CHAPTER 3 PUTTING DOWN ROOTS: OPPORTUNITY AND OPPRESSION IN COLONIAL SOCIETY SUMMARY The character of the early English settlements varied because of regional factors. A common language and heritage helped pull English American settlers together, however. By the 1690s, Parliament began to establish a uniform set of rules for an expanding American empire, bringing the colonies into closer contact with the “motherland.” Sources of Stability: New England Colonies of the Seventeenth Century Colonists in New England successfully replicated a social order they had known in England based on the primary social unit of the family. Immigrant Families and New Social Order In contrast to the early settlers of the Chesapeake colonies who were primarily single males, the early settlers of New England migrated as families, providing a more stable basis for society. These families were better able to maintain local English customs and ameliorate the strangeness of the New World, contributing to increased reproduction and unprecedented longevity. Additionally, a dispersed population, pure drinking water, and a cool climate helped retard the spread of contagious disease and promoted good health. People who would have died in England or Virginia survived in New England. Commonwealth of Families In New England, town life was built upon the foundation of the family, and New England towns were essentially elaborate kinship networks with children rarely moving away. The household was the primary place of work, and the family was the basis for having and educating children. As towns matured, however, they took over the role of education by establishing schools supported by local taxes. New England achieved a literacy rate that the southern colonies would not match for another century. Harvard was the first institution of higher learning founded in the colonies. The family was also the basis of church life in New England with congregations eventually becoming focused primarily on members rather than reaching out to the larger community. Outsiders who were not absorbed into an established family unit, and therefore the church and town, often moved away. Women’s Lives in Puritan New England Because the household was the primary unit of production, women’s contributions and labor were essential for a successful household. They worked on family farms alongside their husbands and often managed and ran the home as “deputy husbands.” Despite this, wives’ political and legal rights were severely limited. They could own no property in their own right, and divorce, even from an abusive or irresponsible spouse was rare and 34
difficult to obtain. New England women tended to join churches in greater numbers than men. Social Hierarchy in New England With neither paupers nor noblemen, New England colonists found their society incomplete by European standards, particularly when it came to the absence of wealth. Like most Europeans, they believed such well-placed persons were “natural rulers.” Gradually the colonists sorted themselves into new social and economic groups, such as provincial gentry, yeomen, and indentured servants. Most northern colonists were yeomen farmers who worked their own land, but it was not unusual for northern colonists to work as servants at some point in their lives. Such servitude was more like an apprenticeship than the kind of servitude that developed in the Chesapeake, as there was ample room for upward social and economic mobility in New England.
The Challenge of the Chesapeake Environment Despite being founded at roughly the same time by people primarily from England, society developed quite differently in England’s Chesapeake colonies than it had in New England. Family Life at Risk Physical conditions were not as favorable for survival or longevity in the Chesapeake colonies because of contagious diseases and contaminated drinking water. Most colonists came as individuals rather than as members of a family, and there was an imbalance between the number of men and women. For those individuals that were able to create families, family life was much more unstable, and childbearing was extremely dangerous. Additionally, the prevalence of the practice of indentured servitude contributed to the instability of Chesapeake society. Women were particularly vulnerable as servants. The Structure of Planter Society The cultivation of tobacco shaped Chesapeake society and perpetuated social inequality. Great planters dominated Chesapeake society by controlling large estates, the labor of indentured servants or slaves, and the political system of the colony. Freemen (usually former indentured servants) formed the largest class. The experience of indentured servitude was not degrading in and of itself, but the conditions of life as an indentured servant were difficult at best. Because the tobacco-based economy was based on the plantations, cities and towns were slow to develop, and especially after the 1680s, newcomers discovered that upward social mobility was more difficult to attain than in the northern colonies.
Race and Freedom in British America Many of the first settlers in the Americas were not voluntary settlers, but were forced to migrate to the colonies as slaves. This practice only increased as the supply of white indentured servants dried up.
