Volume VI, Number 2 December 2006
OFFICIAL NEWSLETTER OF THE MISSOURI POSTAL HISTORY SOCIETY Annual Meeting Contents: President’s Message
St. Louis, Missouri Cancellations on U.S. Revenue Stamps: Part I, The Civil War Era 3 Editor’s Desk
Missouri Territorial Stampless Covers 8 Potato Chip Postal History 10 American Stampless 11 Cover Catalog Confederate States Catalog & Handbook 11 The “Back Cover” 12
Mark you calendars for our Annual Meeting on Saturday, February 24th at St. Louis Stamp Expo, Renaissance Hotel, 9801 Natural Bridge Road (across from the Airport). The joint meeting with the Illinois Postal History Society will be from 2:00 until 4:00 pm. Tim Wait will speak on “Collecting and Exhibiting Illinois Postal History” and Mike Nickel on “Missouri’s Platt Purchase Counties.”
National Calls for Missouri Postal History Assistance Revisions of two important postal history reference works – the American Stampless Cover Catalog (ASCC) and the Confederate States Catalog and Handbook – have begun recently. These updates will be successful and useful only to the extent that we contribute the information and images from our collections. The need is particularly great with the ASCC in that a State editor is still needed. Details and contact information for the ASCC are below, with the Confederate information on page 11. Please be generous with your time and knowledge. After the U.S. Philatelic Classics Society purchased all rights to the ASCC from David G. Phillips less than two years ago, planning began to publish a new catalog. The current three volumes are long out of print, having been released between 1987 and 1997, and much in need of updating. The new ASCC will be a single volume, including the information formerly contained in all three volumes, with a few omissions, most notably the Confederate section.
continued on page 11
President’s Message Washington 2006 is now history and it was a haven for all kinds of collectors, especially cover collectors. I didn't get to spend a lot of time looking at exhibits, but walking past many of them, cover exhibits and covers in exhibits abounded. The Arkansas Postal History exhibit that took the Grand Award at the 2006 St. Louis Expo was there. Even the more traditional exhibits usually had covers showing rates and destinations to make them complete. A couple of $1 cover dealers including one from Sullivan, MO were busy throughout the show usually 3 deep, if you could get close enough to grab a box. Most of the cover dealers were very busy most of the time and were elated after the first couple of days because they had already covered their table rental. I found some cheap and interesting covers. Also added to my collection were numerous advertising covers and older covers in the next price tier, and I picked us a few nice pieces that would enhance an exhibit if it ever comes to that. I had a chance to pick up a Louisiana, MO Territorial cover, unlisted in the American Stampless Cover Catalog, for the list price of $1500. Later in the show I could have picked it up for a mere $1200, and I'm told that it might have appeared on eBay for $1000. Keep hoping. Keep searching for those elusive Missouri covers that may be out there when you least expect it. You can log into eBay and always find 50 to 100 Missouri items up for grabs with MPHS members both buying and selling and even competing for some nice items. If I'm outbid, it's good to
know that it went to another MPHS member in many cases. My point in all of this is to say that cover collecting is alive and well. I hope you are enjoying the chase. The only drawback is that they take up a lot more space than just the stamps. - Gary Hendren [editor’s note: Gary wrote this in August]
Missouri Postal History Society http://www.mophil.org/stampexp.htm President Gary Hendren 314-576-5261 --- [email protected]
Vice-President Dennis Hahn [email protected]
Treasurer Scott Couch 816-746-8204 - [email protected]
Shirley Naylor Platte City, Missouri
Scott Couch David L. Straight 314-935-5465 --- [email protected]
Alan Barasch [email protected]
Show Me Gazette is published quarterly for members of the Missouri Postal History Society. Letters, articles, news items, and cover illustrations should be sent to the editors: David L. Straight (February and August issues) P.O. Box 32858, St. Louis, MO 63132, e-mail to [email protected]
; or Scott Couch (May and November issues) 4120 NW 79th Street #4, Kansas City, MO 64151, e-mail to [email protected]
Individual articles are the intellectual property of the authors; the Show-Me Gazette is copyrighted by the Missouri Postal History Society. Articles may not be reproduced without written permission of the authors.
