Background Information - Environment, Planning and Sustainable

Background Information - Environment, Planning and Sustainable

FEBRUARY 2017 BACKGROUND INFORMATION Old Land’s End (Part Block 1591 Belconnen) At its meeting of 9 February the ACT Heritage Council decided that Ol...

2MB Sizes 0 Downloads 13 Views

Recommend Documents

Background Information - Environment, Planning and Sustainable
Apr 9, 2015 - groups from the coast, the lower Lachlan and Murrumbidgee Rivers and all neighbouring regions in between w

Authorisation No. 0788 - Environment, Planning and Sustainable
AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY. ENVIRONMENTAL AUTHORISATION UNDER THE. ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION ACT 1997. The Environment Pr

Organisation Chart - Environment, Planning and Sustainable
Sep 19, 2017 - Paul Lewis. Urban Projects. Graham Munday. Director, ACT Parks &. Conservation Service. Daniel Iglesias.

Municipality Background Information Grant - Sustainable Jersey
Project Title. Complete Streets for Chester Township and Chester Borough ... *Only New Jersey municipalities are eligibl

Slavery Background information - Scotdec
Conditions on the plantations. Most enslaved Africans were sold to a plantation to either work in the fields, or as dome

background information - ABC15 Arizona
Jan 7, 2010 - SUBJECT: Consideration of Certificate Surrender of David Robertson, C-2009-136. SUBMITTED BY: Charles Eas

sustainable cities - Global Environment Facility
With the Sustainable Cities Integrated Program, the GEF will support participating ... Some successful examples include

Sustainable Urban Planning
Jan 2, 2011 - ies: Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai,. Bangalore .... of Delhi's Heritage and Planning for ... Jain A.K.,

spatial planning and environment - IRC Wash
E.N.P.C. Ecole nationale des ponts et chaussees. E.N.T.P.E. Ecole nationale des travaux publics de I'Etat. F.A.S.E.P.. F

Cherokee Hunting and Hunters Background Information
Cherokee and the US Government and reestablish the boundaries between the two. ... Native American, helped rebuild the d

FEBRUARY 2017

BACKGROUND INFORMATION Old Land’s End (Part Block 1591 Belconnen) At its meeting of 9 February the ACT Heritage Council decided that Old Land’s End was not eligible for provisional registration. The information contained in this report was considered by the ACT Heritage Council in assessing the nomination for Old Land’s End against the heritage significance criteria outlined in s10 of the Heritage Act 2004. HISTORY In considering the history of Old Land’s End, the ACT Heritage Council acknowledges that the Ngunnawal people are traditionally affiliated with the lands in the Canberra region within and beyond contemporary ACT borders. In this citation, ‘Aboriginal community’ refers to the Ngunnawal people and other Aboriginal groups within the ACT for whom places within the Canberra region are significant. These places attest to a rich history of Aboriginal occupation extending from 25, 000 years ago, as indicated by the Birrigai Rock Shelter, into the 19th century colonial period. They show that Aboriginal people continued living traditionally in the region through to the 1870s-80s. During the 19th century, traditional Aboriginal society in colonised areas suffered dramatic de-population and alienation from traditional land-based resources. In the Canberra region some important institutions such as intertribal gatherings were retained in some degree at least until the 1860s. Within a 500 metre radius of Old Land’s End, several Aboriginal places have been recorded, and are listed on the ACT Heritage Register. WB1 is a scarred tree, about 100 metres north of Old Land’s End, recorded in 1991 by Kerry Navin and Kelvin Officer. Several stone artefact scatters have also been recorded, north, and north east of the Old Land’s End site (WB2 and WB3) and these have also been listed on the ACT Heritage Register: http://www.environment.act.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/148539/1172.pdf Pre-Federal Capital Period During the 19th century, Canberra was a rural settlement that grew organically. This settlement was diametrically different to that established during the Federal Capital phase, as it was not guided by formal planning principles. At this time, the settlement comprised a network of large pastoral estates, stations and villages concentrated on the Limestone Plains, today the suburbs of Canberra and in the narrow valleys of Orroral, Gudgenby and Naas, and along the banks of the Murrumbidgee River in the southern part of the Territory (O’Sullivan and Huys 2011: 9). A result of transforming Canberra into an urban centre after the formation of the Federal Capital Territory was that significant amounts of physical evidence of the 19th century settlement pattern, including homesteads and their outbuildings, were modified or destroyed. Many buildings were demolished as the 1

