Capital E Teaching Resource

Capital E Teaching Resource

Capital E Teaching Resource Songs of the Sea teachers’ resource is proudly sponsored by The New Zealand Seafood Industry Council www.seafood.co.nz ...

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Capital E Teaching Resource

Songs of the Sea teachers’ resource is proudly sponsored by The New Zealand Seafood Industry Council www.seafood.co.nz







Contents



Introduction........................................................................................................ 3 . Curriculum Links................................................................................................. 5-9 Section 1. Fish Information.................................................................................................. 10 Under the Sea - short unit.................................................................................... 13 Section 2 Fish and other Sea Animals.................................................................................. 15-25 . . Section 3 The Whole Picture............................................................................................... 26 Seas At Risk........................................................................................................ 27 Pollution Solutions............................................................................................... 28 Seabirds At Risk................................................................................................... 29 Fishing............................................................................................................... 29-31 Commonly asked Questions................................................................................. 32 Section 4 Myths................................................................................................................. 33 What Are Myths?................................................................................................. 33 Myths of Songs of the Sea.................................................................................... 33 Maori Mythology................................................................................................. 34-36 Aboriginal Mythology........................................................................................... 36 Greek Mythology................................................................................................. 37 Mermaids........................................................................................................... 37 Sea Serpents and Monsters.................................................................................. 38 Myths Unit.......................................................................................................... 39-40 . Section 5 Suggested Activities............................................................................................. 41-44 Section 6 References.......................................................................................................... 45-47 Appendix - Music from Songs of the Sea................................................................ 48-61

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Introduction

Capital E National Theatre for Children tours its productions to theatre venues nationally. Songs of the Sea is a story of creation, written by Peter Wilson with delightful music composed by Stephen Gallagher. “New Zealand is surrounded by the sea. We can not help but notice it,” says Peter. “In summer we play by the sea, sometimes we explore the rock pools left by the high tide. In the winter we often go walking by the sea. Since time began, people have told stories about the sea, about fish, about boats.”

Peter’s story uses simple elements which children recognise to create all the creatures in the sea. To start, the sea is a giant mirror reflecting the sun, moon and stars – thus creating the sunfish, moonfish and starfish – all found in New Zealand waters. “When we see shooting stars in the night sky, it is like they are falling into the sea to become starfish. The milky way is like a giant sea of stars in the night sky, I used this sea of stars to invent the shaper in his magical sky boat traveling from planet to planet.”

“I had fantastic fun using my imagination to create all the songs or stories of the sea. When you next go swimming in the sea, walk along the beach or play in a rock pool I am sure you can make up your own stories.”

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The four main characters in the Songs of the Sea are the four actors who tell us the story or sing us the songs. They play four children who discover a large conch shell while playing in a rock pool by the sea. Holding the shell up to their ears, each of them can hear the sound of the sea caught inside the shell. The sea tells them each a story: V The story of how the moonfish, sunfish and starfish were made. V The story of where shellfish come from. V The story of how the fish in the sea got their magnificent colours. V The story of how of how all the strange creatures in the sea came into

being: the crabs, the seahorse and the crayfish.

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Links to the New Zealand

Curriculum

The Arts – Drama

Achievement Objectives

Level 1

.

Developing Ideas in Drama Students will contribute ideas and participate in drama, using personal experiences and imagination.

Understanding Drama in Context

Students will identify drama as part of everyday life and recognise that it serves a variety of purposes. v Develop and share a scene about a personal celebration. Use facial expressions, sounds and body movement to express feelings in the scene. Talk about features of the scene that convey a sense of celebration. v Collect, display, and label a selection of pictures that show drama oc-

curring in a variety of situations (e.g., a theatre, local festival, puppet show, television programme). v Make body shapes in pairs or groups to express contrasting moods,

ideas, or relationships in a competitive event (e.g., winning and losing, excitement and nervousness).

The Arts – Visual Art Achievement Objectives

Level 1 Developing Practical Knowledge in the Visual Arts

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Students will explore elements and principles of the Visual Arts, using a variety of techniques, tools, materials, processes, and procedures. v Use imagination to create drawings and paintings in response to a story heard. Explore and use the elements of line and shape in expressive ways and select and mix colours to represent characters and moods in the story.

Experiment with a range of wet and dry media and found materials to create lines and marks that have different qualities. Describe the lines and marks used by class members and suggest the feelings that these lines and marks might express.

English Level 1

Oral Language - Myths

Students should: Listening Interpersonal Listening Listen and respond to others. Listening to texts Listen and respond to texts and relate them to personal experience. Speaking Interpersonal Speaking Converse, and talk about personal experiences. Using Texts Tell a story, recite, or read aloud.

Listening and Speaking Processes In achieving the objectives of understanding and using oral language, students should: Exploring Language Identify, describe, and use some commonly used verbal and non-verbal features in a range of texts, and begin to adapt spoken language to an audience. Thinking Critically Identify, clarify and question meanings in spoken texts, drawing on personal background, knowledge and experience. Processing Information Ask questions, and listen to, interpret, and present information, using appropriate technology.

Written Language

Students should: Reading Personal Reading Select and read for enjoyment and information a range of written texts. Close Reading Respond to language and meaning in texts.

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Writing Expressive Writing Write spontaneously to record personal experiences. Poetic Writing Write on a variety of topics, beginning to shape ideas. Transactional Writing Write instructions and recount events in authentic contexts.

Reading and Writing Processes In achieving the objectives of understanding and using written language, students should: Exploring Language Explore choices made by writers, and identify and use the common conventions of writing and organising of text which affect understanding. Thinking Critically Identify and express meanings in written texts, drawing on personal background, knowledge, and experience. Processing Information Identify, retrieve, record and present coherent information, using more than one source and type of technology, and describing the process used.

Visual Language Students should: Viewing Reading visual and dramatic texts, including static and moving images, students should: Respond to meanings and ideas. Presenting Using static and moving images, students should: Present ideas using simple layouts and drama.

Viewing and Presenting processes In achieving the objectives of understanding and using visual language, students should: Exploring Language Understand that communication involves verbal and visual features which have conventionally accepted meanings. Thinking Critically Show awareness of how words and images can be combined to make meaning. Processing Information View and use visual texts to gain and present information, become familiar with and use appropriate technologies, and write letter and number forms legibly to present ideas. . .

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Science . .

Making Sense of Planet Earth and Beyond – Ocean Environment

Achievement Objectives Students can: Level 1 1/4 Share their ideas about some easily observable features and patterns that occur in their physical environment and how some of these features may be protected, e.g., hills, beaches, rivers, cliffs, weather, seasons, tides. 3 Share their ideas about objects in space and about very noticeable environmental patterns associated with these objects e.g., moon, sun, stars, day and night, seasons.

Making Sense of the Living World:

Achievement Objectives

v distinguish between living things within broad groups on the basis of differences established by investigating external characteristics; v investigate special features of common animals and plants and describe how these help them to stay alive. Science in the New Zealand Curriculum (Level 3) p 58

.

