Customer Segmentation Toolkit - CGAP

Customer Segmentation Toolkit - CGAP

CUSTOMER SEGMENTATION TOOLKIT INTRODUCTION How To Use This Segmentation Toolkit Table of Contents Follow the decision tree to see how much you ma...

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CUSTOMER SEGMENTATION TOOLKIT

INTRODUCTION

How To Use This Segmentation Toolkit

Table of Contents

Follow the decision tree to see how much you may already know about customer segmentation. Your knowledge level will lead you to path A, B, C, or D. That path will then guide you through the toolkit elements that can benefit your organization the most. START HERE

Quite confident.

How experienced are you with customer research and segmentation?

Somewhat, or not very experienced. No, really. How well do you know your customers? How well do you know the market you’re considering segmenting?

Somewhat, or not very experienced. Could learn more!

How interested are you in learning more?

Not very interested. I’m more concerned with other issues and projects.

Like the back of my hand.

Do you have any resources for conducting a segmentation effort?

Interested. Tell me more.

Yes I’m interested! I have some budget but not much time.

Maybe I could dig a bit deeper.

Yes I’m interested! I have time but not much budget.

I know my customers really well. I’m not sure what this toolkit can teach me that I don’t already know.

A

B

C

D

Path A offers a few basics to keep in mind for later.

Some external expertise might really help your organization. Follow path B for timesaving options.

There are some great ways to pick up knowledge without high costs. Follow path C for low-cost options.

Skim the toolkit along path D. You may find a few tips and tricks you’ll like.

If you have both time and budget, consider looking over the entire toolkit.

INTRODUCTION

1

MAKING THE CASE

4

A

B

C

FINDING THE STARTING POINT

13

A

B

C

SEGMENTATION PROCESS

20

Step 1: Define Your Objective

21

B

C

Step 2: Pick Your Population

23

B

C

Step 3: Brainstorm

25

A

B

C

Step 4: Conduct Informal Qualitative Research

29

A

Step 5: Dig into Existing Data

30

Step 6: Develop Hypothesis Segmentation

34

Step 7a: Conduct Additional Research

36

B

Step 7b: Engage a Market Research Firm (optional)

38

B

Step 8: Refine and Finalize Segmentation

42

B

Step 9: Showcase Your Results

45

B

C

Step 10: Apply Your Findings

47

B

C

Step 11: Track and Measure

49

B

C

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

50

SOURCES

52

D

D

D

C C

A

C

D

D

D

1

Resources

INTRODUCTION

Introduction

Look for these icons throughout the toolkit. Each indicates more in-depth information on a subject or helpful resources.

Case Studies Learn from Other Organizations Evidence of the value of customer segmentation from financial service providers who’ve invested in this approach and methods.

Experiments Put Customer Segmentation into Action Practical exercises that help you get closer to your customers and add segmentation as a core competency. Many of these experiments can be done in as little as an hour or two.

References Build Your Customer Segmentation Knowledge Base Curated research and reference materials that build your internal knowledge base and increase the impact of customer segmentation within your organization.

Tools Plan and Execute Customer Segmentation Activities Robust tools that help you integrate and manage customer segmentation initiatives within your organization – including project planning tools, key frameworks, and design methods.

Traditionally, financial service providers have considered low-income consumers as a single segment. Microfinance institutions were formed specifically to target this segment – historically with a monoproduct offering. But some financial service providers have begun to see more potential in the segment while others still wonder what steps to take toward understanding it. Customer research such as the Financial Diaries and other demand studies show that the low-income or mass market is not one single segment; people’s worries, wants, needs, and behaviors are nuanced. Customer segmentation allows organizations to divide a market into subsets of customers that have, or are perceived to have, common needs, interests, and priorities – then design and implement strategies targeted toward them. An essential tool, segmentation helps organizations serve low-income markets by understanding important common characteristics of their customer base, which can make the difference between an underutilized service and one that resonates with customers. Segmentation also allows financial service providers who’ve previously only focused on high-value customers to focus their energy on other value segments. The growth in the number of organizations that offer services to the poor shows that this opportunity is real. This Customer Segmentation Toolkit provides practical guidance on how to use segmentation to better serve the needs of your customers and improve customer experience overall. Despite increases in access, there are still poor households that don’t have access to a full range of financial services. Segmentation unlocks opportunities for innovation that can offer value to both customers and providers. THIS CUSTOMER SEGMENTATION TOOLKIT IS DESIGNED FOR: • Organizations with a strong interest in or a mandate to serve low-income and mass market customers. • Financial service providers with business challenges that may be addressed by a more nuanced understanding of their customers. • A wide range of senior leadership, mid-level managers, researchers, and analysts interested in customer segmentation. It provides summaries, tools, links, and other details.

2

INTRODUCTION

3

Customer segmentation reveals nuances in demographics, attitudes, and behaviors. These difference may help you identify where your products and services can fill unmet needs and provide the most value to you and your customers.

A bird’s-eye view of the market may tell you there’s an overall opportunity but provides no insight into various customer needs or who to focus on.

This example looks at the market for financial services in a large unbanked population:

When you begin to divide a market by key customer characteristics, big differences in customer value reveal themselves. The pie chart below illustrates a segmentation exercise applied to transportation demographics. Each “pie slice” represents an opportunity area. Slices 2 and 4 elaborate specific details uncovered in the segmentation.

Number of People VOLUME = TOTAL MARKET OPPORTUNITY

Market Value: $18.75M Average Opportunity: $25 per year Number of People: 750K

Average Opportunity

Average Opportunity

TOTAL MARKET OPPORTUNITY = ~$100M The market (5M people) seems to be interested in a variety of products – from current accounts and small loans to savings products. Some people are served by the competition, but a large portion (40 percent) are currently not served by any financial institution at all.

INTRODUCTION

GROUP CHARACTERISTICS • Need for financial transactions for their moderately successful businesses • 20 percent are currently unbanked

2

1

3 5

ADAPTED MESSAGING Appeal to efficiency (time and cost savings)

4

Number of People VOLUME = TOTAL MARKET OPPORTUNITY

Market Value: $6.25M Average Opportunity: $10 per year Number of People: 625K Not a target due to segment size and low average opportunity per customer

4

A

B

C

D

5

A

B

C

Why Conduct a Segmentation? Customer segmentation can help you divide a diverse market into a number of smaller, more homogeneous markets based on one or more meaningful characteristics. Segmentation helps you better understand your customers and their various needs and wants. This chapter elaborates on how segmentation can help: A. Improve your understanding of current and potential customers B. Address business challenges and opportunities C. Identify and estimate market opportunities D. Tailor products, services, and customer experiences E. Shape communications The scope of your segmentation strategy depends on the maturity of your organization, the diversity of your market, your timeline, and budget.

1

MAKING THE CASE CGAP Photo Contest. Photo by Wirawan. 2015

D

A

6

B

C

D

A. Improve Your Understanding of Current and Potential Customers “When you engage with your customers and are open with them, you earn their trust, they give you feedback, and you can establish an iterative process for co-innovation.” – Director of Consumer Insights, Unilever You may be surprised to hear the variety of opinions your customers have about your organization and your offerings. In essence, this is the goal of consumer insights – to understand the “voice of the customer.”

Transaction and sales data may be interesting for trend analysis, but it won’t tell you why your customers behave certain ways or what they may do in the future.

D

Segmentation can help address the following challenges and opportunities:

CHALLENGE

OPPORTUNITY

Increase customer awareness

Expand customer base

Reduce dormancy

Increase uptake of products and services Improve customer value proposition

RETENTION

Increase customer loyalty

Increase customer lifetime value

EXPANSION

Save for stagnant growth

Enter a new market Launch a new product or service

USE

In 2012, Bank BTPN launched BTPN WOW!, a mobile savings wallet designed for basic cell phones and geared toward low-income Indonesians. Although already focused on and serving 1.4M mass market customers, BTPN wanted to tailor the offering through deeper customer knowledge. With the help of CGAP, frog design, and Dalberg Development Advisors, they launched a research project.

C

You probably agree that increased customer knowledge is of value to your organization. A better understanding of the needs and wants of current and potential customers may be the key to addressing current challenges and unlocking new market opportunities.

ACQUISITION

IMPROVING CUSTOMER UNDERSTANDING THROUGH RESEARCH

B

B. Address Business Challenges and Opportunities

Above all, customer segmentation and research allows your organization to improve the value proposition and experiences you offer customers through a better understanding of their actual needs and desires.

Case Study: Bank BTPN, Indonesia

A

7

For more details on choosing a business objective for your segmentation, see pages 21 and 22.

The team interviewed 70+ customers, agents, and experts in the first round of research. Synthesized learnings resulted in the development of five relevant personas – representations of individuals based on attitudes, interactions, psychological profiles, aspirations, behaviors, and standard demographics. BTPN leadership remarked that this was the first time they’d seen their customer base represented in such a human way. Targeting the new product to the right kind of customers influenced the way it was rolled out.

A bus driver counts his money, Indonesia. Photo by frog design. 2013

B

C

A

8

D

C. Identify and Estimate Market Opportunities

A

9

B

C

Experiments WHAT’S THE POTENTIAL OF THE UNBANKED CUSTOMERS IN YOUR MARKET?

Two billion people around the world – more than half the adult population – are currently unbanked.1 Reaching even a small portion of this market offers significant potential. Segmentation helps identify potential customers with the greatest unmet needs and the most willingness to adopt your products and services. Once you identify specific segments you can estimate the size of the market opportunity to be gained by better serving them and prioritize resources accordingly. Consider the case study below about UBL Bank in Pakistan. Segmentation allowed the bank to estimate the size of various customer segments and the opportunity to serve diverse needs.