BACKGROUND INFORMATION – Old Land’s End

Capital encroached upon rural properties to accommodate the sprawling city and archaeological deposits were disturbed through construction works. European settlement of Canberra during the 19th and early 20th centuries can be divided into two main cultural phases: 1. The initial European settlement of Canberra (1820-1850) after European exploration of the Limestone Plains and the Murrumbidgee River and subsequent establishment of permanent occupation of the region; and 2. The consolidation period (1850-1911) commencing in the 1850s during the gold rush period and the introduction of Robertson’s Land Acts in the 1860s.

Phase I: Initial settlement of Canberra 1820-1850 European interest in the Limestone Plains began in the 1820s, when Charles Throsby entered the region, carrying out a survey in order to define the road for the Goulburn Plains. He first heard of the area when Aboriginal informants spoke of Lake George; Wee-ree-wah, it was called. In 1821, Throsby reached the Murrumbidgee River, near Tuggeranong (Gillespie 1991: 2-6). Early European settlement in the ACT was established through the acquisition of land grants and the practice of squatting. In 1829 the NSW government proclaimed that the Limestone Plains, today the ACT, formed part of two counties, Murray and Cowley. The Murrumbidgee River that runs south-east to northwest through the region was the boundary between the counties. The County of Murray extended as far north as Lake George and was bounded on its western side by the Murrumbidgee and by the Shoalhaven River to the east. The Murrumbidgee River formed the southern and eastern limits of the County of Cowley and the Goodradigbee River of the Snowy Mountains, the western boundary. At this time, the counties were divided into smaller units called parishes. This proclamation provided the Government with the formal legal power to sell and grant land with the proclaimed areas, as well as formally permit permanent settlement. During this early phase, life was difficult on the Limestone Plains. The infrastructure was poor; there were no roads or rail services and the mounted police were located a considerable distance away from the area (Gillespie 1991: 23-25). By the mid 1830s, the conditions improved, as postal services were established in Queanbeyan, the urban centre of the Limestone Plains, and by 1838, Queanbeyan also had a blacksmith, a store and a police magistrate (Gillespie 1991: 23-25; Young 2007:7). Phase II: Consolidation Period 1850-1911 Settlement of Canberra continued to consolidate as gold was discovered east of Queanbeyan in the 1850s (Lea-Scarlett 1968: 243-253). Towns prospered in areas such as Captains Flat as a result of mineral exploitation, while the agricultural industry expanded, particularly as there was increasing demand on farmers to provide goods, such as wheat, to feed an influx of people, a consequence of the gold diggings at Kiandra, Araluen, and Majors Creek (Gillespie 1991: 130). In 1862, the first township of what is now the ACT, called Tharwa, was established in the County of Cowley and was located on the road en route to Kiandra (Gillespie 1991: 128-129). As the diggings dried up, many people, returning from the goldfields, settled in the region. In 1861, the NSW Lands Minister introduced the Crowns Lands Alienation Act and the Crown Lands Occupation Act, collectively known as the Robertson Land Acts or Free Selection Acts. These Acts allowed that any individual to choose a block of Crown Land between 40 and 320 acres at a fixed price of £1 ($2) per 2

