Department of Food Technology - Guru Nanak Institute of Technology

Department of Food Technology - Guru Nanak Institute of Technology

Issue #4, September 2016 Department of Food Technology Gurunanak Institute of Technology 157/F Nilgunj Road, Panihati, Sodepur, Kolkata-700114, West ...

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Issue #4, September 2016

Department of Food Technology Gurunanak Institute of Technology 157/F Nilgunj Road, Panihati, Sodepur, Kolkata-700114, West Bengal

Editor: Sanjana Chakraborti, 4th year, FT

Publisher: Dr. Chaitali Chakraborty

Fo

The Di e to s Desk

Prof. Dr. Annapurna Das Director, GNIT

I wish to thank you for showing interest in the e-Magazine published by the Department of Food Technology, Gurunanak Institute of Technology, Sodepur, Kolkata. This department have been providing quality education for the past 10 years and over 250 students have graduated from this department. In this College, students are expected to have an enriching experience which will enable them to reach new heights in their professional life. We foster sharpening of skills and enhancement of knowledge base in our students through various extra-curricular, co-curricular and curricular activities through faculty who not only keep themselves at par with the current developments but also contribute to the expansion of the body of knowledge in their field of expertise. To facilitate this, we have Research and Development cell to enhance domain specific research and training among members of faculty and among students. With very congenial and professional environment our faculty makes substantial contribution to the academia through quality teaching, publications, seminars, conferences, etc. The faculty contribution has received recognition by way of various collaborations we have with our partner institutions and universities in India and abroad, and the excellent goodwill we enjoy with the corporate world who generously contribute to our various academic processes. Dr. Annapurna Das Director, GNIT 2 e-Magazine 2016

Fo

The P i ipal s Desk

Prof. Dr. Santanu Sen Principal, GNIT

It gives me immense pleasure to welcome the fourth publication of e-Magazine from the Department of Food Technology. I would like to congratulate to all members of the Food Technology Department for this brilliant effort and a drive towards green revolution. I hope, this endeavour will make rich the student fraternity and also the faculty members of the department and will act as a motivating tool for other departments of Guru Nanak Institute of Technology to follow suit. This effort of publishing e-Magazine by the Food Technology Department with collective agglomeration of articles, papers from various corners and various distinguished experts in the field will enrich our students to understand the recent trends of the food technology and sciences. At the fag end, I must convey my heartiest thankfulness to all the participants, organizing members for the brilliant effort. I wish a gala success of the e-Magazine and expect to continue the endeavour in years to come.

Prof. Dr. Santanu Sen Principal GNIT 3 e-Magazine 2016

Fo

The Dea s Desk

Prof. Dr. Sisir Kr. Das Dean, GNIT

The faculty and staff of Department of Food Technology are committed to educating the next generation of Food Technology professionals through unique academic and research opportunities. Through this program, students enhance their knowledge and develop essential skills and competencies in research, education and administration in Food Industries. Our graduates are maximally effective in the area of food packaging, with emphasis on extension of food product quality, and material science applications to food products. The faculty in the Department of Food Technology has a long history of significant scholarly contributions. Their research has been published in highly respected scholarly journals and presented at state, regional, national and international conferences. The department is home to state of the art research laboratories. We greatly appreciate our alumni who established themselves in great positions and we want to maintain our alumni relationships. As for the future we intend to make the Science and Food program at GNIT sustainable, and to continue to work with local schools to educate students about science through the study of food. The current challenges on food safety norms are increasing to establish the food laws and regulations as well as the socioeconomic dynamic which shapes the food laws of specific regions of the world through WHO and others. The Department arranges many guest lectures of academics and government officials who fulfill the gap between the Institute and the Industries /R&D Organizations. The e-magazine arranged in this Department will provide much incite of the subject. I wish this publishing a great success.

Prof. Dr. Sisir Kumar Das Dean-Research and Administration, GNIT

e-Magazine 2016

4

Dr. Subhajit Ray HOD, FT, GNIT

Fo

The HOD s Desk

I am extremely happy to note the occasion for Publication of Fourth Issue of E Magazine and Two Issues of Departmental Newsletters and Poster ,Debate and Quiz Competition among students on 14th September 2016. The major objectives of E Magazine Publication is not only to acquire recent information in the areas of Food Science, Food Technology, Food Engineering, Nanotechnology etc. but also to encourage young and promising students to undertake Project work based upon some of these areas. On the other hand Publication of Newsletter of two consecutive issues (July to December 2015 & January to June 2016) consists of lots of information including departmental activities e.g. R&D activities, Student activities, seminar/conference/workshop organization/ participation etc. and also some forthcoming events to be organized in recent future. Therefore keeping in views of these facts all these activities are very much pertinent in context to recent perspectives. Now, on behalf of the department and on my personal behalf, I am very much indebted to my Fellow Faculty Members, JTAs and our beloved students for their wholehearted effort to launch these programmes. I am also thankful to our honorable Director and Principal without whom such noble event can not be completed. Last but not the least the effort of other external experts is also noteworthy. I wish a grand success of these events. Dr. Subhajit Ray HoD Department of Food Technology GNIT

5 e-Magazine 2016

Fo

The Pu lishe s Desk

Dr. Chaitali Chakraborty Assistant Professor, FT, GNIT

Dear Reader, Greetings to You!!

Our line-up for the e-Magazine is all set for the year and can be found on our website www.gnit.ac.in. In this respect I glad to inform you that this is the 4th e-Magazine published by the Department of Food Technology. The e-Magazine provides a unique opportunity to participants to express their thoughts by writing on the themes on different food , agriculture and allied sectors and evolve a perspective. It gives me immense pleasure to thank all the authors from different universities, institutes and industries. On behalf of the organizing committee, I extend a hearty welcome to all alumni and current students for their valuable contribution in e-Magazine, 2016. I wish a grand success of the e-Magazine .

Dr. Chaitali Chakraborty Assistant Professor Department of Food Technology GNIT

6 e-Magazine 2016

Articles from: – Academic Experts and Research Scholars – Industrial Experts – Faculty & Staff Members of the Department – Student Alumni – Students of the Department

7 e-Magazine 2016

8 e-Magazine 2016

List of Authors for the Articles Academic Experts and Research Scholars 1.

2.

3.

4. 5.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Dr. D. C. Sen Profesor of Dairy Technology Department of Dairy Technology West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences Dr. PinakiRanjan Ray1 and Prof. Pijuskanti Ghatak2 1 Associate Professor, Department of Dairy Chemistry, WBUAFS 2 Professor, Department of Dairy Chemistry M. K. Sanyal* and P. K. Roy**, * Professor** Assistant Professor, Faculty of Dairy Technology West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences Abhishek Dutt Tripathi, Arpit Srivastava, Deepika Yadav Centre of Food Science and Technology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences. Dr. Sunita Adhikari (Nee Pramanik) Assistant Professor, Dept. of Food Technology & Biochemical Engineering, Jadavpur University Mr. Amit Kumar Barman Address: Assistant Professor, Dept. of Dairy Microbiology, Faculty of Dairy Technology, WBUAFS Soma Maji1,Pinaki Ranjan Ray2 and P.K. Ghatak3 1PhD Scholar,Division of Dairy Chemistry, National Dairy Research Institute,ICAR, Karnal 2Associate Professor, Department of Dairy Chemistry, WBUAFS Priti Saha1*, Tanmay Hazra2, Chaitali Chakraborty3 1*.Ph.D Scholar, D.C.Division, NDRI, Karnal, Haryana; 2. Assistant Professor,Kamdhenu University, Gandhinagar; 3. Assistant Professor, GNIT, Kolkata Dr. (Mrs.) Falguni Patra Assistant Professor, Department of Dairy Microbiology, MIDFT, Mehsana, Gujarat384002. E. mail. [email protected] Dr.Anamika Das Assistant Professor(Food and Dairy Chemistry), Warner School of Food and Dairy Technology, SamHigginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, UP-211007 Tanmay Hazra1, Priti Saha2 1. Assistant professor, Kamdhenu University,Gujrat 2. Ph.D Scholar, D.C. Division, NDRI, Karnal Jui Lodh1 and Priti Saha2 Ph.D Scholar, D.T. Division, NDRI, Karnal Ph.D Scholar, D.C. Division, NDRI, Karnal Dr. R.K. Duary, Sr. Assistant professor, Department of Food Engineering and Technology, School of Engineering, Tezpur University, Tezpur, Assam-748028.

9 e-Magazine 2016

Be Cautious from Synthetic Milk Dr. D. C. Sen Profesor of Dairy Technology Department of Dairy Technology West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences Mohanpur Campus, Nadia – 741245 Dr. D.C. Sen

In the very beginning, I should say that the name synthetic milk is a misnomer. Because, by synthetic milk one would normally think a product analogous to natural milk with respect to its physico-chemical and nutritional properties. But there is no similarity between the two. Synthetic milk in its pure form can be identified on the basis of its taste, color and consistency by an expert. However, when synthetic milk is admixed at low level with fresh natural milk, even an expert would find difficult to detect it through organoleptic tests. In synthetic milk, the major constituents except water are replaced by cheaper , inferior, hazardous chemicals such as caustic soda, urea, soap, shampoo, salt, sugar, vegetable oils, etc., in different proportions. The prepared material looks like milk and is sold as milk called synthetic milk. There is no doubt that the concept of synthetic milk production came out from a ripened brain and it is a gross misuse of scientific knowledge of the saponification process. The sale of synthetic milk was first reported in Haryana at Kurukshetra. Later on, the menace of synthetic milk production gradually spread in various parts of India. Some people have described synthetic milk as a product, closely resembling milk but with no nutritional benefit of fresh natural milk. Consumption of natural milk has several health beneficial effects whereas synthetic milk acts as slow poison for human beings. To increase the awareness among the public and consumers, some simple physico-chemical differences between synthetic and fresh natural milk are highlighted here in Table-1. Characteristics

Synthetic Milk

Fresh Natural Milk

Color

Generally white

White to light yellow

Taste

Bitter or not palatable and slight sweet

Odor

Soapy that becomes distinct on boiling

Very slight sweet and salty but palatable Characteristic milky flavor

Texture

When rubbed between fingers gives a soapy feeling

No soapy feeling when rubbed between fingers

Effect on heating

Turns yellowish

No change

Effect on storage

Turns yellowish

No change

pH

Alkaline (9.0 to 10.5)

Acidic ( 6.6 to 6.8)

Milk slip test

Flow readily

Flows slowly

Solidification quality

Khoa does not produce oily surface

Khoa produces oily surface

Skim milk powder test

Positive

Negative

Soap test

Positive

Negative

Detergent test

Positive

Negative

Sugar test

Positive

Negative

Neutralizer test

Positive

Negative

Vegetable oil test

Positive

Negative

Urea test

Positive

Negative

e-Magazine 2016

10

Functions of Various Ingredients of Synthetic Milk For producing synthetic milk, common detergents like pulverized detergent or soap or shampoo are used as emulsifiers to dissolve oil-in-water for imparting frothy appearance and creamy-white color in milk. Cooking or refined vegetable oil is mixed as a substitute of milk fat. Caustic soda is admixed to neutralize acidity during storage. Cane sugar, salt, glucose, urea, etc., are used for increasing the solids-not-fat (SNF) content. These ingredients are blended with some natural milk for improving the taste. Adverse Effects of Synthetic Milk on the Human Health Consumption of synthetic milk has various adverse effects on our health. Caustic soda and urea are very harmful for our heart, liver and kidneys. Usually, kidneys remove urea from our bodies and have to work more for removal of additional urea present in synthetic milk. Further, caustic soda is corrosive to the gastro-intestinal tract and the sodium in it acts as slow poison for those suffering from high blood pressure and heart ailments. Caustic also hinders the body from lysine utilization, an essential amino acid in milk which is needed for growing infants. Synthetic milk is very dangerous for pregnant women, foetuses and the persons suffering from heart and kidney ailments. Conclusion In view of seriousness of the issue, there is an urgent need to follow a right and firm strategy to stop the production or sale of synthetic milk or admixing it with natural milk. To prevent this kind of malpractices and menace, various government agencies, dairies, NGOs, universities, colleges, schools, clubs, social activists including the common public should come forward and join hands together for overcoming this problem and to lead a healthy life for all. Otherwise, the country will have to pay a heavy price for it.

11 e-Magazine 2016

NATURAL ANTIMICROBIAL COMPONENTS FROM PLANT Dr. Pinaki Ranjan Ray1 and Prof. Pijuskanti Ghatak2 1

Associate Professor, Department of Dairy Chemistry, WBUAFS, Mohanpur, Nadia, WB 2

Professor, Department of Dairy Chemistry, WBUAFS, Mohanpur, Nadia, WB

Prof. P.K. Ghatak

Dr. P.K. Ray

Introduction The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Ethnopharmacologists,botanists, microbiologists, and natural-products chemists arecombing the Earth for phytochemicals and "leads" which could bedeveloped for treatment of infectious diseases. While 25 to 50%of current pharmaceuticals are derived from plants, none are usedas antimicrobials. Traditional healers have long used plants toprevent or cure infectious conditions.Plants have an almost unlimited ability to synthesize aromatic substances, most of which are phenols or their oxygen-substitutedderivatives (Geissman, 1963).In many cases, these substancesserve as plant defense mechanisms against predation by microorganisms,insects, and herbivores. The antimicrobial property of these components can be explored in different food products as natural microbial agent. Antimicrobial property of different plant components Scientists have identified following plant products which have shown strong antimicrobial property. i.Quinonens ii. Flavones, flavonoids, and flavonols iii.Tanninsiv. iv.Coumarins v. Terpenoids i.Quinones : Quinones are aromatic rings with two ketone substitutions. They are ubiquitous in nature and are characteristicallyhighly reactive.. Vitamin K is a complex naphthoquinone.Its antihemorrhagic activity may be related to its ease of oxidationin body tissues (Harris, 1963)). In addition to providing a source of stable free radicals, quinones are known to complex irreversibly with nucleophilic aminoacids in proteins, often leading to inactivation of theprotein and loss of function,which leads to the antimicrobial effect of quinone. Probable targets inthe microbial cell are surface-exposed adhesins, cell wall polypeptides,and membrane-bound enzymes. Quinones may also render substratesunavailable to the microorganism. ii. Flavones, flavonoids, and flavonols: Flavonoids are also hydroxylated phenolic substances. Since they are known to be synthesized by plants in response to microbial infection (Dixon et.al.1983), it should not be surprising that they have been found in vitro to be effective antimicrobial substances against a wide array of microorganisms. Their activity is probably due to their ability to complex withextracellular and soluble proteins and to complex with bacterial cell walls. More lipophilic flavonoids may also disrupt microbial membranes (Tsuchiya et.al.1996) .Catechins, a flavonoid have been extensively researched due to their occurrence in oolong green teas. It was noticed some time ago that teas exerted antimicrobial activity and that they contain a mixture of catechin compounds. Flavonoid compounds exhibit inhibitory effects against multiple viruses. Numerous studies have documented the effectiveness of flavonoids such as glycyrrhizin (from licorice) (Watanbeet.al.1996), and chrysin against HIV. iii. Tannins :"Tannin" is a general descriptive name for a group of polymeric phenolic substances capable of tanning leather or precipitating gelatin from solution, a property known as astringency. They are found in almost every plant part: bark, wood, leaves, fruits, and roots. They are divided into two groups, hydrolyzable and condensed tannins. These group of compounds have received a great deal of attention in recent years, sinceit was suggested that the consumption of tannin-containing beverages, especially green teas and red wines, can cure or prevent a variety of illness. Many human physiological activities, such as stimulation of phagocytic cells, host-mediated tumor activity, and a wide range of anti-infective actions, have been assigned to tannins).Their mode of antimicrobial action may be related to their ability to inactivate microbial adhesins, enzymes, cell envelope transport proteins,etc.

12 e-Magazine 2016

iv. Coumarins: Coumarins are phenolic substances and are responsible for the characteristic odor of hay. Coumarins have antimicrobial properties. As a group, coumarins have been found to stimulate macrophages which could have an indirect negative effect on infections. More specifically, coumarin has been used to prevent recurrences of cold sores caused by HSV-1 in humans (Berkada, 1978). Hydroxycinnamic acids, related to coumarins, seem to be inhibitory to gram-positive bacteria (Fernandezet.al. 1996)). v. Terpenoids : Terpenoids are responsible for general fragrance of plants. Terpenenes or terpenoids are active against bacteria , fungi, viruses , and protozoa . In 1977, it was reported that 60% of essential oil derivatives examined to date were inhibitor to fungi while 30% inhibited bacteria (Chourasia,1977). Food scientists have found the terpenoids present in essential oils of plants to be useful in the control of Listeria monocytogenes (Aureliet.al.1992). Brief characteristics of different antimicrobial plant products are given in Table no. 1.

Common name Aloe

Scientific name Aloe barbadensis

compound Latex

Class Complex mixture

activity Salmonella,Streptococcus ,S.aureus

Apple

Malus sylvestris

Phloretin

Flavonoid

General

Ashwagandha

Withiniasomniferum

Withafarin A

Lactone

Bacteria, Fungai

Black Pepper

Piper nigrum

Piperne

Alkaloid

Lactobacillus,

Cinamom

Cinnamomumverum

Essential oils

Tarpenoids, Tannins

Genral

Chili

Capsicum annum

Capsasin

Terpenoid

Bacteria

Clove

Syzigiumaromaticum

Eugenol

Terpenoid

General

Poppy

Papaver somniferum

opium

Alkaloids and others

General

Tarragon

Artemisia dracunculus

Tannins

Polyphenols

viruses

Turmeric

Curcuma longa

Curcumin

Polyphenols

General

Micrococus,

E.coli,

Conclusion Plant components are useful for their antimicrobial properties. Scientists have found thousands of phytochemicalswhich have inhibitory effects on all types of microorganisms invitro. These compounds should be subjected to animal andhuman studies to determine their effectiveness in whole-organismsystems, including in particular toxicity studies as well as anexamination of their effects on beneficial normal microbiota.Their effect on the human body should be thoroughly examined before arriving at any specific recommendation. References: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Aureli, P., A. Costantini, and S. Zolea. 1992. Antimicrobial activity of some plant essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes. J. Food Prot.55:344-348. Berkada, B. 1978. Preliminary report on warfarin for the treatment of herpes simplex. J. Irish Coll. Phys. Surg.22(Suppl.):56 Chaurasia, S. C., and K. K. Vyas. 1977. In vitro effect of some volatile oil against Phytophthoraparasitica var. piperina. J. Res. Indian Med. Yoga Homeopath. 1977:24-26. Dixon, R. A., Dey, P. M. and Lamb, C. J. 1983. Phytoalexins: enzymology and molecular biology. Adv. Enzymol.55:1-69. Fernandez, M. A., M. D. Garcia, and M. T. Saenz. 1996. Antibacterial activity of the phenolic acids fraction of Scrophulariafrutescens and Scrophulariasambucifolia. J. Ethnopharmacol. 53:11-14 Geissman, T. A.1963. Flavonoid compounds, tannins, lignins and related compounds, p. 265. In M. Florkin, and E. H. Stotz (ed.), Pyrrole pigments, isoprenoid compounds and phenolic plant constituents, vol. 9. Elsevier, New York, N.Y. Harris, R. S. 1963. Vitamins K, p. 192-198. In M. Florkin, and E. Stotz (ed.), Pyrrole pigments, isoprenoid compounds and phenolic plant constituents, vol. 9. Elsevier, New York, N.Y. Tsuchiya, H., Sato, M. ,Miyazaki, T. , Fujiwara, S. , Tanigaki, S. , Ohyama, M. , Tanaka, T. andIinuma, M. . 1996. Comparative study on the antibacterial activity of phytochemical flavanones against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J. Ethnopharmacol.50:27-34. Watanbe, H., Miyaji, C. , Makino, M. andAbo,T. 1996. Therapeutic effects of glycyrrhizin in mice infected with LP-BM5 murine retrovirus and mechanisms involved in the prevention of disease progression. Biotherapy 9:209-220.

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Reduced-Fat Paneer – A Felt Need M. K. Sanyal* and P. K. Roy**, * Professor** Assistant Professor, Faculty of Dairy Technology West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal – 741 252

Introduction Paneer – a popular Indian dairy product – is a heat and acid coagulated unripened variety of soft cheese and is used in the preparation of different culinary dishes, snacks and sweetmeats. It has an acidic flavor, slightly sweetish taste, firm, cohesive and compact body, and a close-knit smooth texture. Paneer contains most of the milk constituents in concentrated form and is considered as an excellent substitute for meat in Indian cuisine. Paneer was probably introduced in India by the Persian and Afgan invaders who came through the Baluchistan and Karakoram mountain pass of the Himalayas. Paneer has everything in its favour to be declared as the national dish in India. Buffalo milk is most suitable for making a good quality paneer while cow milk produces an undesirably soft, weak and fragile product not suitable for cooking purposes. The superior quality of paneer from buffalo milk is due to its unique physico-chemical composition compared to cow milk. Legal Requirements As per the Food Safety and Standards Regulations (FSSR), (2011), Chhana or paneer means the product obtained from the cow or buffalo milk or a combination thereof by precipitation with sour milk, lactic acid or citric acid. It shall not contain more than 70.0 per cent moisture and the milk fat content shall not be less than 50.0 per cent of the dry matter. Milk solids may also be used in preparation of this product. Provided that paneer or chhana when sold as low fat paneer or chhana, it shall conform to the following requirements:— (i) Moisture Not more than 70.0 percent, (ii) Milk fat Not more than 15.0 percent of dry matter: Provided further that such low fat paneer/chhana shall be sold in sealed package only and shall bear proper label declaration as provided in regulation 2.4.5 (39) of Food Safety and Standards (Packaging and Labeling) Regulations, 2011 . Bureau of Indian Standards (IS, 1983) also specifies a minimum of 50% fat on dry matter basis (FDM), but a maximum of 60% moisture in paneer as it was felt that with the existing technologies, it is difficult to get more moisture in paneer without compromising its quality. Justifications for Reduced-fat Paneer FSSR (2011) clearly indicates that there is a huge gap in FDM content of paneer (50%) and low fat paneer (15%). Attempt to make a low-fat paneer at NDRI, Karnal from buffalo milk containing less than 3% fat resulted in a product which was excessively firm, rubbery, chewy and bland in flavour. An acceptable quality low-fat paneer could only be made from buffalo milk standardized to 3.5% fat, resultant FDM content in the product being 42%. Hardness of low-fat paneer could be attributed to the presence of more structural matrix per unit cross-sectional area in the product. Normally, 5 – 6% fat in milk is required for making paneer conforming to FSSR (2011). If the solids-not-fat (SNF) content in milk is adjusted to 9.5% then a minimum of 5.8% fat is required in milk to meet the legal standards in respect of FDM content in paneer. Justifications for such a high fat content in paneer is, however, difficult to apprehend due to several reasons. Normally, paneer is fried in suitable vegetable oil for preparing various culinary dishes and snacks. Since milk fat is a costly commodity in India, presence of such a high fat content in paneer not only increases its cost thereby making it almost unaffordable by the vast majority of our population, but also raises apprehensions among the economically well-off segment about its possible adverse effect on health. Epidemiological studies reveal a positive correlation between the dietary intake of saturated fats (dairy and meat fats) and mortality from coronary heart diseases. Thus with increasing awareness about dietary fats and nutritional requirements that the calories derived from fat should not exceed 30% of the total calories required, more and more fat-conscious consumers are avoiding intake of high fat dairy products. This is evident in the consumer market as demand for low-fat dairy products increased virtually in every major dairy product category world over.

14 e-Magazine 2016

There is thus a need to develop an acceptable quality reduced-fat paneer, preferably from buffalo milk, with substantial reduction in its fat content (say, FDM content of about 25 – 30%). Such a product will not only help in providing adequate nutrition to a large section of needy population in a cost-effective manner and cater to the need of fat-conscious consumers, but also gainfully utilize surplus skim milk available in India. Since the scope for use of skim milk is limited and demand for its dried products is almost saturated, use of skim milk for a cheap, low energy and protein-rich product like reduced-fat paneer will improve the scale of economy in dairy plants. This will also meet the need for product diversification and expansion of market potential for dairy products. Suggested Measures The problems encountered in the manufacture and storage of reduced-fat paneer are too many. In view of the contribution of fat towards micro-structure, rheology and flavor of paneer, it is expected that with major reduction in fat content, the sensory quality of the product (an important selling point) will be affected adversely. Obviously, a number of scientific approaches can be employed to study the problems which may lead to partial solution of one or more particular nature of the problems. Suitable modifications in the manufacturing technique with or without additives to regulate the proportions and state of the major constituents – water, protein and fat, in the product will be of immense help. Incorporation of sodium chloride at suitable level (either directly or through brine-dipping) may help to increase the retention of moisture content in reduced-fat paneer and also improve its flavor and shelf-life. Controlled lipolysis of raw whole milk prior to manufacture may contribute to the development of flavour in the product as free fatty acids generated during limited lipolysis exert beneficial effect on the flavour of milk and milk products. Incorporation of a small quantity of fermented skim milk, suitable functional ingredients and/or hydrocolloids (carrageenan, sodium alginate, agar-agar etc.) in single or combination, may help to improve nutritional, therapeutic and sensory quality of reduced-fat paneer. For commercial success of any dairy product, it is imperative that the product has a reasonably good shelf-life. Use of bactericidal and fungicidal preservatives, preferably of biological origin along with suitable low cost packaging system can help in this regard. Conclusion The main problems associated with the production of reduced-fat paneer have been identified by various researchers. Development of a good quality reduced-fat paneer containing about 25 – 30% FDM preferably from buffalo milk, employing various process modifications, lipolysis and additives should invite the attention of research workers to provide masses with an acceptable quality protein-rich and low cost dairy product. This will also pave the way for effective utilization of surplus skim milk available in India.

15 e-Magazine 2016

Probiosis: Influence of probiotics to restore gut ecology for human well-being

Dr. R.K. Duary

Dr. R.K. Duary, Sr. Assistant professor, Department of Food Engineering and Technology, School of Engineering, Tezpur University, Tezpur, Assam-748028.

In recent times, there has been a wide spread change in consumer perception towards food. Food is being perceived not only as a source of nutrition but also as therapeutic agent. This shift has generated new concepts of functional foods and neutraceuticals. Diet, stress, and modern medical practices have been implicated as factors capable of exerting an influence on human health and nutrition, resulting imbalance in the gut microbiota profile. Human body houses a complex microbiota of more than 1,500 different bacterial species with a density of ~1014 bacterial cells and among them the gut microbiota plays a vital /significant role in the gut functioning (metabolism) and keeping it in healthy state.Gut microbiota plays an intricate and sometimes pivotal role in our health and well-being, representing a quite unique microbial finger printing of an individual. Aberrations in the gut flora due to dietary interventions and oral drug based therapies and the ensuing imbalance of normal gut flora could result in serious health implications attributed to gut malfunctioning unless the normal balance of the gut flora is restored.Under these situations, administration of probiotics such as lactobacilli or probiotic dairy based functional foods through oral route could be quite effective in restoring the disturbed gut back to normal gut. Lactic acid bacteria play a very important role as starters in production of such health foods as they are food grade organisms and are generally regarded as safe (GRAS). Amongst the probiotics, Lactobacillus spp. are natural inhabitants of healthy human gastrointestinal (GI) tract and also have a long history of safe use in foods and fermented products since the dawn of civilization. Also because of their specific health promoting functions, probiotics particularly lactobacilli have now become the focus of attention and a key bioactive ingredient of functional and health foods market across the world. Probiotic bacteria are li e micro-organisms which on consumption in adequate amounts exert beneficial effect on host health . These can be used either prophylactically or as biotherapeutics as an effective alternative to drug treatment. Recent findings on the prospects of probiotics as possible biotherapeutics have revealed that these organisms can be explored as innovative tools to alleviate intestinal inflammation, normalize gut mucosal dysfunction and down-regulate hypersensitivity reactions but are highly strain specific. However, the exact molecular mechanisms by which these micro-organisms exert a positive influence on host largely remain unclear. The term probiogenomics is used to know the genome sequencing of probiotics as a strategy to generate insights into the functional diversity, healthpromoting mechanisms, and evolution of probiotics. The positive effect of consumption of probiotics are: improvement of bowel habit; reduction of diarrhea and constipation; modulation of lipid metabolism by normalizing cholesterol values; reduction of osteoporosis by improving mineral absorption; reduction of allergy risk through immune system modulation; reduction in colon cancer; etc. Thus, these beneficial strains can be used either prophylactically or as biotherapeutics agents against various diseases like Ulcerative Colitis, T a ele s diarrhea, C oh s disease, etc. However, the molecular mechanisms by which such non-pathogenic micro-organisms exert a positive influence upon ingestion largely remain unclear. Genomic approaches like Microarray, Real Time PCR (RT-qPCR), etc. forms a powerful tool for selection of novel and promising probiotic strains and studying the regulatory pattern at transcriptional level, which could eventually be used in human clinical trials to validate their putative health claims before exploring their application in functional foods. Various research groups are working on quantification of probiotic attributes and their impact on host specific genes involved during the process of probiosis in the gut at transcriptional level as an important criterion to know gene functionality during probiotic host interactions, which will leads to development of genuine functional food.

