Chapter 18 Social Psychology Review 18.1: Social Thinking Aimee sees Monica—a girl from her class whom she doesn’t know except by name—running out of a jewelry store. Aimee thinks, “She must have stolen something and is running away” Aimee shares that suspicion with some friends. Aimee is (1) attributing Monica’s behavior to her (2) disposition. In fact, Monica got a phone call saying that her Mom had been rushed to the hospital, and she was racing to meet her there. Her behavior was actually due to the (3) situation, and so Aimee had made the (4) fundamental attribution error. The idea that people usually attribute others’ behavior either to their (5) internal dispositions or to their (6) external situations was proposed by Fritz (7) Heider. Because Aimee’s incorrect beliefs about Monica are negative, she is predisposed to develop a negative (8) attitude toward Monica and to behave accordingly if other influences are (9) minimal, her attitude is (10) specific to the behavior, and she is keenly (11) aware of her feelings. When Aimee learns the truth about Monica’s behavior, she experiences (12) cognitive dissonance, because her new understanding now conflicts with her past behaviors. Review 18.2: Social Influence Calvin does not belong to a fraternity. His friend Theo has pledged with Omega Psi. Although they once were close, they have drifted apart because Theo is (1) conforming his thinking and behavior to the standards set by his fraternity brothers. Research by Solomon (2) Asch identified factors that may have contributed to Theo’s changed behavior, including the following: Theo was made to feel (3) incompetent by upperclassmen when he was pledging. The other Omega Psi fraternity brothers were (4) unanimous in their views. Theo (5) admired Omega Psi’s status and attractiveness on campus. Changing his behavior in order to gain his fraternity brothers’ approval meant that Theo was succumbing to (6) normative social influence, David, the president of Theo’s fraternity, has ordered all pledges to befriend only fellow fraternity brothers. Because David is considered a legitimate (7) authority figure, Theo obeys his order, As Stanley (8) Milgram’s research results would predict, Theo refuses to associate with Calvin, who does not belong to his fraternity. Theo’s fraternity sets the social (9) standard (norm) for brothers’ behavior, and not one brother veers from the rules, so there are no (10) role models for defiance. Review 18.3: Social Relations Two new biology majors, Wynona and Jason, have been hired as work-study students in the lab. The amount of time they spend in close (1) proximity is a powerful predictor that they will at least develop a friendship. As the days and months go by, their liking for each other will most likely increase. This is because of the (2) mere exposure effect, which according to (3) evolutionary psychologists is adaptive; our ancestors survived because they found that what was different was potentially dangerous, and what was (4) familiar was safe. Wynona and Jason also find each other (5) attractive, which contributes to their budding relationship. Wynona and Jason begin dating and, as they get to know each other, their liking increases because they (6) share interests and values. Also, because they both feel that the benefits of their relationship outweigh the costs, the (7) reward theory predicts that the relationship will grow and develop. Using the (8) two-factor theory of emotion to explain what has now become passionate love between Jason and Wynona, Elaine (9) Hatfield would identify the ingredients of their love as physical (10) arousal and cognitive (11) appraisal. With time their passionate love may develop into (12) companionate love which is characterized by equal giving and receiving by both partners, or (13) equity, and by both revealing their dreams and worries, or (14) self-disclosure.