Diagnostic-feasibility study of Wolf Lake, Cook County, Illinois, and

Diagnostic-feasibility study of Wolf Lake, Cook County, Illinois, and

Contract Report 604 Diagnostic-Feasibility Study of Wolf Lake, Cook County, Illinois, and Lake County, Indiana by Shun Dar Lin, Raman K. Raman, Willi...

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Contract Report 604

Diagnostic-Feasibility Study of Wolf Lake, Cook County, Illinois, and Lake County, Indiana by Shun Dar Lin, Raman K. Raman, William C. Bogner, James A. Slowikowski, George S. Roadcap, and David L. Hullinger

Prepared for the City of Hammond, Indiana Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, and Indiana Department of Environmental Management October 1996

Illinois State Water Survey Chemistry and Hydrology Divisions Champaign, Illinois

A Division of the Illinois Department of Natural Resources

Diagnostic-Feasibility Study of Wolf Lake, Cook County, Illinois, and Lake County, Indiana

Shun Dar Lin, Raman K. Raman, William C. Bogner, James A. Slowikowski, George S. Roadcap, and David L. Hullinger

Prepared for the City of Hammond, Indiana Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, and Indiana Department of Environmental Management

October 1996

Funded under USEPA Grant # S995201-01-0. S995202 IDEM Contract # ARN92-5A. ARN92-4 IEPA Contract # SWC-2024

Illinois State Water Survey Chemistry and Hydrology Divisions Champaign, Illinois

A Division of the Illinois Department of Natural Resources

This report may be obtained from: The City of Hammond, Parks and Recreation Department, Hammond, IN; Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Nonpoint Source Section, Box 6015, Indianapolis, IN; Illinois Environmental Protection, Lake and Watershed Unit, Box 19276, Springfield, IL. The data collected during October 1992 through October 1993 may be obtained from IEPA, address as shown above.

USEPA Region V Review of Wolf Lake Clean Lakes Diagnostic-Feasibility Study

MACROPHYTE (LAKE WEED) CONTROL Most of those addressing this issue objected to the use of the compound 2-4D as a lake weed control measure because of feared side effects on other parts of the lake ecosystem. HEALTH OF THE FISHERY As you know, the Indiana Departments of Environmental Management, Natural Resources, and Health recently revised their criteria for fish consumption advisories. As a consequence, the Department of Health issued the following advisory for Largemouth and White Bass obtained from Wolf Lake, based on concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Largemouth Bass For individual Largemouth Bass 13-17 inches in length, adults should eat no more than one meal each month. Women who are pregnant or who are breastfeeding, women who plan to have children, and children under 15 years old do not eat. For individual Largemouth Bass over 17 inches in length, adults should not eat more than one meal every two months. Women who are pregnant or beast feeding, women who plan to have children, and children under the age of 15 do not eat. White Bass For individual White Bass 13-15 inches long, adults should eat no more than one meal per month. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, women who plan to have children, and children under 15 years of age do not eat. For individual White Bass over 15 inches in length, adults should not consume more than one meal every two months. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, women who plan to have children, and children under the age of 15 do not eat. GROUNDWATER IMPACTS ON WATER QUALITY Although it is our view that the project contractors fulfilled their responsibilities regarding groundwater, we believe that the impact of groundwater contamination from surrounding sites requires additional study. SURFACE RUNOFF IMPACTS ON WATER QUALITY Although the contractors fulfilled the work program requirements for this aspect of the study, we believe that surface water runoff impacts from watershed land uses requires further investigation, as well. This part of the study should also be expanded in the near future to analyze contaminants from specific land uses/sites, and their impacts. Commentators from the public expressed frustration with the limited coverage of this aspect of both the Wolf and George Lake studies.

Addendum

Page 30 (Paragraph 4): The sentence beginning "The effluent is strictly noncontact...." should read "The effluent is mostly noncontact. . . ." During the Wolf Lake public meeting held on September 16, 1996, Mr. Don Roberts of USEPA pointed out that the lagoon from which the effluent discharge to Wolf Lake Channel occurs also receives process water. Table 6 (pages 33-35): New table replaces table 6 in the text. Table 29 (pages 94-95): Units of measurement are ¦Ìg/L. Appendix B: Station code RH-A06-A-1 (page 279) corresponds to the station designation RHA-1 in the text. Other station codes correspond similarly to station designa­ tions in the text.

Table 6. Public Lakes within a 50-Mile Radius of Wolf Lake

Lake Cook County, IL Axehead Lake Bakers Lake Beck Lake Belleau Lake Bullfrog Lake Bussee Woods Lake Horsetail Lake Ida Lake Maple Lake Midlothian Reservoir Pappose Lake Powderhorn Lake Sag Quarry-East Lake Saganashkee Slough Skokie Lagoons Lake TampierLake Turtlehead Lake Wampum Lake Wolf Lake

Area, acres

Maximum depth, feet

17.0 111.6 38.0 12.0 15.2 584.0 11.0 10.0 55.0 25.0 18.0 34.5 13.4 325.0 190.0 160.0 12.0 35.0 419.0

31.0 12.0 22.0 34.0 12.0 16.0 24.0 16.0 22.0. 14.0 10.0 19.0 17.0 9.0 9.0 16.0 15.0 14.0 21.0

21.0 19.1 40.0 10.0 16.2 68.0

Grundy County, IL Dresden Lake Heidecke Lake Kane County, IL Jericho Lake Mastodon Lake Pioneer Lake

DuPage County, IL Churchill Lagoon Herrick Lake Mallard Lake Mallard North Lake Pratts Waynewoods Lake Silver Lake

Kankakee County, IL Birds Park Quarry Lake County, IL Banks Lake Diamond Lake Fox Chain O' Lakes Gages Lake

Launching ramps

Lake uses*

3

F,P,R F,P,R,WLR F,P,R F,P,R F,P,R F,FC,P,R F,P,R F,P,R F,P,R F,FC,P,R F,P,R F,P,R F,P,R F.P.R F.P.R F,P,R F,P,R F,P,R F,P,R,WTF

6.0 10.0 20.0 15.0 21.0 30.0

8

F,P,R BR,C,F,P,R F.P.R F.P.R C,F,P,R C,F,P,R

1,275.0 1,955.0

16.0 60.0

3

40.0 22.3 6.5

30.0 12.0 13.0

F,P,R F,P F,R

7.0

40.0

BR,F,R

297.0 149.0 6,500.0

25.0 24.0 40.0

6 2 56

139.0

48.0

2

8

2

CO,F BR,CO,F,P, R,WTF

BR,F,P,R BR,F,P,R,S BR,C,F,JF, IS,P,R,S, WS.WTF BR,C,F,P,R,S

Table 6. Continued

Lake Grays Lake Lake Zurich Round Lake South Economy Gravel Pit Sterling Lake Turner Lake Will County, IL Braidwood Lake Lake County, IN Calmet Park Lake Cedar Lake Clay Pits Fisher Pond Francher Lake Grand Boulevard Lake HobartTwp. Lake (Rosser Park) Independent Lake Kennedy Park Oxbow Lake George (Hammond) Lake George (Hobart) Lemon Lake MacJoy Lake Marquette Park Lagoon Optimist Park Lake Oak Ridge Prairie Lake Robinson Lake Wolf Lake LaPotte County, IN Clear Lake Clear Lake Finger Lake Fish Lake (Lower) Fish Lake (Upper) Hog Lake Hudson Lake Lancaster Lake Lily Lake Lower Lake Mill Pond Orr Lake Pine Lake Round Lake Stone Lake Tamarack

Area, acres

Maximum depth, feet

Launching ramps

Lake uses*

79.0 228.0 215.0 18.5 73.9 34.0

19.0 32.0 35.0 36.0 29.0 10.0

2,640.0

80.0

7

CO,F,WTF

781.0

16.0

1

F,R

10.0 40.0 40.0

40.0 8.0 26.0

1

F,P,R,S F,R

78.0 270.0

4.0 14.0

2 2

F,P,R F,P,R F,P,R,S F,P,R F,P,R C,F,P,R

F,R F,R

25.6

F,P,R

804.0

18.0

1

BR,F,IF,IS, P,S,WS

17.0 106.0

33.0 12.0

1

F,R

134.0 139.0 59.0 432.0

16.0 24.0 52.0 42.0

1 1 1

C,F,R F,R, F,R

16.0

22.0

24.0

8.0

564.0

48.0

(access via Stone Lake)

C,F,IF,R

125.0 20.0

36.0 8.0

1 1

C,F,IF,R C,F,IF,P R,WTF

Table 6. Concluded

Lake Newton County, IN Black Oak Bayour Goose Pond Swamp J.C Murphy Lake

Area, acres

Maximum depth, feet

Launching ramps 1

Lake uses* F,IF,R,WTF F,IF,R,WTF BR,CFJF,P,R, S,WTF

20.0 1,515.0

8.0

1

89.0

67.0

1

F,R

65.0 62.0 26.0

27.0 55.0

1

F,R F,R

62.0 21.0

30.0 48.0

1,440.0 30.0

30.0 15.0

1

C,F,IF,P,R,S,WS F,IF,P,R,WTF

Cory Lake Riverside Lake Porter County, IN Chestnut Lakes Chub Lake Flint Lake Fisher Pond Long Lake Lomis Lake Mud Lake Pratt Lake Round Lake Silver Lake Spectacle Lake Wauhob Lake Starke County, IN Bass Lake Round Lake

Notes: Blank spaces indicate that information is not readily available. * BR = boat rental, C = camping, CO = cooling, F = fishing, FC = flood control, IF = ice fishing, IS = ice skating, P = picnicking, R = recreation, S = swimming, WLR = wildlife refuge, WTF = waterfowl hunting, and WS = water skiing.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page P A R T 1: D I A G N O S T I C S T U D Y OF W O L F L A K E

1

Executive Summary

1

Introduction.... L a k e Identification and Location Acknowledgments

5 5 5

Study Area 8 Location 8 Wolf L a k e......................................................................................................................................................... 8 Climatological Conditions 10 Geological and Soil Characteristics of the Drainage Basin .................................................10 Drainage Area 10 Geology, Soils, and Topography 11 Hydrologic Description of Wolf Lake13 Hydrologic System 13 Inflow and Outflow Conditions 16 Ground-Water Conditions around Wolf Lake ..........................................................17 Public Access to the L a k e Area 20 Illinois Side 20 Indiana Side 21 Size and Economic Structure of Potential User Population...............................................................24 Size .....24 Economic Characteristics 24 Historical L a k e Uses and Conditions 24 Illinois Side 24 Indiana Side 30 Point Source Discharges 30 Summary of Historical Conditions ................................................................. 30 Current U s e s 32 Population Segments Adversely Affected by Lake Degradation 32 Comparison to Other Lakes in the Region 32 Point Source Discharges 32 American Maize-Products Company 36 Lever Brothers Company.. 36 H a m m o n d Sanitary District 40 Land Uses and Nonpoint Pollutant Loadings 40 Baseline and Current Limnological Data Morphometric Data Bathymetric Survey Material and M e t h o d s Field Measurements Water Chemistry Chlorophyll and Phytoplankton Zooplankton Algae Macroinvertebrates Indicator Bacteria

.

44 44 44 44 44 47 47 47 54 54 54

Page Macrophytes Sediment Hydrologic Data In-Lake Water Quality Characteristics Physical Characteristics Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen Secchi Disc Transparency Turbidity Chemical Characteristics pH Alkalinity Conductivity Total Suspended Solids Volatile Suspended Solids Phosphorus Nitrogen Chemical Oxygen Demand Chlorophyll Metals Organics Biological Characteristics Indicator Bacteria Algae Zooplankton Macrophytes Benthic Macroinvertebrates Surface Inflow Water Quality Data Physical Characteristics . Turbidity Chemical Characteristics Total and Volatile Suspended Solids Conductivity and C O D pH and Alkalinity Nitrogen Total Phosphorus Metals Organics Trophic State L a k e U s e Support Analysis Definition Wolf L a k e U s e Support 186 Sediment Characteristics Sediment Quality Standards Historical Sediment D a t a Current Study Data Nutrients Metals Organic C o m p o u n d s Sediment Classification and Concern T C L P Results Lakebed Characteristics Lake Budgets

54 57 57 57 60 60 68 76 79 79 79 81 83 85 85 88 91 93 96 96 96 96 108 127 137 160 162 162 162 177 177 177 178 178 178 179 179 179 185 185 192 192 195 195 198 198 203 203 206 208 208

Page Hydrologic Budget Sediment and Nutrient Budgets Biological Resources and Ecological Relationships Lake Fauna Fish Flesh Analyses Terrestrial Vegetation and Animal Life Plant Communities Sand Forest Prairie Marsh Shrub Swamp Mammals Birds Reptiles and Amphibians PART 2: FEASIBILITY STUDY OF WOLF LAKE Introduction

208 224 226 226 228 229 229 231 231 231 231 231 232 232 235 235

Existing Lake Quality Problems 235 Shallow Water Depths 236 Excessive Macrophyte Growth 236 High Fecal Coliform Counts 237 Poor Sediment Quality in Wolf Lake Channel ...........................................................................237 Lake Aesthetics 238 Water Quality and Ecosystem Management Techniques 238 Shallow Lake Dredging 238 Macrophyte Control 241 Sediment Removal and Sediment Tilling 241 Sediment Exposure and Desiccation 243 Lake-Bottom Sealing 243 Shading 244 Chemical Controls 244 Harvesting 247 Biological Controls 248 Objectives of Wolf Lake Management Plan .......................................................................................248 Proposed Restoration Alternatives 249 Alternative I .................................................................................................................................249 Alternative II 249 Alternative III 249 Proposed Restoration Scheme 249 Cleanup Campaign 251 Lake Deepening and Macrophyte Control 251 Wolf Lake Channel .........................................................................................................251 Dredging 251 Thermo-Plasma Destruction 252 Pools 6 and 7 253 Pool 3 254

