CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE WORKBOOK 1
TOOLS Tool 1: Persona Profile
Experiment 1: 10 Questions That Work
Tool 2: Customer Journey Map
Experiment 2: Start a Conversation about Customer Experience
Tool 3: Opportunity Brief
Experiment 3: Take the Pulse
Tool 4: Business Model Canvas
Experiment 4: Change Your Scenery
Tool 5: Project Planner
Experiment 5: Create an Alignment Map
Tool 6: Budgeting Tools
Experiment 6: Find 3 Agents in Your Community
Tool 7: Team Roles + Descriptions
Experiment 7: Have Coffee with Customers
Tool 8: Case Study Template
Experiment 8: Follow Front-line Staff
Tool 9: Customer Satisfaction Survey
Experiment 9: Create a Customer Sketch
Experiment 10: Show the Impact of Your Prototype
Experiment 11: Check Your Assumptions
Experiment 12: Scope Your Project
Experiment 13: Align Your Team Values
Experiment 14: Storyboard Your Idea
Experiment 15: Energy Barometer for Weekly Check-ins
Experiment 16: Make a Video, Show Your Impact
Experiment 17: Launch a Customer Council
Experiment 18: Create Insights Cards
WORKBOOK REFERENCES / ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Lead Customer Experience Initiatives
Robust tools to help you integrate and manage customer experience initiatives within your organization – including key frameworks, project planning tools, and design methods. Perfect for managers that want to create a structure around their work and communicate its value to leadership.
Persona Profile A persona is a descriptive summary of representative primary users and the key stakeholders that influence their behaviors, including an overview of their situation, context, needs, motivations, and benefits. A persona is developed from a range of different sources, pulling together common characteristics of similar people into an “archetype” through which a group can be understood.
Personas are often used as tools to capture and present data gathered in interviews and customer segmentations. They can help build empathy within your team and ensure that your offering fits customer needs. Many teams use insights from personas to customize products, services, delivery methods, and communications to specific subgroups.
PRO TIP – Make each persona as close to a typical person as possible. Details like name, age, and a list of daily activities help paint a picture of your customer. Photos and real or illustrative quotes help bring your persona to life.
SUGGESTED TIME 2-8 hours ROLES 2-4 collaborators MATERIALS NEEDED template, pages 8-13 pens paper sticky notes
REFINE AND SYNTHESIZE YOUR DATA
IDENTIFY KEY ATTRIBUTES
Each persona will draw on a variety of sources, such
Consider the needs, motivations,
It’s often handy to create multiple
Use the template on pages 8-13
and beliefs that may drive your
personas so you can focus on
as ethnographic research,
to collaboratively organize and
sub-user’s actions. Look at their
the key characteristics of each
feedback from customer surveys,
compile the information relevant
background, key influencers, and
subgroup of your intended
quantitative metrics (service
to the persona you’re creating.
current habits – such as savings
audience. Reflect on your final
delivery points, usage rates),
You may need to fill gaps with
collection to further define and
and segmentation models.
secondary research or storytelling
differentiate key attributes of each
from contextual research.
REPEAT AND REFINE
Tool 1 Persona Profile (1/4: profile) Add photo or drawing
Family / Home Status
Tool 1 Persona Profile (2/4: background) PERSONA TITLE:
BACKGROUND What important life experiences or events have contributed to this person’s current situation?
[FINANCIAL] BEHAVIORS What behaviors are involved in his/her financial practices? Which habits and rituals are performed on a regular basis vs. single behaviors that result from external pressures?
DREAMS What are this person’s dreams and aspirations? What factors does he/she consider that might contribute to or hinder pursuit of those dreams?
DRIVERS What are the needs, enablers, and blockers that influence this person? Who are the influential stakeholders in his/her life?
Tool 1 Persona Profile (3/4: financial behavior) PERSONA TITLE:
MONTHLY PERSONAL INCOME
Tool 1 Persona Profile (4/4: behavioral framework) RISK TOLERANCE
One way to distinguish personas within your segment is to consider a variety of behavioral lenses or axes. In many cases, the following variables may help you visualize the diversity of people’s financial behaviors and attitudes: risk tolerance, financial discipline, trust in formal institutions, and financial horizon. Choose one trait to map on a simple spectrum (e.g., risk tolerance) or analyze several variables in a radar or spider chart (shown at right). These simple profiles allow you to tell compelling stories and make strong design decisions about your offerings, delivery, and customer communications. Try making simple quantitative assessments from these four qualitative factors:
RISK TOLERANCE High – comfortable using combinations of leveraged credit products, curious about bigger investments. Low – unwilling to use credit products yet comfortable with products that offer only simple returns.
FINANCIAL DISCIPLINE High – adept at managing limited incomes, never goes into debt, saves for the future. Low – often relies on informal group services or other support mechanisms to manage money.
TRUST IN FORMAL INSTITUTIONS High – significant trust in formal financial providers, secure in the belief that money would be safe, willing to reach out to banks for advice and support. Low – highly skeptical of the intentions and actions of banks, often due to prior negative experience.
FINANCIAL HORIZON Long – grand plans for the future, some indication of how to realize dreams through short-term steps. Short – focuses on day-to-day, ignores the means by which financial services could lead to a better future.
FINANCIAL HORIZON long
FINANCIAL DISCIPLINE low
TRUST IN FORMAL INSTITUTIONS
Customer Journey Map A customer journey map is a tool that captures and communicates a customer’s journey through a specific product or service experience, such as signing up for a loan or making payments throughout the lifetime of a product. Customer journey maps are typically generated for each user persona you create for your target customers. Like personas,
PRO TIP – Consider step 2 below and create a touchpoint inventory for your journey. From there, pick out key touchpoints that may highlight the most important interactions from your customer’s perspective. Rule of thumb: a good customer journey map reveals opportunities; too many touchpoints and it may lose focus, too few and you may not have enough data points to work with.
journey maps are best done as a group activity that captures knowledge from various customer-facing employees within your organization, such as sales agents or call center staff. By creating a customer journey map, you’ll gain clarity on what your customers do, how they think, and what they feel when they interact with your product or service.
SUGGESTED TIME 2-8 hours ROLES 2-4 collaborators MATERIALS NEEDED template, pages 18-19 pens paper sticky notes
CONTEXT Consider the journey you want to characterize with your journey map (e.g., purchasing a product or service), and the customer personas you wish to target. The journey should be unique to a specific customer segment. Who are your customers and what’s the context of their engagement with you? What do you do for them and what can they do for you? What are they trying to achieve?
STAGES Once you’ve established the overall journey, define distinct stages of the process. If it’s purchasing a new financial service, for example, stages might include: 1. Awareness of need 2. Research 3. Selection 4. Purchase / Onboarding 5. Use 6. Product upgrade
TOUCHPOINTS Identify customer touchpoints along the journey and map them through each stage. Describe what your customer is doing at each touchpoint. At which points does your customer interact with your organization? Which channels do they come through? What happens each time they interact? Who in your organization delivers the service – and how?
What concerns, considerations, and emotional responses does your customer feel at every step of the journey? What would you like them to feel?
What are important points along the journey that most affect your relationship with the customer? Are there any significant gaps in their journey? Bright spots?
QUALITATIVE CUSTOMER DATA Describe your customer’s thoughts and feelings at each touchpoint along the journey.
MOMENTS OF TRUTH (Highs and lows) Finally, once you’ve mapped out the journey, identify key interactions that may provide opportunity for intervention.
PRO TIP – When does the customer journey really start, and when does it end? How can you know what your customer feels at each touchpoint along the way? If you’re feeling stuck, a customer journey map may be a good opportunity to work with a design facilitator. 16
Tool 2 Customer Journey Map (1/1) 1a. CONTEXT:
1b. STAGES What are the stages of the journey?
2. TOUCHPOINTS What is your customer doing at each touchpoint throughout the journey?
3a. CUSTOMER THOUGHTS What is your customer thinking at each touchpoint?
3b. CUSTOMER FEELINGS How does your customer feel at each touchpoint?
4. MOMENTS OF TRUTH What positive and negative experiences occur throughout the journey?
Opportunity Brief An opportunity brief summarizes the findings and synthesis of your initial customer research to present a case for next-phase research and development. This next phase typically involves prototyping and testing within the opportunity areas you identify. To make a compelling case
for decision-makers to invest in your customer experience project, you must combine qualitative customer insights, needs, and observations with information about market opportunities and sizing.
1 SUGGESTED TIME 2-8 hours ROLES 2-4 collaborators MATERIALS NEEDED template, pages 22-29 pens paper sticky notes
Depending on the scope and budget of your project, an opportunity brief can be an extensive document with a very high level of detail. The tool here presents a simplified template that captures basic elements.
HUMAN INSIGHTS Present key user needs and pain points discovered in your initial research phase. Include documentation such as pictures, personal anecdotes, and personas of those you interviewed. See Tool 1: Persona Profile (page 6) to learn more about capturing human insights.
