Chapter Chapter 3 - MacMillan

Chapter Chapter 3 - MacMillan

Chapter 3 Movement of peoples, 1750–1901 INVESTIGATION FOCUS AND OUTCOMES In this chapter your investigation will require you to: • outline the key fe...

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Chapter 3 Movement of peoples, 1750–1901 INVESTIGATION FOCUS AND OUTCOMES In this chapter your investigation will require you to: • outline the key features of the Industrial Revolution in Britain • explain how the agricultural revolution caused British people to move from villages to towns and cities to create a cheap labour force • outline how the Industrial Revolution influenced transportation of convicts to Australia and the migration of free settlers • identify the movement of slaves out of Africa and the movement of convicts and free settlers out of Britain • investigate the main features of slavery, including transportation • use a variety of sources to investigate and report on the changing way of life of convicts, emancipists or free settlers • describe the impact of convicts and free settlers on the Indigenous peoples of the regions occupied • describe both the immediate and longer-term consequences of transporting African slaves to the Americas • assess the impact of convicts and free settlers on the development of the Australian nation. © 2012 Board of Studies NSW for and on behalf of the Crown in right of the State of New South Wales

Emigrant ship Monrovian leaving Essex, England, for Australia on 20 August 1912

Inquiry questions 1 How did the Industrial Revolution influence the movement of peoples throughout the world? 2 What were the experiences of slaves upon departure, their journey abroad and their reactions on arrival? 3 What were the experiences of convicts upon departure, their journey abroad and their reactions on arrival in Australia?

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4 What were the experiences of free settlers upon departure, their journey abroad and their reactions on arrival? 5 What changes occurred to the way of life of women who moved to Australia? 6 What were the short-term and long-term impacts of the movement of peoples during this period?

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Introduction THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION created a need for large supplies of raw materials. When countries did not have enough of the resources they needed for manufacturing goods, they looked to other parts of the world for them. This often involved conquering weaker countries in order to get the resources cheaply. Once conquered, these countries might become colonies and part of an empire. For example, to supply European clothing factories with enough cotton, plantations were established in the ‘New World’ and slaves were used to do the work. The victims of slavery, mostly from Africa, were taken against their will and brought in dreadful conditions upon packed ships to New World countries, often in South, Central and North America. In Britain, industrialisation did not bring wealth to the majority of the population. Poor living conditions led to increased crime due to hunger and poverty. Criminals could be transported to faraway colonies as punishment for even some fairly minor crimes. This was also a time when many Europeans chose to move away from their ‘homeland’ for the chance of a better life as free settlers in the colonies. Britain had been transporting convicts to its colonies in North America from the early 1700s. It was the loss of these colonies after the American War of Independence in 1776 that led Britain to establish a colony on the east coast of Australia roughly 12 years later. By 1850, over 142 000 convicts had been transported to Australia. This, however, was a tiny number compared with the estimated 12 500 000 slaves who were transported around the world between the early 1500s and the 1860s.

Key terms abolition

the act of getting rid of something


to hand down something to someone else (in your will)


taking control of a territory and bringing settlers to it

Dred Scott Decision

a ruling by the US Supreme Court in 1857 that slaves or their descendants could not be considered American citizens


free settlers

female factory

prison workhouses for women convicts transported to Australia


old or unseaworthy ships used as a prison

New World

North, Central and South America, ‘discovered’ and colonised by European powers; the term can also be applied to Oceania (Australasia)

Old World

the part of the world known to Westerners before the Americas were discovered

secondary punishment

crimes committed by convicts serving their original (primary) sentence in the colony were punished by secondary punishments, such as being sent to a more remote settlement


banishment of a criminal to a penal colony


statement of a witness

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Chapter 3 Movement of peoples, 1750–1901

Global migration, c. 1900 UNITED KINGDOM






From Japan


From China







Over 200



















People per square kilometre























51–100 11–50


Under 10


Timeline of key dates

1788 British penal colony established at Sydney, NSW

1615 British convicts are sent to Virginia; British convicts are sold as slaves in North America and the West Indies until the War of Independence (1775)

1750 World population is approximately 791 million





Italian agricultural crisis after unification spurs migration

Californian gold rush



Society for the Abolition of Slavery is founded in Britain

European revolutions

Slave labour replaced by indentured Indian labourers in the West Indies

All slaves in British colonies granted freedom

Abolition of the transatlantic slave trade by Britain and America


Signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in New Zealand 1815 leads to increased Napoleonic Wars migration end; mass migration to North America begins




1845 Irish potato famine leads to major migration from Ireland to America and other places

1851 Australian gold rushes

1901 World population is approximately 1.7 billion

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Focus on history skills Skill 2 Perspectives and interpretations (part 1) An interpretation is a person’s account or explanation of an event. An interpretation can be official or unofficial, and be made for different purposes. Not all historians have the same interpretation of events. Sometimes, an historian’s interpretation might change over time if new information about the event becomes available. Interpretations of events can be presented in a variety of ways by people other than historians, as shown in source H3.1. This may raise some interesting questions: 1 Why can there be more than one

interpretation of an event?

2 Whose interpretation is correct? 3 Which interpretation is best? 4 How do these interpretations influence your

interpretation of the event? The following is a list of films and TV shows about slavery. Choose one and find out whose perspectives are represented in the film and how it interprets slavery. • Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1927, 1987) • Gone with the Wind (1939) • Roots (1977) • A Woman Called Moses (1978) • Glory (1989)

Fiction Novels Paintings Plays Feature films TV shows Games

Educational/ academic


Lectures Reports Textbooks Documentaries Museums Sites Re-enactments

Theme parks Websites Postcards Souvenirs Monuments Ceremonies

• Race to Freedom (1994) • Unchained Memories: Reading from the

Slave Narratives (2003) • Slavery by Another Name (2012)

Source H3.1

SOURCE H3.2 Poster advertising the film Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1927)


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Chapter 3 Movement of peoples, 1750–1901

Focus on history skills activities Use the questions below to create a mind map for understanding and analysing the interpretation of a source’s creator. 1 Whose interpretation does the source reflect? • Does any evidence exist to support the

interpretation? • Does any evidence exist to dispute the

interpretation? 2 When was the text created? • What was happening at the time? • What has happened since? 3 Who created the text? • What was their background? • What ‘side’ were they on? • What was their relationship with the issue

or event?

5 Who was the intended audience? 6 Which parts are presented as facts? 7 Which parts are points of view? 8 Is the interpretation affected by: • religion? • ideology? • nationality? • gender? • position in society? 9 Is the source: • official? • unofficial? 10 Was the source meant to be: • public? • private?

4 What was the creator’s purpose in creating

the text? • To persuade, inform, entertain, provoke,

commemorate and/or educate?

A convict’s perspective Write a short explanation that answers the question ‘What care would need to be taken when using The Adventures of Ralph Rashleigh for gaining a perspective of convict life?’, using the information below.

Background information James Tucker—the probable author of the early convict novel The Adventures of Ralph Rashleigh—was born in Bristol, England, and was said to be 18 when convicted, in 1826, of sending a threatening letter to his cousin. Sentenced to transportation for life, he arrived in Sydney early in 1827. In The Adventures of Ralph Rashleigh, written between 1844 and 1845, Tucker tells a fictionalised story of a convict at the Newcastle penal settlement, who escapes and lives with local Aboriginal people. Eventually, he is able to earn

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a pardon by saving a white woman. In the book, Tucker offers an insider’s view of the dreadful treatment and conditions suffered by convicts and the psychological effects of such treatment. The Adventures of Ralph Rashleigh gives readers the convict’s perspective during that era. It details the brutal and often unjust treatment of convicts and offers a fascinating description of the hardships endured by those living at Australian settlements. The book provides a commentary on the convict system as a whole, thus adding to our understanding of what forged the Australian identity. In the book’s introduction, CA Roderick describes the novel as an invaluable primary source because it is the only novel to have been written by a man who, during all his Australian life, was never anything but a convict.

Focus on history skills


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History 9 for NSW The making of the Modern World

Think, puzzle, explore

1 Draw a three-column table in your workbook. 2 Title the first column ‘Think’. When you think about the terms ‘slave’ and ‘slave trade’, what comes to mind? List your thoughts in this column. 3 Title the second column ‘Puzzle’. In this column, list any questions you would like answered about slaves and the slave trade. 4 Title the third column ‘Explore’. In this column, record how you might find answers to your questions. What words could you use to search on the internet? What topics in the index of this book might be relevant? What would be other useful sources of information? 5 Discuss the answers as a class.


Lisbon PORTUGAL Mediterranean Sea

Sahara Desert







Freetown LEONE












Key Routes of slave traders to Africa Slave gathering areas





Rio de Janeiro

Lake Victoria




Pacific Ocean




Amazon Basin


Black Sea


Atlantic Ocean





4–5 million lives are lost on the Middle Passage




Charleston Savannah New Orleans

Gulf of Mexico



New York Philadelphia


Liverpool Bristol


Around 12–15 million slaves are transported to the Americas


Ships return laden with sugar, cotton, rum and ‘trophy’ slaves



The Industrial Revolution resulted in the movement of peoples from the ‘Old World’ to

Kalahari Desert


The slave trade and convicts

the ‘New’. Slaves were transported across the Atlantic Ocean to work on the plantations that supplied the factories in the industrialised countries. Poverty in the industrialised countries drove some people to commit crimes that saw them transported as convicts to distant countries such as Australia.