Roots of Slavery Between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries, almost eleven million Blacks were brought to the Americas as slaves. Most were sold in South or Central America. Because slaves were required to endure hard labor, men were preferred, and in most slave communities, outnumbered women by almost two to one. There were almost no objections to enslaving Africans for life because economic considerations required cheap labor. Planters, however, generally justified slavery by identifying Black Africans as heathen and barbarous in need of civilizing. At first, slavery and race were not intertwined, as some Blacks were able to become free, and a few to become successful planters themselves but as the Black population expanded, lawmakers drew up ever stricter slave codes. By 1700, slavery was undeniably based on the color of a person's skin. Constructing African-American Identities Despite the cruelty and alienation of slavery, Blacks developed their own unique AfricanAmerican culture in terms of music, art, religion, and language that was neither African nor European. Even so, the slave experience varied from colony to colony with slaves in the South, where they made up a greater percentage of the population, better able to establish kinship relationships and maintain more African cultural traditions. By the eighteenth century, creole slaves (those born in America) reproduced in greater number than the number of slaves imported from Africa. As slaves, many Blacks protested with individual acts of violence, in organized revolts, such as the Stono Uprising of 1739, or with acts of non-violent resistance. Others found opportunities for a degree of personal freedom by working, for example, as mariners on colonial sailing vessels.
Rise of a Commercial Empire After the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, a British policy of indifference toward the colonies was replaced by one of intervention. Response to Economic Competition England developed a framework of regulatory policies, termed mercantilism, to increase exports, decrease imports, and grow richer at the expense of other European states. Though these policies were not developed as a well-integrated set of ideas about international commerce, they did provide a blueprint for England’s first empire and remained in place with only minor adjustments until 1765. Regulating Colonial Trade Beginning in 1660, Parliament passed a series of Navigation Acts, which detailed commercial restrictions, and set up the Board of Trade to oversee colonial affairs and to limit competition, especially with the Dutch. Inadequate or lax enforcement and corruption often impeded the execution of imperial policies, but ultimately the colonists largely obeyed the Navigation Acts because they found it profitable to do so.
Colonial Factions Spark Political Revolt, 1676-1691 In the second half of the seventeenth century, several of the colonies experienced instability as the local gentry split into competing political factions, and internal rebellions erupted in Virginia, Maryland, New York, and Massachusetts Bay. Civil War in Virginia: Bacon's Rebellion In 1676, Virginians suffered from economic depression and political repression. Nathaniel Bacon capitalized on this unrest in leading an unsuccessful rebellion against the government of Lord Berkeley, ostensibly to protect western settlers against Indian raids, but probably because of the governor’s monopoly of the fur trade. There were clear divisions between many of the colonists and “greedy” Crown appointees. Though the rebellion did not last long, many Native Americans and Virginia colonists died, Jamestown was burned to the ground, and some political reforms were made. The Glorious Revolution in the Bay Colony During the 1660s and 1670s, the Puritans of Massachusetts Bay colony found themselves drawn into closer and closer contact with England, something many leaders perceived as a violation of their covenant with God. In 1675, an Indian uprising known as King Philip's War cost the lives of more than one thousand Indians and New Englanders before it was put down. The large debt incurred in this war by the colony led England to annul the charter of the Massachusetts Bay Company and merge the colony into the larger Dominion of New England with the tyrannical Sir Edmund Andros as governor. When James II was deposed during the Glorious Revolution in England, Americans in New England overthrew Governor Andros, and the colony of Massachusetts received a new royal charter. Contagion of Witchcraft Fear and hysteria resulted in the hanging of nineteen alleged “witches” in Salem, Massachusetts, in 1692, but hundreds more were accused, awaiting trial when the hysteria abated. Religious discord and economic tension seem to have been the underlying causes. The Glorious Revolution in New York and Maryland News of the Glorious Revolution sparked feuds among the colonial gentry in both New York and Maryland. In New York, Jacob Leisler led an abortive attempt to seize control of the colony from powerful Anglo-Dutch families. In Maryland, John Coode led an antiproprietary and anti-Catholic group which successfully petitioned the Crown to transform Maryland into a royal colony, though the Baltimore family remained important, even regaining their proprietorship in 1715 under the Anglican fourth Lord Baltimore.
Conclusion: Local Aspirations within an Atlantic Empire The creation of a new imperial system did draw the colonies into closer contact with England, but did not eliminate the sectional differences in the colonies. It would be a long time before a sense of nationalism would unite the colonies and kindle an American Revolution. LEARNING OBJECTIVES After mastering this chapter, you should be able to: 1.
Explain the reasons for the growth and social stability of the New England colonies.
Discuss the roles, obligations, and rights of colonial women in both New England and the Chesapeake.
Explain how conditions in the northern colonies eroded European concepts of social rank and fostered social mobility.
Account for the similarities and differences in development between the New England and Chesapeake colonies.
Discuss the reasons for the growth of slavery and the slave trade in the English colonies of North America.