16 e-Magazine 2016

Functional aspects of custard apple and its health benefit

Dr. Abhishek Dutt Tripathi

Abhishek Dutt Tripathi, Arpit Srivastava, Deepika Yadav Centre of Food Science and Technology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005

INTRODUCTION The custard apple ( Annona squmosa) is among the key dry land fruit grown in waste land on rain water cultivated all over the country. A relatively less moist soil and temperature, environment will yield the custard apple fruit with decent nutritional constituent. In India the term custard apple is normally applied to sharifa or sitaphal. It is also called as sugar apple. The fruit is sweet with slight acidity but has pleasing texture and flavour . Food value lies mainly due to sugar content which is about 12.4-18.15 % and protein 1.6 %. Fruit is utilized in preparation of ice cream, custard apple powder and beverages etc. The triglyceride concentration in custard apple is found to be very low. Custard apple is considered as one of the delicious and nutritionally valuable fruit meant for table purpose. Fruits have an edible, soft, granular, juicy and sugary pulp with mild flavor and with slight acidity. Fruits are considered fortheir medicinal value besides their general use in ice cream, confectionery, beverage and certain milk products. Custard apple is considered as one of the delicious and nutritionally valuable fruit. By the virtue of its spontaneous spread in forests, waste lands and other uncultivated places custard apple is usually categorized as semi wild fruit. It is considered as beneficial for cardiac disease, diabetes hyperthyroidism and cancer.The various chemical constituents isolated from leaves, stems, and roots of the plant include anonaine, aporphine, coryeline, isocorydine, norcorydine, and glaucineFolkloric record reports its use as an insecticidal and antitumor agent , antidiabetic , antioxidant, antilipidemic, and anti-inflammatory agent which maybe characterized due to the presence of the cyclic peptides. An infusion with 2 handfuls of fresh leaves in 1 L of water is prepared to fight against heart failure and palpitations(1 cup after meal). This infusion is also effective for proper digestion and has antispasmodic activities.In Aligarh district of Northern India, villagers used to consume a mixture of 4-5 newly grown young leaves of A. squamosa along with black pepper (Piper nigrum) for management of diabetes. It is documented that this may ensure up to 80% of the positive results with continued therapy. The following table shows the nutrient value of custard apple. Table : Nutrient value of custard apple (100 g) Fat calories

6.1g

Vitamin C

91 mg

Protein calories

17g

Thiamine

275 mcg

Iron

105 mg

Total carbohydrate

59 g

Dietary fibre

11 g

Magnesium

53 mg

Total fat

725 mg

Phosphorus

80 mg

Saturated fat

120 mg

Potassium

618 mg

Mono-saturated fat

285 mg

Sodium

23 mg

Poly unsaturated fat

100 mg

Zinc

250 mcg

Omega-6 fatty acids

100 mg

Copper

215 mcg

Vitamin A

15 I.V.

Selenium

1.5 mcg

HEALTH BENEFITS Besides the custard apple fruit, research has shown Anti-HIV activity, Anti-oxidant activity, antitumour activity and improves digestion. Extracts obtained from the peel and seeds of custard apples have been shown to possess antioxidant activity. The aqueous extract of the leaves of custard apple has been shown to possess antioxidant activity in diabetic animal models as indicated by the increased levels of enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, etc. The anti-cancer properties of custard apple appear to be mainly due to a class of compounds called acetogenins which are specific to Annonaceaous species. Custard apple assists in sustaining excellent eye-sight. Custard apple is acclaimed to aid in combating free-radical destruction brought on to the cells due to the presence of riboflavin as well as vitamin C content . Custard apple is believed to be a natural method to obtain soluble fiber. With regards to digestive function this fruit can be really effective. It will help to improve digestion by causing stools much softer as well as helping in peristalsis. Additionally,Custard apple willhelp in smooth muscle relaxation of the alimentary canal due to the presence of magnesium . This may assist deal with dysentery as well as diarrhea. Custard apple consists of reasonably bulky quantity of magnesium along with potassium. Magnesium can relax the smooth muscles of the heart as well as calm twitches or even cramping, therefore eluding heart attack as well as strokes. Due to the presence of several compounds which include Ent-kauranes, Acetogenins, essential oils and Benzylisoquinolines alkaloids the fruit of Annona spp. have shown to have anti-microbial activities. The anti-bacterial activity of the crude methanol extract of sugar apple, and an isolated diterpene, against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumonia is being recognized. There are also reports of chemicals which are also active against candida albicans, proteus etc. Custard apples consist of anti-oxidants just like Vitamin C, which will help to battle free radicals within our body as well as cures the wound quickly. Custard apple is a good source of B complex vitamins, which controls the GABA neuron chemical levels in the brain. This helps to calm down stress, tension, irritability and depression. It also protects from Pa ki so s disease. 17 100 grams of custard apple contain 0.6 grams of vitamin B6, amounting to about 20% of the daily recommended value.

e-Magazine 2016

Microbial Decontamination of Milk and Milk Based Beverages by Pulsed Electric Field Dr. (Mrs.) Falguni Patra

Dr. (Mrs.) Falguni Patra Assistant Professor, Department of Dairy Microbiology, MIDFT, Mehsana, Gujarat-384002. E. mail. [email protected]

Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing is a novel non-thermal method of food processing that uses short bursts of electricity for microbial inactivation with minimal or no detrimental effect on food quality attributes. Typically, for effective microbial inactivation, electric field strengths should be in the range 20 to 50 kV/cm, pulse lengths in the range of 1 to 10 μs and specific energy inputs in the range 50 to 1000 kJ/kg. Cell death by PEF appears to be due to disruption of cell membrane function and by electroporation. Till date, there is no clear evidence of the molecular mechanisms involved in the rupture of the cell membrane and inactivation of microorganisms by PEF. Although there are several hypotheses on the mechanisms involved, two hypotheses, electrical breakdown, and osmotic imbalances, are widely accepted and are based on the same principles. The degree of microbial inactivation by PEF depends on several factors related to process (like the electric field strength, treatment temperature, treatment time, and specific energy input), the microorganisms (physiological state e.g., spores versus vegetative cells, size and shape of the microbial cell, cell wall characteristics: Gram-positive versus Gram-negative, inoculum size and natural flora versus inoculation tests) and product characteristics (water activity, pH, electrical conductivity and fat content). Dairy products like milk, Infant formula milk, yoghurt based beverages that was inoculated with various levels of pathogens, such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Listeria monocytogenes, L. innocua, Cronobacter sakazaki and then treated by PEF processing, showed a significant overall reduction in pathogen levels between 2 and more than 5 log10 by applying processing energies in the range 100–550 kJ/l. The hurdle approach using PEF in combination with thermization, antimicrobial substances like nisin, enterocin-AS48, lysozyme and other nonthermal processes like thermosonication, microfiltration has been also reported to enhance the efficacy of PEF. PEF process has been suggested as an additional preservation step to extend the shelf life of milk, either immediately after the thermal process prior to packaging or after a short storage time under refrigeration conditions prior to bulk shipping. In one such study , the microbiological shelf life of skimmed milk at 4ºC was evaluated after processing by thermization (60–65ºC, 21 s), PEF (28–36 kV/cm) processing and a combination of PEF followed by thermization. The shelf life of samples treated by PEF or thermization was 14 days, whereas for PEF plus thermal processing, the shelf life was 30 days at 4ºC. Currently, industrial-scale PEF has been developed and successfully applied for shelf-life extension of fruit juices at a capacity of up to 8000 L/ h. In dairy sector, the PEF technology is possibly viable for applications in premium dairy products including colostrum, whey and blended fruit-dairy drinks, liquid infant formula, dairy bioactives, dairy concentrates or (raw milk) cheeses. However these applications would still require further research and evaluation of the safety, quality and health promoting aspects of PEF processed dairy systems to assure regulatory food safety approval.

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Application of Silver Nanoparticles in the Food Packaging for Food Safety Dr. Sunita Adhikari (Nee Pramanik) Assistant Professor, Dept. of Food Technology & Biochemical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-32 Dr. Sunita Adhikari

Nanotechnology is a modern tool which can change the present scenario of food industry. Nanoparticle incorporation in the packaging material produces much stronger, high-barrier packaging materials which ismore potent antimicrobial agents and a sensor which can detect trace contaminants, gasses or microbes in the packaged foods. Nanotechnology involves particles with approximate length 1-100nm. When particle size is in this range then the resulting material exhibit different physical and chemical properties than the macroscale material made of the same substance. In food industry the packaging material has numerous functions. It protects the food from dust, oxygen, light, pathogens, moistures and other harmful substances. The criteria of an ideal packaging material are: It should be inert. The packaging material should be cheap and light weight. The packaging material can be disposed easily or reusable. It is able to withstand extreme conditions during processing or filling, during storage and transportation. Traditional food packaging material include metal, ceramic (glass), and paper (cardboard). While these materials are still used, the light weight, low cost, ease of processing and formability, and remarkable diversity in physical properties of organic polymeric materials makes plastics attractive alternatives for the packaging of foods. Polymers which are most frequently used for food packaging include polyolefins such as polypropylene (PP) and various grades of polyethylene (HDPE, LDPE, etc.), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The major drawback of polymer is their inherent permeability to gasses and other small molecules.There is a significant push in the polymer industry to generate monolayer films with improved mechanical and gas barrier properties, particularly those which are composed of biocompatible materials.Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) are the latest materials aimed at solving the aforementioned problems. PNCs are created by dispersing an inert, nanoscale filler throughout a polymeric matrix.

Silver has a long history of being used as an antimicrobial agent in food and beverage storage applications.Numerous ancient societies stored wine and water in silver vessels. Web searches on the historic uses of silver reveal anecdotal reports of early settlers placing silver dollars or silver spoons at the bottom of milk and water bottles to prolong shelf life, and of seafaring ships or airliners lining their water tanks with silver to keep water potable for long periods of time. Silver was the sterilization agent for water on the Russian MIR space station and on NASA space shuttles, and sil e s broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and relative low cost have made it a candidate as the active disinfecting agent for water in developing countries. In 2009, the FDA modified the food additive regulations to permit the direct addition of silver nitrate as a disinfectant to commercially bottled water at concentrations not to exceed 17 μg/kg. Silver has long been used as an antiseptic. Silver is broad spectrum and toxic (to varying degrees) to numerous strains of bacteria, fungi, algae, and possibly some viruses.The largest advantage of silver is that silver can be easily incorporated into numerous materials such as textiles and plastics, making it especially useful for applications where broad spectrum, sustained antimicrobial activity is desirable. As of August 2009 there are at least 259 products which utilize some form of nanosilver for their function, ranging from textiles (socks and linens) to cosmetics/hygiene products (toothpastes, make-ups), from appliances (washing machines and refrigerators) to cleaning agents (detergents, soaps), and from kitchen supplies (food storage containers, bakeware, cutting boards) to toys and building materials (paints, caulks, glues). Silver nanoparticles may also make an appearance in commercialized food packaging materials in the future. 19

e-Magazine 2016

Antioxidative Potential of Probiotic: An Overview Mr. Amit Kumar Barman Address: Assistant Professor, Dept. of Dairy Microbiology, Faculty of Dairy Technology, WBUAFS. Mohanpur Campus, PO Krishi Vishwavidyalaya - 741 252

Mr. Amit Kumar Barman

 Introduction: The role of probiotics in human nutrition has been increasingly recognized together with the growing public awareness of certain health benefits of fermented dairy products. Today, a broad variety of fermented and non-fermented dairy products containing micro-organisms with probiotic function are available on the market. Historically, fermented milks have been regarded as valuable and sensorically attractive foods, which positively influence the intestinal microbial balance of humans. Besides this long-term experience with this kind of traditional foods, numerous reports dealing with more or less proven evidence for certain prophylactic and therapeutic claims of probiotics have appeared in the last ten years and this has led to extensive discussions among experts from different disciplines. Several benefits are possible from probiotic cultures, including control of intestinal infections, control of serum cholesterol levels, beneficial influences on the immune system, improvement of lactose utilization in person who are classified as lactose maldigestors, and anticarcinogenic action.  Beneficial Effects of Probiotics:

–`Decreasing the pH by production of lactic acid, which suppress the putrefactive and other undesirable bacteria in the intestines. –Production of specific antimicrobial substances, which prevent the entero-pathogens and other pathogens from causing diseases. –Consumption of nutrients available to undesirable bacteria. –Decreasing the redox potential and production of hydrogen peroxide (under aerobic condition). –Stimulating the immune system, thus contributing to a greater resistance to infections. –Resisting colonization of undesirable micro-organisms in the intestines, urogenital tract, respiratory tract etc. –Inhibition of carcinogenesis. –Decreasing the levels of blood cholesterol. –Increasing calcium absorption and hence inhibiting decalcification of bones. –Decreasing lactose intolerance to lactose deficient individuals. –Synthesis of vitamins such as riboflavin, niacin, B6, B12, folic acid etc. –Predigestion of protein.

 Most Important Characteristics of Probiotics:

•Survival, proliferation and/or colonization on the location where it must be active. •No pathogenic, toxic, allergic, mutagenic or carcinogenic reactions. •No immune reactions against probiotic strains. •Genetically stable. •Easy and reproducible production. •Viable during processing and storage. •The cultures not only must be selected for their ability to produce desired organoleptic properties in the cultured product but factors related to their potential health or nutritional benefits must also be considered. •They must be selected for their ability to provide the targeted benefit for the consumer.

Organisms Used as Probiotic in the Food and Agricultural Industry: Organisms

Comment

Lactobacillus acidophilus

As a supplement in fermented dairy products; numerous health claim.

L. plantarum L. casei subsp. rhamnosus and L. brevis

In dairy products, pickled vegetables and silage.

L. delbruckii sub sp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus

For production of yoghurt; numerous health claim. Components of new dairy products and in preparation for new born; health claim.

In dairy products and silage.

Bifidobacterium bifidum

Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis and S. Cremoris

Enterococcus faecium

Introduced in certain health products; health claim. Used in production of curd, butter milk and certain cheeses; health claim.

Saccharomyces boulardii

Used for treatment of diarrhoea.

Quality Parameters and Selection of Probiotics Bacteria:

–Probiotic bacteria have to fulfil several requirements because of safety reasons and order to ensure the desired effects. Most of the commercially used strains are the result of extensive systematic isolation and screening experiments. In general, probiotic bacteria have to meet six main criteria before they can be commonly applied. –They have to originate from the intestine of healthy humans. –They should have a clear identity based on up-to-date differentiation and on molecular-biological methodology. –They have to be generally regarded as safe and should have proven apathogeneity, atoxicity and defined antibiogramme pattern. –They have to constitute a high resistance against gastric juice, bile acids and digestion enzymes to facilitate their passage to the desired segments of the intestine. –They should exert defined beneficial effects to the humans, which enable a clear distinction from o e tio al starter cultures. –They have to meet several requirements, which are necessary for a convenient, large-scale industrial production of foods.

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 Production of Antimicrobial Substances by Probiotics: Probiotics can produce products due to their metabolic activity, which has lethal or inhibitory effect to other micro-organisms. So probiotics possess the ability to prevent pathogens from causing diseases. Some antimicrobial substances produced by some probiotics are given below:

Probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus L. bulgaricus L. plantarum L. brevis Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis Bifidobacterium bifidum

Compounds Acidolin, acidophilin, lactacidin Bulgarican Lactolin Lactobacillin, lactobrevin Nisin Bifidin

 The Probiotics in Human Health: Probiotics has antagonistic effect towards pathogens. They are useful in the treatment of many types of diarrhea, caused by rotaviruses. They preserve intestinal integrity and mediate effects of inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, constipation, colitis and alcoholic lever disease. They improve digestion of lactose, enhance immune response and resistance to infection. Probiotics are also believed to reduce risk of colon cancer, lower serum cholesterol level, treat allergies, synthesize certain nutrients and vitamins and improve their bioavailability. (a) Microbial ecology of gut: Colonization of gastrointestinal tract of newborn infants occurs within a few days of birth. The type of delivery, dietary constituents and gestational age influence the colonization pattern. The initial period of bacterial colonization in colon takes place over approximately a two-weeks period. During this period bacterial colonization is similar for formula and breast-fed infants. (b) Nutritional benefits of probiotics: The nutritional benefits of probiotics has been most extensively investigated in regard to the fermentation of food products with Lactobacilli to study the effect of fermentation on quantity, availability, digestibility and assimilability of nutrients. Alm (1982) reported that, as a result of bacterial proteolysis, yoghurt has higher level of free amino acids as compare to milk. Animal studies revealed that a number of different fermented products such as acidophilus milk, Lactobacillus lactis fermented milk, kefir, yoghurt and cultured butter milk caused increased growth and feed efficiency in several different animal models when compare to unfermented dairy products (Friend and Shahani, 1984). Evidence has been presented indicating the bioavailability of calcium, zinc, iron, manganese, copper and phosphorus are increased in yoghurt when compare to milk (McDonough et al., 1983). Studies demonstrated an increase in riboflavin and niacin in yoghurt (Alm, 1982), B6 in cheddar cheese and B12 in cottage cheese (Deeth and Tamine, 1981) and folic acid in a variety of products including yoghurt, bifidus milk and kefir (Shahani et al., 1979), riboflavin and thiamine had also been shown to increase during the preparation of Lactobacillus fermented products (Rajlakshmi and Vanaji, 1967). (c) Therapeutic benefits of probiotics: Probiotics has been reported to be effective in the treatment of a number of disorders including diarrhoea, constipation, colitis, gastric acidity, gastroenterititis, cholera, pathogenic recolonization of gastro intestinal tract, flatulence, hypercholesterolaemia, hepatic encephalopathy, carcinogenesis and increase immunity. Some of them are described below: i) Anti-carcinogenesis: Anticarcinogenic or antimutagenic activities have been reported for several cultures used to manufacture various fermented milk products. Some of these have involved products containing probiotic bacteria expected to survive and grow in the intestinal tract. ii) Effect of probiotics on colonization resistance: The indigenous microflora on body surface inhibits the colonization of non-indigenous microflora. In different studies on humans beneficial micro-organisms are used to improve the colonization resistance on body surfaces, such as gastrointestinal, urogenital and respiratory tract. iii) Treatment of intestinal infections: For many years these have been claimed that various probiotics can be used to prevent or treat a variety of gastrointestinal disorders. This beneficial effect is due to the ability of probiotics to produce bacteriocins, lowering pH by lactic acid, decreasing redox potential, competition for nutrients with pathogens etc. iv) Hepatic encephalopathy: Hepatic encephalopathy is a neurological disorder associated with liver failure in which ammonia produced from urea in the intestines cannot be detoxified in liver, so blood ammonia level is elevated. Treatment with probiotics results in lowering of faecal urease and decreasing in ammonia level in blood. v) Treatment of hypercholesterolaemia: Elevated plasma cholesterol has been positively associated with a higher rate of coronary heart disease. Now a day a number of drugs are available to lower plasma cholesterol, however, non-pharmaceutical agents that could accomplish this reduction would be preferable. In this context there have been a number of studies were done by using probiotics in different forms and it have been proved that probiotics have cholesterol lowering properties. vi) The ability of probiotics to increase the tolerance of lactose in lactose-deficient individuals: Lactose, a milk carbohydrate, causes intestinal distress when consumed by people with a deficiency in the intestinal mucosal enzyme galactosidase (lactase). Such individuals must restrict their intake of milk and dairy products. During fermentation Lactobacilli produce lactase, which hydrolysed milk lactose to glucose and galactose. vii) Effect of probiotics on the immune system: The gastrointestinal tract is an important organ in host defence against potential pathogens and non-viable materials including carcinogens. It is suggested that immuno-competent cells are activated in the gut and transported to other mucosal sites such as respiratory and urogenital tract. Proboitic micro-organisms, or their antigens, can penetrate the epithelial barrier of the intestine, thus stimulating the immuno-competent cells.  Examination of Probiotic Dairy Products: Normally, probiotic bacteria exert their beneficial effects when ingested repeatedly at relatively high cell counts (> 106 cfu per gram of product). Therefore, the manufacturers of probiotic products have to aim at making products, which meet these requirements in order to guarantee the specific value. Because of these reasons there is a need for methods of quality control which enable reliable detection and enumeration of the various bacteria contained in the fermented products. Today, standard methods are being sought which are selective enough to distinguish qualitatively and quantitatively among the mixed micro-flora of fermented milk products.

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BIOCHIP- A PROMISING ALTERNATIVE FOR DETECTION OF CONTAMINANTS AND ADULTRANTS IN MILK Mr. Tanmay Hazra

Tanmay Hazra1, Priti Saha2 1. Assistant professor, Kamdhenu University,Gujarat 2. Ph.D Scholar, D.C. Division, NDRI, Karnal

IntroductionThe authenticity of milk and milk products has become a focal point, attracting the attention of scientists, producers and consumers.Traditional procedures to assess the authenticity of milk and milk products include chromatographic, electrophoretic and immunoenzymatic methods. Very recently biochip based technology are getting top choice for quality control personnel to authenticate milk and milk products. Biochip&its advantagesA biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that allows many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput.Typically, a biochip's surface area is no larger than a fingernail. Biochips are designed in such a way that different contaminants are detected by imprinting antibodies or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), enzymes whole cell or other bio- moleculesagainst specific target analyte and allow the detectionof different analytes in a single biochip. Recently different typesof biochip have been used to detect various adulterants and contaminants in milk. AntibioticsAntibiotics are molecules that kill, orstop the growth of microorganisms, including both bacteria and fungi. Antibiotics are excreted into milk as residues. The commonly used antibiotics are β-lactam, tetracycline, aminoglycoside etc. and these residues causes allergicreactions to particular people, imbalance of gut micro flora, decreased antimicrobial susceptibility in bacteria of medical importance. Biochips have been successfully applied to monitor antibiotics in milk.An immune assay based bio-sensor has been developed to detect 25 different antibiotics in milk (Adrainet al., 2008). PesticidePesticide can be defined as any organic toxic compound used to control insects, bacteria, weeds, nematodes, rodents and other pests. Milk can be contaminated by mainly two classesof pesticides organochlorines (OC) and organophosphorus(OP), these are highly carcinogenic. Biochip technology has been exploited recently to analyze organophosphate (OP) pesticide residues in milk by developing a chemiluminescence (CL) based enzyme assaywithin 12 minutes(Mishra et al., 2010). Heavy MetalsAmong the heavy metals cadmium(Cd) is one of themajor contaminants found in milk. These elements adversely affect humans by getting accumulated in vital organs such as liver and kidney and by displacing the vital nutrients in the body. A whole cell based biochip developed to detect Cd in milk to 0.1μg/ L (Vermaet al., 2010). AdulterantsVarious types of adulterants like water, neutralizers, salt, starch, urea etc. use to adultrate the milk. Urea is a very common adulterant due to relatively cheap in price and has high nitrogen content. Higher concentration of urea (>70 mg/dL) may cause indigestion, acidity, ulcers, cancers, malfunctions of kidney etc. A detection system for urea has been devised in milk by immobilizing the urease enzyme, through entrapping, onto the ion sensitive membrane using a polymer matrix of polycarbamoylsulphonate (PCS) and polyethyleneimine(PEI). The system can detect urea with a detection limit of 2.5 × 10−5mol/L(Trivedi et al., 2009). MelamineMelamine is a component of plastics, adhesives, glues, laminated products such as plywood, cement, cleansers, fire-retardant paint etc. and used in crop fertilizer.An immunoassay based biochip technology has been devised by raising antibodies against hapten, a compound similar to melamine to detect melamine in infant formula and infant liquid milk samples. The detection limit of the system was <0.5 μg/ ml in both infant formula and infant liquid milk (Fodeyet al., 2011). Future market of bio sensorThe global bio chip market is expected to reach US$11.4 billion by 2018 with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 18.6% during 2012–2018. ConclusionBiochip based development has favored home diagnostics: point of care testing in healthcare; research laboratories; security and biodefense. The food industry has not embraced rapid method applications in food production and processing. Cost, performance and reliability have still to be addressed. ReferencesAdrian J, PinachoDG, Granier B, Diserens JM, Sanchez-BaezaF, Marco MP (2008) A multianalyte ELISA for immunechemicalscreening of sulfonamide, fluoroquinolone and ß-lactam antibiotics in milk samples using class-selectivebio-receptors. Anal BioanalChem 391(5):1703-1712. Fodey TL, Thompson CS, Traynor IM, Haughey SA, Kennedy DG, Crooks SR (2011) Development of an optical biosensor based immunoassay to screen infant formula milk samplesfor adulteration with melamine. Analytical chemistry 83(12):5012-5016. Mishra GK, Mishra RK, Bhand S (2010) Flow injection analysis biosensor for urea analysis in adulterated milk using enzyme thermistor. BiosensBioelectron 26(4):1560-1564. Trivedi U, LakshminarayanaD, Kothari I, Patel N, Kapse H,Makhija K, Patel P, Panchal C (2009) Potentiometric biosensor for urea determination in milk. Sensor ActuatBChem140(1):260-266. Verma N, Kumar S, Kaur H (2010) Fiber Optic Biosensor for the detection of Cd in Milk. J BiosensBioelectron 1: 102.

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ISSUES RELATED TO FOOD ADULTERATION AND STRATEGIES FOR ITS PREVENTION Dr.Anamika Das Assistant Professor(Food and Dairy Chemistry), Warner School of Food and Dairy Technology, SamHigginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, UP-211007

Dr.Anamika Das

In India, food safety is a growing problem with frequent incidences of adulteration and contamination of essential foods that can have harmful effects on health . Food spoilage occurs mostly during handling from the primary producers to the consumers (e.g. food production, processing, packaging, distribution, storage, cooking or serving). Adulterants (non-nutritious substances) are intentionally/deliberately added or may unintentionally enter into food. Ususally food is adulterated to increase the quantity and make more profit in business. Food should be free from adulterants and contaminants or should have only acceptable and safe levels of adulterants, contaminants or any other substances that may make food non hazardous to health. Mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, zeralenone, patulin, and trichothecenes produced by moulds that are found in food supply chain. At community level, serious outbreaks of food-borne diseases have been reported from time to time. However, consumers do not have knowledge about the impact of the contamination on human health. At national level, globalization in food trade has been introduced as it offers many benefits to consumers by the way of accessibility, affordability and safety of a variety of high quality foods. Some of the ongoing trends regarding food adulteration like admixture of cereals and pulses with sand, gravels, stones, earth or talc are being followed in the open market. Healthy sorghum and corn grains are mixed with moldy grains containing fumonicin toxin. The poor quality cardamoms (from which essential oils have been extracted) are mixed with good quality green cardamoms, and red pepper powder is adulterated with colored saw dust in the weekly markets. Black pepper seeds are adulterated with papaya seeds, grass seeds (coated with charcoal dust) or mineral oil. The split grains or flour of pigeon pea or chick pea are adulterated with grass pea while preparing snacks or meals. There have been reports of consumption of wheat/millet grains mixed with buck wheat flour, or seeds of Crotalaria spp. containing toxic alkaloids. Oils and fats containing butylated hydroxyanisole or butylated hydroxyl toluene are mixed with edible oils. The wax (containing morpholine as a solvent and emulsifier) is spread on fruits to retain moisture, prevent bursting and physical damage, enhances appearance and to extend storage period/shelf life. Unripe fruits are artificially ripened with ethylene to retain firmness and to give ripening appearance. Powder of calcium carbonate containing traces of arsenic and phosphorus is applied to fruits; fruits and vegetables are plumped up with injection of hormone oxytocin to retain freshness, and colored water is injected into water melon to impart redness to pulp. At present, flavor concentrates, natural colors (beta-carotene, riboflavin, caramel, annato, saffron, curcumin) and synthetic colors (brilliant blue FCF, carmoisine, erythrosine, fast green FCF, ponceau 4R, sunset yellow FCF, indigo carmine and tartrazine) are permitted up to100 ppm for all foods or 200 ppm for canned products. During trading, malachite green or copper sulphite are being applied to crucifers, green peppers, leafy vegetables and eggplant, and Congo red and Sudan dyes to red peppers are added for retaining natural appearance and freshness. Similarly, acidity regulators, anticoagulating agents, antifoaming agents, antioxidants, bulking agents, color retention agents, emulsifiers, flavors and flavor enhancers are routinely used in the manufacturing and processing units. These admixtures are not legally permitted. At field level, food contamination of agricultural produce, before and after harvest can be avoided by adopting Good agricultural practices (GAP) including integrated pest management practices. Prevention of admixture is possible by checking the quality of food grains at the time of purchase and only branded and ISI marked products should be preferred. Artificially colored rice, pulses, sweets, spices, junk food, adulterated milk or oil should be rejected. Different agencies like BIS operates the ISI (Certification marks) Act of 1952 had laid down the quality standards for processed foods. The AGMARK standard has been revised by the DMI and the Agriculture Produce Act has been introduced under which the government fixes the quality specifications. Food Safety and Standards Authority of India under Ministry of Health and Family Welfare regulates the manufacturing, storage, distribution, sale and import, and thereby, ensures availability of safe food for human consumption. Recently, formation of the National Food Quality Control Board has also been suggested by the government. Also, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has constituted a National Codex Committee, and has established the National Food Science and Risk Assessment Centre for carrying out analysis of food surveillance data recorded from laboratories in order to generate data on food hazards and outbreaks of food borne diseases and to implement the codex-adopted general principles of food hygiene and recent guidelines for hazard analysis. Since consumers are at the end of food chain, they should form associations and fight for their rights to get safe foods. In fact, with rapid growth in urbanization, the consumerism, food processing and marketing systems have been changed significantly. More attention is needed for further extension of improved practices in agriculture and animal husbandry. There is also need of stringent measures to prevent and control post-harvest losses.

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Turmeric: The most promising Indian spice Jui Lodh1 and Priti Saha2 Ph.D Scholar, D.T. Division, NDRI, Karnal Ph.D Scholar, D.C. Division, NDRI, Karnal

Mrs. Jui Lodh

Introduction: Herbs and plant products has been applied for combating diseases from the dawn of civilization. In this context, Indian subcontinent is enriched with a wide range of flora both aromatic as well as medicinal plants. Rigveda also mentioned the utilization of numerous medicinal plants as a source of many drugs in the Indian traditional medicinal system. One such beneficial,medicinal and aromatic plant is turmeric, known as golde spi e as well as spi e of life . Due to its brilliant yellow color, turmeric is also known as I dia saff o .Not only medicinal use turmeric has strong associations with socio-cultural life of the people of Indian subcontinent. The extensive survey of literature revealedthat modern medicine has begun to recognize its importance. Turmeric (Curcuma longa): Turmeric has a very long history of medicinal use, dating back nearly 4000 years as a culinary spice and therapeutic agent. It is a perennial herb of Zingiberaceae family and is widely cultivated in Asian countries, mainly in China and India.Turmeric contains 69.4% carbohydrates, 6.3% protein, 5.1% fat, 3.5% minerals, and 13.1% moisture. The active constituents of turmeric are the flavonoid curcuminoids. Curcuminoids (3–4%) is responsible for the yellow colour, and comprises curcumin I (94%), curcumin II (6%) and curcumin III (0.3%). Volatile oils present in the root contain tumerone, atlantone, zingiberoned-α-phellandrene, d-sabinene, cinol, borneol and sesquiterpenes. Phytopharmacology of turmeric: Turmeric has several therapeutic and pharma-cological activities. Among various therapeutic propertiesof turmeric,most important properties are reviewed here. 1. Antioxidant activity-The phenolic groups in the structure of curcumin explain the ability of curcumin to eliminate oxygen-derived free radicals. Its antioxidant activity is comparable to vitamins C and E. It can protect lipids or hemoglobin from oxidation. The free radicals which can be eliminated by curcumin are hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, superoxide radical and nitric oxide. Its derivatives, bisdemethoxycurcumin and demethoxycurcumin also have antioxidant activities. Curcumin pre-treatment has been shown to decrease ischemia-induced oxidativestress and changes in the heart. 2.Anti-inflammatory properties-Turmeric exhibits anti-inflammatory activity. Anti-inflammatory properties may be attributed to its ability to inhibit both biosynthesis of inflammatory prostaglandins from arachidonicacidand neutrophil function during inflammatory states.Curcuminoids also inhibit lipoxygenase (LOX), cyclooxygenase (COX), phospholipases, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, thromboxane, nitric oxide elastase, hyaluronidase, collagenase, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon inducible protein, TNF and interleukin-12. They also decrease prostaglandin formation and inhibit leukotriene biosynthesis via the lipoxygenase pathway. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated its effects at decreasing both acute and chronic inflammation. 3. Cardiovascular and anti-diabetic effects-Turmeric exertcardio-protective effects mainly by antioxidant activity, lowering lipid peroxidation, antidiabetic activity and inhibiting platelet aggregation. Turmeric e t a t s effect on cholesterol levels may be due to decreased cholesterol uptake in the intestines and increased conversion of cholesterol to bile acids in the liver. Inhibition of platelet aggregation is thought to be via potentiation of prostacyclin synthesis and inhibition of thromboxane synthesis. Curcumin mobilizes α-tocopherol from adipose tissue, this results in protection against oxidative damage produced during atherosclerosis development.Turmeric decreases blood glucose level in diabetic rats. Turmeric also decreases complications in diabetes mellitus. 4. Anti-cancer effect-Animal research demonstrates that turmeric have influence on the carcinogenesis. This is mainly due to the presence of curcumin, able to inhibit carcinogenesis at all three stages: angiogenesis, tumor promotion, and tumor growth. During initiation and promotion, curcumin modulates transcription factors controlling phase I and II detoxification of carcinogens, down-regulates proinflammatory cytokines, free radical-activated transcription factors, and arachidonic acid metabolism via COX and LOX pathways and scavenges free radicals. Turmeric and curcumin are also able to suppress the activity of several common mutagens and carcinogens. Curcumin also induces apoptosis of cancer cells and it inhibits angiogenesis. 5. Hepatoprotective effect-Turmeric has been shown to have hepatoprotective properties similar to silymarin. Studies have demonstrated tu e i s hepatoprotective properties from a variety of hepatotoxic injuries, including carbon tetrachloride, galactosamine and acetaminophen (paracetamol). This effect is mainly due to of its antioxidant potential, as well as its ability to decrease the formation of proinflammatory cytokines. Curcumin administration significantly decreased liver injury. Sodium curcuminate (salt of curcumin) also exerts choleretic effects by increasing biliary excretion of bile salts, cholesterol and bilirubin, as well as increasing bile solubility, therefore, possibly preventing and treating cholelithiasis. 6. Antimicrobial activity-Turmeric has been shown to inhibit the growth of a variety of bacteria, pathogenic fungi, and parasites. Curcumin has been found to have moderate activity against Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmaniamajor organisms. 7. Alzheimer and turmeric-Studies in animal models of Alzhei e s disease (AD) indicated a direct effect of curcumin in decreasing the amyloid pathology of AD. It has been shown that curcumin has nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like activity and reduces oxidative damage. The effect of 160 ppm and 5000 ppm doses of dietary curcumin significantly lowered oxidized proteins and IL-1, a proinflammatory cytokine usually elevated in the brains of these mice. Due to its efficacy and apparent low toxicity, this spice has promise for the prevention of Alzhei e s disease. Conclusion: In the light of above facts, it can be concluded that turmeric has a lot of potentials when it comes to its medicinal usage. Although the beneficial effects of turmeric are traditionally achieved through dietary consumption, even at low levels, over long periods of time. A lot of experiments have been done on turmeric; however, more investigations are needed to explore the concealed areas and their practical clinical applications, which can be used for the welfare of mankind.