St. Louis, Missouri Cancellations on U.S. Revenue Stamps: Part I, The Civil War Era by Col. Don Woodworth, USAF (Ret.) I enjoy finding U.S. revenue stamps with readable cancellations that identify the firm, city, state, and date that the stamp was used. So much the better if a stamp is found used on document. Either condition makes it possible to research information about the firm that used the stamp and the history of the era in which it was used. This becomes the revenue equivalent of postal history. The earliest adhesive revenue stamps issued by the United States were put into use in late 1862 by the Union government to help fund the cost of the Civil War. These adhesive revenues issues of 1862 were issued in denominations ranging from 1¢ to $200 and intended to cover taxes levied on a wide variety of documents, services, and commodities. While the most commonly found cities are New York, Boston, and Philadelphia, I particularly enjoy finding stamps from the many smaller cities and towns across America. Over the years, the government added Proprietary revenue stamps to specifically tax proprietary articles such as patent
3 medicines and cosmetics, Future Delivery stamps, Stock Transfer stamps, Wine and Beer stamps, private die Match stamps, private die Proprietary stamps, and many sorts of special taxes. Excepting Federal Duck Stamps and Firearms Tax Stamps, still in use, the federal government generally ended the use of adhesive revenue stamps in 1964. This article showcases some of my more interesting examples from St. Louis, Missouri where much of the state’s commerce was concentrated. Cancels are also known from other Missouri cities such as Hannibal, Kansas City, Salem, and St. Joseph. This first installment will examine the Civil War era documentary revenues issued between 1862-1872 that continued in use into the 1880s.
My earliest St. Louis cancellation is on a 2¢ blue Bank Check stamp (Scott R5a) with a black manuscript cancel “SAR July 1 1863” on a check from the St. Louis Building & Savings Association. This was the first day of the great three-day Battle of Gettysburg, the Union victory that represented the high water mark of the fortunes and beginning of the end for the Confederate States of America.
4 A near the end of the war use of the 2¢ orange Express stamp (Scott R10c) with a black hand stamped cancel “Wm. C. La(nge) Mar 7 1865. One of the two most common Civil War revenues is the, the 2¢ orange Bank Check stamp (Scott R6c) shown here with a Feb. 4 1867 manuscript cancel on a receipt from the C.R. Stinde, a wholesaler in boots and shoes located at 20 North Main Street.
The receipt illustrated is for shoes sold in bulk to the Rev. Elliot at the Missouri Free School. Interestingly, Stinde is one of many companies featured in Croffuts
Trans-Continental Tourist’s Guide first
published by Wm. McLaughlin of 83 Nassau Street, New York, on Sept. 1 1869. Croffuts listed many prominent purveyors of goods across the United States and was intended to be a guide for people wishing to outfit themselves for travel on the first transcontinental railway across the United States that had been recently completed in May 1869. Between 1 Aug 1864 and 1 Aug 1866 photographs were taxed at varying rates. These were often printed as favorite Carte de Visites, cards that could be autographed and given to friends. Photographer John A. Scholten (1829-1866) of St. Louis produced this Carte de Visite of the very attractive Aunt Lizzie Cannon in December 1865. (facing page) On the reverse of the photograph are the photographer’s advertisement and the 3¢ green Proprietary Tax stamp (Scott R18c) used to pay the tax. Text continues on Page 6
6 Mr. Scholten was first active as a daguerreotypist in St. Louis in 1859-60 at 297 South Fifth Street. He later lived and worked as a photographer at 273 South Fifth Street, the corner of Convert Street. Additional information about him appears in St. Louis: the Future Great City of the World written by Logan R. Reavis in 1876.
