Current Challenges and Opportunities in Preparing Rural High S

Current Challenges and Opportunities in Preparing Rural High S

Resources on Rural Education Alliance for Excellent Education. “Current Challenges and Opportunities in Preparing Rural High School Students for Succe...

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Resources on Rural Education Alliance for Excellent Education. “Current Challenges and Opportunities in Preparing Rural High School Students for Success in College and Careers: What Federal Policymakers Need to Know.” Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010. Accessed June 30, 2014. http://all4ed.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/RuralHSReportChallengesOpps.pdf Arnold, Michael L., John H. Newman, Barbara B. Gaddy, and Ceri B. Dean. “A Look at the Condition of Rural Education Research: Setting a Direction for Future Research.” Journal of Research in Rural Education 20, no. 6 (2006): 20–26. Accessed July 14, 2014. http://jrre.vmhost.psu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/20-6.pdf Ayers, Jeremy. “Make Rural Schools a Priority: Considerations for Reauthorizing the Elementary and Secondary Schools Act.” Washington, DC: Center for American Progress, 2010. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://www.americanprogress.org/wpcontent/uploads/issues/2011/08/pdf/rural_schools.pdf Beaulieu, Lionel J. and Robert Gibbs, editors, The Role of Education: Promoting the Economic and Social Vitality of Rural America. Mississippi: Southern Rural Development Center, 2005. Accessed July 14, 2014. http://www.ruraledu.org/articles.php?id=2059 Burnell, Beverly. “The “Real World” Aspirations of Work-Bound Rural Students.” Journal of Research in Rural Education 18, no. 2 (2003): 104-133. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://jrre.vmhost.psu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/18-2_1.pdf Byun, Soo-Yong, Judith L. Meece, and Matthew J. Irvin. “Rural-Nonrural Disparities in Postsecondary Educational Attainment Revisited.” American Educational Research Journal 49, no. 3 (2012): 412-437. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3839859/ Carr, Patrick J., and Maria Kefalas. Hollowing out the Middle: The Rural Brain Drain and What it Means for America. Boston: Beacon Press, 2009. Chenoweth, Erica, and Renee V. Galliher. “Factors Influencing College Aspirations of Rural West Virginia High School Students.” Journal of Research in Rural Education 19, no. 2 (2004): 1-14. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ728958 Clark, Christopher D., Dayton. Lambert, William .M. Park, and Michael D. Wilcox. “Willingness to Fund Public Education in a Rural Retirement Destination County. “ Journal of Research in Rural Education 24, no. 6 (2009): 1-16. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://jrre.vmhost.psu.edu/wpcontent/uploads/2014/02/24-6.pdf Coladarci, Theodore. “Improving the Yield of Rural Education Research: An Editor’s Swan Song.” Journal of Research in Rural Education 22, no. 3 (2007): 1-9. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://jrre.vmhost.psu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/22-3.pdf