Industrialisation and the movement of peoples


Routes of ships carrying slaves Major concentration of slaves


1500 km

Routes of slave traders back to Europe

Cape of Good Hope

SOURCE 3.1 The transatlantic slave trade, 1400–1800

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Chapter 3 Movement of peoples, 1750–1901

Spain/ Uruguay


Portugal/ Brazil

Great Britain



Denmark/ Baltic











13 363


25 375

25 387






50 763


28 167

31 089






61 007


60 056

90 715






152 373


83 496

267 519






352 843


44 313

201 609

33 695

31 729




315 050


12 601

244 793

122 367

100 526




488 064



297 272

272 200

85 847


29 484

25 685

719 674



474 447

410 597

73 816


120 939


1 088 909



536 696

554 042

83 095

34 004

259 095


1 471 725



528 693

832 047

132 330

84 580

325 918

17 508

1 925 314



673 167

748 612

40 773

67 443

433 061

39 199

2 008 670


168 087

1 160 601

283 959


109 545

135 815

16 316

1 876 992


400 728

1 299 969




68 074


1 770 979


215 824







225 609

1 061 524

5 848 265

3 259 440

554 336

305 326

1 381 404

111 041

12 521 336



Emory University, ‘Assessing the slave trade’, The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, 2008,

SOURCE 3.2 Shippers of slaves by numbers embarked, transatlantic slave trade, 1501–1866


Comprehension: chronology, terms and concepts 1 a Use the map (‘Global migration, c. 1900’) at

the start of this chapter. Look at the key for ‘people per square kilometre’. What does this map tell us about at least one of the reasons people migrated?

b What was the total number of slaves who

embarked (or were put on ships)? 3 a From source 3.3, what was Australia to

become in the 19th century? b How many convicts were transported to

eastern Australia between 1787 and 1852? c How many of these of these were women?

What fraction was this of the total number?

b Which were the main groups of people who

came to Australia? c What was another major migrant destination?

Analysis and use of sources 1 a Use source 3.1. What were the main ports

that slave traders left from? b Where were the main places that slaves were

taken from? c What were the main slave destinations? d Why do you think that the transatlantic slave

routes became known as the ‘triangular trade’? 2 a Use source 3.2. Draw a table with two

columns. List the countries involved in the slave trade in order from the largest slave traders to the smallest. Include the total number of slaves in the second column.

Convicts were transported from Britain as forced labour to the American and West Indian colonies in the 17th and 18th centuries, but 19thcentury Australia was to become the site of the first self-conscious attempt to build a society on the labour of convicted felons. More than 150   000 convicts were transported to eastern Australia between 1787 and 1852, about 25 000 of them women. Marion Quartly, ‘Convicts’, in G Davison, J Hirst and S Macintyre (eds), The Oxford Companion to Australian History, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 2001, p. 156

SOURCE 3.3 Convict transportation to Australia

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History 9 for NSW The making of the Modern World

SOURCE 3.4 Stowage of the British slave ship Brookes, c. 1788

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Chapter 3 Movement of peoples, 1750–1901

Explanation and communication 1 Use sources 3.1 and 3.4 to write the diary

entries of a captain of a slave ship. To estimate the time your voyage took, you need to know that (a) sailing ships travelled at an average of 6 knots per hour and that (b) one knot equals 1.852 kilometres. This means that a ship might travel 11.11 kilometres per hour under good conditions and up to around 266 kilometres per day. • Entry 1—Start your voyage in a British port.

Indicate the date and time of leaving and what you had on board. • Entry 2—Note which African port you arrived

at and how long the voyage took.


shepherd sheep, tend cattle, grow crops, build fences, and make roads and bridges. Labour was also needed to get commodities through transport routes to major seaports where the commodities would shipped off to overseas markets. This process of commodity circulation built up Australia’s main cities. In Australia, the indigenous population was small and scattered. They were involved largely with trying to repel the invaders of their lands. At first, too, many people from colonising countries did not want to move to distant foreign lands. The answer to Britain’s labour shortage in its newest colony, Australia, was transportation.

• Entry 3—Describe what happened at

the port. • Entry 4—Note when you left port in Africa

and which North American port you were sailing to.

Chronology of Australia’s wool industry 1807

First wool export from Australia to Britain

American port, the number of days travelled and what happened at the port.


Wool replaces whaling and sealing as main export item

• Entry 6—Describe leaving the port and what


Sheep numbers in Australia reach 15 million


Beef and dairy cattle numbers reach 2 million


Belgium and French textile companies negotiate direct purchases of Australian wool


Australia becomes the world’s largest wool supplier

• Entry 5—Describe your arrival at the North

your new cargo was. • Entry 7—Describe your arrival back in

Britain, the number of days at sea and what happened to your cargo.

Research Source 3.2 shows the total number of slaves who embarked (or were put on ships). Search online to find out the total number of slaves who disembarked (or got off the ships) at the end of the journey.

Empathetic understanding 1 How do you think slave ship captains would have

thought about their human cargo? 2 How would you describe the actions of slave



Annual increase over last 10 years (% )





12 000


The growing need for labour and transportation


34 000



70 000



190 000


The colonies supplied raw materials to be processed in industrialising countries. They also provided food to feed growing populations of urban workers. Growing food in the colonies was cheaper, but the colonies needed labour to


405 000


ship captains?

RV Jackson, The Population History of Australia, McPhee Gribble/Penguin, Fitzroy, 1988, p. 6

SOURCE 3.5 Australian population growth, 1800–50

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History 9 for NSW The making of the Modern World


Number of convicts

% of Australian population





19 170



43 590



117 090



142 275


Wray Vamplew (ed.), Australians, Historical Statistics, Fairfax, Syme & Weldon Associates, Sydney, 1987, p. 4

SOURCE 3.6 Total number of convicts transported from Britain to Australia, 1801–50


Comprehension: chronology, terms and concepts 1 a Use the chronology on page 95. What was

the main export from Australia until 1835? b What became the main export from 1835? c How many sheep were in Australia by 1850? d Name three countries that were buying

Australian wool. 2 a Use source 3.5. What was Australia’s

b Use source 3.5 to draw a line chart. Place

the years 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840 and 1850 along the base of the chart. On the left side, use the scale 2 cm = 50 000 people. 3 a On the same line chart, using a different

colour, chart the convict population for the same years from source 3.6. b Between 1800 and 1850, what was the

average proportion of convicts in the total population? (Add up the five numbers under ‘% of Australian population’ and divide by five.) c What may have happened to Australian

rural industries if convicts had not been transported to Australia?

Explanation and communication 1 Use the map at the start of this chapter as

well as source 3.6 and the chronology on page 95. Draw a map showing England and Australia. Indicate the movement of peoples and commodities between the two countries from around 1800 to 1850. 2 Swap your map with another student. Describe

two points about transportation that you can see in their map.

population in 1830?

SOURCE 3.7 Slavers revenging their losses

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Chapter 3 Movement of peoples, 1750–1901

What were the experiences of slaves? Consider the experiences of slaves upon departure and during their journey abroad. What were their reactions on arrival?

Chronology of slavery 1501

African slaves go to the New World: Spanish settlers bring slaves from Africa to Santo Domingo (now the capital of the Dominican Republic)


Britain joins the slave trade. John Hawkins, the first Briton to take part in the slave trade, makes a huge profit taking slaves from Africa to Hispaniola.


Slaves begin arriving in Virginia, USA. African slaves brought to Jamestown are the first to be taken to Britain’s North American colonies.


Slaves are defined as property. Virginia lawmakers allow owners to bequeath their slaves. The same law allowed masters to ‘kill and destroy’ runaways.


First United States census is held—approximately 700 000 slaves live and work in a nation of 3.9 million people.


Eli Whitney patents his device, the cotton gin, for pulling seeds from cotton. The invention turns cotton into the main crop of the American south and creates a huge demand for slave labour.


United States bans slave trade—importing African slaves is outlawed, but smuggling continues.


Uncle Tom’s Cabin is published. Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel about the horrors of slavery sells 300 000 copies within a year of publication.


In the ‘Dred Scott Decision’, the United States Supreme Court decides, seven to two, that ‘negroes’ can never be citizens and that Congress has no authority to outlaw slavery in any territory.



Civil war is fought in the United States—the northern states (anti-slavery) fight southern states (pro-slavery). Slavery is abolished in America: the 13th Amendment to the Constitution outlaws slavery.


As you read in the previous section, historians estimate that from 1451 to 1870 between 10 and 12 million slaves were forcibly taken from Africa. The mortality rate during the journey was about 10 per cent, or 1.2 million deaths. In this section you will use sources to investigate the experiences of slaves.

Experiences of slaves upon departure Source 3.7 shows one of the guards murdering a captive who is unable to keep up with the rest of the slaves. The engravings in the book that this source comes from are based on ‘rude sketches’ made by David Livingstone. On 19 June 1866, Livingstone wrote: We passed a woman tied by the neck to a tree and dead, the people of the country explained that she had been unable to keep up with the other slaves in a gang, and her master had determined that she should not become the property of anyone else if she recovered after resting a time … we saw others tied up in a similar manner … the Arab who owned these victims was enraged at losing his money by the slaves becoming unable to march, and vented his spleen by murdering them. David Livingstone, The Last Journals of David Livingstone, in Central Africa, from 1865 to his Death, Horace Waller, London, 1874, p. 62.

SOURCE 3.8 Goree, or ‘slave-stick’


Comprehension: chronology, terms and concepts 1 Use the chronology on this page. Make a timeline

for slavery that includes six events.

Analysis and use of sources 1 a Describe source 3.7. b How do you think Livingstone viewed


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History 9 for NSW The making of the Modern World

c What reaction do you think Livingstone hoped

to gain? d How useful is this source in investigating the

experience of slaves? 2 Use source 3.8. What is a ‘goree’?

The slaves’ journey Around 11 million Africans were victims of slavery. Every major European trading nation participated in this cruel trade, which lasted 400 years from the beginning of the 16th century.

The representation of the brig Vigilante from Nantes, a vessel employed in the slave trade which was captured by Lieutenant Mildmay in the River Bonny, on the coast of Africa, on the 15th of April 1822 … and had on board at the time she was taken 345 slaves. The slaves were found lying on their backs on the lower deck, as represented below [see source 3.11]; those in the centre were sitting, some in the posture in which they are there shown and others with their legs bent under them, resting upon the soles of their feet.

A letter to a newspaper editor describing conditions on board slave ship, the Zeldina, in 1857, stated: The poor captives were in a wretched condition—all of them naked; and the greater part seemed to have been half starved. They were packed closely together, and covered with dirt and vermin … The slave-schooner had two decks and between them the captives were packed in such a manner that they had scarcely room to move. During each day of the voyage they sat in a painful posture, 18 inches only being allowed for each to turn in … in a deck room of 30 feet in length … [they were] brought up in platoons once every day to get a small portion of fresh air.