Page Macrophyte Control by Herbicides 254 2,4-D Treatment in Pools 6 and 7 254 Application of Sonar 255 Mechanical Harvesting 255 Mitigation of Bacterial Contamination ............................................................................256 Lake Ecosystem Management 256 Replanting of Desirable Native Aquatic Plants .......................................................256 Addition of Physical Structures for Fish Cover .......................................................256 Other Related Programs 257 Benefits Expected from Restoration Project 257 Phase II Lake Monitoring Schedule and Budget 257 Monitoring Program 257 Implementation Schedule 258 Budget 258 Evaluation of Environmental Impacts .................................................................................................260 References 262 Appendices A. Bathymetric Maps of Wolf Lake .......................................................................................268 B. Ambient Lake Monitoring Data for Wolf Lake ................................................................278 C. Summary of Water Quality Characteristics in Wolf Lake........................................292 D. Dissolved Oxygen and Temperature Observations in Wolf Lake ....................................301 E. Percent Dissolved Oxygen Saturation in Wolf Lake ...........................................................311 F. Salt Usage on the Indiana Toll Road 317 G. A Sampling of Historical Data for Wolf Lake from Old IDEM Files.......................322 H. An Article Regarding Fishing in Wolf Lake...........................................................435 I. Fisheries Information 437

LIST OF FIGURES Figure number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Title

Page

10a 10b 10c

Location of study area.................................................................................................................9 Drainage basin of Wolf Lake and major drainage features.....................................................12 Hydrologic components of the Wolf Lake system .........................................................15 Ground-water measurement and flow conditions for Wolf Lake......................................... 18 Water-level hydrographs for Wolf Lake and wells on the west side of the lake 19 Water-level hydrographs for Wolf Lake and wells on the east side of the lake 19 Public access points and parking areas on Wolf Lake .....................................................23 Monitoring stations on Wolf Lake ................................................................................31 Isothermal and iso-dissolved oxygen plots for the deep stations at Wolf Lake: a) RHA-1, b) RHA-2, c) RHA-3, d) RHA-4, e) RHA-5, and f) RHA-6 62 Temperature and dissolved oxygen profiles for RHA-6 at Wolf Lake ..............................65 Temperature and dissolved oxygen profiles for RHA-7 at Wolf Lake .............................66 Temperature and dissolved oxygen profiles for RHA-9 at Wolf Lake ............................67

11a 11b 11c

Historical observations of surface water characteristics in RHA-2, Wolf Lake ...............69 Temporal variations of surface water characteristics at RHA-2, Wolf Lake..................70 Temporal variations of near-bottom water characteristics at RHA-2, Wolf Lake...........71

12 13 14 15a 15b 15c 15d 16a 16b 16c 16d 16e 16f 16g 16h 16i 17 18 19

Temporal variations in surface water characteristics at RHA-6, Wolf Lake........................72 Temporal variations in surface water characteristics at RH A-8, Wolf Lake.......................73 Temporal variations in surface water characteristics at RHA-9, Wolf Lake........................74 Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 1, Wolf Lake on July 8, 1974...........................................139 Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 2, Wolf Lake on July 8, 1974...........................................140 Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 3, Wolf Lake on July 8, 1974 ............................................141 Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 4, Wolf Lake on July 8, 1974 ........................................142 Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 1, Wolf Lake on July 22, 1993.........................................147 Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 2, Wolf Lake on July 22, 1993 ........................................148 Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 3, Wolf Lake on July 22, 1993.........................................149 Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 4, Wolf Lake on July 22, 1993.........................................150 Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 5, Wolf Lake on July 23, 1993.........................................151 Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 6, Wolf Lake on July 23, 1993.........................................152 Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 7, Wolf Lake on July 23, 1993.........................................153 Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 8, Wolf Lake on July 22, 1993 ..........................................154 Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 9, Wolf Lake on July 22, 1993.........................................155 Views taken during the macrophytes survey 156 Particle size distribution plots for Wolf Lake pools..............................................................209 Water-level variation and differentials in the Wolf Lake system..........................................213

LIST OF T A B L E S

Table number 1 2 3 4a 4b 5 6 7 8 9 10a 10b 10c 11 12 13 14 15 16 17a 17b 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Title

Page

General Information Pertaining to W o l f L a k e 6 Parking and Public Access Points in W o l f L a k e ...........................................................22 Demographic and Economic D a t a for T o w n s Surrounding W o l f Lake 25 Population and E c o n o m i c Data for Areas near W o l f Lake...........................................................26 General Employment Categories for Areas near Wolf L a k e........................................................27 Historical Attendance, William P o w e r s Conservation Area 29 Public Lakes within a 50-Mile Radius of W o l f L a k e......................................................................33 Effluent Quality of American Maize-Products Company Discharges to W o l f L a k e Channel..............................................................................................................................37 Effluent Quality of Lever Brothers Company Dischargs to W o l f L a k e Channel 38 H a m m o n d Sanitary District Outfalls to Wolf L a k e..........................................................................41 Effluent Quality of R o b y Pumping Station - H a m m o n d Sanitary District into Wolf L a k e Channel..........................................................................................................................42 Effluent Quality of Forsythe Pumping Station - Hammond Sanitary District into Wolf L a k e Channel..........................................................................................................................42 Effluent Quality of Sheffield Pumping Station - Hammond Sanitary District into P o o l 8 43 W o l f L a k e Areal and Volumetric Parameters...................................................................................45 Summary of W o l f L a k e Hydrographic Survey Results..................................................................46 Protocol for Field D a t a Collections in Wolf L a k e 48 Analytical Procedures 50 Sizes and Shapes of Zooplankton Used in Biovolume Determination for W o l f L a k e............................................................................................................................................53 Sizes and Shapes of Algae Used in Biovolume Determination for W o l f L a k e 55 Staff G a g e Readings Collected during the W o l f L a k e Diagnostic Study 58 Discharge Measurements Collected during the Wolf Lake Diagnostic Study 59 Summary of Secchi Disc Transparency in Wolf Lake, May - September 1983 75 Summary of Historical Secchi Disc Transparency Data in W o l f L a k e at R H A - l , R H A - 2 , and R H A - 3 75 Summary of Secchi Disc Transparency in W o l f Lake, 1992-1993..............................................75 Summary of Historical Water Quality Characteristics in W o l f L a k e (Illinois) 77 Summary of Turbidity in Wolf Lake, 1992-1993............................................................................78 Summary of pH and Total Alkalinity in W o l f Lake, October 1992 September 1993 80 Summary of Conductivity in Wolf Lake, October 1992 - September 1993..............................82 Summary of Suspended Solids in Wolf Lake, O c t o b e r 1992 - September 1993.......................84 Summary of Total and Dissolved Phosphorus in W o l f Lake, October 1992 September 1993 87 Summary of Ammonia Nitrogen and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen in Wolf L a k e October 1992 - September 1993 90 Summary of Chemical Oxygen Demand in W o l f Lake, October 1992 September 1993 92 Chlorophyll Concentrations in Wolf Lake, October 1992 - September 1993 94 Metal (Total) Concentrations in Wolf L a k e Waters, August 4, 1993.......................................97 Organic Concentrations in Wolf Lake, August 4, 1993.................................................................98 Indicator Bacterial Densities in Wolf L a k e.....................................................................................100

Table number 33 34 35a. 35b. 35c. 35d. 35e. 35f. 35g. 35h. 35i. 36a. 36b. 36c. 36d. 36e. 36f. 36g. 36h. 36i. 37 38 39 40 41a 41b 41c 41d 41e 41f 41g 41h 41i 41j 41k 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

Title

Page

Indicator Bacterial Densities in Wolf L a k e Tributaries and Storm Sewer Discharges 102 L o n g - T e r m Fecal Coliform Densities (per 100 mL) at Wolf L a k e Park Swimming Beach 105 Algal Types and Densities, Biovolume, and Chlorophyll in Wolf L a k e at R H A - 1 , 1993 . 1 0 9 Algal Types and Densities, Biovolume, and Chlorophyll in Wolf L a k e at R H A - 2 , 1993 ..111 Algal Types and Densities, Biovolume, and Chlorophyll in Wolf L a k e at R H A - 3 , 1993 . 1 1 3 Algal Types and Densities, Biovolume, and Chlorophyll in Wolf L a k e at R H A - 4 , 1993 . . 1 1 5 Algal Types and Densities, Biovolume, and Chlorophyll in Wolf L a k e at R H A - 5 , 1993 . 1 1 7 Algal Types and Densities, Biovolume, and Chlorophyll in Wolf L a k e at R H A - 6 , 1993 .. 119 Algal Types and Densities, Biovolume, and Chlorophyll in Wolf L a k e at R H A - 7 , 1993 .. 121 Algal Types and Densities, Biovolume, and Chlorophyll in Wolf L a k e at R H A - 8 , 1993 .. 123 Algal Types and Densities, Biovolume, and Chlorophyll in Wolf Lake at R H A - 9 , 1993 . 1 2 5 Zooplankton Densities in Wolf Lake at R H A - 1 , 1993.......................................................................128 Zooplankton Densities in Wolf Lake at R H A - 2 , 1993 129 Zooplankton Densities in Wolf Lake at R H A - 3 , 1993........................................................................130 Zooplankton Densities in Wolf Lake at R H A - 4 , 1993........................................................................131 Zooplankton Densities in Wolf Lake at R H A - 5 , 1993 132 Zooplankton Densities in Wolf Lake at R H A - 6 , 1993........................................................................133 Zooplankton Densities in Wolf Lake at R H A - 7 , 1993........................................................................134 Zooplankton Densities in Wolf Lake at R H A - 8 , 1993........................................................................135 Zooplankton Densities in Wolf Lake at R H A - 9 , 1993........................................................................136 C o m m o n Species of Aquatic Plants in Pool 3 in Wolf Lake, June 18-21, 1994 138 Percent Composition of Macrophytes Collected in W o l f L a k e (Illinois and Indiana) 143 Observations in W o l f L a k e during Macrophytes Survey, July 22-23,1993...................................158 Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Wolf Lake ...........................................................................161 Rainwater Quality at Grayco Corporation, Raingage G 1 9 , near Wolf L a k e 163 Summary of W a t e r Quality Characteristics at Inflow Point RH A 02, Wolf Lake 164 Summary of W a t e r Quality Characteristics at Inflow Point R H A 0 3 , Wolf Lake 165 Summary of W a t e r Quality Characteristics at Inflow Point R H A 04, Wolf L a k e 167 Summary of W a t e r Quality Characteristics at Inflow Point R H A 0 5 , Wolf Lake 168 Summary of W a t e r Quality Characteristics at Inflow Points R H A 06 and R H A 07, Wolf L a k e.....................................................................................................................................169 Summary of W a t e r Quality Characteristics at Inflow Point R H A 7 1 , Wolf Lake 170 Summary of W a t e r Quality Characteristics at Inflow Point R H A 72, Wolf Lake 171 Summary of W a t e r Quality Characteristics at Inflow Points R H A 08 and R H A 0 9 , Wolf L a k e.....................................................................................................................................172 Summary of W a t e r Quality Characteristics at Inflow Point R H A 10 (1993), W o l f L a k e........................................................................................................................................................173 Summary of W a t e r Quality Characteristics at Inflow Points R H A 11, R H A 13, and R H A 14 (1993), Wolf Lake...............................................................................................................174 Metal Concentrations in Inflow Waters, Wolf L a k e (1993).............................................................175 Organic Concentrations in Inflow Waters, Wolf L a k e (1993) 176 Trophic State Index and Trophic State of Individual Pools of Wolf L a k e 181 Quantitative Definition of Lake Trophic State 184 Assessment of U s e Support in Wolf Lake...............................................................................................187 Classification of Illinois Lake Sediments 193 M a x i m u m Background Concentrations of Pollutants in Indiana Stream and L a k e Sediments 193 Indiana Criteria for Grouping Sediments into Levels of Concern 194

Table number 50a 50b 51 52 53 54

Title

Page

Concentration of Metals in Wolf Lake Sediments (1977, 1979, and 1989) 196 Sediment Background Concentration Distributions of Metals in Indiana 197 Sediment Samples Collected in Wolf Lake...............................................................199 Sediment Quality Characteristics of Wolf Lake (September 29-30, 1993) 200 Organic Concentrations in Wolf Lake Sediments (September 29-30, 1993) 204 Results of Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure for Wolf Lake Sediments, November 9, 1993 207 55 Monthly Summary of NPDES Discharge to Wolf Lake in acre-feet, October 1992 - September 1993 212 56 Summary of the Hydrologic Budget for Wolf Lake, October 1992 September 1993 215 57 Hydrologic Analysis for the Wolf Lake System, October 1992 September 1993 216 58 Summary of the Hydrologic Analysis for Pools 1 - 7 of the Wolf Lake System, October 1992 - September 1993 218 59a Summary of the Hydrologic Analysis for Pool 1 of the Wolf Lake System, October 1992 - September 1993 219 59b Summary of the Hydrologic Analysis for Pools 8 and 9 of the Wolf Lake System, October 1992 - September 1993 220 59c Summary of the Hydrologic Analysis for Pools 6 and 7 of the Wolf Lake System, October 1992 - September 1993 221 59d Summary of the Hydrologic Analysis for Pools 4 and 5 of the Wolf Lake System, October 1992 - September 1993 222 59e Summary of the Hydrologic Analysis for Pools 2 and 3 of the Wolf Lake System, October 1992 - September 1993 223 60 Annual Sediment and Nutrient Loading to Wolf Lake...............................................225 61 Results of Fish Contaminant Analyses from Wolf Lake ......................................................230 62 Birds Sighted in Wolf Lake Area ...............................................................................................233 63 Costs of Dredging in Illinois ...................................................................................................242 64 Recommended Herbicide Dosages for Controlling Water Milfoil 246 65 Proposed Alternatives for Achieving Wolf Lake Management Plan Objectives 250 66 Proposed Implementation Schedule for Wolf Lake Restoration..................................259