The other very common revenue stamp of the Civil War era is the 2¢ orange U.S.I.R. (United States Internal Revenue) generalpurpose documentary stamp (Scott R15c). Here it is used on an April 1, 1867 receipt from the plumber George Henderson (illustrated on the previous page). The most amazing part of his bill is the $7.50 charge for “1 days time for plumber & labor.” By the time of the Civil War, St. Louis’ role as a regional hub for commerce was already well established. Both eastern and western railroads terminated on the banks of the Mississippi River. Another example of the 2¢ orange Bank Check stamp (Scott R6c) is found on the August 23 1865 Hillman Bros. Receipt for shipping a set of wheels to Salem, Illinois via the Ohio & Mississippi Railroad. This rail line, originally built at the 6-foot gage in 1857 and converted to the American standard 4 foot 8 ½ inch gage in 1869, terminated at Illinoistown (now East St. Louis, Illinois). Until completion of the great Mississippi River Bridge by James Buchanan Eads in 1874, freight and passengers crossed the Mississippi River to and from St. Louis by way of the Wiggins Ferry. This section of the Ohio & Mississippi railroad line is still in operation as part of the CSX Corporation.
December 2006 A lot of information is crammed into very little space on this 2¢ orange & black stamp from the Third Revenue Issue (Scott R135) of 1871. Around the rim, the February 21, 1872 cancellation reads “Crow, McCreery & Co. Wholesale Dry Goods Company.” The firm, at 523 Main Street, was founded by Wayman Crow (1808-1885) when he moved to St. Louis in 1835 and established a dry goods house in partnership with his cousin (Crow & Tevis). During its long life the company was variously know as Crow, McCreery & Company (the cancellation on this stamp); Crow, Hargadine & Company; and Hargadine-McKittrick Dry Goods Company. Serving as a Missouri State senator, Mr. Crow secured the charter for the St. Louis Mercantile Library Association in 1846 (still in operation today on the UMSL campus), and he secured the charter for Eliot Seminary (today known as Washington University) in 1853. Mr. Crow was a trustee and generous benefactor to the university from 1853 until his death in 1885. The building in which Arthur H. Compton performed his Nobel Prize winning research is Crow Hall. This article is but a representative sample of the historically interesting revenue stamps and documents available to collectors who take the time to hunt for them. All of the items illustrated here were quite inexpensive and the avenues for historical exploration are virtually endless. In the next issue I will continue with revenues from the late 19th century and the Spanish American War era.
Editor’s Desk Do not be misled by the title. Leonard Piszkiewicz’s Chicago Postal Markings and Postal History Vignettes, which won the Literature Grand at CHICAGOPEX in November, is not just for “Windy City” postal historians. Starting with the markings themselves, Len takes a fresh approach to Chicago postal history while documenting United States Post Office mail handling procedures from the mid-19th through the mid-20th century. Each of the sixty-four chapters of is devoted to a single class of marking – ranging from manuscript postmarks to fictitious and fraudulent auxiliary markings. The book begins in 1831 with the establishment of the Chicago Post Office and ends in the mid-1950s, when postal markings became “more standardized and less interesting to collect.” Working from the underlying assumption is that each postal marking was applied because of a specific postal procedure or regulation, Len researched the relevant policies and instructions to explain the usage of each marking. While the individual markings illustrated are largely unique to Chicago, the postal procedures and regulations are national. Postal historians in any city can utilize Len’s narrative to understand the markings used in their own locale. The letter code scheme Len developed for cataloging markings should serve as a template for the classification of postal markings from other cities. If you purchase only a single book for your postal history library this year, this should be the one. -David L. Straight
Clarification & Amplification By Michael Nickel I enjoyed the May 2006 issue of the ShowMe Gazette, as I do all issues. However, I feel that the article “Stampless Covers /Letters in Recent Auctions” needed a bit of clarification and amplification regarding a couple of the covers mentioned. Earliest known usages can be a bit tricky, especially for covers of this age and scarcity. The terms used must be defined as clearly and precisely as possible. The article describes “a new earliest reported usage from Cape Girardeau”. The new find is dated September 1813, predating the American Stampless Cover Catalog (ASCC) listing of February 1814 by five months. It is described as a territorial usage. All this may very well be true, however it is not the earliest known cover from Cape Girardeau. However, it may be the earliest
