DETECTING AMAZONIAN DEFORESTATION USING MULTITEMPORAL TREMA TIC MAPPER lMAGERIES AND SPECTRAL MIXTURE ANALYSIS Assistant Research Scientist Center for the Study ofInstitutions Population, and Environmental Change (CIPEC) Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana [email protected]
Mateus BatisteIla, Research Manager Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation EMBRAP A Satellite Monitoring Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil [email protected]
Emilio Moran, James H. Rudy Professor, Director of ACT and Co-Director of CIPEC Anthropological Center for Training and Research on Global Environmental Change (ACT) Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana [email protected]
ABSTRACT Linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) and multitemporal Thematic Mapper (TM) data were used to detect deforestation in Altamira and Machadinho, Brazilían Amazon. Standardized principal component analysis was used to transform TM data into uncorrelated principal components (PCs). Three endmembers were selected and an unconstrained least root-mean squared error solution was used to unmix the first four PCs into three fraction images. Mature forest c\assification was implemented using thresholds and deforestation detection using binary image overlay. This study indicates that LSMA is an effective method to identify mature forest and detect deforested areas with high accuracies.
INTRODUCTION The Brazilian Amazon contains the largest continuous tropical rain forest in the world, representing a potentially large source of carbonlgreenhouse gas emissions (Fearnside, 1998). In the Amazon basin the deforestation rates rose sharply during the 1970s and 1980s and more recently during the mid-1990s due to road building, colonízation projects, logging, and agropastoral expansion associated with national polítical and economic policies (Moran et al., 1994; Skole et al., 1994; Alves, 2002). The estirnated deforestation rate was 15,000-20,000 km2 per year between 1978 and 1988 (Skole et aI., 1994), approximately 17,000 km2 per year between 1988 and 1996 (INPE, 1998), and approximately 18,000 km2 in 2000 (INPE, 2002). Previous research has shown that the loss of Amazonian forests corresponded to about 7% of the total carbon dioxide (C02) emissions provoked by fossil fuel emission (Moran et aI., 1994). Deforestation typically leads to tremendous effects on climate change, biological diversity, the hydrologic cycle, and soil erosion and degradation (Shukla et aI., 1990; Houghton, 1991; Skole and Tucker, 1993). Therefore, accurately detecting deforestation area and rate has become an urgent task. Although many change detection methods have been developed (Singh, 1989; Mouat et al., 1993; Deer, 1995; Coppin and Bauer, 1996; Jensen, 1996; Jensen et aI., 1997; Yuan et aI., 1998; Serpico and Bruzzone, 1999), most of them can only provide change and non-change information but cannot accurately provide specific change information such as deforestation. Because of the important effects of mature forest deforestation on climate and ecosystems, accurate deforestation detection is valuable to better understand the relationships between deforestation and the components of atmosphere and ecosystem change. Thus, an effective method to digitally detect deforestation areas and rates is needed. Some previous research has indicated that linear spectral rnixture analysis (LSMA) is a promising tool in land-cover classification and change detection for tropical regions (Adams et aI., 1995; Roberts et
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al., 1998; Lu et al., in press). This paper focuses on the detection of deforested areas and deforestation rates in two areas ofthe Brazilian Amazon using LSMA.
STUDY AREAS Two colonization areas were selected for this study (Figure 1). The Altarnira study area is located along the Transamazon Highway in the Brazilian State of Para. The city of Altarnira and the Xingu River anchor the eastem edge ofthe study area. In the 1950s colonists were attracted from northeast Brazil and settled along streams as far as 20 km from the city center. With the construction of the Transamazon Highway in 1970, this population and older caboclo settlers from the earlier rubber economic era claimed land along the new highway through the help of govemment-sponsored programs (Moran, 1976; 1981). Early settlement was driven by geopolitical goals and political economic policies that focused on occupying the region and establishing production areas of staples like rice, com, and beans. This region has experienced a gradual shift to a more diverse set of land uses: pasture, cocoa, sugar cane, black pepper, in addition to staple crops. The dominant native vegetation types are mature moist forest and liana forest, but rates of deforestation and secondary succession associated with the implementation of agropastoral projects are high in the area. The second study area is Machadinho in northeastem Rondônia. Rondônia had high deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon during the last twenty years (INPE, 2002). Following the national strategy of regional occupation and development, colonization projects initiated by the Brazilian govemment in the 1970s played a major role in this process (Moran, 1981; Schrnink and Wood, 1992). Most colonization projects in Rondônia were designed to settle landless migrants. Settlement began in this area in the mid-1980s, and the immigrants transformed the forested landscape into a patchwork of cultivated crops, pastures, and a vast area of fallow land. The dominant pristine vegetation is tropical moist forest, with some bamboo and palms.
