idered the potential positive impact of joUmalll aud diuies on the modem milit.ary memoir writer. Whether . ~rd of the Intellectual or Spirilual developmClll of an individual (a journal), or a day-Iod.y~rd ofevents in orw::'Stife{adiaty).1hc:.
    truthfully. (11) Alone with sincerity. \he$e are !he key abilitics. Further. a wit.nciil to an evcnt must have pel"SOlUl knowledgc of lhe matter abo\!l .... hicll he h:l$ testirltd . (ll) The requirement of peDOlUl knowledge means tlut the witncr;e: must h.1ve obse~ the maucr and must hall(: a ~nt lUUlIectionofhisob5erv:ltion. Cenalnly. thc:~ Cln be lillie doubt that the greal commande" we~ able II) observe. to recoUect, to communicate. and to speak truthfully about events in whicll they were inVOlved . AI offieers. t1~ qualities_~ requi ~d. Beyond their own rccollc:dions, mOrro'ler. IhesecommmX" _re subject to verirlCation t/uoogll the lttoUeetions of those ve«:1;\I\S who served with these leaden; during til(: war. Those military memnlr write" from the oompany. plaloon, and 5qU3d levels who ~1Ic:d on their memories;Wo h;r.ve b«n w bjcct 10 the n:coIlcctions of theircomr.ades In milS who were aware of their acti"iti«. M(ln:ovcr, the a.msider.ltion whlclltruly speals for the ~Incerily and gooo intentions of military memo oi r write"ofWorld Wartl. both befo~ and after 1'J65. i$ the tonSCious e(fon to cootribulc to the body of knowledge on the war. and especially to provide Its· :lOllS for future generations of Amcnca's professional $Oldie". Much in keeping with this point of view, Maj . Otn. Alben C. Wedemeyer wlQte in hi~ 19S11 military memoir. Wedt'mry'" RrpQfIJ! : " I wu impelled boIh by the desire to make some slight contribution 10 histOrical knowledge.and by the 00pe Wt my nperi · croce Ifld reflectlons may COIltribute to a better under· 51andinl: of the prestnt and the fOnnltion of a vi;mle stratc" forthe futu~.·· ( 13) Despitc any IUc1.'O!d gholiL writinl by IIis aide. General BradLey"s intent for pruduci n&" Soldier, SUJry was CIIpn:sscd by the swe· mel" ; " lIow, then. did .... e n::ach ourcritic.al decisions'! WIly and how did we where wcdid? "These are the quCStiOrlS I h.1ve been .l.~ked mOS1 ollcn. And these are the qucstioflll \hal give me jUSliflcatiOll for writing this book.'· (14) Some authon of MnlCmporary milltary memoirs hive been accused of insincerity or of deliberately allcm~ing to misle;>d. dcspilt th(:ir exhcrwiilC positive lnltntions. In mmy cases, simple oonfusionor varyillj perspectives. and nol revisions of hiStory, have been found to be the lrue ca\lSe or dis.agn.:emcnu. 'This-...» the situation with "'" Mefl of COfIIII(UlY K hy Hamid Lcinbaugh and John Campbell. published In 19&5. ( I S) Durin~ the war, the two autholll we~ veltratlS or Comp;tlly K. 333d Infantry Regiment, &4th lnfalllry Divi,ion. leinbaugh. the comp;uty romm~ndcr. and Campbell. I plalOOll leader. 5O\Ight to tell the story of