Making Sense of the Nature of Science and its Relationship to Technology:

Achievement Objectives

v investigate and describe how simple items of technology work; v investigate the way common items of technology have developed. Science in the New Zealand Curriculum (Level 2) p 28

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Social Studies Place and Environment – Ocean Environment Aim:

Students will understand:

1. People’s interaction with places and the environment

2. The ways in which people represent and interpret place and environment.

Achievement Objectives Level 1

v Why particular places are important for people; v How and why people record the important features of places and environment.

Culture and Heritage - Myths Aim:

Students will understand:

1. The contribution of culture and heritage to identity.

Achievement Objectives Level 1

v Features of the culture and heritage of their own and other groups.

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Fish Information

Section 1

. The following information is designed to assist learning about the main types of fish and creatures found in the show and in New Zealand waters. It also includes a brief introduction to the sunfish and moonfish characters.

Did you know…

i Fish are animals that live in water and breathe using gills. Water goes in through the mouth and out through the gills, which take oxygen from the water. Most fish swim by moving their tail (also called the caudal fin) left and right. i There are many kinds of fish; some have bones but others, like sharks and rays have no bones, only cartilage. i The biggest fish in the world is the whale shark; it is a shark but not a whale. The whale shark is up to 46 feet (14 m) long and weighs up to 15 tons.

Focus/thinking questions about fish:

i What do fish do all day? i What do they eat? i What/who eats fish? i What would happen if we took all of the fish out of the water? i Why do fish need water? i How do fish move through the water? i Do fish have bones? i What does a fish feel like to touch? i How old do you think fish live to be?

How Fish Swim

A fish is a good shape to move through water. Inside the fish is a skeleton of bones. Between the backbone and the skin of a fish are its muscles. These muscles move the tail from side to side. Muscles are the part of the fish that we eat. A fish moves forward when the tail and tail fin are moved from side to side. The fish moves forward because its tail pushes back against the water. Fish use their fins to help them swim straight, stop, change direction and go backwards. Side fins help fish balance, brake and turn. Top fin (dorsal) stops the fish rolling. The bottom fin helps fish balance, brake and turn. Tail fin moves the fish forward.

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Suggested activities about Fish i Buy a whole fish. Feel the skin, scales, fins, teeth and eyes and find the skeleton, gills and gut. Children could label a drawing of the outside of the fish.

i Children can look at a fish scale using a magnifying glass and draw the pattern they see. i Children could gather pictures of animals they know live in the sea. Label all of the sea animals they know now, and return to this at the end of the unit of work to compare what they have learnt. Discuss the names of other sea animals or groups of sea animals they have pictures of (for example, dolphins, starfish, crabs)? Display. i Display the New Zealand Commercial Fish Species poster (available from the New Zealand Seafood Industry Council). Discuss as a class what common features all fish have and list them. Predict which fish are fast swimmers and which fish are slow swimmers. Why do they think so? Discuss which fish might live in deep and shallow water. i Children could make a sea animal by drawing each side of an animal, gluing and stapling the pieces together, stuffing with newspaper and decorating.

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i Watch fish swimming in an aquarium, at a pet shop or on a video. Children could draw a fish swimming and describe what they think is happening.Discuss how the fish might change direction, stop and go backwards.

Under the Sea Short Unit

Art/Science Activity

Children will create an undersea environment in their classroom while researching interesting facts about their favorite sea creatures.

WHAT YOU NEED

F Crayons, colored pencils, markers F Crepe paper (blue, green, red, yellow, pink) F Paper plates F Construction paper F Index cards F Yarn or string F Books or magazines with pictures or illustrations of fish

WHAT TO DO

1. Tell children that over the next week they will all work together to turn the classroom into an undersea environment and teach each other more about the creatures that live in the sea. 2. Discuss with children the different kinds of sea creatures they have learned about so far and ask them to choose their favorites. On the board or chart paper, list each child's name and favorite sea creature. Then explain to children that during the next week they are to find out as much as they can about their favorite sea creature so they can tell the class about it at the end of the week. Suggest to children that they write interesting facts about their sea creature on index cards. Children may also want to make illustrations to help them describe their favorite sea creature. Provide books and magazines for the children to look through and arrange for them to have some research time in the school library. 3. Then begin to decorate the classroom by hanging blue and green crepe paper across the room to create the sea water. Then have children draw and cut out a picture of their favorite fish or other sea creature. Make sure that children decorate both sides of their fish. Then hang the fish from the ceiling or display them around the classroom walls. Continue to create an undersea world in the classroom by using some or all of the following ideas. 4. Children can make jellyfish by coloring paper plates and hanging red, yellow, and/or pink crepe paper tentacles from the plates. Hang the jellyfish from the ceiling so they look like they are floating in the water.

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5. Brainstorm with children things that might be found on the ocean floor, such as a coral reef, an octopus cave, a sunken ship, a lobster trap. You can decorate, or simply refer to, areas in your classroom as these undersea landmarks. For example, the reading corner may become a coral reef (pipe cleaners can be used to make coral), a bookshelf could become a sunken ship. 6. Invite children to bring in any sea shells they may have at home to display around the room. You may want to bring in some tapes of ocean sounds to play in the background during the week. 7. At the end of the week have children share with each other what they have learned about their favorite sea creature. You may want to celebrate with a special snack, such as saltwater taffy or crackers shaped like fish.

TEACHING OPTIONS

You may want to expand this activity into a project that extends over two weeks, giving children more time to do research and to better decorate the room.

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Section 2

Fish and other sea animal Facts Sunfish – Te Ika Ra (Mola) Character in the show:

The sunfish in Songs of the Sea is the father of all fish. The sunfish is a very large yellow fish, he is almost one metre across and one metre long. He is flat with hardly any tail, so that when people first saw him they thought he was a sun floating in the sea.

Did you know… T The sunfish (also called the mola) is a

large ocean fish found in warm and temperate oceans. T It has an almost circular, flattened

body. T This unusual fish swims by flapping

its long pectoral and dorsal fins; the caudal fin is used as a rudder (for steering). T Some sunfish have been seen floating on their

sides at the top of the sea; they may be using the sun to heat themselves up.

Facts:

T The sunfish grows to be about 10 ft (3 m) long, but some up to 13 ft

(4 m) have been seen. T It weighs up to 2 tons. T The head is almost a third of the total body length. The small mouth has

large fused teeth in the front. T The sunfish is a carnivore (meat-eater) that eats jellyfish, comb-jellies, and

some crustaceans.

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Moonfish - Te Ika Marama Character in the show:

Moonfish in the Songs of the Sea is the mother of all fish. The moonfish is also a very large fish but not as big as the sunfish. The moonfish displays all the colours of the sky from silver through to a dash of red and blue. When swimming in the sea, she looks like a crescent moon, which is why she was called a moonfish.

Did you know…

T Moonfish have a very deep, thin,

sharp-edged body. T They are essentially blue and green

in colour, with silver spots, red fins and jaws. T Average size 80 -120cm. T They like to live in warm seas off the

east coast of America from Uruguay to Cape Cod, straying to Nova Scotia and can be commonly found from Chesapeake Bay southward.