MARKET INSIGHTS Include any findings about market opportunities that overlap with the user needs you discovered. Include competitor stories and market analogs that illustrate unmet market needs.
INTERNAL CAPABILITIES Illustrate capabilities required to further explore the opportunity space. Which current offerings overlap, and what capabilities (such as external partnerships) need to come from the outside?
OPPORTUNITY SIZING To further strengthen the case for your opportunity, compile any quantitative metrics that help size it. Examples include market size and segmentation or average household size.
References: Prioritization Tools Selected methods from The DIY Toolkit (Nesta), Insights Into Action (CGAP).
Tool 3 Opportunity Brief (1/4: human insights) RISK TOLERANCE
[FINANCIAL] BEHAVIORAL INSIGHTS Summarize insights about behaviors you observed in your customers’ financial practices. Which habits and rituals are performed on a regular basis vs. single behaviors that result from external pressures?
MOTIVATIONAL INSIGHTS Summarize the needs, enablers, and blockers that influence your customers. Who are the influential stakeholders in their lives?
Human insights are a product of real face-to-face user research. See Tool 1: Persona Profile (page 6) to learn how to create a summary description of representative primary users and key stakeholders.
TRUST IN FORMAL INSTITUTIONS
Tool 3 Opportunity Brief (2/4: market insights)
Opportunity areas should reflect an unmet human need as well as a market opportunity. You may identify several opportunity areas to include in your brief, and your next round of research should allow several rounds to prototype and test those areas.
UNMET MARKET NEEDS Map the human needs you identified in your primary research onto gaps in your organizational offerings (and offerings of your competitors). Highlight areas with the most potential.
HUMAN NEED As identified in your primary research
ORGANIZATIONAL GAPS Look at existing products and services within your organization
COMPETITIVE GAPS Look at market analogs, as well as competitors
OPPORTUNITY AREAS What opportunity areas have you identified?
Tool 3 Opportunity Brief (3/4: internal capabilities) CURRENT PRODUCT AND SERVICE OFFERINGS Which existing products or services offered by your organization solve customer needs similar to those identified in your research? Where do they succeed? How do they fall short?
CUSTOMER MAKEUP How many of your current customers are signed up for products or services within the sector, or with products and services that address similar needs to those you’ve identified?
ON DECK Which new pilots or opportunity areas are you currently investigating? Is there overlap with the opportunity areas you wish to explore further?
CURRENT PORTFOLIO SIZE How much does your organization already invest in the sector(s) you identified in your opportunity areas?
Tool 3 Opportunity Brief (4/4: opportunity sizing)
CUSTOMERS BY THE NUMBERS Include customer metrics to help define your segment.
e.g., average household size in target country
e.g., percent of residents who have savings
e.g., percent of residents who’ve taken out loans
e.g., average cost of existing products or services
e.g., percent of income spent on comparable products and services
e.g., primary segment addressable market potential [$]
e.g., total segment addressable market potential (including secondary segments) [$]
e.g., expected share of addressable market [$]
REGIONAL MARKET Include market sizing data where possible.
e.g., nationwide total market potential per year [$]
e.g., total addressable market potential (considering demand) [$]
Business Model Canvas The business model canvas is a one-page overview for describing, analyzing, and designing business models. It offers the rationale for how an organization creates, delivers, and captures value, and is a great starting point for thinking through and discussing the business model of your
organization, your competitors’, or any other enterprise. As a tool, it enables structured conversations around management and strategy, laying out crucial activities and challenges involved with your initiative and how they relate to each other.
PRO TIP – Individual customer segments are the first building blocks and should be considered at each step as you build out other elements of your model. If you have more than one segment to explore, try color-coding to track elements that are related to a specific customer segment.
1 SUGGESTED TIME 2-8 hours ROLES 2-4 collaborators MATERIALS NEEDED template, pages 34-35 pens paper sticky notes
By illustrating trade-offs and aligning activities, the visual format of a business model canvas can help you develop new initiatives and identify opportunities for efficiency in existing ones.
Customer touchpoints play
The types of relationships your
In order to better satisfy customers,
Customers often turn to one
an important role in customer
organization establishes with
you may group them into distinct
organization over another because
experience. Channels serve
specific customer segments can
segments with common needs,
it solves a problem or satisfies a
several functions, including raising
range from personal (in-branch
behaviors, and other attributes.
need. Each organization consists of
awareness among customers about
service) to automated (weekly
Your organization must make a
a bundle of products and services
your organization’s products and
newsletters). Relationships are
conscious decision about which
that cater to specific customer
services, helping customers evaluate
driven by customer acquisition,
segments to pursue and which to
segments, represent new or
value propositions, allowing delivery
retention, and expansion, and
ignore; a business model can be
innovative offerings, or are similar
of products and services, and
can deeply influence the overall
carefully designed around a strong
to existing market offerings but
providing post-purchase support.
understanding of specific customer
with added features.
References: Business Model Generation, The DIY Toolkit
Business Model Canvas The easiest way to start a business model canvas is by filling out what you do. This brings focus to your main goal as you complete the other building blocks on the template (pages 34-35). From there you can build on that goal to see how it can be achieved. The business model can be described by nine basic elements. As you
fill in the details for how to meet your goal, treat each individual element as a separate brainstorming activity. Once complete, take advantage of the visual layout – and the capability to have a complete overview – to encourage fresh perspectives and ideas about how the pieces fit together.
Revenue streams are the cash
Key resources are the most
These are the most important
Key partnerships are the network
This includes all costs incurred
your organization generates
important assets required to make
things your organization must do
of suppliers and partners that
to operate your business
from each customer segment.
a business model work, allow
to make the business model work.
make your business model
model. Costs can be calculated
You must ask what value each
your organization to create and
Key activities may include staffing
work. There are four types of
relatively easily after defining key
customer segment is willing to
offer a value proposition, reach
and running local bank branches,
resources, key activities, and key
pay. Successfully answering this
markets, maintain relationships
maintaining banking agents in areas
1. Strategic alliances between
question helps illustrate realistic
with customer segments, and
that lack branches, or software
revenue streams from each
earn revenue. Resources may be
development and maintenance for
2. “Co-opetition,” or strategic
financial assets, personnel, or even
mobile finance products.
partnerships between competitors
physical infrastructure (e.g., bank
3. Joint ventures to develop new
businesses 4. Buyer-supplier relationships to assure reliable supplies
Tool 4 Business Model Canvas (1/1) KEY PARTNERSHIPS Who are your key partners and what resources do they supply? What activities do they perform? Who are your key suppliers?
KEY ACTIVITIES Which activities are necessary to offer and deliver value to customers? To support distribution channels and customer relationships? To maintain revenue streams?
VALUE PROPOSITION What value do you deliver to your customers? Which one of your customer problems are you helping to solve, or which needs are you satisfying? Which product/service bundles are you offering to each segment?
CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIPS What type of relationship does each customer segment expect? Have these relationships been established, and if so, which frontline staff stewards them? Are they integrated with the rest of your organization’s business model?
CUSTOMER SEGMENTS For whom are you creating value? Who are your most important customers? Which unbanked or underbanked segments may provide new opportunities?
KEY RESOURCES Which resources and assets are required to offer and deliver value to your customers? To support distribution channels and customer relationships? To maintain revenue streams?
CHANNELS Through which channels do customer segments prefer to be reached? How are they being reached now? How are channels integrated? Which ones work best and are most cost efficient? How are channels integrating with customer routines?
COST STRUCTURE What are the most important costs inherent in your business model? Which key resources and activities are most expensive?
REVENUE STREAMS What value are customers really willing to pay for? What do they currently pay for? How are they currently paying? How would they prefer to pay? How much does each revenue stream contribute to overall revenue?
Project Planner Use this simple framing and planning tool to kick off your customer experience project by making considerations for the objectives of your intervention; the key customer experience improvement hypothesis you’re testing; resource, material, and budget requirements; and your timeline. While it’s important to plan
adequately, customer experience work is by nature highly iterative and improvisational. The best type of planning helps define the key opportunity you’re targeting. It’s based on initial customer research and expectations for measurable outcomes, but leaves flexibility for testing and iteration along the way.
PRO TIP – Make your planning process collaborative. Fill out the templates as a team and revise over 1-3 weeks, seeking consultation from external partners and cross-functional leadership. To stoke collaboration over time, make the project plan large and visible – inviting others to join you in the journey.
SUGGESTED TIME 2-8 hours ROLES 2-4 collaborators MATERIALS NEEDED template, pages 38-39 pens paper sticky notes
DEFINE TEAM ROLES
SET YOUR PLAN
As a team, discuss the project
Get on the same page about
Use the project planner template
you’re embarking on. If it’s
responsibilities and how they
to plot activities and required
Before you rush off to start your
exploratory, outline your
fit each individuals’ strengths
resources over time. Start by
work, pause to reflect with your
opportunity and objectives.
and goals. Explicitly defining
defining the duration, then parse
team. What does success look
If you’re using the plan to
these details upfront minimizes
it into key stages and milestones.
like for this effort? What outcomes
test prototypes, define initial
challenges later on.