    ,(I

    29

    ComJ»lly K's wat by wing inlo accounl all the recoI· looions Of velerans of the oomp.:my. (16) Eventually, they roLlcctal enough material for four volumes. 1lle memoir was prai~ by veleratl$ and historians such as CIw1es 6. Macl)onald, John S. O. EiSC1\hower. and Gcnt:11II 6 ruoe Oatlte. Ho_ver, the Iong-limcalil0r of1I1/a1lt,.,. Alben N. Gatland. who wu commllndcrof Ccmpany l. of the 334th Infantry. lighLing beside Company K, found fawl with the book . He WOl5 ~rtlcularly critical of L.einbaulh lind CampbeU'1i :terounl of the unil'5 cffons at Venlcnroc, Belgium. duro ing Lhe Banle of the Bwgc. [cd: CM H usage is "Company K;' but in WW ll, Gis said " K Com· ~y ,M___ C(\IOIeS which follow. Solhc~ varies bo.:lwcen lCJlI and Lhe Gis quoted.) Apparently. 0112" Occcmbcr 1944. Company K of the 3330:1 Infaml)' was orUenxLlO locate an American foroc: which, after being sorely pressed, .... as holding a dermsl~ IInelothe ~iIlofvcrdcTVll:. (l7) ~fom: corulsltdof Company K, 3d Ranalion. 334th Infanlry. and Company B, 771s1 Tank IhllOllion. "elinll In conjUlll,."tion. they .... ere III launch an au;tCk 10 fClake Verde~.md 10 rtmO'ie the threat posed b)' Gc""an fortes 10 the Marche·HotlOO find. (18) In a 1990 letter to this aulhor, Garland W!OLe thaI h.i5 perspective of that shuatlOll and the events which ensued .... asquiledifferem from LhalofJ..t,inbauChand Campbell. Garland explained: 1lle German unIt Involved II:Id bruken lllA)ullh al Verdenne .... hich had been held byor~y I small elemem of I Comp;tny of lhe 334th Infmlry Regimcnl. Once throulh, il .... as contained in a ""'I,lOI,Ied pocket by other urul$ofthe 334th Infantl)' Regiment. On the other side o( the pockcl. l. COmpany of the 334lh ' nfantl)' Regi. ment, still held ()II 10 Lhe small villlgc of Man.:nne, which "'ason the rofId bcI~n Marchi:. Verdcnoc,and Meni!. Leinbaugh'icompany, with the: atxho.:d lanks. was I cuunlcrallack force. Unfonunatcly. l.cinmugh never mentions his lank~. In shIm. there ii 100 much mlulng from LheSIOrylO make acohc:rem .... hole. (19) Garland's crilicism.thal lcinbaugh;and C1.mpbeU·li aconunl is inoomplctc. seems sumg. II docs not, however. invaiithLe the book. II 5CCms that Ihe real differences in their pctllpcclives may result frum lhe manner in which Lhe text of the book was p~scnled. I1Ither I1wI from the hi$torical evmts thcmsc:hu. Leinbir.ugh and Campbell elcarlyllOlCd in Ihc:irtext th:ll the counlC .... llac k Igai 1\$1 Vertk: nne occu rred mueh as Alben Garland had explained. Moreo~r. they confinncd that Verdcnne ....as wen by Company l..

    .... hieh haIJ been In resc:lVe. and by othc:r AmcriQII ItOOps and lanks In Lhe ",0011$. In Lhc- teXI. they state:: "Locating the American tanks. L Company 133311 Infmtry]joincd forces .... ith K CompanyofLhe 334th, .... hlch by tlw ~mc "'1.'1 downLO (ony men. Following close behind I heavy balT'l8e, the Gis rushed the vlUage. A grim hou.<;C.\O.housc: fi ghl ensued with hnvy losses on both sides. .. Wilh daylig'-, fighting around the village Intensified. Tankli from Lhe 84th', II1JCtr.cd 771 g Tank Batlalion krooc:kcd out rune coun· ler1l1acking Pamhers. and Lhe rilk companiell in Vcrdenne, although heavily OUlnumbered, lI:Iuled in belween throe hundred;and fourhundred Ge""atI prilionc:,.." (20) authors. Leinb.1ugh;and Campbell clemy decided 10 limit thei r di!CU$ion on the actual allaek on Verdcnne. Vel)' mu~h to the dls.utisfaction of Alben Garland, the)' prcfemd to focus throughout the mern· oi r on events eenten:4 around Company K . Indeed, they gi~ a considerable amount of a!1enlion \0 an event that occurred before the movemenl againsl Ven1cnnc. durina which Company K. alone, encountered a column ofGcnnan WIb. There ccnainly could be $OCIIe cuna:m th;u. at this point in lime. any ne.... military memoirs produced by World War II veterans would be of liule real mililary siptifiCUlCe. AlXOUmli of relatively minor incidents might be oonsidcn:d IrrcLevmt 10 the modem baltles Lhe U.S. m3Y faoe inthe future. Uowevcr,mUChof1he face of baIlie will not change. Human nature probably will not change much eilhc:r. Professional soldiers hJ.vemuch 10 lum from Wolld War 11. AI the p~nl time, thl.:re is uncenaintyover ....hen.: the Uruted St3leS wiUemploy ilS fOf'CC$ln the future. World War II ..~ a worldwideconmCl. Its en&~gcmcnts were foughl in pr:r.c:ti .aU)' evel)' existing envi runm elll, fmm lhe jungle III Lhe deKn, flOlllthe deep wood, 10 the arctic. AI a minimum. memo'tli by veterans "'ho fough! in all thoK environments will continue 10 prov ide info""ation on combat and on the perfo""atlCC of common wk.s in $uch vlriallCmt'n. VetelWlS of World Wu II cenainly ~wd be encou~cd to wrile memoil'J ofLh:i r wanime cxpcri· encn. 1I0wever, in .... riting Ihc:sc: mernoitli, Lhey must not write wilh lheir coallimiled merely 10 remirrlscing. 1lley mould Kck 10 pA)vide Lhe best possible hisloT}'. 'They also should choose to usc: Ihc:ir memoirs 10~_ Veterans must UK facts. romeiously ;and dili~t1y avoiding e... gger;ulon. In this way. their memoirs QII overcome the concc:rru expressed by Fn:c:man and othcl'J. andlhc:y e:tn help eosu re lhal the hislOry of their

    "li

    JO

    HIJIOry 11M /f) OlM' pviooicaJs. He ItokU (Ill M.It . ill Mark £dmdnd Clarl: 1$ all inslrllelar al 1M Coll~g~ 0/ N"" Roculu twJ a Ir~q/U1Il Cf)IIfrllnlllK fQ A.rmy

    A_';C,M hilfOl)' 1m", Columbia aNi a J .D. degree Imlll GearteIO''''.." LawCtllltr.

