Chapter 6 The ancient world (Egypt, Greece, Rome, India, China)

Chapter 6 The ancient world (Egypt, Greece, Rome, India, China)

Overview 6A chapter R AF D Historians refer to the period of human history from around 60 000 BCE to 650 BCE as the ancient world. During this tim...

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Overview

6A

chapter

R AF D

Historians refer to the period of human history from around 60 000 BCE to 650 BCE as the ancient world. During this time, some of the most important ancient civilisations developed on the continents we now know as Africa, Europe and Asia. Over this huge stretch of time, there were many changes in the way humans have lived. The earliest humans moved around in search of food, hunting and gathering as they went. Over time, people began to live in villages, and then towns, and then cities. This year in history, you will be learning about the skills and techniques used by historians to investigate the ancient world. You will also be learning about one ancient civilisation in detail.

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The ancient world

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Source 1  The Great Sphinx and the pyramids at Giza in Egypt are some of the most important artefacts from ancient Egypt. They have helped historians uncover many secrets from the ancient world.

Where and when did civilisations in the ancient world develop?

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chapter 1 understanding the economy

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6A Where and when did civilisations in the ancient world develop??

6.1 The first humans

1 How long do historians think modern humans have existed on Earth for? 2 What is the scientific name given to modern humans? 3 What is the ‘Out of Africa’ theory?

Source 1 shows the spread of humans from their beginnings in East Africa to other parts of the world. This spread of humans across the world from origins in Africa is known as the ‘Out of Africa’ theory. Some scholars argue that early humans developed simultaneously in different parts of the world. However, fossil and genetic evidence strongly supports the ‘Out of Africa’ theory.

Apply and analyse 4 According to the ‘Out of Africa’ theory, how long ago did humans arrive in Australia?

WORLD: POSSIBLE HUMAN MIGRATION PATTERNS

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Bluefish Cave

Swanscombe

Lascaux

Ehringsdorf

40 000 BP

NORT H AMERICA

Archaeologists believe humans crossed the land bridge between Siberia and Alaska as early as 40 000 BP.

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It is believed that approximately 100 000 years ago, these first humans left Africa and arrived in the Middle East. Over thousands of years, many waves of migrating groups of humans left Africa, travelling in different directions and living nomadic lifestyles. This continued until around years ago. Evidence of agriculture dating back to that time was discovered in the Middle East, which proved that groups of people were able to settle in one place. From then on, humans started to develop increasingly complex societies and civilisations.

Remember and understand

E U RO P E

ASIA

Ötztal Alps

Minnesota

25 000 BP

Forbes’ Quarry

Calico Hills

100 000 BP

AFRICA

200 000 BP

Olduvai Gorge

40 000 BP

INDIAN

AT L A N T I C

1600 BP

P A

O

C

I

F

I

AT L A N T I C

C E

A

N

OCEAN

Tepexpan

C

35 000 BP

Pedra Furada

2000 BP

SOUT H AME R I C A

AUSTRALIA 50 000 BP

Apollo II Cave

Kenniff Cave

Lake Mungo Kow Swamp

LEGEND Archaeological evidence Homo sapiens neanderthalensis 100 000 to 35 000 years ago Homo sapiens sapiens 35 000 years ago to present

15 000 BP

1000 BP

Movement of early humans 40 000 BP

40 000 years before present day

GEO HIST 7 World civilisations Source 1 This satellite image of Earth shows the likely migration routes and settlement A.02_22082 patterns of humans (Homo sapiens) according to the ‘Out of Africa’ theory. oxford big ideas humanities and social sciences 7 western australian curriculum

Monte Verde

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0

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Clovis

Meadowcroft

Midland

OCEAN

OCEAN

20 000 BP Natchez

70 000 BP

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Modern humans have existed on Earth for about 200 000 years. Archaeologists and scientists have gathered primary sources, such as bones and early tools, to uncover evidence about early humans, and to generate theories about how they spread across the Earth. The earliest remains of people that are anatomically similar to modern humans (Homo sapiens) were found in East Africa. From there, historians believe Homo sapiens spread to other parts of Africa. Ancient peoples were mostly nomadic, meaning that they moved around a lot in search of food and shelter.

Check your learning 6.1

1000

2000

3000 km

20-11-12 Source: Oxford University Press chapter 6 the ancient world

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6A Where and when did civilisations in the ancient world develop??

6.2 The location of ancient civilisations

Check your learning 6.2 Name the continents where some of the world’s most important ancient civilisations developed. 2 Name the two ancient civilisations that developed in India. 3 Ancient civilisations in Europe and Africa developed around an important sea. What is it called? 1

Some of the most imortant ancient civilisations developed on the continents we now know as Africa, Europe and Asia. They included ancient Egypt, ancient Greece and ancient Rome in the Mediterranean region, and ancient India and ancient China in Asia.