Next, map activities and resources
would you be proud of and would
in a way that recognizes their
your organization find valuable?
dependence on one another.
How do you plan to factor in
FRAME THE OPPORTUNITY
hypotheses and/or variables you’d like to test.
Want to learn more about team
ENVISION SUCCESS AND
roles and norms? See Tool 7:
iteration and learning along the
Team Roles + Descriptions (page
References: Prioritization Tools Selected methods from The DIY Toolkit (Nesta), Insights Into Action (CGAP).
Tool 5 Project Planner (1/1) OWNERS:
OPPORTUNITY What opportunity area(s) does your project explore?
ITERATION How can your concept be improved upon and iterated over time?
PROJECT STAGE PLANNER
ROLES Who’s needed to make this a reality, and what are their responsiblities?
Resources (internal / external)
SUCCESS What would success look like for your project?
Budgeting Tools In a perfect world your organization would have a budget set aside for customer experience initiatives, but this is rarely the case. Most likely, you’ll need to pull resources and associated costs from a number of existing budgets, which is best done when the goals of your customer experience program align with your organization’s broader business goals (see CGAP’s Business Challenges Booklet). You’ll generally find that certain investments are easier to justify within your organization than others. It may be easier to justify
SUGGESTED TIME 2-8 hours ROLES 2-4 collaborators MATERIALS NEEDED template, pages 42-50 pens paper sticky notes
allocating dedicated time from an internal resource (marketing staff, for example) than to hire an external market research firm. Customer experience requires being as resourceful as possible, which is why it’s important to break down initiatives across a range of cost categories and based on type of activity or expense. This simple budgeting tool provides the basic structure to develop the right costing model in support of your customer experience efforts.
CORE TEAM RESOURCING AND
EXTERNAL AGENCY / COSTS
Refer to the project scoping guide
INTERNAL SUPPORT COSTS
Determine needs and availability
Use the budgeting tools template
Summarize costs and rationale
for small, medium, and large
Define core team and resource
of internal and external
on pages 42-50 to estimate
against the key business driver
projects to help determine a
allocations, referring to the team
capabilities to fill team roles.
rough cost breakdowns, clearly
you’re trying to improve, estimating
rough timeframe and the scope
guide, Tool 7: Team Roles +
separating “soft” internal costs
potential return on investiment, if
of your customer experience
Descriptions, on page 52.
from external vendor and hard
possible, for positively impacting
key customer engagement metrics.
TIMEFRAME AND SCOPE
TOTAL ESTIMATED BUDGET
(Refer to the Business Value Matrix on pages 42-43 of the CGAP Business Challenges Booklet.)
Tool 6 Budgeting Tools (1/5: core team resourcing)
ROLE ON TEAM
Senior Manager or Executive Sponsor
• Set business goals and vision • Drive organizational buy-in • Mobilize resources
• [not applicable]
Marketing Customer Research Product Development Digital Banking
• Bring strong customer mindset • Define strategy and approach to achieve business goals • Provide familiarity with customercentric approaches
• 50 percent for small and medium projects • 100 percent for large projects or critical stages of smaller initiatives
Product Management Operations
• Bring strong customer mindset • Define strategy and approach to achieve business goals • Provide familiarity with customercentric approaches
• 25 percent for small and medium projects • 50 percent for large projects or critical stages of smaller initiatives
Strategy Business Analyst Finance
• Align customer experience efforts with strategic and financial goals • Develop financial models and analysis to support business case for customer experience
• 10 percent for small and medium projects • 25 percent for large projects or critical smaller initiatives
Evangelists / Champions
Sales and Marketing Customer Support Engineering / IT Branding and Communications
• Tap broader knowledge base and customer data • Evangelize for customer experience across functions and departments • Anticipate dependencies in support functions like marketing, branch management, IT
• Minimal time allocation to track progress and provide input, typically 2-4 hours per week • Usually an extended team comprised of an additional 3-5 people
Tool 6 Budgeting Tools (2/5: internal support costs)
Marketing and Communications
• Provide baseline market research • Define target customer segments and value propositions • Define channel strategy • Drive customer awareness and engagement • Support branding, packaging, and promotion • Provide access to outside vendors related to market research and design
Data Collection and Analysis
• Provide baseline customer data to help benchmark existing customer experience • Support data colllection strategy related to customer experience efforts, including designing surveys and other data collection mechanisms
• Share insights on existing behaviors and preferences of customers Front-line Staff (Branch and Customer • Provide direct access to customer-facing teams to support research and prototyping activities Support)
• Recruit representative customers and gather immediate feedback • Test new processes and interactions directly with customers
• Support customer data collection, modify systems when required • Support digital prototyping • Identify and anticipate potential customer data security issues
Agents / Partners
• Share insights on existing behaviors and preferences of customers • Provide direct access to customer-facing teams to support research and protoyping activities • Recruit representative customers and gather immediate feedback
• Ensure that customer research does not raise risk profile of internal and external regulators
Tool 6 Budgeting Tools (3/5: external agency / vendor costs) TYPICAL FUNCTION
Customer Experience Design (if end-to-end partner is required)
• Outsource partner with end-to-end capabilities to support customer experience initiatives through research, prototyping, design, and implementation • Pair with an internal resource for knowledge transfer and training
• Qualified partners may be hard to identify, resource intensive, and may not have deep sector expertise or familiarity with serving poor customers • May be the best option if you need to move quickly and lack internal resources • Potential for significant knowledge transfer to internal teams • Local options may be difficult to source
• Gather market and customer research through various qualitative and quantitative methods • Provide access to market and consumer trends • Help identify key market and customer requirements
• Ability to tap a broader range of qualitative and quantitative research skills that may not be present in your organization • Ability to source customers and collect data more rapidly than internal teams • Typically does not offer capability to translate research findings into product concepts
Marketing and Branding
• Provide design, branding, and marketing support to help launch new offerings • Competency across multiple channels – digital, print, and retail
• In most markets, capability may be locally available to fill gaps in internal design capabilities • Some firms specialize in one particular channel, such as digital • Generally less familiar with working on solutions for poor customers
External IT / Digital Development
• Provide support for prototpying and piloting digital solutions • May also have data analytics / metrics capabilities to optimize digital channels
• Generally able to work in a more rapid and agile manner than internal IT teams • Need to ensure work is completed with existing IT infrastructure • May not be familiar with compliance issues / risks related to customer data
Tool 6 Budgeting Tools (4/5: direct expenses)
COST PER UNIT
Materials and Prototype Production
• Material costs to produce prototypes and other artifacts to test and pilot with customers • May include mock-ups of digital screens, mobile services, posters, advertisements, kiosks, or printed statements
Recruiting and Incentives
• It can be difficult to conduct direct customer outreach, so you may incur costs related to recruiting research participants through an agency. Costs depend on how narrow a recruitment base on demographic and psychographic criteria you need • Small incentives to individuals to participate in customer research activities such as focus groups, interviews, diary studies, participatory design, and user testing • Incentives generally increase with the amount of time and effort you expect from participants (with focus groups requiring the least effort and diary studies being the most intensive) • Do not typically compensate for participating in simple surveys • Mobile minutes may be offered in lieu of money (if more acceptable)
Travel and Entertainment
• Travel, food, and accomodation for teams conducting user research
Guides / Fixers
• Costs of guides or fixers to help recruit research particiants in communities in which your team does not have existing customer relationships to build on
• Some research activities may be conducted in local branches or out in the community, but it’s often better to engage customers in a neutral space. This may incur additional costs but is generally worthwhile
• A number of cloud-based software options may help coordinate, plan, and execute customer research. Some are free and others utilize subscription or “freemium” models
Total cost 48
Tool 6 Budgeting Tools (5/5: total estimated budget)
1. Core Team
Estimated start / end dates
2. Internal Support
Estimated start / end dates
3. External Vendors
Estimated start / end dates
4. Direct Expenses
Estimated start / end dates
Total cost 50
Team Roles + Descriptions You’ve already seen how normal functional groups can be viewed through the lens of customer experience. However, defining team roles for your customer experience projects is just as crucial for success. Teams work best if you start small – somewhere between two to five active members, with an ideal group
size of three or four. This allows work to be divided and for everyone to stay purposefully engaged. If there are more interested parties you may form a larger, secondary group to tap into for workshops, feedback, and general support. If possible, seek diversity on your team – of experience, gender, point of view,
and function areas. This will help you avoid the challenge of “group think” – becoming an echo chamber of homogeneous thoughts, and implicitly help your team integrate into the larger organization. Each team should include the following perspectives: consumer mindset, operational savvy, financial expertise, and
organizational evangelists. Once you’ve rallied your team, you’re ready to discuss roles, goals, and routines.