    Notes l. George S. Panon, Jr., WIlT tJ.Il KII~ 1/. 201h ed. (New 'fork: Bantam Books. 1979). P. n. 2. Willi;un Manchc:lrter. Amuic.... CtKJ4r; /JoI
    4. Ibid. !I. ctwtes B. MlIICDomld. COftl{'QnyComtMltMr(Ncw Yolt.: Bantam Books. 1978). 6. Palton. War tJ.Il K_lt, p. xiv . 7. Ibid. S. Omar N. Bradley. A GtM:,a/', Lift (New Yo lt.: SimQll m:I Sl:hust('1. 1983). p. 9. 9. Ibid .. PII. 9-10: Omar N. Bradley. A Solditr' $ S/()I'")' (N~w York: Henry 11011 iUld Company. Inc:., 19!1 1). 10. Panon. War tJ.I f K_lr. p. xv . II. F~deral Ruitl ofEvwN:elor UfliledSI(Utl Cowr/I (Sl Paul. MifVl: West Publi$hinS Co., 1993). pp. 62·

    63: Jolvl William SU(lnl. ed .• M cCormick"", Evl· lk'lu. 4 l/"1 cd. (SI. Paul, MifVl: WesJ Publishill3 Co .• 1992), PII. 90-91. 12. McCf)Tlllick f)II £v/4tllCt. p. 91. 13. Alben C. Wedemeyer, WeMlM)'tr Reports! (New Yolt.: Henry Holl &: Company, 1958), p. 43 3. 14. Bradley, Jt Soldier's Story, p. ix. I'. Harold Lcinb&Jghlnd JohnCampbcll. TheMtllof Company K (New Yo rk : WiLl ia.m Morrow iUld Com. pany, Inc., 1985). 16. Ibid ., PII. vij .h:. 17. Ibid .• PII. 130, 131. 18. Ibid., p. 130. 19.Ltr. Albe n N. Garland 10 aulhor. 6Mar90. Inc:ludc$ his commc:nts OIllh Me" 0{ COIIIfXV'y K. 20. Lelnhautil and Campbell, TIle Mell ofCarnpallY K. pp. 137·3B.

    lellers to the Editor EdilOr: As one oflhe ASTP(Anny SpecialbedTraining PTOgram) lr.Iinecs.1 found L.ouls Kcx.fe'·$line anic1c on the program (Winter 1m, No. 33) $tirffii uppoigrwll memoriC1i 1 h.1d loog f\!rgotlcn. I was 11 Michigan Slale Universi1y slruggling wilhcnginccring, for .... hich I knew ill my hean I ~d littie Well, but deallrJy afraid thai if I flunked diffcn:1l1al iUld inlCgnl calculus I would lind myself In the IIrt1chei.. Befon: thaI COUld happen. !.he program folded and I found myself on the wlyto the: Soulh Pacific. Ah. hul while il lastcd .... As !.he much latcr song lias it: ""Tho$c wen: the daY' my friend, we IhouZtll they'd never end •.•. • As 10 the blue and sold v.ouldcr patch. oXp!ctin& lhe 5WOTd Of valor supC'rimpostd on !.he lamp of leaming. I suspect Mr. !Coder knew (hill ihuUllhl II improper in I publication such as lhis) 10 set down our infonnal description of the pitch: TIle Aam.in& PiSSflOl. Douglas Pike DirttlOl". lndochillll ArdJive lnslilulc of Ea~t ASian Studies Univcnily of california. Berke1cy

    31

    Book Reviews

    Book

    Rt~lcw

    by J Lldi lh A.