SOURCE 3.9 Transport of African slaves to the colonies, 1754

Source 3.9 is a drawing of the top deck of slave ship with African slaves. Note that the men and women are separated. Source 3.11 is an engraved drawing of the French slaving vessel Vigilante, showing cross-sections of the lower decks where slaves were kept. On the left side of the drawing are illustrations of leg and arm shackles. The caption at the top of the drawing reads:

SOURCE 3.10 African slaves in the hold of a slave ship, c. 1754; this image appeared in Amelia Opie’s The Black Man’s Lament: Or How to Make Sugar, published in London in 1826

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Chapter 3 Movement of peoples, 1750–1901


03013 low res

SOURCE 3.11 Plans and sections of the French slave ship Vigilante

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History 9 for NSW The making of the Modern World

Olaudah Equiano was captured and sold as a slave in the kingdom of Benin in Africa. He wrote about his experiences in 1789 (see source 3.12).

• astonishment

• tossed

• terror

• bad spirits.

• handled 2 Use six of your list of words or phrases to write a

The first object which saluted my eyes when I arrived on the coast, was the sea, and a slave ship, which was then riding at anchor, and waiting for its cargo. These filled me with astonishment, which was soon converted into terror, when I was carried on board. I was immediately handled, and tossed up to see if I were sound, by some of the crew; and I was now persuaded that I had gotten into a world of bad spirits, and that they were going to kill me. I was soon put down under the decks, and there I received such a greeting in my nostrils as I had never experienced in my life; so that, with the loathsomeness of the stench, and crying together, I became so sick and low that I was not able to eat, nor had I the least desire to taste anything. I now wished for the last friend, death, to relieve me; but soon, to my grief, two of the white men offered me eatables; and, on my refusing to eat, one of them held me fast by the hands, and laid me across, I think, the windlass, and tied my feet, while the other flogged me severely. The white people looked and acted, as I thought, in so savage a manner; for I had never seen among my people such instances of brutal cruelty. The closeness of the place, and the heat of the climate, added to the number in the ship, which was so crowded that each had scarcely room to turn himself, almost suffocated us. The air soon became unfit for respiration, from a variety of loathsome smells, and brought on a sickness among the slaves, of which many died. The wretched situation was again aggravated by the chains, now unsupportable, and the filth of the necessary tubs, into which the children often fell, and were almost suffocated. The shrieks of the women, and the groans of the dying, rendered the whole a scene of horror almost inconceivable. Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa the African, London, 1789, ch. 2

SOURCE 3.12 Olaudah Equiano’s experience as a slave


Explanation and communication 1 Use source 3.12. List words or phrases from

the four paragraphs that capture how Olaudah Equiano felt on being taken aboard the slave ship. The first paragraph is done for you:

sentence about Olaudah Equiano’s experience.

Analysis and use of sources 1 Use sources 3.9 to 3.12. The first paragraph of

Olaudah Equiano’s testimony in source 3.12 relates to his first impression on being taken on board the slave ship. Choose one of the sources that you think best supports the first paragraph. Explain why, using the image and the associated text. 2 Choose one of the sources that best supports

his second paragraph. Explain why, using the image and the associated text. ACTIVITY 5

Perspectives and interpretations On 6 February 1837, Senator John C Calhoun gave a speech to the US Senate. In it he said: I hold that in the present state of civilization, where two races of different origin, and distinguished by color, and other physical differences, as well as intellectual, are brought together, the relation now existing in the slaveholding States between the two, is, instead of an evil, a good—a positive good. 1 Do sources 3.9 to 3.12 support John Calhoun’s

view? Explain. 2 How does Olaudah Equiano’s view differ from

that of Calhoun?

Reaction on arrival We can only guess at the reactions of the slaves when they arrived in the New World. They had been taken from their families and homeland, transported in horrific conditions, and then put ashore in a foreign land. Those taken to America would have seen a landscape, culture and way of life totally different to what they had known in the past. Everything, from language and food to the sights, would have been extraordinary. They would have felt fear and sadness. Any history of the experiences of the first slaves was not recorded by them, other than sharing their stories orally with each other.

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Chapter 3 Movement of peoples, 1750–1901

However, a number of accounts were written by later slaves. Ottobah Cugoano was born in Africa about 1757. As a child he was kidnapped and sold as a slave to plantation owners in the West Indies until he was purchased by an English merchant. He was taken to England in 1772 where he was later set free. Cugoano adopted the name of John Stuart and was taught to read and write. In 1787 he published an account of his experiences in Narrative of the Enslavement of Ottobah Cugoano, a Native of America. But it would be needless to give a description of all the horrible scenes which we saw, and the base treatment which we met with in this dreadful captive situation, as the similar cases of thousands, which suffer by this infernal traffic, are well known … I was thus lost to my dear indulgent parents and relations, and they to me … Brought from a state of innocence and freedom, and, in a barbarous and cruel manner, conveyed to a state of horror and slavery, this abandoned situation may be easier conceived than described. Ottobah Cugoano, Narrative of the Enslavement of Ottobah Cugoano, a Native of America, London, 1787


Francois Biard was a French painter who lived in Brazil between 1859 and 1861 and witnessed slave auctions like the one shown in source 3.15. The painting shows the auctioneer standing on a chair while a prospective buyer examines a slave woman with a child clinging to her arm. Other slaves are also shown, along with household furniture and musical instruments that were being sold at the same auction. ACTIVITY 6

Comprehension: chronology, terms and concepts 1 What do we know about the reactions of slaves

on arriving at new lands? Why? 2 Who was Ottobah Cugoano? 3 Use source 3.13 to create a mind map about

Cugoano’s attitude to slavery.

Empathetic understanding 1 Use source 3.14. a You are the auctioneer. Describe what you

are thinking. b You are the slave mother. Describe what you

are thinking. SOURCE 3.13 Extract from Narrative of the Enslavement of Ottobah Cugoano, a Native of America

SOURCE 3.14 Slave auction, Rio de Janeiro, from Francois Biard, Deux Années au Brésil, published in Paris in 1862

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Research Obtain web addresses to undertake research on the experience of slaves from your digital support. Write down two research questions before you start to guide your research.

What were the experiences of convicts? Experiences before departure— life on the hulks After Britain lost the American War of Independence in 1783, it needed to find an alternative place to send its unwanted convicts. British jails were already overcrowded. Growing numbers of convicts, along with court sentences that involved transportation out of England, made this imperative. One strategy adopted in England was to imprison convicts in hulks. These were decommissioned warships that floated but could not go to sea. Numerous hulks were used throughout England.

SOURCE 3.15 Hyde Park convict barracks, Macquarie Street, Sydney, photographed by Harold Cazneaux in the 1920s. Between 1819 and 1848, the barracks housed 15 000 convicts in government employment. The building is now a museum.

SOURCE 3.16 The hulk Warrior anchored off Woolwich, England, 1781

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Conditions aboard hulks were extremely poor, and deadly diseases broke out in these prisons. The highest death rate aboard them reached over 30 per cent. James Hardy Vaux was a prisoner on the Retribution, a hulk moored at Woolwich, England, during the early 1800s. Source 3.17 was written by Vaux while he was waiting to be transported for a second time to New South Wales.



Comprehension: chronology, terms and concepts 1 Write a definition of the word ‘hulk’.

Explanation and communication 1 a What happened after America was lost as a

dumping ground for convicts? b Where were some of the convicts


They were confined in this floating dungeon nearly 600 men, most of them double ironed; and the reader may conceive the horrible effects arising from the continual rattling of chains, the filth and vermin naturally produced by such a crowd of miserable inhabitants … On arriving on board, we were all immediately stripped and washed in two large tubs of water, then, after putting on each a suit of coarse slop clothing, we were ironed and sent below; our own clothes being taken from us … Every morning, at seven o’clock, all the convicts capable of work, or, in fact, all who are capable of getting into the boats, are taken ashore … and there employed at various kinds of labour … and while so employed, each gang of sixteen or twenty men is watched and directed by a fellow called a guard. These guards are commonly of the lowest class of human beings; wretches devoid of feeling; ignorant in the extreme, brutal by nature, and rendered tyrannical and cruel by the consciousness of the power they possess …  They invariably carry a large and ponderous stick, with which, without the smallest provocation, they fell an unfortunate convict to the ground, and frequently repeat their blows long after the poor fellow is insensible. James Hardy Vaux, quoted in PortCities London, 56/chapterId/429/Prison-hulks-on-the-River-Thames.html

SOURCE 3.17 James Hardy Vaux’s description of life on a hulk, c. 1809

2 Use source 3.17 to write a 100-word caption for

source 3.16.

Analysis and use of sources 1 a What is source 3.15? b How does it help us to understand convict

experiences on arrival in the colony? 2 Who wrote source 3.17 and when was it

written? 3 How useful is source 3.17 in understanding what

life was like on a hulk?

Perspectives and interpretations 1 Use source 3.17. From whose perspective is this

source written? Explain. 2 How might a guard have responded to this


Transportation—the journey to Australia The First Fleet left England on 13 May 1787. The convict ships were designed to keep the prisoners in one area of the ship away from the crew and officers. The first port of call was the Canary Islands. From there, the voyage led to Rio de Janeiro. During the crossing of the Atlantic Ocean, the heat and humidity made life on board the convict ships unbearable. Because supplies were short, Captain Arthur Phillip had to limit everyone’s drinking water to 700 millilitres a day. The crossing took seven weeks, after which time the fleet stayed in Rio for a month. During this time, the convicts were kept below decks. The next part of the journey was to the Cape of Good Hope, a voyage that was completed in October 1787. The Dutch colony at Cape Town would be the fleet’s last port of call before the long trip across the Indian and Southern oceans.

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Chronology of the First Fleet’s journey 13 May 1787

Eleven ships (two naval escorts, six convict transports and three cargo ships) leave Portsmouth, England. On board are 579 male and 192 female convicts, along with 14 of their children.

3 June 1787

Arrives at Tenerife in the Canary Islands, staying a week and taking on supplies of fresh food

5 July 1787

Crosses the equator

7 August 1787

Arrives at Rio de Janeiro, staying for a month to make repairs and collect plants and seeds to be grown in New South Wales.