Download the Excel workbook (link below), and adjust the sample inputs to see the potential size of your market. You may be surprised at how significant it is!

DATA INPUTS Gender

Indonesia

Select country

Age Group

Do not have an account because…

Education

Y

N ANY

Male

15-25

Primary or less

Female

26-35

Secondary

…too far away

36-45

University or greater

…too expensive

46-60 60+

…lack documentation …lack trust …lack money …religious reasons

Case Study: UBL Bank, Pakistan

…family member already has one

LOOKING AT THE UN(DER)BANKED MARKET UBL Bank carried out customer segmentation based on: • Customer knowledge and use of financial services

ASSUMPTIONS

• Customer trust in formal financial institutions • Degree to which customers save In the table below, the Heavy User and Early Adopter segments represent the highest per household market opportunity and demonstrate the greatest willingness to use UBL’s products and services. This segmentation allowed the bank to identify the largest market opportunities and tailor value propositions to best meet customer needs.

% of relevant unbanked market attained Revenue earned per person, per year

OUTPUTS 20% $20.00

Overall Market Average Early Adopter

141,551,765

Relevant unbanked population

24,214,300

Attained unbanked population

1,210,715

Potential Revenue $24,214,300

Heavy User

Opportunity per Household

Total unbanked population

Moderate Interest

Traditionalist

Households

C

Super Saver

To complete this experiment for your country or to customize inputs, download the full Excel workbook.

D

A

10

B

C

D

A

11

D. Tailor Products, Services, and Experiences

E. Shape Communications

“Any customer can have a car painted any color that he wants, so long as it is black.” – Henry Ford, 1908

In the same way that products, services, and experiences can be designed to fit target segments, messaging may be adjusted as well. From mass campaigns to text messages to the language that tellers use at the point of transaction, communications can be tailored to particular customer groups.

Henry Ford’s bold statement was accurate; his product was so revolutionary that customer segmentation was not initially important. But as the market matured, it was time to identify market segments and start adjusting product to the needs of various users. Cars with extra space and greater durability were built for farmworkers. More luxurious models were designed for those seeking prestige. Fast forward to today and consider the many models now available to meet the market’s diverse needs and preferences.

A key aspect of any product or service is the customer experience attached to it. In interviews with customers about the process they went through to transfer money, people described their experience and defined “good” customer service in a variety of ways. Traders, for example, were very impressed with the PIN security function and confirmation of SMS transactions. On the other hand, businesspeople were more interested in the prestige of the service and amenities like a comfortable waiting area, potentially with wifi.

Centenary Bank in Uganda was excited to launch a new mobile bank offering, but their generic campaign had achieved mediocre success.

B

C

D

Upon completion of a segmentation exercise, the campaign message, “Take your bank everywhere,” was replaced with advertisements specifically tailored to each segment identified. Centenary Bank used the ads to clearly communicate the value of the product to target customers and distinguish itself from the competition. The bank’s combined go-to-market efforts saw 38,000 users make 130,000 transactions within the first four months of launch.

.

Case Study: Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation, China

Case Study: Centenary Bank, Uganda

TARGETING THE YOUTH MARKET

GO-TO-MARKET MESSAGING LESSONS

Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation (OCBC) identified Generation Y as a segment they wanted to target. What was next? The bank dove wholeheartedly into in-depth customer research to identify new ways to shape their offerings. As David McQuillen, OCBC Head of Group Customer Experience, put it, “We hung out with them at malls, ate dinner with them, went shopping and clubbing with them, and spent a lot of time looking in their wallets and talking about money.”

Without segmentation, Centenary Bank’s “Take your bank everywhere” messaging was generic and did not resonate strongly with customers:

But once the bank used segmentation to understand their target customers, they were able to tailor messaging to address some of the pain points uncovered by customer research:

Some changes OCBC made for the youth market: • Removed fees for customers under 26 • Offered savings “jars’”with customizable names so customers could save specifically for their “new iPad” or a “trip to Bali” • Offered 100+ card designs so customers could personalize their experience • Changed the in-person experience so special bank branches looked more like a retail environment (i.e., an Apple store) than a standard bank • Simplified the website to streamline online interactions Three years in, increased sign-ups and evidence that the product is being used in many places makes this case a positive example of how to market to youth.

“Access Your Salary” Salaried workers wanted to withdraw money in smaller amounts more regularly, not just all at once.

“Make Payments Directly from Your Account” The youth market wanted to spend less time in long bank queues and receive funds from relatives more easily.

“Save Time and Transportation Costs” The business community wanted to save time by not having to travel to a bank to handle daily transactions.

A

12

B

C

D

13

A

B

A Final Note: Debunking Segmentation Myths By now you’re probably convinced of the value of segmentation – but you may still have a few reservations. Let’s dispel some common myths:

SEGMENTATION COSTS TOO MUCH. Segmentation doesn’t have to cost a lot. There are several ways your organization can produce great results with few resources, including focusing on information that’s already gathered and readily available. If you decide to make a large investment in segmentation, return can be quite high. But even a small upfront budget can help ensure the success of a new product launch and improve customer retention in the long run.

SEGMENTATION IS TOO COMPLICATED. WE DON’T NEED IT. The segmentation process may appear to be complex and it may seem easier just to replicate solutions that worked in other markets. But, for example, the experience of mobile network operators trying to apply the M-pesa money transfer model to other countries provides more than half a dozen reasons why the copy-cat approach may not work well. This toolkit lays out and describes the steps to segmentation in a practical way, including tools and templates that simplify the process.

SEGMENTATION IS AN ACADEMIC EXERCISE AND DOESN’T WORK IN PRACTICE. Although there are cases where organizations produce segmentations that are too complex for their needs, poor execution of a good tool is not a reason to shy away from it. Segmentation can be a great success if you: 1. Keep business objectives clear and focused. Don’t overreach. 2. Don’t completely outsource to a market research firm. Use your expertise to guide the segmentation. 3. Ensure buy-in by keeping key stakeholders involved in the process.

2

FINDING THE STARTING POINT

C

14

A

B

C

Where Should You Start?

A

15

1

B

C

Does It Make Sense to Do a Segmentation Exercise Now?

This chapter helps you navigate some important issues and identify a starting point in the segmentation process. Take the following quiz. Circle your responses, then add up your points to see where you fall on the scale at the bottom of the page.

1

Does it make sense to do a segmentation now?

2

Based on your current situation, do you need a formal or informal segmentation?

3

Who should be involved in the segmentation process?

DISAGREE

UNSURE

AGREE

We’re facing serious business challenges that could be addressed through a better understanding of existing customers

0 points

1 point

2 points

We believe there are a significant number of potential customers to serve

0 points

1 point

2 points

Currently, we don’t have a strong understanding of our customers or their needs

0 points

1 point

2 points

Management fully supports a segmentation exercise

0 points

1 point

2 points

We’re willing to commit a certain amount of resources to complete a segmentation exercise well

0 points

1 point

2 points

We’re ready and capable of adapting product offerings and communications to different customer groups

0 points

1 point

2 points

Should we take on a customer segmentation now?

CGAP Photo Contest. Photo by Relativo. 2015

0-4 points

5-8 points

9-12 points

NOT REALLY. Wait and revisit these questions in 6-12 months.

YES. Consider a more informal process (see following page).

DEFINITELY. Conduct a formal segmentation (see following page).

A

16

2

B

C

A

17

B

C

Formal vs. Informal Segmentation

Formal Segmentation

STEP

1

STEP

2

STEP

3

STEP

4

STEP

5

Ideally, segmentation is an ongoing process where insights feed back into evaluating business objectives

STEP

6

STEP

7a

STEP

7b

STEP

8

STEP

9

STEP

10

STEP

11

compared with

Informal Segmentation

Formal Segmentation

STEP

Define Your Objective

1

STEP

Pick Your Population

2

STEP

Brainstorm

3

STEP

Conduct Informal Qualitative Research

4

STEP

Dig into Existing Data Develop Hypothesis Segmentation Conduct Additional Research

5

Ideally, segmentation is an ongoing process where insights feed back into evaluating business objectives

STEP

6

compared with

Informal Segmentation

Define Your Objective Pick Your Population Brainstorm Conduct Informal Qualitative Research Dig into Existing Data Develop Hypothesis Segmentation Conduct Additional Research

Engage a Market Resarch Firm (optional)

Engage a Market Resarch Firm (optional)

Refine and Finalize Segmentation

Refine and Finalize Segmentation

Showcase Your Results Apply Your Findings

Track and Measure

STEP

9

STEP

10

STEP

11

Showcase Your Results Apply Your Findings

Track and Measure

18

Viewing segmentation as a clean, linear process can be misleading. Very few (if any) segmentation projects that CGAP has taken part in have progressed through the steps in perfect order. It’s wise to revisit your assumptions and decisions frequently. Are you sure your business objective makes sense? Is it too aggressive – or not aggressive enough? Maybe your initial hypothesis needs to be revisited after you’ve completed some research. Take your time. Remember that revisiting decisions is not a negative, it’s a step toward making the end result more useful. Often, you’ll decide to further divide segments into subsegments.

A

B

C

3

B

C

Who Should Be Involved in the Segmentation Process?

At this point, identify the people who are crucial to your segmentation outcome and bring them in. The table below lists functional groups and their potential segmentation roles. Consider the functions of your own team and decide whether they should be a part of the exercise. If your organization is small and doesn’t include all these functions, think about which team members may take on the general roles a segmentation requires. AT A MINIMUM You’ll need a project lead from strategy, marketing, or product development; support from at least one more junior-level person; and high-level buy-in from at least one senior executive.