    Bf:llaf\Ji~

    Tht MtJlfhalUIf Prajtcl; A. SUrtt Wammr MinilHl Edi,oo by KHI~UI M . Dei/e h Di!iCO~ery En'frpri,.,,, L' d. 64 pp. $4.95. ~ M IlIIhtJIlan P' tljrcl : A. SteW WtJrrlmrMiJJitJn il a small, portet ·sized ~tlhlllle IIIIhe ~/'IllCdiVC5 00 HistDry fCrinofOiSQ)Vcry Entcrprises. Lid. The Mok includes I fifteell·page inuoouciion by Deitch, fol· lo~ by nine ·'C~·wiUleSS" aca.>unlll of Ihc projeCt, all of which W"CI'C written fon ylo fifty years ago and published pre~iou5ly In autobiOllrllp/1ies and magazine and newspaper ankles. TIle n,:milliscences cover a Vlncty of pcrspcaivcs. and include thMc ofGenero Leslie Gft)ves, Ihe Anny officer in ctwJc of Ihc Manhattan PmJecl: WUrli hmli, wi r., of \he scienti!l Ennre Fennl, working aI Los Alamos; newspaper rcpOl1Cr William Laun;noc, who will"lfss¢d \he fi1'$l teSI of lhc alomk bomb in the New Mexican dellCn; Colonel Paul Tibbets, C(lmm;illder of!he "Enola Gay," lhe 8·29 wh.lch dropped the first bomb 00 lIil'O:lhima; Dr. Terufumi ~.on duly al!he Red Cros5 HoSpilal in Hiroshima on !he day lhc alomlc bomb feU: and Dr. Roben Oppenheimer, !he civl1l;an scierui¥t and leader of1he Manhlltan Project. Deiu;h's i~rodLlClion distills oomple~ scienlinc Iheoriu usro illihe developmelll of the: atumic bomb imo severo ~;utably reCCIlt paragnphs which Illy layman can understand. "This aJonc is ~y "'Onh !he price ofllle Mok. But the intfOductlon IIso covers the scicnline di5COverics which led 10 !he ability to develop the bomb, and suceillClly desclibcs the .clivi· ties at c.:h ofllle fl~., difTerem Manh.:lIl.)n projecl sitCi in the United Stales: Los Alamos, New Me~ioo: Oak Ridge, Tcl"f"lCS9:C: the Uni~"l'Jily ofOlicago; !he Uni· vtrsity of Califoml~ II Be rt.clcy. and the Ilanfo rd Engil1C(;r Works on !he Columbia River In the !I31e o f

    describes the lifestyle and atmosphere at Los Alamos. Fenn; quoteS Ocnerlll ORlVClI II saying ·'At great expense: we NlVC gathered tognhcr on thI.s mesa lhc: largest oollcClion of era.ckpou ever seen:' and demy brings the ~r 101 clear Ilr>derstanding of how the neeob of thi. ,II)IlP of brilliant. cgocenuic scientistS wort.illg under illlCnse ~$l>Ure in ex~mcly isolaled and primitive cor.ditioll$lcd 10 IIle development of a deckledJy pa!ermlistic atmosphere . Fermi explains that .,~cn "urul:llled- wives were cneoul1l&Od 10 work on the projeet. Oencal help w~ dcSjX"r.ltely nccdcd. 01.1 Loa! Alamos. and those;n charge felt that busy wives _lei be kept -out of mllChitf:· William L. Laurence. thelC;cnccrcponcrallo....w tow;I/IeSS the: fiM lesl of/he atomic bomb, eaptum;! the tense unccnainty lead i nllO insl.1ntlllOO\l.S drama of the: first moment il was I~renl that the exp!o:sion WIll. SIIecess. '""The little grollps thai had llitheno $lOOd rooted to the: canh like desert plants broke into tbncc1hey clapped !heir hands ;tS lhcy leaped fRlfll the gl"Ollnd-the mythm of primitive man cbncin, II one of hi, fire feSlival, al Ihe comins of spring.'" This section also includes a copy of I new~per anicle p!'eP'm;! by the Anny and tivcn to !he AsSOci.lloo Prns tQ lAIppi Y expl mation Orlhe ex pl05lon , which wu seen by people ill the AriwnllOwns ofSilveraly. Gallup, and Albuquerque. TIle anlcle SI.1telWI an ammunilion dump 31 A1amlsm"do Airb.1sc oonu.ining a "consiokrab1e amount Qf e~plosivcs and pyroccch· nics" was iWliloo by Ilghllling. UlUrence's reminis· cences an: uce1JllOO from Men "ltd A/QfILI : Tlte Du·

    an

    r

    tOlltry, Iltt UJU WId Iht Future

    of Awmt~

    EM' V

    published in 1959 by Simon ar>d &:huster. The scleClion by Paul Tibbets is ~printed frocn an aniele .... hich ran in !he S~un13y Evening Post in 1946 by Wesley Price . Price qUOtes Tibbcl$ as s.ayinll'''The bomb dropped. I pulled the: 3lltiglare Boggles Oller my eyes. I oouldn'l sec OUI oflhcm . I was blind. I threw !hem 10 IIle Roor. A bri,htlight fille
    W~shin8ton

    The inllodUCIion thus lills • $ignlfit;Jll1 g~ in historical SIIJ:lies of the Manhallan Projeel. FeWIlOllsci ml; fic SI udics, or even sum rna riell. of the Manllallan project a, I .... hole exist. Varied perspectives make this sm;!!1 book • boon 10 srudcnt.s. arid the gcnero relder. Thc i~ghll\il excerpt frum LaUI"iI Fenni"s book IIlomJ ill lh~ Family : My Liff With [:1Ir/, 0 Ffrmi. fi rst printed in 1954 by the Uni~el"llity of Olkago I'm$.