\. r '--''. I
400 N.on'cCllC!S ,
+ Figure l. Locations ofthe Study Areas
METHOD Image Preprocessing Five dates of Thematic Mapper (TM) images and two scenes ofIKONOS data in Altamira and three dates of TM images and one scene of IKONOS data in Machadinho were collected (Table 1). Of the various elements of
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preprocessing for change detection, multi-date image registration and radiometric and atmospheric corrections are the most important. Accurate spatial registration of the multi-date imageries is obviously important for change detection because largely spurious results of change detection will be produced when rnisregistration between multidate images occurs (Townshend et aI., 1992; Dai and Khorram, 1998; Stow, 1999; Verbyla and Boles, 2000; Stow and Chen, 2002). The images were geometrically rectified into UTM projection using control points taken from topographic maps at 1:100,000 scale. The nearest-neighbor resampling technique was used and a root-mean squared error (RMSE) with less than 0.5 pixel was obtained. In Altamira, the 1991 TM image was first geometrically rectified, then other images were registered to it. In Machadinho, the 1998 TM image was first rectified, then other images were registered to the same projection as the 1998 TM image. Table 1. Image Data and Field Data Used in Research Study Areas Path/Row
TM acquisition dates
JuI. 28, 1988 August 4, 1985 JuI. 15, 1994 July 11, 1988 July 20, 1991 Jun. 18, 1998 May 26,1996 July 4, 2000 (ETM+) October 14,2000 (2 scenes) May 28, 2001 1992,1993,1997,1998 1999,2000 Topographic maps, DEM data, road vector layer
IKONOSdata Date to collect field data Ancillary data
Different image acquisition dates, sun elevation angles, and atmospheric conditions affect the remote sensing digital number (DN) values that are captured by satellite sensors. Accurately eliminating these impacts is necessary before the images are used for change detection analysis. A variety of methods have been developed for radiometric and atmospheric normalization or correction (Markham and Barker, 1987; Gilabert et aI., 1994; Chavez, 1996; Stefan and Itten, 1997; Vermote et aI., 1997; Heo and FitzHugh, 2000; Yang and Lo, 2000; Song et aI., 2001; Lu et aI., 2002; McGovem et aI., 2002). Different models, such as relative normalization, dark object subtraction (DOS), and 6S, have their own characteristics and requirements for the input parameters. In this study, due to the lack of atmospheric data for the historical images, some advanced calibration models such as 6S were difficult to use. However, the image-based DOS model proved valuable for atmospheric correction when atmospheric data were not available (Lu et aI., 2002). Hence, all TM data were calibrated into apparent reflectance using an image-based DOS model. The path radiance was identified based on clear water for each bando
Endmember Selection and Spectral Mixture Analysis LSMA is regarded as a physically based image processing tooI. It assumes that the spectrum measured by a sensor is a linear combination of the spectra of ali components within the pixel (Adams et al., 1995; Roberts et aI., 1998; Ustin et aI., 1998; Petrou, 1999). It supports repeatable and accurate extraction of quantitative subpixel information (Srnith et al., 1990; Roberts et al., 1998). The fractions derived from LSMA represent area proportions of the endmembers within the pixel. In remote-sensing data applications, the LSMA approach has been used for land-use/land-cover classification (Ustin et aI., 1996; Cochrane and Souza, 1998; Ustin et aI., 1999; Aguiar et al., 1999; DeFries et aI., 2000; Theseira et al., 2002) and change detection (Adams et aI., 1995; Roberts et aI., 1997; Roberts et aI., 1998; Shimabukuro et al., 1998; Ustin et al., 1998; Elmore et aI., 2000; Rogan et al., 2002). In general, classification using LSMA involves four main steps: (1) image preprocessing, (2) endmember selection, (3) unrnixing solution, and (4) analysis offraction image. Before using LSMA, it is necessary to reduce the high correlations that exist between visible TM bands. Standardized principal component analysis (SPCA) was used to transform the atmospherically calibrated TM imageries into principal components (PCs). The last two PCs were discarded due to their very lirnited inforrnation. Therefore, only the first four PCs were used for the LSMA approach to convert the images into physically based fractions. Selecting suitable endmembers is the prerequisite to develop high quality fraction images. Different methods have been used for selecting endmembers (Adams et al., 1993; Settle and Drake, 1993; Boardman et al., 1995; Bateson and Curtiss, 1996; Tompkins et al., 1997; Mustard and Sunshine, 1999). For many remote-sensing applications using LSMA, the image-based endmember selection method is often used because endmembers can be