It’s easy to lose focus. Always revisit your initial assumptions and objectives.

Interviewee prioritizes consumption choices, Kenya. Photo by Continuum. 2013

A

19

FUNCTIONAL GROUP

PLACEMENT IN ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

POTENTIAL ROLE IN SEGMENTATION

Design and User Research

Generally part of product development. Occasionally placed under marketing or an independent department

Include in any exercise, especially if product adjustments are a possibility

Strategy

Generally works closely with CEO

Potentially leads segmentation. Include in any exercise, especially if broad strategic decisions are part of possible outputs

Marketing

Internal department

Potentially leads segmentation. Include in any exercise, especially if broad strategic decisions are part of possible outputs

Product Development

Generally led by a director of product development

Potentially leads segmentation. Include in any exercise, especially if product adjustments are part of possible outputs

Analytics

Generally part of product development, although some serve in marketing and strategy

Include if responsible for segmentation analytics

Sales

Internal department

Include senior-level staff if adjustments to sales process are possible, or if targeting potential outcomes

Information Technology

Internal department

Include if internal systems adjustments are required to track segments or obtain complex data

Customer Support

Internal department

Likely to be helpful as inputs into customer types

20

21

STEP

1

B

C

D

Define Your Objective

Approach Worksheet What are the business objectives you are looking to accomplish with this segmentation effort? Where do they fit on the spectrum of strategic to tactical?

Strategic

Tools

Tactical

Potential questions to think through

Approach Worksheet (cont.)

• What are the main business issues • Are you looking to improve the facing the organization right now? performance of a specific offering? • What are the underlying assumptions • Are you launching a new product and What do you think are thespecific most important characteristics? your organization is currently making need to identify aspects of your about their customers customer base?types fit your business objectives (circle one or two below)? Which segmentation

Describe your business objectives below

DEMOGRAPHIC

Use in situations with low resources/time

What is your target market for this research effort?

ACCOMPANYING WORKSHEETS

Circle the relevant market below

LIFESTYLE (PSYCHOGRAPHIC) Use it when conducting a more exploratory search, ideally in complement with other variables

ATTITUDINAL

BEHAVIORAL

Use when

Use when identifying specific messaging options, product/service or considering opportunities or problems offerings at a more strategic level •  Outline  of  business  objec/ves  and  expected  segmenta/on  type  (from  chapter  2)  

Worksheet considering 3.1 Materials  

•  Results  from  ini/al  data  analyses  and  research   required   Micro/’Niche’  Highly predictive  Identifies•  Mee/ng  agenda    Intuitively of consumer underlying drivers appealing (e.g., small holder behavior and beliefs -farmers Not predictive in Kenya) of - Hard to target, - May not provide behavior may not predict insight for - Hard to target •  Project  Sponsor:  Decision  maker  for  implementa/on  of  segmenta/on  results   behavior messaging •  Project  lead:  Reports  to  the  project  sponsor  and  leads  segmenta/on  effort   •  Other  stakeholders:  Representa/ves  from  one  or  more  of  the  following  func/ons;   Identify characteristics you’re interested in among the following categories •  Organiza/onal  leadership   Suggested   •  Marke/ng/adver/sing   LIFESTYLE A0endees   DEMOGRAPHIC ATTITUDINAL •  Sales   BEHAVIORAL (PSYCHOGRAPHIC) •  Product  design/development   What is the purpose of the effort? •  Finance    Views on need for  Specific product  Hobbies  Age Circle the relevant purpose below •  Research  leads:  People  involved  in  and  responsible  for  research/analyses   offering usage  Religious beliefs  Gender  Similar products  Rationale for  Political views  Income Exploratory Predictive usage usage/non-usage  Interest in new  Education - Or Seeking deeper insight into how “Solving for” a specific desired  Interest in product  Usage intent for technologies  Location populations break out outcome [email protected]   productand  [email protected]  type  [email protected]   features1.  Recap  of  business     Ethnicity    2.  Review  of  r esults  from  [email protected]  data  analysis    session      about your customers? If Exploratory, what are you trying to learn 3.  Brainstorming     that you are testing for? If Predictive, what is/are the outcome(s) •  List  hypotheses  resul/ng  from  ini/al  analysis       •  Poten/al   exercises:  “A  day  in  the  life”  or  “Buying  Process”     Suggested   •  Consolidate  results  and  draP  hypothe/cal  segments,  if  possible  providing  a   Agenda   What types of research do you think will be most important for your work? descrip/ve  name  for  each  group     •  Sense  check  selected segmenta/on  against  objec/ves   Identify research methods you plan on using below (consider the characteristics 4.  Develop  plan  for  [email protected]  hypotheses;  what  [email protected]  needs  to  be  gathered  to   above) either  prove  or  disprove  any  of  the  hypotheses  

Macro

(E.g. Kenya)

Medium  Easy to target

- Notmarket predictive of (e.g, Mass in behavior Kenya)

Describe the population you’re looking to better understand and why you’ve selected it

When completing steps 1, 2, and 3 in this chapter, take advantage of the worksheets provided. Use the worksheets to record decisions, and look back on them to gain clarity moving forward.

Quantitative

Qualitative

 In-depth Interviews  Focus Groups  Ethnography  

 Surveys•  [email protected]  Moderator:  While  having  an  impar/al  moderator  isn’t  required,  we    Customersuggest   data analysis having  this  person  to  make  sure  that  they  are  focused  on  holding  a  good    Conjoint analysis discussion  without  also  having  to  think  about  their  own  contribu/ons  to  the    Max-diff content   •  [email protected]  [email protected]:  We  recommend  really  pushing  your  organiza/on  to   expand  their  op/on  set  here.  It  can  be  easy  to  default  to  standard  op/ons,  but  the   key  characteris/c  might  be  outside  that  list  and  seem  obvious  aPer-­‐the-­‐fact.     •  Hypothesis  [email protected]:  Pushing  yourself  to  form  a  strong  hypothesis  can  make   or  break  the  project.  Focusing  research  is  key.  

 Misc.  Tips  

One of the most critical steps in conducting a customer segmentation is to clearly define your business objectives. The success of your segmentation depends on it. Use steps a, b, and c below to define your objectives.

a

Is it more effective for your organization to focus on broad strategic questions or more tactical issues? Use the questions below to define your priorities.

STRATEGIC

High-level decisions about business direction

3

CUSTOMER SEGMENTATION PROCESS

• What are the main business issues your organization faces right now? Do they center around opportunities – or problems that need to be solved? • Which of these issues is specific to your current or potential customers? • Do you have particular goals regarding current or potential customers? • What are the underlying assumptions your organization currently makes about customers? • Do you need to test those assumptions?

TACTICAL

Specific decisions related to products and services, communications, and operations

• Do you think you need to adjust your offerings or improve messaging? • Do you want to target specific segments that may require adjusting your offerings and messaging? • Do you plan to launch new products and services or expand into new markets? • Are you being challenged by new competition? • Is use or purchasing down for any reason?

22

B

C

D

23

STEP

b

What are your given assumptions about your segmentation exercise? Which parts of your organization‘s strategy are set and cannot be changed (e.g., focus on low-income customers, mobile money products only, etc.)?

2

B

C

Pick Your Population

After selecting your business objective, the next step in a segmentation is to identify a population of current and potential customers to analyze.

c

Form your business objectives by putting together your answers from “a” and “b” above. The challenges and opportunities listed below may match your objectives and are a good place to start a segmentation.

CHALLENGE ACQUISITION USE RETENTION EXPANSION

OPPORTUNITY

Increase customer awareness

Expand customer base

Reduce dormancy

Increase uptake of product offerings Improve customer value proposition

Increase customer loyalty

Increase customer lifetime value

Save for stagnant growth

Enter new markets Launch new products and services

CGAP Photo Contest. Photo by Das. 2015

Think about how your newly specified business objective may influence relevant customers. Would you like your segmentation to be tactical in nature, i.e., focus on specific groups? Or should it be more strategic and benefit from considering a wider population? Do you want to acquire new customers or retain current ones? Your answers to these questions act as guidelines for who to consider. A few other questions to consider: • What’s the total population set that may need your products or services? • Do you want to review all of these populations? • If not, why exclude certain customers? By defining a market, you’re basically performing a rough segmentation or prioritization exercise. These decisions are often linked to simple characteristics like income or geography, but they may also be linked to more complex attributes. Even if you think you know a population, push yourself to challenge your assumptions before you continue.

Bank BTPN, Indonesia. Photo by frog design. 2013

24

B

C

STEP

3

Case Study: Digicel, Haiti

A

25

B

C

D

Brainstorm

CHOOSING A RELEVANT CUSTOMER POPULATION FOR SEGMENTATION As part of their mobile money refresh strategy and to increase users, Digicel ran a customer segmentation. In considering the relevant universe of customers to segment, Digicel mapped out the intersection of all potential customers and customers that currently use their mobile money transfer services. The exercise prompted three questions that you can apply to your own segmentation:

You probably already have an idea of what your customer segments look like. But it‘s important to factor in personal experience and intuition when it comes to forming your segmentation hypotheses. Brainstorming sessions are good way to do this – assuming the right people are in the room and the right questions are asked.

a

What’s the total population set that may need your products and services?

b

Do you want to review all of these populations?

c

If not, why exclude certain customers?

Use the worksheet on page 21 as a starting point for running your meeting. It includes materials to prepare, people to include, a draft agenda, plus tips and recommendations on brainstorming.