known Missouri Territory marking reported for Cape Girardeau. The cover below has a manuscript cancel “Cape Girardeau 7 december 1805” and a “25” rate, predating the new cover mentioned by almost eight years. This cover comes from the time period before the Missouri Territory was formed, when Cape Girardeau was a part of the Louisiana Territory. It is still not the earliest known Cape Girardeau marking, as my old edition of the ASCC lists one dated July 20, 1805. Another cover pictured in the article was a territorial usage from St. Genevieve, dated Jan. 21, 1818 and described as “making it the earliest recorded usage from that post office”. Again, this is not exactly the case. The oval postmark on the cover shown in May is the type having “Missouri” misspelled as “Misouri” with a single ‘s’. The majority of St. Genevieve oval postmarks with this misspelling are weakly struck and difficult to read of reproduce; a clear tracing (on the next page) has been taken from the ASCC. The 1818 cover may be the earliest known with the misspelling, however it is not the earliest known St. Genevieve marking. Again, my old edition of the
ASCC lists St. Genevieve, Missouri Terri-
tory covers back to July 1813, and St. Genevieve, Louisiana Territory covers back to October 1805.
9 cult, if not impossible, to be sure. The cover has no formal expertization. About half of the collectors I’ve shown it to feel it has the misspelling and the other half don’t think so or can’t tell.
The cover shown in the previous article
Which brings me back around to the issue of earliest known markings in general. Make sure you have a very good definition of which aspect of the marking is reported to be the earliest. Is it the earliest known from that territory, state, or county? Is it the earliest known of that cancel type manuscript, circular date, color, or style?
may not even be the earliest know example of the postmark with the misspelling. The cover above was postmarked with a St. Genevieve oval dated “Jul 13” and it has a “75” rate. From the contents it is clearly dated 1815. Now, is it of the misspelled type? The marking is so weak in that area of the postmark that it is diffi-
The key word in “earliest known marking” is known. New discoveries are regularly being made. If you’ve got an EKU in your collection enjoy it now, but don’t take it too hard if something earlier shows up. And keep looking. You might be the one who turns up something earlier and unlisted.
From American Stampless Cover Catalog, volume II, page 297.
Potato Chips & Postal History By MO Joe Today, potato chips are America's favorite snack food and come in an amazing number of varieties. In St. Louis in 1891 you could go to George Bayle on Main Street and get “Saratoga Chip Potatoes”, take ‘em home, peel ‘em, and fry yourself up some chips. In the summer of 1853, American Indian George Crum was employed as a chef at an elegant resort in Saratoga Springs, New York. On Moon Lake Lodge's restaurant menu were French-fried potatoes, prepared by Crum in the standard, thick-cut French style that was popularized in France in the 1700s and enjoyed by Thomas Jefferson as ambassador to that country. The actual French fry is an American invention but received its name based on the country of origin of those fried potatoes. Ever since Jefferson brought the recipe to America and served French fries to guests at Monticello, the dish was popular and considered serious dinner fare. During the early 19th century, fried potatoes steadily gained in popularity. They became a common menu item at restaurants across the country. At Moon Lake Lodge, one dinner guest found chef Crum's French fries too thick for his liking and rejected the order. Crum cut and fried a thinner batch, but these, too, met with disapproval. Exasperated, Crum decided to rile the guest by producing French fries too thin and too crisp
to skewer with a fork. The plan backfired. The guest was ecstatic over the browned, paper-thin potatoes, and other diners requested Crum's potato chips, which began to appear on the menu as Saratoga Chips, a house specialty. Soon they were packaged and sold, first locally, then throughout the New England area. In 1860 Crum opened his own restaurant, featuring a basket of chips on every table. As word of the chips got out, other restaurants began to serve them. It wasn't long before potato chips were a staple in restaurants across the country. William Tappendon of Cleveland, Ohio is credited with taking the potato chip out of the restaurant and into the grocery store. In 1895, he began selling potato chips to local grocers and turned his barn into the world's first potato chip factory. At that time, potatoes were tediously peeled and sliced by hand. It was the invention of the mechanical potato peeler in the 1920s that paved the way for potato chips to soar from a small specialty item to a topselling snack food. After that several companies built large factories for the mass production of potato chips. The 1920s & ‘30s saw the birth of three companies that defined the potato chip industry: Earl Wise, Sr. had too many potatoes at his Wise Delicatessen in Berwick, Pennsylvania In 1921, he decided to make potato chips out of the extras and sell them in brown paper bags through the delicatessen as Wise Potato Chips.