BACKGROUND INFORMATION – Old Land’s End

acre. The purchase conditions required minimum improvements within a three year period. The primary aim of the Free Selection Acts was to ensure equal opportunity and access to land, while producing stable rural communities ‘and a class of contented and prosperous settlers’ (Waterhouse 2005: 25,30; Dingle 2000: 59). Initially, the Acts had limited effect in Canberra, as much of the best land had already been acquired by squatters. However, free-selectors took up small conditional holdings in the periphery of the Limestone Plains in the forested areas in Parishes of Goorroyarro (Gungahlin), Amungula (Kowen) and Yarrolumla (Molonglo) and also in the narrow valleys of the County of Cowley (Gillespie 1991: 51). Many settlers purchased holdings that were not suitable for agricultural production and too small for grazing livestock. The Acts also encouraged many people with little capital at their disposal to travel to rural areas (Dingle 2000: 59). With the introduction of the Acts, selectors began to occupy smaller holdings (Pearson 2002: 14). These selections resulted in a denser and more varied population than the previous large pastoralist holdings. The Robertson Land Acts required selectors to reside on their land, resulting in an increase in the area’s population (Pearson, 2002: 14). It was during this period that William and Robert Kilby selected portions in the Parish of Weetangera where they built the homestead ‘Old Land’s End’ and became part of the community that developed with closer settlement. It was often a high priority for settlers such as the Kilbys to establish themselves as self sufficient. Land was quickly cleared and crops and gardens were established with wheat, oats, maize, fruit trees and basic vegetables providing some of the staples of life alongside livestock such as cattle. Wheat was an important crop with flour being an essential commodity. Sheep were the main livestock on most of the large holdings in the area, although cattle and horses were also common (Navin Officer, 2010). In 1911, the Federal Capital Territory was established when the Seat of Government (Administration) Act 1910 came into effect and gradually acquired land within its jurisdiction (Gillespie 1991: 247-249). In the County of Murray, the boundaries of the four parishes, Yarrolumla, Canberra, Narrabundah and Gigerline, were dissolved and all land within them was surrendered. As a consequence, many farmers of the region were forced to quit their properties. Some smaller sections of land were resumed from other parishes, including Queanbeyan, Amungula, Pialligo, Ginninderra, Weetangera and Goorooyarroo. Old Land’s End The Old Land’s End property comprised portions 52, 53, 54, and 73, each of 40 acres, in the Parish of Weetangera, County of Murray (see Image 2 and Image 3). Portion 73 was selected by Robert Kilby in 1871 and the remaining portions by his father, William, shortly after. Robert Kilby and his wife, Jane, built a slab house on Portion 52 (Saunders 1992). The portion plan from 5th September 1871 shows a garden and hut on the block (Image 3). The family legend is that, lamenting belated news of a friend’s death, Jane Kilby said, “We never hear anything in this land’s end of a place.” Husband Robert picked her up quickly and said, “Land’s End, that’s the very name for our place” (Canberra Times 1970). Robert and Jane Kilby’s daughter, Edith, married neighbour Evan Cameron and, in 1917, when the area became Federal Capital Territory leasehold, Evan Cameron obtained the lease of Old Land’s End and an adjoining property, becoming one of the first lessees in the Federal Capital Territory. In 1925 the Camerons built the present Land’s End Homestead, about 1300 metres north of the original, demolishing the old house and using the slabs in sheds at the new site (Saunders 1992). 3