EXERCISE 1

BRAINSTORM RELEVANT CUSTOMER CHARACTERISTICS

First, review the segmentation variables listed below and the advantages and disadvantages of each. DEMOGRAPHIC

LIFESTYLE

BEHAVIORAL ATTITUDINAL SPECIFIC TO YOUR OFFERING

GENERAL

All potential customers in Haiti Current Digicel customers Current money transfer customers Digicel decided to focus on their mobile network service customers since they already collected information on this segment’s phone use and behavior, and it was easy to text them about telecom-related promotions. Digicel’s logical next step – and their key business objective – was to expand money transfer services by focusing on the current mobile network operator customers that form a large part of the Haitian adult population.

Non-users of P2P or transfer services Users of P2P or transfer services

Across the Digicel customer base, there were customers who currently did not use formal or informal money transfer services. These customers were de-prioritized to focus research on current users of person-to-person (P2P) or transfer services.

Simple data points often readily available, such as gender, income, geography, etc.

General questions around interests, activities, values, beliefs

Behaviors or practices related to a specific offering

Relevant attitudes, beliefs, or values related to an offering

SAMPLE SEGMENTATIONS • Males living in rural areas • Students with mobile devices • Low-income adults

• Young go-getters • Homemakers • Community influencers

• Easy to understand • Easy to target • Data often readily available

• Intuitively appealing • Fits well with brand messaging

• High loan use, low savings • Repatriation recipients • Traditional savers

• Financial worrier • Rationalist – emotionally removed from financial decision-making

ADVANTAGES • Highly predictive of (current) consumer behavior

• Identifies underlying drivers and beliefs • Provides insight for messaging and advertising

DISADVANTAGES • Not predictive of behavior

• Not predictive of behavior, especially for financial services • Difficult to identify segments

• Does not predict future behavior • May not provide insights for messaging

• Difficult to identify segments • May not predict behavior

WHEN TO USE EACH TYPE Best for simple targeting. Very helpful to combine with other variables.

Use sparingly, ideally in complement with other variables.

Use when trying to understand customer preferences. Best when combined with attitudinal variables.

Use when trying to understand rationale for behaviors. Very powerful for communication. Best when combined with behavioral variables.

Segmentation can be a mix of types of variables. David Meer’s Harvard Business Review article, “Rediscovering Market Segmentation,” offers greater context.

A

26

B

C

D

Now that you have the basics on overall variables, think about which are most relevant to your customers and your situation. Dig into the list below and circle those that apply. Consider advantages and disadvantages from the previous page.

Potential variables to get you started DEMOGRAPHIC

LIFESTYLE GENERAL

BEHAVIORAL ATTITUDINAL SPECIFIC TO YOUR OFFERING

• Age (younger, middle age, older)

• Level of responsibilities / relaxed vs. busy lifestyle

• Financially proactive (saves, budgets)

• Open to learning about new technology

• Location (urban, peri-urban, rural, deep rural)

• Spontaneous vs. planner

• Purchases frequency (personal and business)

• Seeks / highly values cost savings with phone use

• Cell phone use: sends / receives SMS, calls, checks balance, uses USSD menu

• Seeks / highly values promotions with phone use

• Gender (male, female)

• Stressed vs. relaxed • Risk profile

• Children (Yes / No) • Proximity to family members

• “Connected” / social (Yes / No)

• Literacy / numeracy

• Entrepreneur (Yes / No)

• Income / poverty level

• Homemaker (Yes / No)

• International monetary transfer recipient (Yes / No)

• Has many leisure activities / expenses (Yes / No)

• Social transfer beneficiary (Yes / No)

• Social standing

• Level of education

• Proficient with phone (commands, use) • Purchases phone recharge frequently (Yes / No) • Knowledge of money transfers (none, low, medium, high) • Frequency of sending money • Freqency of receiving money

• Employment status • Type of employment / source of income • Frequency of income (daily, monthly, unpredictable) • Has bank account (Yes / No)

• Has national ID card (Yes / No) • Has structural barriers to using money transfers (access, convenience)

• Values convenience (speed) of money transfers • Values reliability of money transfers

• Level of loyalty to money transfer products (low, medium, high)

• Has rational barriers to using money transfers (relevance, perception of benefits, etc.)

• “Stores” money vs. “saves”

• Optimist / aspirational (Yes / No)

• Use of phone games

B

C

D

BUYING PROCESS

In this exercise, map out each step of your customer buying process. 1. NEED RECOGNITION AND PROBLEM AWARENESS

2. INFORMATION SEARCH

May be a single event trigger (e.g., need a loan) or a more routine item (e.g., deposit business proceeds)

May be as simple as asking peers for advice or going to multiple banks / mobile network operators to get the best rate

3. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES

Alternatives may include not using a bank at all (e.g., hiding money under the mattress)

4. REGISTRATION

How difficult is it for your customers to register? Is it simple enough to encourage further use?

• Values cost savings (transport vs. comp.) of money transfers • Has emotional barriers to using money transfers (trust, fear, etc.)

• Use of internet

EXERCISE 3

A

• Associations with organization

• Amount of transfers (low, medium, high)

• Most frequently used transaction type (current money transfer users)

• Has mobile wallet (no, mini, standard)

• Concerned about safety of carrying money in general

27

5. PURCHASE / USE

6. POST-PURCHASE / USE

May be another customer drop-off point. What’s the cause?

How do your customers feel about their purchase or the way they interact with the new product or service?

• Need / desire for prestige (Yes / No) • Perception and importance of social norms

Think about how these steps break out for different customers. In step 2, for example, how do customers learn about your products and services? If by word-of-mouth, who are their trusted advisors? In steps 3 and 5, what convinces potential customers to use your products and services? Why might they choose not to? Use sticky notes on a whiteboard to map out all possible paths customers may take through the buying process. If you’re feeling ambitious, assign a percentage to the number of customers that take each option at each step.

EXERCISE 2

A DAY IN THE LIFE OF YOUR CUSTOMER

Have each person in your brainstorming session complete this exercise separately. Afterwards, compare notes and discuss your results. Close your eyes and imagine one of your customers. Think about what they look like, where they live, what they do for a living. Imagine a day in their life. What’s the first thing they do in the morning? Are they going to have a busy day? What do they do with their free time? What challenges do they face throughout the day? Next, think about how your customer uses financial products and services. When do they use them and why? Would they choose your products and services over the competition? Why? What do they like about them? What do they dislike?

Next, choose one of the paths you created. What type of customer would take it? How are they different from customers who would take other paths? Repeat the process until you’ve thought through a few paths. Test your thinking by looking at the customer journey and identifying the biggest customer drop-off points. See if your group agrees on these points, then relate them to previous conversations about which path particular customers follow. Take a look at the case study on the following page to see an example of an adoption pathway and to learn more about drop-off points.

28

A

B

C

D

STEP

4

Case Study: Adoption Pathway ADOPTION PATHWAY FOR A FINANCIAL SERVICE PROVIDER Here’s a sample adoption pathway (similar to the buying process) that a financial service provider brainstormed during trials of this toolkit.

STEPS

POTENTIAL BARRIERS • Illiteracy / inumeracy

AWARENESS

• Lack of product relevance

• Issues with registration

Conduct Informal Qualitative Research

Now that you’ve done some initial brainstorming, it’s a good idea to test your concepts with actual customers. There are many ways to conduct quick and inexpensive qualitative research. The four methods below provide more context on customer experience without the heavy investment of formal primary research.

• Selection of an alternative option

The financial service provider identified the step between Awareness and Consideration as where most of their potential customers sit. Within that step there are customers with drop-off points that can be addressed.

• Lack of perceived benefits • Word-of-mouth (positive or negative feedback)

• Forget PIN • Prefer to cash out

ADOPTION (USE)

C

• Lack of access • Product not known in network

CONSIDERATION

A

29

• Lack of awareness of full range of product options

COFFEE WITH CUSTOMERS Start impromptu conversations with a group of customers while they visit your branch. This is a great way to learn about their experience without getting into the logistics of a formal focus group.

CUSTOMER SKETCHES A customer sketch is a simple exercise to start characterizing your customer and learn where you may lack information.

• Confusing functionality / process • Network downtime • Insufficient agent liquidity

CONSISTENT / EXPANDED USE After completing brainstorming exercises 1, 2, and 3, write down your initial ideas on possible segmentations before moving on to additional analyses.

FOLLOW FRONT-LINE STAFF Shadowing is a basic observation technique that allows you to unobtrusively learn about an experience from the perspective of a single customer. Following a front-line staff member will help you uncover patterns and insights about the interface between staff and customers.

MYSTERY SHOPPING Mystery shopping is a quick and easy way to get an impartial view of the customer experience at your organization or a competitor’s. It often provides a better understanding of the pain points you’ve heard about but didn’t truly comprehend. Check out the CGAP article on mystery shopping in Mexico.

C

30

STEP

5

Dig into Existing Data DIRECTOR CONSUMER INSIGHTS UNILEVER

To begin using data, think through what’s available internally and externally. Internal data may include customer registration or transaction information and previously completed qualitative or quantitative studies. For external data, look to census data, public data, and academic studies. The following references and resources can help you get started.