Discuss the different conditions for slaves in the American colonies and the factors that contributed to the construction of a distinctive and lasting African-American culture.
Explain the historical significance of colonial uprisings in the seventeenth century.
Evaluate the causes of the Salem witchcraft hysteria in the 1690s.
GLOSSARY To build your social science vocabulary, familiarize yourself with the following terms: 1.
patriarch the father and ruler of a family. “The godly family, at least in theory, was ruled by a patriarch, father to his children, husband to his wife, . . .”
catechize to teach, especially in the principles of religion, by the method of questions and answers. “. . .the Massachusetts General Court reminded the Bay Colonists of their obligation to catechize their families . . .” 38
common law established practices within a society given the consent and authority of law. “Some scholars point out that common law as well as English custom treated women as inferior to men.”
hierarchical characterized by a ranking of persons or things according to class or grade. “According to the prevailing hierarchical view of the structure of society, well-placed individuals were natural rulers.”
demographic conditions standards for measuring or evaluating population characteristics. “These demographic conditions retarded normal population increase.”
aristocrat one who belongs to a wealthy, usually landholding elite; sometimes with title and political preeminence. “The members of this gentry were not technically aristocrats.”
social mobility the degree to which individuals are capable of moving out of their inherited social rank, usually determined by existing economic opportunity. “The character of social mobility...changed during the seventeenth century.”
indigenous existing, growing, or produced naturally in a region or country. “. . . as the rise of an indigenous ruling elite.”
chattel a movable item of personal property. “English settlers classified some Black laborers as slaves for life, as chattel to be bought and sold at the master’s will.”
10. mulatto a person of mixed race, usually Black and White. “Mulattoes and pure Africans received the same treatment.” 11. balance of trade the relationship within a commercial system between exports and imports. “The mother country should establish a more favorable balance of trade.” 12. imperial system a system organized by a powerful nation, for long-term commercial and economic gain, whose territories or colonies primarily serve the economic interests of that nation. “During the 1660s, the colonists showed little enthusiasm for the new imperial system.” 13. clique a small, exclusive circle of people. “He probably would have been accepted into the ruling clique.” 14. anarchy absence of any noticeable government or source of authority. “Their selfserving policies, coupled with the memory of near anarchy, helped heal divisions. . .” 15. misogyny hatred or discrimination towards women. “The underlying misogyny of the entire culture meant that the victims were more often women than men.” 39
IDENTIFICATION Briefly identify the meaning and significance of the following terms: 1. Glorious Revolution
2. Great Migration
3. Anthony Johnson
Royal Africa Company
5. Stono Uprising
7. Navigation Acts
8. Sir William Berkeley
10. Indentured Servitude
MATCHING A. Match the following individuals with the appropriate identification: ______1. Nathaniel Bacon
a. led a rebellion in Maryland against Catholic authority
______2. Increase Mather
b. first governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony
______3. Edmund Andros
c. led a rebellion in Virginia against the autocratic government of Lord Berkeley
______4. Jacob Leisler
d. prominent New England clergyman who helped bring the Salem witchcraft trials to a close
______5. John Coode
e. governor of the Dominion of New England who was overthrown in response to the Glorious Revolution f. led an uprising in New York in the name of King William III against the Anglo-Dutch elite
B. Match the following laws or policies with the appropriate description: ______1. Sumptuary Law
a. parliamentary law that stated that goods could not be imported into America without first passing through English ports
______2. Navigation Act
b. first law passed in Parliament specifically designed to regulate American trade
______3. Staple Act
c. law that allowed British to set restrictions on manufacturing
______4. Plantation Duty
d. decision that allowed children whose parents could not demonstrate their “election” by God to be baptized into the church
______5. Half-Way Covenant
e. law that limited the wearing of fine clothing to the wealthy and prominent f. law requiring money collected in colonial ports to be equal to English customs duties 41
COMPLETION Answer the question or complete the statement by filling in the blanks with the correct word or words. 1. In the Chesapeake, an economy based almost entirely on the single commodity of __________ created an insatiable demand for indentured servants and Black slaves. 2. Because most colonists to New England migrated as members of __________, the shock of adjusting to a strange environment was lessened. 3. The best-selling book of seventeenth-century New England was Reverend Michael Wigglesworth’s __________________, a 1662 poem describing in terrifying detail the fate of sinners on Judgment Day. 4. The first institution of higher learning founded in England’s mainland colonies was _______________. 5. Until the end of the nineteenth century, the Creole language __________, which mixed English and African words, was spoken on some of the Sea Islands along the Georgia-South Carolina coast. 6. The term mercantilist system was coined by the famous eighteenth-century Scottish economist __________________ to describe Great Britain’s commercial regulations of her colonies. 7. To establish a more favorable balance of __________________, a nation seeks to export more than it imports. 8. American colonists were rankled at the establishment in 1696 by England of ________________ courts in America to try offenders of the Navigation Acts because such courts required neither juries nor oral cross-examination, both traditional elements of the common law. 9. In the midst of colonial political troubles, the Wampanoag Chief ______________ declared war against the colonists in 1675. 10. The village of ____________ was plunged into terror in the early 1690s when several adolescent girls began to behave in strange ways and announced they were victims of witches.