SUGGESTED TIME 1.5-3 hours ROLES 2-4 collaborators MATERIALS NEEDED template, page 55 pens paper sticky notes
ORIENT TOWARD SHARED AND
ESTABLISH SHARED NORMS
Provide clarity to your team by
determining roles. There are
Create two zones on a wall:
As a group, decide on the
If you’d like to take the process
Experimenter, Storyteller, Analyst,
generally a few types:
“group goals” and “personal
frequency of team meetings and
one step further, facilitate
Connector. Host a follow-up
• Team leader/co-leader
goals.” Take a moment to
discuss what a successful meeting
discussion about how each team
conversation on the ways you
facilitates the process and keeps
individually reflect on these
would look like. You may also
member may work best on a
want to contribute to the project
team accountable to goals
two areas, writing one thought
choose to come to an agreement
customer experience project,
and hone your skills. (See page
• Coordinator maintains shared
per sticky note and using as
on the amount of time you’ll focus
which often requires skills outside
54 for more detail on these
calendar, schedules meetings,
many as you need (generally
on the project, communication
of everyday roles. Have each
perspectives and how they apply
helps with logistics
4-6). Review the wall as a group,
norms, and collaboration tools.
team member rate themself
to your work.)
• Documenter documents via
discussing your perspectives and
Sorting out small details and
on a scale of 1 to 5 (1 = highly
written notes, pictures, etc.
noticing areas of commonality or
revisiting them in a transparent
unrepresentative, 5 = highly
Organizes shared files, keeps
divergence. Prioritize main group
manner helps avoid needless
representative) on the following
track of data and work products
goals to shape your work; record
• Operations keeps track
individual goals to revisit in the
of budgets, time, potential
DECIDE OPERATIONAL ROLES
UNDERSTAND YOUR WORKING
alternative sources of funding
Tool 7 Team Roles + Descriptions (1/1) GROUP GOALS What are your goals for this project and team? What would success look like?
DESCRIPTIONS OF WORKING DISPOSITIONS
Anthropologist: A curious inquirer who wants to find out how people tick and interact with each other, their environments, and their tools. You notice what others may not and approach qualitative understanding with rigor. You view people with an empathetic, open mind and seek inspiration from everyday human innovation.
Analyst: A seeker of patterns in data. You find the story of human behavior in quantitative touchpoints to identify opportunities for impact. Your perspective helps find ways to measure creatively and model business value quickly. You’re often the translator to operational or financial roles in your organization.
Experimenter: A consummate builder who tests to learn. You aren’t afraid to work through a problem in a rough state and would rather make decisions from evidence than theory. You don’t need to have a hard design or technical discipline, but can often be seen drawing through ideas, making models, or talking through hypothetical situations to seek clarity.
Connector: A gregarious socializer with a knack for cross-pollination. You bring in multiple perspectives from your own experience or network. This skill is crucial in the field to build rapport, form mutually beneficial partnerships, and build connections and support in your organization to spread the details of your customer experience work.
Storyteller: A synthesizing mind with a knack for finding the storyline in the data points. You cut through jargon and find ways to translate work to a broader audience – identifying the challenge, plot, and characters. Your messages clearly convey innovations and can motivate the emotions and actions of a broader audience.
PERSONAL GOALS What are your individual goals for this project? Is there a skill you’d like to gain or enhance? A professional milestone?
PROJECT PERSPECTIVES Share the perspective and disposition you bring to your project team. This will help your team identify how to share work and leverage strengths. How representative are you of each disposition?
this is not me
this is not me
this is not me
this is not me
this is not me
this is me 1
this is me
this is me 1
this is me
this is me
What implications do your ratings have for your team role and responsibilities?
Reference: Tom Kelley – The Ten Faces of Innovation Thoughts on leveraging multiple perspectives as you bring creativity, innovation, and customer perspectives into your organization. 54
Case Study Template A case study describes a product, service, or solution put into place to address a particular customer experience issue. Case studies are a great way to showcase and present results to key stakeholders within your organization. While case studies do not have required elements (they vary depending on the case
or story highlighted), most do include the six main elements detailed below. In addition to showcasing your project, a good case study helps make the case for customer experience by illuminating the voice of customers you interacted with along the way.
PRO TIP – Highlight the “aha!” moment. To generate excitement and increase engagement around your work, showcase the unexpected – such as interesting insights about customer behaviors or the time a hypothesis was proven wrong during testing.
SUGGESTED TIME 2-4 hours ROLES 2-4 collaborators MATERIALS NEEDED template, pages 58-65 pens paper sticky notes
PROBLEM STATEMENT Identify the problem you addressed. Explain how it was identified and why it’s an important issue.
SOLUTION PROCESS What process did you follow to generate, develop, and test your solution ideas? If you encountered any unexpected roadblocks along the way, how did you overcome them?
PROTOTYPE GALLERY Showcase any prototypes you developed and tested with customers. What tools and resources did you use? How did these prototypes help evolve your work?
RESULTS + NEXT STEPS What was the impact of your solution in terms of customer experience or other metrics? How did you define and measure success? What next steps have you identified to build upon your work? How can your organization benefit from continued exploration of the customer experience solution?
Tool 8 Case Study Template (1/4: problem statement) PROBLEM STATEMENT What’s the customer need or problem your solution sought to address? Who was involved: partners, customers, other stakeholders? What were the key relationships?
INITIAL RESEARCH OVERVIEW Include a summary of your initial research strategy. Where did you go and who did you speak with? How did you adapt your process as you uncovered new information about the situation? What were the key customer insights that helped you identify the need or problem to address?
REGIONAL CONTEXT From your research, what were key regional factors – regulatory, cultural, political, other – that contributed to or related to the problem? How did this context ultimately impact the way you approached your solution?
Time spent in the field
Tool 8 Case Study Template (2/4: solution process) PREPARING
MEASURING 4. MEASURING
Multiple rounds of iteration
TESTING 3. TESTING
Tool 8 Case Study Template (3/4: prototype gallery) PROTOTYPE 1:
CONCEPT Describe your prototype and its key features. Who’s your target user?
DESIGN AND PRODUCTION What materials did you use to create your prototype? Did it involve physical artifacts? A physical space? Person-to-person interactions? TEST METHODS How did you set up and test your prototype? What were key assumptions, questions, or performance metrics? How did you define success?
STATUS How did your prototype evolve during the process? Is some version still in use or did it prove unsuccessful? DOCUMENT YOUR WORK Describe the results of your prototype: details that surprised you, hypotheses that were invalidated, stories worth sharing, etc.
Tool 8 Case Study Template (4/4: results + next steps) RESULTS What was the impact of your prototype trials in terms of customer experience or other metrics? Which prototypes were successful and which failed? Why? Which ones show promise for continued development?
LEARNINGS What are the big takeaways from your project? Do you have unexpected test results or surprising findings to report? How do learnings relate to your organization’s customer experience practices in general? What are the ways your organization may benefit from continued exploration of the customer experience solution?
NEXT STEPS What plans or next steps have you identified to build upon your work?
Customer Satisfaction Survey Customer satisfaction surveys are highly useful evaluative tools that can be adapted and employed throughout your process, although they’re especially practical during prototyping and testing. A survey is a quick way to generate
PRO TIP – A formal survey is one approach to gathering customer perspectives on your prototype. But most prototypes benefit from both formal and informal analysis. You may want to collect more nuanced feedback by conducting short group or intercept interviews to gather qualitative insights, noting what people liked/did not like, found clear/confusing, or shared as relevant ideas/ considerations.
data to validate or disprove your hypotheses. Ideally, surveys are executed at regular intervals so you can continue to make adjustments and iterate on ideas until you’ve refined and validated a solution that’s ready to scale.
SUGGESTED TIME 2-8 hours ROLES 2-4 collaborators MATERIALS NEEDED template, pages 68-71 pens paper sticky notes
The short survey (pages 68-71) is used to collect feedback from customers on their perceptions of prototypes and overall experiences. It includes 4-5 questions with responses collected on a 5-point Likert scale. To execute a successful survey, plan ahead adequately before launching.
TAILOR SURVEY QUESTIONS
Select your target and exposed
Create a survey based on specific
Administer the survey in the local
Optimize data collection to quickly
group of customers up front (see
aspects of the project or prototype
language, and, if applicable, as
obtain and synthesize results so
targeting template, page 69). Ensure
you plan to test. For example, if
soon as possible after you’ve
you can incorporate changes to
that survey administrators are
you’ve changed the decor of a
implemented your prototype or
your project on an ongoing basis.
experienced and adequately trained.
bank branch, create a survey that
intervention. You may choose to
Use SurveyMonkey, Google forms,
will reveal first impressions and
conduct surveys at several points
or other similar online tools.
the overall experience of visiting
throughout the process.
STAGING AND ROLLOUT
COLLECT AND APPLY FINDINGS
Reference: Customer Satisfaction Survey Janalakshmi Customer Experience Playbook
Tool 9 Customer Satisfaction Survey (1/2) PROJECT / SUBJECT:
OBJECTIVE Which specific aspect of customer experience are you trying to gauge? What hypotheses are you testing?