Opp/HH (rs)

WHEN YOU ENGAGE WITH YOUR CUSTOMERS AND ARE OPEN WITH THEM, Once you’ve collected relevant data, what’s the next step? Keep in mind that data analysis can become an endless process, but you can avoid this if you have aTRUST, relatively specific idea of what you want to produce. Following are six YOU EARN THEIR perspectives on analyzing transaction data. You may use this process to analyze other types of data as well. THEY GIVE YOU FEEDBACK, a Outline the contents of your data. Which variables are available, and for what time periods? How many rows AND YOU CAN do you have? (If more than oneESTABLISH hundred thousand, consider using a program like Access or SQL.) AN ITERATIVE PROCESS Identify desired outcomes of your analysis. What questions are you specifically asking? What answers do you b FOR CO-INNOVATION

expect? The more specific you are here, the better. Drawing charts of the content you want to build is a great

4

DIRECTOR CONSUMER INSIGHTS technique (fill in with “dummy” data to start). UNILEVER

2

References / Resources

Heavy Early User Adopter ($3.3M) ($9.3M)

Moderate Interest ($21.3M)

Traditionalist ($7.4M)

Super Saver ($2.6M)

0

DATA

C

31

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

MM HHs • Country census data. Important data on population statistics, including geographies and demographics. http://ghdx.healthdata.org/data-type/census

c

Don’t underestimate the importance of starting with high-level aggregate statistics. For example, what’s the overall average? The tenth percentile? The ninetieth?

• Financial inclusion insights. Intermedia provides survey data and views of eight countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. http://finclusion.org/datacenter/

EXAMPLES: TRANSACTION DATA ANALYSIS

• Finscope. Nationally representative consumer and small business surveys in the financial sector. http://www.finmark.org.za/finscope/

Start with an aggregate view to get an understanding of both the data and the accounts within

• Global Findex. Data provided by the World Bank includes dashboards across countries, key metrics, and raw data. http://data.worldbank.org/topic/financial-sector • Industry data reports collected in a number of areas, i.e., financial inclusion insights and reports by Frost & Sullivan, Thomson Reuters, etc. http://finclusion.org/datacenter/ Afghanistan Select country

DATA INPUTS

AMOUNT + NUMBER OF TRANSACTIONS BY TYPE FOR ACCOUNT QUINTILES Account quintiles by total in-going / outgoing money in account over past 12 months Amount

• Micro-insurance coverage data by nation. http://www.microinsurancenetwork.org/world-map-microinsurance

Gender

Male

Female

• Useful Data Sources Measuring Financial Inclusion – a financial inclusion guide by CGAP. http://www.cgap.org/blog/10Age Group Income Quintile Education useful-data-sources-measuring-financial-inclusion

15-25 Lowest 20% 26-35 Second Lowest 20% DATA ANALYSIS CONSIDERATIONS 36-45 Middle 20% 46-60 Second Highest • Seven steps of data analysis. A walk-through of how to approach data analysis.20% http://www.oracle.com/us/corporate/profit/big-ideas/052313-gshapira-1951392.html 60+ Highest 20%

Primary or less Secondary Tertiary or greater

• Top Ten Tips for completing data analysis. A collection of tips and tricks for completing data analysis. http://www.statsmakemecry.com/smmctheblog/top-ten-tips-for-data-analysis-to-make-your-%20research-life-ea.html

EXCEL ASSUMPTIONS

% of relevant unbanked market attained

earned per person attained per year • Excel tips, tricks, and how-to’s to enable $ your analyses.

14%

Outflows Other Buy

Send $ Withdrawal Inflows Other Receive $ Deposit

Relevant unbanked population Relevant unbanked population attained

35%

5%

44%

40%

44%

45%

40%

36%

14% 6%

7% 44%

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Total

5M

16M

20M

40M

Per Account

40

128

220

420

20%

45%

39%

11% 6%

10%

29%

28%

25%

27%

7%

6%

28%

33%

30%

30%

28%

41% 5% 15% 7%

12%

17,329,409 11,340,411 1,134,041

120 100 80

Adjustment: 0.4 x 25= 11

60

33%

5%

6%

24%

22% 6%

32%

Q5

Avg

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5

Avg

150M 231M

121

115k

132k

155M

225k

150k

22.3

24.3

25.0

29.1

42.0

27.3

978

20%

365

Receive $: 2.6 x 250= 7 Other: 0.6 x 21 = 12

28%

38%

$5.00

• How to use Pivot Tables for data analysis. A very helpful tool for quickly examining the effects different variables have on each other. http://fiveminutelessons.com/learn-microsoft-excel/how-create-pivot-table-excel

OUTPUTS

26%

Billpay

http://www.pointit.com/blog/excel_tips_and_tricks_for_a_successful_and_%20efficient_data_analysis

Total unbanked population

Number of Transactions

Withdrawal: 12.2 x 7.2= 84 Send $: 3 x 2.5= 8

% of relevant unbanked market attained 32 $ earned per person attained per year

ASSUMPTIONS

Amount

45%

44% 40% 36% 39% Total population 35%unbanked 26%

C

41%

29%

28%

28%

33%

45%

44%

40%

44%

32%

e

12%

38%

20%

28%

33%

30%

30%

28%

Dig deeper and look at groups of accounts in a way that’s relevant to your segmentation Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Avg Q1$ 5,670,206 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Avg POTENTIAL SIZE OF PRIZE Total

5M

16M

20M

40M

150M 231M

121

40

128

115k

132k

155M

225k

-

Adjustment: 0.4 x 25= 11

Withdrawal: 12.2 x 7.2= 84

Deposit 15.8 transactions x 5 per transaction 80 total

40

20

115k

132k

155M

225k

150k

22.3

24.3

25.0

29.1

42.0

27.3

C

Withdrawal:

60

Bill Pay: 1.2 x 5 = 6

Buy: 19 x 0.2= 4

40

Buy: 19 x 0.2= 4

REVIEW OF SPECIFIC ACCOUNT TRANSACTIONS 20 30 40 50 Account with majority of transactions as “sending money”

60

Customer “saved” up a significant amount before a large transfer of money, potentially for taxes due to timing of transfer

80

Send $: 3 x 2.5= 8

60

978

121

10

Receive $: 2.6 x 250= 7

80

420

33 365

Deposit Bill Pay: 15.8 transactions Pull out specific examples to generate 1.2hypotheses x 5= 6 5 per a transaction andx build fuller picture away from the “average” 80 total 0

100

150M 231M

12.2 x 7.2= 84 doesn’t represent any customer since a wide Get specific with your customers. Sometimes the “average” Adjustment: range80 of groups form that average. Look at a number of specific account actions to inspire further analysis 0.4 x 25= 11 and insights. Send $: 60 3 x 2.5= 8

20

150k

OVERVIEW OF AMOUNT + NUMBER OF AVERAGE TRANSACTIONS BY TYPE 40 128 with 220 a majority 420 978of money 365 22.3from 24.3deposits 25.0 29.1 42.0 27.3 Accounts in-flow

Other: 0.6 x 21 = 12

220

40M

Other: 0.6 x 21 = 12

100

40

Per Account

120

20M

Receive $: 2.6 x 250= 7

120

17,329,409

11,340,411 27% 11% 24% 22% 5% 10% 15% 14% 7% 6% who spend aWithdrawal lot vs. those who spend little? Those who spend frequently vs. infrequently? 7% 6% 1,134,041 Relevant unbanked population attained 7% 6% 6% Inflows Other Receive $ Deposit

16M

$5.00

5% 6% Billpay OUTPUTS 5%number Push beyondSend averages to more specific inquiries. How do the average of transactions vary for those 25% $ Relevant unbanked population

d

Per Account

5M

Number of Transactions

14%

Outflows Other Buy

Total

20%

Frequent pattern of deposit send. Potentially for business purposes due to frequency

20

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

0 Jan

Customer “saved” up a significant amount before a large transfer of money, potentially for taxes due to timing of transfer

80 60 40

Frequent pattern of deposit send. Potentially for business purposes due to frequency

20

Acct. value

f

0 Jan

Feb Acct. value

Mar Deposit

Entrepreneur, Indonesia. Photo by frog design. 2013

Apr Withdrawal

May Send $

Jun Airtime

Jul

Feb

Mar Deposit

Apr Withdrawal

May Send $

Jun

Jul

Airtime

Reflect on what your data outputs mean. Do they confirm or dispel your original hypotheses? What are their limitations? It’s easy to get a false sense of security from fancy charts and large datasets. Pay attention to what the data excludes and what you still may not know!

34

STEP

6

A

C

D

35

A

C

D

Develop Hypothesis Segmentation

It’s at this point that the various elements of segmentation come together. Revisit notes from your brainstorming sessions, informal qualitative research, and data analysis. What stands out as a viable segmentation? Does it make sense? Does it fulfill your objective?

HOW MANY SEGMENTS DO YOU NEED?