BACKGROUND INFORMATION – Old Land’s End

The second homestead was of weatherboard construction, and as of 2016 is situated on a separate rural block (1592 Belconnen). The Kilbys William Kilby and his son Robert, aged 16, migrated to Australia from Britain in 1856 after the death of William’s wife and daughter from tuberculosis. William’s sister, Mary, and her husband Edward Smith had already moved to Australia and were living and working in the Weetangera-Ginninderra districts. After enduring family tragedy, William and Robert needed little encouragement from Mary to join her (Campbell 1955). Both the Smiths and Kilbys settled in Weetangera. The Old Land’s End property was not far from Mary Smith’s home (‘the House’) at Weetangera. Samuel Shumack’s memories of the district from 1856 to 1915 (1967) provide first hand insight into the development of the community of small landholders. Other family accounts (eg Kilby 2013) as well as Lyall Gillespie’s (1992) detailed archival research over a century later, provide further evidence of a selfsufficient community which developed through the labour and varied skills of its members as well as through their strong commitment to building a civic life. The activities of generations of the Kilby family exemplify this community culture. They also exemplify the community’s pride in their status as free selectors and the response of many to the creation of the ACT and the resumption of their land by the Federal Government. William and Robert Kilby, like many of their neighbours, had skills which served the district. William was a brick layer and farm labourer. Robert was an apprentice blacksmith when he left England and was known as skilled in building as well as in all farm work (Kilby:13). They did not make their selection of land until some years after Robert had married Jane Webster in 1864. In addition to working with his father on their properties, Robert continued to travel the country during the season as a shearer. He also travelled as a teamster and did duty as a blacksmith, as well as labouring on other properties (Winch 1982: 21). He is remembered as being musical and in great demand at bush dances (Kilby 13). William and Robert also played a part in the development of the community’s religious life. In his later years, William converted to Methodism and became an active member of the Weetangera Methodist congregation whose services at the time were held in a shepherd’s hut (Kilby: 12-13; Gillespie: 60). A few years later, in 1873, a church was built on land on portion 62 next to two of the Kilby blocks and within easy distance of the Old Land’s End site (refer Image 3). William died at the age of 91, and was buried at the Weetangera cemetery, near the burial sites of Edward and Mary Smith (Campbell 1955). It is said there was never a time when a Kilby was not actively involved with the old slab church, which continued its service until 1955, when it was demolished. The site of the old Weetangera Church and the Weetangera cemetery is listed on the ACT Heritage Register. Elizabeth Kilby’s family history records that Robert was a founding member of St Ninian’s Presbyterian Church which held its first service in a slab and bark hut on the site of the present church in what is now Lyneham in 1863 (Gillespie 1992: 59; http://www.stninians.org.au/BriefHistory.htm.) He led the singing before the organ was installed and was a trustee of the burial ground and church property (Kilby: 13). The establishment of the Weetangera Church provided the Kilbys with a much closer place of worship. Robert’s role in singing at Weetangera is also recorded (Cameron and Cameron 1956) and it played a significant part in the lives of his children and grandchildren. For many of the post Robertson Acts selectors who had developed their small holdings and built a community on the basis of deeply held values of independence and self-sufficiency, government acquisition of their freehold land for the Federal Capital Territory, was a disaster. By this time, Robert Kilby’s wife Jane had died and his children were adults. His response to the acquisition of his land is documented in a postscript to Shumack’s book. In 1915 he ‘walked off’ Old Lands End. He died three months later. He is buried in the Hall cemetery alongside Jane. 4

BACKGROUND INFORMATION – Old Land’s End

The way of life exemplified by Old Lands End continued in the lives of the next generations of Kilbys, particularly through Edith Kilby’s marriage to Evan Cameron who took up the lease of the Lands End property from the Federal Government. This supported the long family association with the old homestead site and the Weetangera Church. Community relationships were extended by other marriages and movement to new properties. Notably, James Kinloch Kilby established The Falls immediately over the border in New South Wales and married into the influential Methodist Southwell family who owned the neighbouring property Parkwood as well as Wattle Park near Hall. Both of these properties included churches. James Kilby later moved to Eneagh Hill in Hall and became the owner of Parkwood (Kilby 37-64). From Parkwood further generations of Kilbys regularly travelled to Lands End via what are now Parkwood Spofforth and Stockdill roads in Holt (pers.com Jim Kilby). Community relationships were also extended by an increasing association with the city of Canberra and participation in the development of its civic life. Sidney Kilby who worked on the Yarralumla Property after it became the Governor General’s residence and made connections with a number of early Canberra families is an example of this (Kilby 32-33), as is the Cameron family (see below). The Camerons The Camerons, like the Kilbys, were immigrants and small landholders who contributed actively to the civic life of the Weetangera community. Evan Cameron, who took up the lease of Old Land’s End in 1917 (see above), was the grandson of Donald and Ann Cameron, Scottish immigrants who arrived in Australia in 1839. Soon after arriving in Australia, Donald and Ann came to the Limestone Plains, and eventually moved to the Ginninderra Estate in the Parish of Weetangera. Here Donald oversaw two stations: Emu Bank (present-day site of the Cameron Offices, named after the Cameron Family), and Goat Station, near present-day Coppins Crossing (The Canberra Times 1970). Donald Cameron died in 1853. His sons continued on at the stations and also leased Glebe farm at Ginninderra. The eldest of Donald and Ann Cameron’s children born in Australia, Ewan, selected land for himself after the passing of the Robertson Land Acts and married Annie Smith, daughter of Edward and Mary Smith. He later became the first teacher at Weetangera school when it opened with about 40 pupils. Later he taught in other NSW schools, and five of his eight children took up the profession, teaching in the district and then in Sydney in larger suburban schools (The Canberra Times 1970). Ewan Cameron’s eldest son, Evan, married neighbour Edith Kilby, daughter of Robert and Jane Kilby of Old Land’s End, and stayed on the land (see above). Evan Cameron was, until his death, one of the trustees of the Weetangera Cemetery. He was a founding member of the Canberra and District Historical Society and attended meetings regularly (The NSW Freemason 1956). Heather Shakespeare Heather Gladys Shakespeare (nee Cameron), born 1909 at Weetangera, was the daughter of Evan and Edith Cameron. She was raised at Old Land’s End. Heather was a key figure in the early days of The Canberra Times, the newspaper the Shakespeare family established in 1926 to serve what would be the growing community of Australia’s fledgling national capital. She worked with the Shakespeares through the Great Depression and the associated struggle to ensure the paper’s survival (Farquhrson 2008). She joined the Canberra Times in 1929 as a secretary-stenographer to the managing director, Thomas (T.M.) Shakespeare. She stayed for 33 years, becoming the company secretary and later a director of the company. She resigned in 1962 when she became engaged to the then managing director and chairman, Arthur (A.T.) Shakespeare, several years after the death of his first wife. Heather and Arthur married in 5