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obtained easily, representing spectra measured at the same scale as the image data (Roberts et aI., 1998). The endmembers are regarded as the extremes of the triangles of an image scattergram. Thus, the image endmembers are derived from the extremes of the image feature space, assuming they represent the purest pixels in the images (Mustard and Sunshine, 1999). In this study, three endmembers (shade, soi!, and green vegetation or GV) were identified from the scattergram of the first two PCs derived from SPCA. An average of 30 to 50 pixels of these vertices was calculated. When selecting the endmembers, caution must be taken to identify outliers. Appropriate selection of image endmembers is often an iterative processo Checking fraction imageries and the RMSE image is a feasible way to assess whether the selected endmembers are appropriate or not (Lu et aI., in press). After selection of endmembers, an unconstrained least RMSE solution was used to unrnix the first four PCs into three endmember fraction images. Detailed descriptions about LSMA and its applications can be found in Adams et aI. (1995), Roberts et aI. (1998), and Mustard and Sunshine (1999). Because the fractions represent the biophysical characteristics, different vegetation stand structures and land-cover types will have different proportion compositions. Hence, in this paper, the fraction images were used to identify mature forests and to analyze deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon through a change detection approach.
Change Detection and Accuracy Assessment The use of LSMA to improve forest classifications is based on the fact that mature forest can be differentiated from other land-cover types through the analysis of fraction images. For example, mature forest has higher shade fraction but lower GV fraction than those of successional forests, pastures, and agricultural lands and has lower soil fraction than those of pasture, agriculturallands, and bare soil. From the soil fraction, mature forest and successional forest can be separated from pasture, agricultural land, bare soil, and urban areas. From the GV fraction, mature forest can be separated from successional forest, and from the shade fraction it can be separated from water bodies. Therefore, mature forest can be identified when the following conditions are satisfied:
where f.oib füv, and f.hadeare fraction values of soil, GV, and shade, respectively. Tsoil_mlX' Tüv_m1,,, Tshade_min, and Tshademasare thresholds of mature forest at each fraction image. The thresholds Tsoil_mas, Tov_mas,Tshade_min, and TShade-max can be developed using sample plots ofmature forest. A detailed description ofthreshold definition based on field data and fraction images can be found in Lu et aI. (in press). A total of 25 sample plots of mature forest were identified, and descriptive statistics were produced. The statistical parameters include minimum, maximum, mean, and standard deviation. So, the threshold ofmature forest in each fraction is defrned as:
where Tsoilus Tüv ue and Tshadeu are mean values and Osoib0GV, and Oshade are standard deviations, which are derived from the sample plots of soil; GV, and shade fraction images, respectively. 'Yis a constant. Different constants were tested, ranging from 2.5 to 3.5, in order to find a best constant for the identification ofmature forest. After selection of appropriate tlrresholds for each fraction image, the thresholds were then used for the entire study area to produce a binary image, indicating mature forest and non-forest (1 as mature forest and O as nonforest). The same procedure was implemented for all TM images in both study areas listed in Table 1, beginning from SPCA, endmember selection, development of fractions, and until identification of mature forest. After finishing classification ofmature forest and non-forest for ali TM images, the binary thematic images were added to produce a new thematic image for each study area for change detection. For example, in the Machadinho study area, TM images from 1988, 1994, and 1998 were used, and three corresponding binary images were produced using LSMA and thresholds. Adding the three binary images produces a thematic image with pixel values ranging from O to 3. Thus, the following change information can be inferred: 0- unchanged non-forest areas, 1 - deforestation, converting mature forest in 1988 to non-forest in 1994, 2 - deforestation, converting mature forest in 1994 to non-forest in 1998,
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3 - unehanged mature forest. To test the validity of the procedure, aeeuraey assessment is an important part in both classifieation and ehange deteetion routines. A eommon method for aeeuraey assessment is through the use of an error matrix. Previous literature has provided the meanings and ealculation methods for overall aeeuraey, prcducer 's aeeuraey, user's aeeuraey, and kappa eoeffieient (Congalton et aI., 1983; Hudson and Ramm, 1987; Congalton, 1991; Janssen and van der Wel, 1994; Kalkhan et aI., 1997; Khorram, 1999; Smits et aI., 1999). In tbis paper, overall aeeuraey was ealeulated for eaeh classifieation and ehange deteetion result. A total of 240 sample plots were randomly alloeated and examined through visual interpretation assisted by field data and IKONOS data for analyses of classifieation and ehange deteetion aeeuraeies.