DYNAMIC VS. STATIC SEGMENTS

SEGMENT IDENTIFICATION IN PRACTICE

“Segmentations are viewed by Generally you want to create When you implement a too many of their sponsors as as many segments as you segmentation it’s important one-time, go-for-broke efforts to find meaningful differences in to identify which segments provide a comprehensive portrait behavior and attitudes related customers belong to. If agents ESTIMATING THEESTIMATING MARKET OPPORTUNITY THE MARKET OPPORTUNITY PRIORITIZATION THE MARKETof&OPPORTUNITY PRIORITIZATION & PRIORITIZATION customers that can inform all to ESTIMATING your products&and services. or other employees need subsequent marketing decisions. While exceptions may exist, to easily identify segments, In our view, segmentations should segmentation tends to produce demographic characteristics are What market data is available? What market data is available? What market data is available? How do your offerings Alternatively, fit inHow this do segment? your offerings fitHi Which segments hold the most Which value? segments hold What the competion Which most value? segments exists hold for What this the segment? most competion value? exists for What this required. competion segment? exists for this segment? HYPOTHESIS SEGMENTATION be part of an ongoing search for between four and seven often your segmentation research research and your average segmentation By numbers research and average highly opportuBy numbers competive and average segment? it aopportuhighly competive Isofferings it a highly currently competive Do you offerings currentl • Did • Did your segmentation • By numbers • Did •opportu• Is it a•answers • Isbusiness • Do you •segment? •match • to important segments. segmentations based onsegment? The best way to describe hypothesis segmentation is with an example. In one of the trials of this toolkit, a financial service gather to assist with gather nity, datawhich to assist already segments with gather hold data the nity,most to which assistsegments with holdnity, the most which segments hold the most the segment? the segment? provider was considering three options to address their challenges and was starting to hone inalready on the one thatdata might be already questions as they arise.” behavioral or attitudinal market sizing, or is further research market sizing, or poten0al is further value? market research sizing, tactical orpoten0al is furthervalue? research poten0al value? the answer. Based on their needs, they were able to look at options 1 and 2 to determine the right kinds of products based Exploring more 2 Do you have the ability Do you– have • •alter – David Meer characteristics canto be used as the ability t• needed? needed? needed? on use cases as well as customers’ transactional histories. questionsare may in more the result most likely segments are the•most Which likely segments are the most likely yourlong offerings to fit them? your offerings • Which segments • Which as customers can be asked to fit them to increase in value over 0me? to increase in value over 0me? to increase in value over 0me? segments, although they can be Effective segmentations are Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 small of non-sensitive youset suspect your•offering How do you suspect you • Howa do • more expensive and difficult to dynamic. They concentrate on PRIORITY LEVEL USE CASE DRIVER BASED will questions fare againstthat the place competion? will fare them in against the comp implement. You may also face consumers’ needs, attitudes, Examples Examples Examples segment groups. perception overload; thinking and behaviors, which often Sometimes customer segments more than seven evolve over time. They’re Note: Ability tothrough tailor products Note: / Ability services toand tailor shape products Note: communications Ability / services to tailor and impacts shape products the communications potential / services value and impacts shape communications the potential value impacts the potential value can be identified using only segments in your head is quite a reshaped by market conditions internal data. In this case, challenge! such as fluctuating economics, your segmentation needs to emerging consumer niches, and TAILORING PRODUCT / SERVICES TAILORING PRODUCT / SERVICES TAILORING PRODUCT / SERVICES SHAPING COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS rely onSHAPING data fields that your SHAPING COMM Gold: High Bronze: Low Farmers buying Students Savings Prestige new technologies that evolve transactions transactions goods receiving funds seekers seekers organization collects or plans to rapidly. Once you identify your What messages would resonate What bestmessages with target would segments? resonate What best messages with target would segments? resonate best with ta To what extent the offering(s) To what can be extent altered? the offering(s) To what canextent be altered? the offering(s) can be altered? collect going forward. MORE GEN MORE GENERAL MORE GENERAL segments, it’s important to Behavioral Segmentation Demographic + Behavioral Attitudinal Segmentation • Can you address specific concerns • offering, Can you or spirations address specific directly?concerns • Can you or address spirations specific directly? concerns or spir • Is the organization considering • Is the the organization development considering of• an Is en0re the the organization new development offering, considering orof an en0re the development new offering, or of an en0re new or Segmentation track their evolution. Customer Based on priority level of Based on customers’ most valued are only slight adjustments are possible? only slight adjustments are possible? only slight adjustments possible? segmentation be • Point • Point out mostshould valued features of theout product most valued / service? features • Point of the outproduct most valued / service? features of the pro customers determined by Based on the circumstances in drivers, which influence their • What is the organiza0on’s • appe0te What is the for organiza0on’s further changes? • What appe0te is the for organiza0on’s further changes? appe0te for further changes? revisited regularly and redrawn transaction data. Customers are which customers would use a choice of money transfer services. assigned to a gold, bronze, or silver money transfer service. Loosely as soon as a segment loses its group depending on their value to based on occupation and sender / Which channel(s) will be mostWhich effective channel(s) to reachwill your betarget most Which effective segment(s)? channel(s) to reach willyour be most target effective segment(s) to r relevance.

Case Study: Hypothesis Segmentation

the organization.

receiver distinction.

ü Easy to find in transaction data

ü Easy to communicate internally + to tellers

Prioritization based on ü clear definition of value

ü “Cases” are fairly fixed ü Useful for product development

X No insight into customer needs or lifetime value

X Somewhat difficult to identify in data

X Not useful for messaging or product design

X May not be mutually exclusive

What needs to be changed? What needs to be changed? What needs to be changed?

• Is your target market tech savvy? • Is your Do they target commute? market tech Do •savvy? they Is your rely Doon target they word commute? market of mouth techDo or savvy? they rely Do the on personal Thinkfor through personal connections? they receive Think information personal throughon how connections? products they receive and Think information through ho o • First idenify those product • characteris0cs First idenify those thatproduct are •deal-‐breakers First characteris0cs idenify those for your that product are deal-‐breakers characteris0cs for that yourareconnections? deal-‐breakers your how ensure your advertising / messaging ensure fits your this advertising / messaging ensure your fits this advertising / messaging fits target segment and ensure target those are segment right. and ensure target those segment are right. and ensure those are right. ü Good for competitive positioning

customer needs ü Addresses • For other characteristics •that Fordon’t other truly characteristics maHer, it maybe • that For other don’t Her to truly characteristics be slightly maHer, off it maybe that don’t Hertruly to bemaHer, slightlyitoff maybe Her to be slightly off the mark if it enables sales toother the marksegments if it enables salesthe toother mark segments if it enables sales toother segments ü Good for messaging

X Driver needs not very static, customers not mutually exclusive X Difficult to find in data

36

STEP

7a

37

B

Conduct Additional Research

Each type of research offers its own methods, as noted below. However, for some of the more advanced techniques it’s best to partner with a market research firm when possible.

QUALITATIVE You may wonder why to continue with additional primary research after reviewing all your data and brainstorming hypothesis segments. If you simply don’t have the resources, that’s a good reason! Otherwise, consider the following questions before deciding about further research: HOW FAR OFF COULD YOUR HYPOTHESES BE?

WHAT’S AT STAKE? Why are you conducting segmentation in the first place? Is it to finalize a go-to-market strategy that could make or break a new product launch? If so, you may decide that the expense of additional research could help you avoid a costly failure.

How much do you trust the internal and external data you collected? How sure is your team about the hypotheses developed? Did you develop several sets of hypothesis segments or did everyone agree on the same assessment?

On the other hand, if you’re using this toolkit as an exploratory exercise you may be better off saving resources. Think through the potential activities your segmentation would affect, and consider the cost of possibly making a decision based on inaccurate information.

Share you hypothesis segmentation with a few of your agents or tellers. Do they recognize the customer groups you came up with?

If you’re considering conducting additional research, think through the mix of research methods and determine what you can do internally versus externally. Here’s some more detail about qualitative and quantitative methods:

PURELY QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Focused on non-quantifiable information, generally more exploratory

BLENDED / SEQUENTIAL RESEARCH Methods can be mixed within the same study (e.g., a qualitative interview that includes a short survey) or sequential

…you have sufficient time and resources to conduct two research phases, benefiting from the relative advantages of qualitative and quantitative research

QUANTITATIVE

+ Simple INTERVIEWS One-on-one interviews with members of your target population

FOCUS GROUPS Carefully moderated, prompted discussions with groups from your target population

ETHNOGRAPHY Close observation of select people’s actions with focused questions (e.g., attitudes, values, etc.)

- Difficult to ensure truthful responses

+ Can help spur participant ideas, creativity - “Groupthink” can elicit biased responses

+ Follows behaviors and attitudes + Helps bypass certain participant-reported biases - Time consuming - Difficult to scale

SURVEYS Carefully formed set of questions sent out to target population

SECONDARY DATA ANALYSIS Similar to data analysis. Can be more advanced or include a wider range of sources

A/B TESTING Randomized experiment with two variants, A and B, which are the control and treatment groups

+ Can fit a variety of analytics - Questionnaires and wording need to be fine-tuned for best results

+ Factual: shows actions that have actually transpired - Retrospective; tough to pick out unmet needs

+ Tests actual behavior in response to different stimuli - May be difficult to estimate required sample size for significant results

1 =1yellow = yellow 2 =2green = green 3 =3red = red 4 =4dark = dark redred

SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUES

PURELY QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

CONJOINT MAX DIFF Advanced research technique Advanced research technique to identify how people value to identify which attribute different product and people find most important service attributes

Research focused on measuring and quantifying. Can be exploratory but is often for testing hypotheses

BEST USED WHEN... …you’re completing more exploratory research on customer preferences and needs; there’s not sufficient secondary research to form hypotheses; or the nature of behavior change is so great that you require deep insights on actions and attitudes

B

…the burden of proof is high and you require a precise estimate of market opportunity

For further details, dig into www.mktresearch.org

38

Engage a Market Research Firm (optional)

STEP

7b

39

B

WITHOUT MARKET RESEARCH FIRM

WITH MARKET RESEARCH FIRM

STEPS

-

Identify and research potential market research firms

-

Develop Request for Quote based on project specifics

-

Review quotes or proposals. Hold brief discussions with market research firms

-

Select market research firm

B

Case Study: Zoona, Zambia SETTING UP FOCUS GROUPS WITH AN EXTERNAL MARKET RESEARCH FIRM Zoona, a money transfer and payment service, wanted to use focus groups to gain greater insights from current and potential customers. Given time and budgetary constraints, they engaged a local market research firm for several reasons: 1. Recruitment: With a short timeline, it was more efficient to have recruitment experts find focus group attendees. 2. Moderation: Good moderators make focus groups look easy. In reality, however, it takes someone with a lot of skill and experience to successfully navigate a group and extract insights. 3. Cultural context / translation: Even if Zoona had a great moderator, the local market research firm understood cultural context and was able to translate languages of attendees from various regions and backgrounds. Zoona still wanted to conduct part of the process in-house so they could control some outputs and save money. They used the following process:

Decide on sample size Decide on screening criteria and sampling approach Develop screener Develop discussion guide / survey Translate discussion guide / survey (if necessary) [Quantitative] Code survey if tested online, test for errors / bugs

MARKET RESEARCH FIRM SELECTION

RESEARCH PARTICIPANT RECRUITMENT

DISCUSSION GUIDE DEVELOPMENT

Identify list of potential firms from trusted recommendations

Decide on relevant customer population to research and number of focus groups budget allows

Create initial set of questions based on previous questionnaires

Conduct brief interviews with short list of firms (see sample questions on following page)

Develop screening criteria based upon hypothesis segmentation exercises

Pre-test questions on customers at Zoona booths (as well as with internal staff); adjust

External firm starts recruitment based upon criteria

Refine and finalize discussion guide with market research firm

Recruit respondents [Qualtative] Conduct research, record notes [Quantitative] Code data [Quantitative] Prepare and clean database Analyze findings Conclusions and recommendations based on analysis

FINANCIAL SERVICE PROVIDER

MARKET RESEARCH FIRM

COMBINATION

Completed internally Completed with/by market research firm

Conduct focus groups

40

41

B

If you plan to hire an external market research firm, here are some important things to consider: • Talk through the business objectives you want to achieve and the role market research plays in your segmentation effort. A quality firm will help you understand and refine your objectives.