13 October 1787

Reaches Table Bay (now called Cape Town), Cape of Good Hope, after surviving storms in the Atlantic Ocean. Stays a month and takes aboard horses, sheep and goats.

25 December 1787

Located in the middle of the Indian Ocean

1 January 1788

Arrives Adventure Bay, Van Diemen’s Land

18 January 1788

Arrives at Botany Bay

26 January 1788

Comes ashore at Port Jackson to start the penal settlement

On 26 January 1788, Phillip raised the British flag at Sydney Cove and 759 convicts and their children disembarked, along with 252 marines and their families.

The first colonies Two more convict fleets arrived in 1790 and 1791. The Colony of New South Wales was officially a penal colony from 1788 to 1823, with most of the European population being convicts, marines and the wives of the marines. At first, convicts were all sent to New South Wales, but by

the early 1800s, they were also being sent to Van Diemen’s Land, Norfolk Island, Moreton Bay and Port Macquarie. Of the early convicts, only around 20 per cent were women, most of whom were sent to work in the ‘female factories’. At these factories, women were set to work for the profit-making textile industry. Colonised in 1803, Van Diemen’s Land became a separate colony in 1825. Its name was officially changed to Tasmania in 1856. In the five decades after 1803, 75 000 convicts were sent to Tasmania,

Portsmith, England

The Equator

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Botany Bay, Australia Cape of Good Hope, South Africa

Van Diemen’s Land, Australia

SOURCE 3.18 The journey of the First Fleet

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with Port Arthur becoming a notorious place of secondary punishment. Convicts who committed crimes were sent there. In 1835 more than 800 convicts were put to work in chain gangs.

Other colonies Western Australia Western Australia was established as a settlement in 1827, but wasn’t declared a penal colony until 1849, with the first convict ship arriving in 1850. Nearly 10 000 British convicts had been sent directly to the colony by 1868. They were used by local settlers as labour to develop the region. On 9 January 1868, Australia’s last convict ship, the Hougoumont, brought the final 269 convicts to the settlement.

Victoria Victoria, known as the Port Phillip District, became a colony in its own right in 1851. Only 1750 convicts were sent directly from Britain to Victoria between 1844 and 1849. Nicknamed the ‘Exiles’, they were also known as ‘Pentovillians’ because, in Britain, they had been jailed in the Pentonville Probationary Prison.


5 How many people all together landed at

Sydney Cove? 6 Describe the establishment of the penal colony in

Western Australia. 7 How many convicts were sent to Victoria? 8 Describe the Moreton Bay Settlement.

John White’s journal In March 1787, John White joined the First Fleet as its surgeon. He succeeded in obtaining supplies of fresh meat and vegetables for the convicts being transported. And he arranged for them to be allowed on deck in groups to obtain fresh air. His humane treatment was probably the reason the number of convicts who died during the voyage was low. White wrote a Journal of a Voyage to New South Wales in 1790. The following sources are taken from the journal and describe the experiences of convicts during the journey to Australia.

Queensland A penal establishment was set up Redcliffe in Queensland in 1824. Its name was changed to the Moreton Bay Settlement. Closing in 1839, its convict population was transferred to what was to become Brisbane. During the settlement’s existence, it accommodated approximately 2280 convicts. ACTIVITY 8

Explanation and communication 1 a Draw or download a map of the world. b Use the chronology of the First Fleet’s journey

on page 104 and source 3.18. Trace the First Fleet’s journey on your map. Make bullet-point notes on your map of what happened along the way. 2 What was life like on board the ships for convicts? 3 How long did the crossing take? 4 a How many convicts were on the First Fleet

ships when they left England? b How many convicts landed at Sydney Cove? c Why was there a difference?

SOURCE 3.19 Title page of Journal of a Voyage to New South Wales by John White, 1790

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5th March [1787]. The weather being moderate the following day, the convicts were put on board the transports, and placed in the different apartments allotted for them; all secured in irons, except the women … I then pointed out to Lieutenant Johnson, commanding officer of the marines on board … the necessity there was of admitting the convicts upon the deck, one half at a time, during the course of the day, in order that they might breathe a purer air [for] their health …

taken ill, I immediately visited that ship, and found that the illness complained of was wholly occasioned by the bilge water, which had by some means or other risen to so great a height … When the hatches were taken off, the stench was so powerful that it was scarcely possible to stand over them.

8th June. Disease had appeared among the marines and convicts. On its first appearance it resembled the mumps, or swellings …

19th September. William Brown, a very well-behaved convict, in bringing some clothing from the [front deck], where he had hung them to dry, fell overboard … the poor fellow sunk before either the Supply or our boat could reach him.

23rd June. The weather became exceedingly … warm … with heavy rain, a temperature of the atmosphere very common on approaching the equator, and very much to be dreaded, as the health is greatly endangered … when it rained, [the convicts] had neither linen nor clothing sufficient to make themselves dry and comfortable after getting wet … The weather was now so … hot that the female convicts, perfectly overcome by it, frequently fainted away; and these faintings generally terminated in fits. … In some of the other ships, the desire of the women to be with the men was so uncontrollable, that neither shame … nor the fear of punishment, could deter them. 7th July. Dark, cloudy, unpleasant, sultry weather; the wind south by east. 18th July. Being informed that several of the mariners and convicts on board the Alexander were suddenly

13th August. Cornelius Connell, a private in the marines was … punished with a hundred lashes, for having an improper intercourse with some of the female convicts.

14th October. The troops, men, women, and children, were served with a pound and half of soft bread, and an equal quantity of beef or mutton daily, and with wine in lieu of spirits. The convicts, men, women, and children, had the same allowance as the troops, except wine. 14th November. This morning Catherine Pryor, one of the convicts, was delivered of a male child. 17th November. An epidemic of dysentery appeared among the convicts, which very soon made its way among the marines, and prevailed … until about Christmas. 20th December. I visited the Prince of Wales, where I found some of the female convicts with evident symptoms of the scurvy, brought on by the damp and cold weather we had lately experienced. John White Esquire, Journal of a Voyage to New South Wales, 1790

SOURCE 3.20 Extract from Journal of a Voyage to New South Wales

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Analysis and use of sources 1 a What is source 3.19? b Where was it published? c Why might people have wanted to read about

the colony in NSW? 2 Who was John White? 3 Was White cruel or kind to convicts? Explain. 4 Use source 3.20. a Describe three things that happened to

female convicts. b Describe three things that happened to male

convicts. c How useful is source 3.20 in investigating the

health of convicts during the voyage?

Conditions on board the transport ships Convicts were kept below decks and often confined behind bars. In many cases they were placed in chains and were only allowed on deck for fresh air and exercise. Conditions were cramped and they slept on hammocks.

Although the convicts of the 1788 First Fleet arrived in fairly good condition, the same cannot be said for those that followed. Cruel captains, harsh discipline and diseases resulted in a high loss of life. After 1801, the convict ships departed twice a year, at the end of May and the beginning of September, to avoid the dangerous winters of the southern hemisphere. Surgeons were employed to look after the wellbeing of the convicts. By the time convicts were being transported in the 1840s and onwards, a strict timetable was in place for what was to occur each day during the voyage. In England in 1831, an inquiry was held into convict transportation. George Rutherford, a Surgeon Superintendent on seven convict voyages to Australia, gave evidence about the experiences of convicts during transportation to Australia. Some of his answers are shown in source 3.22. Question: Are they [the convicts] well rationed on board the ship? Answer: Yes they are. Question: Is their health, generally speaking, good on board the ship? Answer: Yes; I only lost five prisoners in seven voyages. Question: Are they placed under much restraint on board? Answer: My own manner of treating them is to allow a third of them to be on deck at a time for their health. Question: Are they ironed [in chains]? Answer: They are ironed at first. They are not now in the habit of sending them on board in double irons. Question: In the case of misconduct, what is the punishment you inflict on board the ship? Answer: Putting them on bread and water very often, or putting them in double irons if they have been in single irons or handcuffs, and the last alternative is flogging. George Sha Rutherford, evidence to Select Committee, Reports from Committees, Vol. VII, Britain, 1831

SOURCE 3.22 Dr George Rutherford’s evidence, 1831


Comprehension: chronology, terms and concepts SOURCE 3.21 Discipline and punishment on board convict ships were harsh. This prisoner has been flogged and put in a bath of saltwater. The other convict is scrubbing his back with a broom.

1 Use the text in this section to create a chronology

based on the following dates or periods: • 1788

• 1801

• 1831

• 1840s.

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Analysis and use of sources 1 Which sources in this section support the view

that the treatment of convicts on board ships was generally harsh? Explain.

Spotlight Margaret Catchpole

2 Use source 3.22. What had changed about the

procedure of getting convicts on board?

She died of influenza near Richmond in NSW in 1819. Sources 3.24 to 3.26 are taken from her original letters but with spelling corrected. They provide details of her reaction to life in Australia.

Honoured Madam With great pleasure I take up my pen to acquaint you, my good lady, of my safe arrival at Port Jackson New South Wales Sydney on the 20th day of December 1801. … It is a great deal more like England then ever I did expect … but I must say this is the most wicked place I have ever been in … [Convicts who get into trouble] have their poor heads shaved and sent up to the Coal River and there they carry coal from daylight in the morning till dark at night, and half starved … SOURCE 3.23 Margaret Catchpole, c. 1800

Margaret Catchpole was born in England in 1762. She worked as a servant for the Cobbold family. In May 1797, she stole John Cobbold’s horse and rode it to London. She was arrested and sentenced to death; however, the sentence was changed to transportation. She escaped from Ipswich jail in 1800 using a clothesline to scale a 6.7 metre wall. But she was recaptured and given another death penalty. This again was changed to seven years transportation. She left England on board the Nile and reached Sydney on 14 December 1801. Margaret was pardoned in 1814. She was able to read and write, and remained friendly with her previous employers and the prison doctor, and wrote to them regularly. Her original letters can be viewed at the State Library of NSW. Obtain the web address from your digital support.

