Development of Engineering Sector in Bangladesh - The Institution of

Development of Engineering Sector in Bangladesh - The Institution of

Development of Engineering Sector in Bangladesh Prof Munaz Ahmed Noor Pro-Vice-Chancellor National University and Prof Department of Civil Engineering...

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Development of Engineering Sector in Bangladesh Prof Munaz Ahmed Noor Pro-Vice-Chancellor National University and Prof Department of Civil Engineering BUET

Bangladesh - Youngest South Asian Nation  Progressing from war devastation in 1971. A

traditionally agrarian economy, to a Textile and readymade Garment powerhouse of the world. Mixed economy.  On track to achieve MDG’s  Largely food secured  Noticeable Rural development and poverty reduction  Labour or capital intensity is evolving into knowledge intensity.  ICT is the vehicle of the knowledge economy

A Growing economy  GDP growth rate more than tripled  Food production increased three-fold  Population growth rate declined from around

2.9% to 1.4% per annum from 1974 to 2013  Life expectancy at birth increased 71(2014) from 42(1971)  Upper MIC by 2021 and advanced economy by 2041  Once ‘bottomless basket case’ in early 1970s is now is a ‘model for economic development’

GDP per Capita

[since 2006]

Theme 21st century – human, social and economic progress through engineering. Focus is not to the new technology or innovation but how we are using it.

Bangladesh’s core competency lies in transforming and brokering innovations for local and global consumption — instead of merely inventing new things just for the sake of inventing them

Sectors in Development  Industry  Service  Agriculture  Engineering Education

Sector wise Contribution  Sector wise growth contribution   

Service sector 49.3 Industry 31.99 Agriculture 18.7

 Sector Wise labor force   

Service 40 Industry 13 Agriculture 47

Shift of employment

Sub Sectors in Development  Industry 

Manufacturing Construction Power, gas and water

Transport, Information Communication

Machinery, Irrigation

 

 Service

 Agriculture

Industry: Manufacturing

Contribution of Manufacturing sectors to GDP growth

Number of establishments  In 1973-74: 1427 no.  In 2013

Manufacturing Growth %

Share of large and small manufacturing to GDP

Light engineering  Apprx. 40,000 enterprises; 89,632 employees  Market size: Tk 51,510 million (US$ 748.7 million) for local manufacturers  Provides support  

Machinery and spares Parts - transport, agricultural & power sector Consumer Items

 Indigenous Mini Hydroelectricity  Mechanized brick crusher  Furniture Manufacturing, Ceramics, Leather

Light Engineering  80’s, duty free import of diesel engine driven pumps for irrigation. Local innovative technicians successfully made  

boat engines using the driving power of these diesel. 3-wheeler automobile from irrigation pump engines. Such vehicles could provide cheap transport for poor rural people

Light engineering  Motorcycle industry-Growth > 25%.

Potential to grab significant portion of Asian market 

Importers, assemblers, manufacturer

 Bicycle industry – 7.5 % of total engineering export. Starts in 1970

Light Engineering  Electrical switches and accessories  Compact florescent light (CFL)  Samsung is the global leader in Consumer Electronics, mobile phones and imaging technologies decided to set up a global software R&D center in Dhaka  Semi-Conductor  Cell Phone Assembly

Product map

Industry: Manufacturing Shipbuilding

Productivity and labor cost

Shipbuilding orders

Industry: Construction

Cement  Cement installed capacity: 30 mn MT  Production: 18 mn MT  Before 2000 mostly imported  In 1971 two cement factories production capacity were .29 mn MT

Steel  Steel installed capacity: 7 mn MT  Production: 4 mn MT  In 1971 one steel re rolling mill - 0.35 mn MT

Industry: Power, gas and Water

Industry: Power

 In 1971 installed capacity: 200 MW  At present: 10817 MW  Maximum generation in 2015: 7194 MW  Derated capacity March 2015: 10375 MW  Access to electricity 1971: 3%  At present 68%+

 Per capita generation in 1971:  At present: 348 kWh

10.37 kWh

 System loss in 1971: 30%  At present: 11.%

 Distribution Line: At present 3,00,000 km


Nuclear power by 2018 1000 MW and by 2020 2000MW

Per capita generation

Energy production Kilogram of oil equivalent

Renewable energy  Renewable energy to reach 500 MW currently 80

MW installed. Sustainable and renewable energy development authority (SREDA)  