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Wolf Lake, located in Cook County, IL, and Lake County, IN, covers 804 acres and has a maximum depth of 18 feet. Although Wolf Lake is a natural lake, many areas were dredged in past years. The lake is separated into eight different sections by dikes constructed during sandand-gravel dredging for the tollway that crosses the lake. The Illinois State Water Survey (ISWS) undertook a detailed and systematic diagnosticfeasibility study of Wolf Lake commencing in October 1992. The major objective of the project was to develop an integrated protection/management plan for Wolf Lake and its watershed. The diagnostic study was designed to delineate the existing lake conditions, to examine the causes of degradation, if any, and to identify and quantify the sources of plant nutrients and any other pollutants flowing into the lake. On the basis of the findings of the diagnostic study, water quality goals were established for the lake. Alternative management techniques were then evaluated in relation to the established goals. The Illinois portion of the diagnostic-feasibility study of Wolf Lake was funded through the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), with nonfederal cost-sharing by the IEPA under a Federal Clean Lakes Program Phase I Grant authorized by Section 314 of the Clean Water Act and Clean Lakes Program regulations (40 CFR 35 Subpart H). The Indiana portion of the study was funded through the Indiana Department of Environmental Management by the USEPA, with nonfederal cost-sharing by the Hammond Park District, Hammond, IN, under a Federal Clean Lakes Program Phase I Grant authorized by Section 314 of the Clean Water Act and Clean Lakes Program regulations (40 CFR 35 Subpart H). Wolf Lake currently receives industrial cooling water discharges and a few urban stormwater discharges from Hammond on the Indiana side. Because the lake is located within a highly urbanized area, it is used extensively for water-based recreation. There is a swimming beach on the eastern shores of the lake. The lake and surrounding parks are used for picnicking, boating, fishing, sailboating, waterfowl observation, and for such winter sports as ice skating and ice fishing. Swimming and water skiing are permitted only on the Indiana side, and waterfowl hunting is permitted only on the Illinois side. The lake supports a variety of sport fisheries such as largemouth bass, northern pike, walleye, bluegill, redear sunfish, crappie, bullhead, carp, and yellow perch. The Wolf Lake direct drainage area includes 925 acres of mostly pervious surfaces draining directly into the lake. Runoff from the impervious surfaces (paved areas and rooftops) on the east side of the lake collects in a constructed storm drain system that discharges into Wolf Lake at the Forsythe Park, Sheffield Park, and the Roby Pump Stations of the Hammond Sanitary District. The discharges from these pump stations are regulated by permit under the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). The pervious surfaces (surfaces that allow water infiltration) in the watershed react slowly to precipitation events. These areas have little or no associated surface runoff. Discharges into the Wolf Lake system also include noncontact process, evaporator, or site stormwater discharges from the Amaizo and Lever Brothers plants along the Wolf Lake channel. These discharges are also permitted under the NPDES program.

1

The hydrologic system at Wolf Lake is composed of eight interconnected lake pools with smaller peripheral pools and wetland areas, interconnecting channels between pools, surface drainage from the three stormwater pump stations carrying runoff from impervious surfaces in adjacent neighborhoods and major streets, the Powderhorn Lake area, and undeveloped land around the lake, NPDES discharges from the American Maize processing plant, NPDES discharges from the Lever Brothers plant, and the regional ground-water system. In general, inflows to the lake include direct precipitation, watershed runoff, ground-water inflow, and pumped input. Outflows include surface evaporation, discharge at the lake outlet, and ground-water outflow. Analyses made for this study indicate that for 1992-1993 study period: • 19 percent of the inflow volume to the lake originated from direct precipitation onto the lake surface, • 16 per cent originated from the Hammond Sanitary District's stormwater pump stations, • 30 percent originated from the Lever NPDES discharge, • 31 percent originated from the Amaizo NPDES discharges, • 1 percent originated from the area directly draining into the lake, and • 4 percent originated from ground-water inflow. The following is a listing of the distribution of outflow and storage factors: • 66 percent of the water that flowed into the lake system flowed out through Indian Creek, • 13 percent of the volume was lost to evaporation, • 2 percent of the volume remained in storage at the end of the accounting period, and • 19 percent of the estimated outflow volume could not be explained. Overall, this analysis indicates that: • The NPDES permitted discharges are essential to maintaining flows through the lake system, • In general, the continuous daily discharges from the Lever and Amaizo plants maintain a flow of 13 to 17 cubic feet per second through the lake, • The questionable accuracy of the Amaizo Lake Michigan excess water discharge is significant in achieving a hydrologic balance on paper but is not a water quality concern as long as the water is unadulterated Lake Michigan water, and • Leakage of the causeways that compartmentalize the lake are also a likely factor in the sometimes poorly balanced hydrologic analysis. A bathymetric survey of Wolf Lake was conducted as part of the diagnostic study. The data were collected using a range-range methodology, in which a microwave transponder was set up in the boat to monitor distances to two or three shore-based remote transponders. A total of 148 transects were run to collect the depth and horizontal position data. Bathymetric contour maps for each of the Wolf Lake pools were developed. Average depth in the pools varies from the shallowest in Pool 3 of 3.3 feet to the deepest in Pool 5. In Pool 3, less than 20 percent of the pool has depths greater than 4 feet. In comparison, over 70 percent of the area in Pool 8 has a depth of at least 4 feet. There were no well-defined hypolimnia during the peak summer period from June-August in deep portions of the lake. The lake system exhibited isothermal conditions except during the summer period when slight temperature gradients existed. The surface and near-surface dissolved oxygen (DO) values observed in the lake met the general use standards of not less than 5.0 mg/L at any time throughout the lake, except in the Wolf Lake Channel, where DO values were less than 5.0 mg/L on four of the 17 occasions monitored.

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Significant differences in Secchi disc readings were observed among the eight pools in the lake system. The mean values for all the pools in Illinois were higher than 48 inches, generally indicating no lake use impairment. The average value for the largest pool in Indiana was 40 inches. This pool is heavily used for whole body contact recreation. With the exception of pH, the chemical quality characteristics for which standards are available in Illinois and Indiana were well within the stipulated limits. The upper limit of acceptable pH of 9.0 was exceeded several times in all the pools except in two pools in Illinois. Elevated pH values were attributable to photosynthesis during algal activity. All the pH values observed were above the minimum acceptable value of 6.5 Mean total phosphorus (TP) concentrations ranged from 0.005 mg/L to 0.038 mg/L in the pools. TP levels in the Illinois side of the lake were significantly lower than those in the Indiana side. The mean dissolved phosphorus concentrations were between 0.001 mg/L and 0.004 mg/L. From the phosphorus concentration values for Wolf Lake, it can be concluded that the lake will not be limited by phosphorus in sustaining biological productivity. The lake is likely to remain eutrophic. Even the highest observed value for ammonia-N (NH3-N) was much lower than the 1.5 mg/L considered critical for fish in terms of ammonia toxicity. Maximum NH3-N concentrations for most stations were less than 4.0 mg/L. For most sampling stations, the concentrations of nitrate/nitrite nitrogen ranged from 0.0 to 0.4 mg/L with a mean of 0.1 mg/L. Analyses for metals and organics in water samples indicated that concentrations of each organic constituent examined were below the laboratory detectable level and none of the metals exceeded the general use standards. Bacterial quality in Wolf Lake was generally found to be excellent except in Wolf Lake Channel. The latter is impacted by two stormwater pumpages discharging into this channel. Algal growths in Wolf Lake do not seem to be a problem either in terms of the densities or the types of algae found in the lake. Among the 40 sites examined for macrophyte biomass, the values ranged from 8.0 g/m2 to 2 698.6 g/m . Forty percent of the macrophyte survey sites had biomass greater than 150 g/m2, which could be classified as heavy growth. Thirty percent of the sites indicated medium-density growth and the rest had low-density growth. The dominant aquatic vegetation in the lake system was found to be Eurasian water milfoil, a non-native species. The surficial and core sediment samples collected from the different pools of the lake system had characteristics not warranting a hazardous classification. This was true in the case of sediment samples collected from the Wolf Lake Channel with respect to the metals concentrations examined. Evaluation of the sediment characteristics using the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure indicated that metals concentrations in the leachate were all within the regulatory limits. However, the PCB concentrations in the Wolf Lake Channel sediments were at levels warranting a classification of "high concern." From the foregoing discussion, it is apparent that the major problems in the lake that need to be addressed are shallow water depths in portions of the lake leading to excessive macrophyte growth, profusion of unbalanced aquatic vegetation, high fecal coliform counts and poor sediment quality in Wolf Lake Channel, and poor lake aesthetics in some parts of the lake area. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that the major goals and objectives of a lake management plan should include: 3

• • • • •

Selective deepening of the lake for macrophyte control. Eradicating the invasive exotic plant, Eurasian water milfoil (Myriophyltum spicatum), and preventing its reestablishment by promoting diversity of native macrophytes. Reducing bacterial contamination of Wolf Lake Channel and improving water quality at the swimming beach. Managing discharges from storm sewer pumping stations in the Hammond Sanitary District. Enhancing aesthetic and recreational opportunities in and around the lake by cleaning up debris and improving fish management. To accomplish these objectives, the following restoration alternatives are proposed:

Alternative I Dredging and off-site disposal of sediments from the Wolf Lake Channel are required to improve water and sediment quality, aesthetic conditions, and other uses. Improving the water quality of stormwater discharges from the city of Hammond is essential to restore Wolf Lake Channel and to reduce bacterial contamination. The estimated cost for dredging and disposal of sediments and enhancing fishing opportunities in Wolf Lake Channel is $1,269,200. Alternative II In addition to the actions proposed under Alternative I, this alternative includes dredging of Pools 6 and 7 in Indiana to increase lake volume and to control the non-native aquatic vegetation dominant in these pools. Use of herbicides or harvesting of macrophytes to control Eurasian water milfoil may also be an option. The estimated costs for this alternative are $2,969,200 or $1,366,400, respectively, depending on whether Pools 6 and 7 are dredged or whether herbicides or harvesting are used in them to control macrophytes. Alternative III Alternative III includes all the approaches of Alternative II and some selective dredging of Pool 3. The additional dredging is primarily to improve boating opportunities. The estimated costs for this alternative are $4,877,200 or $3,274,400, respectively, depending on whether Pools 6 and 7 are dredged or whether herbicides are used in them to control macrophytes.

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Diagnostic-Feasibility Study of Wolf Lake, Cook County, Illinois, and Lake County, Indiana PART 1 DIAGNOSTIC STUDY OF WOLF LAKE

INTRODUCTION The Offices of Water Quality Management and Hydraulics & River Mechanics of the Illinois State Water Survey (ISWS) undertook a detailed and systematic diagnostic-feasibility study of Wolf Lake commencing in October 1992. The major objective of the project was to develop an integrated protection/management plan for Wolf Lake and its watershed. The diagnostic study was designed to delineate the existing lake conditions, to examine the causes of degradation, if any, and to identify and quantify the sources of plant nutrients and any other pollutants flowing into the lake. On the basis of the findings of the diagnostic study, water quality goals were established for the lake. Alternative management techniques were then evaluated in relation to the established goals. The Illinois portion of the diagnostic-feasibility study of Wolf Lake was funded through the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), with nonfederal cost-sharing by the IEPA, under a Federal Clean Lakes Program Phase I Grant authorized by Section 314 of the Clean Water Act and Clean Lakes Program regulations (40 CFR 35 Subpart H). The Indiana portion of the study was funded through the Indiana Department of Environmental Management by the USEPA, with nonfederal cost-sharing by the Hammond Park District, Hammond, IN, under a Federal Clean Lakes Program Phase I Grant authorized by Section 314 of the Clean Water Act and Clean Lakes Program regulations (40 CFR 35 Subpart H). Lake Identification and Location Located in Cook County, IL, and Lake County, IN, Wolf Lake covers 804 acres and has a maximum depth of 18 feet. Although Wolf Lake is a natural lake, many areas were dredged in past years. The lake is separated into eight different sections by dikes constructed during sand and gravel dredging for the tollway that crosses the lake. There are numerous drop-offs. Lake identification and location data for Wolf Lake are summarized in table 1. Outdoor recreational activities at this publicly owned lake and the surrounding parks are managed in Illinois by the Illinois Department of Natural Resources and in Indiana by the Hammond Park District. Acknowledgments This investigation was jointly sponsored and funded by the Hammond Park District, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, under 5

Table 1. General Information Pertaining to Wolf Lake

Lake name: STORET lake code: Stale: County: Nearest municipalities: Latitude

Longitude

USEPA region: USEPA major basin name and code: USEPA minor basin name and code: Major tributary: Receiving water body:

Outflowing stream: Water quality standards:

Wolf Lake RH-A06-A Illinois/Indiana Cook/Lake Chicago, Burnham, and Calumet City, IL; Hammond and Whiting, IN 41° 40'18" (Pool 1, RHA-1) 41° 39' 59" (Pool 2, RHA-2) 41° 39' 41" (Pool 3, RHA-3) 41° 39'56" (Pool 4, KHA-4) 41° 39' 28" (Pool 5, RHA-5) 41° 39'57" (Pool 6, RHA-6) 41° 40'25" (Pool 7, RHA-7) 41° 40' 11" (Pool 8, RHA-8) 41° 41' 14" (Wolf Lake Channel, RHA-9) 87° 31'50" (Pool 1, RHA-1) 87° 32'01" (Pool 2, RHA-2) 87° 32' 11" (Pool 3, RHA-3) 87° 31' 39" (Pool 4, RHA-4) 87° 31'34" (Pool 5, RHA-5) 87° 31' 16" (Pool 6, RHA-6) 87° 31' 22" (Pool 7, RHA-7) 87° 30' 55" (Pool 8, RHA-8) 87° 30'52" (Pool 9, RHA-9) V Upper Mississippi River, 07 Chicago-Calumet-Des Plaines River, 13 Wolf Lake Channel Outfalls from Lever Brothers, American Maize-Products, Hammond Sanitary District storm sewer discharges Indian Creek General standards promulgated by both the Illinois and Indiana Pollution Control Boards and applicable to water designated for aquatic life and whole body contact recreation Illinois: Title 35, Subtitle C, Chapter I, Part 302, Subpart B Indiana: Regulation SPC 10R, Water Quality Standards for Wolf Lake, Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board