RESUL TS AND DISCUSSION The LSMA approaeh was used to develop fraetion images for ali dates of TM images for both study areas, respeetively. Figure 2 provides an example of fraetion images in Altamira (2000 ETM+ image) and Maehadinho (1998 TM image). Mature forest in the soil fraetion image appears dark grey due to its very low soil fraetion. It appears grey in the GV fraetion and bright grey in the shade fraetion. Thus, mature forest has different eharaeteristies in eaeh fraetion image and ean be distinguished from non-forest vegetation based on these fraetion images.
RO-GV O 3.5 7 __r::::::J_-=__
14 21 -===
N 28 Kilameters
Figure 2. Fraetion Images in Altamira (AL, 2000 ETM+) and Maehadinho, Rondônia (RO, 1998 TM)
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Figure 3 gives a comparison of fraction values of main land-cover types and illustrates the physical features of different land-cover types in these fraction images. It indicates that mature forest and secondary successional forests have significantly lower soi! fractions than those of pasture, agricultural lands, and bare lands. Mature forest has lower fractions in the GV fraction image but has higher fractions in the shade fraction image than those of successional forests, pastures, and agricultural Iands, This characteristic of mature forest in different fraction images enables us to accurately distinguish non-forest types and yields better results when thresholds are appropriately selected on each fraction image.
1.1 1.0 .9
J ~- 8
.2 .1 0.0
Land Cover Classes in Altamira 1.0
.9 .8 .7
> c o
U ~ LL
.4 .3 .2
Land Cover Classes in Rondonia
Figure 3. Comparison of Fractions among Typical Land-cover Classes in Altamira (AL, 2000 ETM+) and Machadinho, Rondônia (RO, 1998 TM)
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Figure 4 illustrates the deforestation area distribution using five dates ofTM images in Altarnira and three dates of TM images in Machadinho. A road vector layer was overlaid on the change detection image to show the spatial relationship between deforestation and road configuration. The deforestation process is closely related to the road construction. For example, mature forest was often deforested along both sides of the roads, then extended to wide areas. Most deforestation in the Altarnira study area occurred in the 1970s and early 1980s, and very limited mature forest remained until 2000. In the Machadinho study area, most of the terrain was still occupied by mature forest because of the presence of large patches of forest preserved in extractive reserves (Batistella, 2001). However, deforestation is obvious along the sides of the roads.