Snapper – Tamure Background Information

Snapper are caught commercially by long lining, set netting and inshore trawling. There are limits set on the number of snapper both recreational and commercial fisher people can catch to ensure that the population numbers of snapper are maintained. Adult snapper are usually between 30–50 cm long and weigh between 1.5 kg and 2.5 kg. A very old snapper could live to be 60 years old, grow to one metre long, and weigh at least 16 kg. Old snapper look very different to young adult snapper.

Did you know…

I Snapper are fish that live in the sea around the North Island and the northern

part of the South Island.

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I They have a Mäori name, tämure. They have a scientific name, hrysophrys auratus. I A snapper can swim at 8 km per hour for short bursts, and 2.5 km per hour for

longer periods. I When they are eggs or small fish they are eaten by bigger fish. Adult snapper

are eaten by people. Snapper are a traditional seafood eaten by Maori. I They spend time resting, swimming, looking for mates and spawning (produc-

ing eggs), and avoiding being caught. Snapper avoid being eaten by staying camouflaged in hiding places on the rocky bottom of the sea.

Facts: I Snapper are suited or adapted to living in the sea. Their body shape and fins

help them to swim fast. I Snapper have a tough skin covered with scales on the outside. Snapper can

see well in the water and we think they see in colour. They also have a sense of smell. They know where they are and what is in the water around them because they feel vibrations in the water. I They are coastal fish that live 20 to 100 metres down on a muddy or sandy sea

floor. I Snapper eat shellfish, sea urchins, crabs, worms and dead animals on the sea

floor. They can also eat small living fish. They have rounded teeth to crush their food. Snapper spend most of their time looking for food. I Like other fish and sea animals, there are rules about how many snapper

people can catch so there will always be enough for the future.

. .

Starfish – Patangaroa Background Information

Cushion star sea stars, sea urchins and sand dollars all belong to the same group called echinoderms.

Did you know…

I Starfish can re-grow their arms. I They have a very simple life cycle. I Most starfish are predators. I Starfish move by using a water

pumping system. This is connected to their feet.

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I The most common starfish are cushion stars. I You will find them in rock pools. They cling tightly to rocks or under

stones.

Facts:

I The female lays eggs in the water. I The male releases millions of sperm which fertilises the eggs. I They draw water in and pump it out to lengthen or shorten their feet.

This enables them to climb and cling to rocks. I They have five arms. I Their colours range from yellow to purple. Greyish green is the most

usual colour. I They have tube feet tipped with suckers. These are on the underside of

their arms. I They browse on filmy green seaweeds and digest them by extruding

their stomach over them. They also feed on matter found on the bottom of the sandy pools.

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Sun Stars

Did you know…

I Sun stars love to eat mussel. They hold the mussel in their arms and pull

it apart with hundreds of their feet working in relays. I At the same time the starfishes stomach also secrets an acid fluid which

puts the mussel to sleep. I When the mussel is pulled apart the starfish extrudes its stomach through

its mouth and digests the mussel..

Sea Horse - Manaia

Did you know…

I Sea horses are small fish that have

armored plates all over their body. I There are about 50 different spe-

cies of sea horses around the world. I They live in seaweed beds in warm

water. I Sea horses range in size from two

inches (5 cm) long (the dwarf sea horse) to about 1 foot (30 cm) long. I The most unusual seahorse is the

Australian sea horse, which has leaf-like camouflage all over its body, making it almost disappear in the seaweed bed.

Facts: I The female sea horse produces eggs, but they are held inside the male's

body until they hatch; he is pregnant for about 40 to 50 days. I The sea horse is the only creature in which the father is pregnant.

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Queen Conch or Pink Conch - Putatara

Did you know…

F The queen conch or pink conch is a gastropod, a soft-bodied type of mollusk

that is protected by a very hard shell. This invertebrate (animal without a backbone) is found in warm shallow waters in grass-beds of the Caribbean Sea. F Conches are eaten by many animals, including rays and people. The beautiful

shell is also collected by people; the shell is also used for jewelry and for conch trumpets. The queen conch is a relatively slow-growing animal.

Facts: F The queen conch has a large, spiral shell often lined in pink. F The conch's mantle, a thin layer of tissue located between the body and the

shell, creates the shell. F The conch builds the hard shell from calcium carbonate that it extracts from the

seas. F The shell is up to 1 foot (30 cm) long. F The lip of the shell is flared and there are spines to deter its many predators. F The body is divided into the head, the visceral mass, and the foot (which is

small). F The conch has two pairs of tentacles on the head used for the sense of smell

and the sense of touch. F The small operculum (which is like a trap door) is located on the foot and looks

a bit like (and works like) a claw.

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F Young conchs can bury themselves in the sand when they are in danger. F Conches eat grasses, algae, and floating organic debris. F They eat using a radula, a rough tongue-like organ that has thousands of tiny

denticles (tooth-like protrusions). .

Crabs Common Rock Crab - Papaka .

Did you know…

F Crabs are 10-legged animals that walk sideways. F There are almost 5,000 different species of crabs; about 4,500 are true crabs,

plus about 500 are hermit crabs (hermit crabs don't have a very hard shell and use other animals' old shells for protection). F Most crabs live in the oceans, but many, like the robber crab, live on land.

Facts:

F A crab’s shell is called a

carapace. F It protects its soft body

from predators. F Its large claws are used for

catching and killing prey. F Crabs have five pairs of

jointed legs. If a crab looses a leg it can grow a new one. F Crabs eyes are carried on

stalks. Some crabs have long eye stalks and others are very short. F Crabs breathe with gills.

They take water in to the gill chamber under the carapace through pairs of slits near the base of their legs. Water passes out through openings in the mouth frame. F As crabs grow too big for their skeleton they molt. The skeleton splits and the

crab carefully edges its way out. Its new soft skeleton is underneath. F Crabs have to be very careful at this time in case their predators find them.

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F The biggest crab is the Japanese spider crab which lives on the floor of

the north Pacific Ocean; it has a 12 ft (3.7 m) leg span.

F The biggest land crab is the coconut crab which lives on islands in the

Pacific Ocean; it has a leg span up to 2.5 ft (75 cm).

F Many crabs are omnivores (plant- and meat-eaters), others are carni-

vores (meat-eaters), and some are herbivores (plant-eaters).

F Crabs are invertebrates, animals without a backbone. They have an

exoskeleton (also called a carapace), an outer shell that both protects them from predators and provides support.

F These crustaceans have ten jointed legs, two of which have large,

grasping claws (called pincers or chelipeds). They have a flattened body, two feelers (antennae), and two eyes located at the ends of stalks.

F Marine crabs breathe underwater using gills, which are located in two

cavities under the carapace.

F True land crabs have enlarged, modified cavities that act like lungs so

that the land crabs can breathe air.

Hermit Crab

Did you know…

F Hermit crabs do not have a tough protective skin like other crusta-

ceans. F They find empty shells to live in. As they grow too big for the shell they

are living in they move out to a bigger shell. F Hermit crabs are very common in rock pools. F You will find them scampering along the bottom of the pool scavenging

for food. F If you touch the shell they will quickly hide inside until it is safe to come

out. F Hermit crabs are not true crabs.

Rock Lobster

Did you know…

F Another name for rock lobster is crayfish. The Mäori name is koura

and it has a scientific name Jaxus edwardsii. F Rock lobster have eyes that stick up on stalks and antennae that wave

about and detect what is happening in water.