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Section 314 Clean Lakes Program of the Clean Water Act. Tom Davenport and Don Roberts, USEPA Region V in Chicago, were responsible for federal administration of the project. The Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) and the IEPA were responsible for fiscal and technical oversight of the project. This final report represents the cooperative efforts of many individuals representing local, state, and federal organizations. The IDEM Nonpoint Source Section (Office of Water Management), under the direction of Sharon Jarzen was responsible for Indiana state administration and coordination of this investigation. Carol Newhouse provided historical data from old IDEM files for Wolf Lake and made in-depth review of the report. Matt Dye (Indianapolis) and Joe Thomas (Remedial Action Plan Coordinator, Gary, IN) were the project officers. The IEPA Lake and Watershed Unit (Planning Section, Division of Water Pollution Control), under the direction of Gregg Good, was responsible for overall state administration and coordination of this project. Jeff Mitzelfelt and Steve Kolsto conducted various data entry, management, and interpretation activities necessary to insure the integrity of the monitoring program results. Mr. Mitzelfelt also provided information about publicly owned lakes in Illinois within a 50-mile radius of Wolf Lake. All of the laboratory analytical work was done by IEPA laboratories in Champaign, Chicago, and Springfield, IL. John Beckman, initially affiliated with Calumet College, provided historical information for the Indiana side of the project site and subsequently was instrumental in identifying sources of information pertinent to the project site that were needed for the report preparation. His assistance and continued interest in the successful completion of the project are appreciated. Barbara Waxman, Northwestern Indiana Regional Planning Commission, provided information on industrial land use, demographic details relevant to the project, and data about publicly owned lakes in Indiana within a 50-mile radius of the project site. Her assistance is gratefully acknowledged. Franklin Premuda of Hammond Health Department provided bacterial data for the beach area. Samuel Wolfe, Road Operations Engineer, Indiana Department of Transportation, provided information on salt used on the Indiana Toll Road for snow and ice removal in the Wolf Lake area. Joy Bower, Naturalist, Lake County Parks and Recreation Department, provided excerpts from the TAMS Consultants, Inc. report on the Illinois-Indiana Regional Airport, dealing specifically with the flora and fauna in the area surrounding Wolf Lake. Also, Joseph Ferencak and Mike McCulley, Illinois Department of Natural Resources provided historical information about fisheries and park visitors for Wolf Lake in Illinois; while Bob Robertson, Indiana Department of Natural Resources, provided historical information about Indiana Wolf Lake fisheries. Peter Berrini, Cochran & Wilken, Inc. provided cost information and other details about recent dredging projects. All their valuable input to this project is gratefully acknowledged. The authors would like to thank Robert Kay, Richard Duwelius, and Lee Watson of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for their professional opinions, assistance, and cooperation in permitting the ISWS to measure USGS wells and for installing the additional well on the north side of Wolf Lake. Several ISWS personnel contributed to the successful completion of the project. Nancy Johnson and Tim Nathan assisted with the field sampling and surveying. Long Duong picked the macroinvertebrates from benthic samples. Tom Hill identified and enumerated them and evaluated the data. Rick Twait identified the macrophyte samples and determined the biomass. Davis 7

Beuscher identified and enumerated the algae. Yi Han analyzed the physical characteristics of the lakebed sediments. Curt: Benson helped with the monthly ground-water level measurements. Kingsley Allen supervised mapping and spatial analysis on the Geographic Information System. Linda Hascall and»Dave Cox prepared illustrations. Linda Dexter, Lacie Jeffers, and Kathleen Brown prepared thedrafteand report, and Sarah Hibbeler edited the report. All their efforts and assistance are gratefullyiaeknowledged and appreciated. Last but not the least, the authors are grateful to all the reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions; which made this document significantly better than its initial draft. STUDY AREA Location The study area-is located in Section 29 Southeast Township 37 North, Range 15 East of the Principal Meridian, Cook County, IL, and in Sections 7 and 8, Township 37 North, Range 9 West of the 2nd Principal Meridian, Lake County, IN. It is bounded by Avenue O (Chicago) on the west, Calumet Avenue (Hammond) on the east, and lies between 112th and 134th Streets (figure 1). The area is also bounded by residential areas (the Hegewisch neighborhood in Chicago, IL, on the south and southwest; Hammond, IN, on the northeast), industrial developments (on the north and southeast in Indiana), and parks (Eggers Woods Forest Preserve and William W. Powers Conservation Area, EL, on the north and west; Wolf Lake Park and Forsythe Park in the northeast). Wolf Lake Wolf Lake lies both within the William W. Powers Conservation Area in the southeast corner of Cook County, EL, and in the northwest corner of Lake County, IN. It is situated at the far southeast edge-of Chicago, IL, and at the northwest edge of Hammond, IN. The IllinoisIndiana state line very nearly bisects the lake system. A remnant of the original Lake Michigan Bay, Wolf Lake is a natural lake although many areas were dredged in the past. The lake consists of eight distinct water bodies (pools) separated by dikes, and there are limited interconnections among the pools and Wolf Lake Channel. (Hydrologically, Wolf Lake Channel is included in Pool 8; however, it is designated as Pool 9 for the purpose of this study.) The total surface area of the lake is 804 acres: 419 acres in Illinois (Pools 1-5 and very small portions of Pools 6 and 7) and 385 acres in Indiana (Pools 6 - 9). The maximum depth in Illinois pools is 18 feet (Pool 5), and in Indiana pools it is 17 feet (Pool 8). Although Wolf Lake uses the same name on both sides of the border, the Illinois side is bounded by the William W. Powers Conservation Area (580 total acres of which 419 are water), and the lake is sometimes referred to by this name. The Indiana side of the lake (Pools 6 - 9 ) consists of two large basins, one bounded by State Line Road on the west and the Indiana EastWest Toll Road on the east (Pools 6 and 7), and it is sometimes referred to as the Illinois basin, even though the major portion is within the state of Indiana. The other basin (Pool 8) is referred to as the Indiana basin: The Illinois portion of the lake is owned by the state and managed by the Illinois Department of Natural Resources. The remaining portion of the lake is owned by Indiana and managed by the Hammond Park District. There are significant wetland areas between Pool 8 and Pool 9 (Wolf Lake Channel) and around the south and north ends of the lake basin. These areas are covered with 0.5 to 3 feet of water. The dominant macrophytes are cattails, yellow and white pond lilies, and various aquatic weeds (IDEM, 1986). These wetland areas provide an important habitat for spawning and the protection of fry, especially in shallow areas. 8

Figure 1. Location of study area

9

Wolf Lake currently receives industrial cooling water discharges (Wolf Lake Channel) and a few urban stormwater discharges from Hammond on the Indiana side. Because the lake is located within a highly urbanized area, it is used extensively for water-based recreation. There is a swimming beach on the eastern shores of Pool 8. The lake and surrounding parks are used for picnicking, boating, fishing, sailboating, waterfowl observation, and for such winter sports as ice skating and ice fishing. Swimming and water skiing are permitted only on the Indiana side, and waterfowl hunting is permitted only on the Illinois side. The lake supports a variety of sport fisheries such as largemouth bass, northern pike, walleye, bluegill, redear sunfish, crappie, bullhead, carp, and yellow perch (IDOC, 1977). In the past, William Powers personnel have organized summer "Free Fishing Days" activities for children, stocking about 500 pounds of catchable-size channel catfish in the 0.22-acre pond adjacent to the lake to promote fishing. As indicated earlier, no swimming or water skiing is allowed in Illinois and there is a 10horsepower restriction for outboard motors. No boat launching fee is levied in Illinois. In Indiana, a maximum 75-horsepower outboard motor is allowed, and boats powered by motors are permitted to operate only between 10:00 a.m. and midnight. All power boats and sailboats on Wolf Lake in Indiana must purchase and display a daily or yearly launching permit. Climatological Conditions The Chicago metropolitan area has a temperate continental climate. Warm season (March to November) climate conditions are dominated by maritime tropical air from the Gulf of Mexico. Winters can be severe and represent a distinct cold season with frequent frost and snowfall. The period from November through March is dominated by Pacific air. However, four to six times each winter, cold, dry air from the Canadian Arctic moves south, taking temperatures below 0 degrees Fahrenheit (°F). The climate of the Chicago metropolitan area is considerably influenced by urbanization and Lake Michigan. Within a few miles of Lake Michigan, the climate is modified by lake breezes, and temperatures are warmer in winter and cooler in summer by 2 to 5°F. Summer precipitation averages approximately 4 inches per month, mostly in the form of showers and thunderstorms. Summer winds are generally from the southwest. Snowfalls of 6 inches or more occur every year on the average, and snowcover often persists for several weeks. Long-term records are available from a climatological station at the University of Chicago, 12 miles northwest of the project area. These records indicate that temperatures range from -24°F to 104°F with an average annual temperature of 49.1°F. The average temperature for January, the coldest month of the year, is 31.5°F, while the average temperature for July, the warmest month of the year, is 84.2°F. Average annual precipitation is 37.33 inches, and average annual snowfall is 26.95 inches. Geological and Soil Characteristics of the Drainage Basin Drainage Area Definition of the Wolf Lake drainage area is a tenuous process at best. A true surface water divide cannot be accurately defined when surface gradients are extremely low. The low relief in the area also allows the direction of stormwater flow to change with different storm conditions. Previous studies (Ralph E. Price to John N. Simpson, Indiana Department of Natural Resources Departmental Memorandum, February 1, 1980) have declared the natural drainage basin for Wolf Lake to be undefinable.

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Figure 2 shows the approximate drainage areas for Wolf Lake, including areas of open drainage to the lake and likely source areas for constructed storm drains. The drainage area of the lake as shown is 2,378 acres. Drainage from these impervious surfaces shows very little delay in reacting to heavy rainfall events. Pumping from the stations is initiated soon after the start of rainfall events, and runoff is routed quickly through the storm drains. Runoff ends soon after the cessation of rainfall. The pervious surfaces (surfaces that allow water infiltration) in the watershed react slowly to precipitation events. These areas have little or no associated surface runoff. Instead, precipitation infiltrates the soil, slag, or rubble and discharges slowly to the lake by percolating through soil layers. Runoff from these areas is more closely related to general variations in subsurface water-table levels than to a particular storm event. Discharges into the Wolf Lake system also include noncontact process, evaporator, or site stormwater discharges from the Amaizo and Lever Brothers plants along the Wolf Lake Channel (figure 2). These discharges are permitted under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program. Geology, Soils, and Topography Wolf Lake is situated in a large lake plain that developed around the southern shore of Lake Michigan during the post-glacial period when water levels were higher. The local geology is composed of unconsolidated beach sands and lake sediments overlying glacial tills. Below the tills and roughly 85 feet from the surface is dolomite bedrock. Ground-water flow into Wolf Lake is restricted to the uppermost unit, known as the Equality Formation, and to the man-made fill deposits that cover much of the area. Numerous reports have been published on the geology and hydrogeology of the Chicago region, which encompasses Wolf Lake. The most comprehensive of these are by Bretz (1939, 1955), Suter et al. (1959), and Willman (1971). The geologic framework of the Illinois portion of the region is discussed in Roadcap and Kelly (1994), which details the position and occurrence of the surficial sands. The framework of the surficial deposits in Indiana is discussed in greater detail by Watson et al. (1989) and Rosenshein and Hunn (1968). The uppermost bedrock unit consists of up to 500 feet of Silurian-age dolomites that form a gentle, eastward sloping surface at an elevation of between 500 and 525 feet above mean sea level. This unit forms an aquifer that is widely used by municipalities south of the study area. There is at least one known domestic well, located at a business adjacent to Wolf Lake, that uses this aquifer. The deposits overlying the dolomite generally consist of two till members of the Wedron Formation. The lower Lemont drift averages roughly 30 feet thick and the upper Wadsworth Till averages roughly 25 feet thick. Both of these units are described as gray silty clays with traces of sand and gravel. The Lemont drift is typically much harder and has a lower moisture content than the Wadsworth Till. The upper surface of the till gently slopes eastward, reflecting an erosional surface at the bottom of Lake Michigan immediately following glaciation. The Equality Formation comprises beach and lacustrine sands, silts, and clays deposited on the floor of Lake Michigan during the post-glacial period. Strong currents and waves brought in sediments from the retreating glaciers and eroding shorelines to the north, forming a large sand deposit in far southeastern Chicago and northwestern Indiana known as the Dolton Sand Member (Bretz, 1955). As the Lake Michigan water level receded, low beach ridges were formed parallel

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Figure 2. Drainage basin of Wolf Lake and major drainage features