BACKGROUND INFORMATION – Old Land’s End

1963 (Farquhrson 2008). Heather Shakespeare was involved with the Canberra and District Historical Society, being a founding member. She gained something of a matriarchal status in Canberra, was heavily involved in certain areas of community life in the ACT, and, along with the Shakespeare family, was a generous benefactor of several charitable causes (Farquhrson 2008). She provided the funds necessary for the restoration of St Columba’s Presbyterian Church Hall in Braddon (listed on the ACT Heritage Register), and in 1991 the place was renamed Shakespeare’s Hall in honour of the family’s benefactions and ongoing support for the place and the Church (ACT Heritage Council 2014). She received the order of Australia medal in 1997, was involved with the boards of the Young Women’s Christian Association, Business and Professional Women’s Club, Country Women’s Association, and was a charter member and later president of Soroptimists International of Canberra. She was the patron of the Arthur Shakespeare Foundation for Scouting, which she founded in Arthur’s honour. Heather and Arthur Shakespeare Park in Civic was named in 2013, for the couple’s various contributions to the ACT (ACT Heritage Council 2014). Heather Shakespeare retained fondness for Old Land’s End, touring the location of the old homestead complex in 1981 with the Canberra and District Historical Society (CDHS 1981), recounting the following: A heap of stones and rubble is all that remains of the huge kitchen fireplace, in which we used to stand at full height to warm ourselves in the winter. A strip of lino was put across the hearth so that we wouldn’t damage the whitewash. The brick oven, where all the bread was baked, was attached to it. The dairy, made of pisé, boarded up and nailed with hand-made nails, stood until recently, but now lies in ruins on the ground. A short way from the house is the site of Robert Kilby’s blacksmith shop. I remember being fascinated watching him shape the horseshoes from the red-hot metal to fit whichever horse was being shod. We sometimes helped pump the bellows for him. There is no longer any sign of the long slab shed, the stables, thickly thatched with straw, which housed vehicles, harness, grain and many other things. Behind the shed there was a small chaffcutter. A horse was attached to a pole connected to the harness, and as it jogged round in circles and the hay was fed in and cut. When my twin sisters turned six they started going to the Weetangera School about two miles away. Our grandfather mapped out a route for them to follow, built stiles over the fences and whitewashed the trees along the way so that they would not get lost. Slab Buildings With the exception of the dairy, the buildings of Old Land’s End were said to have been built of timber slabs, cut and shaped by Robert Kilby (Ground Plan of Land’s End by Ewan Cameron 1993. Cameron Family Papers). Timber post and beam structures form the majority of Australian vernacular building construction. ‘Post and beam’ describes only the main structural frame; buildings are more typically described by their walling system, e.g. slab hut. Logs used in the construction of the structural frame were invariably obtained in the immediate vicinity of the building, usually within 1km. Trees were felled using either a standard axe or 6