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F They have a strong sense of smell. F Rock lobster can swim backwards but mostly they walk along the sea

floor. F If a rock lobster has lost a leg or antenna it will grow new ones when it

grows its new shell. F Rock lobster are a traditional seafood eaten by Maori. F If you catch rock lobster you need to know about the legal limits on the

size they must be before you take them.

Facts:

F Rock lobster are found in caves or crevices on the bottom of the rocky

sea floor all around New Zealand. F Rock lobster stay safe inside their caves during the day and come out to

feed at night. F A rock lobster must lose its hard shell to grow bigger. This is called

moulting. The rock lobster goes into a cave or crevice and moults. Underneath is a new larger soft shell. The rock lobster must stay hidden for the next few days until the new shell gets hard. F They eat cockles, päua, mussels and shellfish, and sometimes dead and

decaying fish and shellfish. F Rock lobsters have appendages or limbs around their mouth to tear off

bits of food and put them into their mouths. F A rock lobster will be 5 to 10 years old when it is large enough to be

caught. No-one can take a female rock lobster from the sea if it is carrying eggs. F Like other sea animals and fish, there are rules about how many rock

lobster people can catch so there will always be enough left in the sea for the future. F Rock lobster are caught in craypots because they are attracted to the

dead fish that is put in the pots. Rock lobster are also caught by snorkellers, and divers who find their hiding places and pick them up.

Limpets – Ngakihi

Did you know…

H You will find limpets clinging to rocks in the tide pools. H They eat algae which they scrape off rocks by using their rasp like tongues. H Their tongues are called radula.

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Facts:

H Limpets like to be kept moist. When the tide goes out they tuck themselves into

their shells and hide away. H They pull themselves tight against the rock so they don't loose moisture in the

hot sun or drying wind. H Limpets like to live in the same place. They always come back to the same

place after they have finished grazing.

Sea Anemones – Humenga

Did you know…

H These interesting creatures live on the

sheltered sides of rocks. They like to be protected from the hot sun and drying winds. H Anemones use their tentacles to snare

other creatures. The tentacles are covered with stinging cells which paralyse their prey. H The mouth is a fleshy opening in the centre of the ring of tentacles. Anemones

sting their prey and swallow it whole. They trap shrimp and small fish which come near.

Sea Egg – Kina

Did you know…

H These interesting creatures get called by three different names. They are, kina, sea urchin and sea egg. H They can be red, purple or black in colour. H The sea egg is related to the starfish. H They are echinoderms which means "spiny skinned." H They feeds on seaweed and prefer

to eat drifting pieces of sea weed rather than sea weed attached to rocks.

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Facts:

H If you find one covered in seaweed, it has saved it to eat later or it

may be trying to hide from predators. H The sea egg's mouth is on its underside. H It has five long curved teeth. H The spines protect it from predators. H Sea eggs’ predators are man, snapper, moki and porae. H Sea eggs have feet between their spines. They can live to be more

than 15 years old.

Other Characters in the show: The Shaper is a magical character. Peter Wilson based him on a mythological creature in Norse mythology. This shaper is as old as time itself, which makes him very old indeed. In his magnificent sky boat he travels through the night on the great sea of stars that make up the milky way. Traveling from one planet to another he makes and shapes things that might be missing from that world. In our story Songs of the Sea, he comes to earth, to New Zealand and discovers that there are no sea shells. He puts down his anchor and with his great adze, his magic shaping axe, begins to make all the seashells we now find along our seashore. When he has made enough and he is happy with his work, he pulls up his anchor and sails off to other worlds and other lands. The Sun, Moon, Wind, Rain, Rainbow and Clouds are all important characters in our story. These big elements which we are all so familiar with, help create many of the sea creatures, their shapes and colours and help us all sing the great Song of the Sea.

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Section 3

The ‘Whole Picture’ . In New Zealand we use the sea for a variety of purposes; fishing, sailing, swimming, surfing, diving, and many more. We are a country surrounded by coastline and seas. Many of us spend a lot of time at the beach so it is important that we look after our seas.

‘We want fish to fish another day’.

New Zealand is recognised as a world leader in fisheries management. We have a strict quota management system which ensures that New Zealand waters are not over fished, that the type of fishing used is appropriate. This is managed by the Ministry of Fisheries and means that the seas remain renewable and sustainable so that there will always be fish in our seas for future generations.

Did you know…

Seafood is New Zealand’s fifth largest export earner, earning around $1.3 billion for the country annually. New Zealand’s fish stocks are managed by our Quota Management System which ensures fish stocks are kept sustainable for the future.

‘Is seafood healthy for you?’.

Seafood is a healthy food because it is rich in protein and many important vitamins and minerals. It contains essential polyunsaturated fatty acids and is low in dietary cholesterol. Seafood is high in vitamin B12, iodine, selenium and fluoride, and low in salt. It also has other minerals such as iron, zinc and magnesium. These minerals are all needed in small amounts to keep our bodies healthy.

Focus/thinking questions about the sea: D What do we use the sea for? D What types of fish do we eat? D What other type of sea animals do we eat? D How many fish can we catch out of the sea? D What would happen if we were to eat too many fish out of the sea?

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Seas at risk Life on earth depends on healthy oceans - from coral reef communities teeming with life to mangrove swamps that provide a home for thousands of species. Many of our planet's oceans are in trouble and the plant and animal life they sustain are in jeopardy. More than ever before our oceans are at risk of pollution and destruction of its natural resources. A number of coasts are particularly at risk. Pollution has badly affected the shores and inshore waters of closed-in seas such as the Baltic and the Mediterranean. Marine life is under threat from all kinds of pollution. Millions of sea birds, fish and turtles are killed each year by pollution like plastic in the sea. Over fishing in many areas has had a devastating effect with some fish species and mammals in danger of extinction. Coral has also been destroyed and used as building materials, especially in the Pacific. Oil spills can kill hundreds of sea birds and fish life and waste products from large factories has seriously polluted the waters in some areas..

Did you know… On 20 April 2010, the worst oil spill in US history occurred. The semi-submersible exploratory offshore drilling rig Deepwater Horizon exploded after a blowout; it sank two days later, killing 11 people. This blowout in the Macondo Prospect field in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a partially capped oil well one mile below the surface of the water. Experts estimate the gusher to be flowing at 35,000 to 60,000 barrels per day (5,600 to 9,500 m3/d) of oil. The resulting oil slick covered at least 2,500 square miles (6,500 km2), fluctuating from day to day depending on weather conditions..

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Pollution Solutions With the class discuss pollution in our seas and its impact on our natural . environment.

Focus/thinking questions about pollution: F What is pollution?

F What causes pollution? F What happens to the water when it is polluted? F What happens to the fish and other sea life when the

ocean is polluted?

Suggested activities about pollution

F Have a large glass container of water in the class (fish tank). Replicate an

ocean environment by adding sand and rocks at the bottom, sea weed and fish made from paper. Discuss and predict what would happen if you were to put oil into the water. Record observations. F Test how quickly materials break down when placed in water. Record pre-

dictions and observations. F Design and illustrate posters about pollution.