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to the present shoreline. Remnants of the beach ridges can be found where sand is the presentday land surface, such as in the forest preserve north of Wolf Lake. Even though the bottom of the Dolton Sand is clearly defined by the surface of the till units, the thickness of the sand is difficult to map because the top of the sand unit has a very irregular surface. These irregularities are due both to the natural variations in depositional processes of beaches and to quarrying and reworking during industrial development. The sand is generally 15 to 25 feet thick around Wolf Lake. The lake is contained within this sand; however, much of the sand underneath the lake was quarried out for expressway construction, so the deepest portions of the lake may lie directly on top of the glacial till. The sand deposit thickens to the east of the study area where it is known as the Calumet aquifer, and it can have a saturated thickness greater than 45 feet (Watson et al., 1989). Prior to development in the late 1800s, the region was dominated by extensive wetlands, sluggish rivers, and shallow lakes. To make this region suitable for development, large areas of wetlands were filled. The two main sources of fill were slag wastes from steel production and dredgings from the deepening and channelization of the Calumet River system (Colton, 1985). Lithologic logs from borings in the region show slag to be the most common fill type but also cite material such as garbage, bricks, wood, metal scraps, concrete, and cinders. The lithologic and hydraulic character of the fill is extremely variable for even short horizontal or vertical distances and cannot be quantified in a single description. This variability was demonstrated in the basement excavations for a group of houses that were built north of Wolf Lake. The fill material removed from one of these excavations consisted of fine reddish clays and yellowish slag, while the neighboring excavation 40 feet to the north contained pinkish slag and paving bricks, and the excavation 40 feet to the south contained what appeared to be natural topsoil. Depositional features could be seen in the sides of the excavation that indicated the fill was dumped in truckloads and was not leveled out until the dumping had stopped. The underlying sand was generally at a depth of about 5 feet. Due to the variable nature of the fill material, the soils in the region cannot be classified into typical units or associations. Some areas of naturally sandy soil do occur where the old beach ridges are at the surface, such as along the western shore of Wolf Lake and in some of the adjacent older residential areas. The soils on the remaining land adjacent to Wolf Lake consist almost entirely of slag, which can vary dramatically in composition and texture. Many truckloads and railcar loads of slag were dumped while still molten, and then solidified, giving the appearance of natural rock outcrops. Hydrologic Description of Wolf Lake Hydrologic System The hydrologic system at Wolf Lake is composed of the following major units: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Eight interconnected lake pools with smaller peripheral pools and wetland areas (hydrologically, Wolf Lake Channel or Pool 9 is included in Pool 8); Interconnecting channels between pools; Surface drainage from the three stormwater pump stations carrying runoff from impervious surfaces in adjacent neighborhoods and major streets, the Powderhorn Lake area, and undeveloped land around the lake; NPDES discharges from the American Maize-Products processing plant; NPDES discharges from the Lever Brothers plant; and The regional ground-water system. 13

The lake itself is actually a series of eight pools separated by road, railroad, and non­ structural causeways with a constricting point separating adjacent pools. Along with figure 3, the following descriptions provide a brief summary of the significant hydrologic parameters for each pool. For the purposes of the water quality monitoring portion of this study, an additional pool the Amaizo Channel or Wolf Lake Channel portion of Pool 8 - was designated as Pool 9. In terms of areal and volumetric parameters, Pools 8 and 9 are considered together and listed as Pool 8. Surface flows through the lake system follow the general path shown in figure 3. Flow was sufficiently confined to allow discharge measurements at Indian Creek, the railroad culvert, the State Line Road culvert, and the tollroad culvert. Pool 1 is in the northwestern corner of the Illinois portion of the lake. It is completely separated from the other pools and generally maintains an independent pool level. Pool 1 has a very limited direct drainage area and the majority of inflow appears to be through ground-water infiltration. Five 12-inch-diameter culverts connect Pool 1 to a small wetlands area immediately north of and across the park access road from the pool. Outflow from the pool is limited to exfiltration through the south causeway (to Pool 2) and the railroad causeway (to Pool 4). Pool 2 is the middle pool along the west side of the lake. It is along the main flow path through the lake system, receiving water from Pool 4 through the railroad culvert and passing water to Pool 3 through the openings in the concession stand causeway. The pool has a very limited or no direct drainage area. Pool 3 is in the southwestern portion of the lake. It is the main outflow point from the lake, receiving water from Pool 2 through the concession stand causeway and discharging water through Indian Creek to the Calumet River. Other drainage to Pool 3 includes inflows from Powderhorn Lake and a very limited connection to Pool 5 through a railroad culvert. Pool 4 is the northern pool in the lake section confined by the railroad culvert on the west and State Line Road on the east. Pool 4 is along the main flow path through the lake and receives water from Pool 6 through the State Line Road culvert and passes water to Pool 2 through the railroad culvert. This pool has a very limited direct surface drainage area immediately to the north of the pool across the park road. Its limited connection to Pool 5 maintains the pools at a common water level but provides a very limited hydraulic interchange. Pool 5 is the southern pool between the railroad and State Line Road. The main flow of water through the lake system does not significantly effect Pool 5. The pool receives flow across State Line Road from a peripheral pond on the east side of the road. This pond is fed by two ditches that drain the U.S. Government surplus commodities center and the wetlands area along the north side of 136th Street. Pool 5 is connected to Pools 1 and 4, but both connecting openings have a very limited flow capacity. Pool 6 is the southern pool between State Line Road and the Indiana East-West Toll Road. The pool is along the main flow path through the lake, receiving water from Pool 7 through a causeway opening along the tollroad causeway and discharging to Pool 4 through the State Line Road culvert. Pool 6 has a very limited direct drainage area at its south end but receives some inflow from tollroad drainage. Pool 7 is the northern pool between State Line Road and the tollroad. It is along the main flow path through the lake, receiving water from Pool 8 through the tollroad culvert and passing water to Pool 6. Pool 7 has a poorly defined direct drainage area from the wetlands at its north end. It also receives inflow from tollroad drainage. 14

Figure 3. Hydrologic components of the Wolf Lake system

15

Pool 8 is the largest pool in the lake system and includes most of the lake area east of the tollroad. The main flow path of the lake passes through the pool from Pool 9 (Wolf Lake Channel) to the tollroad culvert. Most of the direct drainage area of the pool is intercepted by Hammond Sanitary District storm drains. The Sheffield Avenue stormwater pump station discharges directly to Pool 8, and a limited area of wetlands along the southeasterly lake shore drains directly to the lake. Pool 9 is a designation used in this study for the Wolf Lake Channel area. Hydrologically, this is the most significant area because more than 99 percent of the drainage inflow enters through this portion of the lake from Lever Brothers Company, American Maize-Products Company (Amaizo), the Roby stormwater pumping station, and the Forsythe Park stormwater pumping station. The only direct inflow to the pool is very limited stormwater runoff from the Amaizo grounds. Outflow from Pool 9 passes into Pool 8. With the exception of Pool 1, each of the pools has some form of connection to at least one of the other pools, allowing an interchange of water between the pools. Four of these interconnecting channels are sufficiently confined to permit measurement of interpool flows. Flow rates were measured in each of these channels during every diagnostic program data collection visit. Flow rates were measured at the Indiana Toll Road culvert, the State Line Road culvert, the Indian Harbor Belt Railroad culvert, and the Indian Creek outlet channel. Other factors that may impact the lake's hydrology include surface inflows to the lake from areas outside the defined drainage basin and localized alteration of the ground-water regime due to pumpage. Inflow and Outflow Conditions Inflow to the Wolf Lake system originates from four types of sources: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Direct precipitation on the lake surface; The direct drainage area of the lake, which is defined for this study as stormwater runoff flowing into the lake without mechanical influence, including watershed runoff over land or through ditches that does not pass through a pump system; Stormwater pump station drainage that originates in a constructed collection system and is discharged to the lake through the pump station; Industrial discharges of water; and Flow through the ground-water system.

Discharges from the three stormwater pumping stations and the Amaizo and Lever Brothers discharges are monitored under the NPDES permit program. Inflows from direct drainage and the ground-water system will be evaluated separately. The rates of NPDES discharges from Lever Brothers and Amaizo are stable; they may vary by plant shift on a daily basis but are not subject to significant seasonal changes. These discharges provide a stable baseflow through the lake system of at least 16.5 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) or 11 million gallons per day (mgd). The major surface units in the hydrologic system react in a very predictable manner. Precipitation wets surfaces and then puddles until these initial losses are met. For impervious surfaces (paved surfaces and building roofs), infiltration potential is very low, and runoff begins when initial losses have been met. For pervious surfaces, runoff occurs only during storm events that exceed infiltration capacity. During most precipitation events, runoff occurs only from impervious surfaces. 16

As runoff enters the lake pools, their water levels rise, increasing the volume of water stored in those pools. This process is complicated only slightly by the restricted interflow between the lake's pools. The increases in the pool levels in turn increase the flow rates in the interconnecting channels, and the temporary storage of stormwater in the pools is released. Stage data collected during the diagnostic portion of this study indicate that the pool levels adjust rapidly to water-level differentials during storm events. The only significant control points for water levels in the system are at Indian Creek, the railroad culvert (intermittently), and the State Line Road culvert. The control point at the Indian Creek outlet varies between the weirs at the outlet itself and a makeshift dam that is occasionally established in the stream channel. This damming structure tends to fail but is restored by unknown parties. Water levels in Pool 1 are always independent of levels in the other pools. No distinct outlet from Pool 1 exists except for flow through the dikes that separate it from Pools 2 and 4. Lake levels are generally higher than ground-water levels. The effects of ground water on Wolf Lake water levels are part of a complex series of interrelationships involving precipitation, local sanitary and storm sewer leakage, and water levels in Lake Michigan and Wolf Lake. Wolf Lake generally discharges into the ground-water system at a rate dependent on the differential between the lake level and ground-water levels. Ground-Water Conditions around Wolf Lake To assess the influence of ground water on Wolf Lake, monthly water-level elevations were measured in 25 monitoring wells located in the surrounding area. The locations of 9 of these wells immediately adjacent to the lake are shown on figure 4. Most of the wells are part of a regional monitoring well network constructed by the USGS in the greater Calumet watershed of Indiana and Illinois. Fenelon and Watson (1993) used data from this network to construct a ground-water flow model of the Indiana portion of the region. Ten of the wells are clustered in the southwest corner of the lake around well 26 as part of an ongoing ISWS study of the physical interaction between ground water and surface water. Well 28 was constructed in April 1993 with the help of the USGS to fill a major data gap. Well BH-8 along the state line was destroyed by fire in August 1993. Figures 5 and 6 show the monthly water-level elevations from November 1992 to October 1993 for the wells on the west and east sides of the lake, respectively. The wells shown on the hydrographs, all of which are completed in the shallow sand aquifer, were chosen either because they are the closest to the lake or because they best represent the type of ground-water interaction occurring in a particular direction around the lake. The Wolf Lake data are from the staff gages in Pool 2 on the west side and in Pool 8 on the east side. The November - March readings for the Pool 8 gage were interpolated because they were not taken on the same days as the ground-water readings. Staff gage readings were also affected by waves as great as 0.5 feet. It is important to note that all of the measurements represent only what was occurring for a particular day and may not accurately portray everything that happened during an entire month. The surrounding ground-water levels are higher than the level of Wolf Lake except where the shoreline is close to older residential neighborhoods to the northeast and the southwest. These lower levels, shown by wells 26, E3, and BH-15 in figures 5 and 6, are due to ground­ water infiltration into leaky sanitary and storm sewers that lie below the water table. Lower water levels were also measured in several other wells located even farther into those neighborhoods, such as well BH-24 (figure 5). Fenelon and Watson (1993) estimate that 8 ft3/s of ground water is discharging to the Hammond sewer system throughout the city. During large or extended precipitation events, ground-water divides can develop between the lake and these 17

Figure 4. Ground-water measurement and flow conditions for Wolf Lake

18

Figure 5. Water-level hydrographs for Wolf Lake and wells on the west side of the lake

Figure 6. Water-level hydrographs for Wolf Lake and wells on the east side of the lake

19

neighborhoods, reversing the direction of flow. This mounding is demonstrated by the water level in well 26 (figure 5), which rose above the lake during winter months. With the exception of well 26, the hydrographs in figure 5 for the wells on the west side of the lake show a uniform trend of ground water rising and falling with the lake. This indicates that the lake level controls the general elevation of the surrounding ground water and that the ground water has a similar response to precipitation and evaporation. The lower ground-water levels in early August were probably caused by evaporation and the interception and subsequent transpiration by plants of the precipitation falling on land. Well 28 did not respond as quickly to this decline because the well is located on a large slag pile and the depth of the ground water below land surface was too great for evaporation to occur. The hydrographs from wells BH-8 and BH-15 (figure 6), located very close to the east shore of Wolf Lake, closely mimic the lake level. Well BH-15 has a slightly lower level, indicating that ground-water flows from the lake toward the sewers in the adjacent neighborhood. Well E3 is also near the lake, but its water levels are complicated by flow reversals due to fluctuations in Lake George levels mounding between the two lakes, and possible leakage into the sewer system. Well E6 is roughly 1,400 feet from the lake, far enough away from the discharge area that the water level had equilibrated close to the land surface, except during the summer months when evaporation lowered the level 2 feet. As much as 10 feet of slag was used to fill in the lake along much of its northern, eastern, and southern shoreline. Slag was also used in the construction of the causeways that divide the lake into different pools. Research on the discharge of ground water from a slag pile to a wetland near Lake Calumet shows that the discharge is concentrated in springs (Duwal, 1994). These springs develop where there is a significant hydraulic gradient and presumably where there are gravelly lenses or voids in the slag. The springs may have a somewhat regular spacing and are more concentrated where there is a concave bend in the shore. Seepage meter tests show that the discharge between these springs may be close to zero. Duwal (1994) also demonstrates that the hydraulic conductivity of a slag pile may be much higher than expected due to macropore development. Public Access to the Lake Area The major population centers close to the lake are the southeast side of Chicago, Bumham, Calumet City, Lansing, Dalton, and South Holland in Illinois and the cities of Hammond, Whiting, East Chicago, and Gary in Indiana. All these cities are either within walking distance or within easy and convenient driving distances (1 to 10 miles) of the lake. Illinois Side In the William W. Powers Conservation Area, Wolf Lake is accessible from Highways I94, I-90, and U.S. 41. The main park entrance is at 123rd Street and Avenue O, and the entrance to the park ranger office is at 130th Street and Avenue O. There is no public transportation to and from the lake and the state park; however, a wide arterial road (Avenue O) provides very convenient access to the park area. Figure 7 shows public access points, parking lots, and park facilities. A public road circles the lake, except on the south side of Pools 3 and 5, and provides ready and easy access for such activities as bank fishing, nature study, and the use of park facilities. The access road to Pool 5 is very poor. The park road on the east side runs parallel to the state line. There are three boat launching ramps, one each in Pools 1, 2, and 4, with a capacity sufficient for inland fishing boats. Only motors with 10 horsepower or less are allowed. 20