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e-Magazine 2016

Milk Fat – A potential Nutraceutical

Miss. Soma Maji

Soma Maji1,Pinaki Ranjan Ray2 and P.K. Ghatak3 1PhD Scholar,Division of Dairy Chemistry, National Dairy Research Institute,ICAR, Karnal 2Associate Professor, Department of Dairy Chemistry, WBUAFS, Mohanpur, Nadia, WB 3 Professor, Department of Dairy Chemistry, WBUAFS, Mohanpur, Nadia, WB

Today people are very much concerned about their health. Most of the people need healthy and functional food containing nutrition beyond their natural containing. Milk is a complete food containing most of the nutritious components. Milk fat is one of the most nutritious components among the other components in milk. Although Fat has a negative effect in human due to some disease like CVD, but there are some components in milk fat which have nutraceutical property. Nutraceutical means combination of nutrition and pharmaceutical components. Some nutraceutical components in millk are 1. Short chain fatty acids(Butyric acid,Caproic acid, Caprylic acid, Gama amino butyric acid), 2.Conjugated linoleic acid(CLA), 3.Essential fatty acid(Omega 3 and Omega 6) 4. Phospholipids, 5. Fat soluble vitamins Nutraceutical properties of different milk fat components are summarized in the following table:

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Availability: Milk and milk products are the best source of different essential components. Butter, ghee, cheese ,cream, butter milk,homogenised milk are the main source. Besides milk, flaxseed, fish oil are the richest source of omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids. CLA content can be increased by manipulation of diet ,by feeding synthetic CLA. Conclusion: Growing awareness, increasing health problems are the main need for invention of nutraceutical. Milk fat, in this purpose acts like a very crucial role. These components can be incorporated to other foods to increase their nutritional value. References: Watanabe M, Maemura K, Kanbara K, Tamayama T, Hayasaki H (2002). "GABA and GABA receptors in the central nervous system and other organs". In Jeon KW. Int. Rev. Cytol. International Review of Cytology 213. pp. 1–47 Blottiere HM, Buecher B, Galmiche JP, Cherbut C. Molecular analysis of the effect of short-chain fatty acids on intestinal cell proliferation. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 2003 Feb;62(1):101-6 Amoolya Narayanan , Sangeetha Ananda Baskaran , Mary Anne Roshni Amalaradjou and Kumar Venkitanarayanan, Anticarcinogenic Properties of Medium Chain Fatty Acids on Human Colorectal, Skin and Breast Cancer Cells in Vitro; Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 5014-5027 Andrzej )ałęski, Aleksandra Banaszkiewicz, Ja osła Walkowiak; Butyric acid in irritable bowel syndrome; Prz Gastroenterol 2013; 8 (6): 350–353 John J. Cannell, MD and Bruce W. Hollis; Use of Vitamin D in Clinical Practice ;Alternative Medicine Review; 13(1) 2008 Jing Li,Xuling Wang, Ting Zhang, Chunling Wang, Zhenjun Huang, Xiang Luo, Yihui Deng,A review on phospholipids and their main applications in drug delivery systems, Asian journal of pharmaceutical science,201510,81-98

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NMR- A Revolution in Dairy and Food Quality Analysis Priti Saha1*, Tanmay Hazra2, Chaitali Chakraborty3 Scholar, D.C.Division, NDRI, Karnal, Haryana; 2. Assistant Professor,Kamdhenu University, Gandhinagar; 3. Assistant Professor, GNIT, Kolkata Email id: [email protected] 1*.Ph.D

Miss. Priti Saha

Introduction: Evolution of various spectrophotometric techniques makes food analysis rapid and accurate.Among these varioustechniques recentlynuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) has grown to a relevant position. NMR is a versatile technique that allows the gathering of quantitative and qualitative information from a single spectrum, a task that, generally, requires twenty minutes at the most. Similar information could be gained via other conventional analytical techniques, but this would require several instruments and more time. A further advantage of NMR is the lack of sample pre-treatments, which is instead a general requirement for the other techniques. For these reasons, the use of NMR in food research is expanding greatly. NMR Spectroscopy and its basic Principles: NMR is a phenomenon which occurs when the nuclei of certain atoms are immersed in a static magnetic field and exposed to a second oscillating magnetic field. Some nuclei experience this phenomenon and others do not, depending upon whether they possess a property called spin in considered as spinning about an axis, this spinning generates a magnetic field, called as magnetic moment. This magnetic moment has a north and south pole called a nuclear magnetic dipole [1].A list of nuclei, which possess spin, is given in Table-1.

Table-1 Nuclei 1H

Unpaired protons 1

Unpaired neutrons 0

Spin ½

2H

1

1

1

31P

0

1

½

23Na

2

1

3/2

14N

1

1

1

13C

0

1

½

19F

0

1

½

Figure-1

(Das,2004)

Two properties of nuclear particles pertinent to an understanding of NMR spectroscopy are the net spin associated with the protons and neutrons (both have a spin quantum number of 1/2) and the distribution of positive charge. NMR spectroscopy is most often concerned with nuclei with spin I = 1/2 examples of which include1H, 31P, 13C, 19F.Spectra cannot be obtained on nuclei with I = 0 and only in special cases can spectra result from nuclei where I≥1. For a nucleus with I= 1/2, two values for the nuclear spin angular momentum quantum, mI= + 1/2 or -1/2, indicate the allowed orientations of the nuclear magnetic moment vector in an external magnetic field. The value + 1/2 corresponds to alignment of the vector with the applied magnetic field and -1/2 opposed to it. In the absence of a magnetic field, all orientations of the nuclear moment are degenerate. In the presence of an external field, however, this degeneracy will be destroyed. For a nucleus with I = 1/2, the mI= + 1/2 state will be in lower energy and the -1/2 state higher [2], as shown in Figure-1.

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Dairy Applications: NMR can be applied as a common analytical tool, capable of detecting many compounds.1H and 13C NMR have been used to analyze the lipid composition of milk fat, providing quantitative data on the relative molar fraction of oleic, palmitic, butyric acids and triglycerides. Distribution of acyl group between sn-1 and sn-2 positions in milk triglycerides has been possible.31P NMR has been applied to the analysis of milk and milk fractions allowing the simultaneous analysis of phospholipids, phosphorylated carbohydrates, inorganic phosphate, phosphoserine (PSer) and other phosphorylated compounds from a single spectrum.Quantitative analysis on the PSerresonance has been useful to determine the degree of phosphorylation in super and dephosphorylated casein. 31P NMR analysis of commercial caseinates has shown some PSer-depleted ß-casein fractions compared to natural caseins,which might provide a means for distinguishing them [3].For high abundance in nature (99%) and sensitivity of 19F nucleus has been selected in food analysis. The labeling with fluorine nucleus further increases the sensitivity of the NMR allowing the detection andquantification of the oil species even the minor ones.Identification of the oils components has been done using derivatives of the prototypes andquantification is based on an internal standard. Other recent application of NMR includes1.Used for quantitative analysis of ß-olefinic group in fatty acid esters. 2.Rapid determination of the oil content of soya beans. 3. To determine the volatile acids of coffee beverages. 4. Quantitative determination of bound water in wheat flour and dough. 5. Identification of structure of isochlorogenic acid from Brazilian coffee beans. 6. Determination of fats in chocolate as well as the liquid to solid ratio. 7. Determination of solids content of fats and shortenings. Conclusion: NMR is a non-invasive and extremely versatile method to measure the physical properties of organic and inorganic materials. This technique can simultaneously characterize the chemical as well as structural composition and is thus well suited for industrial R & D and process monitoring applications. However efforts needed to address the relationship between NMR properties and sensory quality attributes. Need to develop affordable NMR hardware and more sophisticated analysis software. References: [1] Belloque, J. and Ramos, M.(1999). Application of NMR spectroscopy to milk and dairy products.Trends in Food Science & Technology, 10:313–320. [2] Das, S.( 2004). Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Resonance, 1:34-49. [3] Spyros, A. and Davis, P.(2009). 31P NMR Spectroscopy in food analysis. Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, 54:195-207.

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List of Authors for the Articles Industrial Experts

1.

MANAB SAMANTA ASSOCIATE MANAGER, KEMIN INDUSTRIES SOUTH ASIA PVT. LTD.

2.

Goutam Kumar Das Manager (QA), GCMMF Ltd.

3.

Umesh Khawas Manager, Production (Unit Head) CG Foods (I) Pvt. Ltd., Silchar Unit

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Emerging Technologies in Dairy Processing – New Opportunities Goutam Kumar Das Manager (QA), GCMMF Ltd. Mr. Goutam Kumar Das

Milk is a complete food of othe atu e which is abundant in bio-active compounds like protein, peptides, short chain fatty acids (SCFA), vitamins, minerals, whey proteins, lactoferrin, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), various minerals, Immunoglobulins etc. in a single package. That is why it is an attractive functional food for the human of all ages that not only supports the healthy bone, teeth and muscles but is also beneficial in reducing blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, controlling diabetes type 2 and helps even in prevention of cancer due to presence of CLA. Despite the popular jingle, dudh na khele habena bhalo chhele (unless you drink milk, you will not be a good boy), children are not so motivated to take liquid milk as such due to its bland taste and subtle aroma. This opens up a lot of scope for research on making liquid milk palatable with flavours or functional attributes to popularize it among the children, grown ups, teens, adults, senior citizens, geriatrics, and those recuperating from recent surgeries or disease treatments. Innumerable scopes are there for newer researches in these areas for formulation with the emerging technologies to increase shelf-life and better marketability. Technologies which are getting immensely popular in western countries in last decades are: Novel thermal methods : Ohmic Heating, microwave and Pulsed Electrified Field Processing Thermal heating is the oldest technology to increase shelf-life and safety of milk/food where every particle of milk/food is heated to kill 100% pathogens and 99.9% non-pathogens. This also improves food by destroying enzymes, bacterial metabolites etc. However, it also brings forth several changes in food/milk e.g. browning, nutrient loss, cooked/burnt flavor, maillard reaction etc. Loss of energy is more in conventional heating which has paved the way for newer form of heating like electroheating which are volumetric heating methods where heat is generated within milk and milk products. This may be either direct (Ohmic Heating, OH) or indirect (dielectric heating like microwave and radiofrequency wave). The advantages of these heating methods are : (a) minimal heat damage, (b) process time reduction thereby improved productivity, (c) reduced cost of operation, (d) Improved retention of nutrients, (e) Less cleaning requirements as no fouling happens, (f) no chance of overcooking and flavor defects, (g) improved process control and (h) environment friendly technology. There is enough scope in this area on conduction of research with respect to temperature distribution within dairy products, kinetic study on microbiology and enzyme inactivation, and effects on nutritional components etc. These technologies was found suitable in enhancing shelflife of yoghurt and yoghurt fortified with fresh fruit, like strawberry, grape and blueberry, infant milk formula, a number of milkbased beverages etc. High hydrostatic pressure processing : An alternate non-thermal technology based on two basic principles called Le Chatelie s principle and Isostatic principle to inactivate microorganism and enzyme is high pressure (HP) treatment (>100 to 1000 MPa). It is the most promising technology among others in preservation of food with improved functionality, minimal destruction of nutrients, having little effect on flavour compounds, colour, vitamins and other minerals of milk and other food. Numerous studies have been conducted on the effect of HP on fat and fat globules, casein micelles, whey proteins, minerals, milk enzymes, rheological properties, microbiology etc. of milk and different dairy products. This technology is found to be very effective in study of allergenicity of milk and preservation of colostrum which is high in immunoglobulins and various beneficial bio-active elements.

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High pressure homogenization and microfluidization : Homogenization is the main technology used to produce emulsion, through mixing oil (dispersed phase) and aqueous phase (continuous phase) through the reduction in droplet size of an existing (pre-) emulsion by employing pressure in the range 10-30 MPa. This is employed in fluid milk, cream, yoghurt, ice cream etc. to impart better body & texture, whiteness, flavour, reduced or no fat separation etc. Recently, high-pressure homogenization (operating at a pressure of 100 to 300 MPa) is widely used in milk and milk products. In this technology, a high-pressure pump forces milk (or an emulsion) through a narrow orifice called the homogenization nozzle in which the upstream liquid has a high potential energy. On entering the nozzle, this high potential energy transforms into kinetic energy coupled with intense shear, cavitation and turbulent flow condition results in droplet disruption along with temperature rise (65-103C). The valve seat and piston are often made up of ceramics which are able to withstand very high pressure and stresses. Microfluidization : It is a high-energy emulsification apparatus in which two or more opposed jets of coarse emulsion collide as they emerge from at least two opposite bores or channels. The process of high shear fluid processing using a microfluidizer was patented by Cook and Lagace (1985) and was first described for food application by Paquin and Giasson(1989). Compared to traditional homogenizers, microfluidizers are claimed to require less maintenance because there are no moving parts in the interaction chamber, and operates at higher pressures and generate emulsions with narrower particle size distributions. Though it is suitable for a number of high value pharmaceutical products, there is ample scope of study with different formulations of milk, milk products, food and beverages. Use of Carbon-dioxide as modified packaging technology and super critical fluid extraction technology using Carbon-Dioxide Carbon di-oxide (CO2) is an alternative hurdle technology that can kill microorganisms or prevent growth and spoilage to extend shelf life of foods. High-pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD) is an attractive method to treat thermally sensitive foods because it is effective at low or moderate temperatures and preserves much of the organoleptic qualities and functionality of the food. Particularly, raw milk treated with CO2 instead of HTST, and carbonated raw milk with an extended shelf life, could potentially generate a broader range of cheeses than are currently feasible. With controlled temperature, pressure, time and agitation we can inactivate different microorganisms effectively and increase shelf-life of milk and milk products without damaging the vital bio-active components. A lot of research may be conducted to find out efficacy of CO2 in preserving different aspects of dairy and food of considerable moisture content. On the other hand, CO2 is a very effective gas with excellent supercritical property, its liquid-like density in supercritical state enhances the solvating power when compared to gaseous state helping it to effectively extract biologically significant molecules like cholesterol, caffeine etc. whereby we may get cholesterol-free dairy product, decaffeinated coffee etc. Micro- and Nano-encapsulation technique in Food and Dairy Processing Nano- and microencapsulation are defined as a process of enclosing particles of solids or droplets of liquids or gases with micron size in an inert shell, which in turn protects and isolates them from the external environment. The product obtained from this process is called a nano- and microencapsulation, which includes nano- and microspheres as well as nano- and microcapsules, and they are differentiated by their morphology and internal structure. The particles having a diameter between 1–800 μ are known as microparticles, microspheres, and microcapsules. When the particle size is smaller than 1 μ , they are known as nanoparticles, nanospheres, or nanocapsules, respectively. Nanoor microencapsulation technology is a very innovative and emerging technology which will have a great impact on bioactive food product development in the coming years. The technologies are already well known in the fields of medicinal, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic product development. This method helps to protect many functional compounds, such as antioxidants, enzyme, and micronutrients, to deliver them to the controlled target site and to protect them from an adverse environment. Applications of the nano- or microencapsulation technologies in the food industries are mainly based on the stability of the capsules. During various environmental conditions, such as chilling, freezing, and thermal processing, which commonly occur during food processing, the capsules are susceptible to instability. A lot of work was done in dairy field like bio-rumination process to produce PUFA-enriched milk, spreadable butter, rapid ripening of cheese etc. Still a lot of scope is there for research in this area to innovate newer products in milk/food business. Use of membrane technology in segregating bio-active compounds Though membrane technology is comparatively old, its versatile use in the field of fractionation of milk constituents like casein, whey proteins, demineralization of whey, removal of somatic cells and bacteria to enhance shelf-life of milk or simple concentration of milk to reduce cost of transportation, removing moisture prior to drying and cheesemaking (to reduce consumption of chymosin) and manufacturing of yoghurt (dahi) and fermented products are exciting fields in food and technology. This technology can also be effectively used further to conserve CIP chemicals and water which is going to be the challenge in future. This technology creates low carbon emission contributing to significantly less environmental pollution. Summary : In India, the single largest popular drink is liquid milk which is also used in beverages like tea, coffee and lassi, in making dahi, raita, kulfi, payas (kheer), innumerable number of mouth-watering sweets, beverages and so on. Although the indigenous as well as some western technologies are employed in making all these desi (native) milk products, limited automation has taken place in commercializing these revenueearning indigenous dairy products. India is ushering into the rapid growth phase due to opening up of its economy, there will be elevated demand for dairy products because of (a) population growth, (b) urbanization, (c) rising income level, (d) fast changing food habits, (e) requirement for ready to eat (RTE) foods, fast and instant food, (f) health food, (g) functional food and (h) dairy-based nutraceuticals to keep population healthy with emergence of a healthy ell ess i dust paving the way to newer research needs.

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Plant Capacity Utilization and Effect on profit, product quality and Pricing Strategy MANAB SAMANTA ASSOCIATE MANAGER, KEMIN INDUSTRIES SOUTH ASIA PVT. LTD. Mr. Manab Samanta

Understanding Capacity Utilization Capacity utilization can be as simple as a restaurant or factory having a particular capacity to serve customers or produce products. It is difficult to operate a business at full capacity ona consistent basis, because problems can arise and the product might suffer. Capacity utilization is about utilizing most of this capacity, which typically gives a business the best opportunity to turn a profit and the most efficient use of resources, equipment, space and staffing. Low Utilization If some of your production capacity is idle, your investment in the facilities and equipment is not generating any income and reducing your potential profit. Since additional production volume does not increase fixed costs, higher capacity utilization may result in lower per-unit product costs and higher potential profits. For example, if your facilities have a capacity of 1,000 units per month and cost Rs10,000 per month to operate, producing 500 units with a variable cost of Rs20 costs 500 x Rs20 plus Rs10,000 for a total of Rs20,000, or a unit cost of Rs40. If you produce 800 units, your costs are Rs20 x 800 plus Rs10,000 for a total of Rs26,000, or Rs32.50 per unit. If you can sell 800 units at a reduced price of Rs35, your overall profit increases. Peaks Unless your planning compensates, peaks in capacity utilization can damage both product quality and profitability. When you see a demand peak approaching through an increase in orders for your product, you have to delay deliveries so that you can smooth the effect on your production schedule. Peaks that surpass the normal maximum capacity lead to problems in production that affect product quality and overtime that reduces profits. Managing your demand through price adjustments to reduce demand during peaks and increase demand during troughs balances your schedule and achieves maximum profitability. Full Utilization When your product is successful, you can reach full capacity utilization, leading to high profitability and a streamlined manufacturing plant that turns out high-quality products. If you want your company to grow, and if your planning has correctly forecast the trend toward the use of all your capacity, you can now expect to have new capacity coming online to take over new demand. Your profitability will drop as your total capacity utilization decreases temporarily, but increasing demand will bring profits back up to a higher level as you approach full utilization of the new capacity. Over-Utilization When capacity utilization passes its maximum due to demand that exceeds your ability to supply the products, your costs rise and product quality decreases. To meet excess demand, you have to schedule overtime that results in higher costs and stressed workers who make more mistakes. There is less time for equipment maintenance, and employees cut corners to maintain high levels of production. You have to avoid over-utilization of capacity by acting to reduce demand with longer delivery times and higher prices Pricing Strategies with Low Capacity Utilization Low capacity utilization will more often than not lead to lower prices, which in turn will stimulate demand and increase the capacity utilization. Many businesses increase prices in an attempt to increase profit margins; however, this kind of move only acts to lower the demand for the products and can then lower capacity utilization even more. It is often a wiser move to lower prices and increase production to lower production costs and stimulate demand at the same time, which will increase capacity utilization. Pricing Strategies with High Capacity Utilization There are two main ways most businesses react to combat high capacity utilization. One course of action would be to raise prices to lower demand and enjoy a higher profit margin and more profit. The other way to approach this problem is to expand the business or increase the capacity to keep up with the demand. This is when it is the right time to grow the business and enjoy more profitability by increasing volume and enjoying savings from economies of scale.

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MANUFACTURING EXCELLENCE OF CG FOODS (WAI WAI) AN ENTERPRISE OF CG CORP GLOBAL

Mr. Umesh Khawas

Umesh Khawas Manager, Production (Unit Head) CG Foods (I) Pvt. Ltd., Silchar Unit

The process of converting raw materials, or parts into finished goods that meet a usto e s expectations or specifications.It commonly employs a man-machine setup with division of labor in a large scale production.If an organization is to achieve manufacturing excellence, the people involved almost inevitably need enhanced technical job related knowledge and skills.They also need critical thinking skills to form a common language for initiating and implementing change they need to work in an empowering environment with unambiguous performance expectations and goals, clear feedback, and recognition and rewards for taking steps to make excellence a reality.Along with building o ga izatio capability, manufacturing excellence necessitates major improvements in three primary technical areas variation reduction, equipment reliability, and production scheduling. The main objectives of manufacturing excellence are as follows: Stable and reliable process. Team active and improvement. World class factory standard. Improve productivity and quality. Reduce inefficiencies, cost and wastage. Reduced quality losses. A safe work environment. Show room factory condition. Enhanced team work and morale. Customer delight when visiting factory. Increase competitiveness. Steps to Manufacturing Excellence A typical project aimed at achieving excellence includes the following steps: Step 1: Organization Analysis to identify central business issues Step 2: Leadership Work Session to first develop commitment Step 3: Customization of Process Application Kits (PAKs) To ensure that the PAKs fit into client systems and work routines. Step 4: Training of client process coaches and consultants To develop people to teach, coach, and drive the application of problem solving and decision-making processes within their areas or departments. Step 5: Deployment of human performance system modifications To see that the o ga izatio s vision of manufacturing excellence and the behavior changes prescribed in PAKs are supported by clear management expectations, feedback, rewards, and sanctions. Step 6: Department-focused work session(s) to develop departmental activity Step 7: Implementation work sessions for natural work teams Step 8: Go Li e on Process Application Kits Step 9: Coaching process consultants To mentor client leaders in attaining Problem Analysis/Decision Analysis processfacilitation capability and a working knowledge of human performance system design; to coach process consultants through application and results measurement. Step 10: Project Closeout To ensure project deliverables are completed and project objectives have been met.

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List of Authors for the Articles Faculty & Staff Members of the Department 1.

Dr. Subhajit Ray HOD; Dept. of Food Technology

2.

Dr. Kakali Bandyopadhyay Assistant Professor Department of Food Technology

3.

Dr. Anju Paul Assistant Professor Department of Food Technology

4.

Dr. Chaitali Chakraborty Assistant Professor Department of Food Technology

5.

Mr. Anupam Ghosh M.Tech, Jadavpur University Assistant Professor

6.

Ms. Shairee Ganguly Asst. Professor, Dept. of Food Technology

7.

Ms. Monika Paul Technical Assistant Dept. of Food Technology

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Application of Light-Emitting Diodes in Food Production, Preservation, and Food Safety Dr. Subhajit Ray HOD; Dept. of Food Technology

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are solid-state lighting devices that emit light with emission wavelengths of narrow bandwidths, high photoelectric efficiency and photon flux or irradiance, low thermal output, compactness, portability, and which are easily integrated into electronic systems. The unique properties of LEDs allow for the convenient manipulation of the spectral characteristics, radiant or luminous intensity, and temporal settings of the light produced. With the current state of technology, LEDs have become increasingly feasible and advantageous as a form of lighting that can be used in conjunction with the above lighting systems, or as a substitute. In the areas of horticulture and agriculture, LEDs are regarded as novel and easily controlled light sources for plant growth, and have been shown to enhance the production of crops while improving their nutritional content. The most recent literature sources on postharvest preservation of plants use LEDs because of their low radiant heat emissions and better efficiency at lower temperatures. Moreover, as food safety is a major concern in the food industry during the production, postharvest, and storage stages, the success of therapeutic applications of LEDs in the medical field has motivated the development of similar strategies to decontaminate food and keep it safe for consumption. Because of the long life expectancies of LEDs, their robustness, and compactness, LED lighting systems have the potential to be a very cost-effective technology to adopt. In addition, LEDs are rapidly becoming more efficient and cheaper, hence it is expected that LED technology will become more attractive to the food industry in the near future. Research in the literature pertaining to LEDs in the food industry mainly focuses on 3 different aspects, namely, food production, postharvest storage, and food safety. This paper will highlight the unique properties of LEDs and the quality of light they emit, which are not present in previous lighting technologies, and relate these properties to their ability to effectively enhance the quality of food produced and stored, and to efficiently inactivate harmful foodborne pathogens via light-mediated phenomena. The most significant and recent findings show that LEDs have the potential to be adopted and tailored to the food industry as an efficient and increasingly inexpensive means of producing and distributing acceptable and safe foods. Application Potential of LED in the area of Food Sector 1. Enhancing the nutritional quality of plant crops through LED irradiation Light stimulates the production of various nutrients, antioxidants, and secondary metabolites in plants, which function to provide defense against reactive oxidation species (ROS) produced during photosynthesis or light stress In general, research has shown that various LED light treatments result in the accumulation of bioactive compounds and antioxidants in crops such as varieties of lettuces, pea seedlings, Chinese cabbage, tartary buckwheat, and other plants. 2. Evaluation of LEDs in food production It is known that although blue and red light is sufficient for growth, small amounts of other wavelengths can still improve plant growth, development, and nutritional quality. Optimal spectral composition differs between various species or cultivars, and different spectral compositions are more suit-able for different growth stages of a plant. LEDs have high photon efficiency, and can be used to easily modify the spectral composition of light so as to limit light emitted at unwanted wavelengths. Therefore, LED lighting systems are theoretically more economical options when comparing on an energy consumption basis 3. LEDs in Postharvest Preservation An important function of food processing techniques is to reduce postharvest losses in terms of quality and quantity. Good postharvest quality encompasses the acceptable visual, textural, nutritional, and flavor qualities of food, the absence of foodborne pathogens, as well as the delay of food spoilage by microorganism. In addition, it has been observed that certain foods like leafy vegetables that are exposed to small quantities of light retain their quality better than when stored in the dark, but there is still a lack of clarity on the precise effect of light on postharvest quality of plants. 4. Delay of senescence and enhancement of nutritional status of foods through LEDs Senescence is a genetically controlled process that serves to ensure the survival of plants through the relocation of nutrients and macromolecules from dying plant tissue to new or developing tis-sue. This leads to undesirable loss of quality in harvested plants. There is evidence that light can prevent senescence in detached leaves, stems, and flowers. Leaves are the main site of photosynthesis; hence leafy vegetables are of significance in postharvest studies involving light. Hence, it is possible that edible flowers or fruits can be nutritionally enhanced by using continuous lighting of larger photon flux.

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5. Accelerating or delaying the ripening of fruits using LEDs For food that is transported over large distances, it is important to delay the rate of ripening so that fruits are not overripe when they reach their destination. Light has varying effects on different types of fruits. The ripening time of tomatoes can be extended with pre-treatment of blue light prior to storage in the dark. Mature green tomatoes irradiated with blue light (440 to 450 nm) for a period of 7 d had slower rate of color change from green to red compared with mature green tomatoes stored in darkness or irradiated with red light (650 to 660 nm) for an equivalent duration .Similarly, blue light irradiation caused a slower rate of lycopene accumulation. Hence, blue light pre-treatment is a potentially effective method of slowing down the ripening time for tomatoes and extending their postharvest commercial value. 6. Preventing fungal spoilage through LEDs Fungal infection of fruits is a primary cause of postharvest loss. Several studies have been conducted on the effect of LED light on preventing fungal infections in citrus fruits. In general, blue LED light at a moderate intensity was found to be sufficiently effective in preventing fungal infection. 7. Evaluation of LEDs in postharvest preservation The role of light in postharvest applications has been receiving greater attention only in recent years. Together with the recent developments in LED technology, there has been success in using LEDs to preserve and improve the quality of certain plant parts, including edible flowers and fruits such as broccoli, citrus fruits and strawberries. 8. LEDs in Food Safety In the food industry, producing, processing, and delivering safe food is of prime priority. For microbial safety, thermal techniques are the most efficacious methods of eliminating pathogens, but are unsuitable for certain types of foods such as fresh produce in ready-to-eat salads, and so on. Currently, consumers demand minimally processed food that is free from chemical sanitizers and other additives. However, focus is now shifting to the applicability of light in foodrelated decontamination processes, with LEDs having a major role as a suitable source of light. Apart from the potential energy savings that LEDs offer, the nonthermal aspects of the technology are attractive since food quality is significantly affected by heat. Hence, drawing from currently available research on food pathogens and food systems, or in other related fields, the role of LEDs in food safety, specifically via PDI, photocatalytic inactivation, and UV radiation is discussed in this section. Conclusions The role of LEDs in food safety is noteworthy. High dosages of monochromatic light are necessary for inactivating foodborne pathogens, as photosensitizing or photocatalytic agents or mate-rials produce ROS at specific wavelengths. Similarly, the lack of radiant heat allows LEDs to be used as a nonthermal means of inactivating foodborne pathogens. UV LEDs can also be used in decontaminating food. Although the effectiveness of LEDs has been shown to generally improve or retain the quality of foods, few studies have rigorously evaluated the impact of LED treatments on the acceptability of food to consumers. With further progress in LED technology, there may be scope for utilizing LEDs in developing countries where food production, as well as safe and hygienic storage and distribution of food are critical issues. Currently, the integration of LEDs and photovoltaic into a viable system for providing safe drinking water is seen as a plausible combination, whereby energy from the sun is converted into electrical energy for usage by LEDs. Therefore, it is plausible that this technology can be transferred to food-related applications as well. LEDs can harness energy from the sun to provide supplementary light for growth. More importantly, photovoltaic powered LEDs would be applicable to postharvest operations and in maintaining sanitation of foods, areas in which much food wastage occurs. LED technology brings unprecedented benefits to the full food supply chain, from the production of food, to the postharvest stage, and during the insuring of food safety prior to human consumption.