    32

    1.650 yards from the emlcr of the c~pIosion. Sasaki lost his ,I;wes and shoes in Ihc biasL Hc ....as the only doctor ill the IIospital wt.;, was IlOl hurt, &lid only Icn nurses OUI of two hundred 5u,...iv~ . n.:: ambul;uoty hospilal starr wor1t;cd days on end 1n'!~linl t.;,spilal pWenu wounded In the blast and !hose residenlS of!he city wt.;, _I!: ablc !O make Ihcir way to !he hDspital . Unfortun3lely.1hc fe .... pages IOIken from General I...e$IIc Grovcs' aulobiouaphy. Haw II CQII St ToUl: 1M SUXYc(llIt MllIIhatran Pro/tel, published in 19(i2, do 110( do justice !O the stn:fIi\h and dyrwni$m of Ihi$ rem.r1t;1bIe ICadeT. Numerous o!her ~ions of Ihc aUlobio,rapl\Y cou.ld have been 1I1i1i ~.ed LO beuer UIIder$Und ho .... Groves worked and ilLs impKt oolhc MWWLan ProjecL Robe" Oppenheimer's v",~ and a.... k.... ardIy writ_ lI:n philosophical di~ oolhc development of Ihc a\O!ll bomb lSI similarly l11..chosen eoncillsion LO LItis valuable iflllleVerI lilLie book. A oonr;lusion .... rillm by Dellctl hilll5elf WOUld undoubtedly have provide!J a mOll: lucid and lhoughl ·provokin& analysis Of Ihc impac;tofthe 1l0III bomb on modem socidy. Dr. JIIIliIIl A. Btllafolrt is II hi.s1Of10il in 1M Fltld ond INUlIlUioMl Br/JIICII of tht etNtr'S FU!/d Prollrams ond I/IslO,icol Strvicu Divisioll. TIvQlighoul lilt filillll t1MiVlrJDry c~
    publisb::d. Wellhu.1 y'lId: ani" and photographer. b uniqutly quallfled for Ihls wk. The inlroducllon ..... riltal by lhe ofrlCial Yank hisIOrian. Annie Davis Weeu. provides a briefovervie .... orthe ","kly plCIOriai ne .... spaper. and SIn'!SSl'S Ihc racl !hat Yod .... as I ne:wsp.1per for enlisted men and .... rinrn by enlisled men ..... ith no cdilOrill ovcnlgtu by officers or Anny LeaLIers. The ;nlroduClion c.mfully delineates Ihc dlffcrtnCe$ belwcen Yank and lIS &iSler neWSJ»I)C r. Sla'$ and Siriptl. a daily TICwsp;Iper ..... ril· len and cdi!ed by Annyoff..:ers. Weeu also rtminds !he reaLler th.1I Ylld .... as I world .... ide cnltrprise. with editorial offices in every lhe~lcrorche .... ar. publlsh.ing J(II"OOIWCfUY-one 8CPUUC edillons. 'The body of the book. oonsisu of ~ scrles of ll:milli llCCrccs from fOfty diffcrcm Yank wrrcspondenlS. UnfOTtU!UlI'!ly, these Ire IlOl pn:sented in any particular onler. I.e .• chlOlIOJoglcally or by \he:uer. 1lIis problem Jlems from !he f.)Ct lllal many of the oonespondclIlS war1t;ed ill v~rious thealen. As !he Jt.lrnIivCS are orgmittd around the eomspol'ldems, Ihc ll:ader finds himself moving from Ihc dealh of Franklin D. Roosevell to !he baILie for Guadalcan
    -.

    For the mose pan. the book sllck.s 10 lmlini!lCel'lCe$ and "Ihc stories behind the swrk:s.." In a cou.pIe of