The William W. Powers Conservation Area is open to the public year round, except on Christmas Day and New Year's Day, from 5 a.m. to 10 p.m. When weather conditions necessitate the closing of roads during freezing and thawing periods, access to the facilities is by foot only. Table 2 lists the parking spaces and public access points around Wolf Lake. More than an adequate number of parking spaces are available throughout the state park. There is no fee charged for the use of the park or launch facilities. The main picnic area is located south of the main entrance and parallel to Avenue O. An ample quantity of tables and cast iron grills are provided in shady spots beneath the many willow and Cottonwood trees. Two shelters are available on a first-come basis. Approximately 6 miles of shoreline is available for bank fishing. The lake on the Illinois side is used for waterfowl hunting during the fall and winter. Hunting must be done from authorized blinds, which are allocated on a two-year basis at a public drawing during the summer of even-numbered years. Unoccupied blinds are available on a daily basis. Information on hunting regulations and blind site locations can be obtained from the park ranger office. Groups of 25 or more persons will not be admitted to any site unless permission to use the facilities has been obtained from the site manager. In addition, groups of minors must have adequate supervision; at least one responsible adult must accompany each group of 15 minors. All pets must be on a leash (IDOC, 1977). Indiana Side The city of Hammond has public bus transportation (Hammond Transit System) running past the lake (along Calumet Avenue) from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. During peak traffic hours, the services are at 15-minute intervals, tapering off to 45-minute intervals during nonpeak hours. This service connects with Chicago public transportation, travels through the city of Whiting, IN, and into Munster, IN. There are two parking lots (east side of Pool 8) that can accommodate cars and buses. Public access is available in most areas of the lake. Exceptions are the west side of Wolf Lake Channel (Pool 9), where the American Maize-Products Company (Amaizo) is situated, and the southeast corner of the lake, where some commercial enterprises are located. There is a large swimming beach located along the northeast quadrant of the lake. Given its location in a highly urbanized and industrialized region, the lake has an excellent network of city, state, and interstate freeways and tollways for easy access. Amtrak railroad's nearby Hammond stop is located at 1135 Calumet Avenue, Whiting, IN. A map of public access and park facilities for the Indiana side is also presented in figure 7. There are several parks and forest preserves around the perimeter of the lake. Forsythe Park on the east side of the Wolf Lake Channel and the area south of the beach offer opportunities and amenities for bank fishing, six ball fields, a playground, parking, and several picnic facilities. There are a public boat launching ramp (fees charged) and a parking lot on the southeast side of the lake near the Sheffield pumping station (Pool 8) and a private marina on the northwest side of Pool 8. The lake (Pool 8) is heavily used for both ice and warm weather fishing, boating (power and sail), water skiing, swimming, ice skating, wind surfing, and picnicking. All power boats and sailboats using Wolf Lake water must have a yearly or daily launching permit. The launching permit is in the form of a plate that must be displayed on the port (left) side of the bow next to the state plate number.

21

Table 2. Parking and Public Access Points in Wolf Lake Item

Type

A

Paved, marked parking

B C D

Paved, unmarked parking Paved, marked parking Boat launches and parking

E F

Paved, marked parking Paved, marked parking

G H I J K

Paved, marked parking Paved, marked parking Paved, marked parking Paved, marked parking Area around concession stand

L

Paved, marked parking

M N O

Paved, marked parking Paved, marked parking Paved, marked parking

P Q R S

Roadside parking, unmarked Roadside parking, unmarked Roadside parking, unmarked Boat launch and paved parking Playground facilities

T

Paved parking for beach area Beach and swimming area Forsythe Park

Size, feet

Facilities and capacities

60 × 120 Parking for 1 handicap vehicle, 11 cars with trailers 75 × 150 Parking for 8 cars with trailers, 10 cars, and 1 handicap vehicle Concrete boat launch 15 feet wide 55 × 80 Parking for 8 vehicles 65 × 150 Parking for 23 vehicles Two 14-foot-wide boat launches, one for each pool; marked parking for 8 vehicles 63 × 198 Parking for 29 vehicles 98 × 200 Parking for 47 vehicles 28 × 270 Parking for 27 vehicles 20 × 340 Parking for 32 vehicles 20 × 94 Parking for 9 vehicles 140 × 162 Parking for 49 vehicles 50 × 120 Parking for 3 handicap vehicles 95 × 62 and 22 other vehicles 30 × 54 Parking for 5 vehicles 30 × 42 Parking for 4 vehicles 30 × 100 Parking for 10 vehicles 70×95 Parking for 15 vehicles 30 × 60 Parking for 6 vehicles 60 × 195 Parking for 2 handicap vehicles and 31 other vehicles 10 × 990 Many vehicles 10 × 50 Parking for 3 vehicles 10 × 50 Parking for 3 vehicles 110 × 290 Handicap vehicles and 20 vehicles with trailers. Concrete boat launch 16 feet wide Children's playground and four picnic shelters 140 × 620 Parking for 270 vehicles Concession and bathhouse Six baseball diamonds with parking facilities

22

Figure 7. Public access points and parking areas on Wolf Lake

23

Size and Economic Structure of Potential User Population Size On the Illinois side, the resident population at the lake consists of the park ranger's family and residents immediately south of the park. Residential development exists along the shoreline of Pool 3 south of the park office and west of Avenue O. The Illinois Department of Natural Resources estimated that visits to the park exceeded 500,000 in the recent years. In Indiana, residential areas exist immediately next to Forsythe Park (Pools 8 and 9) and along the shoreline north of the swimming beach (Pool 8). It is difficult to know exactly where the visitors come from. They may be from the southeast end of Chicago, Burnham, Calumet City, Lansing, Dolton, South Holland, Riverdale, other nearby Illinois communities, and from Indiana communities such as Hammond, Whiting, East Chicago, and Gary. The most frequent visitors to Wolf Lake are probably residents of the south end of Chicago (Hegewisch and Altgeld Gardens) and Burnham, IL, and Hammond, IN. Table 3 presents pertinent population and economic information for cities and towns near Wolf Lake (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1992, 1993). The combined population of these surrounding cities is 3,036,467. Although the potential user population is likely to be from the areas listed in the table, it is believed that most Chicago residents are not potential users. Economic Characteristics Tables 4a and 4b show population and economic data for counties within 50 miles (80 kilometers) of the lake and list sources of employment. The potential user population, user demands/needs, etc. are overwhelming since Wolf Lake is situated in the most highly industrialized region of the Midwest. Surrounding counties can be characterized as having middle income levels, plentiful employment sources, low unemployment rates, and adequate housing for individuals. Historical Lake Uses and Conditions Illinois Side It is not known how the area originally became known as Wolf Lake. Some local residents claim Wolf was an early settler or an Indian chief; others say that years ago wolves were abundant around the lake and that the lake itself was in the shape of a wolf. The Chicago Historical Society was unable to verify any of these possibilities. In 1965, the Illinois Legislature approved changing the name of the conservation area to honor the memory of William W. Powers, a former state legislator, who was well-known for his deep interest in the promotion of recreation for the residents of his district (IDOC, 1977). As mentioned previously, Wolf Lake is a natural lake with numerous drop-offs. However, many areas were dredged and mined for their underlying sand layer in years past. Today the lake is separated into eight different pools by dikes and roads erected during dredging and construction projects. In Illinois, the lake areas are being used for boating, fishing, hiking, picnicking, winter sports, and waterfowl hunting. Swimming and camping are not permitted. Historical data on attendance at the William W. Powers Conservation Area are shown in table 5.

24

Table 3. Demographic and Economic Data for Towns Surrounding Wolf Lake Illinois Burnham

Calumet City

Chicago

Dolton

Indiana

Lansing

Riverdale

South Holland

East Chicago

Hammond

Whiting

Population

3,916

37,840

2,783,726

23,930

28,086

13,671

22,015

33,892

84,236

5,155

Male

1,796

17,897

1,334,705

11,384

13,393

6,271

10,716

16,109

40,793

2,505

Female

2,120

19,943

1,449,021

12,546

14,693

7,400

11,289

17,783

43,443

2,650

Percent

of

population

under

18

22.1

23.2

18.3

18.6

22.8

20.2

20.1

30.9

26.8

23.7

Percent

of

population

over

65

17.9

15.5

17.1

21.1

15.3

23.9

19.3

13.2

14.3

17.1

1,025,174

8,337

10,881

5,345

7,437

12,122

32,146

2,137

Number

of

households

Persons per household Per capita income, dollars

1,367

15,434

2.67

2.45

2.67

2.83

2.58

2.56

2.88

2.78

2.61

2.41

12,951

13,569

12,899

14,063

16,112

12,524

17,352

9,090

11,576

11,664

Source: 1990 census data (U.S. Bureau of the Census, Economic Census and Surveys Division, 1992)

Table 4a. Population and Economic Data for Areas near Wolf Lake Manufacturing County, Other major County seat towns Illinois Cook, Chicago DuPage, Wheaton Grundy, Morris Kane, Geneva Kankakee, Kankakee Kendall, Yorkville Lake, Waukegan Will, Joliet Indiana Jasper, Rensselaer Lake, Crown Point LaPorte, LaPorte Newton, Kentland Porter, Valparaiso

Area, sq. miles

Population (thousand)

Wholesale ($1,000)

Establishments

Employees Units (thousand)

Value added ($1,000)

Total number of establishments

Total number of Per capita employees income (thousand) (dollars)

946

5105.1

92,995,424

9,450

26,988

491.6

31,463,100

120,330

2,371.3

11,176

334

781.7

32,087,877

1,857

3,112

67.5

3,628,300

26,012

465.8

21,155

420

32.3

198,268

44

256

2.9

298,800

749

10.3

14,474

521

317.5

3,394,851

749

2,268

37.4

2,643,600

8,305

136.0

15,890

678

96.2

530,630

111

520

7.0

606,500

2,005

30.9

12,142

321

39.4

116,513

51

68

1.4

79,500

643

6.2

16,115

448

516.4

5,398,296

760

2,505

50.9

2,920,700

13,225

208.1

21,765

837

357.3

1,590,189

361

1,387

17.6

1,617,300

6,497

90.2

15,186

560

25.0

148,535

23

45

1.3

53,000

601

6.1

11,256

Gary

497

475.6

2,462,690

379

3,226

42.1

3,760,900

9,200

167.2

12,663

Michigan City

598

107.1

229,228

188

562

11.8

654,600

2,312

36.5

12,973

402

13.6

61,927

13

79

-

-

249

2.5

11,925

418

128.9

339,458

104

1,234

10.7

1,438,300

2,451

39.2

15,059

Naperville

Aurora

Piano

Portage

Table 4b. General Employment Categories for Areas near Wolf Lake County/county seat (Other major towns) Illinois Cook/Chicago

Employment categories Construction; manufacturing (food and kindred products, tobacco products, textile products, lumber and wood products, furniture and fixtures, paper and allied products, printing and publishing, chemical and allied products, leather products, stone clay and glass products, primary metal industries, fabricated metal products, industrial machinery and equipment, electronic equipment, transportation equipment, instruments and related products); transportation and public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, real estate; services (hotels and motels, automotive, motion pictures, computer and data processing, engineering and management, amusement and recreation, health, management, public relations).

DuPage/Wheaton (Naperville)

Agriculture; construction; manufacturing (food products, paper products, printing and publishing, rubber and plastic products, fabricated metal products, industrial machinery and equipment, electronic products); transportation and public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, real estate; services (hotels and motels, business, computer and data processing, health, automotive, engineering, management, public relations).

Grundy/Morris

Manufacturing (chemical and allied products); transportation and public utilities; retail trade; personal services.

Kane/Geneva (Aurora)

Construction; manufacturing (food products, furniture and fixtures, paper mills and allied products, printing and publishing, chemical products, rubber and plastic products, fabricated metal products, industrial machinery and equipment, electronic equipment; transportation and public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, real eastate; services - business, personal, health, engineering, management).

Kankakee/Kankakee Construction; manufacturing (food and kindred products, paper and allied products, chemical and allied products; transportation and public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, real estate; services (business, health, educational, social). Kendall/Yorkville (Piano)

Construction; manufacturing; transportation and public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; services (business, auto, health, social).

Lake/Waukegan

Agricultural (veterinary, landscape and horticulture); construction; manufacturing (food and kindred products, paper products, printing and publishing, rubber and plastic products, fabricated metal products, industrial machine and equipment), electronic equipment; transportation and public utility; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insuranc, real estate; services (hotels and motels, personal, business, automotive, health, engineering, management).

27

Table 4b. Concluded County/county seat (Other major towns) Will/Joliet

Employment categories Agricultural services; construction; manufacturing (chemical products, rubber and plastic products, fabricated metal products, industrial machinery and equipment); transportation and public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, real estate; services (personal, business, health, membership organizations, engineering, management).

Indiana Jasper/Rensselaer Lake/Crown Point (Gary)

LaPorte/LaPorte (Michigan City)

Retail trade and health services. Construction; manufacturing (food products, printing and publishing, chemical products, primary metal industries, fabricated metal products, industrial machinery and equipment); transportation and public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, real estate; services (personal, business, health, education, social, membership organizations). Construction, manufacturing (primary metal industries, fabricated metal products, industrial machinery and equipment); transportation and public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; services (business, health).

Newton/Kentland

Manufacturing and retail trade.

Porter/Valparaiso (Portage)

Construction, manufacturing (industrial machinery and equipment, printing and publishing; transportation and public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; services (business, health, membership organizations).

Sources:

1990 Census of Population and Housing Characteristics (Illinois, Indiana), Bureau of Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1990 Census of Population and Housing (1990); Summary of Social, Economic, and Housing Characteristics (Illinois, Indiana), Bureau of Census, U.S. Department of Commerce; Rand McNally Commercial Atlas and Marketing Guide (1993).