SURVEY DATE / LOCATION:
Number of Participants
Financial Characteristics FORMAT REQUIREMENTS Language and Literacy - What language considerations are necessary to accommodate participants?
Exposure to Product / Service
Media and Technology - Will the survey be administered on the phone or in person? What level of familiarity with technology is necessary for participation?
Familiarity with Organization / Brand
Compensation - Should participants be compensated for time spent completing the survey, or is it voluntary?
Facilitators - What level of training is required for facilitators conducting the survey? Do they need to be internal or external to the organization?
Recruitment Timeline Strategy
Tool 9 Customer Satisfaction Survey (2/2)
Neither comfortable nor uncomfortable
Neither adequate nor inadequate
*Note: Questions from a previous project. You’ll craft your own relevant questions.
How comfortable do you feel at the [service location]?
When you have questions, how adequate do you feel the information provided at the [service location] is?
Have you noticed any changes at the [service location]? (Yes/No) If yes, how much do you like these new changes?
Overall, how satisfied are you with your experience at the [service location]?
How much do you like the facilities at the [service location]?
Not at all
Neither satisfied nor unsatisfied
Not at all
Put Customer Experience into Action Practical exercises to help you get closer to your customers and make customer experience a part of your core competencies. Each experiment can be done in as little as one or two hours. Ideal for managers and project teams who’d like to immerse themselves in the value of customer experience or accelerate their work.
10 Questions that Work An organization that puts customers first begins to shape its model and culture to reflect this core driver. As a team, take a moment to answer the following questions to identify
the level of your organization’s customer experience maturity and specific areas for improvement.
TIME 40-60 minutes
ROLES 1 facilitator to capture responses Team members
1. Has your organization designed key performance indicators to measure performance against customer satisfaction objectives?
6. Does your organization use a set of broad research techniques to understand customer experience, satisfaction, and loyalty?
2. Does your organization carry out research to understand the wants, needs, and purchase drivers of customers?
7. Does your organization carry out research to understand how customers are using your products and services, and why they may use them differently than you had planned?
3. Does your organization examine sales processes to understand where they might fail or why customers may not purchase?
8. Does senior management have regular, direct contact with customers to get a realistic view of what they experience when they engage with your organization?
4. Does your organization analyze the number of customers gained or lost each year?
9. Does your organization have a clear, consistent calculation of customer lifetime value when making customer investment decisions?
5. Does your organization apply a customer journey framework to design, document, and share the ideal end-to-end customer experience?
I DON’T KNOW.
NO. WE HAVE NO COMMITMENT TO DO SO.
SORT OF. WE’VE COMMITTED BUT HAVE NO REAL PLANS IN PLACE.
10. Does your organization understand the direct and indirect costs customer incur when they engage with your organization?
YES. WE HAVE A PLAN BUT IT’S NOT YET IMPLEMENTED.
YES. WE’VE IMPLEMENTED AND IT’S HAVING SOME IMPACT.
YES. WE’VE IMPLEMENTED AND IT’S HAVING MAJOR IMPACT.
Start a Conversation about Customer Experience Too often, conversations at headquarters are removed from the reality of what customers experience in the field. But every one of your organization’s staff members is also a
customer or user in their own daily life as well. This exercise connects your colleagues’ personal customer experience to your organization.
Show MicroEnsure’s short video on the power of customer experience.
Reflect on 1-3 powerful customer experience moments in your life where the quality of your interactions improved your experience. Share these examples with your team.
Have colleagues share their powerful customer experience moments, noting specific interactions, emotions elicited, impact of the experience, and perception of the brand. They may draw or write their experience on separate sticky notes.
1 facilitator 1 note taker / organizer
Video from MicroEnsure Sticky notes
EXPERIMENTS IN ACTION: JANALAKSHMI, INDIA To kick off two days of intense customer experience prototyping and pitching, Janalakshmi, a financial service provider for the urban poor, started small. Each person in the room shared a moment that was meaningful to them in their own lives as customers. Examples were wide-ranging, from a wellresolved complaint to a company that offered choices whenever possible. Examples included: Just a couple of clicks! An easy and expedited exchange experience with Amazon left one individual feeling trusted and stress free. There when I need them. A broken TV before a football match is never fun, but when the repair specialist was extra quick and full of
banter, the individual reflected on feeling connected and supported. Choices when I want them. The opportunity to order dinner “when you want it” made one teammate’s long international flight easier and empowering. The act of reflection kicked off the workshop on a foundation of personal engagement, empathy, and shared understanding about the importance of customer experience. It also helped a diverse team that included Janalakshmi, CGAP, and consulting partners at Dalberg and the Design Impact Group establish a shared language around customer experience.
USE IT WHEN
USE IT TO
• You’re trying to build the case for customer experience within your organization • You’re sensitizing your team about what customer experience is, and how it differs from what you already do • You need analogous inspiration for an ideation session with your team
• Develop a shared understanding on the definition of customer experience • Show examples in your “Investment Case” PowerPoint • Spark new ideas within your team • Start exploring the competitive landscape
“I had to run something like a political campaign within the bank [to advocate]. I communicated with those interested...showed iterations...and was opportunistic.” Absa Bank executive
Take the Pulse EXPERIMENTS IN ACTION: SQUARE, SAN FRANCISCO Learning about your customers can begin with something as simple as an email. Your frontline staff already knows where customers
struggle or thrive best. Developing easy ways to take the pulse of what employees know is a great way to focus efforts early on.
Identify a customer experience issue you’re curious about and the core front-line staff who may have insight into it. Send them an email with no more than five questions to learn more about the challenge. Keep questions simple to make sure it’s not a burden and ask for responses within a week. Make sure questions are specific but open-ended. Analyze responses and share top insights with relevant teammates. e.g., “Have you heard reasons why customers aren’t signing up for the mobile wallet to make weekly loan repayments? What are some of the main reasons?”
Follow-up Activity: To keep the conversation going, invite respondents to be a part of “Daily Conversations about Customer Experience” and share stories once or twice a week. A few things you may observe are understanding what staff knows about customer experience and if they get ideas from customers themselves on improving existing experiences.
Follow-up Activity: Set up a database of customer experience champions within your organization and create an internal communications channel (e.g., a blog, Tumblr, Medium, Blogger). This keeps the conversation going and gathers momentum for customer experience support across the organization. Share anecdotes, inspiration, and promising customer experience practices.
30 minutes to create an email 1 week to gather responses
1 facilitator 1 note taker / organizer
Email and shared documents Links to sharing platform if necessary (e.g., Blogger, Tumblr, Google+, etc.)
The industry-facing initiatives team at Square, a San Francisco-based financial services / mobile payment provider, continuously talks to the customer care department to gather baseline data on customer claims and experience. With a dedicated feedback channel between teams, Square constantly prototypes ideas and
gathers feedback through the customer center to test what customers find most valuable. This simple communication process allows Square to test and course-correct quickly to create the highly successful products found in their portfolio.
USE IT WHEN
USE IT TO
• You want to make the case for investing in customer experience and you need stories from customers to create a “Making the Case” PowerPoint • You want to test ways to streamline customer experience communications across functional teams
• Connect with people across your organization that are interested in customer experience, and recruit for Daily Conversations about Customer Experience • Test your initial assumptions on product or service performance, and gather a general understanding of challenges customers may face when they interact with your organization
“A lot of the ideas and prioritization come from the support channel. We work closely with our support team to understand the highest frequency of request coming in from the [customer] base and then how do we build a feature or product to meet their need.” Ginger Baker, Square, San Francisco
Change Your Scenery EXPERIMENTS IN ACTION: KGFS, INDIA Changing your environment is a quick and easy way to begin shifting your mindset. Shake up your office routine. Choose a branch to work from remotely and meet front-line staff
for coffee. The steps below outline more ways to make this time more productive and illustrative.
Have a junior staff member give you a tour. You may be familiar with the physical layout of the branch, but use the opportunity to ask questions and elicit stories.
Take 15 minute breaks to walk around, observe, and interact with staff and customers. Come in with questions you’re curious about – or let your observations guide you.
In your notebook, jot down observations and insights from interactions and reflect on how they may impact your work, offerings, or customer experience delivery. If your time at the branch is especially insightful, share photos and observations at your next team meeting.
3 hours to 1 day
Individual or pair exercise
Notebook Small camera
Staff at Kshetriya Gramin Financial Services (KGFS) participates in rigorous onboarding, adopting the functions and responsibilities of each field role. Mid- and senior-level members of management at headquarters
are expected to return to the field at least once each quarter to work as front-line staff for a week. KGFS goes beyond observation to immersion, developing a strong customer experience culture in the process.
USE IT WHEN
USE IT TO
• You want to break your routine and get another perspective on your work • Your team needs to gain empathy and perspectives from customers or front-line staff
• Glance at the general challenges your customers currently face • Test your initial assumptions on an offering’s performance or gather an overview of the customer experience
“The number-one change that anyone who wants to be customer-centric [needs] is to have everyone spend time in the field. You never rise to the top until you’ve rolled up your sleeves and worked in the dusty fields.” Jayshree, KGFS, India
Create an Alignment Map Customer experience projects work best when they align with internal priorities and in-progress initiatives. Take an afternoon to make a “mind map” with several close
colleagues. Explore what a customer experience project or perspective might add to your existing activities.