TRUE/FALSE Mark the following statements either T (True) or F (False). _____1.
William and Mary College in Virginia was the first institution of higher learning in the North American colonies.
Those who came to the Chesapeake region enjoyed longer life expectancy than those in New England.
The first aristocrats of Virginia were mainly English gentry who emigrated to America.
There was a significantly greater demand for slave labor in the Chesapeake colonies than in New England by the 1660s.
By 1700 at the latest, the status of slaves was determined undeniably by skin color.
After the early 1800s, the increasing number of slaves can be mainly attributed to the importation of slaves from Africa or the West Indies.
Because of the Navigation Acts, smuggling of goods into America during the eighteenth century increased dramatically.
Freemen formed the largest social class of Chesapeake’s society.
The British mercantilist system as it related to its empire was generally well thought out and organized.
_____10. Because of the hysteria and fear they generated, the Salem witchcraft trials have been compared with the McCarthy hearings of the 1950s.
MULTIPLE CHOICE Circle the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1.
The most plausible explanation for the rapid increase in population in New England was that a. colonists there apparently lived much longer than other colonists. b. Puritans desired larger families than other colonial groups. c. couples in New England married much younger than their counterparts elsewhere. d. many more immigrants came to New England than to the southern colonies.
Education of the young during the early colonial period was primarily a function of a. the family. b. the public schools. c. the church. d. the community.
In which of the following activities or responsibilities could colonial women most expect to take part? a. economic or business transactions b. lawmaking c. political matters d. church activities
Most farmers in the northern colonies belonged to which of the following groups? a. large-scale planters or aristocrats b. indentured servants c. yeomen or independent farmers d. tenant farmers
Most of the settlers of the Chesapeake region emigrated as a. artisans or craftspeople. b. families. c. land-owning aristocrats. d. indentured servants.
Most slaves brought from Africa across the Atlantic by slave traders were sold in which of the following regions? a. what is now Mexico b. the North American colonies c. Central America d. Brazil or the Caribbean 44
The mercantilist system was primarily designed by the British for a. establishing additional colonies. b. reducing political control over the colonies. c. supporting the early development of colonial manufacturing. d. setting up commercial regulations throughout the empire.
The attitude of most New Englanders toward the restrictions of the Navigation Acts was to a. ignore them completely. b. obey them as much as possible. c. refuse to trade any further with Britain. d. protest vigorously against them.
The issue that prompted Bacon's Rebellion in Virginia was the a. inability of the governor to effectively control the Indians on the frontier. b. unfair trial of colonial smugglers by British admiralty courts. c. decision of Parliament to appoint the governor rather than allow popular elections. d. attempt to move the capital from Jamestown to Williamsburg.
10. Which of the following factors did not contribute to the hysteria over witchcraft in Salem during the early 1690s? a. the refusal of the courts to accept “spectral evidence” b. economic tensions c. the choice of a minister for the parish d. prevalent discrimination against women at the time 11. Until the middle of the seventeenth century, English political leaders a. refused to recognize the existence of the American colonies. b. largely ignored the American colonies. c. established extensive restrictions on American colonists. d. petitioned the Crown to forbid Englishmen the right to emigrate to the colonies. 12. The main reason for the lack of development of towns in the Chesapeake region seems to have been the a. barrenness or defects of the coastal area. b. absence of navigable rivers. c. absence of a middle class. d. dependence on a one-crop economy.