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FAT TAX - NO PAN BUT ONLY PAIN DR. KAKALI BANDYOPADHYAY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR DEPARTMENT OF FOOD TECHNOLOGY GURUNANAK INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, SODEPUR, KOLKATA, WEST BENGAL

A fat tax is a tax or surcharge that is placed upon fattening food, beverages or on overweight individuals. A fat tax aims to discourage unhealthy diets and offset the economic costs of obesity. A fat tax aims to decrease the consumption of foods that are linked to obesity. A related idea is to tax foods that are linked to increased risk of coronary heart disease. Numerous studies suggest that as the price of a food decreases, individuals get fatter. In fact, eating behavior may be more responsive to price increases than to nutritional education. Estimates suggest that a 1 cent per ounce tax on sugar-sweetened beverages may reduce the consumption of those beverages by 25%. However, there is also evidence that obese individuals are less responsive to changes in the price of food than normal-weight individuals. To implement a fat tax, it is necessary to specify which food and beverage products will be targeted. This must be done with care, because a carelessly chosen food tax can have surprising and perverse effects. For instance, consumption patterns suggest that taxing saturated fat would induce consumers to increase their salt intake, thereby putting themselves at greater risk for cardiovascular death. Taxation of sodium has been proposed as a way of reducing salt intake and resulting health problems. Current proposals frequently single out sugar-sweetened drinks as a target for taxation. Cross-sectional, prospective, and experimental studies have found an association between obesity and the consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks. However, experimental studies have not always found an association, and the size of the effect can be very modest. Since the poor spend a greater proportion of their income on food, a fat tax might be regressive. Taxing foods that provide primarily calories, with little other nutritional value reduces this problem, since calories are readily available from many sources in diet of industrialized nations. To make a fat tax less burdensome for the poor, proponents recommend earmarking the revenues to subsidize healthy foods and health education. Additionally, proponents have argued that the fat tax is less regressive to the extent that it lowers medical expenditures and expenditures on the targeted foods among the poor. Indeed, there is a higher incidence of diet-related illnesses among the poor than in the general population. Unlike placing restrictions on foods or ingredients, a fat tax would not limit consumer choice, only change relative prices. Benefits of a fat tax Public health practitioners and scholars in a range of different countries have called for a fat tax on unhealthy foods. The reasoning behind implementing a fat tax is the hope that people will avoid risky dietary behavior, improving health outcomes in society. Research indicates that the current obesity epidemic is increasing as a result of the fast food industry expanding. Junk food outlets are changing the dietary habits of society, pushing out traditional restaurants and leading to the detrimental health effects of obesity, diabetes and heart disease. Taxes on tobacco have seen smoking rates decrease, and as a result there have been calls for fat taxes to be implemented in more countries in an attempt to reduce the consumption of unhealthy foods. History. In 1942, U.S. physiologist A. J. Carlson suggested levying a fee on each pound of overweight, both to counter an "injurious luxury" and to make more food available for the war effort. The concept was reintroduced by Milton Merry weather and P. Franklin Alexander in the late 1970s, but became well known in the early 1980s by Kelly D. Brownell, director of the Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity at Yale. The fat tax aims to reduce the consumption of foods that are high in saturated fat, such as fast food. In October 2011, British prime minister David Cameron told reporters that his government might introduce a Fat Tax as part of the solution to Britain's obesity problem. In the Indian state of Kerala, the government proposed a 14.5 per cent 'fat tax' on burgers, pizzas and other junk food served in branded restaurants which officials from the quick service industry termed as 'detrimental' to consumption on June 2016 budgets.

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NANOTECHNOLOGY - BLESSING OR CURSE? Dr. Anju Paul Assistant Professor Food Technology Department Gurunanak Institute of Technology Dr. Anju Paul

Materials reduced to the nanoscale can suddenly show very different properties compared to what they show on a macroscale. For instance, opaque substances become transparent (copper); inert materials become catalysts (platinum); stable materials turn combustible (aluminum); solids turn into liquids at room temperature (gold); insulators become conductors (silicon). The extraordinarily high numbers of nanoparticles per given mass will likely be of toxicological significance when these particles interact with cells and sub cellular components. Likewise, their increased surface area per unit mass can be toxicologically important. There are four entry routes for nanoparticles into the body: they can be inhaled, swallowed, absorbed through skin or be deliberately injected during medical procedures. Once within the body they are highly mobile and in some instances can even cross the blood-brain barrier. How these nanoparticles behave inside the organism is one of the big issues that need to be resolved. Basically, the behavior of nanoparticles is a function of their size, shape and surface reactivity with the surrounding tissue. They could cause o e load on phagocytes, cells that ingest and destroy foreign matter, thereby triggering stress reactions that lead to inflammation and weaken the od s defense against other pathogens. Apart from what happens if non- or slowly degradable nanoparticles accumulate in organs, another concern is their potential interaction with biological processes inside the body: because of their large surface, nanoparticles on exposure to tissue and fluids will immediately absorb onto their surface some of the macromolecules they encounter. This can affect the regulatory mechanisms of enzymes and other proteins. Nanoparticles could have undesirable effects on the environment and in this context two areas are relevant here: (1) In free form nanoparticles can be released in the air or water during production (or production accidents) or as waste byproduct of production, and ultimately accumulate in the soil, water or plant life. (2) In fixed form, where they are part of a manufactured substance or product, they will ultimately have to be recycled or disposed of as waste. We do t know yet whether certain nanoparticles will constitute a completely new class of non-biodegradable pollutant. In case they do, we also do t know yet how such pollutants could be removed from air or water because most traditional filters are not suitable for such tasks (their pores are too big to catch nanoparticles). Nanopollutants are nanoparticles small enough to enter our lungs or be absorbed by our skin. Nanopollutants can be natural or man-made. Nanoparticles are used in some of the products found on shelves today, like antiaging cosmetics and sunscreen. The highest risk is to the workers in nanotechnology research and manufacturing processes. Nano titanium dioxide is the cause of DNA and chromosome damage. Nano titanium dioxide is used as filler in hundreds of medicines and cosmetics and as a blocking agent in sunscreens. But when nano titanium dioxide is used in food the damage is greater. As the nanoparticles are so small, they could easily cross the blood-brain barrier, a membrane that protects the brain from harmful chemicals in the bloodstream. If we plan to use nanoparticles in everything from our food to medicine, we need to be sure that they won't poison us.

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Feeding the World Today and Tomorrow: SCOPE FOR Food Technologists DR. CHAITALI CHAKRABORTY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR DEPARTMENT OF FOOD TECHNOLOGY GURUNANAK INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, SODEPUR, KOLKATA, WEST BENGAL

Dr. Chaitali Chakraborty

CREATE AND INNOVATE IN THE WORLD OF FOOD, MARKETING AND TECHNOLOGY By choosing the Bachelor in Food Technology, one could become creative food experts who dedicate their career to developing new products and introducing them onto the international food market. The world has progressed through hunter–gatherer, agricultural and industrial stages to provider of goods and services. This progression has been catalyzed by the cultural and social evolution of mankind and the need to solve specific societal issues, such as the need for preservation to free people from foraging for food, and the need for adequate nutrition via consistent food supply year round. These forces led to the development of the food industry, which has contributed immensely to the basis for a healthy human civilization and helped society prosper and flourish (Lund 1989). WHY DO WE NEED FOOD SCIENTISTS AND TECHNOLOGISTS? Process design Bench-top process development Testing Plant scale-up Commercialization Troubleshooting THE POPULATION CHALLENGE During the 2009 World Summit on Food Security, it was recognized that by 2050 food production must increase by about 70%, a 34% higher than it is today to feed the anticipated 9 billion people (FAO 2009a). This projected population increase is expected to involve an additional annual consumption of nearly 1 billion metric tons of cereals for food and feed and 200 million metric tons of meat. Another challenge is the large, growing food security gap in certain places around the world. As much as half of the food grown and harvested in underdeveloped and developing countries never gets consumed, partly because proper handling, processing, packaging, and distribution methods are lacking. Starvation and nutritional deficiencies in vitamins, minerals, protein, and calories are still prevalent in all regions of the world. As a consequence, science-based improvements in agricultural production, food science and technology, and food distribution systems are critically important to decreasing this gap. In fact, to meet the food needs of the future, it is critically important that scientific and technological advancements be accelerated and applied in both the agricultural and the food manufacturing sectors. OPPORTUNITY/ SCOPE OF EMPLOYMENT IN DIFFERENT FOOD INDUSTRIES:

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OBJECTIVES OF FOOD PROCESSING Preservation

Availability

Safety

Sustainability

Quality

Convenience

Adequate Nutrition

Proper Distribution

Health and Wellness

FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI) Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in India is the major monetary source for economic development in India. Foreign companies invest directly in fast growing private Indian businesses to take benefits of cheaper wages and changing business environment of India. FDI is permissible for all the processed food products up to 100% through automatic route except for items reserved for MSMEs. For MSMEs, the permissible FDI limit through automatic route is 24%. For any foreign investment more than 24%, the government route can be opted. In such a case, the enterprise will have to be licensed under Industrial License and Industries (Development & Regulation) Act, 1951.

IMPORTANCE OF FSSAI

CONCLUSION Therefore, it is very welcome step, taken by the Govt. of India by allowing "Foreign Direct Investment" up to 100% in retail Food industry, paving the way for entry of multinational Food giants like Wal-Mart or Carrefour into the ever-inflating market of Indian Food Industries. The big companies were shunning India for long due to the partial openness of this sector and were asking for more opportunity to invest. Now, with this open policy, the Indian market for Foods will be explored by the foreign multinationals which will eventually open a huge scope for Food Professionals.

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A BACTERIUM THAT DEGRADEDS POLLUTING PLASTICS

Mr. Anupam Ghosh

Anupam Ghosh M.Tech Jadavpur University Assistant Professor Department of Food Technology, GNIT

A bacterium species capable of breaking down plastic-polyethylene terephthalate(PET) has been identified by a team of Japanese researchers. The bacterium uses two enzymes in sequence to break down the highly biodegradation-resistant polymer PET. The results were published on March 11,216 in the journal Science. Except for the rare instance of two fungi that have been found to grow on a mineral medium of PET yarns, there are no reports any bacteria biologically degrading PET or growing on the chemically inert substance •Japanese researchers looked for microorganisms that relied on PET film as a primary source of carbon for growth. •They first identified a microbial consortium with a mixture of bacteria species that degraded the film surface at 300C. •The researches isolated a unique bacterium-Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6 that can almost completely degrade a PET film in six weeks at the same temperature. How It Works •First, the bacterium adheres to PET and produces a substance through hydrolysis. •The second enzyme works with water and acts on this substance to produce two monomers-ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid-used to make PET through polymerization.

STEVIA, A SUGAR SUBSTITUTE The species Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, commonly known as sweetleaf, sugarleaf or simple stevia, is widely grown for its sweet leaves. It is a native of Paraguay and is widely distributed in USA, Brazil, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and South East Asia. The plant is a perennial herb growing upto a height of 45cms. Stevia is calorie free biosweeteners. This sweet-honey leaf herb finds its use as a natural sweetener, replacing the chemical sweeteners and even table sugar. The sweetness in leaf is due to the presence of an intensive sweetening agent called stevioside. As a sugar substitute, ste ia s taste has a slower onset and longer duration than that of sugar, although some of its extracts may have a bitter aftertaste at high concentrations. With its extracts having up to 300 times the sweetness of sugar, stevia has garnered attention with the rise in demand for low-carbohydrate, low-sugar food alternatives. Stevia also has shown promise in medical research for treating such conditions as obesity and high blood pressure. Stevia has a negligible effect on blood glucose, even enhancing glucose tolerance; therefore it is attractive as a natural sweetener to diabetics and others on carbohydrate controlled diets. A mere fragment of leaf is enough to sweeten the mouth for an hour. So stevia can be used in the manufacture if chewing gums, mints, mouth refreshers and even pan. Stevia is being tried on making toffees and squashes. Numerous safety studies confirm that stevia is non-toxic, non-addictive and non- carcinogenic. Unlike aspartame, stevia is suitable for patients suffering from phenylketonuria. Approval of Government of India and 20 more countries across the world support the safety of stevia.

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SOLAR COOKER: BASIC PRINCIPLES Shairee Ganguly Asst. Professor, Dept. of Food Technology, GNIT Mrs. Shairee Ganguly

A solar cooker, or solar oven, is a device which uses the energy of direct sunlight to heat, cook or pasteurize food or drink. As there is no use of fuel solar cooker is eco-friendly and use of solar cooker in rural area can prevent the deforestation. THE MAIN PRINCIPLES OF SOLAR COOKER: Concentrating sunlight: A reflective mirror of polished glass, metal or metalized film concentrates light and heat from the sun on a small cooking area, making the energy more concentrated and increasing its heating power. Converting light to heat: A black or low reflectivity surface on a food container or the inside of a solar cooker improves the effectiveness of turning light into heat. Light absorption converts the sun's visible light into heat, substantially improving the effectiveness of the cooker. Trapping heat: It is important to reduce convection by isolating the air inside the cooker from the air outside the cooker. A plastic bag or tightly sealed glass cover traps the hot air inside. This makes it possible to reach temperatures on coldand windy days similar to those possible on hot days. Greenhouse effect: Glass transmits visible light but blocks infrared thermal radiation from escaping. This amplifies the heat trapping effect. ANGLE OF REFLECTION: When light is reflected off a flat shiny surface, the angle of reflection with the surface, θr, is equal to the angle of incidence, θi, as per figure no.1.This information is useful for adjusting the position and panels of a solar cooker so as to reflect maximum light rays onto the food item.

Fig:1: Angle of reflection (galileo.phys.virginia.edu) TYPES OF SOLAR COOKER: 1. SOLAR BOX COOKER:The Solar Box Cooker (SBC) or Solar Oven consists, largely, of some type of heat trapping enclosure. It takes the form of a box made of insulating material with one face of the box fitted with a transparent medium, such as glass or plastic. Use of reflectors increases the apparent collector area. This allows the box to take advantage of the greenhouse effect and incident solar radiation cooks the food within the box. The ability of a solar cooker to collect sunlight is directly related to the projected area of the collector perpendicular to the incident radiation. A Solar Box Cooker will cook meals unattended for long periods of time because the sun is able to remain within the view of the cooker. 2. PANEL COOKER:The same principles are employed but instead of an insulated box, panel cookers typically rely on a large (often multi-faceted) reflective panel, as seen in Figure.3. At the focus of the reflector rests the cooking pot contained within a transparent medium, such as an oven bag or a glass bowl (FSEC, 2002). Energy from the sunlight is reflected into the bowl or oven bag, heating up a dark painted pot and whatever may be inside of it. The pot in this case is generally less insulated from the environment than the pot in the case of the SBC. The panel cooker relies much more heavily upon reflected sunlight and less so on heat retention as compared to the SBC. This can make the panel cooker more portable and cheaper to construct but the panel cooker will suffer from generally somewhat poorer performance, particularly on days of marginal isolation or intermittent cloudy conditions. 3.CONCENTRATING SOLAR COOKER:The third major class of solar cooker utilizes concentrating optics. Using mirrors and/or lenses, these cookers can achieve extremely high temperatures. The concentrating cooker parabolic is the only class of solar cooker that is truly suitable for frying, as the temperature at the focus can rival that of conventional electric, gas, or wood fired stoves. Similar to the panel cooker, the concentrator suffers from a strong reliance on direct beam isolation. It is relatively high cost and safety issues as focused sunlight can cause burns or eye damage. Nevertheless, in some applications, solar concentrators can make ideal cookers.

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Fig: 2: A Schematic diagram of operating box solar cooker

Fig: 3: Layout of Panel Type Solar Cooker

Fig:4: Schematic diagram of concentrating parabolic solar cooker References: Shawn Shaw, Development of a Comparative Framework for Evaluating the Performance of Solar Cooking Devices: Combining Ergonomic, Thermal, and Qualitative Data into an Understandable, Reproducible, and Rigorous Testing Method; Dept. of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 110 8th St. Troy, NY 12180. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cooker 45 e-Magazine 2016

Milk Production in India and on Global Scale Ms. Monika Paul Technical Assistant Dept. of Food Technology, GNIT

Miss. Monika Paul

Global Milk Production Scenario: The annual world trade in milk products amount to 33 million tonnes, valued at US$ 10 billion . Barely 6-7% of the world milk production is trade internationally. The bulk of the world dairy trade is in cheese, butter and powder, yoghurt and dessert. The international dairy trade is dominated by four players - Europe, New Zealand, Australia and USA - which together account for 85% of all exports. New Zealand and Australia export as much as 80 and 50% of their milk production respectively. The Asia Pacific region has been and will remain a net milk importer in the foreseeable future. It accounts for the bulk of milk powder imports and half of the imports of condensed and evaporated milk. In contrast, most cheese imports go from developing countries to developed countries such as Japan and the United States. Milk Production Scenario in India : In the post-independence period the milk production of India has increased more than five-folds from 17 million tonnes during 1951 to 121.7 million tonnes in 2011. The estimated milk production in India during is about 14 per cent of global milk production. Today, India is the largest milk producing country in the world. When the world milk production registered a negative growth of 2 percent, India performed much better with 4 percent growth. The total milk production is over 72 million tonnes and the demand for milk is estimated at around 80 million tonnes. The milk surplus states in India are Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. About 45% of milk production is consumed as fluid milk. About 35% is processed into butter or ghee; about 7% is processed into Paneer (cottage cheese) and other cheeses, about 4% is converted into milk powder; and the balance is used for other products such as Dahi (yoghurt) and sweet meats. Global Versus Indian Milk Production Scenario : More than 14 per cent of the world milk output is contributed by India, which implies that every seventh litre of world milk is produced in India. Not only India is the largest milk producing country of the world with estimated output of 106 million MT (2009), what is more significant is that I dia s growth in milk production is 4 per cent, which is more than three times global milk growth. Therefore I dia s share of world milk output will continue to increase every year. Dairying in India is the pathway to poverty alleviation through mass employment and rural prosperity. India could, therefore, ill – afford to undo what has been developed with a lot of perseverance and hard work of millions of small and medium farmers including landless: labourers largely under Operation Flood. I dia s ever-growing, vast remunerative domestic market has acted as both a boon, being a ready market for incremental milk production as well as a disincentive for highly competitive export market. Although per capita consumption of milk has more than doubled during the last three decades, it is still only 249.98 g per day as compared to nutritional requirement of 283 g per day. With increasing population and per capita income, growth in demand for milk is expected to match with growth in milk output, at least, for the next 4-5 years. Milk hygiene practices in India and other countries : Generally, animals are milked at least twice a day worldwide including India, which can influence hygienic quality of milk considerably. Tropical climate, inadequate cooling facilities, widespread adulteration, lack of quality consciousness and small-scale scattered production are the prevailing conditions in India. In India, milk production and distribution are currently being followed in unorganized way. However, in a modular system, which is carried out in highly organized way like ANAND pattern co-operative system operating in Gujarat, the individual milk producer supplies the milk within 1-3 hr. of production to a village level society. This is transported twice a day in cans within 3-5 hrs to the district level dairy plant under ambient conditions. In Indian situation where dairy plant is far off, the milk from village society goes to a chilling centre, cooled below 5°C and then transported to the district level dairy plant. Here, it is pasteurized and supplied to the consumer. In developed countries, it is a common practice to cool the milk immediately at the farm, and the same is collected by the dairy plants every day or alternate day or twice a week. This practice requires cold storage of milk at collection centres for 2-3 days before it is processed. In western countries, the problems of milk borne disease have been solved completely by enforcing strict laws. Animals are periodically tested for contagious diseases and all measures are taken to produce milk free from pathogens. Even though, these conditions are not strictly followed in our country, the habit of boiling the milk invariably before consumption by the consumer has probably saved them from serious milk borne infections.

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Distribution in India And Other Countries : Due to the short shelf life of normal milk, it used to be delivered to households daily in many countries; however, improved refrigeration at home, changing food shopping patterns because of supermarkets, and the higher cost of home delivery mean that daily deliveries by a milkman are no longer available in most countries. Australia and New Zealand : In Australia and New Zealand, prior to metrication, milk was generally distributed in 1 pint (568ml) glass bottles. In Australia and Ireland there was a government funded "free milk for school children" program, and milk was distributed at morning recess in 1/3 pint bottles. Milk is now available in a variety of sizes in cardboard cartons (250 mL, 375 mL, 600 mL, 1 liter and 1.5 liters) and plastic bottles (1, 2 and 3 liters). United States : In the United States, glass milk bottles have been replaced mostly with milk cartons and plastic jugs. Gallons of milk are almost always sold in jugs, while half gallons and quarts may be found in both paper cartons and plastic jugs, and smaller sizes are almost always in cartons. United Kingdom : Almost 95% of all milk in the UK is thus sold in shops today, most of it in plastic bottles of various sizes, but some also in milk cartons. Milk is hardly ever sold in glass bottles in UK shops. India : In rural India, milk is home delivered, daily, by local milkmen carrying bulk quantities in a metal container, usually on a bicycle. In other parts of metropolitan India, milk is usually bought or delivered in plastic bags or cartons via shops or supermarkets. Packaging in India and Other Countries : Most people purchase milk in bags, plastic bottles, or plastic-coated paper cartons. India : Commonly sold in 500 mL plastic bags and in bottles in some parts like in west. Flavored milk is sold in most convenience stores in waxed cardboard containers. Convenience stores also sell many varieties of milk (such as flavored and ultra-pasteurized) in different sizes, usually in aseptic cartons. Australia and New Zealand : Distributed in a variety of sizes, most commonly in aseptic cartons for up to 1.5 liters, and plastic screw-top bottles beyond that with the following volumes; 1.1 L, 2 L, and 3 L. Most UHT-milk is packed in 1 or 2 liter paper containers with a sealed plastic spout United States : Commonly sold in gallon (3.78 L), half-gallon (1.89 L) and quart (0.94 L) containers of naturalcolored HDPE resin, or, for sizes less than one gallon, cartons of waxed paperboard. Bottles made of opaque PET are also becoming commonplace for smaller, particularly metric, sizes such as one liter. The US singleserving size is usually the half-pint (about 240 mL). United Kingdom : Most stores stock imperial sizes: 1 pint (568 mL), 2 pints (1.136 L), 4 pints (2.273 L), 6 pints (3.408 L) or a combination including both metric and imperial sizes. Glass milk bottles delivered to the doorstep by the milkman are typically pint-sized and are returned empty by the householder for repeated reuse. Milk is sold at supermarkets in either aseptic cartons or HDPE bottles. World Dairy trade : Today, India is not a major player in the international trade. The I dia s share in world trade of dairy product is negligible (0.2%) and in case of meat the poultry also I dia s share is very low (0.5%). Global export of milk product in milk equivalent terms is projected at 40.4 million tonnes in 2008, up almost 3 per cent from the previous year. The current export of dairy products from India during the 2007-08 is around 178 million dollars. In the long term, we should aspire for exports of at least 15 to 20% of our products costing over $4 Billion. For this, it is essential to concentration: Improving the quality of raw milk, Dairy hygiene standards, Maintaining consistency of supplies, Formulating a consisting export policy, and Improving our packaging systems. At the same time, we need to formulate a clearly enunciated export policy for dairy products which could include incentives for exports particularly in view of the global competitions.

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List of Authors for the Articles Students Alumni

1.

DEBJIT GHOSH International Business Developer in Don-Limon GmbH in Hamburg Germany. Msc in Organic Agriculture and Food system from University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart Germany.

2.

Medha Pal. B.Tech (Food Tech-Pass out 2016) Quality control chemist (Mio Amore)

3.

Shreya Banerjee B.Tech (Food Tech-Pass out 2016) Business Development Officer in UniBourne Food Ingredients LLP.

4.

Indira Dey Paul Research Scholar Agricultural and Food Engineering Department Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur

5.

Abhishek Paul Almarai, UAE

6.

Kamaljeet Saha, Designation:-Executive(Production)at CG Foods India Pvt. Ltd.(Silchar Unit) Sayak Saha, Designation:-Executive(Quality Assurance)at CG Foods India Pvt. Ltd.(Silchar Unit) Saptarshi Purkayastha Designation:- QC Executive(Lab Analyst) at CG Foods India Pvt. Ltd.(Silchar Unit)

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Indian Grapes For Overseas DEBJIT GHOSH International Business Developer in Don-Limon GmbH in Hamburg Germany. Msc in Organic Agriculture and Food system from University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart Germany. Mr. Debjit Ghosh

In the recent years, agriculture is being expressed by four predominant concepts like sustainability, stability, diversification and commercialization (Kokate, Kharde, Patil, & Deshmukh, 2009) of which commercialization having major impact on the agriculture. Grape is one such commercial produce that has become an important fruit crop in many countries, with various climatic adoptions (Mani, Kulkarni, & Shivaraju, 2014). Popularly known as uee of f uits , grapes is grown in over 91 countries (Varmudy,2011 as cited in Gade, Gaikwad, & Gaikwad, 2013). In India, the states like Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Tamil Nadu have excelled in the production of grapes and these states accounted for nearly 90 % of the total production (Gade& Gaikwad, 2014; Mani et al., 2014) (Graph. 1). Varieties like Thompson Seedless, Sonaka, Sharad Seedless and Tas-e-Ganes are grown. According to APEDA, Maharashtra is the leading grower of grapes (Singh, 2013) and accounts for nearly 81 per cent of the total production of India in 2014-15 (Government of India, Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, 2015).

Graph 1: Production quantity of grapes (in tonnes) in India during the year 2009-2013 Source: Graph recreated based on the information taken from Faostat, 2015 In spite of possessing all these capabilities in grape exports, India faced ban from European Union in the year 2010 due to the presence of a restricted plant growth regulator in exported Indian table grapes, causing nearly loss of INR 30,000 (Nidhi, 2010). It was due to the non-upgradation of the spray list by the concerned officials at that time. Nevertheless the failure of farmers production systems to meet up the strict European regulations due to many infrastructural reasons and non-availability of updated information on quality parameters at every stage of production also played an important role in the ban (Roy & Thorat, 2008). Therefore quality is a very important parameter when it comes to overseas markets, especially supermarkets(Fig. 1 and Fig. 2). In a short window (time gap) between the South African (RSA) grapes and Egyptian grapes, there is a constant demand for good quality Indian grapes by several Supermarkets and wholesale markets in Europe.Due to lack of knowledge on foreign markets requirement and proper documentation, it become a challenge for India to export with super-class quality grapes compared to other strong exporting countries like RSA, Chile, Peru and United States of America.

Fig 1 and Fig 2: Quality checking at the post-harvesting stage for exports Controlling over the process beginning from Pruning in April to Harvesting in January (February-March) can increase the strength of the producers to have good agricultural practices. Besides that know-how transfer from strong exporting countries to India could possibly create the awareness to improve the current structure and potential of Indian Grape export. References Gade, A. D., & Gaikwad, S. B. (2014). PATTERN OF GRAPE CONCENTRATION IN SANGLI DISTRICT OF MAHARASHTRA, 2(3), 27–32. Gade, A. D., Gaikwad, S. B., & Gaikwad, N. S. (2013). Indian Streams Research Journal. Monthly Multidisciplinary Research Journal, III(Ii). http://doi.org/10.9780/22307850 Government of India, Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, M. of A. (2015). Statistics. Retrieved May 13, 2016, from http://agricoop.nic.in/ Kokate, K. D., Kharde, P. B., Patil, S. S., & Deshmukh, B. a. (2009). Farmers - Led Extension : Experiences and Road Ahead, 9(May), 18–21. Mani, M., Kulkarni, N., & Shivaraju, C. (2014). The Grape Entomology. New Delhi: Springer India. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-81-322-1617-9 Nidhi, J. (2010). EU rejects Indian grapes. Retrieved May 13, 2016, from http://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/eu-rejects-indian-grapes-290 Roy, D., & Thorat, A. (2008). Success in High Value Horticultural Export Markets for the Small Farmers: The Case of Mahagrapes in India. World Development, 36(10), 1874–1890. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2007.09.009 Singh, S. (2013). Governance and upgrading in export grape global production networks in India. Brooks World Poverty Institute Working Paper Series, (May), 1–30. Retrieved from http://ideas.repec.org/p/bwp/bwppap/ctg-2013-33.html 50

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Applications of nanotechnology in food industries Medha Pal. B.Tech (Food Tech-Pass out 2016) Quality control chemist (Mio Amore) Miss. Medha Pal

What is Nanotechnology? Nanotechnology is defined as the science and engineering of materials on the scale of 100 nm and below. Nanotechnology Research & Potential Applications in Food • Food Safety and Quality • Sensors with single molecule detection capabilities (Nano tongues and Nano-noses) • Nano-structures interacting with microbial cells • Preservative carrier systems • Ingredient Technologies & Systems • Nanoparticle Utilization • Flavors, Antioxidants, Antimicrobials, Bioactives etc. • Food Processing • New membrane separation systems • Catalysis • Food Packaging • Low permeability, high-strength plastics • High-performance bio-based or edible packaging Liposome-based Bio-nanosensor for Pesticide Detection In the presence of pesticides, there is fewer enzymes to interact with the substrate. Therefore, the system becomes less acid. As a result the pH sensitive fluorescent indicator is greenish. Detection of microorganisms and their toxins by Magnetic Biosensors Conventional molecular diagnostic techniques are widely used in laboratories throughout the world to identify pathogenic agents with high sensitivity and reproducibility. However, most of these techniques cannot be utilized in the field (e.g. airports and food distribution centers) or in developing countries where resources are scarce, because they require sophisticated, expensive instrumentation that needs to be used by trained personnel. Additionally, the high cost and short shelf life of some reagents, such as enzymes and DNA primers, limit the application of most conventional pathogen detection techniques in developing nations. Furthermore, despite their sensitivity, current technologies, like ELISA and PCR, require extensive sample preparation and have long readout times, which delay prompt response and disease containment. Hence considering these, nanotechnology presents a great opportunity to develop fast, accurate and cost effective diagnostics for the detection of pathogenic infectious agents23, 24. Due to the presence of unique properties in nanoscale materials, devices able to report the presence of a pathogenic agent in clinical or environmental samples can be designed. The properties observed in nanomaterials are different from those observed in the bulk (micron-size) material due to their small size (1-100 nm) and large surface area, resulting in enhanced surface reactivity, quantum confinement effects, increased 8 electrical conductivity and improved magnetic properties, among others. The principle underlying the detection mechanism of these nanosensors is based on their ability to switch from a dispersed to a clustered (or assembled) state upon target interaction. A particular challenge of this approach is the inherent complexity of these nanoparticle-based systems, requiring materials optimization, rigorous testing, instrumentation advancements, as well as efficient coupling and modifying chemistries. Thus, Nanotechnology is a huge dimension yet to be explored to overcome a lot of hurdles in Food Sectors.

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WHICH PROTEIN IS BETTER, WHEY OR SOYA? Shreya Banerjee B.Tech (Food Tech-Pass out 2016) Business Development Officer in UniBourne Food Ingredients LLP.