Using sticky notes, start by writing down strategic priorities and goals. Then, in another color, add existing initiatives. Mark the notes that contain initiatives that cross-cut your organization (e.g., those that span human resources, corporate social responsibility, etc.).
Reflect on and write down names of senior managers who are particularly receptive to innovative ideas or have championed new approaches within your organization. Also, note employees at every level who show an appetite for innovative ideas and are naturally customer-centric in their work.
Step back and reflect on your map. Identify ways a customer experience perspective could add value or connect these existing people, projects, and priorities. If clear opportunities arise, begin a dialogue with these leaders. Save the map or documentation from activities to ground future work.
Sticky notes frog Collective Action Toolkit: knowledge fest tool
USE IT WHEN
USE IT TO
• You want to define strategic internal collaborations for your project • You want to create the case for customer experience investment or define your opportunity brief
• • •
Align efforts and build efficiencies between teams Identify potential collaborative projects between teams Create a map of who you need internal buy-in from, and who’ll be an ally
“No organization is static, it’s running. The best way to ensure ownership is to align with current initiatives.” Janalakshmi employee, India
Find 3 Agents in Your Community* The agent experience is usually quite different in rural and urban areas, and seemingly simple moments can be taken for granted – like easy access to an agent or effective guidance through the customer call center.
EXPERIMENTS IN ACTION: TIGO CASH, GHANA
There are a few simple ways to put yourself in the customer’s situation to better understand their everyday challenges with your products and services.
Tigo Cash launched its mobile money service in Ghana in 2010. But by 2012, only a fraction of its over 1 million registered subscribers actively used the service and the company struggled to gain momentum. In 2013 Tigo Cash, IDEO.org, and CGAP set out to better understand how to improve the customer value proposition – and the larger issue of engagement with mobile money among low-income Ghanaians as well.
Once the initial research took off, a Tigo Cash manager was challenged with a simple exercise: find three agents to ask for help. The experiment would help the manager experience the service firsthand and learn how it worked in real life, in a real community. It took the manager more than ten calls with a Tigo Cash customer representative and several hours wandering around town to find even one agent. It was at that moment that the staff realized the practical challenges their customers were facing.
Take notes as you go through the
USE IT WHEN
USE IT TO
with low adoption rates of your
specific challenge you could face
experience and once you’re back
products and services. Walk
as a customer (e.g., unable to set
at the office, reflect with your team
around and try to find three
up your mobile wallet). Ask the
on the following:
agents that can assist you. (It’s
agent if he/she can help you with
ideal if you’re not familiar with the
it, then phone the customer center
to find an agent or gain
location beforehand.) Document
and ask them to help you solve the
effective support through the
• Get a better understanding of the daily challenges and needs your customers may face with your products and services • Spark new ideas to improve current products and services
the process in writing and images.
problem as well.
• Just before you start your research phase. The experiment will help you think from a customer perspective right from the beginning of the process • As a support activity to creating a customer journey map – to understand how people think, feel, and act in similar situations
Start by visiting a town or village
Note your actions, interactions, emotions, and thought process.
Follow-up activity: Choose a
*If your organization does not work with an agent network, you can still run Step 2.
How much time does it take
customer call center? •
What moments in the process were frustrating?
Beyond the customer call center, who did you reach out to for support?
Individual or small group exercise
Mobile phone Notebook
“Since the project, I have thought about a lot of consumer insights methods very differently. To me, HCD really got beyond the superficialities of consumer research to actually get to the bottom of the real motivations and feelings of customers.” Selorm Adadevoh, CEO, Digicel Haiti (former head of Tigo Cash Ghana)
Have Coffee with Customers Start impromptu conversations with a group of customers while they visit your branch. This is a great way to learn about their experience without getting into the logistics of a formal
focus group. Before planning formal field research, it’s often helpful to start a customer experience immersion with an informal activity such as this.
Set up a day to work in a branch. If possible, work in a public place in view of customers. Invite a few for coffee while they wait. Introduce yourself and ask why they’re visiting the branch that day, what particular product or offering they’re interested in or use, and what challenges they face.
Once you establish rapport and confidence, sensitively ask more about their lives: household and family situation, employment, needs and goals, how they expect financial services to help them.
Jot down your observations and insights from interactions in your notebook. After a few (individual or group) conversations, you’ll probably identify some similarities across customers: • Describe three common themes that came up during the process • Share with your team, ideally during “Daily Conversations about Customer Experience.”
30-40 minutes per conversation (gather responses for a week)
1 facilitator 1 note taker
Coffee DIY Mind Map Notebook
USE IT WHEN
USE IT TO
• You want to gain inspiration and insights from your core customer base • You want to test new ideas early on with random customers at a branch • In the beginning of your project, before you get into the research planning phase, to collect data and get more direction on questions you need to ask
• Collect data that can validate or re-frame your initial assumptions of customer challenges with your product
“Understand your customers. Talking to them is one thing, but if you go in looking to answer a specific question, you won’t find out the whole character of them. Try to understand them – their beliefs, their needs, their relationships. Even if you are just serving one aspect of their financial life, try to understand them wholly, because it will give you a lot of ideas of how to build value into the product you are providing to them.” Ginger Baker, Square, San Francisco
Follow Front-line Staff Shadowing is a basic observation technique that allows you to unobtrusively learn about an experience from the perspective of a single
user. Following front-line staff (or a customer) will help you uncover patterns and insights in interactions between customers and staff.
40 minutes-1 hour observing 20 minutes for follow-up conversation
1 facilitator 1 front-line staff (or customer)
Notebook Camera phone (take photos as long as it’s not distracting) DIY tools (to capture insights)
Ask a front-line staff (or a customer) for permission to follow her or him while they’re interacting at a branch.
Document their interactions without intervening. Identify specific moments that draw your attention and descriptively record them in your notebook.
Once the agent is done, ask if they have 20 minutes for a follow-up conversation. Discuss the specific moments that may have sparked your attention, such as:
Why did you perform a task or handle an interaction in a certain way? Did you use any tools or processes to support your work? How did you feel? What were you thinking? What challenges did you face? Could anything in the experience be improved? Are there any promising practices that could be expanded?
USE IT WHEN
USE IT TO
• You want to gather input for a customer journey map • You want to gather learnings and stories about how customers engage with your products and services at a branch • You want to better understand how to design delivery of an offering through branch staff or agents
• Gather input to build a customer journey map • Practice your skills for further qualitative research
Create a Customer Sketch EXPERIMENTS IN ACTION: REBOOT A customer sketch is a simple exercise to begin characterizing customers and learn where you may lack information. It can also help guide the creation of a research plan and early-stage personas.
If your organization doesn’t have a thorough understanding of target customers, use customer sketches as a best practice to clarify knowledge gaps before jumping into a comprehensive qualitative research process.
If you’ve performed some of the other experiments in this workbook, start populating sketches from previous conversations with customers and front-line staff, and eventually complement them with information from previous research on:
Use yellow sticky notes to write down what you know – and a different color to record what you don’t.
Once you have a better idea of your knowledge gaps and strengths, use these customer sketches to strategize more effective screening criteria for your qualitative research plan.
Household structure Places you may find customers (leisure or work) Channels customers use to access information and interact Interests and life aspirations
Persona Profile Sticky notes: 2 colors
The social impact organization Reboot created a series of user personas as part of an ethnographic research study to support program managers at a bilateral aid agency in using data more effectively. The team needed to understand what kinds of data were required and the reasons current data practices were insufficient. However, they wanted to understand these issues from the viewpoint of the program managers themselves.
Reboot created low-fidelity user personas – rough drafts that could be made quickly (as opposed to polished, high-fidelity materials shared with people outside the research process). Written on 3- x 2-foot paper sheets, the format made it easier for the team to collaborate as they organized details and sorted evidence across more than 40 interviews.
USE IT WHEN
USE IT TO
• Before you begin the Starting with Your Customers section of the CGAP Customer Experience Toolkit • Before you go into research planning and want to get more tactical about your outreach strategy for qualitative research
• Organize your data collection for specific stakeholders or target customers
Reference: Reboot – An Inside Look at Design Tools in Development Work User Personas in Context 90
Show the Impact of Your Prototype Organizations often wait until they have a fairly developed product before gathering reactions and interest through customer testing. But a low-resolution prototype is a cost-effective way to test your concept, gauge its value to
customers, and uncover their perceptions about specific features. Prototyping is a great way to tangibly ground your ideas and elicit feedback from your audience.
There are numerous ways to build a low-resolution prototype that tests your initial assumptions. It may even take less than three hours!
Identify concepts you’d like to understand more deeply. To illustrate your idea more completely, determine the components you’d like to test using a storyboard or concept map (e.g., a rewards program with many components: kiosk sign-up, rewards structure, mobile).