13. The uprising of Massachusetts Bay colonials in response to the Glorious Revolution was directed against the a. Customs officials who attempted to enforce the Navigation Acts. b. administration of Governor Andros. c. large land-holding families. d. new rulers of England, William and Mary. 14. The revolts of American colonial gentry during the seventeenth century represented a. an early rehearsal for the American Revolution. b. confrontations between ordinary people and their rulers. c. competition among local factions for control of their colonies. d. ideological struggles over colonial rights. 15. Regarding Christianity, most slaves in North America a. accepted it with no alterations, as it was taught to them by Whites. b. rejected it as an alien faith. c. were never exposed to it. d. accepted it as their own, but with their own cultural variations.
THOUGHT QUESTIONS To check your understanding of the key issues of this period, solve the following problems: 1.
What factors in colonial America contributed to or impeded social mobility and economic opportunity for new colonists?
How did family structure and work habits enhance the social stability of Puritan communities? What role did women play in Puritan New England?
Contrast the economic and demographic conditions in Chesapeake society with that of New England during the seventeenth century.
Why, and to what extent, did slavery take root and develop in the North American colonies? How did African Americans adapt to life in North America?
Describe the purposes of the English mercantilist system and the laws enacted to enforce it. What were the results for Americans?
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS Read the following selections: “Bacon’s Rebellion: The Declaration” (1676) and “The Examination and Confession of Ann Foster at Salem Village” (1692). Answer the questions following the reading selections. Bacon’s Rebellion: The Declaration (1676) 1.
For having, upon specious pretenses of public works, raised great unjust taxes upon the commonalty for the advancement of private favorites and other sinister ends, but no visible effects in any measure adequate; for not having, during this long time of his government, in any measure advanced this hopeful colony either by fortifications, towns, or trade.
For having abused and rendered contemptible the magistrates of justice by advancing to places of judicature scandalous and ignorant favorites.
For having wronged his Majesty's prerogative and interest by assuming monopoly of the beaver trade and for having in it unjust gain betrayed and sold his Majesty's country and the lives of his loyal subjects to the barbarous heathen. For having protected, favored, and emboldened the Indians against his Majesty's loyal subjects, never contriving, requiring, or appointing any due or proper means of satisfaction for their many invasions, robberies, and murders committed upon us. For having, when the army of English was just upon the track of those Indians, who now in all places burn, spoil, murder and when we might with ease have destroyed them who then were in open hostility, for then having expressly countermanded and sent back our army by passing his word for the peaceable demeanor of the said Indians, who immediately prosecuted their evil intentions, committing horrid murders and robberies in all places, being protected by the said engagement and word past of him the said Sir William Berkeley, having ruined and laid desolate a great part of his Majesty's country, and have now drawn themselves into such obscure and remote places and are by their success so emboldened and confirmed by their confederacy so strengthened that the cries of blood are in all places, and the terror and consternation of the people so great, are now become not only difficult but a very formidable enemy who might at first with ease have been destroyed. And lately, when, upon the loud outcries of blood, the assembly had, with all care, raised and framed an army for the preventing of further mischief and safeguard of this his Majesty's colony. For having, with only the privacy of some few favorites without acquainting the people, only by the alteration of a figure, forged a commission, by we know not what hand, not only without but even against the consent of the people, for the raising and effecting civil war and destruction, which being happily and without bloodshed prevented; for having the second time attempted the same, thereby calling down our forces from the defense of the frontiers and most weakly exposed places. For the prevention of civil mischief and ruin amongst ourselves while the barbarous enemy in all places did invade, murder, and spoil us, his Majesty's most faithful subjects.
Of this and the aforesaid articles we accuse Sir William Berkeley as guilt of each and every one of the same, and as one who has traitorously attempted, violated, and injured his Majesty's interest here by a loss of a great part of this his colony and many of his faithful loyal subjects by him betrayed and in a barbarous and shameful manner exposed to the incursions and murder of the heathen. And we do further declare these the ensuing persons in this list to have been his wicked and pernicious councilors, confederates, aiders, and assisters against the commonalty in these our civil commotions. Sir Henry Chichley Richard Whitacre Lt. Col. Christopher Wormeley Nicholas Spencer Phillip Ludwell Joseph Bridger Robt. Beverley William Claiburne, Jr.