    cases. hO,"",ver. Wci!h3 docs iocJude actualll:prinled slones from y"nA:. These exccption:s usuaUy involve IlIlCIVicws withlhc:uercommandcrs. Ed CuminJlwn'$ lntervie .... with General Joseph SLilwell and Newt Olipham'5 inlervie........ ith Admiral ChcsterNimicz a~ ~scnted along with !heir c~plmJtions of how Ihese intervie .... s _ll: oOOllncd. CuMlngham discovered Lh:u Stilwcll ....u In Ihe habil of going 10 Ihc blline al Ihc same lime every momillg. and was disp;l:;cd 10 Ullk .... Illie the 1"'0 men""'::ll: siuing side by side. There WCII: signirlCInI difCcll:JlC:C$ bcI ...-co:n the; experiences of the enlislcd Yallk com:spondenlS and those of the civiUan com:spondenlS fl'!!l1l other news· J»I)CTS and from r3dio TICIWOrlu. For e~a/llple ..... hell Ouie SI.GcorgCand fello .... oom:spondelU Dick. ll anley wcre OO'Itling che invasIon of Cape GlouSlCr. Nc .... Britain. with IhI:: hI Marine Division. the two men WCll: "volunLo:crtd·· by. marine: scrgcanlW 1'1:1111 ammllnilion flOlll !he beaches 10 division headqualtCl1 . The same scTieam then onlell:d the IWO!O stand guani 1./131 nighl bet.... een 2200 and 2400. armed .... ith two bolTOwcd Mis and a gn.:n.3de apiece. Neither man h.ad eve r stood guard duly before. The SCfiCaRt inSlructed

    Book Revie .... by Michul Htlll fa l~ CIlIft to Glory: Tilt Ulltold Sioritl Of WWIJ by thl Gil Wllo 5<1_ OM RlpGrttdllll WIlI'-YO/l.t M/JIIl::illt

    by Art Wtllhas Eakin Prus (Sunl)el[ Mfd la, Inc.). 288

    pp~

    $.24.95

    This volume Is lcompibllon of rtminiscena';S and anecdotes .... rinen by YonA: oorrespon'kms {writers. artisu. and phowgr.lplle:rs)during World War 11 and 11$ immediate Iflcnnall. These !ROlics arc derived from original contspondence e~changed bel .... ct:n the reo pOners and Ihcir sUlULde edilor. Joe McClrthy. In his pll:facc, Wellhu Slales thaI he did 110( .... al'l to ttpeill or compete .... ith the .o;everal anlholo,ics .... hich altady have boen ~ on YonA:. In which sclected.dllmatic stories hl~ beell rcprinL~ , insleaLI. he .... anted to \CU the "behind the scellC5 swnes" from Ihc pel'$pCClives of Ihe COrrapondc:nts Ihcmsclvnho .... Ihcy gOI theIr swrin and how !hey gOi them

    33

    them in the u~ ofa grenade: ··Yo ... hold the hlecplng put )'otlr bla:ping linger in the blC(ping ring and then you blttping throw it.~ Durinj; ~r .... alch. St. ~ U>d Hanley heard something mov· Ing around In underbrush IIhead of them. Despite fun of an impending lNul:1Ji ch.uge. the IWO correspon· o;ienlll nonetheless did not chalk:nge the '~nuuders" or thm .... thelrgrnwlcs. bul merely .... allOl1oul the mom· ing. WiUlam B~1l McGurn described being wou!"dw • Bougainville .... hile he was on mienmcnl interview· ing medics. According 10 McGu rn, he sa .... a bush in fmm o f him uplode. and ftlllike he had been " hit by I baseball baL" UIoking for IUs pockel oolebook. he looIna:ntl1llcd on slills IhIs time. ~U!iC I anxious 1000 a betlerjohlllan my tripto theGilbens.. ~ Bli5hem l WI.'I killed on the island of EI1iwelOk j ... st day~ after wriling his repem from Kwajalci n. One Rktwtlsoo's l.$5itnmCllI had him on thc m()ve .... ith " Merrill's Ma rauden" in Burma. R ichardson marched silty miles through the jungle .... ith the Marauders and willlCsKd lile baIlie for Myitkyina airstrip. He then par.JChutetl behind Japanese lines in Burml and p;lnicip.:uw in lrainin, Stun IlU(rril1a:s In the use ofbal:ook~. monars, and machine 1l\lll5. Richardson used his uperienccs coverin, the infiUllry for rWLt to dl.$guiK the bet thaI he wa.~ IIOl prolicie.. In the use ()r these Wl:aponL Correspondents also scnl in repom fmm the home front . Mack Morriss, fo r example. wmle I ~(01)' about • German prisonerof ....Meamp in Al~a. Oklahoml. To let !he Story. he intervin"«Illuan.lsas _II as Gennillll o fficers anti enlisted men. One officer told Morri$$ why the prl~n n:fu!ied 10 gm .... a garden. They bclic~ed that by doinl: so they \lll(\Uld rontribul c in some small w.y to the American WM elTon: "E~cn though Ihe produc:e WQljltl be eon.wmed by us. lhe food lha! you would nol have 10 provide U~ "'"Ould go l() your o .... n SOldierJ ......