What can we do to help? F Start by cleaning up your local beach, river, stream or lake. Spend an

afternoon with rubbish bags and gloves picking up the rubbish. F Many local councils have ‘clean up’ days where you can go and offer your

help. F Join WWF and register your interest in helping them fight pollution of our

oceans. F Take your rubbish home with you from the beach. F Make posters with environmental messages on them.

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Seabirds at risk It is not only fish and other sea life which are in danger. New Zealand's productive waters and safe offshore islands support more albatross and petrel species than any other country. Although these species breed in New Zealand, many of them are true globe-trotters, spending much of their lives in other parts of the world. This means responsibility for their continued survival is shared by New Zealand and many other countries, most notably Chile, Peru, Ecuador, Argentina, South Africa, Namibia and Australia. Albatrosses and petrels have learnt to follow fishing vessels for food, unaware of the risks of becoming caught on baited hooks or entangled in fishing gear. They may be accidentally caught by any vessel, anywhere that does not use seabird-safe fishing practices. New Zealand’s Southern Seabird Solutions organisation aims to foster the widespread use of seabird-safe fishing practices by fleets operating in New Zealand and in other parts of the Southern Ocean. Because of the abundance of seabird species in New Zealand, fishing without catching these creatures can be a real challenge. Many different types of measures to reduce seabird capture have been developed and tested by New Zealanders.

Did you know…

F The largest ocean is the Pacific. It covers about one-third of the earth’s

surface. F There are mountain ranges under the water. F The average depth of the ocean is about 4 kilometres. F The deepest ocean is the Pacific. The average depth is 4,280 metres,

but it gets as deep as 11,033 metres.

Fishing Focus/thinking questions about fishing: F Do you think it hurts the fish?

F Why do the fish swallow the hook? F What equipment do you need to catch fish? F What happens to fish after people catch it? F Can you catch as many fish as you want? F What should you do with small fish or fish you don’t want? F What other things get caught on fishing lines? F What safety equipment should you take with you on a boat?

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Suggested activities about Fishing

F Draw a large map of your local area. Children could ask their parents or

friends where people go fishing or gather seafood, and what sorts of fish and seafood they catch. Using illustrations or symbols, display this information on the map. F Children could survey local fishing. Find out if there are any areas that are

too dangerous to fish or gather seafood and put this information on the map. Find out if there are any areas that are too polluted to fish or gather seafood and put this information on the map. F Contact a local sports shop or fishing supply shop. Find out what limits

there are on the fish and shellfish people can take in your area. Find out if you need a licence to fish for some fish in your area. F Discuss why people like to go fishing. Find out how many people in the

class have been fishing, what type of fish they caught, what equipment they used. F Invite someone who goes fishing to talk to the class about fishing. Ask

them to bring their fìshing gear and explain about the equipment they use to catch different fish. F Contact the New Zealand Seafood Industry Council’s Communications

Unit (04 3854005) if you would like a commercial fisherman to come along to speak to your school.

GOING FISHING Hooks

In New Zealand and overseas hooks have been used to catch fish for many centuries. Hooks can be made of bone, stone, wood and shell. Nowadays they are mostly made of metal.

Fishing with a handline

Bait is put on the hook. Bait is a small piece of the sort of food fish like to eat. It may be shellfish, pieces of fish, maggots, worms or pieces of bread. When the fish eats the bait it swallows the hook.

Fishing with a fishing rod

You use a fishing rod to make the line go a long way out into the water and a reel to let the line out and pull it in again. Rods can bend a long way so heavy fish won’t break them.

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You can use a handline to fish off a boat, a wharf or rocks. A handline has a line, a hook and something to wrap the line around so it won’t get tangled. The line needs to be strong so it won’t break when pulling in a fish that is trying to get away. A sinker is a piece of lead that is tied to the line. It makes the line heavy so it will sink down in the water. A lure can be tied to the line. The lure may be shaped like a fish or squid and is shiny. The fish think it is another fish. You should not collect seafood or go fishing in polluted areas. The worst type of pollution is sewage. Fish and shellfish that come from areas where there is sewage in the water can make us sick if we eat them.

Catching fish and gathering seafood

Some people who fish know a lot about where to go to catch certain types of fish, what time of day to fish, and when the tide is right for fishing. Once it is caught fish is kept cold, often in a chilly bin, so it stays fresh till it is ready to be eaten. There are rules about how many fish and other sea animals people can catch so there will always be enough left for the future.

Safe fishing from a boat

You need to take the following things when you are fishing off a boat to keep yourselves safe, and to catch fish:

3 Lifejacket 3 First aid kit 3 Radio 3 Catch net and/or gaff 3 Food 3 Drink 3 Warm clothes 3 Waterproof clothes 3 Fishing rods 3 Handlines 3 Fishing tackle 3 Flares 3 Spare petrol 3 Oars 3 Navigation charts 3 Bailer 31

Commonly Asked Questions How big is the ocean?

The ocean is enormous. It covers more than twice as much of the earth than the land does! The deepest part of the ocean would cover Mount Everest – which is the biggest mountain on earth!

How many fish are there?

There are over 21,000 different types of fish in the sea. Almost all fish are covered in scales and breathe through gills.

What’s at the bottom of the sea?

The bottom of the sea is not all flat as most of us would believe. If fact there are mountains and valley, hills and plains, just like on land. There are even volcanoes called ‘sea mounts’ which erupt under water.

Why does the water level change?

This is because of the pull of the moon on the ocean lifting the water from the part of the earth’s surface. These are called tides and they happen twice a day. High tide – the water rises and low tide – the water level drops.

Why is the sea blue?

The sea can appear different colours, from blue to green or grey. A small amount of sea water looks clear, it is only when you have a large amount of it that the light refracts through it making it look blue.

Why is the sea salty?

The sea is salty because the rain washes salt from rocks and land into it!

What is sand made out of?

Sand is made out of tiny bits of rocks and sea shells which have been crushed by the sea into a fine powder.

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Section 4

Myths

What are myths?

A myth is a traditional story which is not based on something which actually happened. It often involves superhuman beings which help to explain local customs or natural phenomena. The Greek term ‘mythos’ means simply ‘story’. In modern usage the term usually refers to a story that was or is part of the beliefs of a cultural group, and which explains the nature of the world and social conventions as the result of the influence of supernatural beings. A story about someone who is human rather than a supernatural being is usually referred to as a legend; and stories of supernatural beings which are independent of a comprehensive mythology are called folk tales. In modern literary theory, myths have been viewed as formulas embodying universal human experiences and ideas, or archetypes. Archetypes are expressed through the recurring patterns that occur in myth, ritual, and dreams as well as literature. In literature the patterns are seen in terms of genre, plot-types, character, thought, and so forth.

The Myths of Songs of the Sea As explained by Capital E National Theatre for Children’s Artistic Director Peter Wilson: “None of the myths created for Songs of the Sea are based on existing myths, it may be that one hears many stories in one’s life and indirectly you may draw upon those experiences whilst writing.