BACKGROUND INFORMATION – Old Land’s End

crosscut saw; once on the ground the crosscut saw was the preferred means of cutting logs into the required lengths (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service 2002: E2). Vertical slab construction was developed in the early 19th century subsequent to the introduction of log and horizontal slab construction. Vertical slab construction was more common than drop slab (horizontal) construction. It rapidly gained predominance and by the 1820s it was recommended to new settlers as the construction method for their first homes (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service 2002: E6). Old Land’s End represents one of 28 known properties with slab constructions in the ACT. The majority of these were constructed in the nineteenth century, with just three constructed after 1900. The earliest were constructed in the late 1830s/40s at Lanyon and Oaks Estate. Good examples of slab construction within the ACT can be seen at Well Station, Orroral Homestead, Rosebud Apiary and Elm Grove, all of which are entered in the ACT Heritage Register. Often, slab constructions within the ACT were part of a larger complex of buildings, with uses including stables, gardener’s cottages, sheds, school rooms, and kitchens. However, a number of slab constructions within the ACT were also used as cottages or small homesteads. Slab buildings are vulnerable to water and termite damage, and many do not survive owing to the ease with which slab buildings could be dismantled, with timber used elsewhere (ACT Heritage Council 2010: 11). Pisé Heather Shakespeare described the dairy as a pisé structure (see above). Pisé de terre is the method of earth building characterised by ramming earth into in-situ formwork similar to that used today for mass concrete. It is a cheap building construction style that was introduced into Australia in the 1820s (Cosgrove and Dowling 2001). First a timber framed mould is constructed on top of a stone or brick base layer (which protects the wall from moisture) and then earth is poured in about 10-15cm thick and then rammed into the mould until it is hard enough that a hammer will only leave a small dent when struck against the top surface, then another 10-15cm of soil is spread on top and the process repeated until the mould has been filled. When the mould has been filled, it is moved up and the process repeated until the full height of the wall is reached. The building can be used as soon as it has been erected with the walls being able to support heavy loads, such as roof structures; however, the walls must be allowed to dry for several months before they can be plastered, providing a pleasing finish that also helps to protect the walls from moisture (Cosgrove and Dowling 2001). Notable pisé buildings in the ACT include the Valley Ruin (Gungahlin), Congwarra (Paddys River), Nil Desperandum (Paddys River), Rock Valley (Paddys River), Rose Cottage (Richardson), and Hill Station (Hume). In their pisé study of 2001, Cosgrove and Dowling listed 42 historic pisé buildings in the ACT. However, only fourteen of these were noted as being in ‘good,’ condition, with a further nine cited as ruins. Approximately seven of the fourteen ‘good’ structures remained in 2001 without being subject to major modification, with others, such as Nil Desperandum and Rock Valley homesteads, subsequently affected by bushfires in 2003. DESCRIPTION As discussed above, the buildings at Old Land’s End were constructed of timber slabs. The dairy was built of pisé. Saunders (1992) conducted an archaeological survey at the site of Old Land’s End homestead site for the Canberra Archaeological Society. The archaeologist noted that the site was marked principally by the presence of mature exotic vegetation. With the homestead demolished in 1925, all that remained by 1992 were two chimney bases, a section of stone paving and a small amount of building material. The presence of two partly buried landscaping features – a stone-paved path and a ploughshare-edged ‘path’ – suggested 7

BACKGROUND INFORMATION – Old Land’s End

that other sub-surface remains may have been present beneath the shallow overburden. It was suggested at the time that a small excavation in the vicinity of the two chimney mounds may have revealed details of the floor plan of the homestead and material culture of the period. As of 2016, none of the features described by Saunders in 1992 were visible, except for a small scatter of cut stones that could have been the chimney base. The following features were observed in 1992: •

Stone chimney base, see Feature 1, Image 4: a rectangular arrangement of large field stones approximately 3.5m long and 1.5m wide with a number of loose stones scattered about the periphery marked the location of the chimney at the northern end of what was probably the kitchen. A small collection of cut stones was evident at the site in 2016, which may have been the remains of this feature.