    From a historian's poinl of vicw, the ~ader might

    le~er the~ and

    lum m()re 'fthe reminisccna:sand an.ecdoushatl bto.:n ])
    misses a gre3t deal of the informal ion and detail in. cluded in the published slories. For example. corre· spondent Walter ~mslcin's 1e~r 10 Joe Mccant\y from Algierson S May 1944, describes. wal kinS uip behind enemy lines for I r.r.~ inlerview wilh TIIO, leader of the p;lnisan guerrilla fora:s in Yugosla~la. Bemstel n ' s lentr provides details about how he and his guldell avoided (krman 5CIlIries. but the leiter lca~es the reader with a desitl: 10 soc Ille aclual r"n! Slory. What did TIIO say? Whal .... ere hi s goals? Why WIS he fi~;",? Wh:uwuhelike? Andwh.lIwuBemstein'li opinion of him-wlS he. hem or alytltll1 Wcithas 00es not provide the book with I conel.... sion or summ aI)'. Instead. he uses w words of Yank photo~phcr Bill Youns. assigned 10 !he Tokyo. h · p3Il.<;>flicc.10 wrap up the book: " How mlllY times 1 thought c~ery minute would be my l:w.. I tried to live it up 10 the limlL by God." The reader is left looking for I syml'es.is IIuI would tlllw al ilhese dilparale acc:ountli tol:ether. II is doubtful whether Young's words succeed. Civilian correspondentli who covcml World War Il anti Korealuve wrilten numel"OllS hooks ibwl their

    w.

    lIow is this book diffe~nl? Y"n.I; and correspondents had the same kinds of Id~en· IUre.~. difficuhicl. alld dangers. resullinll in 5i mllar vigneltes. victorino and journalist!iCOOpS. The: per· spective or this booIo:. is unique in Ih3;I il represeru the Clpcricnces of the enlisloo man is .... u correspondem . Allhough I few redoubtable Civ ilian reportcr'$ made II to lhc ft(WlllineS and eJ
    M lchat'l P. Bel/af"I, e is" hiJlOriIut wirJo OffICe t( IIll/OrJ. U.S. I..,,,,, MQ/uiel Ct:HtlmQM 111 Alumtdrw. Vi'ti~iQ . PreviQ .... ly. he .
    fAllr,urs. Fan Bt/voir. VI'gilli".

    34

    Book Kto'if:w by St~nlty 1.. r alk Wit.... OIlIJ Iht WIU.IO UI't.- AccoUlUS 01 Allftrit,,.,

    III j aptlfltu Proo" CII".PS, 194/_1945 Kobert S. Larorle, Rl,lmdd E. Marcello, lind Klchard lIimmtl, NJ. Schola rly R60urces Books. Z86 pp., $24.95

    Thbis the thild vGlume GfWorld War Jl personal lCCOunLS III be drawn fmm the larte collection of inlCrvlcw$ concIuctcd ovcr the past IVO't'nly.five)'Cars by the UniveBity Gf NGnh Texas Oral HislOry Provam. The fiB! tWQ ¥illumes. edIted by Drs. koben LaFon.: and Ronald MlrceLlo. inclOOcd lCSIimony by American vcter~ of the Ptarlll:ubor IUtad" iIIld by fGnner American prisoncrsGf "'arllo'oo had bttn fGrted by the Japanae 10 work on !he infamous Siam-Bunna railway. The p~nt vGlume, with the additional coeditina GfProf. Rich;ltd Himmel, is a broad crran III cover!he whole ranae Gf American POW CAperieI\CC In \be Pacific. MGlt Gfibc: inte rviews _re Conducted hy the edltGrs. who I\Jve done: In iJnpteUlve job Gf orga· ruzing and uplaining the material presentoo . WI,h Ollly Iht Will /0 Li.~ invites comparison willi Donald K •.:u·s carlie roral history. Dtm.... MIVC .... .- TM SUf1Il_sI.(Bat(UIII (l9S I). !Cnox'$ work was limi ted tG those Americanscapl.un;:d in the: Phil ippines in 1942. buuince they ronstituICd II~ percent of all Americans held prisoner b)' the 1apanese, their stories all: II:~­ SCntati ve of ilm06t the entire POW experience. LaForte. Mart(llo. and Himmel il"ll:tude Slatcmenu by those captured elsewhere as well, and thus provide !SOme infunn3110n not found In the Kno~ book. Bco.;ause of my G"Tldose association with Ihelattcr. 1111'.11 not orrer a qualitative compari:;on of !he IWG books, bul merely will point out a few di rrtre~. Wi,h Only 1M Will 10 UVt Is Ofgani~ed lopically, w im the ma~rial a rr""ged accord,n!: tu a va riel y of kt y wbjel..1 area! and iUNreu. Dtol.... Marcil Is orpni;ced moo: Gr less du"Onolopeally, allow;n!: the reao;k:r to fOllOw in gmerallhc course o/comNt. captu re , captiv· Ity,aoo libc:ralion. Both volumes contain background and uplanatory malerial. but LaFOr1c tl a/. pnwide arcalcr &nalysls. Knox', compilalion is larger and in some "'IYS more COfIlpfChensive. ircluding testimuny by medical pers(lf'Inel a~ ... elllS statements aboullhe defense Gf Batun. With Only lilt Will 10 Liu. whik lack,n, this maccrial. ncvenheless oontaill5 rcpo
    and also I useful iOOn and bibliO&QPhy, which Knox omilted. Neither volume in<:ludes stalements by 8-29 crews shot do'NTl Gvcr b p;tll: Knox for obviuus n:asons, Uf'Ont; tl uJ. for no smed reason. The tWO books. in fact, complemenl each olllcrwi are. by the same wken. ovcriappilli and dupl icativc. The SIOf)' of Iht American priSO/lell Gf JafWl has been wId many limes bc:fore: in published memGirs and di;uiu, in the Knox and C2IrlierUFonc · Mm:cllo un! hiSlOrles. and in secondary aecounts. Wilh Only the Will w Live thus addS liltle of signlflcance to mll1erial already in prinL II is. however. bandy. ~U organlu:d. and enh:w:ed by thoughtful editorial com· mrnts-a useful refercnc:e for rcllllcrs 001 already familiar with '1$ subj«!.