Miss. Shreya Banerjee

Whey products have maintained their position as the gold standard in proteins. However, there is an alternative protein source to consider. Whey products have, for some time, maintained their position as the gold standard in protein supplementation - whey is the biggest selling protein supplement by far, due to the powerful anabolic effect it exerts on muscle growth. Whey is thought to contain the perfect combination of muscle-building amino-acids (the building blocks of protein) and enhance the immune system. It has also shown a rapid utilization capacity, for maximum protein absorption by the muscles (making it perfect as a post-workout drink). Compared to other forms of protein, Whey is thought to be superior, ideally positioned to render these other formulations obsolete. However, there is an alternative protein source considered to be equally as effective as whey: soy. Soy protein, much derided in bodybuilding circles as a "feminizing" compound (which, as such, is thought to make it harder to gain muscle), has received a lot of negative press over recent years. Why then, would one replace their tried and tested whey with the much maligned, supposedly inferior, soy? As is so often the case, when a particular scientific issue is debated, there is another side to the story. In recent years, scientists have been looking closely at the effects soy consumption really has on testosterone, and muscle gain. Recent studies have suggested soy to be as effective, if not more so, than whey in terms of its ability to promote gains in lean muscle mass. In this report, the latest 'cutting edge' research on soy supplementation will be presented along with the benefits soy might hold for the bodybuilding population, as a legitimate alternative to the whey protein. SOY SUPPLEMENTATION IS SOY DETRIMENTAL? Studies have suggested that the phytoestrogens contained in soy protein lead to both unwanted decreases in testosterone, and increases in the female sex hormone estrogen. For example, the isoflavones (a phytoestrogen) found in soy are thought to upset hormone balance, and result in the aforementioned unwanted testosterone and estrogen changes in addition to thyroid problems. Some nutritional counselors have begun to suspect that soy may be to blame for the low energy, digestive disturbances, hypothyroidism, infertility, and other ailments they see in clients. However, on the other side of the coin, many scientists believe soy to be relatively innocuous, and in fact beneficial for a whole range of physical ailments. IS SOY BENEFICIAL? Soy protein, extracted from the annual leguminous soybean plant that has been in the food chain for over 5,000 years, is the only plant-based protein considered to be a high-quality protein, containing all of the essential amino acids in the ratios needed to support growth and development10 11. The soybean was introduced to the US in the 1880s, and before then was, and still is, a staple of the Asian diet. Soy is comprised of 30% carbohydrate (15% of this is fibre), 38% protein, 18% oil (85% of this unsaturated), and 14% moisture11. Soy contains all nine essential amino-acids, in the perfect ratio for health and well-being. Soy's other nutritional functions include providing a respectable amount ofpotassium, zinc, iron, vitamin-E, phosphorous as well as the full Bcomplex. Used together in an exercise regimen, soy and whey proteins complement each other well. Whey protein, as mentioned, is high in branched chain amino acids, used as an important energy source by the body during exercise, while soy protein has high amounts of the amino acids arginine and glutamine. Arginine is well known as a stimulant of anabolic hormones that stimulate muscle formation, while glutamine is considered essential during metabolic stress. CONCLUSION Obviously, more research will need to be done, but if the studies presented here are anything to go by, the future of soy supplementation looks good. This report is not intended to denounce whey protein or hail soy as the newest miracle product, but, rather, present another side to the whey vs. soy story, with the latest research to help people make more informed choices. Soy protein could be an excellent anabolic aid, used independently, or in concert with whey protein, to stimulate further gains in muscle.

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MICROWAVE DRYING OF FOOD-AN INSIGHT Indira Dey Paul Research Scholar Agricultural and Food Engineering Department Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur Miss. Indrani Dey Paul

Innovations in the field of food processing has greatly increased the productivity of variety of food products and widened their range of usage. Development in the preservation techniques have made the seasonal fruits and vegetables available throughout the year. Consumers now a days prefer processed foods with maximum retention of its original characteristics. Dehydration is one of the most prevalent preservation techniques.The molecular mobility of compounds within the water phase of fresh foods is high, which makes them highly susceptible to chemical, enzymatic, microbial and physical deterioration. Drying operation enhances the shelf-life of food by reducing its water activity and leads to concentration of dissolved components such as sugars (Nijhuis et al., 1998). However, conventional hot air drying leads to substantial loss of volatiles and flavours, changes in colour and texture, and reduction in nutritional value of the dried product. Hot air drying is often encountered with problems such as case hardening and shrinkage; the rehydration ability of the dried products are also found to be poor. Hence, there is a rise of demand for alternative drying techniques having less damaging effects on the product characteristics. Microwave drying-Principle Microwave drying, electromagnetic energy (EME)-based drying process, has fast gained popularity for its affordable cost and better rehydratability of the dried products.By definition, microwaves are electromagnetic waves whose frequency ranges from 300 MHz to 300 GHz. The frequency bands of 915 MHz and 2450 MHz are generally used for microwave drying because electromagnetic energy at these frequencies can be absorbed by water-containing materials and converted to heat.

The heating of food using this drying method occurs as a secondary effect of the interaction between the electromagnetic field and food matter. In microwave oven, the microwave field changes direction millions of times per second. When food molecules rotate in this field (dipolar rotation), heat is evolved due to the friction forces between the molecules. Generation of heat also occurs owing to the charge drift under the action of the field (ionic conduction). Water molecules, being polar in nature, are capable of rotating under the influence of an alternating electric field. Food materials are suitable for microwave drying as most of the food materials contain 50-97% water. Unlike hot air drying, microwaves can penetrate through the dry surface layer of the food material and allow heating in all high-moisture regions leading to rapid mass and heat transfer rate. Development of high vapour pressure occurs inside the product as the product temperature rises very speedily owing to the high heating rate of microwaves. This results in rapid transfer of water to the surface of the product, which in turn helps in the development of a more porous structure inside the dried product and leads to lower shrinkage, increased crispiness, and lower energy consumption. Combination of microwave drying with other drying methods Despite its many advantages, microwave drying causes uneven heating of the food material because of its nonuniform electromagnetic field leading to the creation of hot spots. The penetration ability of microwaves into the food matrix is limited by the frequency of the microwave power and electromagnetic properties of the food material. High mass transfer rate can also cause some textural damage to the dried product. To eliminate these limitations, microwave heating can be combined with other conventional drying methods like hot-air and vacuum drying. Combined microwave-air drying provides not only faster drying rate but also high quality product. Microwave-vacuum drying is best suited for heat sensitive products such as fruits and vegetables yielding more porous and uniform structured dried products. Wide range of agricultural products have been dried in both industrial and pilot-scale using microwave, microwave-hot air, microwave-vacuum drying to produce high quality products with better retention of natural attributes. Table 1 presents some studies done on the effect of these three drying methods on fruits and vegetables. 53

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Food material

Type/types of drying used

Reference

Durian

Microwave-hot air, microwave-vacuum

Paengkanya et al. (2015)

Mint leaves

Microwave-vacuum

Therdthai and Zhou (2009)

Pumpkin slices

Microwave, microwave-hot air

Alibas (2007)

Spinach

Microwave, microwave-hot air

Karaaslan and Tuncer (2008)

Garlic cloves

Microwave-hot air

Sharma and Prasad (2001)

Apple and mushroom

Microwave-hot air

Funebo and Ohlsson (1998)

Sliced and mashed bananas

Microwave-vacuum

Drozos and Schubert (1996)

Cranberries

Microwave-vacuum

Yongswatdigul and Gunasekaran (1996)

Carrot cubes

Microwave-hot air

Prabanjan et al. (1995)

Mushrooms

Microwave-hot air

Riva et al. (1991)

Sliced parsley root

Microwave-vacuum

Sobiech (1980)

The above studies have well established the benefits of microwave drying technology in food processing and preservation. However, detailed knowledge regarding microwave drying such as heating uniformity in microwave ovens, frequent adjustment of power due to the dependency of dielectric loss factor on the product moisture content and influence of product on the drying rate will ensure microbial stability and high quality of microwave dried food. Besides, high start-up costs need to be reduced to facilitate larger use of this technology. References Alibas, I. (2007). Microwave, air and combined microwave–air-drying parameters of pumpkin slices. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 40(8), 1445-1451. Drouzas, A. E., & Schubert, H. (1996). Microwave application in vacuum drying of fruits. Journal of food Engineering, 28(2), 203-209. Funebo, T., & Ohlsson, T. (1998). Microwave-assisted air dehydration of apple and mushroom. Journal of Food Engineering, 38(3), 353-367. Karaaslan, S. N., & Tuncer, I. K. (2008). Development of a drying model for combined microwave–fan-assisted convection drying of spinach.Biosystems Engineering, 100(1), 44-52. Nijhuis, H. H., Torringa, H. M., Muresan, S., Yuksel, D., Leguijt, C., & Kloek, W. (1998). Approaches to improving the quality of dried fruit and vegetables.Trends in Food Science & Technology, 9(1), 13-20. Paengkanya, S., Soponronnarit, S., & Nathakaranakule, A. (2015). Application of microwaves for drying of durian chips. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 96, 1-11. Prabhanjan, D. G., Ramaswamy, H. S., & Raghavan, G. S. V. (1995). Microwave-assisted convective air drying of thin layer carrots. Journal of Food engineering, 25(2), 283-293. Riva, M., Schiraldi, A., & Di Cesare, L. F. (1991). Drying of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms by microwave-hot air combination. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft+ Technologie, 24(6), 479483. Sharma, G. P., & Prasad, S. (2001). Drying of garlic (Allium sativum) cloves by microwave– hot air combination. Journal of Food Engineering, 50(2), 99-105. Sobiech, W. (1980). Microwave-Vacuum Drying of Sliced Parstef root. Therdthai, N., & Zhou, W. (2009). Characterization of microwave vacuum drying and hot air drying of mint leaves (Mentha cordifolia Opiz ex Fresen).Journal of Food Engineering, 91(3), 482-489. 54 e-Magazine 2016

Processed Cheese Abhishek Paul Almarai, UAE

PROCESS CHEESE MANUFACTURE

CHEESE MATURING

PROCESS CHEESE • Process cheeses are made of • Natural Cheese • Proteins • Powders • Butter Fat • Water • Emulsifying salts IMPORTANT PARAMETERS • Age of raw material CHEESE • Heating conditions • Temperature treatment • Mechanical treatment • Filling conditions • pH value • Emulsifying Salt CHEESE STRUCTURE DEPENDS ON INTACT CASEIN CONTENT • High intact casein content meanslong and filament-like structure • Low intact casein content means short structure RELATIVE CASEIN CONTENT INFLUENCE OF RAW MATERIALS ON STRUCTURE

INTACT CASEIN CONTENT • Intact casein content of Young cheese is between 90 and 95%

PURPOSE FOR EMULSIFYING SALTS

EFFECTS OF EMULSIFYING SALTS

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CREAMING The phenomenon of creaming describes the degree of structural breakdown of the original cheese structure linked to a change in viscosity

DRY MATTER CONTENT OF PROCESSED CHEESE AND PROCESSED CHEESE PREPARATION

PROCESS CHEESE DEFECTS

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The Instant Noodles Market in India Kamaljeet Saha, Designation:-Executive(Production)at CG Foods India Pvt. Ltd.(Silchar Unit) Sayak Saha, Designation:-Executive(Quality Assurance)at CG Foods India Pvt. Ltd.(Silchar Unit) Saptarshi Purkayastha, Designation:- QC Executive(Lab Analyst) at CG Foods India Pvt. Ltd.(Silchar Unit

Instant noodles are a precooked and usually dried noodle block, sold with flavoring powder and or seasoning oil. The flavoring is usually in a separate packet, although in the case of cup noodles the flavoring is often loose in the cup. Some instant noodle products are seal packed; these can be reheated or eaten straight from the packet. Dried noodle blocks are cooked or soaked in boiling water before eating. Specification : White noodles Brown noodles Ingredients used White noodles processing •

Flour

• • • • • • • • •

Salt Calcium Carbonate Potassium Carbonate Guar gum Sodium Hexametaphosphate Tetra Sodium Pyrophosphate Sodium Phosphate Sodium Carbonate Gluten

B. Brown noodles processing • Flour • Salt • Calcium Carbonate • Potassium Carbonate • Sodium Hexametaphosphate • Tetra Sodium Pyrophosphate • Sodium Carbonate • Mono Sodium Glutamate • Soup Ingredients

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Top noodles in Indian Scenario and its business overall in India Maggi Maggi is a product of Nestle India, a subsidiary of the Nestle Group of Switzerland. It goes without saying that Nestle India's Maggi is still undoubtedly the top noodle brand in India. Maggi has been dominating the Indian noodle industry for almost 32 years. YippeeAnother popular noodle brand in India is Sunfeast Yippee!, which belongs to the Indian conglomerate ITC. Yippee made its way into the Indian market in the first decade of the 2000s and gradually made a considerable presence. By the early 2010s, Yippee! had started giving market leader Maggi some sort of competition. Yippee! noodles are available in five different variants; namely, Classic Masala, Magic Masala, Chinese Masala, Tricolor Pasta (Creamy Corn) and Tricolor Pasta (Masala Top Ramen Top Ramen, by Nissin, is another leading noodle brand in India. Nissin is a Japanese company that introduced its first noodle product in 1958 but entered the Indian market 30 years later in 1988. It took a while for Top Ramen to become one of the leading noodle brands in India. Different variants of Top Ramen noodles in India include Atta Noodles, Cup Noodles, Curry Veg Noodles, Oats Noodles, Scoopies Short Noodles and Super Noodles. Ching'sSecretChing's Secret is another popular noodle brand in India. It is a product of Capital Food Indian Limited. Another popular brand of noodles in India produced by Capital Food India Limited is Smith & Jones. But Ching's Secret is the more popular one and is giving stiff competition to the top noodle brands in India. Ching's Secret offers a vast range of products to its customers that include Schezwan Instant Noodles, Singapore Curry Instant Noodles, Hot Garlic InstaNoodles.Noodles, Egg Hakka Noodles and Veg Hakka Noodles. Knorr Soupy Noodles Knorr Soupy Noodles is a product of Hindustan Unilever and has turned out to be a popular brand in India of late. Knorr is famous for its unique range of soups in India and is the leading brand for the same but has earned accolades for its unique combination of noodles and soup, that is, Knorr Soupy Noodles. Knorr noodles range consists of Mast Masala Soupy Noodles, Knorr Chinese Noodle Hot Spicy, Knorr Chinese Noodle Schezwan, WaiWai NoodlesnWaiWai is an international brand of instant noodles produced initially in Thailand by Thai Preserved Food Factory Co. since 1972.Chaudhary Group owned the company introduced it worldwide from Nepal in 1985. WaiWai is precooked and flavored before packaging, so it can be eaten straight from the package or cooked in soup form. The Chaudhary Group has built two plants in Nepal and six plants in India for the manufacture and distribution of WaiWai noodles. Assam Government had also banned WaiWai under investigation for one month under Food Safety and Standard Act 2006. Subsequently, concerned authorities gave the popular noodles a clean sheet as it proved to contain no lead and harmful materials.WaiWai, which claims 20 percent market shares in the Indian market, has apparently benefited from the noodle controversy and has resurfaced in the Indian market with aggressive business plans from the Chaudhary Group.

CONCLUSION:Modern formats, which provide high product visibility and good product displays, are acting as a good marketing platform for brands to promote their product offerings via consumer schemes like price discounts, bundled offers, sampling for new launches, etc. However, about 80-90% of instant noodles sales takes place through traditional formats , which is not surprising since noodles are a regular grocery item. Thus players need to invest significantly in distribution and establish a widespread retail reach and tap into a larger consumer base. Therefore, distribution remains an important enabler for this category. Another key challenge for players is to maintain price points and margins given the fluctuations in input costs. Usually, they opt to reduce pack sizes, while keeping prices constant, to counter the challenge. In its journey of 28 years, the instant noodles market has undergone several changes, viz. the entry of several new players, innovations in products and value-addition in packaging, the emergence of modern formats, a shift in consumption towards convenience foods, etc. Going forward, this market will continue to register a doubledigit growth and will witness higher competitive intensity. The strength of the distribution networks and media campaigns of the new entrants has the potential to be a game-changer and may eventually cause Maggi to face some serious competition, and perhaps even make this pioneering brand fight to defend its dominance. This category is finally coming of age and promises to be an interesting space to watch in the next few years.

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59 e-Magazine 2016

List of Authors for the Articles Students of the Department (Page: 1)

1.

Pranoy Chakraborty 3rd Year, FT, GNIT

2.

Shreosi Das, 2nd year, FT, GNIT

3.

Ushnil Dutta, Sanjana Chakraborti 4th Year, FT,GNIT

4.

Abhishek Kundu 2nd Year, FT, GNIT

5.

Soumyadeep Pal, Gargi Sharma 4th year, FT, GNIT

6.

Madhulika Dutta 3rd yr, FT, GNIT

7.

Tania Paul 3rd year, FT, GNIT

8.

Debosruti Dutta 3rd year, FT,GNIT

9.

Chandrani Dutta 4th year, FT, GNIT

10.

Tanisha Sasmal 3rd year, FT, GNIT

11.

Jayanti Chowdhury 3rd year, FT, GNIT

12.

Manasi Roy 4th Year, FT, GNIT

13.

Abhijit Ghosh 3rd Year, FT, GNIT

14.

Saikat Gorai, Sruti Mandal 4th year, FT, GNIT

15.

Mainak Ghosh 4th year, FT, GNIT

16.

Chandralekha Bhowmik 3rd year, FT, GNIT

17.

ANSHU CHAUDHARY, PINKI KARMAKAR 3rd year, FT, GNIT

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List of Authors for the Articles Students of the Department (Page: 1)

1.

Bigroha Hazra 3rd Year, FT, GNIT

2.

Rupsha Roychowdhury, Suravi Chakraborty 3rd year, FT, GNIT

3.

Subhapriya Samanta 3rd year, FT, GNIT

4.

Arunima Mukherjee , Shubham Mukherjee, Bornini Banerjee, 4th year, FT, GNIT

5.

Neelanjana Misra 4th year, FT, GNIT

6.

Shramana Bhattacharyyya 4th year, FT, GNIT

7.

Abhik Dutta & Ankur Das 3rd year, FT, GNIT

8.

Pritika Prasad, Prostuti Chakravorty 3rd Year, FT, GNIT

9.

URMI SARKAR 2nd Year, FT, GNIT

10.

Suparna Mukherjee 2nd Year, FT, GNIT

11.

Prajesh Nandy 3rd year, FT, GNIT

12.

Puja Ghosh 3rd year, FT, GNIT

13.

Sreemoyee Moitra 4th year, FT, GNIT

14.

Anusree Modak 4th year, FT, GNIT

15.

Riya Dasgupta 3rd year, FT, GNIT

16.

POULAMI MITRA , SUSMITA GHOSWAMI 3rd year, FT, GNIT

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IMPORTANCE OF FOOD ENGINEERS IN OUR SOCIETY Pranoy Chakraborty

3rd Year, FT, GNIT

Fi st of all let us come to know familiar with the term FOOD TECHNOLOGY". It is the combination of many branches such as Chemical Engineering, Microbiology, Biotechnology, biochemical Engineering, Dairy technology, Fermentation technology, Mechanical engineering etc. FOOD ENGINEERS played a very vital role in our society &surroundings. They can serve the consumer a very good quality of product by maintaining its quality control &its hygiene. Being an FOOD ENGINEER they have many societal burdens in order to provide good &safe quality of the products. The stream FOOD TECHNOLOGY is an unique Special branch of engineering &has an vast field in Future. People by hearing the term FOOD" the came into an negligence &they come to understand that these may some how related to HOTEL MANAGEMENT ;but this is not so. There is an huge difference between an HOTEL MANAGEMENT & FOOD ENGINEERS both are good but we the FOOD ENGINEERS have the special liability to our environment. We have to provide a good quality of product into our environment by maintaining its hygiene &quality in an huge technical &scientific way. We have to ensure that the Product that are given to the consumers are hazardous/Adulterant free. We also have to check out that the product which are taken by consumers are nutritious & healthy. The product should have some nutritious benefits &friendly to health. Various protein powder, Beverage &Bakery product has been launched into a market Which have been fortified with various nutrition element Which a t be do so without an help of FOOD ENGINEERS. The Food are being Fortified in order to give better nutrient to the consumers. The person Who are suffering from various vitamins &minerals deficiency disease can take Modified FOODS & Beverage which are enriched with nutrient in a small packet &are available in a market which has been done with the help FOOD ENGINEERS. By taking this enriched nutrient food one can maintain a good health & can stay healthy through out there lives. The shelf life of any Foods is also been examined with the help of food Engineers & this work out needs a vast knowledge in the Microbiology & Biochemistry field. So we the FOOD ENGINEERS are need to study various things which are related with various technical &medical terms. We have to ensure that the product that are being packed are safe to human health having more nutrition value & are adulterant free. So, the FOOD EGINEERS have played an vital role in order to building an safe environment. We the Human beings may lived without Buildings, Electricity, Electronics Gadgets, but without FOOD a human beings can be lived so long. Variety of FOOD add a pleasure in order to lead an joyful life in our society. Processed foods have some additional qualities &the Food which are need to be processed needs an Good FOOD ENGINEERS. As for example, Salt which are fortified with iodine with the help of FOOD ENGINEERS may cure GOITRE which are an severe IODINE DEFICIENCY disease for our society &without an help of FOOD ENGINEERS this iodine cannot be fortified up to the mark, then Biscuits enriched with dietary fibre are helps in better digestion; Brown bread, Milk bread which are enriched with various nutrients may serve adequate nutrients to the consumers &this may heal/cure many disease with out any side effects. Fermentation foods which are processed with the help of FOOD ENGINEERS; are added extra characteristics &quality to the food &this are highly beneficial for our health .Present generation is fully based on packaged food so with out FOOD ENGINEERS we cannot identified which are hazardous or beneficial to health & up to what extent. There is an minimum level of addition of synthetic colours to any food product &without the help of any FOOD ENGINEERS this level &its quantity a t be maintained. So the branch FOOD TECHNOLOGY has played a vast role In order to developed into our environment &society. Most of the people are thinking that this branch is our last choice in an Engineering field but this is not so this should be an first choice because without an healthy &nutritious foods are life is like an living dead cells. Even the people who are drinking alcohol like Beer, whisky, Rum should have an mild knowledge that what are the benefits of drinking alcohol & up to an what Extent. If the Drinking is beyond its limit than this can be sure hazardous to our health. So being an FOOD ENGINEERS we can Aware an people about this. Even Government should give an awareness about this branch to the people in order to change their thinking &daily livelihood. People should know What is FOOD TECHNOLOGY &what is the value that can give an FOOD ENGINEERS in our society. This branch has an bright field because with out an FOOD ENGINEERS Food industry cannot run successfully. Without an FOOD ENGINEERS we may eat many FOOD products which are incorporation of various adulterants & this may be hazardous to our health. So we the FOOD ENGINEERS are have an important role into our environment &society in order to provide consumer a adulterant free products.

DECLARATION: The above quoted portion is the view of a 3rd year B.Tech Food Technology student and the words are completely an i di idual s opinion. No facts are being established or changed by this message.

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THE MOST NUTRITIOUS FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Shreosi Das, year, FT, GNIT

2nd

Losing fat and gaining muscle often means that the food we eat is based upon what macronutrient ratio is best for our goal, because e e so much focused on how much carbohydrate , fat, and protein e e getting in each meal. Micronutrients are essential vitamins and minerals that our body does t make , so they need to come from our daily diet. Here are some most nutritious fruits and vegetables that fits best in our nutritious plan: FRUITS:• MANGO Calories: 201 , Fat: 0.8g , Carbohydrate: 32.3g , Protein: 1.7g Mango is a great addition to our nutrition plan. One mango provides 5 grams of fiber, as well as potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium and huge doses of vitamin A and C. • POMEGRANATE Calories: 72, Fat: 1g, Carbohydrate: 16g, Protein: 1.4g Pomegranate has a unique delicious flavor and is chock-full of nutrients. One half cup of pomegranate seeds provides lots of potassium, magnesium, fiber and vitamins B-1, B-2, B-6, C, E & K. • GUAVA Calories: 112, Fat: 1.6g, Carbohydrate: 23.6g, Protein: 4.2g Guava generally is a summer fruit. It is high in fiber, niacin and vitamins A, B-3, B-6, C & K. Guava is also rich in lycopene, a powerful antioxidant. VEGETABLES:• BELL PEPPER Calories: 5, Fat: 0.4g, Carbohydrate: 12g, Protein: 2g Bell peppers of all colors are an amazing addition to our diet. They have a huge amount of vitamins C, B-6, A , folate and fiber. Although they are low in fat, but the little they do have ensures that e ll get some fat-soluble nutrients like vitamins A & E • SPINACH Calories: 41, Fat: O.5g, Carbohydrate: 7g, Protein: 5g Spinach belongs in our muscle_building nutrition plan. We can eat it raw or can increase the fiber content by boiling it. It is a great source of vitamins A,K and E as well as calcium. • BROCCOLI Calories: 31, Fat: 0.3g, Carbohydrate: 6g, Protein: 2.6g Broccoli is a body building staple. In just one cup of chopped lots of other minerals like potassium, calcium and selenium.

o olli, e ll get vitamin K and C and

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The Original Superfood : Flax Seed Mr. Ushnil Dutta

Ushnil Dutta, Sanjana Chakraborti 4th Year, FT,GNIT

Ms. Sanjana Chakraborti

Flaxseed is known primarily for the oil contained inside the seed, which is also known as linseed oil. Flaxseeds (also called linseeds) are a rich source of micronutrients, dietary fibre, manganese, vitamin B 1, and the essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid, also known as ALA or omega-3. Some people call flaxseed one of the most powerful plant foods on the planet, which is why it is sometimes called a “upe food. Nutritional Profile of Flax seeds Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) is a rich source of protein, fat, and dietary fibre to support a healthy lifestyle. On average, Canadian -flaxseed contains 41% fat, 20% protein, and 28% total dietary fibre. This modest seed is a wealth of nutrition due to its content of three health promoting components: the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 20% of dry weight); the plant lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG, 1% of dry weight); and soluble fibre (6% of dry weight). Research has found evidence to suggest that flaxseed can help lower the risk of diabetes, cancer, and heart disease. It owes its good reputation to three main components: Omega-3 fatty acids: These are the good fats that have heart-healthy benefits, such as those found in fish oils. For many people, especially vegetarians, flaxseed oil is used in place of fish oil supplements. Lignans: These compounds are found in all plant seeds, but are especially high in flaxseed, and have both plant estrogen and antioxidant qualities. Although still under study, some evidence shows that the lignans in flaxseed may provide some protection against cancer, particularly breast, prostate, and colon cancer. Fibre: Especially beneficial for gastrointestinal health, flaxseed contains both soluble and insoluble fibreThe Institute of Medicine recommends an omega-6 to omega-3 ratio of 5:1 to 10:1.2 Dietary flaxseed can help to significantly improve this ratio since it contains more than three time as much omega-3 as omega-6 fatty acids. The minimum recommended DV for ALA Omega 3 is 1,600-mg per day. Flaxseed has a unique mix of fatty acids being low in saturates (less than 9% of total fatty acids) and containing the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 ALA and omega-6 linoleic acid (LA). Approximately 57% of the fatty acids are ALA, making -flaxseed the richest plant source of this important omega-3. Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are linked with age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), obesity, diabetes, and cancer. A unifying mechanism by which flaxseed may lower the risk of these diseases risk is via its role in reducing inflammation. ALA may decrease inflammation via its influence on eicosanoids - hormone-like substances that play a role in controlling inflammation. Consuming flaxseed daily is sometimes a little tricky because you have to actually bite open the seeds when chewing them to get to the oil inside. That is sometimes difficult because the seeds are so tiny! It is best to get flaxseed in one of these ways: Buy the ground or milled flaxseeds and mix them into the foods you eat, such as oatmeal or smoothies. Use flaxseed in your recipes: Substitute ground flaxseed for part of the flour. You can replace one-fourth to half a cup (C) of the flour with ground flaxseed if the recipe calls for at least two cups of flour. Replace the egg in recipes for baked goods. Use one tablespoon (Tbsp) of milled flax blended with three Tbsp of water to replace each egg. Take capsules of the flaxseed oil. If you just take flaxseed oil, you are missing the lignans and fibre, but you still get the omega-3 fatty acids. In the United States (US), a recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for flaxseed does not currently exist, nor does a specific recommendation on how much one should take in order to reap all of its benefits. Therefore, 2 - 3 Tbsp of whole or ground flaxseed is generally recommended as a daily intake for health benefits.

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Delivering a Food Safety Culture Abhishek Kundu 2nd Year, FT, GNIT Delivering a Food Safety Culture Behaviour driven FSMS. The number one objective for a Food Safety Professional is to create a food safety culture. Simply unsafe behaviour makes unsafe food. #What is a safety culture ? The safety culture of an organisation is the product of an individual and group values , attitudes competencies and patterns of behaviour that determine the commitment to, and the style and proficiency of an organisations Health and Safety program . - Health and Safety commission(1993). Soft not hard science. #Behaviour driven FSMS: Food Safety Management System tool box : HACCP. Audits. Analysis. PRP programs. In process control. Training. Root cause analysis. Improves and builds on a FSMS. #Delivering a food safety culture. – Leadership – It starts from the top. – Employee confidence - Managers demonstrate visible commitment- Walk the talk. – Accountability, Communication. – Share practice and knowledge. – Follow best practice- Understand drivers of behaviour. #Behaviour based FSMS (Human factor) – Optimistic bias - It will not happen to me. – Illusion of control – Nothing has gone wrong. I know what I am doing. – Cognitive dissonance – I am doing wrong but there is a reason. – Attitudinal ambivalence - There are more important matters. – Food Safety Culture. Maturity continuum. – Progressive stages of Food Safety Culture maturity. – What separates market leading performers from average performers, and the right steps to transform Food Safety Culture into a competitive advantage. #Food Safety Culture (Maturity continuum) – Lack of leadership, Flexible morals. – Imbedded in priorities. – Reactive, Lack of employee engagement – Stagnant behaviour, Educated not trained. – Unsafe FSMS . – Leadership from top to bottom. – Integrity, Imbedded in values. – Proactive. – Behavioural based FSMS., All employees are engaged. – Long term, Mutual trust, Shared importance of risk. – Drives behaviourial change, Safe FSMS. #Measuring your food safety culture. – Observing behaviour .KPSI – Washing hands. – Self reporting. – Audit results-BRC , HACCP, Seddex. – Product analysis., Environmental analysis – Audits inspections, Numbers trained. Test knowledge. Developing a Food Safety Culture. Priorities change depending on the circumstance Values do not.

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BROCCOLI: THE HEALTHIEST FOOD Mr. Soumyadeep Pal

Soumyadeep Pal, Gargi Sharma 4th year, FT, GNIT

Ms. Gargi Sharma

Broccoli is an edible green plant in the cabbage family whose large flowering head is eaten as a vegetable. The word broccoli comes from the Italian plural of broccolo, which means "the flowering crest of a cabbage", and is the diminutive form of brocco, meaning "small nail" or "sprout". Broccoli is often boiled or steamed but may be eaten raw. A 100 gram serving of raw broccoli provides 34 kcal and is an excellent source (20% or higher of the Daily Value, DV) of vitamin C and vitamin K. Raw broccoli also contains moderate amounts (10–19% DV) of several B vitamins and the dietary mineral manganese, whereas other essential nutrients are in low content. Broccoli has low content of carbohydrates, protein, fat, and dietary fiber. Boiling broccoli reduces the levels of sulforaphane, with losses of 20–30% after five minutes, 40–50% after ten minutes, and 77% after thirty minutes. However, other preparation methods such as steaming, microwaving, and stir frying had no significant effect on the compounds. Broccoli also contains the carotenoid compounds lutein and zeaxanthin in amounts about 6 times lower than in kale.