28

Table 5. Historical Attendance, William Powers Conservation Area 1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

January

19,150

17,941

17,299

*18,341

17,875

15,567

February

13,859

23,133

23,382

*23,342

18,230

18,697

March

26,042

41,003

41,695

*43,342

29,474

36,043

April

43,572

58,131

60,532

*48,342

49,185

50,555

May

51,433

60,0%

72,106

67,008

65,895

66,703

June

52,764

61,140

63,196

65,993

67,008

64,722

July

58,077

69,082

71,600

71,848

75,704

74,230

August

36,457

64,211

62,860

70,112

69,364

58,645

September

40,463

45,473

47,354

50,616

39,893

47,100

October

11,245

29,724

31,102

34,260

26,663

28,637

November

12,300

22,092

17,0%

16,888

21,0%

20,745

December

10,540

15,436

67,008

15,609

17,986

18,083

375,902

507,462

600,000

525,701

498,374

499,727

Annual Total

Note: * Estimated from known total annual attendance

29

1994

Indiana Side Point Source Discharges. Point source effluent discharges to Wolf Lake are located in Wolf Lake Channel (Pool 9) and on the east side of Pool 8, all on the Indiana side. Currently, two industries, Amaizo (a manufacturer of corn products) and Lever Brothers Company (a manufacturer of soap and detergent products), have NPDES discharge permits from the state of Indiana allowing discharge of cooling waters into Wolf Lake. The source of cooling waters for these industries is Lake Michigan. The Hammond Sanitary District has an NPDES permit to discharge stormwater into the lake at three different locations, namely, Sheffield Avenue, Forsythe Park, and Roby pumping stations (figure 8). The first discharge occurs in Pool 8 and the latter two occur in Wolf Lake Channel. In contrast, there are no point source discharges into the lake in Illinois; details of point source discharges are discussed in a later section. Summary of Historical Conditions. During the period between the 1930s and early 1960s, there were long negotiations among the Health Department of Hammond, Hammond Park Board, Indiana State Board of Health, Indiana State Pollution Control Board, Amaizo, and Lever Brothers Company for the protection of water quality in Wolf Lake, especially at the swimming beach. In the past, there were instances of adverse impacts from lake water quality degradation. In 1945 and 1946, the beach was closed for swimming due to high bacterial counts. Fish kills occurred in 1947 (Carnow, 1990). Today, discharges from Lever Brothers Company (6.71 mgd, Class D industrial wastewater treatment plant) are usually within effluent standard limits. Occasional problems with total suspended solids (TSS) have developed when Lake Michigan intake water has elevated TSS levels (Bell and Johnson, 1990). The effluent is strictly noncontact cooling water obtained from Lake Michigan. The cooling water is discharged to a settling lagoon prior to discharge into the northern tip of Wolf Lake Channel. Amaizo currently is not discharging either industrial or sanitary wastewater into Wolf Lake. The company discharges overflow of Lake Michigan water, which is delivered from its pumping station on the lakefront to the plant process well; noncontact cooling water; and stormwater runoff from its premises. In 1990, the Indiana Department of Environmental Management found high fecal coliform counts in the Sheffield Avenue station stormwater outfall and suspected the possibility of crossconnections between the sanitary sewer and storm sewer. The Hammond Sanitary District reported that the probable source of pollutants was runoff from the adjacent commercial trucking companies located in the area, but no effort was made to identify the cause of the high fecal coliform levels. Several stormwater discharges to Wolf Lake may have led to high fecal coliform counts, adversely affecting the beach water quality (Carnow, 1990). On April 16, 1982, the IEPA reported a fish kill in Wolf Lake in Illinois of approximately 60 fish. It was allegedly caused by an illegal discharge from the Wolf Lake Terminal at 3200 Sheffield Avenue, Hammond, IN (Office Memorandum, Indiana Board of Health, April 17, 1982). A lawsuit alleged that the firm released hazardous wastes into Wolf Lake, failed to report under the Hazardous Waste Act, failed to file proper emergency plans for containment, and failed to monitor ground water. The firm was cited for illegal acceptance, storage, sale, and disposal of hazardous wastes. The lawsuit was dismissed in 1986. Data on the quantity and quality of nonpoint urban runoff into Wolf Lake are not available. The use of road salt on the Indiana Toll Road and other nearby roads may have significant adverse effects on the quality of runoff into Wolf Lake (Bell and Johnson, 1990). The 30

Figure 8. Monitoring stations on Wolf Lake

31

use of as much as 18 tons of salt per mile per year is common in northern states. There is no attempt to divert salt-laden runoff away from the lake. The authors (ibid.) postulated that if the amount of road salt reaching the lake is significant, it can cause density layers and thus interfere with complete lake mixing. The lake bottom fauna may be subjected to increased salinity and anoxic conditions in the lake may be prolonged. Current Uses. Wolf Lake and park areas are used heavily for recreation such as bank and boat fishing, ice fishing in season, motor boating, sailboating, canoeing, picnicking, hiking, waterfowl observation, waterfowl hunting, and winter sports. One of the large pools (Pool 8, figure 2) in Indiana is used extensively for wind-surfing and swimming. Wolf Lake Park and Forsythe Park on the perimeter of the lake offer three baseball fields and several picnic areas. Each year an estimated 40,000 people use the recreational facilities, including beach and picnic areas, managed by the Hammond Park District. The district has held a major festival, "August Fest," every year for the past 11 years in Wolf Lake Park on the southeast shore of the lake. August Fest held from August 11 - 21, 1994, a family-oriented festival, offered food, carnival, entertainment, a beer garden, children's stage, and many other attractions with no admission charges. An estimated 250,000 people took part during the 11 days (C. Blaine, personal communication, 1994). Population Segments Adversely Affected by Lake Degradation The lake is situated in a densely populated and highly industrialized area, and straddles the boundary between Illinois and Indiana. It has not been feasible to identify and quantify the population segments adversely affected by lake degradation. The two fish kills reported in the past 25 years would have had a transient impact on sports fishing. Also, there have been complaints about the foul odor of the bottom sediments in Wolf Lake Channel and "off odor" in fish caught from the channel, a popular area for bank fishing. Poor conditions in the Wolf Lake Channel can adversely affect the aesthetic and recreational enjoyment of this segment of the lake system. Comparison to Other Lakes in the Region There are numerous public lakes within 50 miles (80 kilometers) of Wolf Lake. Table 6 gives the names of these lakes along with information about size, maximum depth, existence of boat ramps, and lake uses. All of these lakes provide recreational opportunities such as picnicking, fishing, and boating, and none is known to serve as a water supply source. A few lakes afford opportunities for camping, flood control, swimming, wildlife refuge, and waterfowl hunting. One of the world's largest freshwater bodies, Lake Michigan, lies a very short distance north, approximately 0.5 miles, of Wolf Lake Channel. There are 25 lakes in table 6 that are more than 100 acres in area. Of these, nine have surface areas of 500 acres or more. While it is obvious that the region is richly endowed with lacustrine resources, at the same time the demand for water-based recreation in this highly industrialized region is increasing significantly. Hudson et al. (1992) reported that outdoor recreational activity continues to increase as more people recreate more often. Between 1960 and 1985, based on days of Illinois residents' participation per year, fishing has increased 125 percent and swimming 200 percent (ibid). Point Source Discharges There are no known point source municipal or industrial discharges occurring on the Illinois side of Wolf Lake. Indiscriminate solid waste disposal of such items as tires and building 32

Table 6. Public Lakes within a 50-Mile Radius of Wolf Lake

Lake

Area, acres

Maximum depth, feet

Cook County, IL AxeheadLake Bakers Lake Beck Lake Belleau Lake Bullfrog Lake Bussee Woods Lake Horsetail Lake Ida Lake Maple Lake Midlothian Reservoir Pappose Lake Powderhorn Lake Sag Quarry - East Lake Saganashkee Slough Skokie Lagoons Lake Tampier Lake Turtlehead Lake Wampum Lake Wolf Lake

17.0 111.6 38.0 12.0 15.2 584.0 11.0 10.0 55.0 25.0 18.0 34.5 13.4 325.0 190.0 160.0 12.0 35.0 419.0

31.0 12.0 22.0 34.0 12.0 16.0 24.0 16.0 22.0 14.0 10.0 19.0 17.0 9.0 9.0 16.0 15.0 14.0 21.0

DuPage County, IL Churchill Lagoon Herrick Lake Mallard Lake Mallard North Lake Pratts Waynewoods Lake Silver Lake

21.0 19.1 40.0 10.0 16.2 68.0

Grundy County, IL Dresden Lake Heidecke Lake Kane County, IL Jericho Lake Mastodon Lake Pioneer Lake Kankakee County, IL Birds Park Quarry Lake County, IL Banks Lake Diamond Lake Fox Chain O' Lakes

.Gages Lake

Launching ramps

*Lake uses

3

F,P,R F,P,R,WLR F,P,R F,P,R F,P,R F,FC,P,R F,P,R F,P,R F,P,R F,FC,P,R F,P,R F,P,R F,P,R F,P,R F,P,R F,P,R F,P,R F,P,R F,P,R, WTF

6.0 10.0 20.0 15.0 21.0 30.0

8

F,P,R BR,C,F,P,R F,P,R F,P,R C,F,P,R C,F,P,R

1,275.0 1,955.0

16.0 60.0

3

40.0 22.3 6.5

30.0 12.0 13.0

F,P,R F,P F,R

7.0

40.0

BR,F,R

297.0 149.0 6,500.0

25.0 24.0 40.0

6 2 56

139.0

48.0

2

33

8

2

CO,F BR,CO,F,P, R.WTF

BR,F,P,R BR,F,P,R,S BR,C,F,IF, IS,P,R,S, WS.WTF BR,C,F,P,R, S

Table 6. Continued

Lake Grays Lake Lake Zurich Round Lake South Economy Gravel Pit Sterling Lake Turner Lake Will County, IL Braidwood Lake Lake County, IN Fisher Pond Optimist Park Lake Oak Ridge Prairie Lake Clay Pits Lake George Mac Joy Lake Grand Boulevard Lake Robinson Lake Independent Lake Cedar Lake Lemon Lake Calmet Park Lake Francher Lake WolfLake

LaPorte County, IN Clear Lake Clear Lake Finger Lake Fish Lake (Lower) Fish Lake (Upper) Hog Lake Hudson Lake Lancaster Lake Lily Lake Lower Lake Mill Pond Orr Lake Pine Lake Round Lake Stone Lake Tamarack Newton County, IN Goose Pond Swamp J.C. Murphy Lake

Area, acres

Maximum depth, feet

79.0 228.0 215.0 18.5 73.9 34.0

19.0 32.0 35.0 36.0 29.0 10.0

2,640.0

80.0

270.0

14.0

Launching ramps 2 2

*Lake uses F,P,R F,P,R F,P,R,S F,P,R F,P,R C,F,P,R

7

CO,F,WTF

1

B,F,IF,IS, P,S,WS

40.0

781.0

16.0

10.0 804.0

40.0 18.0

17.0 106.0

33.0 12.0

134.0 139.0 59.0 432.0

16.0 24.0 52.0 42.0

16.0

22.0

24.0

8.0

564.0

48.0

125.0 20.0

36.0

20.0 1,515.0

8.0

34

C,F,IF,P,R, S.WTF

Table 6. Concluded

Lake

Area, acres

Maximum depth, feet

Launching ramps

*Lake uses

Cory Lake Riverside Lake Porter County, IN Chestnut Lakes Chub Lake Flint Lake Fisher Pond Long Lake Lomis Lake Mud Lake Pratt Lake Round Lake Silver Lake Spectacle Lake Wauhob Lake Starke County, IN Bass Lake Round Lake

*

89.0

67.0

65.0 62.0 26.0

27.0 SS.O

62.0 21.0

30.0 48.0

1,440.0 30.0

30.0 1S.0

C,F,P,R,S

BR = boat rental, C = camping, CO = cooling, F = fishing, FC = flood control, IF = ice fishing, IS = ice skating, P = picnicking, R = recreation, S = swimming, WLR = wildlife refuge, WTF = waterfowl hunting, and WS = water skiing.

Note: Blank spaces indicate that information is not readily available.

35

and construction materials occurs in secluded areas on the south end of Pools 3 and S and creates aesthetically objectionable conditions near the lake. The state of Illinois has not issued any NPDES permits allowing discharge to Wolf Lake. On the Indiana side, the industrial discharges to Wolf Lake have historically been located near the Wolf Lake Channel and Pool 8. Currently, Amaizo, Lever Brothers, and the Hammond Sanitary District have NPDES discharge permits from the state of Indiana that allow discharge of effluent waters to Wolf Lake. Bell and Johnson (1990) summarized information on these discharge permits. American Maize-Products Company Under NPDES Permit number IN 0000027, Amaizo (a Class C industrial wastewater treatment plant) is authorized to discharge from a facility that manufactures corn products to the receiving water of Lake Michigan and Wolf Lake Channel. Outfall 001 is discharged into Lake Michigan with limitations. Outfalls 002, 003, 004, and 005 to Wolf Lake Channel are limited solely to noncontact cooling water free from process and other wastewater discharges, except that outfall 002 includes stormwater runoff The pH of these outfalls is limited to between 6.5 and 8.5 and must be monitored by weekly grab samples. Discharges should not cause excessive foam in the receiving waters and must be free of floating and settleable solids. They should not contain oil or other substances in amounts sufficient to create a visible film or sheen on the receiving waters. Outfall 006 to Wolf Lake Channel contains solely excess Lake Michigan water without water quality limitations but with monitoring requirements. Flow from this outfall is not limited, but weekly flow estimation is required. A summary of the quality and quantity of discharges from Amaizo for the period October 1992 to September 1993 is presented in table 7. All pH values monitored are within the regulatory limits. Flow estimation for outfall 006 seems high. Lever Brothers Company Under NPDES Permit No. IN 0000264, Lever Brothers Company is authorized to discharge from a facility that manufactures soap and detergent products (1200 Calumet Avenue in Hammond, IN) to Wolf Lake Channel in accordance with effluent limitations. The discharger is licensed as a Class D industrial wastewater treatment plant. Discharge is limited solely to noncontact cooling water except for barometric condensate from oil refining, tallow bleaching, crude glycerine processing, glycerine refining, and stormwater runoff. Discharge limits are set on pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total suspended solids (TSS), oil and grease, total residual chlorine, effluent temperature, and whole effluent toxicity tests. The discharge must essentially be free of floating and settleable solids and not cause excessive foam or oil sheens in the receiving water. TSS, BOD5, and COD limitations (table 8) include daily maximum and monthly mean loading quantities and daily maximum and monthly mean concentrations. Table 8 summarizes effluent quality, i.e., pH, COD, BOD5, TSS, oil and grease, and total residual chlorine. The number of samples exceeding the limits is also listed in table 8.