    Dr. Stoflley L. Folklormerly waf chid hislorlolt of rile U.s. Air Fq,u. Ht is rlte(IJIJltMO/a _k,ojbtJotJ abow W",id. War /I ilt Iht PQt:ific. inc/wi/Itt Salaan: The March of nealh IlM.!ll" edilor. Fuo. A JapaneseAmerican Prisoner uf the Rising Sun: The Sccn:1 Prison Diary GfFIVIk "FocI" Fujita.

    Rook Review by Arnuld G. t1sch, Jr. T .... t Amtrlcofl MjJjlary Trodilio,,: Prom Colq,,/ol TIIIV' /a Iht PflU lI1 John M . C.,roll and Colin r . Baxler . cds. Seholarly RfllOurCH.. 246 pp., $15.95 (p~~rbound)

    ProfessuBJulmCarmll and CGlin B~xteran: alumni of the TR. ADOC (U.S. Anny Tnlnlns and Doctrine Command) ROTC work~ in milillry history. a poslgrar:luate progr.un 10 provide civilian college profuson ... ilh the acldcmic lOObnc:e
    "

    reads eully and should be I wclaJme addition to !he military histOry litcnture. particul;u1y for nonmilitary hiSlOry majors. Ally such collcclionof essays is bound to be II/lI:ven. howo:vtt. and this book is no exccption; some: of the offcrings simply .re hener conceived and eraned than OIhcrs. but all of them have somClhing to o lTe r. Ccruin items may prompt Individual readers to cavil. We Inm Lhat Flll(Ierich von SlCubcn .....!.aught !he Pnlsslan driU II Valley Forge ..•:' (p. 25), It could be: elcan:r \.IIat the Pru~an:s relied on the FrcnclI ~ystC m . especially since wo: arc: told (p. 26) tNt the f rench be<:ame America's mililllry tuton; aflu the American Revolution. In '"TlIc Pacific WM" theauthol' relies on swJslles (p. 172) to convey the IIonvr of the balile for Oki nawa . The horror was real; UlC numllc/li prob.1l'lly less exact than as presented. This up·to-dale volume irdudcs Joseph A. Stoul. Jr. 's c>
    Dr.ArIfQldG.Fuch,Jr.. i3 chl'lo{ IhcCnlu's Field /1M Irue, 1ItlIiDnaI 8'/l1li:11 IINI ,""""giltl cdi.llW 0{ Ann y HisUlry. lie IS Ihe (JJI.1Iri), ti Military Govcrn· ment in the It)'llkyu Jslllnd~. ]94.1-195-0.

    Dr. .Iohn G~nwood's IooJc at "\e$SOnS lumin;." with U. S. Anny obscrversduring the RUSSO·Japanese Wa r (Ftbt\lary 1~·September 19(5).

    Col. Richard R ;~ardcUl's euminalion of Bomer Lea', Irnporta/lCt. as a miliwy 5ll1ltegisl.

    Dr. Robe" J.T. Joy's rc:vicw of Louis Keerer's Slulltgri·l.iJ!tI' WOfllldtd So/diu, : 11Ie G,u
    UEPARTMENT 0)0' TlIF. ARMY THE CHIEF OF MILITARY HISTORY AND

    THE CENfER OF MILITARY HISTORY 1099 14th Street, N.W . W ASHINQTON, D.C. 20005-3402

    OffiCIAL BUSINESS PENALTY FOR PR I VAn: USE $JOO

    J6