Contents - Structure of Digital Computing

Contents - Structure of Digital Computing

Contents 1 The 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 Five Eras of Computing Introduction . . . . . . . . ...

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Contents 1 The 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18

Five Eras of Computing Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Main Themes . . . . . . . . . . . A Billion IP Addresses . . . . . . . . . The SAD History of Computing . . . Why Symbols Matter . . . . . . . . . Algorithms as Recipes . . . . . . . . . Computing Devices . . . . . . . . . . . Case Study: Slide Rule . . . . . . . . From Mainframes to Devices . . . . . Mainframe Era . . . . . . . . . . . . . Case Study: Punch Cards . . . . . . . Personal Computer Era . . . . . . . . The Web Era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Case Study: SMTP . . . . . . . . . . . Clouds of Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . Case Study: Routers . . . . . . . . . . The First Half Century of Computing The Commoditization of Data . . . . .

2 Commoditization 2.1 Christmas and Easter . . . . . 2.2 The Commoditization of Time 2.3 The Commoditization of Space 2.4 Moore’s Law . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Commoditization is All Around 2.6 The Doubling Game . . . . . . i

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1 1 2 5 9 11 15 17 19 23 26 27 28 30 31 34 36 38 43

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45 45 47 49 52 54 58

2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12

Transforming Technologies . . . Storage and Johnson’s Law . . . Bandwidth and Gilder’s Law . . Software and Stallman’s Law . . Data and the Bermuda Principles Network Effects . . . . . . . . .

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3 Technical Innovation vs. Market Clutter 3.1 Innovation vs. Clutter . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Approximating Solutions to Equations . . 3.3 Case Study: Business Intelligence . . . . . 3.4 Views of Technical Innovation . . . . . . . 3.5 The Imperative to be in the Upper Right 3.6 Why Clutter Is Inevitable . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Who Clutters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 Sources of Clutter: Features . . . . . . . 3.9 Case Study: Databases . . . . . . . . . . . 3.10 Case Study: Searching for Primes . . . . . 3.11 Case Study: Routing Packets . . . . . . . 4 Technology Adoption Cycles 4.1 Forces Effecting Technology Adoption 4.2 The Basic Equation of Marketing . . 4.3 Getting to Main Street . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Case Study: The Nike Pegasus . . . . 4.5 Technology Roadmaps . . . . . . . . . 4.6 Case Study: Clusters . . . . . . . . . . 4.7 Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.8 Case Study: Relational Databases . . 4.9 Technology Pain Points . . . . . . . . 4.10 Case Study: Adoption of Linux . . . . 5 The 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5

Era of Data Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . Thinking about Big Data . . . . The Commoditization of Data . The Data Gap . . . . . . . . . . Extracting Knowledge from Data ii

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61 62 66 67 74 75

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81 81 83 87 88 91 93 96 98 101 109 111

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119 119 122 127 130 133 137 140 145 149 156

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161 161 162 164 168 172

5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16

Kepler’s Law and Brahe’s Data . . Pearson’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . The Bermuda Principles . . . . . . World Population . . . . . . . . . . The Shape of Data . . . . . . . . Case Study: Consumer Databases Creating Digital Data . . . . . . . Using Data to Make Decisions . . . Case Study: Mammograms . . . . Events, Profiles and Alerts . . . . . Case Study: NASA’s EOS . . . .

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178 182 188 190 193 199 203 207 211 214 219

Notes

225

References

249

iii