Tools

• Look for the firm’s desire to learn deeply about your organization’s issues and objectives.

COST ESTIMATE WORKSHEET

• If possible, have the firm be a part of hypothesis discussions so they understand the greater context of what you’re looking for.

You’ve probably wondered how much all this is going to cost. While it’s difficult to provide specific figures, CGAP can provide input on various ranges you may expect to pay or produce in man-hours for a given effort.

• Don’t underestimate the hours your team may need to spend on the effort. Consider it a red flag if the firm plans to complete research in isolation from your team. • Ask questions about the firm’s ability to complete segmentations using many different techniques. They should be able to cater methods to the situation at hand.

SPECIFIC QUESTIONS TO ASK A POTENTIAL MARKET RESEARCH FIRM 1) What’s your experience with qualitative and quantitative research methods in this market? a. What range of methods do you offer? b. What training does your project lead or team members have? c. Would you provide a few example of projects you’ve lead and what you learned? Would you provide references? 2) When conducting research in this market: a. What sampling methodology do you recommend for qualitative and quantitative research? b. For quantitative research, what are the variables you control to ensure a representive sample? c. Will the discussion guide / survey need to be translated into local languages? Which ones? 3) One thing we definitely want to ask participants is, “[Insert your question here]” How would you go about eliciting valuable responses to that question? a. How would you lead into the question to uncover more truthful, less guarded responses? b. What exercises would you recommend? 4) What’s your approach to quality control? a. For the process, qualitative outputs, and quantitative outputs? b. How do you plan to engage with our research team?

Interview with BISP beneficiaries, Pakistan. Photo by Continuum. 2013

B

42

STEP

8

B

D

Refine and Finalize Segmentation

43

d

B

D

IDENTIFY FURTHER RESEARCH (IF NECESSARY) You may choose to do further research. If so, what specifically do you need? Make sure your research has a definitive end.

Refine you segmentation by reviewing the quantitative and qualitative information gathered. Then confirm or adjust your original hypothesis segmentation by following steps a through d below. PROCESS At this point, the foundation for finalizing your segmentation should be largely set. A strong hypothesis segmentation backed by good qualitative and quantitative information gathering and clean analysis of these materials can make the complexities of segmentation easier.

a

You may decide that more sophisticated quantitative analyses are required. There are several options for statistical modeling that can help remove researcher bias in segmentation, identify statistically significant differences across your segments, and assess the size of your market opportunity more accurately (including K-means / hierarchical clustering and latent class segmentation methods). For these more advanced techniques, it’s best to work with a qualified market research firm. If you’d like a primer on advanced techniques, Theodoros Evgeniou from INSEAD provides a great summary. Mktresearch.org also offers snapshots of advanced techniques.

REVIEW YOUR RESEARCH FINDINGS If you’ve completed qualitative research, first go through your notes or transcripts as a whole and jot down key themes and interesting findings. Do the same with quantitative findings. Have your team look over preliminary data cuts, tables, crosstabs, etc. Check for statistical significance to determine which findings are most reliable. A helpful exercise is to have team members write findings on sticky notes and place them on a whiteboard. Arrange the notes in groups or categories. Once you’ve laid out a framework, look through your notes to find supporting quotes and additional details that add nuance to your conclusions.

b

COMPARE FINDINGS TO YOUR SEGMENTATION HYPOTHESES AND OBJECTIVES Your completed research should help you either confirm or reject the hypotheses laid out earlier. Check to see if this is the case. Were you able to test all hypotheses? Note which ones remain untested. Sense check your discussion by going back to the beginning. Review (and confirm) the overall objective of the exercise and how your team thought they’d complete the segmentation. Does the proposed segmentation meet your objectives? Why or why not? Are any key hypotheses or questions still unanswered?

c

CHECK YOUR INTUITION Segmentation is a mix of art and science. As with most business decisions, there’s generally not a specific “aha!” moment when you realize you have the right segmentation. A good test is when segments help answer your business objectives and seem intuitively right. Ask around – do other stakeholders recognize these segments? Have they met these types of customers before?

Market in Indonesia. Photo by frog design. 2013

44

B

D

45

STEP

9

Case Study EXAMPLES OF FITTING OBJECTIVES AND SEGMENTATION TYPES TOGETHER .

Segmentation exercises are unique to each organization and the situation that confronts them. It’s impossible to put forth a set “if this, then do that” type of guide. However, here are a few examples and the logic for choosing each type of segmentation:

SITUATION • Financial Service Provider 1 wanted to better understand their customers, improve overall customer experience, and protect against new competitive threats

FSP 1

MORE GENERAL • The organization wanted a segmentation that was easy to communicate internally and with agents, and that would provide insights for concrete product changes for priority segments

• Financial Service Provider 2 sought to move into the unbanked market with a new branchless banking product

FSP 2

• They wanted to understand which segments would be mostMORE profitable and should GENERAL be targeted first • In addition, they wanted to understand the product and messaging changes that would be required for those segments

SEGMENTATION TYPE / RATIONALE

RESEARCH METHODS

Financial Service Provider 1 sought a segmentation based mostly on use-case (a combination of demographic and behavioral characteristics), due to its ability to be easily understood across the MORE GENERAL organization and be used to form specific product offerings

Due to the need to explore customers more deeply and this being an initial segmentation, qualitative research that relied on focus groups was the focus. In total, eight focus groups of six or seven people were MORE GENERAL held, organized by hypothesis segmentation

Given the focus on developing a strategy for a new product, Financial Service Provider 2 selected a behavioral and attitudinal segmentation for its improved ability to predict future behavior. They felt confident in MORE GENERAL their experience and knowledge, as well as in the resources they had to put forth for the effort

In focusing on identifying market opportunities, Financial Service Provider 2 focused mostly on quantitative research but used a mix of both. This included indepth interviews, focus groups, and a nationwide survey of 2,000 MORE GENERAL unbanked individuals to identify discrete segments with different financial services needs and varying levels of sophistication

B

C

D

Showcase Your Results

When you’re ready to share the results of a segmentation with your organization, keep in mind that most stakeholders want to hear outcomes first. It’s best to focus on results and why they’re useful. Some people care more about data points and processes, so be prepared for these questions as well. Regardless of the characteristics used to drive your segmentation, it helps to depict segments in a personal way when sharing. Creating persona profiles rather than relying on tables and charts, for example, helps your audience digest the most important segment characteristics. Also, prepare examples of the types of things these customers might say if you spoke with them. Actual and illustrative quotes bring segments to life. For those who want to “see the numbers,” try to pull out the most salient points instead of pouring over tables and charts. For example, what are 3-5 characteristics that really differentiate each segment? Once you zero in, reveal the data points that support them. A good segmentation is one that people feel good about. These segments are “easily recognizable.”

Family, Pakistan. Photo by Continuum. 2013

46

B

C

D

47

STEP

10

B

C

Apply Your Findings

Case Study: Bank BTPN, Indonesia The most important step in segmentation is putting your findings to use. A perfect segmentation is worthless to your organization if it doesn’t lead to value creation. The question is, how do you make sure that happens?

AN EXAMPLE OF HOW TO PRESENT SEGMENTS TO YOUR ORGANIZATION From Dalberg and frog design’s work on project Bertumbuh for Bank BTPN.

Back in Chapter 1 we talked about the value of segmentation in terms of its ability to help you:

SEGMENTATION PERSONA SNAPSHOTS “ON THE VERGE”

• Uncover market opportunities and prioritize segments (focus resources) “THE ESCALATOR”

Making progress in a slow and steady way, is a big saver. Focus on lifestyle goals; business goals are simply a way to achieve them

Almost endless energy and possibilities; focused on ST consumer desires

“STUCK”

“THE ELEVATOR”

Not unusual to have to borrow to feed the family. Hard to envision future when immediate needs are such a challenge

Success is the highest priority. Strong drive, always looking for opportunities to expand business or grow wealth

• Tailor products and services • Shape communications Now that you have your results, it’s important to brainstorm with appropriate teams in your organization to answer the following questions and develop a plan of action:

ESTIMATING MARKET OPPORTUNITY AND PRIORITIZATION “THE MOVING WALKWAY”

“THE COMMUNITY HUB”

Not progressing upward, but in an emergency has enough buffer to keep from falling

Trusted center of community. Highly respected for personal character traits

SIMPLE DATA COMPARISON FOR “ON THE VERGE”

What market data are available? • Did segmentation research gather data to assist with market sizing, or is further research required? Which segments hold the most value? • By numbers and average opportunity, which segments hold the most potential value? • Which segments are the most likely to increase in value over time?