The Sun and The Moon

“There are many stories, myths, and legends about the moon and the sun and as far as I know I have invented this one. I once saw a moonfish and a sunfish in a museum display. I remembered them when I began writing Songs of the Sea. Quite often we see the reflections of moons and suns in the sea. The idea of the wind rippling the sea and the reflection floating away came easily, and that is how the sunfish and moonfish were born. “I love star gazing, and if I lived two thousand years ago and saw a star falling out of the sky into the sea would I think it might turn into a fish – a starfish? In my imagination it all seems possible. So starfish are made from falling stars, especially those stars that fall into the sea.

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“Looking at the sky on a clear night, it is very easy to imagine that the milky way is a great river in the sky, so it was easy to imagine someone in a magic sky boat to sail this river from planet to planet across the universe. In some Norwegian myths there is a mythical character called the ‘Shaper’. He carved the trees and mountains of Norway with his adze (axe). I borrowed the name of this mythical character, mixed him up with ‘Shapos’, a sun goddess who wanders the corners of the universe in western semetic cultures and created the ‘Shaper’ and his skyboat who visits new worlds and makes and shapes new things. In the Songs of the Sea he makes the Seashells. The other small myths and stories in Songs of the Sea were inspired by the elements of the wind and rain.”

Myths of the sea… There are many myths around the sea. Here are a few of them:

Maori Mythology

Maui and the Great Fish is a Maori legend telling how New Zealand was created. Many of the myths in New Zealand are based around this legendary hero. Maui went fishing with his brothers, fashioned a hook with his magic jawbone, smeared it with blood from his nose for bait, and pulled up the North Island. The hook became Hawkes Bay. Maui told his brothers not to touch the fish until he had made the appropriate incantations to the gods, but they disregarded him and began to cut it up, leaving it scarred and jagged as it appears today.

The Tracks of the Taniwha

After Maui’s great fishing feat, the island was laid out flat as a flounder, it’s eye-Te Whatu o Te Ika. Lake Wairarapa, staring sightlessly at the heavens. Now the land fish had to be shaped and made habitable, and this was the work of the various taniwha, atua and other supernatural beings. In the case of the mouth, Wellington Harbour, the taniwha were called Whataitai and Ngake. According to the original inhabitants, the harbour was at first a lake in which these taniwha lived. Ngake was a vigorous, thrusting, turbulent taniwha who moved quickly, restlessly, always bumping into things. Whataitai was the opposite easy going and gentle, just as big as Ngake but he sought the shallow parts of the harbour where the water was warmer. He lay there with all the dreams that taniwha have.

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These earthbound creatures formed part of the generation after the gods, before and during human beginnings. They provide the wheke or map of nature, telling the story of the shaping of the land. The tracks of the taniwha are the Maori survey pegs that mark the beginnings of Te Whanganui a Tara, the great harbour of Tara. For a long time the two taniwha had been discussing their desire to be free, to be out in the deep water they could hear crashing on the far shore. Ngake decided to do something about it. At first Ngake cruised around in the water thinking hard about what they could do. Finally he went down to the north-eastern corner near the Hutt river and started to wind himself up into a great fury, his tail lashing backwards and forwards, scooping up sand and piling it in the corner– which is why is it so shallow there. Twisting his tail up like a giant spring, with a great hiss and a roar of a taniwha enthusiasm, he drove off to the south-east at great speed. Whataitai pushed his head out of the water near scorching bay to watch Ngake crash into the great wall of rock and earth at Seatoun with such force that he smashed right through it, out into the open sea. Bleeding and battered, Ngake swam off into the deep waters of Raukawa Moana, Cook Strait, out into the wider waters of Moananui a Kiwa and was never heard of again in these parts. In his going he left a trail of wreckage: the rock Te Aroaro a Kupe or Steeple Rock, the rocks of Te Tangihanga o Kupe or Barrett Reef and the rocks on the eastern side of the harbour entrance known as Matauranga. Whataitai was very impressed and decided he would break out too, but not in the noisy, boisterous way of his late friend. He curled himself up in a great ball and got as excited as a lazy taniwha can, up near Ngauranga. With a great push of his tail against the rock, he pushed off and headed down Evans Bay, not realising that Ngake had let in the tides. He discovered the tide was going out when his pito started rubbing against the sea bottom, but he did not know about the tides and kept swimming harder. He ended up in the shallows and the water disappeared around him and he became stuck. When the tide came back in it brought him life and sustained him, stopping him from being left high and dry and dying the most dreaded of all taniwha deaths. However he had struggled and wriggled so much that he was stuck there in the sand. Wataitai was stuck for a very long time. He was there when Tara care to give the harbour it’s name and for eleven generations after Tara to the time of Te Aohaeretahi, when some say there occurred Te Hao Whenua, the great earthquake of about 1460. This lifted up Whataitai and his skin dried out and he died.

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As his dying body was completed, his wairua, his soul, left him in the form of manuwairua, a bird, and its name was Te Keo. This bird flew to the little knoll on Matairangi, by the Byrd memorial and looked down on his great body and began a tangi, weeping for all the living that the body of Whataitai had known. When the tangi was over the sprit bird flew away to the Hawaki of the taniwha and knoll was named Tangi te Keo.

This is why today there is an open harbour for ships to pass through and the dead back of Whataitai provides access to the airport and the old island of Te Motukairangi, now known as the Miramar Peninsula.

Kupe the Explorer

A thousand years ago Kupe the explorer visited Te Whanagnui a Tara. The stories say that he came into the harbour, known then as Te Upoko o te ika a Maui (the head of Maui's fish), while chasing a giant Octopus (wheke). He come down the East coast in Matahorua, the canoe of his family and entered the harbour through the gaping hole left by the fleeing taniwha, Ngake. He killed the wheke before he came into the harbour. Kupe rested a while and took time out to plant crops and harvest them for food.

Aborginal Mythology How the Stars Were Made - Rolla-Mano and the Evening Star.

Rolla-Mano was the old man of the sea. The blue ocean, with all its wonderful treasures of glistening pearls, white foam and pink coral, belonged to him. In the depths of the sea, he ruled a kingdom of shadows and strange forms, to which the light of the sun descended in green and grey beams. The forests of this weird land were many trees of brown sea-kelp, whose long arms waved slowly to and fro with the ebb and flow of the water. Here and there were patches of sea grass, fine and soft as a snow maiden's hair. In the shadow of the trees lurked a thousand terrors of the deep. In a dark rocky cave, a giant octopus spread its long, writhing tentacles in search of its prey, and gazed the while through the water with large lusterless eyes. In and out of the kelp a grey shark swam swiftly and without apparent motion, while bright-colored fish darted out of the path of danger. Across the rippled sand a great crab ambled awkwardly to its hiding place behind a white-fluted clam shell. And over all waved the long, brown arms of the sea kelp forest. Such was the kingdom of Rolla-Mano, the old man of the sea. One day Rolla-Mano went to fish in a lonely mangrove swamp close to the sea shore. He caught many fish, and cooked them at a fire. While eating his meal he noticed two women approach him. Their beautiful bodies were as lithe and graceful as the wattle tree, and in their eyes was the soft light of the dusk. When they spoke, their voices were as sweet and low as the sighing of the night breeze through the reeds in the river. Rolla-Mano determined to capture them. With this intention he hid in the branches of the mangrove tree, and, when the women were close to him he threw his net over them. One, however, escaped by diving into the water. He was so enraged at her escape that he jumped in after her with a burning fire stick in his hand. As soon as the fire stick touched the water, the sparks hissed and scattered to the sky, where they

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remain as golden stars to this day. Rolla-Mano did not capture the woman who dived into the dark waters of the swamp. After a fruitless search he returned to the shore and took the other woman to live with him for ever in the sky. She is the evening star. From her resting place, she gazes through the mists of eternity at the restless sea-the dark, mysterious kingdom of Rolla-Mano. On a clear summer night, when the sky is studded with golden stars, you will remember that they are the sparks from the fire stick of Rolla-Mano, and the beautiful evening star is the woman he captured in the trees of the mangrove swamp.