Norfolk Island is a bad place enough to send any poor creature, with a steel collar on their poor necks, but I will take good care of myself from that. SOURCE 3.24 Letter from Margaret Catchpole to Mrs Cobbold, 21 January 1802

Dear Sir … Give my best respects to all my old fellow prisoners and tell them … Botany Bay … is not inhabited—only by the blacks, the natives of this place—they are very savage for they always carry with them spears and tomahawks. SOURCE 3.25 Letter from Margaret Catchpole to Doctor Stebbenes, 21 January 1802

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3 Use source 3.26. a How did Margaret view her environment?

My Dear Uncle and Aunt … Time here is long—it’s enough to make me go out of my mind to see so many letters come from London and poor I cannot get not one—I always thought that Mrs Cobbold would send me one before this time … This is a very dangerous country to live in for the natives they are black men and women—they go naked—they used to kill the white people very much but they are better … the black snakes is very bad for they will fly at you like a dog and if they bite us we die at sundown—Here some [are] 12 feet long and as big as your thigh … This is a very hot country—the ground burns our feet in the Summer part—which is at this time—and in the Winter it is very cold, but no snow—just very white frosts—It is a great deal colder than it used to be for it was a very woody places but now it only is in some places—it will be a very populated place in time—it is a great deal better than it was when I first come here. SOURCE 3.26 Letter from Margaret Catchpole to her uncle and aunt, 20 December 1804


Comprehension: chronology, terms and concepts 1 Make a timeline for Margaret Catchpole’s life.

Analysis and use of sources 1 Use source 3.24. a When did Margaret arrive in Sydney? b What did she think the place was like? c What does this source tell us about the

experience of convicts? 2 Use source 3.25. What was Margaret’s attitude

toward Aboriginal people?

b What had changed since she had arrived?

Research 1 For the Term of His Natural Life,

written by Marcus Clarke, was published as a novel in 1874. It tells the fictionalised story of Rufus Dawes, a young man transported for a murder that he did not commit. Read the e-book at your digital support.

What were the experiences of free settlers? From some British points of view, the settlement of Australia is the story of an adventurous voyage to a mysterious part of the world, and the heroic struggle to overcome the difficulties of surviving in a new and sometimes hostile environment. Although Australia was originally a penal colony, free settlers soon began to make it home. From the Aboriginal point of view, the arrival of European settlers is viewed as an invasion. By 1800 about 1100 free settlers were in Australia. Around 1815, the colony began to grow rapidly as emigrants arrived from Britain and Ireland. By 1830 about 43 500 free settlers were in Australia, and by 1860, just over 600 000. The length of a voyage to Australia depended on wind conditions and the weather. A trip could be three months of smooth sailing but, more often than not, it was dangerous. The loss of life on some of these journeys was very high; in particular, among women and children. At times, the death rate was as high as 10 per cent. As men made up over 70 per cent of the population of the colony, the British government decided on a scheme to bring women to the Australia. More than 2700 young women were brought to Australia by the London Emigration Committee between August 1833 and February 1837. Fourteen ships of women made the journey from London and Ireland, destined for Sydney, Hobart and Launceston. Although the British government paid for the women to migrate, it made no arrangements for them to find suitable work or accommodation on their arrival in the colony.

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Most of the emigrants travelled in steerage accommodation; that is, in an area between the upper deck and the cargo hold (see source 3.29). Often steerage was far down in the hold of the ship where ventilation and light were poor. Rats scurried about. During a storm, access to

the main deck was impossible because hatches were battened down tightly. A storm could last up to a week or more but the hatches would stay down. Lights could not be used during the storm because of the danger of fires. Only the wealthy migrants could afford to travel in cabins.

SOURCE 3.27 Poster advertising for emigrant women to sail to Australia on the Amelia Thompson

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Atlantic Ocean

Pacific Ocean

The Equator

St Paul Rock Indian

Pacific Ocean

Ocean Trindade

Cape of Good Hope

Tristan da Cunha

Perth Cape Agulhas

Cape Leeuwin Melbourne

Roaring Forties

Cape Horn

Furious Fifties


South-east Cape South-west Cape

SOURCE 3.28 Emigrant route to Australia

SOURCE 3.29 Steerage accommodation between decks on an emigrant ship, from the Illustrated London News, 17 August 1850


Comprehension: chronology, terms and concepts 1 Define ‘emigrant’. 2 Make a chronology about emigrants based on

the text on free settlers on the previous pages.

Explanation and communication 1 Use the text about emigrants. Write a descriptive

30-word caption for source 3.29. 2 Draw a bar graph showing the rise in number

of emigrants in Australia from 1800 to 1860.

Put the years 1800, 1830 and 1860 along the bottom of the graph. On the vertical axis, use the scale 50 000 people equals 2 centimetres.

Analysis and use of sources 1 What is source 3.27? 2 Relate source 3.27 to one of the paragraphs in

the text about emigrants. 3 Explain how source 3.27 supports the

information presented in your chosen paragraph. 4 Using source 3.28 and the internet, explain the

‘Roaring Forties’ and their importance to the movement of people around the world.

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Departure for Australia When the emigrant ship the Princess Royal was about to depart from England for South Australia on 15 November 1846, Mr Wilcocks, from the Colonial Land and Emigration Commission, My Friends—As the period is now so near at hand when the noble ship in which we are assembled will commence a voyage, which I earnestly hope will be one of comfort and prosperity to you all … [You are emigrating to make] one of our distant colonies the home … The separation from your friends, kindred, and native land, is, doubtless, a severe trial, and attended with painful emotions … I shall anxiously hope for the pleasure of hearing of your success in the fine country to which you are about to proceed … The difference between Australia and England is this: That in England we have more mouths than meat while in Australia there is more meat than mouths. By steadily pursuing a prudent industrious, and virtuous course in life, you may  …  [improve] your condition  …  perhaps fortune, thereby securing to yourselves the means of comfortably providing for your families, and placing them in situations that no industry in England would enable you to obtain for them. [To the] young unmarried females among you … it must be well known to yourselves that a comfortable provision awaits every well-conducted female in Australia, either by marriage or respectable service … Mr Wilcocks, quoted in ‘A visit to an emigrant ship: departure of 200 emigrants’, The South Australian News, December 1846

SOURCE 3.30 Address to departing emigrants by Mr Wilcocks, 1846

addressed the passengers. Source 3.30 has extracts from his speech. These provide us with an understanding of the hopes and feelings of those departing for Australia. ACTIVITY 13

Analysis and use of sources 1 What is source 3.30 and when was it made? 2 Who was Mr Wilcocks? 3 Write down the word(s) that Wilcocks used to

describe the following things: • the ship • the voyage • the country where the emigrants were going • their future life. 4 How do you think the people that he addressed

would have reacted to his speech? 5 Why do you think that he spoke about the

colonies the way he did? 6 How are sources 3.30 and 3.27 connected?


Explanation and communication 1 Use sources 3.27 and 3.30. Make a poster to

attract emigrants to Australia in the 1840s.

The journey to Australia Henry Hussey emigrated to South Australia with his family in 1839 on board the ship Asia. In 1897, he wrote about the voyage in his book Colonial Life and Christian Experience. Some of the following sources are taken from his book.

SOURCE 3.31 ‘The Departure’, from the Illustrated London News, 1850

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We left Deptford in the beginning of March, 1839, with upwards of 200 emigrants in [the] charge of Dr. Mayo, who, in a similar capacity, had previously paid a visit to the Colony with a batch of emigrants … Our troubles began in the Bay of Biscay, which knocked us about in its usual style; and the hatches were battened down so that the seas we shipped should not swamp the ’tween decks. When the weather moderated, and we got into warmer latitudes, the passengers came on deck … Life on shipboard was what I had long desired, and I now took a lively interest in the sails, the ropes, and the rigging. There was one drawback, however … as the eldest of the family, necessitated my frequent absence from deck to attend to such menial work as taking things to the galley to be cooked, fetching them back, washing up plates and dishes, and sundry other kinds of work usually performed by household servants … While we were in the warm latitudes … Many of the ’tween-deck passengers, finding it very suffocating below, brought their mattresses up and placed them on the quarter-deck. Here they could get a sound and comfortable sleep … Henry Hussey, More than Half a Century of Colonial Life and Christian Experience, Hussey & Gillingham, Adelaide, 1897, ch. II

SOURCE 3.33 Emigrants at dinner in the married couples’ accommodation in steerage. Note the bunks to the left and right, the central table and light from the uncovered hatch. This image appeared in the Illustrated London News on 15 April 1844.

SOURCE 3.34 ‘A Burial at Sea’, The Illustrated Australian News, November 1880

SOURCE 3.32 The experiences of Henry Hussey


Explanation and communication 1 Use source 3.32. Write two short bullet points

summarising each of the paragraphs in this source. 2 Use source 3.35 to write a new caption for

source 3.34.

Analysis and use of sources

These diseases [measles and whooping-cough] attacked the juveniles with great and fatal effect, and we lost twenty-five in all; as many as three in one family. The great heat, when near the “Line,” [the equator] proved too much for many of the little ones; and one after another they succumbed. Three in one day had to be committed to the deep, the last of them in the evening, the funeral service being read by the light of a lantern. A burial … is a sad sight … These deaths cast a gloom over all on board, and for a time there was a suspension of all kinds of amusements. Henry Hussey, More than Half a Century of Colonial Life and Christian Experience, Hussey & Gillingham, Adelaide, 1897, ch. II

1 What is source 3.33? 2 Describe conditions in steerage where the

passengers were between decks.

SOURCE 3.35 More experiences of Henry Hussey

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3 What does source 3.32 tell us about the

experiences of people in this part of the ship?

Perspectives and interpretations 1 Overall, what view does Henry Hussey give

of the experience of the voyage out to the colonies? 2 How does his view differ from that of

Mr Wilcocks in source 3.30? 3 Can you explain why these views are the same

or different? 4 What might Henry Hussey have said in a speech

to emigrants who were starting their voyage?

Research 1 Find out more about Henry Hussey in

the Australian Dictionary of Biography. Obtain the web address from your digital support.

Arrival in South Australia ACTIVITY 15

Explanation and communication 1 What is shown in source 3.37? 2 Imagine you have just arrived in Adelaide. Use

source 3.36 to write a conversation between yourself (as a child or an adult) and one of your relatives about your journey. Concentrate on the actual arrival, as described in source 3.36.