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Collins, Timothy. “Attracting and Retaining Teachers in Rural Areas.” ERIC Digest. Charleston, WV: Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, 1999. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED438152.pdf Cox, Genevieve R., et al. “Practical Considerations: Community Context in a Declining Rural Economy and Emerging Adults’ Educational and Occupational Aspirations.” Emerging Adulthood 4 (2013) 1-12. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://eax.sagepub.com/content/early/2013/12/12/2167696813515850.abstract Cromartie, John, and Shawn Bucholtz. ”Defining the “Rural” in Rural America.” Amber Waves 6 (2008): 28-34. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://www.ers.usda.gov/amber-waves/2008june/defining-the-%E2%80%9Crural%E2%80%9D-in-rural-america.aspx#.U5tTMPldW94 Crookson, Andrew, and Gregory Hooks. “Community Colleges, Budget Cuts and Jobs: The Impact of Community Colleges on Employment Growth in Rural U.S. Counties 1976-2004.” Sociology of Education 85, no. 4 (2012): 350-372. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://www.asanet.org/journals/soe/Oct12SOEFeature.pdf Dadisman, Kimberly, Maggie Gravelle, Thomas Farmer, and Robert Petrin. “Grow Your Own and Other Alternative Certification Programs in Rural School Districts.” Chapel Hill: National Research Center on Rural Education Support, 2010. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://www.nrcres.org/NRCRES%20GYO%20Issue%20Brief.pdf Dixon, Dr. Daymond A. and Dr. Linda Stricklin. Linking Technology Education in Rural Schools in North Central Idaho to Manufacturing. The Journal of Technology, Management, and Applied Engineering, January 2015.Accessed April 2015. http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.atmae.org/resource/resmgr/JTMAE/Linking_Technology_in_Educ at.pdf Donehower, Kimberly, Charlotte Hogg, and Eilleen E. Shell. Rural literacies. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois Press, 2007. Duncombe, William D and John M. Yinger. “School District Consolidation: The Benefits and Costs.” School Administrator 67, no. 5 (2010): 10-17. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://www.aasa.org/SchoolAdministratorArticle.aspx?id=13218 Duncombe, William and John Yinger. “Does School District Consolidation Cut Costs?” Education Finance and Policy 2, no. 4 (2007): 341-375. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://cpr.maxwell.syr.edu/efap/Publications/Does_School_Consolidation_Nov_05.pdf Education Trust. “The State of Education for Native Students.” Washington, DC: The Education Trust, 2013. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://www.edtrust.org/sites/edtrust.org/files/NativeStudentBrief_0.pdf Eggers, William, D., Lisa Snell, Robert Wavra, and Adrian T. Moore. “Driving More Money into the Classroom: The Promise of Shared Services.” Los Angeles: Reason Foundation, 2005. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://reason.org/files/c48db3a36cccc4893234f06d3fa9901d.pdf Farmer, Thomas W., et al. “Adequate Yearly Progress in Small Rural Schools and Rural LowIncome Schools.” The Rural Educator 27, no. 3 (2006): 1-7. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ783867.pdf

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Federal Communications Commission. Bringing Broadband to Rural America: Report on Rural Broadband Strategy. By Michael Copps. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 2009. Accessed July 14, 2014. https://apps.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC320924A1.pdf Fowles, Jacob, et al. “Public employee quality in a geographic context: A Study of Rural Teachers.” The American Review of Public Administration 44, no. 4 (2013): 1-19. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://arp.sagepub.com/content/early/2013/01/24/0275074012474714.abstract Frankenberg, Erica, et al. “Assessing the Enrollment Trends and Financial Impact of Charter Schools on Rural and Non-Rural School Districts in Pennsylvania.” Harrisburg, PA: Center for Rural Pennsylvania, 2014. Accessed July 14, 2014. http://www.rural.palegislature.us/documents/reports/Charter_School_2014.pdf Gagnon, Douglas and Marybeth J. Mattingly. “Beginning Teachers are More Common in Rural, High-Poverty, and Racially Diverse Schools.” Durham, NH: Carsey Institute, 2012. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://www.carseyinstitute.unh.edu/publications/IB-Gagnon-Mattingly-BeginningTeachers.pdf Gagnon, Douglas and Marybeth Mattingly. “Limited Access to AP Courses for Students in Smaller and More Isolated Rural School Districts.” Durham, NH: Carsey Research, National Issue Brief #80. February 2015. http://scholars.unh.edu/carsey/235 Gibbs, Robert M. “College Completion and Return Migration among Rural Youth.” In Rural Education and Training in the New Economy, edited by R.M. Gibbs, P.L. Swaim, & R. Teixeira, 61-80. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 1998. Gibbs, Robert M. “Education as a Rural Development Strategy.” Amber Waves 3 (2005): 20-25. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/127356/2/FeatureEducationNovember2005.pdf Green, Gary P. “Work-Based Learning in Rural America: Employer Participation in School-toWork Programs and Apprenticeships.” Journal of Research in Rural Education 20, no. 16 (2005): 1-10. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ722348 Green, Bill, and Michael Corbett. Rural Education and Literacies: An Introduction. In Rethinking Rural Literacies, edited by Bill Green and Michael Corbett, 1-13. New York: Palgrave Macmillan: 2013. Hammer, Patricia C., Georgia Hughes, Carla McClure, Cynthia Reeves, and Dawn Salgado. “Rural Teacher Recruitment and Retention Practices: A Review of the Research Literature, National Survey of Rural Superintendents, and Case Studies in Virginia.” Charleston, WV: Edvantia/NASBE, 2005. Accessed July 14, 2014. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED489143.pdf Harmon, Hobart L. “Building School-to-Work Systems in Rural America.” Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, 1998. Accessed July 14, 2014. http://www.wireinternet.com/ee_downloads/Building%20School%20to%20Work.pdf Harmon, Hobart L. “Linking School-to-Work and Rural Development”. FORUM for Applied Research and Public Policy 15, no. 1 (200): 97-100. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ603971