Greek Mythology

The ancient Greeks made up many myths based around the sea, most probably because they lived on scattered islands. The famous Greek hero Jason made many epic sea voyages. Poseidon (or Neptune) was an undersea God. He was blamed for bad sea storms and boat wrecks, and was always pictured with a Golden fork called a trident. The Greek goddess Aphrodite emerged from the sea as the goddess of love. Myth tells it that she was the daughter of Zeus and born out of the foam of the sea. The Romans based their goddess Venus on the same story. In Greek legend, the hydra was a water serpent with many heads. It was eventually killed by . Hercules, one of the hero’s of Greek mythology.

Mermaids There have been many myths written and told about mermaids living under the sea from European folktales to Hindu legends. Traditional myth tells it that mermaids lured sailors to their deaths on the rocks with their beautiful singing, causing the ships to crash into the rocky shore. The mermaids were said to be half woman half fish and stories of mermaids date back over 3,000 years. Hans Christian Andersen first published the beloved fairy tale of ‘The Little Mermaid’ in 1837. It is the story of the Little Mermaid who saves the life of a shipwrecked prince and sets off on a perilous quest to win his love. The price she pays is dear. To become human she must give up her lovely voice as well as her mermaid’s tail, and if the prince should

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wed another, she will turn into foam on the waves and disappear forever ... Most recently Walt Disney produced a movie called ‘The Little Mermaid’ based on the famous myths and stories surrounding mermaids. Most probably these sightings were inspired by a sea mammal with a fish like tale called the ‘dugong’, found in Indonesia, Southeast Asia where it is treated as a sacred animal. . . . . . . . . .

Sea Serpents and Monsters The sea serpent appears in many ancient myths and sailor’s stories around the world. In Viking legends, storms were said to be caused by the writhing of a giant serpent. In Norwegian folklore a giant sea monster called the kraken was said to attack ships and pluck helpless sailors from the deck. Reports of long tentacles suggest that mariners had really seen a giant squid or octopus. Mythical sea beasts also include the Norwegian sea monk and the Chinese sea bonze. Both were said to have fins as well as human features. Chinese sailors believe that these half human creatures raised storms and sank ships. These imaginary beings may have been based on skates or rays – flat-bodied fish with wing like fins and unusual markings on their undersides. Then of course there is the Loch Ness monster, one of the most famous modern sea myths. Since the 1930’s there have been many reported sightings of a strange creature in Loch Ness, Scotland. Despite many different attempts there is still no conclusive proof that the Loch Ness monster exists. . . . . 38 .

.

Myths Unit

. . This unit is focused around myths but can be easily adapted for folktales or fairytales.

Learning Outcomes: In the course of participating in the myths unit, students will: 1. Identify two common myths. 2. Follow the writing process to create a simple adaptation of a common myth. 3. Respond to questions about the myth genre to demonstrate understanding.

Activities: 1. Introduction

Ask students to discuss what they think folktales, fairy tales and myths means. Point out that myths are stories passed on from one person to the next by word of mouth or by oral tradition. Record responses. Read aloud a favorite myth or provide a selection of folktales, fairy tales and myths for students' silent reading. Discuss defining elements of a myth.

2. Introduce Myths

Have students offer names of stories that are myths. Write responses on the board. Share a selection of myths and ask students to point out similar characteristics of the stories. Then begin a myths web on the chalkboard indicating similar features, for example: takes place anytime, takes place anywhere, animals have human characteristics, etc.

3. Adapting Myths

After students have listened to and/or read a variety of myths, fairytales and/or folktales get them to select one to adapt. Children could work independently, in pairs or small groups. Complete the following activities: S Discuss the main ideas in the story. S Write a draft copy of the new myth with one change in it. S Read it to a friend, group, class or teacher. S Re-work. S Publish and present to class.

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4. Myths in the community

Many students will have myths and folktales which come from their cultural community. It is a great way of introducing the children to the diverse cultures surrounding them. S Discuss with students about different myths, fairytales and folktales from around the world. S Encourage students to ask their family members about myths from their culture. S Have students share their findings with the class and record these findings.

5. Extension:

If students have extra time encourage them to respond to the following questions: S How is telling a story different from reading a story? S What is special about listening to a story told by a storyteller? S What can you learn from knowing about myths? S What is special about a myth? Folktale? Fairytale?

6. Myth Storytelling Assessment Example

Use the criteria below to assess students' proficiency with understanding what a myth is and the storytelling activity.

Criteria:

1. Can identify 2 myths by name. 2. Understands what a myth, fairytale or folktale is. 3. Can discuss 2 main features of a myth. 4. Able to simply adapt a common myth into their own myth.



5: proficient: a high degree of competence



4: capable: an above-average degree of competence



3: satisfactory: a satisfactory degree of competence



2: emerging: a limited degree of competence



1: beginning: no key elements are adequately developed.

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Section 5

Suggested Activities Fish (or crab, starfish etc) Puppet

Supplies needed: i Hard cardboard i Scissors i Drinking straws i Pens, felt pens, or crayons i Tape i Optional - googly eyes and a glue stick i Optional - construction paper to make details, like a mouth, hat, etc. . Using a pen, draw the outline of the fish onto the cardboard. Cut out the fish. For the puppet's details (like the eyes, mouth, gills, tail), either draw them with a pen (or marker), or cut them out of construction paper and glue them on the puppet. Optional: Glue on googly eyes using a glue stick. Tape the back of your fish to the end of a drinking straw. You now have a great fish puppet that you can use to put on a play or use while reading your favorite story.

Fish Paper Plate

Supplies needed: i Paper plate i Scissors i Glue (or tape or a stapler) i Googly eyes (optional) i Crayons, paint or markers . Cut a wedge out of a paper plate. The wedge will be the fish's tail; the hole will be the fish's mouth. Glue (or use tape or a stapler) the tail to the end of the fish. Glue a googly eye on the fish (glue on two eyes if you want a flounder) or simply draw eye(s). Color in the fish, drawing scales, lips, and so on. For an extra touch, make a tiny fish (use the same instructions as above, but start with a tiny circle made from construction paper).