NUTRITION: composition Energy Carbohydrates Sugar Dietary fiber

amount 141 kJ 6.64 g 1.7 g 2.6 g

composition Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Pantothenic acid

amount 6% 10 % 4% 11 %

composition Calcium Iron Magnesium Manganese

amount 5% 6% 6% 10 %

Fat Protein Vitamin A

0.37 g 2.82 g 4%

Folate Vitamin E Vitamin k

16 % 5% 97 %

Potassium Phosphorus water

9% 7% 89.3 g

What's New and Beneficial About Broccoli Broccoli can provide you with some special cholesterol-lowering benefits if you will cook it by steaming. The fiber-related components in broccoli do a better job of binding together with bile acids in your digestive tract when they've been steamed. When this binding process takes place, it's easier for bile acids to be excreted, and the result is a lowering of your cholesterol levels. Raw broccoli still has cholesterol-lowering ability—just not as much. Broccoli has a strong, positive impact on our body's detoxification system, and researchers have recently identified one of the key reasons for this detox benefit. Glucoraphanin, gluconasturtiian, and glucobrassicin are 3 glucosinolate phytonutrients found in a special combination in broccoli. This dynamic trio is able to support all steps in body's detox process, including activation, neutralization, and elimination of unwanted contaminants. Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are the detox-regulating molecules made from broccoli's glucosinolates, and they help control the detox process at a genetic level. Broccoli may help us solve our vitamin D deficiency epidemic. When large supplemental doses of vitamin D are needed to offset deficiency, ample supplies of vitamin K and vitamin A help keep our vitamin D metabolism in balance. Broccoli has an unusually strong combination of both vitamin A (in the form of beta-carotene) and vitamin K. For people faced with the need to rebuild vitamin D stores through vitamin D supplements, broccoli may be an ideal food to include in the diet. Small white butterfly is a common pest Broccoli is a particularly rich source of a flavonoid called kaempferol. Recent research has shown the ability of kaempferol to lessen the impact of allergy-related substances on our body. This kaempferol connection helps to explain the unique anti-inflammatory benefits of broccoli, and it should also open the door to future research on the benefits of broccoli for a hypoallergenic diet. Anti-inflammatory

Cancer Prevention BENIFITS

Antioxidant

Enhence detoxification

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DO “ AND DONT “ OF ‘EGULA‘ FOODS Madhulika Dutta 3rd yr, FT, GNIT There are various foods that we consume on a regular basis and without them our routines are disrupted. But most of us go wrong in those asi s even as we forget that the simplest eatables/drinkables of our daily diet also have their own rules. The rule is quite simple, if we do t abide by them, we lose the nutrients and often unknowingly cause harm to our body. Some such food facts are listed below: WATER The most vital time to provide our body with water is in the morning right after we wake up. This is because while sleeping through the night our body uses up water for metabolism and so when we wake up it craves for it. We all are aware that we should be drinking at least 7-8 glasses of water every single day. But the most important time is in the morning as it boosts the metabolism and helps flush out toxins faster. SUGAR/MILK IN COFFEE AND TEA We all know that coffee and tea helps us with our metabolism (especially coffee). But we all ruin its potential by adding sugar and milk. Coffee triggers faster metabolism in our body but when accompanied with sugar and milk, our body gets confused on what to put the first focus of digestion on and starts breaking down the milk and sugars first. “o it is always advised to drink coffee without any suga / ilk FIRST CUP OFF COFFEE Many of us have the habit of drinking a cup of coffee without even drinking a glass of water before just to get rid of the drowsiness. Coffee contains various oils, acids and compounds like caffeine that can harm our stomach and intestines by irritating their linings. Whe we drink coffee our stomach triggers higher metabolism rate and produces large amounts of hydrochloric acid (HCl). This overproduction of HCl is especially pronounced if you drink a cup of coffee on an empty stomach, making first thing in the morning probably the worst possible time to drink coffee. AFTER MEAL CAFFEINE As discussed earlier, caffeine present in tea/coffee helps increase digestion rate. So d i ki g a cup of coffee/tea is always a good option as the chances of poor digestion are reduced by a great e te t MILK It is always safe to drink plain milk or by adding a bit of sugar. Milk when consumed while eating any other food products like egg, meat, or any citrus food, it always has an ill effect on the digestion and results in an upset stomach. Also, drinking milk before going to bed helps to sleep better. CURD Again one of the most consumed food in our daily routine. Curd is basically a bowl of beneficial Lactic Acid Bacteria which helps in better digestion. When consumed with other foods like sugar, starch, etc, the main potential of curd gets oppressed as the body cannot decide which one to take and digest first among the sugar, starch and the curd. So it is always better to consume curd without adding anything. SALT IN SALADS When we add salt in vegetable or fruit salads, often we go overboard to cover up the grassy/sour flavour. But this causes nutrients to leach out from them and thus do t give us the complete nutrients that we should have got either way. The best is to have salad plain or think dash of salt and add a o di gl

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Triglyceride 3rd

Tania Paul year, FT, GNIT

Diagnosed with High Triglycerides: If at our most recent physical exam, our doctor told us that our triglycerides were too high, consider eating more fish or taking a fish oil supplement. Why? Consuming the omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA — a group of fatty acids that human bodies don't produce on their own — has been shown to lower triglycerides not to mention promote heart health, reduce mental decline with aging and reduce overall mortality. What is high triglycerides: Triglycerides are a type of fat found in blood. When we eat, our bodies convert unused calories into excess triglycerides, which are stored in our fat cells. Later, hormones release triglycerides for energy between meals. When more calories are eaten than burned — particularly carbohydrates and fats — this can increase our triglycerides. So if we're not expending enough energy, your fat stores, essentially, build up. High levels of triglycerides in the bloodstream have been linked to atherosclerosis (when plaque builds up inside arteries) and heart disease. The same habits that promote overall health — such as maintaining a healthy weight, avoiding solid fats and added sugars, limiting alcohol consumption and exercising — also work to keep triglycerides within a normal range. Recommendation Our bodies don't naturally produce DHA and EPA, it's essential to make sure you're getting enough. You can get meet your recommended DHA and EPA intake from eating a variety of fish (salmon and tuna contain the highest amounts) at least two times a week; and from foods that contain the omega-3 fatty acid ALA, which can be converted into DHA and EPA by the body, such as walnuts, chia seeds and flax seeds. Or, consider taking a fish or algae oil supplement. They are reliable sources of DHA and EPA, especially if we're worried about getting enough from diet alone.

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HARMFUL EFFECTS OF USING LIPSTICK Debosruti Dutta 3rd year, FT,GNIT

Lipstick !!! Yes we girls go crazy for it but there is also a dark and ugly side to all those pretty shades. Ever wondered where your lipstick goes from your lips when you eat or drink something? Well, ou e likely swallowing it and yes the ingredients in the lipstick that ou e swallowing are potentially hazardous to your health. Lipsticks contain many harmful ingredients. These include chiefly toxic heavy metals like lead, cadmium, mercury and antimony. Lipsticks may contain formaldehyde, a preservative and known carcinogen, mineral oil substances are also know to block pores while parabens like carcinogens are often used as preservatives. Lipstick manufacturers are also using harmful petrochemicals to produce such lip formulas. These harmful substances can affect the nervous system, lipsticks are known to cause allergy and irritation over the lips and the surrounding skin, other harmful effects include blockage of pores, blackening ,drying and chapping of lips, leucoderma due to melanocyte destruction. Certain harmful ingredients are known to cause cancer, heavy metal poisoning are also present in minute quantities in lipsticks. The US Foods and Drug Administration (FDA) published a report on lead and lipsticks. It found that lead levels in 400 lipsticks it tested ranged from 0.026 parts per million(or ppm) to 7.19 ppm. The FDA says these are not levels to worry about even though they are higher then the recommended amount of lead is 0.1ppm. So, in conclusion I would love to state that using cosmetics may make you look pretty but natural beauty is the best it s what you are and it s safer than using cosmetics.

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Bitter gourd seeds a potential source of antiHIV and antiCANCER Chandrani Dutta 4th year, FT, GNIT

Bitter gourd (Momordicacharantia L.) commonly called as karela in India, consist of number of constituents which contributes to the nutritional value of plant. It is a wonderful plant not only providing nutrition but also offering several components which show medicinal activities against number of diseases. Many of its chemical constituents have been explored for its benefits in treating conditions like diabetes ,viral and bacterial infections ,pains, stomach disorders etc. Newer applications include treatment of life threatening cancer and HIV infections too. Constituents of bitter gourd can be utilized for preparing many herbal formulations which can cure with no adverse effects. MAP30 is the protein isolated from bitter gourd which has shown anti HIV and anticancer activities. This protein acts irreversibly on ribosome by removing adenine residue from eukaryotic ribosomal RNA. Structurally ,MAP30 is a single chain protein containing 263 amino acid residues with 30 basic amino acid residues that account for approximately 11% of total amino acids and its basic PH. Molecular weight of MAP is 30 kDa. Biological activity of protein includes inhibition of in-vitro protein synthesis(ribosome inactivation),anti-tumor, antimicrobial, anti-HIV replication.MAP30,alpha and beta momorcharinsare isolated from the seeds of bitter gourd inhibit HIV replication in acutely and chronically infected cells and thus are considered potential therapeutic agent in HIV infection and aids. MAP30 improved the efficacy of anti-HIV therapy when used in combination with other anti-viral drugs.MAP30 holds a therapeutic promise over other ribosome inactivating proteins because not only it is active against infection and replication of both HSV and HIV but also it is non toxic to normal cells. Bitter gourd is truly a bitter body with sweet souls for human lives.

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Burger King proudly presents their artificial food dye! Tanisha Sasmal 3rd year, FT, GNIT Fast-food franchise Burger King has introduced a massive sandwich it is calling "The Angriest Whopper." The sandwich features all the normal burger fixings – lettuce, cheese, sauces, pickles, onions, etc. – but its marketing focuses on its brilliant red-dyed bun, which, according to published sources, is infused with hot sauce. According to marketing news site Advertising Age: "The new Angriest Whopper has a red bun with hot sauce baked into it and is topped with 'flaming onion petals, spicy angry sauce and jalapenos,' as well as bacon, American cheese, iceberg lettuce, tomatoes and mayonnaise." The Angriest Whopper follows two other theme-centric burgers: the Angry Whopper, which derived its "heat" not from a dyed, hot sauced bun, but from ingredients including "angry" onions and sauce, jalapenos, and pepper jack cheese; and last fall's A.1. Halloween Whopper, which featured a black-dyed bun.

Is FDA failing to protect consumers? Many consumers likely believe that these dyed-bun burgers are all fun and games, but they would be singing a different tune if they understood the health risks associated with them. As reported by Food Safety News, the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) recently published an extensive report titled, "Food Dyes: A Rainbow of Risks" which provides comprehensive details regarding the risks of nine dyes that are widely used in some of the most common foods. Researchers also noted that common food dyes are known to increase risks of cancer, hyperactivity in children and allergies. James Huff, an associate at the National Toxicology Program added, "Some dyes have caused cancers in animals, contain cancer-causing contaminants, or have been inadequately tested for cancer or other problems. It's disappointing that the [U.S. Food and Drug Administration) has not addressed the toxic threat posed by food dyes." CSPI said that it mailed a letter to the Food and Drug Administration upon releasing its report, outlining a request to ban all food dyes in the United States, in an effort to protect Americans from health problems. The EU has already responded – but not the U.S. Also, the group said that the FDA was

failing

to

protect

the

public

in

the

following

ways:

–Red 3 and Citrus Red 2 should be banned under the Delaney amendment, because they caused cancer in rats (some uses were banned in 1990), as should Red 40, Yellow 5, and Yellow 6, which are tainted with cancer-causing contaminants. –Evidence suggests, though does not prove, that Blue 1, Blue 2, Green 3, Red 40 and Yellow 6 cause cancer in animals. There is certainly not 'convincing evidence' of safety. –Dyed foods should be considered adulterated under the law, because the dyes make a food 'appear better or of greater value than it is'–typically by masking the absence of fruit, vegetable or other more costly ingredient. And, the group accused the FDA of being aware of the health risks created by the presence of the dyes, but failing to protect consumers. CSPI said that British lawmakers have responded to the health data regarding food dyes, and required food companies to start phasing them out from January of this year. In addition, officials with the European Union are requiring companies to place warning labels on all dyed foods, effective July 20. 71

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HARMFUL EFFECTS OF USING EYELINER ON HEALTH Jayanti Chowdhury 3rd year, FT, GNIT

Eyeliners!!!!A must for every girls in toda s world,but it has a deadly dangerous dark side. Makeup is supposed to make us look even more beautiful, but that beauty comes at a cost when we consider the toxic chemicals that are lurking in most brands of eye shadows, liners,mascaras, makeup brushes ,eyelash curlers and false-lash adhesives.They areCarbon black- Severly linked to cancer and organ system toxicity. Ethanolamine compounds- have cancer causing chemicals like nitrosamines. BAK-Benzalkonium chloride(BAK) is well documented to be toxic to the epithelial cells of the eyes. Prime yellow carnauba wax-clogs the oil glands in the eyes and lead to eye disease. Parabens-Causes endocrine disruptions and are linked to reproductive toxicity,early puberty and breast cancer. Retinyl acetate or retinyl palmitate-Linked with cancer and reproductive toxicity. Heavy metals-Nickel,chrome and lead which are neutrotoxins that have been linked with brain damage. To avoid chemicals in eye makeup,we can follow these things.THROW AWAY EYE MAKEUP AFTER THREE MONTHS,AVOID WATE‘P‘OOF,DON T APPLY MAKEUP INSIDE THE LASH LINE,JUST SAY NO TO GLITTER,USING HYPOALLERGIC COSMETICS,CURLING EYELASHES BEFORE APPLYING MASCARA,USE COCONUT OIL,READ LABELS CAREFULLY. If makeup gets into the eyes,Then rinse eyes thoroughly with clean tap water or eye-wash solution until all the mascara,eyeliner or makeup flakes.Apply moisturizing eye drops to the affected eye after rinsing out makeup.If an individual wear contacts,carefully clean the lens using the cleaning solution.But if problems still persist we need to contact an opthalmologist if we continue to experience pain in the eye, sensitivity to light, persistently blurred vision, swelling, discharge. So, in conclusion I would love to state that using cosmetics may look us pretty but natural beauty is the best it s what we are and it s safer than using cosmetics. 72 e-Magazine 2016

Homemade uses of Eggshells ( Food Waste Management ) Manasi Roy Year, FT, GNIT

4th

















• •







Powerful And Natural Abrasive Cleaner You can easily ground them up and then mix them with soapy water (or water and some other dish cleaner, for that matter) and then clean your pots. The eggshells make an outstanding abrasive cleaner for your dishes, and you can even use it to clean the bird feeders and remove all the gunk that has accumulated. Calcium Supplement Eggshells are known to be very rich in calcium, this is why you can easily wash them in warm water, boil them to kill all the bacteria and then put them in a coffee grinder or a blender. The result is a perfect eggshell powder that you can easily store and use on a daily basis – you can add a bit of it to your coffee, sauce, dishes and what not. *The secret is to make sure that you do not remove the membrane of the egg when grinding the shell – it is also very important to boil it first, just to make sure that all the pathogens are removed. Natural Stain Remover One of the many different uses of the eggshell is as a natural stain remover. Removing coffee or juice stains can be a very daunting task, and if you do not want to use any synthetic cleaner (which although is toxic, tends to be more efficient), then you can easily make your own natural stain remover at home, with some grounded up eggshells. Carefully smash the shells, sprinkle them over the stain, add some warm water and allow the eggshells to work their magic by absorbing the stain. Use The Egg Membrane To Treat Superficial Wounds Did you know that the egg membrane can be a great and natural band-aid? If you did not, then make sure never to throw the membrane away! If you cut your finger, simply wrap the membrane around it to protect it from becoming infecting, as well as for speeding up the healing process. Great Garden Fertilizer The high calcium content present in the eggshells is perfect not just for making a natural supplement, but also for fertilizing your garden – if you want your veggies and plants to thrive, then simply crush theeggshells and sprinkle into every hole prior to planting the seedlings. Then you can store the remaining eggshells, crush them and sprinkle them over the ground occasionally, preferably twice a month. Keep The Garden Pest Away! Nobody likes pests and those little critters that ruin your plants and vegetables. You can easily crush the egg shells and spread them throughout your garden in order to keep the snails and slugs away, and they will surely not come back anytime soon! Add Them To Compost Eggshells are rich in calcium along with other nutrients plants like. One medium sized eggshell each holds about 750 to 800 mg of calcium. Crush or grind them up and then add them to your compost pile. Whiten Your Clothes With Eggshells Crush some eggshells, combine them with several lemon slices and put them in a cloth bag along with all your clothes in the washing machine. Your white clothes will stay white for longer! Grow Your Seedlings Did you know that you can also use the eggshells to grow your seedlings? Not only do the shells serve as a great natural pot , but they also gradually release calcium and other nutrients that will help the seedlings thrive. Make sure to make a small hole at the bottom of the shell for the water to drain, fill the shell with some dirt and place the seeds. Once the seedlings are ready to be transferred to the ground, crush the eggshell and place it in the ground. It s a win-win! Add Them To Your Coffee If you are not fond of the bitter taste of coffee, then you can easily add some crushed eggshells in the filter, next to the coffee grounds, to make it taste a lot better! Feed Them To The Birds You can easily add some carefully crushed eggshells to the seeds and place them in the feeder, for all the birds to eat it – the extra calcium boost will particularly benefit the females, as they usually require more calcium than the male birds. Keep Your Drain Clean We all know that drains and sinks tend to get clogged – f that is your case as well, then mix some crushed eggshells with soap and some hot water to clean the drain of all the gunk that may linger there.

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Dealing with Depression Abhijit Ghosh Year, FT, GNIT

3rd

Everyone at some point in their lives have experienced or faced disappointment which can lead to depression .Yes, we all have those moments where we feel there is no hope or it s the end of our world, that moment where we feel the e s nothing to look forward to, maybe it s a bad break up, The loss of a loved one , failure in examination or business .It s true that these feelings are natural and anyone would feel the same way but it affects our health and our mind very seriously. Although it takes time to recover from these things there are steps which can be taken, things can be done to make the healing process faster and less painful. 1. Acknowledge what you are feeling. You can honestly express the emotions that you are experiencing feeling without blaming others or punishing everyone in sight. This is about how you feel about the situation, not about other people. Articulate your feelings without attacking others. Always be respectful, but do not be afraid to let them know precisely how you feel. There is no one right or wrong way to feel. Your feelings are valid and if you do not voice your opinion then you will begin to harbour resentment and stress yourself out. Be honest with yourself about how you really feel about the situation. 2. Put and keep things in perspective. Even the tiniest of disappointments can seem monumental at first. But once you have expressed your hurt, frustration, or anger, take a step back and look at the larger picture. How much of an effect is this disappointment going to have on you tomorrow, next week, or next year? Breathing deeply is an easy thing to do, but one of the first things we forget to do when stressed. Take a deep breath and go for a walk to get some space and time to help put your disappointment into its proper perspective. Taking time to reflect and step away from a situation will help calm your nerves so that you will be better able to handle the disappointment. 3. Do not doubt yourself. Sometimes disappointment can make you feel like a total failure. You may wonder why these things keep happening to you, or you may begin to think that you were not being wise to get your hopes up in the first place. But none of that is the truth! Do not succumb to this thinking. Do not allow yourself to give in to these negative thoughts! Disappointment is not unique to you. Everyone has been disappointed at some point in their life. Instead of beating yourself up, think about what you could have been done differently and always, always, always learn from the experience. 4. Look for solutions or compromises. Contrary to popular belief, you cannot have your way all the time, but often there will be a second option that is agreeable to each party. 5. Reaching out is not a sign of weakness and it o t mean ou e a burden to others. The truth is that most people are flattered if you trust them enough to confide in them. Your loved ones care about you and want to help. 6. Look for support from people who make you feel safe and cared for. The person you talk to does t have to be able to fix you; he or she just needs to be a good listener—someone ho ll listen attentively and compassionately without being distracted or judging you. 7. Make face-time a priority. Phone calls, social media, and texting are great ways to stay in touch, but they do t replace good old-fashioned in-person quality time. The simple act of talking to someone face to face about how you feel can play a big role in lifting the fog of depression and keeping it away. As a matter of fact a healthy diet also helps to reduce depression. Sometimes, when depressed, people eat to help them cope or to make them feel better. Unfortunately, the foods people turn to have the opposite effect. Eating junk food when ou e depressed can actually make you feel even worse. Some of the worst culprits are foods that contain large amounts of the following: •saturated fat •refined sugars •heavily processed ingredients •Caffeine. Sticking to a healthy diet and making sure that you exercise regularly can help you manage your depression symptoms. It may even make them go away entirely. Foods to Avoid Caffeine and Sugary Foods. Caffeine may be difficult for many people to completely eliminate from their diet. However, it is good to only have caffeinated drinks in moderation, particularly when you are experiencing depression-like symptoms. Caffeine can disrupt sleep patterns and make you feel anxious, both of which o t help your depression. People who drink more than 400 milligrams of caffeine a day, the equivalent of four cups of brewed coffee, should consider cutting back. Avoiding refined sugar is another way to help your mood. Sugar may make you feel more energized at first, but it o t take long for you to crash. Instead, stick with foods that will keep your blood sugar at an even level. Eating the following foods will give you a steady level of energy: •lean protein •complex carbohydrates, such as whole grains •fruits and vegetables

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Alcohol and Illegal Drugs When ou e feeling depressed, it can be easy to turn to alcohol or other methods of selfmedication. You may feel short-term relief, but these substances usually only make things worse. Alcohol and drugs throw off your sleep cycles, and cause mood swings and anxiety. If ou e taking any prescription medications, alcohol and drugs can make you experience negative side effects, and they can even stop your medications from working. Talk to your doctor if ou e having trouble abstaining from drugs or alcohol. They can recommend you to programs that can help you get sober. Foods that Might Help 'Good' Carbs to Boost Mood Eating carbohydrates triggers your brain to release the mood-lifting neurotransmitter serotonin. So instead of trying to avoid them, eating the right kind of carbs can be a good choice when ou e feeling down. Stick to whole-grain breads and other healthy carbohydrates. Try to stay away from the sugary snack foods, and go for: fruits ,vegetables, foods high in fibre Omega-3s The main benefit associated with omega-3s is improved brain function. However, several studies have shown that foods that have omega-3s can also help you manage your depression symptoms. Foods that are good sources of omega-3s include: fish nuts, canola oil, flaxseed oil, dark-green leafy vegetables Vitamin D. Several studies have shown that people who have deficient levels of vitamin D are more like to experience depression-related symptoms. You can get vitamin D from the sun, but you can also get it from your food. Make sure you regularly eat foods containing vitamin D, such as: fish, tofu, milk .The many physical benefits of maintaining a balanced, healthy diet are wellknown. However, you may not know how those same simple dietary tips can help to elevate mood, energy levels, and an overall sense of well-being. When ou e feeling depressed, or even negatively affected by a change in the seasons, knowing the right foods to eat can help you overcome those symptoms and keep depression at bay.

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Quiz Saikat Gorai, Sruti Mandal 4th year, FT, GNIT Mr. Saikat Gorai

Ms. Sruti Mandal

1. During Malting, barley and other grains are broken down by (A) Heating to 90OC (B) Lagering (C) Amylases (D) Yeasts 2. The CSIRO has been investigating how active ingredients in wallaby milk may improve human nutrition. What is this an example of? (A) Research and development (B) Consumer influences (C) Quality Management (D) Compliance with legislation 3. The following processes are used to manufacture a product. Heating, grinding and sublimation. What is the product most likely to be? (A) Flour (B) Peanut butter (C) Instant coffee (D) Custard powder 4. Which step in food product development involves the pilot production of a food product? (A) Prototype development (B) Product specifications (C) Feasibility study (D) Market research

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5. Which of the following acid will have higher bacteriostatic effect at a given pH? (A) Acetic acid (B) Tartaric acid (C) Citric acid (D) Malic acid 6. A food company trials small batches of a new food product. What type of testing is this? (A) Compliance (B) Feasibility (C) Prototype (D) Sensory 7. What is most likely to be prevented by thawing frozen food in the refrigerator? (A) Freezer burn (B) Contamination (C) Activation of enzymes (D) Increase in microbial load 8. What vitamin (principally) does alcohol destroy? (A) Vitamin A (B) Vitamin B (C) Vitamin C (D) Vitamin D

9. Kim's diet consists primarily of meat and dairy products. From which disorder related to under nutrition is Kim most likely to suffer? (A) Anemia (B) Constipation (C) Hypertension (D) Osteoporosis 10. The crushed grapes used for wine manufacturing are also known as (A) Wort (B) Pilsner (C) Hop (D) Must

ANSWERS

1. (C)

2. (A)

3 (C)

4. (A)

5. (A)

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7. (D)

8. (B)

9. (B)

10. (D)

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A Natural and Healthier Salt Alternative Mainak Ghosh 4th year, FT, GNIT Salt (sodium chloride) is an essential nutrient, but one that is often present in surprising quantities in industrially processed foods. Consuming too much sodium puts strain on the heart, stomach and kidneys . Researchers show how seaweed, which has a naturally salty taste, has the potential to replace salt. Without salt, many foods seem tasteless and bland. Salt acts as a natural flavor enhancer, has a conserving effect and is essential for the human organism. According to the latest figures from the World Health Organization (WHO), Europeans consume 8 to 12 grams of salt a day. The recommended amount is 5 grams. The e s a large body of evidence to show that too much sodium causes high blood pressure which is one of the most significant contributors to both heart disease and stroke, and raises your risk of developing eye problems and kidney disease. Around 77 percent of our salt intake comes from industrially processed foods. Heading the list are bread, cheese, snacks, ready meals and cold meats and sausage products. Now SALT consumption is considered as a addiction as the food industry takes advantage of this quality. AS we get addicted to that product it may be chips etc . Researchers are saying we are actually addicted to the salt of that product. A natural alternative to salt is a great way to start cutting down your sodium intake. Seaweed has, on average, between 9-12% sodium versus table and gourmet salts which have as much as 98% sodium. Well seaweeds naturally contain high levels of minerals, including sodium but also other key minerals such as potassium, magnesium, zinc, iron and calcium that can all add to the salti ess of seaweed and play a role in flavor development. The researchers conclude that brown algae( Ascophyllum nodosum, Saccharina latissima and Fucus vesiculosus) could be used as a salt substitute and help to reduce the salt content of industrially processed foods. The result was a brownish-green seaweed powder that could be used industrially as a salt substitute in the future. THE powder was made from drying the seaweed in the dryer. If you find yourself craving high-sodium foods like crisps, try seaweed instead and the craving will disappear. Eating seaweed regularly will decrease your desire for salty junk food because you are getting ample amounts of complex salts. IF we decrease the salt salt contain and mix dried seaweed in a food product we will see that the seaweed increase the salty flavor of that product.(research are going on to prove this concept) A few question still e ai how salty do bread, cold meats and so on taste when they are made using seaweed? Does it change the consistency and appearance of the products? Can they still be produced to the same quality? I truly believe replacing salt entirely is all most impossible task but we can try to reduce the consumption of SALT 78 e-Magazine 2016

Frequent nut consumption associated with less inflammation Chandralekha Bhowmik 3rd year, FT, GNIT

Eating a handful of nuts five times per week may reduce inflammation, a condition that contributes to heart disease, diabetes and many other chronic illness. In a study of more than 5,000 people, investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital have found that greater intake of nuts was associated with lower levels of biomarkers of inflammation, a finding that may help explain the health benefits of nuts. The results of the study appear July 27 in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Population studies have consistently supported a protective role of nuts against cardiometabolic disorders such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and we know that inflammation which is a localized physical condition in which part of the body becomes reddened, swollen, hot, and often painful, especially as a reaction to injury or infection is a key process in the development of these diseases," said corresponding author Ying Bao, MD, ScD, an epidemiologist in BWH's Channing Division of Network Medicine. "Our new work suggests that nuts may exert their beneficial effects in part by reducing systemic inflammation." The results of the study appear July 27 in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Previously Bao and her colleagues observed an association between increased nut consumption and reduced risk of major chronic diseases and even death, but few prospective cohort studies had examined the link between nut intake and inflammation. In the current study, the research team performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Nurses' Health Study, which includes more than 120,000 female registered nurses, and from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, which includes more than 50,000 male health professionals. The team assessed diet using questionnaires and looked at the levels of certain telltale proteins known as biomarkers in blood samples collected from the study participants. They measured three well-established biomarkers of inflammation: C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL6) and tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2). After adjusting for age, medical history, lifestyle and other variables, they found that participants who had consumed five or more servings of nuts per week had lower levels of CRP and IL6 than those who never or almost never ate nuts. In addition, people who substituted three servings per week of nuts in place of red meat, processed meat, eggs or refined grains had significantly lower levels of CRP and IL6. Peanuts and tree nuts contain a number of healthful components including magnesium, fiber, L-arginine, antioxidants and unsaturated fatty acids such as α-linolenic acid This study supports an overall healthful role for nuts in a diet and suggests reducing inflammation as a potential mechanism that may help explain the benefits of nuts on cardiometabolic diseases. 79 e-Magazine 2016

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO NON –THERMAL (PLASMA-BASED) PASTEURIZATION Bigroha Hazra 3rd Year, FT, GNIT

PASTEURIZATION: What is it? It is nothing but a process of heat processing a liquid or to any food to kill all the pathogenic bacteria to make the food safe to eat. It is based on the use of one of following time and temperature relationships. High-Temperature-Short-Time Treatment (HTST) -- this process uses higher heat for less time to kill pathogenic bacteria. For example, milk is pasteurized at 161°F (72°C) for 15 seconds. Low-Temperature-Long-Time Treatment (LTLT) -- this process uses lower heat for a longer time to kill pathogenic bacteria. For example, milk is pasteurized at 145°F (63°C) for 30 minutes. NON THEMAL PROCESSING OF FOOD-(NON -THERMAL (PLASMA-BASED) PASTEURIZATION): A robust non-thermal food pasteurization system effectively removes pathogens while preserving the li uid s nutrients, flavours, aromas, and colours. This method partially sterilizes the liquid by generating a non-thermal plasma. Other methods generate heat during pasteurization, which can damage the li uid s active components. Thermally processed products are unacceptable and their commercial value is greatly reduced. The non-thermal pasteurization system is more affordable, timely, and efficient than heat pasteurization methods like pulsed electric field discharge, which requires a cooling system and continual electrode maintenance. Non-thermal Plasma Pasteurization System.It does not degrade the active components of the liquids. The liquid-food apparatus includes a treatment flow path, input and output, a non-thermal plasma reactor, gas injector, reaction volume, and at least one non-thermal plasma electrode adjacent to the reaction volume. The reactor generates non-thermal plasma species that are highly reactive and extremely effective in killing live pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses and fungi. This system can be used to pasteurize milk, juices, and canned food products. Features and Benefits of the Non-thermal Plasma Food Pasteurization System: Non-thermal food pasteurization - does not degrade quality or damage the li uid s active components Potentially more affordable - non-thermal pasteurization reactor reduces time and maintenance. Efficient - non-thermal reactor effectively removes pathogens In high demand for food industry - pasteurizes milk, juices, and canned food products Besides this, successful NON THERMAL PASTEURIZATION will – (a) Extend shelf life (63 to 77 days minimum), (b) have low regulation (new tech should be GRAS- Generally Recognized As Safe),(c) Have a high processing rate (prefer at least 25 kilo-lit/hour) , (d) Maintain low heat (Temperature of foods a t exceed 24 degrees), (e) Consider packaging (Advantageous if the product can be sterilised in its packaging).