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Harmon, Hobart and Kai A. Schafft. “Rural School Leadership for Collaborative Community Development.” The Rural Educator 30, no. 3 (2009): 4-9. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ869309.pdf

Hlinka, Karen R., Deronda C. Mobelini, and Terri Giltner. “Tensions Impacting Student Success in a Rural Community College” Journal of Research in Rural Education, 30, no. 5 (2015) 1-16. Accessed April 15, 2015. http://jrre.psu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/30-5.pdf Holian, Laura, Martha Alberg, Jack Daniel Strahl, John Burgette, and Eric Cramer. “Online and Distance Learning in Southwest Tennessee: Implementation and Challenges.” Washington, DC: REL Appalachia, 2014. Accessed December 2, 2014. http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs/regions/appalachia/pdf/REL_2014045.pdf Howley, Aimee and Craig Howley. “Rural School Busing.” ERIC Digest. Washington, DC: ERIC, 2001. Accessed July 14, 2014. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED459969.pdf Howley, Aimee, et al. “Stretching to Survive: District Autonomy in an Age of Dwindling Resources.” Journal of Research in Rural Education 27, no. 3 (2012). Accessed June 26, 2014. http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ976324 Howley, Caitlin, Jerry Johnson, Aikaterini Passa, Kazuaki Uekawa. “College Enrollment and Persistence in Rural Pennsylvania Schools.” Rockville, MD: REL Mid-Atlantic, 2014. Accessed October 21, 2014. http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs/regions/midatlantic/pdf/REL_2015053.pdf Howley, Caitlin, Kellie Kim, and Stephen Kane. “Broadband and Rural Education: An Examination of the Challenges, Opportunities, and Support Structures that Impact Broadband and Rural Education.” Fairfax, VA: ICF International, 2012. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://www.icfi.com/insights/white-papers/2012/broadband-rural-education Howley, Craig B., Aimee A. Howley, and Steven Shamblen. “Riding the School Bus: A Comparison of the Rural and Suburban Experience in Five States.” Journal of Research in Rural Education 17, no. 1 (2001): 41-63. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://jrre.vmhost.psu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/17-1_4.pdf Howley, Craig, Jerry Johnson, and Jennifer Petrie. “Consolidation of Schools and Districts: What the Research Says and What it Means.” Boulder: National Education Policy Center, 2011. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://nepc.colorado.edu/publication/consolidation-schools-districts Howley, Craig B. “Compounding Disadvantage: The Effects of School and District Size on Student Achievement in West Virginia.” Journal of Research in Rural Education 12, no. 1 (1996): 25-32. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://jrre.vmhost.psu.edu/wpcontent/uploads/2014/02/12-1_2.pdf Huang, Gary G., Stanley Weng, Fan Zhang, and Michael P. Cohen. “Outmigration among Rural High School Graduates: The Effect of Academic and Vocational Programs.” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 19, no. 4 (1997): 360-372. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ563455