Micro hydropower plant : Barkal Solar home system by IDCOL, UNDP, LGED and others. Grameen sakti

 Biogas  Biofuel: Briquette  Energy- mix : bio-mass fuel, commercial fuels & renewable energy technologies  Brick burning-modern process

Cross border Cross Border 500 MW

Industry: Water and Sanitation

Water and sanitation

 late 1960s - Oral Rehydration Solution - reduce

diarrhea deaths of children under 5 by 86 % in 30 years. (260,000 in 1971 compared to 36,000 in 2004)  1970s - large-scale safe water supply  Overall safe water coverage is only 74 % because of naturally occurring arsenic contamination of groundwater. [MDG target 86%]  Sanitation coverage remains low at 56 %, [MDG target 60%]  Innovative approaches: community-led total sanitation and new management models for piped rural water supply

Service: Transport

Infrastructure  Padma Bridge Project  Metro rail  Bus rapid transit  Besides, the plans to construct smaller link and approach roads, bridges, flyovers, underpasses and tunnels,

PPP projects  Dhaka-Chittagong Access Control Highway  Dhaka City Elevated Expressway,  Dhaka-Narayanganj-Gazipur-Dhaka Elevated Expressway

Rail  Total rout length: 2885 km  BG 507 km  MG 1785 km  DG 364 km  Formulation of BR Master plan is finished

Road  In 1971: 2500 km road network  At present: 21156 km road network  National Highway: 3812 km  Regional Highway: 4247 km  Number of Bridges: 4507  Number of Culverts: 13751  Many Mega Development projects are underway

Port  Five Container Terminal  Two sea ports  New Mooring Container terminal  Paira Sea port

 Deep see port: Sonadia

Airline passengers

Service: Information Technology

Information economy  Despite less developed countries, a pioneer in reaching out to the larger population through technology 

 

Mobile phone penetration one of the highest in the developing economies with a teledensity of over 75%. Internet penetration rate is estimated to be at 7% - with most people using mobile internet Over 2.1 million Facebook users

Internet users

Mobile phone subscribers, in millions

Information economy Outsourcing  Bangladeshi outsourcing pioneers comprises less complex projects   

    

Data Processing Software Development Graphics design, Website development, Mobile content development, 2D/3D animation, Desktop publications and Call centers.

Agriculture: Machinery

Agriculture  Triple rice production 40 yrs since

independence  Green Revolution technology with chemical fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation, credit, product procurement, storage, and marketing facilities  Irrigation - Treadle Pump, AWD method, Buried Pipe Irrigation,

Agricultural machinery and spares  Pumping of water for irrigation   

buried pipe water distribution systems rubber dams to trap river water for irrigation high speed rotary tillers and power tiller operated seeders

 BARI developed    

100% maize shelling is done by maize sheller bed maker cum seeder Urea Super Granule (USG) Applicator rice-wheat thresher, open-drum thresher, wetland weeder and winnower

Agriculture - Adaptation to impacts of climate change  Zero or minimum tillage crop and system  Char land  

Modified sorjan system (zuzubi garden) with vegetable cultivation Cultivating foxtail millet (koan)

 Supplementary irrigation from mini ponds  Year-round homestead vegetable cultivation  Dhap Cultivation or Floating method  Aquaculture  Saline resistant crop

Fibre  Jute: Industrial Application 

Jutin, for example, is an innovative building material based on jute fiber and which is lightweight, heat-insulating, and rust-proof

 Bio-composite  Geotextile

Engineering Education

At Present  Public University 35  Private University 80+  Public Engineering University 5 + IUT  Polytechnic College: Govt 50+ Non Govt 90+  Engineering College 9+  Technical and vocational institution Govt 248 Non Govt 3518

In 1971  Public University 6  Private University Nil  Public Engineering University 1  Polytechnic College: G-17 NG-Nil  Engineering College G-4  Technical and vocational institute G-58 NGNil

Conclusions  Noticeable progress in the last 45 years. This

Growing economy will in future.  Talented youths and cheap labor forces are the main strength.  Focus on    

heavy industry and ITES. power, energy, SDG and climate change resilience. reducing gap between R&D and industry quality and future looking education

Thank you