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Ocean Diorama

Create your own ocean scene in a box. Just print out sharks and whales, draw some seaweed, corals, and your favorite fish. Paste, color, cut, hang them in a decorated box, and enjoy the ocean. Supplies needed: i paper (stiff paper works best - colored paper is also great for this project) i a shoe box or slightly larger box i crayons and/or markers i tape i thread i scissors i optional: pipe cleaners (great for seaweed and coral), glitter (for great bubbles), thin cardboard to glue to the back of the animals if your paper is very flimsy (old cereal boxes work well) i optional: plastic ocean animals Find a box at least as big as a shoe box - a slightly bigger box works even better. This will be the stage containing your ocean scene. Decorate the inside of the box to look like it's underwater. Draw the water, the ocean floor, rocks, coral, seaweed, fish, an octopus, bubbles, scuba divers, a submarine, etc. Glitter makes a wonderful addition - just sprinkle some on a little glue. Draw other sea creatures you want to be in the scene (or use small plastic animals). Using crayons or markers, decorate the animals and plants. Also, draw and decorate your own seaweed, corals, and favorite fish. Green construction paper cut in squiggly strips makes nice seaweed. Cut out the animals and plants. Hang the fish and whales in the box using tape and thread. Tape your seaweed and coral to the bottom of the box. Green and brown pipe cleaners also make nice plants. Enjoy your ocean diorama!

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Scary Fish Mouth Pop-up Card

Make a Fish Mouth Pop-up Card. When you open the card, the mouth opens! This is a very easy project and a lot of fun. . . Supplies needed: i 2 pieces of paper (colored card-stock works great) i paste i scissors i crayons and/or markers . Fold a piece of paper in half. Cut a line about 2 inches long (5 cm) about the middle of the crease. Fold back each of the flaps to make 2 triangles. Open up the card. Lay it down like a v. Push one of the triangles up and pinch the edges together above the card. Repeat with the other triangle. Close the card and push down on the folds to make them well-creased. When opened, you have a pop-up mouth. Fold another piece of paper in half (a different color looks great). Glue this new card to the outside of your pop-up card. Don't glue near the mouth area or it won't open! Let the glue dry. Draw a scary animal around the mouth and finish decorating your card. For variations on this card, don't cut a straight line - cut a wavy line or a zigzag for scary teeth. You can even make more than one mouth for 2 monsters or a two-headed monster. This pop-up area also looks a lot like a bird's beak or a shark's mouth.

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Glue Starfish Craft/Necklace

This pebbly-textured starfish is easily made from white glue sprinkled with sand or glitter. It is fun to wear, display, or hang in a window. Supplies needed: i White glue i A toothpick or small stick i Waxed paper i Sand or glitter i 1 paper clip i Yarn . Working on a piece of waxed paper, carefully squeeze some white glue in the shape of a starfish. If you need to adjust the shape of the starfish a bit, use a toothpick. Fold a paper clip into a "V" shape. Put the ends of a paper clip into the glue at the end of one arm of the starfish. Sprinkle the glue lightly with sand (or glitter). Gently shake off the excess sand (or glitter). Let it dry completely (this takes at least overnight - sometimes longer). Carefully peel the waxed paper off the back of the starfish. You now have a pebbly-textured starfish to wear, display, or hang in a window.

Simple Sailboat Craft

You can make these cute little toy boats in just a few minutes. They are great for preschoolers and kindergartners to practice cutting with scissors, drawing, and molding clay. Supplies needed: i A wide plastic lid (like the lid from a margarine tub) i A drinking straw i Construction paper i Kids' scissors i A hole punch i Crayons, markers, and/or stickers i A small wad of play dough Cut a triangle from a piece of construction paper - this will be your sail. Decorate the sail with crayons, markers, and/or stickers. Punch three holes along one side of the triangle. Weave a drinking straw (the boat's mast) through the holes.

Quick Ideas Fish kite Fish prints

Put a small wad of molding clay on the inside of the lid. Push the end . of the drinking straw into the clay.

Shell necklace

You now have a cute little toy sailboat that can float in water!

Shell wind chime

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Sand sculptures

Section 6

Booklist

Myths and Legends/Environment and Oceans This is an incredibly vast and varied topic. Your local library will have plenty of books on this topic, or contact your nearest National Library. Children often have books on the sea and water life at home. Encourage them to bring them to share.

Here is a list of the books used for research into this resource: Oliver, Clare (2002) 100 Things You Should Know About Oceans Miles Kelly Publishing, Essex

Lambert, David (1997) The Kingfisher Book of Oceans Kingfisher Publications, London

Ganeri, Anita (1995) I Wonder Why The Sea Is Salty? Kingfisher Publications, London

Paul, L.J (1986) New Zealand Fishes An Identification Guide Reed Methuen Publishers LTD, Auckland

McMillan, Peter; Paulin Chris; Roberts, Clive; Stewart, Andrew (1989) . New Zealand Fish A Complete Guide National Museum Of New Zealand

Royston, Angela (1997) Under The Sea Reed Educational & Professional Publishing Ltd

MacQuitty, Dr. Miranda (1995) Collins Eyewitness Guides: Oceans Harper Collins Publishers

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Parker, Steve (1990) Collins Eyewitness Guides: Fish Collins Publishers, Australia

BBC Worldwide Ltd (2001) The Blue Planet; Ocean World BBC Worldwide Ltd, London . . Horowitz, Anthony (1985) The Kingfisher Book Of Myths And Legends Kingfisher Books, London

Ardagh, Philip (1998) Celtic Myths and Legends Belitha Press, London

Bacon, Ron (1999) Maui’s New Hook Waiatarua Publishing, New Zealand.

Gossage, Peter (2001) In The Beginning Scholastic New Zealand Ltd

Gossage, Peter (1980) How Maui Found His Father and The Magic Jawbone Lansdown Press, New Zealand

Pohatu, Warren (2000) Traditional Maori Legends - Nga Tai Korero Reed Publishing (NZ) Ltd

Mataira, Katarina (1972) Maui and the Big Fish Angus & Robertson, Hong Kong

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Websites Used for research into this resource: http://www.seafood.co.nz

The Seafood Industry Council website. Have a look at their teaching resource aimed at level 2 -3 for other ideas. www.southernseabirds.org

Southern Seabird Solutions website. www.greatestmeal.co.nz

More interesting facts about seafood. http://www.geocities.com/kiwikidz.geo/rockyshore.html

Fantastic website written by a New Zealand Teacher. Many of the facts and ideas in this resource are taken from this website. http://www.enchantedlearning.com/themes/fish.shtml

Great website for simple craft ideas, activities and poems. http://www.natlib.govt.nz/index.html

National Library website. Contact them for a list of books and videos on the topic you wish. http://www.geocities.com/SouthBeach/Pointe/9162/maori.html#myths

Website which gives you brief details on Maui and the famous legends. http://teacher.scholastic.com/

A great site which offers you ideas and lesson plans on folktales. http://mythicjourneys.org/bigmyth/2_eng_myths.htm

An interesting site to look at for myths from around the world. Full of ideas and questions for older children. http://www.worldwildlife.org/oceans/

Join WWF to help our pollution oceans – an interesting website with a lot of information about current ecological issues. http://www.doc.govt.nz/community/001%7efor-schools/002~Themes/007~Marine/index. asp

Department of Conservation website link. Gives you links to resources on related topics.

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Appendix music from

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