On July 16, 1839, we anchored in Holdfast Bay, and preparations were made for landing. The members of our family, excepting myself, went ashore a day or two after we anchored, but I was left on board to look after the luggage and goods brought out, upwards of twenty cases and packages. The landing at Glenelg was no easy matter, as there was no jetty nor any convenience of this kind. The boats had to be kept out of the surf, and the passengers carried by the …  Some aborigines, whose sailors through it  encampment was at the back of the sandhills, were on the beach to welcome the new-comers; and what was generally asked for by them was ‘baccy,’ [tobacco] … This clearly showed that they had … already acquired the unnatural practice of smoking. In order to land the luggage and goods brought out by the passengers, bullockdrays were taken into the water sufficiently far to enable the contents of the boats to be discharged into them. Though the Bay was little more than six miles from the City, it took the greater part of the day for a bullock-dray to load up and reach its destination. There was no properly-defined road, and as there were no fences in the way, the bullock-drivers could go as they pleased, with the exception of keeping in the track indicated by the removal of the trees in the line of route. Henry Hussey, More than Half a Century of Colonial Life and Christian Experience, Hussey & Gillingham, Adelaide, 1897, ch. III

SOURCE 3.36 More experiences of Henry Hussey

SOURCE 3.37 Emigrants to South Australia, c. 1860

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The weather at the time of our arrival was cold and frosty, and the shelter of a house of any kind … was necessary … Dr. Mayo knew that it would be difficult to obtain accommodation in the embryo city, and kindly used his influence to get us a room in Emigration Square for a few days. In this he was successful, and so the whole of us found temporary shelter in one of the apartments intended for the new arrivals. The Square was situated on the Park Lands, west of Hindley Street. The buildings then constituting the square were of wood, and each house consisted of two rooms, divided by a threequarter partition of the same material. After staying a few days in Emigration Square we removed to a wooden house at the eastern part of North Terrace … At this time the roadway and footpaths in Hindley and Rundle Streets not being made, they were in a worse state by the traffic passing over them than other less frequented parts of the City. Hindley Street, especially, was in a very bad condition after a heavy fall of rain, bullocks in some places sinking up to their knees and the drays up to the axles.



Analysis and use of sources 1 What does source 3.38 tell us about the

experiences of free settlers in Adelaide around 1840? 2 a What is source 3.40 and when was it

created? b Does this source provide evidence to support

Hussey’s statements in source 3.38? Explain.

Henry Hussey, More than Half a Century of Colonial Life and Christian Experience, Hussey & Gillingham, Adelaide, 1897, ch. III

SOURCE 3.38 More experiences of Henry Hussey

SOURCE 3.39 The clipper City of Adelaide, launched on 7 May 1864

SOURCE 3.40 View of Hindley Street, Adelaide, from the corner of King William Street, c. 1845, by ST Gill

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Friday August 12, 1864

Saturday September 3, 1864

A beautiful day. About 9.50 am a boatman came to tell us that the City of Adelaide was in sight. Tom and I took a walk and bought several little things. At 1 pm we took a boat and sailed to the ship … We sailed at 4 pm. We stayed on deck till after we had passed the Eddystone Lighthouse and then went down to bed but not to sleep. We were dreadfully seasick during the night.

Mama’s birthday a lovely day but so calm that we are scarcely moving … In the evening the sailors played and we danced.

Sunday August 14, 1864 A rough day. There was service in the cabin which only half the passengers were able to attend. In the night the weather was very squally so that we were unable to sleep. Thursday August 18, 1864

Wednesday September 14, 1864 A beautiful day. We crossed the Equator about 1.30 pm. In the evening the sailors marched (in costume) on the deck. One represented Neptune—he had a long white beard and carried something like a trident. We danced till 10 pm. Friday September 30, 1864 A squally day. The weather cold but bracing. We could not walk about so sat and had ropes fastened round us to prevent us from slipping. Sunday October 30, 1864

Almost a calm. We have scarcely advanced in the right direction. The Captain has been the same latitude, at the same season fifteen times and never experienced such unfavourable weather.

A fine morning but very wet afternoon. We all thought last week that we should have been in Adelaide today … We were off King George’s Sound about the middle of the night.

Thursday August 25, 1864

Monday November 7, 1864

A very warm day. The breeze though favourable not very strong. We averaged about five knots. Nothing to be seen but flying fish. We went to bed shortly after 9 pm being very tired as we obtained so little rest the preceding night.

A beautiful day. I woke about 5 am and saw the land from the porthole. We were on deck about an hour before breakfast. The land … looked rather low and barren. We were busy packing in the morning … We anchored about noon. The health officer came on board immediately.

SOURCE 3.41 Extracts from the diary of Sarah Ann Bray

Source 3.41 shows extracts from the earliest diaries kept by a passenger on the clipper City of Adelaide. The diary was that of 20-year-old Sarah Ann Bray (1844–1908). She travelled with her parents and sister to South Australia in 1864.


Comprehension: chronology, terms and concepts 1 Sarah’s sea voyage took place in 1864. Had

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2 What ritual associated with sea voyages was

continued? 3 Which official does Sarah mention at the end of

her diary entries?

Research 1 Find out how the ritual associated with sea

voyages changed over time 2 Why would an officer of this type come ‘on board

immediately’? What is the significance of this for sea voyages in the 19th century?

Empathetic understanding


the mid-1830s. Female factories were also at Port Macquarie (1825), Bathurst (1833), Anson Hill (1843) and Brickfields in Hobart (c. 1842).

Hobart Town, Cascades and Launceston female factories The Hobart Town Female Factory was established in 1821. It was a small building next to the Hobart jail. It was in use for eight years until the female inmates were sent to the Cascades Female Factory, which opened in 1828. The Launceston Female Factory was established in 1834.

1 How would have Sarah felt when she arrived

in Adelaide?

What changes to ways of life were experienced by women who moved to Australia? Convict women and female factories When the First Fleet dropped anchor at Sydney Cove in January 1788, 192 of the 751 convicts on board the ships were women. Most of them had committed petty crimes including prostitution and theft. And the vast majority came from large English cities. At the close of transportation in the mid19th century, 25 000 women had been sent to Australia. Most were placed—or assigned—as servants to officers and free settlers. Few left Australia after their sentence expired. Female convicts who were found to be ‘refractory’, or unmanageable, were often sent to a female factory. These places were supposed to reform them. Unassigned convict women and their children were also sent to female factories. So too, in some instances, were destitute free women. A number of female factories were established in Australia. The first was a small, simple place of confinement built in 1796 at Parramatta, west of Sydney. A substantial sandstone female factory was completed at Parramatta in 1821. Tasmania had female factories at Hobart Town, Cascades, George Town, Launceston and Ross. And a factory was established at Eagle Farm, Brisbane, from

Late on Monday evening as Dr. Westbrook was passing the Female Factory, he observed two women creeping through a hole which had been made in the wall, and the constable standing unconcernedly looking on. He immediately disarmed this man, the ladies as suddenly drawing back; and at the same time Mr. Drabble [the superintendent] discovered that 7 prisoners had escaped from the upper bedroom. Six of the number have already been apprehended and sentenced to have their hair cut close off to the head, to be confined in a cell, fed on bread and water, and to wear an iron collar for a week. We have not yet heard what punishment has been inflicted on the constable who so gallantly contributed to the freedom of the fair sex. Hobart Town Gazette, 10 December 1825

SOURCE 3.42 Escape from the Hobart Town Female Factory


Comprehension: chronology, terms and concepts 1 When and where was the Hobart Town Female

Factory opened? 2 How long did it remain open? 3 What happened to the female convicts at the

Hobart Town Female Factory after eight years?

Analysis and use of sources 1 Use source 3.42. a What did Dr Westbrook observe? b Was the constable trying to stop the

women? c What did Mr Drabble discover? d What happened to the women who tried to


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2 Use source 3.43. a What were the conditions like at the female

factory at Hobart? b What was the superintendent and his family

subject to? c Is this a primary or a secondary source? Why? d The writer claims that ‘Communication

through and over the walls, both to the gaol and to the streets outside, was absurdly easy.’ Does source 3.42 support this statement? Explain your answer. 3 a What is source 3.44 and when was it taken? b How does this source help us to understand

experiences in female factories? 3 Use source 3.45. This source is also

viewable at your digital support. a What is this source? When was it

made and by whom? b What was the purpose of this source? c This plan indicates sleeping quarters as

‘cells’. How many cells are in the building?

In January 1826 [Lieutenant Governor] Arthur finally ordered an investigation into the conditions at the Hobart Town Female Factory. Conditions were very unsatisfactory. Fifty-five people were crammed into two sleeping rooms which were not only cramped and crowded but were also unventilated. There was only one yard for the use of the Factory, consequently no possibility of classification or keeping some women separate from others. The yard was in full view of executions in the gaol next door. Communication through and over the walls, both to the gaol and to the streets outside, was absurdly easy. The crowded conditions and lack of separate rooms and other areas meant there was no space that could be used for work. The superintendent Mr Drabble and his family lived in an apartment that was not separated from the rest of the factory and were subject to constant abuse from the inmates. Tony Rayner, Female Factory, Female Convicts, Esperance Press, Dover, 2005, p. 117

d How many ‘solitary cells’ are there? What

would these have been used for? e What sort of work would the female convicts

SOURCE 3.43 Conditions in the Hobart Town Female Factory

have done?

SOURCE 3.44 Cascades Female Factory, Tasmania, c. 1900

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SOURCE 3.45 Plan of the Launceston Penal Establishment female house of correction, prepared for the Royal Commission by Henry Conway, Architect, Department of Public Works, 1883. This plan is also viewable at your digital support.