Which of the five ancient civilisations shown is the oldest? When did it begin? 5 The lands occupied by ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece both eventually became part of another ancient civilisation. What was it called?

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WORLD: KEY ANCIENT CIVILISATIONS

EUROPE

R AF

Source O.2 shows the location and size of these ancient civilisations and provides some key information about each of them. Note the dates for each civilisation as you are looking at the map – not all of them existed in the same time periods. Some flourished and then disappeared, only to later become part of another civilisation. This was the case with ancient Egypt and ancient Greece, both of which became part of the Roman Empire, and the Indus Valley civilisations in India, which became part of the Mauryan Empire. The timeline in Source 1 on page XX also shows the dates for each of the civilisations shown here.

Ancient Egypt was a civilisation based around the Nile River in northern Africa. It was one of the world’s first civilisations. Ancient Egypt was ruled under one government from about 3100 BCE. Between 3100 BCE and 30 BCE, when the last Pharaoh (ruler) died, there were 31 dynasties and 70 pharaohs.

Apply and analyse

MEDITERRANEAN SEA

AFRICA

AT L A N T I C

O C E A N

Formed from three existing cultures in the region, Ancient Greece covered all of modernday Greece as well as parts of Turkey and other settlements around the Mediterranean and Black seas. The civilisation lasted only about 400 years, but its legacy (including democracy) influences the Western world to this day.

The civilisation of ancient Rome lasted approximately 1300 years. It was centred around the city of Rome, in modern-day Italy. The Romans conquered the ancient Egyptians and Greeks, as well as many other peoples. During its history, Rome was ruled as a monarchy, a republic and an empire. It was a powerful civilisation with a strong military and an advanced culture.

Ancient India (3500 BCE–184 BCE)

P A C I F I C O C E A N

I N D I A N

OCEAN

Ancient Greece (c. 776–146 BCE)

Ancient Rome (753 BCE–476 CE)

A SI A

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This year you will be studying one of these ancient civilisations in detail. To get a better understanding of ancient civilisations, it helps to look at some of the factors they had in common and how their development was linked.

Ancient Egypt (c. 3100–30 BCE)

Remember and understand

Civilisation in India began in the Indus Valley in 3500 BCE. For much of its history, ancient India was a collection of separate regions and kingdoms, some of which were at war with one another. At different times, some of these were ruled as part of dynasties or empires; this included the Mauryan Empire, whose authority rose and fell in just 120 years.

AUSTRALIA Ancient China (1766 BCE–220 CE)

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LEGEND

Source 1 This satellite image of Earth

shows the location and size of key ancient civilisations when they were at their peak.

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1000

2000

3000 km

Ancient Egypt Ancient Greece Ancient Rome (including territories once part of Egypt and Greece)

0

Ancient China was ruled for 3600 years by dynasties (families). The last dynasty – the Qing – ended in 1912. Chinese society was one of the earliest in the world to establish towns and cities. It also contributed important technological developments to the rest of the world, such as gunpowder and printing.

Source: Oxford University Press

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6A Where and when did civilisations in the ancient world develop??

6.3 A timeline of ancient civilisations THE MEDITERRANEAN WORLD

3100 BCE

Source 3 The Parthenon, built on the Acropolis in Athens

Source 4 The Colosseum, a vast

public stadium, opened in Rome in 80 CE

30 BCE

Ancient Egypt 146 BCE

776 BCE

753 BCE

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Ancient Greece 476 CE

220 CE

Ancient China

3500 BCE

1700 BCE

Ancient India – Indus Valley civilisation 304 BCE

184 BCE

R AF

Ancient Rome

1766 BCE

THE ASIAN WORLD

Source 2 The Great Pyramid and Sphinx at Giza, near Cairo

Source 5 A section of the Great Wall

of China

Source 6 A Buddhist stupa built during the Mauryan Empire

Ancient India – Mauryan Empire 3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

Source 1 A timeline showing the rise and fall of ancient civilisations

Check your learning 6.3

500

1000

1500

Remember and understand

Apply and analyse

1 According to the dates shown on the timeline,

2 Sources 2–6 show some of the most important

calculate how many years the following ancient civilisations lasted: a Ancient Egypt b Mauryan Empire in India c Ancient Rome.

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1 CE

D

3500 BCE

2000

structures from the ancient world. Use the Internet to complete the following tasks: a When was each structure built? b Why was each structure built and what was it used for? c Were any of these structures built for similar reasons/uses? If so, which ones?

oxford big ideas humanities and social sciences 7 western australian curriculum

chapter 6 the ancient world

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