Grooved beam, see Feature 2, Image 4: south and slightly west of the stone chimney base was a large beam 2.9m long embedded in the soil and grooved longitudinally as if for the insertion of slab uprights. This would have been part of a wall base. Not relocated in 2016.



Brick chimney base, see Feature 4, Image 4: about five metres south-east of the stone chimney base was a slightly raised area of earth measuring approximately 3m by 1m, with stones and broken bricks embedded in it and scattered around. The bricks had cigar-shaped frogs. This appeared to be the site of the chimney serving the main section of the house. Not relocated in 2016.



Section of stone paving, see Feature 5, Image 4: between the remains of the two chimneys was a curved section of stone paving with slate pieces at its south-eastern end. Only part of the paving was visible, the remainder disappearing beneath a shallow overburden of soil and grass. The path probably ran from the kitchen door to what could have been a covered porch beside the chimney in the main section of the house. Not relocated in 2016.



Whitened earth floor, see Feature 6, Image 4: the packed earth floor, built up to horizontal with soil and rocks along its southern and part of its western side, measured approx 4m by 2.5m. It marked the site of a shed-like structure which was still standing in 1974 and was later demolished by a subsequent lessee. The structure was of slab and weather board with a shingle roof and may have been a meat house. Several pieces of timber, including a large beam, lay near the southern end of this feature. Originally attached to the northern end of the structure was a smaller, lower section, roughly roofed and open on the northern end, at least. The structure may originally have been a wood shed. Not relocated in 2016.



Ploughshare-edged path, see Feature 7, Image 4: running southward down a gentle slope from the space originally occupied by the house was a ‘path’ 3m long and 53cm wide, edged with ploughshares, fourteen on the eastern side and thirteen on the western side. The ploughshares were approximately 20cm in length. The ‘path’ was divided laterally into two almost equal sections by two bricks aligned across it. The ploughshare edging may have separated garden areas from a thoroughfare possibly leading to an outhouse or to a fence indicated by two aligned trees on the southern side of the site. Not relocated in 2016.



Fence Droppers, see Feature 8, Image 4: five metres southeast of the ploughshare-edged ‘path,’ were twelve narrow, weathered fence droppers approx. 80cm in length, lying in a herring bone pattern as if on either side of a fence alignment. However, given the movement of sheep and cattle across the site, it was unlikely that these droppers were recorded in their original position. Not relocated in 2016. 8

BACKGROUND INFORMATION – Old Land’s End



Corner post, see Feature 9, Image 4: almost inaccessible in a tangle of hawthorn bushes near the south-west corner of the house area was a large upright post 2.2m high and 20cm square. The post stood at the corner of a raised area of packed soil held in place on its western and southern sides by a length of galvanised iron. Attached to the upper section of the post by means of a narrow strip of wooden beading and nails were four pieces of weatherboard approximately 40cm long. Not relocated in 2016. The size of the post and the presence of the galvanised iron support suggested to the archaeologist that the post formed the corner of a substantial structure, although its perpendicular distance from the brick fireplace (approximately 16m) suggests that it was not part of the house.

A 1913 photograph of the original Lands End homestead complex (see Image 5) shows a bark-roofed dwelling with a tin or galvanised iron chimney. There were stockyards associated with the Old Land’s End property,, and these were photographed by Saunders in 1992. The photograph in the archaeological report shows the yards to be in very poor condition, although they were not investigated in detail. These could not be relocated in 2016. Physical condition and integrity The Old Land’s End site is in very poor condition, with almost no remaining heritage fabric. In addition to the scatter of dressed stones (see Image 6), isolated brick and metal fragments were found at the site in 2016 (see Image 7). Some exotic tree species remain at the site (see Image 8), including fig trees (Ficus sp.), Hawthorn (Crataegus sp.), a cypress tree, (Cupressus sp. see Image 9), and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus)

9

BACKGROUND INFORMATION – Old Land’s End

SITE PLAN

Image 1. Site Boundary, Old Land’s End. 10

BACKGROUND INFORMATION – Old Land’s End

IMAGES

Image 2. Parish of Weetangera, Portions 52-54, 73 (Source: ACTMAPi)

Image 3. 1915 survey map shows ‘Kilby’s House’ and garden at Old Land’s End property. Note Weetangera Church 11

BACKGROUND INFORMATION – Old Land’s End to the north of Kilby’s.