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Female factories in New South Wales


Analysis and use of sources The Matron of the Female Factory is not to permit the females to perambulate the outer yard after 2 o’clock in the afternoon of every day, but to keep them confined in the inner yard … The Matron of the Female Factory is to ensure that: The women are to be up at first ring, get their breakfast, and clean out their wards. None is to be let out of the inner yard of the building of the Factory into the outer yard till 8 o’clock, except as are required to wash clothes and cook. One female is to be selected daily to see the rations weighed, delivered to the Cook and distributed. At 2 o’clock in the afternoon, the women not employed in cooking and washing to be shut up within the walls of the Factory. No man, of any description, to be admitted into the outer Factory yard, or within the walls of the Factory, without the personal attendance of the Matron or Keeper of the Watchhouse. On any female being permitted to go out and work, she must be accompanied there and back by a SpecialConstable. By Order Benjamin Sullivan Magistrate Quoted in Iaen McLachlan, Place of Banishment: Port Macquarie 1818–1832, Hale & Iremonger, Sydney, 1988, pp. 110–11

1 a What is source 3.46? When was it produced? b What happened at 2 o’clock? c What happened at 8 o’clock? d On what occasion could female convicts

leave the factory? How could they do this?

Explanation and communication 1 Use any of the sources and other information

in this section. Create a heritage brochure of two pages giving tourists an overview of female factories in Australia. Include the sorts of experiences that female convicts had in them. (You may want to use a map of Australia to show where the female factories were or still are.)

Perspectives and interpretations 1 a Use source 3.42. Whose view is given in this

source? b How are convict women portrayed? 2 a Use source 3.46. Whose view is given in this

source? b What does it tell us about their attitude to

female convicts in the factories? 3 a Read the paragraph beginning ‘Back in

1827 …’ in source 3.48. How does the writer’s view of female convicts in female factories differ from that in source 3.46? b How have views on these women changed

over time? SOURCE 3.46 Routine and rules at the Female Factory, Port Macquarie, c. 1832

SOURCE 3.47 Female Factory, Parramatta, 1820

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Research Locate two sites on the internet that deal specifically with female factories in Australia. 1 Take a screenshot of the homepage of each site.

2 How useful are these sites for doing research

on the experience of convict women in female factories?

SOURCE 3.48 Media release about the Parramatta Female Factory Precinct, 2011

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What impact did the arrival of convicts have on Aboriginal peoples? While some friendships were made between convicts and Aboriginal people, relationships were generally poor. In the early decades of the 19th century, British officers used Aboriginal men to track escaped convicts. Convicts, in turn, retaliated against Aboriginal people. This led to a cycle of revenge assaults and murders. Officials issued proclamations about severe punishments for convict and Aboriginal offenders. But sometimes these violent acts were overlooked. The following sources relate primarily to Newcastle in New South Wales. It was set up as a penal establishment in 1804 as a site of ‘secondary transportation’. These were places where convicts were sent when they committed new offences.

2 Use source 3.51. a What is this source? Who wrote it? When and

where was it written? b What did James Field do in Sydney? c What did ‘the Natives’ do to Field? d How did Field appear when he gave himself

up at Newcastle? e What did Lieutenant Menzies do with Field? f

Why did he do this?

3 Use source 3.52. a What is this source? Who wrote it? When and

where was it written? b What did the runaway convicts do? c What was Boungaree doing with the

convicts? d Why might he have been doing this? 4 Use source 3.53. a What is this source? Who wrote it? When

and where was it written? b How did Menzies describe his relationship


Analysis and use of sources 1 Use sources 3.49 and 3.50. a Nobbys Head is a rounded headland on the

southern entrance to Newcastle Harbour. At first it was called Coal Island. Can you identify Nobbys Head in these sources? b Describe Newcastle in 1818 in 150 words.

with local Aboriginal people? c What did Menzies direct the storekeeper

to do? d How did Menzies describe Boungaree? e What could Boungaree do? f

Why would Menzies have valued this?

g What did Menzies direct the crews to do?


SOURCE 3.49 Corroboree at Newcastle, c. 1818, oil painting by Joseph Lycett

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Kings Town, Newcastle, 5th October, 1804 Sir, … The three [convict] runaways sent back here had on their way to Sydney murdered the father of Boungaru [also spelt Boungaree or Bungaree] in the most brutal manner and who at the time was advising them to return. Lieutenant Menzies to Governor King, Historical Records of Australia, Series 1, Vol. 5, p. 420

SOURCE 3.50 Newcastle, c. 1818, by Joseph Lycett

Kings Town, Newcastle, 15th June, 1804 Sir, … On the 29th ultimo [of the previous month] James Field one of the three persons who run off with Serg. Day’s boat from Sydney gave himself up; he was quite naked, speared and beat in several places by the Natives, and had not eat anything for five days. I took him just as he came in and showed him to all the Convicts, and I could wish to be allowed to retain him here, as I think from the account he gives of his misfortunes and the truly miserable and wretched spectacle he exhibited, it will be the means of preventing the others from attempting the like with any of our boats that go up the river … Lieutenant Menzies to Governor King, Historical Records of Australia, Series 1, Vol. 5, p. 112

SOURCE 3.51 Runaway convicts and Aborigines

SOURCE 3.52 Runaway convicts retaliate

Kings Town, Newcastle, 1st July, 1804 Sir, … We always have been and still continue on the most friendly terms with the numerous Natives here, to preserve which I have directed the Storekeeper to victual [supply food to] Boungaree. He is the most intelligent of that race I have Seen and Should a misunderstanding unfortunately take place he will be Sure to reconcile them; and I have given Strict directions to the crews of all vessels going up the river to treat them in a friendly manner, as I know they have frequently been very ill used by some who are neither guided by principal or humanity. Lieutenant Menzies to Governor King, Historical Records of Australia, Series 1, Vol. 5, pp. 415–16

SOURCE 3.53 Boungaree

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ACTIVITY 20 continued 5 a What is source 3.54 and when was it

published? b What was the state of some of the convicts

who were brought back after escaping? c What had the ‘natives’ around Port Hunter

and Port Stephens become? d What skills did Aboriginal people display

while accompanying soldiers in the pursuit of escaped convicts? e How did Aboriginal people capture

escaped convicts when they were not with soldiers?

I had an opportunity of seeing one convict that was brought into Windsor in a most emaciated state, after having been out three weeks and living upon snakes and grubs, or roots of shrubs; and those who are captured and brought back to Newcastle are also greatly reduced [physically]. The native blacks that inhabit the neighbourhood of Port Hunter and Port Stephens have become very active in retaking the fugitive convicts. They accompany the soldiers who are sent in pursuit, and by extraordinary strength of sight that they possess, improved by their daily exercise in pursuit of kangaroos and opossums, they can trace a great distance, with wonderful accuracy, the impressions of the human foot. Nor are they afraid of meeting the fugitive convicts in the woods, when sent in their pursuit, without the soldiers; by their skill in throwing their long and pointed darts they wound and disable them, strip them of their clothes, and bring them back as prisoners, by unknown roads and paths, to the Coal River [Newcastle]. They are rewarded for these enterprises by presents of maize and blankets, and not withstanding the apprehensions of revenge from the convicts they bring back, they continue to live in Newcastle and its neighbourhood, but are observed to prefer the society of the soldiers to that of the convicts. JT Bigge, Report of the Commissioner of Inquiry on the State of the Colony of New South Wales, House of Commons, London, 1822, p. 117


Were Aboriginal people rewarded for capturing escaped convicts?

g Whose company did these Aboriginal people

prefer? Why? 6 Look back to the beginning of this section.

Why do you think convict women were largely absent in this story? 7 What is source 3.55 and who wrote it? 8 Source 3.55 has seven sentences. a Draw up a table with two columns titled

‘Sentence’ and ‘Source’, and seven rows. Write each sentence in a row in the first column. (The first two are done.)

Most of the conflict and violence arose from the decision to allow Aborigines to act as trackers and apprehenders of escaped convicts. Desertion was rampant throughout the life of the Newcastle penal settlement, and the services of Aborigines in tracking escapees and returning them to the settlement was invaluable. Under Commandant James Wallis (June 1816 to December 1818) it was a common for gangs of around a dozen men to desert during the night, surviving for up to three months in the bush … Wallis had learnt the value of Aboriginal guides during his campaigns against the peoples on the Hawkesbury in 1816, and at Newcastle he actively encouraged Aborigines to act as trackers and hunters of escapees. Working in groups, Aborigines apprehended the convicts, stripped them naked and brought them into the settlement, and were rewarded with tobacco, blankets and similar items. Those convicts not brought in by Aborigines were generally driven to return voluntarily on account of a hostile reception. Others were presumed to have been killed by Aborigines, probably in retaliation …  for some offence given at the settlement  ‘I consider all this fortunate for the Settlement’, Commandant Wallis wrote. David Roberts, ‘Aborigines, Commandants and Convicts: The Newcastle Penal Settlement’, Awaba, University of Newcastle, aborigines-commandants-convicts.html

SOURCE 3.55 A historian’s view on Newcastle SOURCE 3.54 The Bigge Report, 1822

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Most of the conflict and violence arose from the decision to allow Aborigines to act as trackers and apprehenders of escaped convicts. Desertion was rampant throughout the life of the Newcastle penal settlement, and the services of Aborigines in tracking escapees and returning them to the settlement was invaluable.


Old World. These materials were then processed in factories. The rise of the factory system led to industrialisation, which drew people into cities. This led to increasing urbanisation. Many free people in countries that were industrialising also left crowded cities in the Old World in search of better lives. These people helped to populate the colonies. In Australia, convicts provided forced labour from 1788. Free settlers came mainly from the 1820s. In the short term, these movements of people led to the break-up of families, social conflict and the displacement of indigenous peoples in the colonies. In Australia, a long-term impact of European immigration was the destruction of much of Aboriginal society and a massive decline in the number of Aboriginal peoples.

Indigenous people

b Match up each sentence with one of sources

3.49 to 3.54. Identify the sources in the second column that support each statement in the first column. Write a word, phrase or sentence from the source or a description from an image that supports the statement in the first column. c Which sentences are supported by the

evidence? d Which sentences are not supported by

the evidence? e How reliable is source 3.55?

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples generally believe that they have been present in Australia since time began. Scientific evidence suggests an upper limit of around 100 000 years of indigenous people’s presence. But their long connection with the land was to be forever shattered with the coming of white people. ACTIVITY 21

Analysis and use of sources 1 a What is source 3.56 (overleaf)? b What is this source based on? c What information does this source give us? d Name one thing that helped form boundaries

between different Aboriginal language groups.

What were the short-term and long-term impacts of the movement of peoples between 1750 and 1914?