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Jimerson, Lorna. “Placism in NCLB—How Rural Children are Left Behind.” Equity & Excellence in Education 38, no. 3 (2005): 211–219. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ695458 Jimerson, Lorna. “The Competitive Disadvantage: Teacher Compensation in Rural America.” Washington, DC: Rural School and Community Trust, 2003. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://www.ruraledu.org/user_uploads/file/Competitive_Disadvantage.pdf Johnson, Jerry, Robert Klein, Christine Lester, and Daniel Showalter. “Why Rural Matters 201314.” Washington, DC: Rural School and Community Trust, 2014. Accessed June 30, 2014. http://www.ruraledu.org/user_uploads/file/2013-14-Why-Rural-Matters.pdf Kidron, Yael and Jim Lindsay. “The Effects of Increased Learning Time on Student Academic and Nonacademic Outcomes: Findings from a Meta-Analytic Review.” Washington, DC: REL Appalachia, 2014. Accessed November 22, 2014. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED545233.pdf Kunz, Gina, Lynne Clure, Maureen O’Connor, and Gwen Nugent. “State of the Science of Teacher Professional Development in Rural Settings: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature.” Presentation at the 106th National Rural Education Association Convention, San Antonio, TX. Accessed December 8, 2014. http://r2ed.unl.edu/presentations/2014/Rural%20PD%20Lit%20Review%20for%20NREA%20Re vised.pdf Kunz, Gina M., Susan M. Sheridan, Amanda Witte, Shannon Holmes, and Kristen Derr. “Rural Family-School Partnerships: Bridging Research and Practice.” Presentation at CYFS Summit on Research in Early Childhood, April 10, 2014. Accessed December 8, 2014. http://r2ed.unl.edu/presentations/2014/Kunz,%20Sheridan%20et%20al%20Rural%20FamilySchool%20Partnerships%20-%20version%20for%20PDF.pdf Kusler, Mary and Noelle Ellerson. “Teacher Recruitment and Retention in Rural America.” Alexandria, VA: American Association of School Administrators, 2009. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://www.aasa.org/uploadedFiles/Policy_and_Advocacy/files/NREAC%20Recruit%20Retain% 20FINAL%20092809.pdf Lamkin, M.L. “Challenges and Changes Faced by Rural Superintendents.” The Rural Educator 28, no. 1 (2006): 17-25. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://www.ruraleducator.net/archive/28-1/281_Lamkin.pdf Levin, Jesse, et al. “Do Schools in Rural and Nonrural Districts Allocate Resources Differently? An Analysis of Spending and Staffing Patterns in the West Region States.” San Francisco: REL West, 2011. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs/regions/west/pdf/REL_2011099.pdf Lyson, Thomas A. “What Does a School Mean to a Community? Assessing the Social and Economic Benefits of Schools to Rural Villages in New York.” Journal of Research in Rural Education 17, no. 3 (2002): 131-137. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://jrre.vmhost.psu.edu/wpcontent/uploads/2014/02/17-3_1.pdf McDonough, Patricia M., R. Everly Gildersleeve, and Karen M. Jarsky. “The Golden Cage of Rural College Access: How Higher Education Can Respond to the Rural Life.” In Rural Education for the Twenty-First Century: Identity, Place and Community in a Globalizing World,

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edited by Kai A. Schafft and Alecia Y. Jackson, 191-209. University Park, PA: Penn State Press, 2010. Miller, Luke C. “Valuing place: Understanding the Role of Community Amenities in Rural Teacher Labor Markets.” PhD diss., Stanford University, 2008. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://gradworks.umi.com/33/32/3332886.html Mohan, Rakesh. “Feasibility of School District Services Consolidation.” Boise: Idaho Legislature Office of Performance Evaluations, 2009. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://www.legislature.idaho.gov/ope/publications/reports/r0904.pdf Mokher, Christine. “Participation and Pass Rates for College Preparatory Transition Courses in Kentucky.” Washington, DC: REL Appalachia, 2014. Accessed January 21, 2015. http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs/regions/appalachia/pdf/REL_2014009.pdf Mollenkopf, Dawn L. “Creating Highly Qualified Teachers: Maximizing University Resources to Provide Professional Development in Rural Areas.” The Rural Educator 30, no. 3 (2009): 34-39. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ869313.pdf Monk, David H. “Recruiting and Retaining High-Quality Teachers in Rural Areas.” Future of Children 17, no. 1 (2007): 155-174. Accessed June 26, 2014. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ795884.pdf Mulkey, David. “Education in the Rural South: Policy Issues and Research Needs.” Charlottesville, WV: Southern Rural Development Center: 1993. Accessed July 14, 2014. http://srdc.msstate.edu/publications/archive/167.pdf Nugent, Gwen, James Houston, Melissa Hall, Gina Kunz. “Technology-Delivered Instructional Coaching.” Presentation at the World Conference on E-Learning, New Orleans, LA. Accessed December 10, 2014. http://r2ed.unl.edu/presentations/2014/E-learn_10-29-14.pdf O’Hare, William. “The Forgotten Fifth: Child Poverty in Rural America.” Durham, NH: The Carsey Institute: 2009. Accessed July 14, 2014. http://www.carseyinstitute.unh.edu/publications/Report-OHare-ForgottenFifth.pdf Patton, Robert C. and Dennis E. Gregory. “Perceptions of Safety by On Campus Location, Rurality, and Type of Security/Police Force: Case of the Community College.” Journal of College Student Development 55, no. 5 (2014): 451-460. Accessed November 20, 2014. http://eric.ed.gov/?q=perceptions+of+safety+by+on+campus+location&id=EJ1036592 Petrin, Robert, Kai A. Schafft, and Judith Meece. “Educational Sorting and Residential Aspirations among Rural High School Students: What are the Contributions of Schools and Educators to the Rural Brain Drain?” American Educational Research Journal 51, no. 2 (2014): 294-326. Accessed June 30, 2014. http://aer.sagepub.com/content/51/2/294 Pierson, Ashley, Havala Hanson. “Comparing Postsecondary Enrollment and Persistence among Rural and Non-Rural Students in Oregon.” Education Northwest, May 2015. Accessed May 25, 2015. http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs/regions/northwest/pdf/REL_2015076.pdf