Fig. Non Thermal Pasteurisation

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Green Coffee Bean Ms. Rupsha Roychowdhury

Rupsha Roychowdhury, Suravi Chakraborty 3rd year, FT, GNIT

Ms. Suravi Chakraborty

A green coffee extract is an extract of unroasted, green coffee beans. Green coffee extract has been used as a weight-loss supplement and as an ingredient in other weight-loss products. The green coffee beans are not the beans in the real sense. They are called so because of their appearance. They are the seeds that are extracted from coffee fruits or coffee cherries. .They are referred to as beans because they resemble the beans. The coffee berries or coffee cherries usually two seeds or stones inside. In some cases, they also contain single stone or seed. The natural colour of these coffee beans is green and hence it is called the green coffee beans. The roasting process of coffee beans reduces amounts of the chemical chlorogenic acid. Therefore, green coffee beans have a higher level of chlorogenic acid compared to regular, roasted coffee beans What makes green coffee bean widely known in the market is its weight loss qualities and other health benefits. The green coffee beans extracts play very vital role in the maintenance of the ideal physical and mental health and are used worldwide. Contents in the green coffee beans: There are various elements found in the beans. Non-volatile alkaloids like caffeine; proteins and amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, volatile compounds like fatty acids; and non-volatile Chlorogenic acid etc are its major contents. But the content that levitates the popularity of green coffee beans to such a high degree is the non-volatile chlorogenic acid. Uses: High blood pressure: Early research suggests that taking green coffee extracts containing 50 mg to 140 mg of chlorogenic acids daily for 4 weeks to 12 weeks can reduce blood pressure in Japanese adults with mild and untreated high blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure (the top number) appears to be reduced by 5 mmHg to 10 mmHg. Diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) appears to be reduced by 3 mmHg to 7 mmHg. Obesity: Early research shows that adults with obesity who take a specific green coffee extract (Svetol, Naturex) five times daily for 8 weeks to 12 weeks, either alone or together with the regular coffee product Coffee Slender (Med-Eq Ltd., Tonsberg, Norway), lose an average of 2.5 to 3.7 kg more weight than people taking a placebo or regular coffee by itself. Alzheimer's disease Type 2 diabetes Special Precautions & Warnings: Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking green coffee if you are pregnant or breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.. Abnormally high levels of homocysteine: Consuming a high dose of chlorogenic acid for a short duration has caused increased plasma homocysteine levels, which may be associated with conditions such as heart disease. Anxiety disorders: The caffeine in green coffee might make anxiety worse. Bleeding disorders: There is some concern that the caffeine in green coffee might make bleeding disorders worse. Diarrhoea: Green coffee contains caffeine. The caffeine in coffee, especially when taken in large amounts, can worsen diarrhoea. Glaucoma: Taking caffeine which is contained in green coffee can increases pressure inside the eye. The increase starts within 30 minutes and lasts for at least 90 minutes. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): Green coffee contains caffeine. The caffeine in coffee, especially when taken in large amounts, can worsen diarrhoea and might worsen symptoms of IBS. Conclusion: A 2011 review found tentative evidence that green coffee extract promotes weight loss; however, the quality of the evidence was poor. This review looked at three published randomized controlled trials of green coffee extract, totalling 142 participants, and found a small effect. The review stated that more rigorous trials with longer duration were needed to assess the efficacy and safety of green coffee as a weight loss supplement. Participants in the studies were instructed to restrict their diet and increase their exercise in addition to taking the supplement. One of the trials was retracted in 2014 because the accuracy of the data was unclear. More research needs to be done on the effectiveness of this extract in helping with weight loss.

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PESTICIDES Subhapriya Samanta 3rd year, FT, GNIT

Pesticides, which are any substance intended to prevent or destroy pests, are used to protect food from bacteria, weeds, mould, insects and rodents. In general, a pesticide is a chemical or biological agent that deters, incapacitates, kills or otherwise discourages pests. Target pests can include insects, plant pathogens, weeds, molluscs, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes and microbes that destroy property, cause nuisance or spread disease, or are disease vectors. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, pesticides can be harmful to people, animals or the environment because they are designed to kill or harm living organisms. Because of this, pesticide residue on the foods you eat can have an effect on your health. Though the government regulates pesticide use, residues are still found in our food supply. Effects:Health effects:Pesticides may cause acute and delayed health effects in people who are exposed. Pesticide exposure can cause a variety of adverse health effects, ranging from simple irritation of the skin and eyes to more severe effects such as affecting the nervous system, mimicking hormones causing reproductive problems, and also causing cancer. Cancer:- The dreaded diagnosis of cancer has been linked in over 260 studies worldwide to agrochemicals. Worse, scientists have linked pesticides with several types of cancers, including that of the breast, prostate, brain, bone, thyroid, colon, liver, lung, and more. Some researchers from USC found that those who lived within 500 meters of places where methyl bromide, captan and eight other organochlorine pesticides had been applied, they found, were more likely to have developed prostate cancer. Obesity & Diabetes:- Because pesticides have also been linked to obesity, it s logical that it would be connected to diabetes, in which obesity often has a role. Some researchers found a higher prevalence of obesity in the participants with high urinary concentrations of a pesticide known as 2,5dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP). It is important to note that 2,5-DCP is one of the most widely used pesticides on the globe. Infertility & Birth defects:- One of the most well-known negative effects of pesticides, infertility is continuously found to be a result of exposure to these agrochemicals. Atrazine a weed killer used in agriculture as well as on golf courses and which has been found in tap water may be partially responsible for climbing miscarriage and infertility rates. As for men, one 2006 study pinpointed chlorpyrifos with lowering testosterone levels. This pesticide is often found in strawberry fields and apple and peach orchards. Environmental effects:- Pesticide use raises a number of environmental concerns. Over 98% of sprayed insecticides and 95% of herbicides reach a destination other than their target species, including non-target species, air, water and soil. Pesticide drift occurs when pesticides suspended in the air as particles are carried by wind to other areas, potentially contaminating them. Pesticides are one of the causes of water pollution, and some pesticides are persistent organic pollutants and contribute to soil contamination. In addition, pesticide use reduces biodiversity, contributes to pollinator decline, destroys habitat (especially for birds), and threatens endangered species. Pests can develop a resistance to the pesticide (pesticide resistance), necessitating a new pesticide. Alternatively a greater dose of the pesticide can be used to counteract the resistance, although this will cause a worsening of the ambient pollution problem. Solution:- Farming operations can contribute to nutrient pollution when not properly managed. Fertilizers and animal manure, which are both rich in nitrogen and phosphorus, are the primary sources of nutrient pollution from agricultural sources. Excess nutrients can impact water quality when it rains or when water and soil containing nitrogen and phosphorus wash into nearby waters or leach into ground waters. There are many ways that agricultural operations can reduce nutrient pollution, including: Watershed efforts: The collaboration of a wide range of people and organizations often across an entire watershed is vital to reducing nutrient pollution. State governments, farm organizations, conservation groups, educational institutions, non-profit organizations, and community groups all play a part in successful efforts to improve water quality. Nutrient management: Applying fertilizers in the proper amount, at the right time of year and with the right method can significantly reduce the potential for pollution. Cover crops: Planting certain grasses, grains or clovers can help keep nutrients out of the water by recycling excess nitrogen and reducing soil erosion. Buffers: Planting trees, shrubs and grass around fields, especially those that border water bodies, can help by absorbing or filtering out nutrients before they reach a water body. Conservation tillage: Reducing how often fields are tilled reduces erosion and soil compaction, builds soil organic matter, and reduces runoff. Managing livestock waste: Keeping animals and their waste out of streams, rivers and lakes keeps nitrogen and phosphorus out of the water and restores stream banks. Drainage water management: Reducing nutrient loadings that drain from agricultural fields helps prevent degradation of the water in local streams and lakes.

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FLAX SEED:NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS AND NEED Arunima Mukherjee , Shubham Mukherjee, Bornini Banerjee, 4th year, FT, GNIT

What is Flax? Flax is a multi-purpose crop that is grown throughout the world. Flax seeds are relatively small (about the size of a sesame seed), and can be a reddish brown or a golden yellow color. Flax seeds are often described as having a crunchy and chewy texture as well as a nutty flavor.Despite their small size, flax seeds pack quite a nutritional punch. Listed below are their properties. Nutritional Properties of Flax Seeds Rich sources of complete protein which means that they contain all of the essential amino acids in the amounts needed for human health (similar to soy). High in fiber and contain about two to three grams of total fiber (soluble and insoluble) per tablespoon. It is recommended that Americans consume 25 to 38 grams of fiber each day. Contain large amounts of vitamins and minerals which are essential to good health, especially rich in potassium and folic acid. Contain various phytochemicals including lignans, phenolic acids, and flavonoids. These compounds occur naturally in plants and are thought to have antioxidants, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory functions. Contain a high percentage of omega-3 polyunsaturated fats. This means they are helpful in many cleansing functions of the body as well as maintaining a healthy immune system. Can Flax Help Prevent Diseases? In recent years, many studies have focused on the disease fighting properties of flax or its components.The ways that flax may help in prevention or treatment. Cancer - The high lignan content of flaxseed is thought to play a role in fighting a broad range of cancers. The anti-cancer properties of flaxseed may also stem from alpha linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid found in flaxseed), which is potentially capable of slowing tumor growth. Heart disease - Clinical studies have shown that flaxseed may lower triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of blood clots when consumed over time. These benefits may result from fiber and/or the alpha linolenic acid found in flaxseed. Rheumatoid arthritis and kidney disease - The anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids have been recognized in both treating and slowing the progression of rheumatoid arthritis and kidney disease. Although most omega-3 research has focused on the omega-3 fatty acids found in fish, more recent studies have shown flaxseeds also may provide this benefit. Menopause and osteoporosis - Much like soy, flaxseeds are a rich source of phytoestrogens. Some studies have shown that consuming foods high in phytoestrogens may prevent or mitigate symptoms caused by the declining estrogen levels associated with menopause. Phytoestrogens may also be helpful in fighting osteoporosis related bone loss experienced by some post-menopausal women.

So How Do You Use Flax? Flax is available at most specialty and health food stores, and can be purchased in four forms. The type of flax that you chose is dependent on the benefits of flax in which you are interested and purpose for which you intend to use flax. Whole Flax Whole flaxseed can be eaten alone or can be added to other foods. When using whole seeds it is important to chew the seeds thoroughly to receive all of the nutrients inside the flaxseed. Whole flax seeds will pass through the body undigested if not chewed sufficiently. Whole flaxseeds can be easily ground in a coffee grinder. Ground Flax Ground flaxseed is the easiest and most common way to purchase flax, look for "milled flax" or "flaxseed flour". Ground flaxseed can be used in baking and be used in cooked and uncooked foods. Ground flaxseed is particularly beneficial because the grinding process releases the nutrients in flax more effectively than chewing the whole seeds. Ground flaxseed is shelf stable for up to four months and should be kept refrigerated in an airtight container. Add to cereal (hot and cold), salads, yogurt, rice, pasta, etc. Flax Oil Flaxseed oil can be used as an ingredient in cold preparations like salad dressing or smoothies. It can also be used in recipes that call for flaxseeds by using a 3:1 substitution (3 tablespoons ground flaxseed for 1 tablespoon oil). It is not advised that you fry foods in flax oil because high temperatures make it unstable. Flaxseed oil does not contain any of the protein or fiber found in flax seeds, therefore it expires relatively quickly (6 to 8 weeks) and must be refrigerated. Flaxseed Supplements Flaxseed supplements may contain either flaxseed oil or ground flaxseed. The flaxseed oil pills have the same drawbacks flaxseed oil and also need to be refrigerated. The pills containing ground flaxseed have all the benefits of ground flaxseed.

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MAGIC MUSHROOMS Neelanjana Misra 4th year, FT, GNIT

Psilocybin mushrooms,also known as psychedelic mushrooms,are mushrooms that contain the psyvhedelic compounds psilocybin & psilocin.Common colloquial terms include magic mushrooms & shrooms.Biological genera containing psilocybin mushrooms include Copelandia,Galerina,Gymnopilus,Inocybe,Mycena,Panaeolus,Pholiotina,Pluteus &Psilocybe.Over 100 species are classified in the genus Psilocybe.Psilocybin is present in varying concentrations in about 200 species of Basidiomycota mushrooms.Psilocybin-containing species are dark-spored,gilled mushrooms that grow in meadows & woods of the subtropics & tropics,usually in soils rich in human & plant debris.Psilocubin mushrooms occur on all continents,but the majority of species are found in subtropical humid forests.The effects of psilocybin mushrooms come from psilocybin and psilocin. When psilocybin is ingested, it is broken down to produce psilocin, which is responsible for the psychedelic effects. Psilocybin and psilocin create short-term increases in tolerance of users, thus making it difficult to abuse them because the more often they are taken within a short period of time, the weaker the resultant effects are. Psilocybin mushrooms have not been known to cause physical or psychological dependence (addiction). Fig: Psilocybevillarrealiae As medicine Advocates for advanced research in the field of ethnobotany have been asking for medical investigation of the use of synthetic and mushroom-derived psilocybin for the development of improved treatments of various neurological disorders, including chronic cluster headaches, following numerous anecdotal reports of benefits.There are also studies which include reports of psilocybin mushrooms sending both obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) and OCD-related clinical depression (both being widespread and debilitating mental health conditions) into complete remission immediately and for up to months at a time, compared to current medications which often have both limited efficacy and frequent undesirable side-effects.Recent studies done at Imperial College London, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich conclude, when used properly, psilocybin acts as an antidepressant as suggested by fMRI brain scans.The active components of psilocybin mushrooms have also been found to treat alcoholism and other addictions. The drugs potential as treatment to alcoholism is also similar to results found in relation to LSD in the 1950s and 60s. It Hyperconnects the brain The compounds in psilocybin mushrooms may give users a "mind-melting" feeling, but in fact, the drug does just the opposite — psilocybin actually boosts the brain's connectivity, according to an October 2014 study. Researchers at King's College London asked 15 volunteers undergo brain scanning by a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) machine. May change people for good Psychologists say that few things can truly alter someone's personality in adulthood, but magic mushrooms may be one of those things.A 2011 study found that after one dose of psilocybin, people became more open to new experiences for at least 14 months, a shockingly stable change. People with open personalities are more creative and more appreciative of art, and they value novelty and emotion. The reason for the change seems to be psilocybin's effects on emotions. People describe mushroom trips as extremely profound experiences, and report feelings of joy and connectedness to others and to the world around them. These transcendent experiences appear to linger. (In the experiments, the researchers took great pains to assure their participants did not experience "bad trips," as some people respond to psilocybin with panic, nausea and vomiting. Volunteers were kept safe in a room with peaceful music and calming surroundings.) Dosage Dosage of mushrooms containing psilocybin depends on the potency of the mushroom (the total psilocybin and psilocin content of the mushrooms), which varies significantly both between species and within the same species, but is typically around 0.5–2.0% of the dried weight of the mushroom. A typical dose of the common species Psilocybecubensis is about 1.0 to 2.5 g,while about 2.5 to 5.0 g dried mushroom material is considered a strong dose. Above 5 g is often considered a heavy dose.The concentration of active psilocybin mushroom compounds varies not only from species to species, but also from mushroom to mushroom inside a given species,subspecies or variety. The same holds true even for different parts of the same mushroom. In the species Psilocybesamuiensis, the dried cap of the mushroom contains the most psilocybin at about 0.23%–0.90%. The mycelium contains about 0.24%–0.32%.

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Probiotic Food Products Shramana Bhattacharyyya 4th year, FT, GNIT

The World Health Organization's (WHO) 2001 definition of probiotics is "live micro-organisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health e efit on the host".Some literature gives it a full Greek etymology,but the term appears to be a composite of the Latin preposition pro ("for") and the Greek adjective βιωτικός ( iōtikos), "fit for life, lively", the latter deriving from the noun βίος (bios, "life"). The history of probiotics can be traced to the first use of cheese and fermented products, that were well known to the Greeks and Romans who recommended their consumption. The introduction of the concept is generally attributed to Nobel recipient Élie Metchnikoff, who postulated that yogurt-consuming Bulgarian peasants lived longer lives because of this custom. He suggested in 1907 that "the dependence of the intestinal microbes on the food makes it possible to adopt measures to modify the flora in our bodies and to replace the harmful microbes by useful microbes"[ In 1989, Roy Fuller suggested a definition of probiotics that has been widely used: "A live microbial feed supplement which beneficially affects the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance.He stressed two important facts of probiotics: the viable nature of probiotics and the capacity to help with intestinal balance. Many types of bacteria are classified as probiotics. 1.Lactobacillus. This may be the most common probiotic. It s the one ou ll find in yogurt and other fermented foods. Different strains can help with diarrhea and may help with people who a t digest lactose, the sugar in milk. 2.Bifidobacterium. You can also find it in some dairy products. It may help ease the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and some other conditions. Some common conditions they treat are: –Irritable bowel syndrome –Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) –Infectious diarrhea (caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites) –Antibiotic-related diarrhea –Skin conditions, like eczema –Urinary and vaginal health –Preventing allergies and colds –Oral health – Some probiotic food supplements:

#1 Kefir – Similar to yogurt, this fermented dairy product is a unique combination of milk and fermented kefir grains. Kefir has been consumed for well over 3000 years and the term kefir was started in Russia and Turkey and means feeli g good . It has a slightly acidic and tart flavor and contains anywhere from 10 to 34 strains of probiotics. Kefir is similar to yogurt, but because it is fermented with yeast and more bacteria the final product is higher in probiotics. #2 Cultured Vegetables (Sauerkraut and Kimchi) – Made from fermented cabbage and other vegetables, sauerkraut is not diverse in probiotics, but is high in organic acids (what gives food its sour taste) which support the growth of good bacteria. Sauerkraut is extremely popular in Germany today. Kimchi is a cousin to sauerkraut and is the Korean take on cultured veggies. Both of the fermented formulas are also high in enzymes, which can aid digestion. #3 Kombucha – Is an effervescent fermentation of black tea that is started by using a SCOBY also known as a symbiotic colony of bacteria and yeast. Kombucha has been around for over 2,000 years originating around Japan. Many claims have been made about kombucha, but its primarily health benefits include digestive support, increased energy and liver detoxification. #4 Coconut Kefir – Made by fermenting the juice of young coconuts with kefir grains. This dairy-free option for kefir has some of the same probiotics as traditional dairy kefir but is typically not as high in probiotics. Still, it has several strains that are great for your health. Coconut kefir has a great flavor, and you can add a bit of stevia, water and lime juice to it and make a great-tasting drink. #5 Natto – A popular dish in Japan consisting of fermented soybeans. Natto contains the extremely powerful probiotic bacillus subtilis, which has been proven to bolster your immune system, support cardiovascular health and enhance digestion of vitamin K2. Also, Natto contains a powerful antiinflammatory enzyme called nattokinase that has been proven to fight cancer. #6 Yogurt – Possibly the most popular probiotic food is live cultured yogurt or greek yogurt made from the milk of cows, goats, or sheep. Yogurt in most cases can rank at the top of probiotic foods if it comes from raw grass-fed animals. The problem is there is a large variation on the quality of yogurts on the market today. It is recommend when buying yogurt to look for 3 things. First, that it comes from goat s or sheep milk, second, that it is grass-fed, and third, that it is organic. #7 Kvass – This is a common fermented beverage in Eastern Europe since ancient times. It was traditionally made by fermenting rye or barley, but in more recent years has been created using beets, fruit along with other root vegetables like carrots. Kvass uses lactobacilli probiotics and is known for its blood- and liver-cleansing properties and has a mild sour flavor. #8 Raw Cheese – Goat s milk, sheep s milk and A2 cows soft cheeses are particularly high in probiotics, including thermophillus, bifudus, bulgaricus and acidophilus. Always buy raw and unpasteurized cheeses if you want to receive any probiotics. #9 Miso: Miso is one the main-stays of traditional Japanese medicine and is commonly used in macrobiotic cooking as a digestive regulator. Made from fermented rye, beans, rice or barley, adding a tablespoon of miso to some hot water makes an excellent, quick, probiotic-rich soup, full of lactobacilli and bifidus bacteria. Beyond its important live cultures, miso is extremely nutrient-dense and believed to help neutralize the effects of environmental pollution, alkalinize the body and stop the effects of carcinogens in the system. Although probiotics are considered to be safe, there are concerns about their safety in certain cases. Some people, such as those with immunodeficiency, short bowel syndrome, central venous catheters, cardiac valve disease and premature infants, may be at higher risk for adverse events. In severely ill people with inflammatory bowel disease there is a risk of the passage of viable bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract to the internal organs (bacterial translocation) as a consequence of bacteremia, which can cause adverse health consequences. Rarely, consumption of probiotics by children with lowered immune system function or who are already critically ill may result in bacteremia or fungemia (i.e., bacteria or fungi in the blood), which can lead to sepsis, a potentially fatal disease.

85 e-Magazine 2016

BENEFITS OF DRINKING BEER Abhik Dutta & Ankur Das 3rd year, FT, GNIT Mr. Abhik Dutta

Mr. Ankur Das

Beer which is one of the nightmare in Indian society due to presence of some amount of alcohol, has some good health benefits rather than its bad side. But before knowing what is beer it is complicated to understand why we should drink an alcoholic beverage like beer. What is BEER? BEER is an alcoholic beverage made by brewing and fermentation from cereals, usually malted barley, and flavored with hops and the like for a slightly bitter taste. The strength of beer is usually around 6% to 8% alcohol by volume. 12.5 ml of alcohol is digested by human body per day but not more than that. So beware of consuming more alcohol than that. Health benefits of BEER 1. Beer is full of B vitamins from the yeast. Unfiltered beer is especially high in B3, B6 and folic acid (B9). B3 aids in cell repair and B6 eases PMS. Folic acid aids in colon cancer prevention. 2. Beer drinkers are at lower risk of type-2 diabetes: Multiple studies have shown that beer drinkers had an approximately 30% lower risk of type-2 diabetes than test subjects who abstained. 3. Beer contains fiber, which acts as a natural laxative. It also slows the rate at which food leaves your stomach, which means it suppresses appetite. 4. It’s high in silicon: Two brewskis a day could help prevent Alzheimer’s disease. A research suggests a high intake of silicon limits aluminum absorption in the brain, which in turn could aid in the prevention of Alzheimer’s which is a disease related to brain. 5. Good for bone density: Moderate consumption is good but heavy drinking however, led to bone loss, according to the same study, so be conservative. 6. It can reduce the risk of heart disease: Research has found that moderate beer drinkers have a 42 per cent lower risk of heart disease compared to non-drinkers. CONCLUSION However, some people continue to drink because of the perceived expectation that if one is good, a lot is even better. We all know more beer doesn’t make us more charming and attractive. Everyone knows how that story ends.

86 e-Magazine 2016

GOAT “ MILK Vs. COW “ MILK

Ms. Pritika Prasad

Pritika Prasad, Prostuti Chakravorty 3rd Year, FT, GNIT

Ms. Prostuti Chakravorty

The reasons for the worldwide popularity of goat s milk are multifaceted. First, we need to remind ourselves that All milk is not created equal. The differences between o s milk and goat s milk may not seem apparent upon first examination. A closer look, however, reveals several key factors that play an integral part in how milk (from either cows or goats) matches up with the human body in its various stages. Here are 5 reasons goat milk is better than cow milk. 1. Goat milk is less allergenic. The most common food allergy for children under three is o s milk.Side effects include vomiting, diarrhoea, and skin rashes & can be as serious as anaphylactic shock.This is due to a protein allergen known as Alpha s1 Casein found in high levels in o s milk,whereas,in goat s milk it is about 89% less than o s milk providing a far less allergenic food.Infact a recent study of infants allergic to cows milk found that nearly 93% could drink goats milk with virtually no side effects. 2. Goat s milk is naturally homogenized. If you were to place both a glass of fresh o s milk as well as fresh goat s milk in the refrigerator overnight, the next morning you would find that while the goat s milk looks exactly the same, the o s milk has separated into two distinct phases of cream on the top and skim milk on the bottom. This is a natural separation process that is caused by a compound called agglutinin and it will always cause the o s milk to separate.The problem with homogenization is that once the cell wall of the fat globule has been broken, it releases a superoxide (free radical) known as Xanthine Oxidase. Now free radicals cause a host of problems in the body not the least of which is DNA mutations which often lead to cancer! Goat s milk has smaller fat globules and does not contain agglutinin which allows it to stay naturally homogenized thus eliminating the dangers associated with homogenization. 3. Goat s milk is easier to digest. Goat s milk has smaller fat globules & higher levels of medium chain fatty acids. This means that during digestion, each fat globule & individual fatty acid will have a larger surface-to-volume ratio resulting in a quicker and easier digestion process. Also,when the proteins found in milk denature (clump up) in the stomach, they form a much softer bolus (curd) than o s milk .this allow body to digest protein more smoothly & completely than when digesting cows milk. 4. Goat s milk rarely causes lactose intolerance. All milk contains certain levels of lactose which is also known as ilk sugar. A relatively large portion of the population suffers from a deficiency (not an absence) of an enzyme known as lactase which is used to, you guessed it, digest lactose. This deficiency results in a condition known as lactose intolerance which is a fairly common ailment. (Lactose intolerance and o s milk allergy (cma) are two distinct conditions. CMA is due to a protein allergen, while lactose intolerance is due to a carbohydrate sensitivity.) Goat s milk contains less lactose than o s milk and therefore is easier to digest for those suffering from lactose intolerance. Now the interesting aspect to consider is that goat s milk is t much lower than o s milk (contains about 10% less than o s milk) and yet, countless lactose intolerant patients are able to thrive on goat s milk. Although the answer for this is unclear, it has been hypothesized that since Goat s milk is digested and absorbed in a superior manner, there is no lefto e lactose that remains undigested which causes the painful and uncomfortable effects of lactose intolerance. 5. Goat s milk matches up to the human body better than co s milk. This matter is both an issue of biochemistry as well as thermodynamics. Regarding the biochemistry of the issue, we know that goat s milk has a greater amount of essential fatty acids such as linoleic and arachidonic acid than o s milk as well as significantly greater amounts of vitamin B-6, vitamin A, and niacin. It is also a far superior source of the vitally important nutrient potassium. This extensive amount of potassium causes goat s milk to react in an alkaline way within the body whereas o s milk is lacking in potassium and ends up reacting in an acidic way. Thermodynamically speaking, goat s milk is better for human consumption.

To conclude, we have seen that goat s milk has several attributes that cause it to be a far superior choice to o s milk. Goat s milk is less allergenic, naturally homogenized, easier to digest, lactose intolerant friendly, and biochemically/thermodynamically superior to o s milk. As if these benefits were not enough, Mt. Cap a s goat s milk products do not contain any growth hormones or antibiotics that massive cow dairies have come to rely upon to turn a profit! So to sum up and paraphrase the cow industry catchphrase: Goat Milk: It Does a Body Good. 87

e-Magazine 2016

Unsaturated Fat URMI SARKAR Year, FT, GNIT

2nd

Unsaturated Fats- An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain. They are liquid at room temperature and are considered as good or beneficial fats. Benefits• Improve blood cholesterol levels. • Reduces the risk of coronary artery disease and lowers blood pressure level. • Reduces the risk of inflammatory diseases and some types of cancer. Sources• Avocado • Nuts • Vegetable oils such as canola and olive oils

Types of unsaturated fatsMonounsaturated fats (MUFA) - fatty acid chains which contain one double bond. Benefits• Decreased risk of breast cancer • Reduced cholesterol levels • Lower risk for heart disease and stroke • Weight loss and reduced belly fat • Less severe pain and stiffness for sufferers of rheumatoid arthritis Sources• Olive, peanut and canola oils • Avocados • Nuts such as almonds, hazelnuts and pecans • Pumpkin and sesame seeds Polyunsaturated fats- fatty acid chain contains more than one double bond. Benefits• Reduces blood pressure • Improves depression and ADHD(Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) • Lowers triglycerides • Polyunsaturated fatty acids include omega-3 fatty acids which lowers the risk of premature death. Sources• Sunflower, corn, soybean and flaxseed oils • Walnuts • Flax seeds • Fish • Canola oil

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Apple Caramel Candy Suparna Mukherjee 2nd Year, FT, GNIT

To prepare: Ingredients: • 6 small sized apples of each about 30-50 g. • 10 pcs of soft caramel candies. • 10 pcs of semi-sweet chocolates. • Chopped nuts,almonds,cashew nuts. • Wooden sticks-6 pcs. Chocolate coating • Grind the bar of semi sweet chocolates. • Sprinkle the chocolate powder and crunchies on the caramel apple candies. • Put the candies in the refrigerator for about an hour. Caramel dipping • Wash the apples properly. • Add three tablespoon of water in a pan and heat the caramel candies with it. • Put the wooden sticks from any one end of the apple within it. • Dip the apple candies in the caramel broth and coat them properly from all sides. • Place the quoted apples on a plate . Nutrition Facts: Benefits of apple • Cures Alzheimer. • Protects against Parkinsons disease. • Curbs all sorts of cancer. • Reduce cholesterol. • Detoxifies liver. • Boosts our immune system. • Prevents cataracts. Benefits of caramel • Calories: approx 39% • Carbohydrates: 7.8% • Protein: approx 5% • Fat: approx 7% • Saturated fatty acids: 3% • Potassium: 2.16% • Sodium: 14%

89 e-Magazine 2016

সদেশ (Sandesh) Prajesh Nandy 3rd year, FT, GNIT

Sandesh is a Bengali dessert created with cottage cheese and sugar. In the region of Dhaka, people call it pranahara (literally, heart stealer). There is a custom prevalent among the Indians that whenever good news is conveyed to friends or relatives some sweetmeat is to go along with it. In Bengal sandesh was the particular sweet to go with the news. Sandesh thus derived the name from its association with news as the word Sandesh means news. From time, immemorial people were conscious of the beneficial effect of the protein food. Sandesh being concentrated protein food besides its palatable taste is chosen as a most acceptable gift and a token of good wish for health of the recipient of the news. Thus Sandesh gained a unique popularity in Bengal and became the most coveted of all sweets. History A sweet dish by the name sandesh is mentioned in medieval Bengali literature, including Krittibas' Ramayana and lyrics of Chaitanya. Sweet is invented experimentally out of sheer necessity from chhena. During the days of 19th century milkman in West Bengal were left with plenty of unsold milk. The unsold milk would get sour and form chhena. To make it palatable molasses, sugar were mix with it. A paste was formed. This uneven soft paste was called "Makha", which is the precursor of today's sandesh. Previously sweets were manufactured manually but due to the advancement of technology and rapid increment in demand, sweets are now manufactured with the help of semi-automated machines. This reduces the costing of sweets on regular basis and it helps to maintain a standard quantity. The adverse effect of such technology is that, it needs skilled la o e s to deal with such machines and production space needed for such set up is large. Preparation Milk is pasteurized. Chhena (casein) is made by curdling the milk with lime water and separating the whey from it. The resulting coagulated component (cottage cheese) is collected and wrapped in cheese cloth, strained and beaten thoroughly, until it becomes quite firm. This mixture is kneaded well before use, so that it acquires a very soft and smooth consistency. It is prepared by tossing the chhena lightly with sugar over low heat. Nowadays, for more complex and elaborately prepared sandesh, the chhena is dried and pressed, flavored with essence of fruits (flavours such as cocoa, mango, strawberry, etc) and sometimes even colored, and cooked to many different levels of consistencies. Sometimes it is filled with syrup, blended with coconut, mango, carrot, etc and molded into a variety of shapes. Self life of sandesh is too short. Thus preservatives may be added for increasing self life. Self life may also be increased by varying the proportion of sugar addition. Winter in Bengal is incomplete without nolen gur sandesh. Nolen gurer sandesh is a special kind of sandesh where jaggery (gur) is blended with the sandesh to give it a more delicious flavour.