2 a What is source 3.57 (overleaf)?

Across the world, the movement of people in the late 18th and early 19th centuries fed into three long-term processes. These were colonialism, industrialisation and urbanisation. Slaves were moved to colonies to provide labour. Their labour in the New World went into producing raw materials that were sent back to

3 a What is source 3.58?

b Go to your digital support to view a

zoomable version of this map. How useful is this source in explaining the long-term impacts of the movement of European people in 19th century Victoria on Aboriginal peoples? b Name one town that was established between

1788 and 1829, one established between 1830 and 1850, and one established between 1851 and 1870. c Describe the area of NSW in which Europeans

had settled by 1820.

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Key Language boundaries





I AD IWSwan Hill




Kerang Cohuna





















M Stawell





Portland WU GIRA Port Fairy RR I UN G











Werribee Geelong














Donald Horsham









Language boundaries along waterways



Aireys Inlet



Apollo Bay



SOURCE 3.56 Approximate boundaries of Indigenous language–culture groups in Victoria

SOURCE 3.57 The colony of Victoria, John Bartholomew & Co., 1895. This map is also viewable at your digital support.

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Tweed Heads Lismore Casino

Byron Bay

Ballina Coraldi Tenterfield Moree Warrada Yamba Maclean Glen Innes Brewarrina Ulmarra Inverell Grafton Walget Coffs Bourke Barraba Harbour Armidale Urunga Narrabri Nambucca Coonamble Boggabri Hillgrove Heads Manilla Urala Gunnedah Wilcannia Walcha Kempsey Tamworth Coonabarabran Quirindi Port Macquarie Murrurundi Warren Wingham Scone Taree Aberdeen Merriwa Dungog Bolwarra Muswellbrook Singleton Wellington Maitland Hill End Mudgee Brankton Raymond Terrace Condobolin Parkes Cessnock Molong Newcastle Sofala Wyong Orange Swansea Forbes Milthorpe Bathurst Windsor Wyee Lithgow Gosford Canowindra Blayney Blaxland Oberon Sydney Wentworth Grenfell Parramatta Campletown Picton Young Crockwell Bowral Mittagong Hay Cootamundra Bulli Moss Balranald Boorowa Narrandera Junee Wollongong Vale Harden Kiama Yass Goulburn Nowra Wagga Wagga Gerringong Gundagai Queanbeyan Jerilderie Shaolhaven Heads Denilquin Tumut Milton Braidwood Ulladulla Finley Holbrook Tumbarumba Tocumwal Howlong Batemans Bay Moruya Carowa Albury Cooma Moama




Towns over 1,000 in 2001

Period of establishment

Towns formerly over 1,000 but below 1,000 in 2001


Merimbula Eden

General sequence of settlement Pre 1820










SOURCE 3.58 The spread of towns in NSW, LPI–NSW Department of Finance and Services 2013, Panorama Avenue, Bathurst 2795,

In 1822 the British government  … made a fatal decision. It dropped the duty on Australian wool to encourage wool production in Australia, and to reduce imports from Germany. This led to a rapid expansion of flocks and the inflow of over 200,000 British immigrants to Australia between 1832 and 1850. The frontier of European settlement moved rapidly and inevitably across most of south-eastern

and southern Australia. In a fantastic land grab which was never again to be equalled, about 4000 Europeans with their 20 million sheep occupied over 400 million hectares of Aboriginal land stretching from southern Queensland to South Australia by 1860. The Aborigines were quickly outnumbered in their own land. Richard Broome, Aboriginal Australians, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 1982, p. 37

SOURCE 3.59 The frontier of European settlement

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1836 1850 1870 (sparsely settled) 1890 (sparsely settled)


Perth Adelaide




SOURCE 3.60 The moving frontier

ACTIVITY 21 continued d Where had European settlement spread by

c What was the least settled colony by 1890?

the end of the 1820s?

6 Use source 3.61.

e When did settlement spread along the

a How many Aboriginal people were in

Darling River? f

New South Wales in 1788?

When was all of NSW taken up by Europeans?

b How many Aboriginal people were in

4 a Is source 3.59 a primary or a secondary

New South Wales in 1891?

source? Why?

c Did the number of Aboriginal people in

b What did the British government do in 1822?

New South Wales go up or down from 1788 to 1891? How large or small was the change in number of Aboriginal people?

c What did this lead to? d How and where did the frontier of European

d What was the total number of Aboriginal

settlement spread?

people in Australia in 1788?

e How did this affect Aboriginal peoples?

e What was this figure in 1911?

5 Use source 3.60.


a Where did settlement spread from? b What was one thing that affected settlement

What had happened to the country’s Aboriginal population?

patterns? Year










48 000

15 000

120 000

15 000

45 000

62 000


314 500


16 000


60 000



44 500


180 402




32 000



31 000


110 919




24 500



22 498


83 588

Charles Price, ‘Immigration and ethnic origin’, in Wray Vamplew (ed.), Australians, Historical Statistics, Fairfax, Syme & Weldon Associates, Sydney, p. 4

SOURCE 3.61 Estimated minimum population of Aboriginal descent to 1911

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Explanation and communication 1 Using evidence from sources 3.56 to 3.61,

explain why Australia’s Aboriginal population had fallen from 314 500 in 1788 to 83 588 by 1911. Include maps and statistics in your answer.

Forced migration and ‘legal slavery’— the Pacific Islanders Slavery was abolished in the British Empire in 1833 under the Slavery Abolition Act. Slavery, however, was replaced by indentured labour, a legal form of slavery. Indentured workers signed contracts to work for certain periods of time. They performed hard work similar to that done by slaves and they were generally paid and treated poorly. ACTIVITY 22

Explanation and communication Consider sources 3.62, 3.63 and 3.64. 1 a Create a table with three columns. Label

the columns (1) ‘Source’ (2) ‘Notes’ and (3) ‘Supporting materials’. b Write the name of the source in the first



c Make notes about each of the sources in the

second column. 2 To check the sources, do searches on the

internet. a Use the three sources to write a list of six

key words. These could include people, places and groups of people (such as Pacific Islanders). b Use the following websites to check your

sources: • Australian Dictionary of Biography • Documenting Democracy, Museum of

Australian Democracy • Your state or territory library (such as the

State Library of NSW). Look for at least one piece of evidence for each source. Makes notes as to whether this evidence supports or does not support the source. Put your notes in the third column. c Print out relevant photographs or maps. 3 Use the three sources, as well as the new

material you have gathered. Design a poster that could be used by Pacific Islanders today to commemorate the experiences of their ancestors in Australia as labourers.

SOURCE 3.62 Indentured ‘Kanaka’ or Pacific Island labourers prepare for harvesting arrowroot on a Queensland farm, c. 1890

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History 9 for NSW The making of the Modern World

SOURCE 3.63 Kanaka labourers on a Queensland pineapple plantation, c. 1890

… New South Wales magnate Ben Boyd started in 1847 the traffic in Pacific islander’ lives and labour  …  in 1863 the eminent Captain Robert Towns, M.L.C (N.S.W.), shipowner, merchant and plantation owner, ‘recruited’ the first of more than 60 000 islanders blackbirded [kidnapped], cajoled [tricked] or otherwise contracted on to plantation work in Queensland … Apart from the minority murdered en route from the Islands to Queensland ports (but the natives got their own back on Ben

Boyd, killed on Guadalcanal [the island] in 1851), many islanders died on the Queensland canefields from unaccustomed long and arduous work, the mortality rate among them exceeding 6 per cent in several years in the 1870s and 1880s, 8 per cent per year on several other annual counts, and stopping just short of 10 per cent in 1885 after an all-time high of 147 per 1000 in 1884. Of the 61 160 island labourers imported into Queensland in 1863–1904, 39 681 saw home again, [or] 64.4 per cent … Brian Fitzpatrick, ‘Indentured labour in Australia’, Labour History, November 1964, p. 3

SOURCE 3.64 Brian Fitzpatrick—an historian’s view

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Chapter 3 Movement of peoples, 1750–1901


History challenges Critical and creative thinking Design a snakes and ladders board game based on convict transportation from Britain to Australia. Include convict experiences in Australia.

ICT Find the website of your state or territory government records office or archive. Locate tools that you can use to research convicts. Write a report on how to use the research tool. Use screenshots in your report.

Getting the message across Source 3.65 is an object that is held in the Powerhouse Museum Sydney. Use the museum’s website to find out what this object is and why it is special. Write a half-page report on the object and why it is historically significant.

SOURCE 3.65 An object for investigation

Visual communication Source 3.66 is located in the State Library of Victoria. How does this source relate to immigration to Australia? Is the source positive or negative about emigrating to Australia? Explain.

SOURCE 3.66 News from Australia by George Baxter

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Figure it out

Talking points

Use source 3.61. Draw a bar chart (see source 3.67) for the Aboriginal population in your state or territory, plus four other states.

1 Organise a class debate (or discussion) on the

topic ‘Who were the convicts?’ Choose two teams or sides. Each side must take one of the views about convicts expressed in sources 3.68 and 3.69. 2 The voyage to Australia by emigrants in the


19th century was one of great risk compared to modern-day cruise ships. Discuss the sense of adventure of emigrants who sailed to Australia in ships like the one shown in source 3.70.

125 100 75 50

The convicts sent to Australia really were criminals  [they were not] basically decent people forced …  into a life of crime by adverse economic condition.

25 0

Item 1

Item 2

Item 3

Item 4

Item 5

Brian Fletcher, The Australian, 2 September 1987, p. 14

SOURCE 3.68 Professor Brian Fletcher’s view SOURCE 3.67 Example of a bar chart

Intercultural understanding Describe a meeting between an Aboriginal person and an escaped convict in early colonial NSW. Write up to 300 words. Base your work on sources 3.51 to 3.55.

Poor Tom Brown from Nottingham, Jack Williams and poor Joe, They were three gallant poacher boys, their country all does know, And by the Laws of Amalgaymack that you may understand, Were fourteen years transported, boys, unto Van Diemen’s Land. SOURCE 3.69 ‘The Cyprus Brig’ (folk song)

SOURCE 3.70 A British emigrant ship being towed out of harbour before setting sail for Sydney

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