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Rogers, John D., Talia J. Glesner, Herman W. Meyers. “Early Experiences Implementing Voluntary School District Mergers in Vermont.” Journal of Research in Rural Education 29, no 7 (2014): 1-14. Accessed October 23, 2014. http://jrre.vmhost.psu.edu/wpcontent/uploads/2014/09/29-7.pdf Rural Education National Forum and Battelle for Kids. “Making Rural Education Work for Our Children and Our Future.” Columbus, OH: Battelle for Kids, 2014. Accessed June 30, 2014. http://static.battelleforkids.org/documents/bfk/1-10making-rural-ed-work_whitepaperFINAL.PDF Rural School and Community Trust. “Title I Grants Skewed toward Largest Districts: Per Pupil Funding Varies Sharply by District Size.” Washington, DC: Rural School and Community and Trust, April 16, 2007. Accessed July 14, 2014. http://www.ruraledu.org/user_uploads/file/Title_1_effects.pdf Schafft, Kai A., Theodore R. Alter, and Jeffrey C. Bridger. “Bringing the Community Along: A Case Study of a School District’s Information Technology Rural Development Initiative.” Journal of Research in Rural Education 21, no. 8 (2006): 1-10. Accessed July 14, 2014. http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ740951 Schafft, Kai A., and Catharine Biddle. “Education and Schooling in Rural America.” In Rural America in a Globalizing World: Problems and Prospects for the 2010s, edited by Conner Bailey, Leif Jensen and Elizabeth Ransom. Morgantown, West Virginia: University Press, 2014. Schwartzbeck, Terri Duggan, Cynthia D. Prince, Doris Redfield, Helen Morris, and Patricia Cahape Hammer. “How are Rural Districts Meeting the Teacher Quality Requirements of No Child Left Behind.” Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators and Appalachia Educational Laboratory, 2003. Accessed June 30, 2014. http://aasa.org/uploadedFiles/Policy_and_Advocacy/files/RuralTeacherQualityStudy.pdf Semke, Carrie A., and Susan M. Sheridan. “Family-School Connections in Rural Educational Settings: A Systemic Review of the Empirical Literature.” School Community Journal 22, no. 1 (2012): 21-47. Accessed June 30, 2014. http://r2ed.unl.edu/workingpapers/2011/2011_1_Semke_Sheridan.pdf Sheridan, Susan M., Michael J. Coutts, Shannon R. Holmes, Amanda L. Witte, and Sonya A. Bhatia. “Kindergarten Children’s Development in Rural and Non-Rural Settings” Paper presented at the 2014 CYFS Summit on Research in Early Childhood: Creating Connections between Research, Practice and Policy, Lincoln, NE. Accessed December 20, 2014. http://r2ed.unl.edu/presentations/2014/Sheridan%20et%20al%20rural_nonrural%20kindergarten %20behavior-Summit%20presentation_FINAL.pdf Silverman, Robert Mark. “Urban, Suburban, and Rural Contexts of School Districts and Neighborhood Revitalization Strategies: Rediscovering Equity in Education Policy and Urban Planning.” Leadership and Policy in Schools 13, no 1 (2014): 3-27. Accessed September 20, 2014. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15700763.2013.876051#.VF0l1PnF-95 Smarick, Andy. “A New Frontier: Utilizing Charter Schooling to Strengthen Rural Education.” Washington, DC: Bellwether Education Partners, January 2014. Accessed June 30, 2014. http://www.rociidaho.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/EMBARGOED_Bellwether_A-NewFrontier_Jan-2014.pdf