90 e-Magazine 2016

Effect of Plastic Containers 3rd

Puja Ghosh year, FT, GNIT

Many products use low-density polyethylene formed into plastic bags or plastic boxes. There are many makers of plastic boxes some such as Tupperware and Lock&Lock are known throughout much of the developed world. Plastic containers contain many chemicals, some of which have been identified as potentially harmful. We should avoid 2 chemicals in particular: bisphenol A and phthalates. Both of these chemicals interfere with animal and human hormones. 5 reasons why we should try to avoid plastic containers Toxic compounds in plastic can make us sick. More and more research is proving that toxic compounds found in plastic cause health problems ranging from cancer to infertility. There s no such thing as a safe plastic. Plastics contain super toxic compound bisphenol A (BPA).Consumers think if a product is BPA-f ee it s perfectly safe. But this is not true. It may be BPA-free, but in its place, these companies are using BPS, a close cousin of BPA that may be equally as toxic. Plastics can cause fertility and reproductive problems. Almost all plastics contain toxic chemicals that have a negative effect on immunity and hormone regulation, both of which directly affect fertility. Specifically, BPA has been found to make it more difficult for women to conceive and to cause increased risk of miscarriages. Chemicals in plastic can lead to obesity. Interesting new research published in environmental health perspectives explains that a chemical widely used on plastics, called bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), may actually cause stem cells to become fat cells. According to one of the stud s authors, E posu e to these kinds of chemicals can reprogram your metabolism and make it more likely for you to store calories instead of passing them th ough . Plastics are terrible for our planet. Plastics are in most cases made from petrochemicals through an energy-intensive process that itself creates lots of pollution and toxic discharge. The fact is, every plastic container we make is making the planet less habitable. Also, most plastic in the world is not recycled and usually ends up in landfills, where it degrades very slowly. The best solutions, which is affordable, convenient and really safe is glass and certain types of metal. Here are some great solutions. Break-proof glass water bottles: This glass water bottle has a rubber coating that prevents breakage. It makes water taste amazing! It can be taken everywhere and avoid using plastic water bottles. Stainless steel straws: We should not use plastic straws and instead use these stainless steel straws. Stainless steel containers: We should dump the plastic Tupperware and instead go for stainless steel containers. Glass containers are great too, but most of them still have plastic lids. Glass or ceramic water coolers: We should use more glass or ceramic water coolers in our home and offices than plastic ones. Alternative to non-stick cookware: The coating on our non-stick cookware may be a type of plastic. Instead we should choose ceramic cookware or enameled cast iron.

e-Magazine 2016

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Reducing water usage in food and beverage processing Sreemoyee Moitra 4th year, FT, GNIT

For decades, water was seen as a free commodity in processing environments, but attitudes are starting to change due to increasing drought conditions and recent water pollution crises. At the beginning of 2016, the world learned about a horrifying social and political situation, this crisis underscores the importance of access to quality water. In fact, many recent reports deem the impact from water shortages, flooding or droughts as the number one threat to businesses in the foreseeable future. I eased demands are being placed on fresh water supplies in almost every geographic lo atio , says Blake Schomas, a Nalco water expert for the food and beverage industry. Nalco, an Ecolab company, offers water, energy and air improvement solutions and services for industrial and institutional markets. Understanding water risks According to the United Nations, approximately one-fifth of the o ld s population lives in water-scarce areas; another one-quarter face a water shortage. With numbers like these, the importance of water as a commodity becomes clear. Wate is an essential input for the food and beverage i dust , notes Daniel Scott, process engineer at ADI Systems, Inc., which offers industrial wastewater treatment solutions. Approximately one-fifth of the orld s population lives in water-scarce areas; another one-quarter face a water shortage. Moreover, inefficient water use has the potential to damage the image of a food and beverage company. Companies should be concerned about water conservation to ensure the so ial li e se to operate their facility remains intact. Water is a valuable resource, and its scarcity in some regions may cause communities to scrutinize how it is being used Evaluating water use and inefficiencies Three areas are identified that consume the biggest amounts of water in food and beverage processing plants: clean in place (CIP) and heat exchanges such as in cooling towers account for 66 percent of all non-product water used in plants, while the remaining one-third is split between manual cleaning, sanitation and miscellaneous utility demands. For individual plant analysis, it is suggested to develop a ate ala e, identifying all process and utility water uses and discharges, including water in product, evaporation and sewer discharge. Best practices Monitoring water consumption requires a proper assessment of the water footprint. We see a lot of facilities with water meters where the information is not being collected and evaluated for corrective action. A short interval control (SIC) process is specified to water usage is a must. By installing monitoring systems, manufacturers can monitor water usage in almost real time, set short- and long-term goals, and make adjustments as needed. Some of these plant adjustments could come from installing automatic shutoff or low-flow nozzles. As in any sustainability activity, changing the o pa s culture is an important component. When food and beverage companies are so dependent on water for their manufacturing processes and equipment that they cannot effectively reduce their consumption, they evaluate wastewater streams for financial, social and environmental benefits that warrant investment in technologies that allow reusing water, recovering nutrients or producing biogas. Several affordable wastewater systems have a small footprint, and can be scaled up as needed. Technologies and equipment Cleaning processes account for as much as 60 percent of a food or beverage pla t s total water consumption. Water is used for cleaning in place, cleaning out of place, cleaning floors and exterior equipment, and lubricating and cleaning conveyors. Clean-in-place systems do not require time-consuming teardowns and rebuilds of equipment. However, CIP systems consume higher amounts of water and energy. Thus, optimizing them can make a big difference in reducing water usage. Some CIP design practices Haskell endorses are locating the systems central to the cleaning loads to reduce pipe runs, having the correct pipe sizes to minimize the volume of water required and investing in a product recover system, such as pig or air blows. Upgrading the technology used in a CIP system also could potentially save money and water. Depending on the wastewater stream, these systems can include one or more technologies, including anaerobic digesters, aerobic systems, reverse osmosis [RO] systems, membrane filtration systems, disc filters and clarifiers. Some of the recommended basic cooling tower design features include disc filtration for particulate reduction; jet nozzles for basin agitation to prevent particle settlement; precipitation softening, also known as cold lime softening; and reverse osmosis. Other advanced wastewater treatment technologies, such as membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems, filter water by rejecting the solid materials to produce a clarified, disinfected product effluent. PepsiCo Frito-Lay s snack manufacturing facility in Casa Grande implemented this approach and, as a result, won a US Water Prize from the Clean Water America Alliance for its near net-zero waste discharge facility, says BDO s Schreiber. Benefits The cost benefits of water reduction are evident. Water conservation can create bottom-line savings. During a typical plant audit, Nalco uncovers, on average, $1 million in potential savings by reducing water and energy and improving effluent operations. However, the benefits do t stop there. More and more manufacturing operations are either facing water restrictions, mandatory water reductions or the threat or fear one of these things may become 92 a reality. If a facility does not improve its water consumed per production output and has to curtail water usage, it will have to reduce production.

e-Magazine 2016

Vitamin E Anusree Modak 4th year, FT, GNIT

Vitamin E refers to a group of include both tocopherols and tocotrienols. Of the many different forms of vitamin E, γ-tocopherol is the most common form found in the North American diet. γ-Tocopherol can be found in corn oil, soybean oil, margarine, and d essi gs. α-tocopherol, the most biologically active form of vitamin E, is the second-most common form of vitamin E in the diet. alpha-Tocopherol is an important lipid-soluble antioxidant. It performs its functions as antioxidant in the glutathione peroxidase pathway and it protects cell membranes from oxidation by reacting with lipid radicals produced in the lipid peroxidation chain reaction. This removes the free radical intermediates and prevents the o idatio ea tio f o o ti ui g. The o idized αtocopheroxyl radicals produced in this process may be recycled back to the active reduced form through reduction by other antioxidants, such as ascorbate, ie., which neutralizes the radicals. This simple measure restores vitamin E to full scavenging potential. That's why supplements that contain both vitamins provide better antioxidant protection than single vitamins. Uses Vitamin E and its analogs are used to prevent and repair cell and tissue damage during radiation therapy. Vitamin E with adjuvant Evening Primrose Oil may reduce breast pain. The use of vitamin E in the treatment of some cancers is beneficial. Vitamin E and its derivatives promote tumor susceptibility of ionizing radiation during cancer treatment Vitamin E is an antioxidant that protects and repairs your skin and can help prevent premature aging of your skin and damage to your DNA. Lowering haemoglobin A ₁ HbA ₁ has lea l ee sho to edu e microvascular complications of diabetes. Vitamin E impacts Alzheimer's disease, but only at higher doses. Toxicity The LD50, or the toxic dose required to kill 50% of group of rats and mice, respectively is 4000 mg of VitaminE E/kg of rat and 4000 mg of Vitamin E/kg of mouse. Comparatively speaking, and at lethal doses, Vitamin E is less toxic than table salt and acetaminophen and it is more toxic than ethanol and Vitamin C. Vitamin E can act as an anticoagulant, increasing the risk of bleeding problems. As a result, many agencies have set a tolerable upper intake levels (UL) at 1,000 mg (1,500 IU) per day. In combination with certain other drugs such as aspirin, hypervitaminosis E can be life-threatening. Hypervitaminosis E may also counteract vitamin K, leading to a vitamin K deficiency. Natural vitamin E Although only alpha tocopherol is used to designate international units or IUs of vitamin activity, mixed tocopherol supplements containing alpha, beta, delta and gamma tocopherols are very popular because of the additional antioxidant protection afforded by the other tocopherols. Recommend natural vitamin E (designated with the prefix d-alpha) which is 1.35 times more potent than the synthetic dl-alpha form. Because antioxidants need to recharge and support each other, always take vitamin E with other antioxidants. Special Precautions & Warnings: Pregnancy:When used in the recommended daily amount, vitamin E is POSSIBLY SAFE for pregnant women. There has been some concern that taking vitamin E supplements might be harmful to the fetus when taken in early pregnancy. However, it is too soon to know if this is an important concern. Until more is known, do not take vitamin E supplements during early pregnancy without talking with your healthcare provider. Breast-feeding: Vitamin E is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in recommended daily amounts during breast-feeding Diabetes: Vitamin E might increase the risk for heart failure in people with diabetes. People with diabetes should avoid high doses of vitamin E. Heart attack: Vitamin E might increase the risk for death in people with a history of heart attack. People with a history of heart attack should avoid high doses of vitaminE. Low levels of vitamin K (vitamin K deficiency): Vitamin E might worsen clotting problems in people whose levels of vitamin K are too low. An eye condition called retinitis pigmentosa: All-rac-alpha-tocopherol (synthetic vitamin E) 400 IU seems to speed vision loss in people with retinitis pigmentosa. However, much lower amounts (3 IU) do not seem to produce this effect. If you have this condition, it is best to avoid vitamin E. Bleeding disorders: Vitamin E might make bleeding disorders worse. If you have a bleeding disorder, avoid taking vitamin E supplements. Head and neck cancer: Do not take vitamin E supplements in doses of 400 IU/day or more. Vitamin E might increase the chance that cancer will return. Prostate cancer: There is concern that taking vitamin E might increase the chance of developing prostate cancer. The effect of vitamin E in men who currently have prostate cancer is not clear. However, in theory, taking vitamin E supplements might worsen prostate cancer in men who already have it. Stroke: Vitamin E might increase the risk for death in people with a history of stroke. People with a history of stroke should avoid high doses of vitamin E. Surgery: Vitamin E might increase the risk of bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using vitamin E at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery

93 e-Magazine 2016

FIVE DELICIOUS FOODS THAT WERE INVENTED BY MISTAKE ! Riya Dasgupta year, FT, GNIT

3rd











The Popsicle is a popular brand of ice pop in the United States and Canada. In these countries, the name has come to mean an ice pop of any brand. It is a type of snack that is made of flavored ice on a wooden stick. INVENTION : The Popsicle ice pop was accidentally invented in 1905 by 11-year-old Frank Epperson. Epperson left a mixture of powdered soda and water and a stirring stick in a cup on his porch. That night San Francisco went through unusually low temperatures, and Epperson awoke the next morning to find a frozen pop that would eventually become a favorite American snack. At first, Epperson named his frozen snack the "Epsicle", and it became popular with his school friends. Epperson changed the name of his treat to "Popsicle", after his children always asked for "Pop s sicle", and signed up for a patent. The patent for frozen ice on a stick was issued August 19, 192 A potato chip (American English) or crisp (British English) is a thin slice of potato that has been deep fried, baked, kettle-cooked, or popped until crunchy. Potato chips are commonly served as a snack, side dish. INVENTION: A legend associates the creation of potato chips with Saratoga Springs, New York, decades later. By the late 19th century, a popular version of the story attributed the dish to George Crum, a half African, half Native American cook at Moon's Lake House, who was trying to appease an unhappy customer on August 24, 1853. The customer kept sending his French-fried potatoes back, complaining that they were too thick. Frustrated, he sliced the potatoes razor thin, fried them until crisp and seasoned them with extra salt. To Crum's surprise, the customer loved them. They soon became called "Saratoga Chips", a name that persisted into at least the mid-20th century. A version of this story popularized in a 1973 national advertising campaign by St. Regis Paper Company, which manufactured packaging for chips, said that Crum's customer was Cornelius Vanderbilt. Crum was renowned as a chef and by 1860 owned his own lakeside restaurant, Crum's House. Coca-Cola (often referred to simply as Coke) is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company of Atlanta, Georgia. Originally intended as a patent medicine, it was invented in the late 19th century by John Pemberton. INVENTION: Confederate Colonel John Pemberton, who was wounded in the American Civil War and became addicted to morphine, began a quest to find a substitute for the problematic drug. The prototype Coca-Cola recipe was formulated at Pemberton's Eagle Drug and Chemical House, a drugstore in Columbus, Georgia, originally as a coca wine. He may have been inspired by the formidable success of Vin Mariani, a French coca wine. In 1885, Pemberton registered his French Wine Coca nerve tonic. In 1886, when Atlanta and Fulton County passed prohibition legislation, Pemberton responded by developing Coca-Cola, a nonalcoholic version of French Wine Coca. The first sales were at Jacob's Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 8, 1886. An ice cream cone, poke or cornet is a dry, cone-shaped pastry, usually made of a wafer similar in texture to a waffle, which enables ice cream to be held in the hand and eaten without a bowl or spoon. Various types of ice cream cones include wafer (or cake) cones, waffle cones, and sugar cones. INVENTION: Traditionally ice cream cones were conically shaped. The first true edible conical shaped cone for serving ice cream was created at the St. Louis World's Fair by Ernest Hamwi in 1904. His waffle booth was next to an ice cream vendor who ran short of dishes. Hamwi rolled a waffle to contain ice cream and the cone was born. Paper, glass and metal cones, cups, and dishes were used during the 19th century in France, Germany, and Britain for eating ice cream. While many cooking books, some as early as 1770, mentioned pastry and creams in the same recipes there is no evidence that they are describing the ice cream cone that we know today. A sandwich is a food item consisting of one or more types of food, such as vegetables, sliced cheese or meat, placed on or between slices of bread, or more generally any dish wherein two or more pieces of bread serve as a container or wrapper for some other food. The sandwich was originally a portable food item or finger food which began to be popular in the Western World. INVENTION: The modern sandwich is named after Lord Sandwich, but the exact circumstances of its invention and original use are still the subject of debate. A rumour in a contemporaneous travel book called Tour to London by Pierre-Jean Grosley formed the popular myth that bread and meat sustained Lord Sandwich at the gambling table. Lord Sandwich was a very conversant gambler, the story goes, and he did not take the time to have a meal during his long hours playing at the card table. Consequently, he would ask his servants to bring him slices of meat between two slices of bread, a habit well known among his gambling friends. Other people, according to this account, began to order "the same as Sandwich!", and thus the "sandwich" was born.

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HAIR DYES-THEIR PROBLEMS AND ALTERNATIVES ANSHU CHAUDHARY, PINKI KARMAKAR 3rd year, FT, GNIT We already realize that chemicals in cosmetics such as skin creams can break through the skin barrier, but what about the chemicals in hair coloring? The National Cancer Institute has discovered a connection between hair dyes, especially dark ones, and the group of cancers that impact blood and lymph nodes, such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Problems: 1.The most problematic hair dye ingredient is a family of chemicals called Arylamines. Arylamines are a known risk factor for bladder cancer and have been found to cause cancer in experimental animals. a. One of these is p-phenylenediamine (PPD) listed on the box of even non-permanent "natural" products. It is an important ingredient in hair coloring because it lasts through many washings and perming is possible with it. PPD hair dyes usually come packaged as 2 bottles, one containing the PPD dye preparation and the other containing the developer or oxidizer. The change in colour occurs when PPD comes in contact with oxygen. This intermediate, may cause allergy in sensitive individuals. 2. The most common allergic reactions to hair dye chemicals are dermatitis of the eyes, ears, scalp and face, which may include a rash, extreme swelling and a severe burning sensation on the scalp. More severe reactions include cross-sensitization and in rare cases, death. The chemicals respnsible is not only PPD bt some of its chemical cousins like most textile dyes, pen ink, gasoline, oil, food dyes, medication dyes, preservatives like Parabens, and some drugs (all caine drugs such as Benzocaine and Novacaine), Sulfonamides, sulfones, sulfa drugs, and Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). 3. Another factor involves the mixing of hydrogen peroxide with ammonia. This combination may create potentially carcinogenic chemicals that don't normally exist in the two liquids prior to mixing them together. SAFE ALTERNATIVES1.Fully oxidized PPD is not a sensitizer so individuals with PPD allergy can wear wigs or fur coats dyed with PPD safely. 2. Alternatives for ammonia and peroxide are being developed. One company's organic and mineral research laboratory has found a way of making peroxide from avocado oil and it is far less irritating to the skin. They have also discovered an alternative to ammonia. Derived from coconut oil, it isn't irritating and has no nasty smell. Look for products that are ammonia and peroxide-free and use vegetable-based dyes. 3. Two examples of "natural hair colourings" are Planet Organic and Aveda. Their formulas provide longer lasting color than the older vegetable rinses. 95 e-Magazine 2016

Fast Food POULAMI MITRA , SUSMITA GHOSWAMI 3rd year, FT, GNIT

Fast food, a type of mass-produced food that is prepared and served very quickly, was first popularized in the 1950s in the United States, and is typically less nutritionally valuable compared to other foods and dishes. While any meal with low preparation time can be considered fast food, typically the term refers to food sold in a restaurant or store with preheated or precooked ingredients, and served to the customer in a packaged form for take-out/take-away. Fast food restaurants are traditionally distinguished by their ability to serve food via a drive-through. The term "fast food" was recognized in a dictionary by Merriam–Webster in 1951. The traditional family dinner is increasingly being replaced by the consumption of takeaway, or eating "on the run". As a result, the time invested on food preparation is getting lower and lower, with an average couple in the United States spending 47 minutes and 19 minutes per day, carrying out food preparation. The concept of ready-cooked food for sale is closely connected with urban development. In Ancient Rome, cities had street stands a large counter with a receptacle in the middle from which food or drink would have been served. It was during post-WWII American economic boom that Americans began to spend more and buy more as the economy boomed and a culture of consumerism bloomed. As a result of this new desire to have it all, coupled with the strides made by women while the men were away, both members of the household began to work outside the home. Eating out, which had previously been considered a luxury, became a common occurrence, and then a necessity. Workers, and working families, needed quick service and inexpensive food for both lunch and dinner. This need is what drove the phenomenal success of the early fast food giants, which catered to the family on the go (Franklin A. Jacobs). Fast food became an easy option for a busy family, as is the case for many families today.

Pre-modern Europe In the cities of Roman antiquity, much of the urban population living in insulae, multi-story apartment blocks, depended on food vendors for much of their meals. In the mornings, bread soaked in wine was eaten as a quick snack and cooked vegetables and stews later in popina, a simple type of eating establishment. In the Middle Ages, large towns and major urban areas such as London and Paris supported numerous vendors that sold dishes such as pies, pasties, flans, waffles, wafers, pancakes and cooked meats. As in Roman cities during antiquity, many of these establishments catered to those who did not have means to cook their own food, particularly single households. Unlike richer town dwellers, many often could not afford housing with kitchen facilities and thus relied on fast food. Travellers, as well, such as pilgrims en route to a holy site.

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Modern commercial fast food is often highly processed and prepared in an industrial fashion, i.e., on a large scale with standard ingredients and standardized cooking and production methods.[ It is usually rapidly served in cartons or bags or in a plastic wrapping, in a fashion that minimizes cost. In most fast food operations, menu items are generally made from processed ingredients prepared at a central supply facility and then shipped to individual outlets where they are reheated, cooked (usually by microwave or deep frying) or assembled in a short amount of time. This process ensures a consistent level of product quality, and is key to being able to deliver the order quickly to the customer and eliminate labor and equipment costs in the individual stores. Because of commercial emphasis on quickness, uniformity and low cost, fast food products are often made with ingredients formulated to achieve a certain flavor or consistency and to preserve freshness. Variants Many types of sushi ready to eat Chinese takeaways/takeout restaurants are particularly popular in Western countries such as the US and UK. They normally offer a wide variety of Asian food (not always Chinese), which has normally been fried. Most options are some form of noodles, rice, or meat. In some cases, the food is presented as a smorgasbord, sometimes self service. The customer chooses the size of the container they wish to buy, and then is free to fill it with their choice of food. It is common to combine several options in one container, and some outlets charge by weight rather than by item. In large cities, these restaurants may offer free delivery for purchases over a minimum amount. Lamb shish kebab Sushi has seen rapidly rising popularity recently in the Western world. A form of fast food created in Japan (where e tō is the Japanese variety of fast food), sushi is normally cold sticky rice flavored with a sweet rice vinegar and served with some topping (often fish), or, as in the most popular kind in the West, rolled in nori (dried laver) with filling. The filling often includes fish, seafood, chicken or cucumber. A fast-food kiosk in Yambol, Bulgaria Pizza is a common fast food category in the United States, with nationwide chains including Papa John's, Domino's Pizza, Sbarro and Pizza Hut. It trails only the burger industry in supplying children's fast food calories. Menus are more limited and standardized than in traditional pizzerias, and pizza delivery is offered. Kebab houses are a form of fast food restaurant from the Middle East, especially Turkey and Lebanon. Meat is shaven from a rotisserie, and is served on a warmed flatbread with salad and a choice of sauce and dressing. These doner kebabs or shawarmas are distinct from shish kebabs served on sticks. Kebab shops are also found throughout the world, especially Europe, New Zealand and Australia but they generally are less common in the US.

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Departmental News and Achievements (2015-2016)

• Ms. Sanjana Chakraborti and Mr. Ushnil Dutta was awarded second prize in the category of Label-writing in Intercollegiate Food & Nutrition Development Association of India in collaboration Department of Food Technology and Biochemical Engineering, Jadavpur University held on 22nd Dec. 2015. • Ms. Manasi Roy and Ms. Chandrani Dutta was awarded third prize in the category of Label-writing in Intercollegiate Food & Nutrition Development Association of India in collaboration Department of Food Technology and Biochemical Engineering, Jadavpur University held on 22nd Dec. 2015. • Present Status of Dairy and Beverage Industries in West Be gal on 21st August, 2015. Speaker: Dr. Asitava Sur, General Manager Metro Dairy Private Limited and Mr. P Srinivas, General Manager (Technical) Keventer Agro Limited. • Publication of E-Magazine and Departmental News Letter (issue I & II 2015) on 7th sep. 2015. • Organization of Departmental Quiz Competition, Organization of Poster Competition on Pote tial of Microwaves for Food Safety & Quality 7th September,2015 • Dr. Kakali Bandyopadhyay, presented a paper on Fortificatio of Mango Kernel Powder in Biscuit For ulatio , in the National Conference on the Process and Products Development for Better Economy Benefits of the Fats and Oil Industry, organized by Oil Tech ologists’ Association of India, held on 21st -22nd November, 2015.

Distinguished Publications  Sunita Adhikari, Preparatio of Ice Lolly using Beet color Be erage & Food World Journal, Vol. 42,Issue 9,Sep(2015),pp. 39-40, ISSN: 0970-6154  Subhajit Ray, De elop e t of Different Jackfruit Products-A ‘e ie Beverage& Food World Journal, Vol. 32,Issue 8,August(2015), pp.35-38, ISSN: 0970-6154  Priyam Mondal, Puja Jha, and Subhajit Ray, De elop e t and Evaluation of Quality of Carrot Fortified Chips , Beverage & Food World Journal,Vol.42,Issue11, Nov(2015),pp. 46-48,ISSN: 09706154  Dipsri, Subhajit Ray, A Comparative Study on Drying Kinetics of Tray Dried Cucumber Under Different Temperature and Their Physicochemical Properties , Beverage & Food World Journal,Vol.42,Issue12, Dec(2015),pp 46-50,ISSN:0970-6154  Chaitali Chakraborty, A Comparative Study on the Textural quality of Herbal Sandesh Made in Laboratory and Collected from Local Markets of Kolkata , Indian Journal Animal Health. Vol54, Issue 1, 2015 pp 55-62. ISSN: 0019-5057.(NAAS Rating: 2.08). 99 e-Magazine 2016

Departmental News and Achievements (2015-2016)

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Particulars Rupsa Roy Chowdhury and Chandralekha Bhowmik, Suravi Chakraborty ,2nd year FT, Secured First Position in Poster Presentation in P‘AK‘ITI-2016 on the topic Mid-day meal organized by Department of Agriculture and Food Engineering, IIT Kharagpur. Mainak Ghosh, Lara Maity 3rd year FT, Secured Second Position in Poster Presentation in P‘AK‘ITI-2016 on the topic I se t Protei organized by Department of Agriculture and Food Engineering, IIT Kharagpur. Mainak Ghosh, Sanjana Chakraborty, Manasi Ray, Ushnil Dutta 3rd year FT Secured First Position in Quiz Competition in P‘AK‘ITI-2016 organized by Department of Agriculture and Food Engineering, IIT Kharagpur. Chandrani Dutta, Sanjana Chakraborty ,Manasi Ray, Ushnil Dutta 3rd year FT ,Secured First Position in Manthan in P‘AK‘ITI-2016 on the topic Fa ri ati g India to over Shadow the bread full climatic ha ges organized by Department of Agriculture and Food Engineering, IIT Kgp Sruti Mondal, Shubham Mukherjee, Gargi Sharma, Sanjana Chakraborti,Bornini Banerjee, 3rd Year FT, Secured prize in Online Quiz Contest organized by Department of Agriculture and Food Engineering, IIT Kharagpur. Academic Achievers: Shreya Bandyopadhyay ,Medha Paul, Arunima Nath, Ishita Mondal , Shramana Bhattacharyya, Subhojit Singha, Received Award ,in KRITI-2016

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Dr. Chaitali Chakraborty delivered lecture on Advancement of Packaging of Milk and Milk Products in the National Seminar on Dairying: Innovative Technology Initiatives in Production and Packaging", organized by Indian DairyAssociation(EasternZone),12thMarch,2016.

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Dr. Anju Paul delivered lecture on Development of curd fortified by pineapple and orange juice in the International Seminar on Recent Advances in Food Processing and Biotechnology organized by Centre of Food Science and Technology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 5th -6th April, 2016.

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Dr. Anju Paul, Mr. Amit Kumar Barman, Dr. Kakali Bandyopadhyay, Dr. Chaitali Chakraborty achieved award as Distinguished Mentors in KRITI-2016

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Dr. Subhajit Ray,HOD, FT, Dr. Kakali Bandopadhyay, ,Dr. Chaitali Chakraborty, Asst. Prof., FT, achieved GNIT HR Award for Time Adherence in KRITI-2016

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Dr. Subhajit Ray; HOD of Department of Food Technology is selected as an Editorial Board Member for International Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences Published by Premier Publisher from May 2016

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Dr. Subhajit Ray; HOD of Department of Food Technology is selected as an Editorial Board member for International Research Journal of Agricultural and Food Sciences (IRJAFS). Published by Prudent Publisher from 100 June 2016

e-Magazine 2016

Departmental News and Achievements (2015-2016)

Forthcoming Events (Workshop/Invited Talk/National & International Conference) •

24th West Bengal State Science & Technology Congress (WBSSTC)-2017 organized by DST-GoWB  Jalpaiguri (Jalpaiguri Division) – Ananda Chandra College , Jalpaiguri : 7-8 November, 2016  Bankura (Burdwan Division) - Bankura Christian College, Bankura : 7-8 November, 2016 28th February, 2017 to 1st March, 2017 at Science City, Kolkata



International Conference on Emerging Technologies in Agriculture and Food Engineering, Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, IIT Kharagpur during 27-30 December 2016.



National Level seminar to be held on 15th-16th September, 2016 at Department of Food and Nutrition Acharya Prafulya Chandra College, New Barrackpore (In Collaboration with Department of Biochemistry & Nutrition, All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Govt. of India)

Industry Visit at Dream Bake Pvt. Ltd. on 14.10.2015

Workshop, 21st August, 2015.

Award Winners in Kriti 2016 organized by GNIT

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Departmental News and Achievements (2015-2016) Students Displaying Project works in Book Fair,Kolkata-2016

PRAKRITI-2016: Organized by the Department of Agricultural & Food Engineering , IIT-KGP

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Departmental News and Achievements (2015-2016) International Conference held on 5th and 6th April 2016 at Banaras Hindu University.

Sampriti-2016,organized by Department of Food Technology, held in Techno India Salt Lake

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Departmental News and Achievements (2015-2016) WO‘K“HOP on Present “tatus of Dairy and Be erage Industries in West Bengal Speaker: Dr.Asitava Sur, GM, Metro Dairy Pvt.Ltd.

INVITED TALK on Nutrigenomics Speaker: Dr. Deborshi De CEO & Chief Advisor, Vedaantic Organic Research Foundation

WO‘K“HOP on Present “tatus of Bakery Industries in West Bengal

Speaker: Mr. Manas Ray, GM, Production, Anmol Biscuits Pvt.Ltd.

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Departmental News and Achievements (2015-2016)

In ited Talk on P‘O“PECTIVE DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD TECHNOLOGI“T “ UNDE‘ GERMAN COLLABORATION by Distinguished Alumni from DON-Limon, Germany

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