What competition exists in each segment? • Are they highly competitive segments? How do your offerings fit each segment? • Do your offerings currently match the segment? • Do you have the ability to alter your offerings to fit? • How do you expect your offerings to hold up against the competition?

ENTREPRENEURIAL ROLE MODELS ONE IN THE PRESENT STRENGTH OF COMMUNITY PART OF THE COMMUNITY FABRIC

ENABLERS • Facile with technology • Energy and possibility of youth

BLOCKERS • Small income • No access to capital

• Away from the emotional • Flexibility in location support of family and occupation

NEEDS • Mentoring to make dreams a reality • Protection from untrustworthy money schemes and people who’d take advantage of his youth • Financial literacy

FINANCIAL LITERACY AWARENESS OF GOOD / BAD, BUT NOT HOW MUCH TECHNOLOGICAL LITERACY

REVISITING THE CUSTOMER JOURNEY AND VALUE PROPOSITION Based on what you’ve learned about segment needs and preferences, what would be the ideal value proposition for your priority segments? How can their customer journey and experience be improved?

FACILE WITH SMARTPHONES, APPS, AND MORE

MOTIVATION AND DRIVE I BELIEVE IN THE POSSIBILITIES IN MY FUTURE

AVAILABILITY OF RESERVES NO RESERVES MIX OF FINANCIAL TOOLS USES INFORMAL TOOLS ONLY

TAILORING PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

SHAPING COMMUNICATIONS

To what extent can offerings be tailored? • Is your organization considering developing an entirely new offering, or are only slight adjustments possible? • What’s your organization’s appetite for further change?

What messages resonate best with your target segments? • Can you address specific concerns or aspirations directly? • Point out valued features of products and services

What needs to be changed? • First, identify the product characteristics that are dealbreakers for your target segment and ensure they’re correct • For less important characteristics, it may be better to be slightly off the mark if it enables broader reach to other segments

Which channels are most effective in reaching your target segments? • Is your target tech savvy? Do they rely on word-ofmouth or personal connections? Think through how they receive information on products and ensure your advertising and messaging fits

48

B

C

49

STEP

Of the five pillars of customer centricity identified by CGAP, segmentation is most relevant as a tool that helps uncover customer insights. But it also touches upon aspects of the other pillars. Segmentation results and prioritization can help your organization become more focused and efficient across all pillars.

LEADERSHIP AND CULTURE

FOCUSING OPERATIONS

PEOPLE, TOOLS, AND INSIGHTS

CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE

CREATING VALUE

11

Focusing operations on customers – compliance, risk, IT, HR, finance, marketing, legal, training

Collecting information, generating insights, informing strategy and customer value propositions, empowering employees

Based on insights generated, design, concepts, test, build, delivery, scale, renewal

Creating and measuring value at customer, firm, and society level

REVISIT DATA COLLECTION PROCESSES

Segmentation should be championed by senior leaders to further reinforce a culture of listening and adapting your organization to best meet the needs of your customers. The goal should be to make segmentation habitual as well.

Customer centricity requires shaping your organization to fit the consumers you want to serve. Insights from segmentation often leads to changes in how sales, support, and other teams are structured to better serve customers.

Segmentation is primarily a tool for uncovering deeper insights about your customers and uncovering new lenses through which to view their behaviors, choices, needs, and preferences.

Customer experience can be tailored to meet different segment needs and preferences – and improve customer satisfaction.

What are some ways to collect that data going forward? For example, adding a few questions to your registration process or data capture fields at the point of transaction.

TRACK SEGMENTS OVER TIME

EMBED SEGMENTATION IN YOUR ORGANIZATION

To track segments over time, first profile them in your database. Ask agents to profile a subset of customers using surveys. Then use the results to match their data patterns to the rest of your customers.

Build segmentation into the daily language of your organization. Ensure that everyone – from sales to finance – understands your segments and is up to date on how your organization is performing in each customer group.

Incorporate segment size and key usage behaviors into your basic reporting. It’s also important to set up periodic surveys to sense- check segment size evolution and measure changes in behaviors and attitudes.

HOW THE FIVE PILLARS RELATE TO SEGMENTATION Genuine improvements in services offered to customers benefit both the organization and customers being served. Improved offerings reduce uptake and usage barriers for customers.

C

Track and Measure

Think through some of the data points you wish you had when you conducted you segmentation. Customer-focused leadership and culture

B

50

51

Additional Resources

Additional Resources

GENERAL FINANCIAL INCLUSION SOURCES

OTHER RESOURCES

• Global Microscope on the regulatory environment for microfinance 2014 (including Excel spreadsheet). http://www.eiu.com/public/thankyou_download.aspx?activity=download&campaignid=microscope2014

• Conjoint Analysis: A brief introduction on conjoint analysis from a market research consultancy. http://www.mit.edu/~hauser/Papers/GreenTributeConjoint092302.pdf

• Personalities of the Underbanked. http://www.finmark.org.za/wp-content/uploads/pubs/FS2012_FROG_personalities_of_the_underbanked_1.pdf

• An Introduction to MaxDiff: A short slide show presentation on how maximum difference scaling works – Parametric Marketing LLC. http://www.slideshare.net/surveyanalytics/sva000-an-introduction-to-max-diff-v2-200100824-11

• World Bank Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy Surveys. http://responsiblefinance.worldbank.org/surveys

• A Massive Social Experiment On You Is Underway, and You Will Love It: An Introduction to A/B Testing as It’s Used in Modern Tech Organizations – Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/sites/parmyolson/2015/01/21/jawbone-guinea-pig-economy/

SEGMENTATION RESOURCES • Averages Lie: Using Smart Segmentation to Find Growth – McKinsey. http://www.mckinseyonmarketingandsales.com/smart-segmentation-going-small-to-get-relevant • Cluster Analysis and Segmentation – Theodoros Evgeniou, Professor, INSEAD Business School. http://inseaddataanalytics.github.io/INSEADAnalytics/Report_s45.html • Handbook of Market Segmentation: Strategic Targeting for Business and Technology Firms – Art Weinstein (2004). http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Market-Segmentation-Technology-Customized/dp/0789021579/ref=sr_1_1? s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1443120916&sr=1-1&keywords=Handbook+of+Market+Segmentation:+Strategic+Target ing+for+Business+and+Technology+Firms • Latent Class Analysis – MarketResearch.org. http://mktresearch.org/wiki/Latent_Class_Analysis • Market Segmentation: Conceptual and Methodological Foundations – Michel Wedel and Wagner Kamakura (2000). http://www.amazon.com/Market-Segmentation-Methodological-International-Quantitative/dp/0792386353

RELEVANT CGAP RESOURCES • Insights Into Action: What Human Centered Design Means for Financial Inclusion. http://www.cgap.org/publications/what-human-centered-design-means-financial-inclusion • The Many Faces of the Poor: Mass Market Segmentation. http://www.cgap.org/blog/many-faces-poor-mass-market-segmentation • Mystery Shopping Infographic. http://www.cgap.org/data/infographic-mystery-shopping-mexico • Power of Micro-segmentation. http://www.cgap.org/blog/lessons-leadership-power-micro-segmentation • Segmentation: A Tool to Enhance Activity Levels. http://www.cgap.org/blog/segmentation-tool-enhance-activity-levels • Segmentation of Smallholder Households. http://www.cgap.org/publications/segmentation-smallholder-households

• Market Segmentation: How to Do It and How to Profit From It – Malcolm McDonald and Ian Dunbar (2012). http://www.amazon.com/Market-Segmentation-How-Do-Profit/dp/1118432673/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qi d=1443120932&sr=1-1&keywords=Market+Segmentation:+How+to+do+it+and+How+to+Profit+From+It

• Segmenting the “Bottom of the Pyramid” in Mexico. http://www.cgap.org/blog/segmenting-%E2%80%9Cbottom-pyramid%E2%80%9D-mexico

• Rediscovering Market Segmentation – Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2006/02/rediscovering-market-segmentation

• Understanding the Financial Service Needs of the Poor in Mexico. http://www.cgap.org/publications/understanding-financial-service-needs-poor-mexico

• Segmentation and Positioning for Strategic Marketing Decisions – James H. Myers (1996). http://www.amazon.com/Segmentation-Positioning-Strategic-Marketing-Decisions/dp/0877572593 • Strategic Segmentation – Bain. http://www.bain.com/bainweb/pdfs/cms/public/bb_strategic_segmentation.pdf

52

Sources CASE STUDIES • Centenary Bank http://nextbillion.net/blogpost.aspx?blogid=5395 https://grameenfoundation.app.box.com/s/f85hrqqlkh1mjiqbwoayfzad5zw7g23v • Digicel

Based on CGAP internal experience

• Oversea-Chinese Banking Corp http://thefinancialbrand.com/18642/ocbc-frank-gen-y-banking-brand/ http://melicacy.com/?p=7389 • UBL Bank

Based on CGAP internal experience

• Zoona

Based on CGAP internal experience



EXERCISES • Size of Prize Exercise

http://datatopics.worldbank.org/financialinclusion/

• Expected Budget Work Based on CGAP internal experience

NOTES 1. http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2015/04/15/massive-drop-in-number-of-unbanked-saysnew-report 2. https://hbr.org/2006/02/rediscovering-market-segmentation

Young carpenter apprentice, Ghana. Photo by CGAP. 2013

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