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Sparks, P. Johnelle and Anne-Marie Nuñez. “The Role of Postsecondary Institutional Urbanicity in College Persistence.” Journal of Research in Rural Education 29, no 6 (2014): 1-19. Accessed September 19, 2014. http://jrre.vmhost.psu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/29-6.pdf Stuit, David and Sy Doan. “Beyond City Limits: Expanding Public Charter Schools in Rural America.” Washington, DC: National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, February 2012. Accessed June 30, 2014. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED535211.pdf Tekniepe, Robert J. “Identifying the Factors that Contribute to Involuntary Departures of School Superintendents in Rural America.” Journal of Research in Rural Education, 30, no 1 (2015) 113. Accessed April 10, 2015. http://jrre.psu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/30-1.pdf Terry Williams, Doris. “The Rural Solution: How Community Schools Can Reinvigorate Rural Education.” Washington, DC: Center for American Progress, 2010. Accessed June 26, 2014. https://www.aasa.org/uploadedFiles/Policy_and_Advocacy/NREAC/Rural%20Schools%20CAP %20Report%20Sept%202010.pdf Tholkes, Robert J. and Charles H. Sederberg. “Economies of Scale and Rural Schools.” Journal of Research in Rural Education 7, no. 1 (1990): 9-15. Accessed July 14, 2014. http://jrre.vmhost.psu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/7-1_8.pdf U.S. Department of Commerce. Economics and Statistics Administration. Broadband Availability: Beyond the Rural/Urban Divide. By David Beede and Anne Neville. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, May 2013. Accessed July 14, 2014. http://www.ntia.doc.gov/files/ntia/publications/broadband_availability_rural_urban_june_2011_fi nal.pdf U.S. Department of Education National Center for Education Statistics. Status of Education in Rural America. By Stephen Provasnik et al. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, July 2007. Accessed July 14, 2014. http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2007/2007040.pdf U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics. The Condition of Education: Status of Rural Education. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 2013. Accessed July 14, 2014. http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/pdf/coe_tla.pdf U.S. Department of Education REL Central. Preparing Teachers to Teach in Rural Schools. By Zoe A. Barley and Nancy Brigham. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, July 2008. Accessed July 14, 2014. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED502145.pdf U.S. Department of Education REL Southwest. How the Government Defines Rural Has Implications for Education Policies and Practices. By Michael L. Arnold, Belinda Briscoe, Thomas W. Farmer, Dylan L. Robertson, and Kathy L. Shapely. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, June 2007. Accessed July 14, 2014. http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs/regions/southwest/pdf/REL_2007010_sum.pdf Vogt, Rebecca, Cheryl Burkhart-Kriesel, Randolph Cantrell, Bradley Lubben, and Eric Thompson. “Funding Public Services: Opinions of Nonmetropolitan Nebraskans.” Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 2013. Accessed July 14, 2014. http://ruralpoll.unl.edu/pdf/13taxes.pdf

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Walters, Kirk. Aubrey Schoepner Torres, Toni Smith, and Jennifer Ford. “Gearing Up to Teach the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics in Rural Northeast Region Schools.” Washington, DC: REL Northeast and Islands, 2014. Accessed November 29, 2014. http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs/regions/northeast/pdf/REL_2015031.pdf Wauchope, Barbara and Anne Shattuck. “Federal Child Nutrition Programs are Important to Rural Households.” Durham, NH: Carsey Institute, 2010. Accessed June 30, 2014. http://www.carseyinstitute.unh.edu/publications/IB_Wauchop_Nutrition.pdf Werth, Eric, Lori Werth, and Eric Kellerer. “Transforming K-12 Rural Education through Blended Learning: Barriers and Promising Practices.” Washington, DC: iNACOL, 2013. Accessed June 30, 2014. http://www.inacol.org/cms/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/iNACOL-Transforming-K-12Rural-Education-through-Blended-Learning.pdf Wexler, Lisa, Kirsten Elinton, and Aline Gubrium. “Using Digital Stories to Understand the Lives of Alaska Native Young People.” Youth and Society 46, no. 4 (2014): 478-504. Accessed November 20, 2014. http://eric.ed.gov/?q=using+digital+stories+to+understand+the+lives+of+alaska+young+&id=EJ 1027122 Wilcox, Kristen Campbell, Janet I. Angelis, Linda Baker, and Hal A. Lawson. “The Value of People, Place, and Possibilities: A Multiple Case Study of High School Completion.” Journal of Research in Rural Education. 29,no 9 (2014): 1-18. Accessed October 20, 2014. http://jrre.psu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/29-9.pdf

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