Image 4. Site plan of Old Land’s End homestead complex (Saunders 1992)

12

BACKGROUND INFORMATION – Old Land’s End

Image 5. 1913 image of Old Land’s End homestead complex showing configuration of buildings no longer observable as of 2016 (image supplied by nominator).

Image 6. Dressed stones at Old Land’s End (ACT Heritage 2016)

Image 7. Isolated piece of brick and a metal fragment at Old Land’s End (ACT Heritage 2016)

13

BACKGROUND INFORMATION – Old Land’s End

Image 8. Remnant exotic tree species at Old Land’s End (ACT Heritage 2016)

Image 9. Cyprus tree (Cupressus sp.) at Old Land’s End (ACT Heritage 2016).

14

BACKGROUND INFORMATION – Old Land’s End

References ACT Heritage Council. (2014). Heritage (Decision about Registration of Shakespeare Hall (formerly St Columba’s Presbyterian Church Hall), Braddon) Notice 2014. Notifiable Instrument NI2014—354. http://www.environment.act.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/587538/98.pdf Cameron, E. and Cameron, E. (1956). The Story of the Weetangerra Methodist Church Campbell, W.J.M. (1955). Four Pioneers of the Limestone Plains. Angus & Robertson. Sydney. Canberra and District Historical Society. (1981). Canberra and District Historical Society Newsletter. No. 230. December 1981. The Canberra Times. (1970). ‘Land’s End no Longer’. 19 December. P. 11. Cosgrove, C. and Dowling, P. (2001). Pisé Place in the ACT. Unpublished report to ACT Heritage. Dingle, T. In Troy, P. (ed) (2000). Necessity the Mother of Invention. In A History of European Housing in Australia. Cambridge University Press. Farquhrson, J. (2008). ‘Farm Girl to Canberra Patron.’ The Sydney Morning Herald. October 8. Gillespie, L. (1991). Canberra 1820-1913. AGPS Press. Gillespie, L. (1992). Ginninderra: Forerunner to Canberra. Canberra: The author. Kilby, E. (2013). The Kilby Family ‘Lands End’ 1852-2013 Canberra: The author. Lea-Scarlett, E. (1968). Queanbeyan: District and People. Queanbeyan Municipal Council. Navin Officer Heritage Consultants. (2010). Suburb of Kenny, East Gungahlin, ACT – Cultural Heritage Assessment. Report to ACTPLA. Navin Officer Heritage Consultants. (1991). West Belconnen Urban Release Area, Archaeological Assessment. Report to Kinhill Pty Ltd. The New South Wales Freemason. (1956). Death of Canberra Pioneer and Freemason. November 1. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. (2002). Guide to Building Conservation Works. Unpublished report for Cultural Heritage Division. O’Sullivan, R, & Huys, S. (2011). Riverview Conservation Management Plan. Emily and Isaac Blundell's House Site. ACT Heritage Site No.559. Unpublished Report for ACT Planning and Land Authority. Pearson, M. (2002). A Study of Ploughlands in the ACT. For Heritage Unit, Environment ACT. Saunders, P. (1992). Archaeological Investigation of Old Land’s End Homestead Site, West Belconnen, ACT. Fieldwork report to Canberra Archaeological Society Inc. Shumack, S. (1967). An Autobiography or Tales and Legends of Canberra Pioneers. Sydney, NSW: Edwards and Shaw. Waterhouse, R. (2005). The Vision Splendid: A Social and Cultural History of Rural Australia. Fremantle, W.A: 15

BACKGROUND INFORMATION – Old Land’s End

Curtin University Books. Winch, R. (1982). ‘Walk with the Early Settlers to Wattle Park.’ Canberra Historical Journal. No. 9 March 1982. Canberra and District Historical Society Inc. Other Ground Plan of Old Land’s End by Ewan Cameron (1993). HMSS 0300 Cameron Family Papers. Held by ACT Heritage Library).

16