Low-resolution prototypes can take many forms: mock-up marketing posters, paper interface “screens,” or even a cardboard desk with faux staff. Choose a simple approach that fits your concept and create questions to evaluate interactions with sample users.
Building a prototype Paper prototype: 2-3 hours High-resolution prototype: 2-3 days
Group of 3-4 When testing: 1 facilitator (role playing) 1 note taker 1 photographer
Testing Spread activities over 2 days
Put your concept into action with real users. Ask them to “test” the product, messages, and key features. Have them articulate their thought process aloud or explain their understanding of features back to you after the experience. Record and debrief each interaction.
MATERIALS Online resources for mobile prototyping (mockups, POP 2.0)
EXPERIMENTS IN ACTION: TIGO CASH, GHANA Tigo Cash launched its mobile money service in Ghana in 2010. But by 2012, only a fraction of its over 1 million registered subscribers actively used the service and the company struggled to gain momentum. In 2013 Tigo Cash, IDEO.org, and CGAP set out to better understand how to improve the customer value proposition – and the larger issue of engagement with mobile money among low-income Ghanaians as well. The project’s prototyping phase lasted two weeks. At the workshop, the team defined planning and logistics for three live prototypes. They began by splitting up the team and figuring out logistics before going out in the field.
The Traveling Kiosk Prototype Concept: A dedicated, consistent Tigo Cash customer service presence in communities. The kiosk is a live, in-person physical installation, i.e., a table with a banner or a van set up near a Tigo Cash agent. The kiosk provides educational information, try-on experiences, support, and referrals to the local Tigo Cash agent for transactions and usage. Three prototypes were tested live: Traveling Kiosk, Video Tools, and Star Promoters were all done on the spot – in the street or with a Tigo Cash representative approaching potential customers without pre-arranged interviews. The Traveling Kiosk was set up at a busy intersection; the team measured how many people walked up to it, what kinds of questions they asked, etc.
USE IT WHEN
USE IT TO
• You already have a concept and want to learn how people react to it • You want to add a specific feature to a product or service • You’re crafting a communications or outreach campaign
• Learn where value lies for customers • Test how easy it is for people to use your product or service (and challenges they face) • Learn how customers use your product or service • Understand which features are missing and which can be excluded
“It’s one thing to say, ‘ok, I understand my customer’…and another thing to actually go make something and try it out.” IDEO.org 93
Check Your Assumptions When undertaking customer experience projects, it’s always good to keep your assumptions in check.
Use this simple test to spark reflection and dialogue. For each of the following questions, answer “true” or “false”:
USE IT WHEN
USE IT TO
• Before you begin Customer Experience Toolkit Chapter 3: Planning and Taking Action, be sure to cover the basics concepts in Chapter 2: Starting with Your Customers
• Challenge your current knowledge on the use of tools to learn about your customers
QUESTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Customer experience is all about marketing: Customer experience revolves only around a product: Secondary research is enough to understand customer experience: Qualitative research is not enough to understand customer research – in fact, any research that’s not statistically significant is not worth anything: There’s no way 8-10 interviews can give enough information to understand customer experience at the organization: Experts are required to carry out qualitative research: Why listen to the customer? Steve Jobs of Apple said customers don’t know what they want: Customer experience requires a shift to a culture that rewards staff for solving customer problems and deepening customer relationships: A journey map can be generated to describe the desired experience for a new offering:
“Design is more than the aesthetics and artifacts associated with products; it’s a strategic function that focuses on what people want and need and dream of, then crafts experiences across the full brand ecosystem that are meaningful and relevant for customers.” Mauro Porcini, Chief Design Officer, PepsiCo
Scope Your Project Budgets and priorities often shift. When taking on customer experience projects, be mindful of lean
and thoughtful project management. This tool will help you embrace your resourceful side.
1 facilitator Team
Choose one of the three following project timelines that grabs your attention: • Light effort: 1-3 weeks • Medium effort: 4-8 weeks • High effort: 2-3 months
Think of a potential idea, customer challenge, customer opportunity, or existing project you’d like to address with your team. Plan a set of activities for each phase (use the Project Planner on page 36 as a reference).
Include roles for each activity, timeline and budget for research, and tools or methods to be used.
USE IT WHEN
USE IT TO
• As soon as you present your opportunity brief and want to get your team into the mindset of projects with quick turaround and rapid testing, so they know how to manage and plan for resources
• Practice how to scope a project – or simply a research plan that involves qualitative research
“We called it radical collaboration. That idea that working side by side in a compressed time frame in low-fidelity artifacts. That inevitable changes the discussion.” Doug Powell, IBM
Align Your Team Values EXPERIMENTS IN ACTION: MADHYA PRADESH, INDIA What makes you do what you do? This value mapping tool enables you to describe the values embodied in your personal work and in the wider organization. Values are probably more influential than anything else in shaping what you do. They may be something you take for granted, that you believe is obvious, or
something you’ve never actually articulated or written down. Defined values can be very useful in trying to explain your work to colleagues and partners. Once team values are defined they can be shared; they act as a common reference point to simplify and speed up decisions, and ensure consistency in the work your team accomplishes.
for each team member (see
(ten or more) in each relevant
complete the same exercise. Once
Reference, page 99). Start by
field on the template. Swap them
all templates have been defined,
individually writing down on a
around until you feel they’re in
together you can establish which
piece of paper (or sticky note)
the right place. To focus your
values are important to the
what you feel is most valuable
activities, place a maximum of
organization as a whole.
for yourself as well as your
five in the “always important”
organization. Make sure each
Print a value mapping template
Place a wide range of values
Ask other team members to
team member first makes a personal value map.
Collective exercise 1 facilitator (optional – for introducing and guiding the exercise)
A technical support leader for the government health team in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh identified that her team was stuck in a rut. They were resistant to change, yet exhausted by the day-to-day challenges of government protocol. The technical support leader used the value mapping tool to identify core values on the individual and organizational level that could bring much wanted change to the way the system operated. The idea was to try “change management” so resources could be used to more productively deliver services to citizens.
The team drew up an annual work plan that covered human resource and organizational development dimensions. Compartmentalizing values into four neat boxes was easier said than done, but in reality the values overlapped on the individual and organizational levels. Although there were shifts in position, personnel, and policy, a common thread was detected. After the exercise, outputs were shared with government partners, which helped pave the way for buy-in for upcoming health projects and needed systems changes.
USE IT WHEN
USE IT TO
• A change in management is underway that may affect your team dynamic, and you want to ensure that team members are aware of how changes may align (or not) with their individual values
• Expedite decision-making at critical moments by aligning on commonly agreedupon values that work as guiding principles throughout your project
Value mapping template Sticky notes
Reference: The DIY Toolkit (Nesta) Value Mapping Tool 98
Storyboard Your Idea A storyboard is an easy way to robustly illustrate an offering idea within the life of your organization and its customers.
Storyboards provide details on users, flow, interactions, and dependencies, and act as early stage mock-ups or prototypes.
illustrate and imagine what the
user’s experience in context. Don’t
team for review. What does it reveal
experience might look like over
worry about your artistic abilities –
about your idea? Are key steps
time. It’s helpful to think through
think of comic strip panels and keep
missing or can they be expressed
the lens of a story: Where does
your sketches rough (a sticky note
differently? What works (or doesn’t)
the interaction take place? What
makes a great frame). Title each
within the storyboard, and what
specific challenge is being tackled?
scene and write a short caption
are the implications for the design
Who are the main characters?
that describes what’s occurring.
of your concept? Note: storyboards
What tools do they use? Break
(If you’re feeling ambitious, add
can illustrate services, products,
down steps and key moments
relevant dialogue to create a deeper
of your story into a beginning,
understanding of your characters
middle, and end.
and their interactions.) Limit your
Identify the concept you want to
Illustrate key moments of your
EXPERIMENTS IN ACTION: DESIGN IMPACT GROUP, CHILE / INDONESIA In 2015, a large foundation engaged Design Impact Group, the Dalberg social impact design practice, to develop and test interventions that secure the livelihood of artisanal fishermen and support their transition to sustainability in Chile and Indonesia. One intervention involved enrolling them in branchless banking services to provide savings and loans products tailored to the unique demands of small-scale fishing while incentivizing a transition to sustainable gear.
into storyboards that illuminated relevant interactions. For example, how do fishermen learn about the program? How do they set up an account? What does their first use look like? How are fishermen retained in the program? These interactions were mapped individually so the team could test variables such as the best stakeholder to act as a branchless banking agent; appropriate loan size and interest levels; and the right frequency and channel for loan repayments.
The concept involved novel systems and new behaviors for the fishermen and other stakeholders. Because of its complexity, storyboarding was an essential part of the process. Storyboards helped align the team, provided clarity on concepts, and were used as prompts to gather the first round of feedback from fishermen.