Herman Lay began selling potato chips in the south, and in 1932, he founded Lay's in Nashville, Tennessee as a distributor for a chip factory in Atlanta, Georgia. In 1938, Lay purchased the chip factory and started selling Lay's Brand Potato Chips. In 1921, Bill and Quality Foods in Utz marketed and wife Salie, called Potato Chips.
Salie Utz founded Utz Hanover, Pennsylvania. sold chips made by his Hanover Home Brand
American Stampless Cover Catalog Van Koppersmith, ASCC editor, has asked for assistance: “All editions of the ASCC have benefited from the assistance of hundreds of collectors, dealers and societies. The next edition can be no different. Help is needed at a variety of levels. Each state or territory needs a section editor and all of the sections currently in Volume II require a section editor and some even require assistants. Although some of these positions already have volunteers, many do not, so please assume that all positions are open. All new markings should be reported, also, as the catalog can only be as complete as its readers allow. Clear photocopies and/or scans of new markings are required. Color is appreciated, but black and white images are acceptable. Please fully describe the marking, including size, color, date of use and exact lettering, if any. Please contact Van Koppersmith at PO Box 81119, Mobile AL 366891119; or email [email protected]
to volunteer and contribute new markings.”
Confederate States Catalog The Confederate Stamp Alliance has acquired the rights to the New Dietz Confederate States Catalog and Handbook, last published in 1986. August Dietz published
The Postal Service of the Confederate States of America in 1929. It is the
scholarly work referred to by generations of students to this day. In 1931, Dietz published the first actual catalog that bore his name, a small volume of 320 pages. The 21st century edition of the Confederate States Catalog and Handbook is long overdue and will no doubt be in much demand by collectors, serious students, and dealers. Patricia “Trish” A. Kaufmann, who has been appointed Editor-in-Chief, will be assisted by Jerry S. Palazolo and Francis J. “Frank” Crown. The new catalog will take full advantage of current technology, including the strong likelihood of a full color catalog. The publication goal is 2010, to coincide with the 75th anniversary of the Confederate Stamp Alliance, which will be celebrated in Richmond, Virginia at the APS STAMPSHOW in August 2010. Trish Kaufmann emphasizes that this will be the labor of dozens of learned contributors and not just the editorial board who will organize and choreograph the contents, as well as adding substantive content. For more information on the catalog project, offers of assistance, or information on the Confederate Stamp Alliance, contact Trish Kaufmann, e-mail: [email protected]
Confederate Stamp Alliance on the web at http://www.csacatalog.org/.
Missouri Postal History Society Show- Me Gazette P.O. Box 32858 St. Louis, MO 63132
The “Back Cover” Potato Chips & Postal History, see Page 10. Saint Louis, Mo. Jan. 20, 1891 Duplex cancel with ‘6’ killer ties 2¢ Bureau issue to cover with ad for Geo. A. Bayle – High Grade Saratoga Chip Potatoes. Addressed to Albuquerque, New Mexico Territory.