Deíer estation in Altamira
~ • ,~~"!IIIIIIIi~ •
A orestarlon in ROIldonia _
- Non-torested _
A Figure 4. Deforestation Area Distribution in Altamira and Machadinho ASPRS 2003 Annual Conference
May 2003 ro Anchorage, Alaska
The deforested area and deforestation rate were calculated for each change detection period for both study areas. Table 2 provides the results in selected detection periods in Altamira and Machadinho. In Altamira, the deforestation rate is decreasing because the remaining mature forest area is very limited and most of the mature forest already has been cut. In Machadinho, the deforestation rate is increasing because colonization began in the middle 1980s. However, mature forest still occupies the majority of the study area. In Altamira, the deforested mature forest accounts for 26.18% ofthe total study area during the 15-year period between 1985 and 2000. Higher deforestation rates occurred during the 1970s and early 1980s. In the Machadinho study area, the deforested mature forest accounts for 27.32% ofthe total study area during the 10-year period between 1988 and 1998. Table 2. Mature Forest Change Detection Results
Def. area (ha) Def. rate (%) Avg. defrate
Altamira Study Area Mature Forest Deforestation Others 1996NF unch 1985-88 1988-91 1991-96 00 g F unchg 11054.7 3652.5 O 6517.89 7598.16 6 56569.77 14415.48 10.04 5.92 6.90 3.32 1.38 1.97 3.35 0.83 Machadinho, Rondônia, Study Area Mature Forest Deforestation Others NF unch 1988-94 1994-98 g F unchg
Def. area (ha) 14389.38 12767.76 14350.14 57896.64 Def. rate (%) 14.48 12.84 Avg Def. rate 2.41 3.21 Note: Def. Rate (%) = deforestation area/total study area * 100. Avg Def. rate (%/yr) = def. rate/change-detection-period. NF_unchg: unchanged non-forest. F_unchg: unchanged forest. NF_to_F: non-forest in previous date change to forest in late date.
f: 10249.9 2
Many test sample data were collected and used for c\assifícation and change detection accuracy assessment. An error matrix for each c\assification and change detection result was produced and overall accuracy was provided. Table 3 provides the overall c\assification and change detection accuracies in Altamira and Machadinho. The classification accuracy of mature forest is very high, reaching over 98.7%, and the change detection accuracy reaches over 96% in both study areas. These results indicated that deforestation detection using LSMA is reliable and successful. Table 3. Classification and Change Detection Accuracies Study Area Altamira Machadinho
Classification Accuracy 1991 1996 2000 98.7% 99.3% 99.3% 1994 1998 98.7% 98.7%
Change Detection Accuracy 1991-1996 1996-2000 98.0% 96.0% 1994-1998 96.7%
Analysis ofthe c\assification and change detection results found that the errors were mainly from (1) c\ouds and cast shadows, especially thin clouds and cast shadows; and (2) complex landscape and environmental conditions, such as mature forests in wetland sites. The thin c\ouds and their cast shadows and the significantly different moisture conditions in the sites of mature forest affect the fraction values developed using LSMA. One possible solution is to stratify the entire image into some subset images with similar environmental conditions within the ASPRS 2003 Annual Conference
May 2003 ~ Anchorage, Alaska
subset image. Then selecting endmembers and unrnixing TM images could be carried out in the subset images respectively. Caution needs to be taken to separate the true reflectance of endmembers and outliers, for example, clouds. After development of fraction images using LSMA, the classification and change detection accuracies are greatly dependent on the definition of thresholds. In this paper, different standard deviations were tested and the results were analyzed. This experiment indicated that three standard deviations provided the best threshold ranges for the mature forest classification.
CONCLUSION The LSMA approach has been successfully used in this paper for mature forest classification and deforestation detection. The classification accuracies of mature forest reached over 98.7% and the change detection accuracies reached over 96% for TM images of different dates for both study areas in the Brazilian Amazon. When using LSMA, selection of appropriate endmembers is very important to develop high-quality fraction images. SPCA is an effective transformation method in reducing correlation coefficients between images used, thus, improving the fraction images. Definition of thresholds for mature forest is critical to produce highly accurate classification and change detection results.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors wish to thank the National Science Foundation (grants SBR-95-2l918 and 99-06826), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (grant N005-334), and Brazil's Program for the Advancement of Education for their support, which provided funds for the research that led to this paper. This project is part of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere (LBA) Experiment in Amazônia program, LC-09, which examines the human and physical dimensions ofland-use and land-cover change. We also thank Indiana State University and Indiana University for facilities and support of our work; our collaborators in Brazil, especially the LBA Program, Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa), Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE); and the population of the study area, who made this work possible.
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ASPRS 2003 Annual Conference Proceedings May 2003 ro Anchorage, Alaska