Storyboards were crucial for prioritizing and making tough decisions about where to spend resources in prototyping and concept development. After sketching out an online buyers’ platform, the team realized that it fell outside the scope and capacities of the partner organizations to implement. Storyboarding was crucial to accelerating in-field prototyping and ultimately honing the sustainable gear concept.
Share your storyboard with your
The team started by creating a visual map of the new concept and breaking it down
storyboard to 4-6 scenes.
USE IT WHEN
USE IT TO
1 facilitator 2-4 participants
Paper (half sheets) Sticky notes Pens Tape
• You’ve finished brainstorming and identified ideas you want to understand better • You’re trying to decide what to prototype and test in the field with actual users
• Explore and refine your concept with your team • Explain your idea to a stakeholder • Conceptually test and refine an idea to better understand how it works in context
Energy Barometer for Weekly Check-ins Managing a project can be tough work, especially if it involves going against everyday norms. Use this simple technique to gauge the
positive (or negative) energy of your team, and channel it toward productive work on a regular basis.
tone. Sit in a circle or horseshoe
team using a “fist-to-five” energy
share the thinking behind their
shape at a table in front of a white
barometer exercise. Ask everyone
rating. To stoke conversation, ask
board, or simply in a ring of chairs.
to think for a moment how they’d
them for a high point, a low point,
As you open the conversation, set
rate their feelings around the
and a learning from the past week.
expectations that the purpose of
team’s work (over the past one or
Dive deeper into discussion, noting
the check-in is to make space for
two weeks) on a scale of zero to
commonalities and differences.
open and honest reflection on the
five. Invite team members to hold
Note issues that may require follow-
team’s energy, interactions, feelings,
up the corresponding number of
up, for example, a conflict may
and progress – not for project
fingers to share their ratings with
call for a mediating conversation;
the group – zero (fist: very low
a project issue may require a
energy/negative outlook) to all five
planning session; or overwhelming
(very high energy/positive outlook) .
positivity may be cause for
Gather your team and set the
Briefly take the temperature of the
20-40 minutes every 1-2 weeks is recommended – depends on the size of your team and where you are in the process
1 facilitator Participants
None required, however, you may record the conversation using a white board, sticky notes, or notebook
Have each team member briefly
USE IT WHEN
USE IT TO
• You want to set norms for weekly or bi-weekly check-ins. (You may extend or build on this exercise for mid-point check-in dialogues that incorporate other discussion prompts) • You’re gauging the working relationships of new partners and stakeholders
• Create a safe place for all members to share their perspectives and solicit help • Build a habit of reflection and proactive resolution within your team • Foster positive team dynamics
Make a Video, Show Your Impact Sharing an “aha!” moment as a story can bring the impact of your work to life. Create a oneor two-minute video with your camera phone to show the impact to your peers. We often get lost in numbers and charts, thinking this is the best way to showcase results. But while data is
important, sharing stories of people is another powerful way to leave an impression and resonate with your audience. In fact, you’ve probably already shared a moment of realization (when the impact of your work dawned on you) with a customer or your team.
Brainstorm and recall moments of realization that you and your team had. Think how you’d like to capture one of those moments.
Make a four- or five-step storyboard that plans the shots you’d like to capture in your video.
Keep it simple. Focus on the story – not the execution. Some tips to spark your imagination and keep it simple: • Interview a customer or employer you worked with • Create a photo sequence from the field, with captions and background music • Role play with your team
Individual or group of 2: (1 fixer – logistics, and 1 cameraperson)
Video function from your phone
USE IT WHEN
USE IT TO
• You want to share the impact of your work internally • You’re trying to make the case for an organization
• Get people excited • Share the process across your organization and gain buy-in to scale up product development or tested prototypes
“The real danger is that we get caught in the words of customer centricity. We need to connect to [customer experience] in a personal way. The best way to make [customer experience] come alive is through stories.” Ramesh Ramanathan, Janalakshmi, India
Launch a Customer Council To better understand how a portfolio of offerings holds up, test it with a Customer Council. Over time, use this champion group
to better understand customer preferences, brand impressions, and market direction.
Identify your purpose
Meet and cultivate meaningfully
When does your team wish they
There are many ways to build your
Time is a valuable resource, and
had customers they could turn to
Customer Council, but don’t be
everyone wants to ensure that
for feedback? What geographic
afraid to start small (or big). Try:
their time and opinions are used
regions, business challenges, or
open applications from customers,
respectfully. Schedule Customer
markets are most salient to your
open recommendations from
Council meetings with scoped
immediate work? As a group,
local branches or agents, outreach
topics or activities – and clear
identify 1-3 ways you want to
using customer data, or cold calls
expectations. Ideas include:
incorporate customers into your
to identify core targets.
• Focus group by segment issue
business, product development
areas (e.g., affording education,
cycle, or marketing.
understanding next generation
DIY value mapping template (see Reference below)
USE IT WHEN
USE IT TO
• Any time during the process
• Get customer perspective on how well your products and services are integrated • Better serve customer needs • Get potential ideas on improving your products and services or simply communicating their value and benefits better
workforce needs, entrepreneur and mother, etc.) • Early stage product idea review and testing • Brand review
Reference: The DIY Toolkit (Nesta) Value Mapping Tool
Create Insights Cards How do you communicate the voice of your customer in high-level meetings? Insights cards are tools that cleverly address that moment at a meeting when you sense
the customer focus getting lost. Build insights cards from your work by gathering understandings from personas, needs, and goals.
Collect some quotes from previous experiments that involved direct interaction with customers.
USE IT WHEN
USE IT TO
• As a prompt at board meetings or in “Daily Conversations about Customer Experience”
• Challenge participants’ assumptions at meetings • Course correct when you feel the conversation is shifting to talk about technical breakthroughs as offerings, rather than addressing customer behaviors
Write one quote on a blank piece of cardboard and use it as an insights card.
EXPERIMENTS IN ACTION: BRADESCO, BRAZIL During a customer centricity design project with Bradesco, one of Brazil’s largest financial service providers, the team performed an exercise that tested managers’ assumptions about customers. At a board meeting, the team showed managers photos of people who’d been interviewed and very basic profiles about them (male/female, age, where they lived).
Managers were then asked whether they thought customers owned their homes, liked technology, liked savings, had credit cards, were literate/illiterate, etc. Results were quite interesting because most assumptions and knowledge of lower-income customers in Recife, Brazil, were ultimately tested.
Build Your Customer Experience Knowledge Base A curated set of reference and resource materials to build your internal knowledge base and increase the impact of customer experience within your organization. Ideal for those looking to dive deeper into a particular area of customer experience, or for more advanced practitioners.
In crafting tools and experiments for this guide, we reference a variety of robust reports and toolkits, occasionally reimagining their tools through the lens of financial services in a developing context.
Becoming a customer-centric organization that delivers robust customer experience requires a new way of thinking and doing. We recommend these additional resources to spark creativity and collaboration within your organization.
Business Challenges Booklet CGAP: https://www.cgap.org/publications/business-challenges-booklet
Business Model Generation
Can a Good Customer Experience for the Poor Benefit Business?
CGAP blog post: http://www.cgap.org/blog/5-ways-improve-customer-experience-poor
Customer Experience Toolkit
Insights into Action
CGAP’s primer on the role human-centered design plays in financial inclusion. This collection is a go-to for illustrative case studies, as well as core insights and principles to drive financial access and innovation for low-income populations.
Building off their work on a customer-centric design toolkit, ideo.org’s collection of design tools lives in an online format to help your pick and choose methodologies that best fit your situation. This kit has helpful resources around field research, ideation, and prototyping.
Designing Customer-Centric Branchless Banking Offerings
Collective Action Toolkit
This collection of tools is perfect for empowering your team around creative problem solving. Specifically created by frog to apply design frameworks in non-design situations, it’s helpful in establishing the building blocks for productive collaboration.
A toolkit to empower innovation in the development space created by Nesta, with the support of the Rockefeller Foundation. Human language and simple, downloadable worksheets make it easy to use and very applicable to organizational challenges.
Customer Segmentation Toolkit
Design for Libraries Toolkit
CGAP brief report: http://www.cgap.org/publications/designing-customer-centric-branchless-banking-offerings
DIY Toolkit: Development Impact & You
Selected methods from the DIY Toolkit (Nesta): Value Mapping, Prioritization Model, 2013: http://diytoolkit. org/tools/value-mapping-3/
Insights Into Action: What Human Centered Design Means for Financial Inclusion. CGAP: http://www.cgap.org/sites/default/files/CGAP_Insights_into_Action_final.pdf
Janalakshmi Customer Experience Playbook
Satisfaction Survey: https://www.microfinancegateway.org/library/customer-experience-playbook
Learning from Customer Centricity in Other Industries
Reboot – An Inside Look at Design Tools in Development Work User Personas in Context: http://reboot.org/2015/06/18/user-personas-in-context
5 Ways to Improve Customer Experience for the Poor CGAP blog post: http://www.cgap.org/blog/5-ways-improve-customer-experience-poor
IN CONSULTATION WITH