Ri. Lee Thomas Hawkins Thomas Ballard William Sherwood William Cole John Page Clerke John Clauffe Clerk
John West, Hubert Farrell, Thomas Reade, Math. Kempe And we do further demand that the said Sir William Berkeley with all the persons in this list be forthwith delivered up or surrender themselves within four days after the notice hereof, or otherwise we declare as follows. That in whatsoever place, house, or ship, any of the said persons shall reside, be hid, or protected, we declare the owners, masters, or inhabitants of the said places to be confederates and traitors to the people and the estates of them is also of all the aforesaid persons to be confiscated. And this we, the commons of Virginia, do declare, desiring a firm union amongst ourselves that we may jointly and with one accord defend ourselves against the common enemy. And let not the faults of the guilty be the reproach of the innocent, or the faults or crimes of the oppressors divide and separate us who have suffered by their oppressions. These are, therefore, in his Majesty's name, to command you forthwith to seize the persons abovementioned as traitors to the King and country and them to bring to Middle Plantation and there to secure them until further order, and, in case of opposition, if you want any further assistance you are forthwith to demand it in the name of the people in all the counties of Virginia. Nathaniel Bacon General by Consent of the people. William Sherwood The Examination and Confession of Ann Foster at Salem Village (1692) After a while Ann ffoster conffesed that the devil apered to her in the shape of a bird at several Times, such a bird as she neuer saw the like before; & that she had had this gift (viz. of striking ye afflicted downe with her eye euer since) & being askt why she thought yt bird was the diuill she answered because he came white & vanished away black & yt the diuill told her yt she should haue this gift & yt she must beliue him & told her she should haue prosperity & she said yt he had apeared to her three times & was always as a bird, and the last time was about half a year since, & sat upon a table had two legs & great eyes & yt it was the second time of his apearance that he promised her prosperity & yt it was Carriers wife about three weeks agoe yt came & perswaded her to hurt these people. 16 July 1692. Ann ffoster Examined confessed yt it was Goody Carrier yt made her a witch yt she came to her in person about Six yeares agoe & told her it she would not be a witch ye diuill should tare her in peices & carry her away at which time she promised to Serve the diuill yt she had bewitched a hog of John Loujoys to death & that she had hurt some persons in Salem Villige, yt goody Carier came to her & would have her bewitch two children of Andrew Allins & that she had then two popets made & stuck pins in them to bewitch ye said children by which one of them dyed ye other very sick, that she was at the meeting of the witches at Salem Vilige, yt Goody Carier came & told her of the meeting and would haue her goe, so they got upon Sticks & went said Jorny & being there did see Mr. Buroughs ye minister who spake to them all, & this was about two months agoe that there was then twenty five persons meet together, that she tyed a knot in a Rage & threw it into the fire to hurt Tim. Swan & that she did hurt the rest yt complayned of her by Squesing popets like them & so almost choked them. 18 July 1692. Ann ffoster Examined confessed yt ye deuil in shape of a man apeared to her wth Goody carier about six yeare since when they made her a witch & that she promised to serve the diuill two years, upon which the diuill promised her prosperity and many things but neuer performed it, that she & martha Carier did both ride on a stick or pole when they went to the witch meeting at Salem Village & that the stick broak: as they were caried in the aire aboue the tops of the trees, & they fell but she did hang fast about the neck of Goody Carier & ware presently at the vilage, that she was then much hurt of her Leg, she further saith that she heard some of the witches say there was three hundred & fiue in the whole Country & that they would ruin that place ye Vilige, also said there was present at that meetting two men besides Mr. Burroughs ye minister & one of them had gray haire, she saith yt she formerly frequented the
publique metting to worship god. but the diuill had such power ouer her yt she could not profit there & yt was her undoeing: she saith yt about three or foure yeares agoe Martha Carier told her she would bewitch James Hobbs child to death & the child dyed in twenty four hours. 21 July 92. Ann ffoster Examined Owned her former conffesion being read to her and further conffesed that the discourse amongst ye witches at ye meeting at Salem village was that they would afflict there to set up the Diuills Kingdome. This confesion is true as witness my hand. Ann ffoster Signed & Owned the aboue Examination & Conffesion before me Salem 10th September 1692.
John Higginson, Just Peace
For what reasons does Nathaniel Bacon demand the surrender of Virginia’s Governor Berkeley in 1676?
According to the text, what other motives might have prompted Bacon's Rebellion? What were the results? Compare Bacon’s Rebellion to other colonial uprisings of the latter seventeenth century.
According to the text, what caused the “contagion of witchcraft” in Salem, Massachusetts, during the early 1690s?
To what did Ann Foster confess? What evidence substantiated her confession?
Give examples of other “witch hunts” that you know have occurred in American history. What lessons do they offer? How might future witch hunts be prevented?