36

Table 7. Effluent Quality of American Maize-Products Company Discharges to Wolf Lake Channel

Month 1992 October November December 1993 January February March April May June July August September Annual

Month 1992 October November December 1993 January February March April May June July August September Annual

Outfall 002 Flow, med* Mean Maximum

pH

.1402 .0472 .0075

.1440 .1440 .0202

7.6-8.0 7.5-7.9 7.7-8.0

.0149 .0037 0.

.0016 .0115 0.

.0048 0. 0. 0. .0969 .0563 .0684 .0658 .0950

.0100 0. 0. 0. .1440 .0864 .0864 .0846 .1440

7.7-7.9 7.7-7.8 7.8-8.2 7.9-8.1 7.8-7.9 7.7-8.0

0. 0. 0. 0. 0. .0288 .1626 .0071 .0080

0. 0. 0. 0. 0. .0576 .2076 .0173 .0216

7.9-8.0 8.1-8.3 7.5-7.9 7.0-7.9

.0485

.1440

7.5-8.2

.0188

.2076

7.0-8.3

Outfall 004 Flow, med Mean Maximum

pH

Outfall 003 Flow, med Mean Maximum

Outfall 005 Flow, med Mean Maximum

pH

pH 7.7-8.0 7.5-7.8

Outfall 006 Flow, med Mean Maximum

.1386 .1353 .0722

.1728 .1728 .1411

8.0-8.2 7.6-8.0 7.8-8.0

.0522 .0691 .0542

.0576 .0864 .0864

7.7-8.2 7.6-8.0 7.8-7.9

4.05 5.18 6.48

6.48 6.48 6.48

.0298 .0886 .0852 .0813 .1284 .1512 .0613 .0202 .0148

.0576 .0922 .0893 .0821 .1728 .1728 .0876 .0864 .0475

7.8-8.1 7.6-7.8 7.5-7.9 7.6-7.8 7.9-8.1 8.0-8.2 7.8-8.0 8.0-8.5 7.8-8.5

.0535 .0830 0 .0432 .0498 .0414 .0576 .0652 .0697

.0878 .1166 .0432 .0576 .0576 .0864 .1152 .0864

7.8-7.9 7.6-8.0 7.9-8.0 7.6-8.0 7.6-7.9 8.0-8.2 8.0-8.2 7.7-8.2

4.32 4.86 2.59 6.48 6.48 6.48 4.86 6.48 5.55

6.48 6.48 6.48 6.48 6.48 6.48 6.48 6.48 6.48

.0839

.1728

7.5-8.5

.0532

.1166

7.1-8.2

5.32

6.48

Note: * mgd = million gallons per day

37

0

Table 8. Effluent Quality of Lever Brothers Company Discharges to Wolf Lake Channel

Month 1992 October November December 1993 January February March April May June July August September

pH

5-dav biochemical oxygen demand Concentration. mg/L Quantity. Ib/d Mean Range Mean Range

8.0-10.1 7.2-9.2 7.7-9.0

6.4 6.0 8.7

3.2-12.9 4.0-9.4 4.6-15.5

349 311 364

173-681 168-488 108-898

0.6 1.1 1.4

0.3-1.1 0.0-2.0 0.6-2.4

34 61 54

16-58 0-130 18-92

7.5-8.1 7.6-8.6 6.5-8.3 7.7-8.2 7.6-8.5 7.4-8.3 7.4-8.2 7.5-8.4 7.4-7.7

8.1 7.0 8.9 7.6 11.5 8.0 11.0 8.0 5.0

5.4-11.8 3.2-11.2 6.0-11.0 <5.0-16.0 4.6-27.0 0.0-16.0 7.2-24.0 2.0-20.0 1.0-9.0

348 290 477 325 389 383 505 380 244

188-547 128-413 281-569 58-763 163-972 0-648 226-1188 90-1067 55-506

1.4 1.1 1.4 0.8 2.7 1.0 1.3 2.0 2.0

0.6-2.2 0.9-1.4 0.3-2.3 0.0-2.0 0.0-13.0 0.0-5.8 0.02-3.7 1.0-3.0 1.0-3.0

59 46 63 33 84 42 54 94 90

26-% 33-59 13-110 0-67 0-469 0-211 1-183 39-178 43-172

445

890*

(0)

(0)

NPDES limits

6.0-9.0

No. of samples exceeding limits /total no. of samples (%)

2/156(1.3)

Note: * Daily maximum

Chemical oxygen demand Concentration. mg/L Quantity. Ib/d Mean Range Mean Range

1,007

0/154(0)

2,014*

(0)

10

0/154(0)

15*

(0)

Table 8. Concluded

Month 1992 October November December 1993 January February March April May June July August September NPDES limits

Total Concentration. mg/L Mean Range

solids Oil and grease Concentration. m%/L Quantity. Ib/d Mean Range Mean Range

Total residual chlorine, mg/L

1.9 2.6 3.3

0.0-7.4 0.6-6.4 0.8-7.0

106 137 138

0-407 31-415 20-327

0.9 1.2 3.0

0.0-2.7 0.0-3.5 0.7-7.8

48 53 44

0-142 0-181 21-296

<0.05-0.09 <0.05 <0.07

4.3 5.5 8.8 10.1 3.0 5.2 2.7 7.0 8.0

1.8-7.2 2.4-8.2 2.2-15.0 4.8-23.0 1.2-8.0 0.2-19.0 0.0-5.4 2.0-17.0 1.0-32.0

194 234 403 424 138 249 133 316 436

78-419 79-388 65-736 105-1168 42-390 4-1027 0-289 78-8% 53-1,960

3.3 1.5 2.6 2.0 2.2 2.0 2.9 3.4 2.7

0.0-6.9 0.0-4.4 0.0-4.5 0.0-4.4 0.0-4.2 0.0-5.0 0.5-6.2 2.0-9.0 1.0-7.0

150 65 122 86 84 88 128 152 122

40-378 0-179 0-235 0-206 0-152 0-166 30-288 78-378 44-225

<0.05-0.07 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05-0.05 <0.05 <0.05-0.20 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05

20*

730

1,460*

10*

696*

0.05*

3/154(1.9)

(0)

1/154(0.6)

0/155(0)

(0)

5/154(3.2)

10

No. of samples exceeding limits /total no. of samples (%) 1/154(0.6) Note: * Daily maximum

suspended Quantity. Ib/d Mean Range

Hammond Sanitary District The Hammond Sanitary District operates three pumping stations to collect stormwater runoff for discharging into Wolf Lake Channel and Wolf Lake. The Roby pumping station, outfall 017 (station RHA 03, figure 8), has three 3,300-gallon per minute (gpm) pumps; the Forsythe Park station, outfall 018 (RHA 04), has two 3,500-gpm and one 7,200-gpm pumps; and the Sheffield Avenue station, outfall 019 (RHA 05), has three 8,500-gpm pumps. Under its NPDES permit, the District is required to monitor flow; pH; carbonaceous BOD (CBOD), TSS, volatile solids, fat, oil, and grease (FOG); and fecal coliform (FC) concentrations of discharges from these pumping stations. Bell and Johnson (1990) cited 1988 data (table 9) from the IDEM that show consistently high CBOD, FOG, and FC concentrations from these discharges. The major cause was the crossconnection between the storm sewer and the sanitary sewer. In order to protect the water quality of Wolf Lake, alleviation of the cross-connection has been recommended by the IDEM. Tables 10a-10c present the results of monitoring (NPDES monthly reports) for these three pumping stations during this study period (October 1992 to September 1993). The data provided by the IDEM show high TSS, FOG, and FC. Land Uses and Nonpoint Pollutant Loadings The Wolf Lake direct drainage area (figure 2) includes 925 acres of mostly pervious surfaces draining directly into the lake, 922 acres of lake surface, and 357 acres in the Powderhorn Lake area, including both land and open water areas that are not included in the previous numbers. The runoff mechanism from the Powderhorn Lake area is not treated in this hydrologic analysis because of the limited hydraulic connection between the two lake systems. Runoff from the impervious surfaces (paved areas and rooftops) in 174 acres of the Robertsdale subdivision on the west side of Calumet Avenue collects in a constructed storm drain system that discharges into Wolf Lake at the Forsythe Park pumping station of the Hammond Sanitary District. The Sanitary District's Sheffield Park station discharges runoff from the Sheffield Avenue drain system from Calumet Avenue to 136th Street. The Roby pumping station, owned by the State of Indiana and operated by the Sanitary District, discharges runoff from the Indianapolis Boulevard drain system from Calumet Avenue up to and including the interchange drainage at the Indiana East-West Toll Road. The locations of these stormwater pumping stations and their approximate contributing areas are shown in figure 2. The discharges from these pumping stations are regulated by permit under the NPDES. Restrictions written into this permit limit discharges to stormwater only. No sanitary or industrial discharges are to be associated with these stations. All nonpoint pollutant loads from watershed storm drainage passes through the Hammond Sanitary District pump stations as "point discharges". Les than 0.5 percent of the inflow to Wolf Lake enters as nonpoint inflow. No pollutant loads have been calculated for this inflow.

40

Table 9. Hammond Sanitary District Outfalls to Wolf Lake Month/1988

Parameters

017 Roby Station 018 Forsythe Park 019 Sheffield

June

CBOD(mg/L) FOG(mg/L) Fecal col (MOO mL)

13 18.77 740

8 1 2,300

26 1 1,000

July

CBOD(mg/L) FOG(mg/L) Fecal col (MOO mL)

3 13.4 66,000

5 1.13 110,000

34 403.56 18,000

August

CBOD(mg/L) FOG(mg/L) Fecal col (MOO mL)

5 2.0 7,943

3 2.0 44,000

7 5 9,550

Sept.

CBOD(mg/L) FOG(mg/L) Fecal col (MOO mL)

12 2.0 3,715

10 6.6 52,000

113 21.1 44,000

Oct.

CBOD(mgZL) FOG(mg/L) Fecal col (MOO mL)

2.3 8.5 11,482

10 8.1 4,890

14.21 1,085 10,472

Nov.

CBOD(mg/L) FOG(mg/L) Fecal col. (MOO mL)

13 3.0 1,100

21 1.0 100

81 43.0 10,472

Dec.

CBOD(mg/L) FOG(mg/L) Fecal col (MOO mL)

3.0 6.0 708

1.0 24.0 100

2.0 11.0 100

Notes:

CBOD = Carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand FOG = Fats, oils, and grease Fecal col = Fecal coliform bacteria

Source:

Bell and Johnson (1990)

41

Table 10a. Effluent Quality of Roby Pumping Station - Hammond Sanitary District into Wolf Lake Channel

Month 1992 October November December 1993 January February March April May June July August September Mean Maximum Minimum

Flow, mgd Mean Range

Sampling date

pH

CBOD, mg/L

TSS, mg/L

Volatile solids, %

FOG, mg/L

Fecal coliform. per 100 mL

0.09 0.17 0.27

0.04-0.28 0.10-0.57 0.06-1.09

10/14 11/17 12/18

7.52 7.35 7.23

4 5 29

9 11 27

99.1 63.6 63.0

11 2 16

220,000 55,000 17,600

0.24 0.13 0.17 0.20 0.14 0.52 0.24 0.25 0.26

0.14-0.81 0.08-0.20 0.08-0.67 0.10-0.67 0.06-0.38 0.10-3.17 0.14-0.71 0.06-1.50 0.12-1.01

1/29 2/25 3/11 4/20 5/12 6/15 7/21 8/17 9/22

7.24 7.31 7.31 7.44 7.40 7.27 7.38 7.01 7.39

5 2 5 4 2 3 8 2 7

9 9 19 55 11 11 23 15 108

99.9 (1?) 47.4 69.2 36.4 18.2 78.3 33.3 27.8

2 1 4 3 1 0.9 5 1 3

11,250 11,350 1,080 33,000 158,000 13,000 74,000 86,000 329,000

0.20 0.52 0.09

3.17 0.04

7.52 7.01

6 29 2

26 108 9

57.8 99.9 18.2

4.2 16.0 0.9

329,000 1,080

Notes: mgd = million gallons per day; CBOD = carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand; TSS = total suspended solids; FOG = fat, oil, and grease.

Table 10b. Effluent Quality of Forsythe Pumping Station - Hammond Sanitary District into Wolf Lake Channel

Month 1992 October November December 1993 January February March April May June July August September Mean Maximum Minimum

Flow, med Mean Range

Sampling date

pH

CBOD, mg/L

TSS, mg/L

Volatile solids, %

FOG, mg/L

Fecal coliform, perl00mL

0.28 0.60 0.44

0.00-1.47 0.00-3.28 0.00-4.10

10/14 11/17 12/18

7.60 7.62 7.46

2.0 1.9 1.9

2 6 7

99.1 99.9 57.1

1 2 3

290 2,400 10

3.88 1.55 2.36 3.09 1.25 7.12 2.46 2.51 3.51

0.00-22.89 0.00-10.71 0.00-17.22 0.00-22.26 0.00-5.93 0.00-38.44 0.00-14.53 0.00-16.84 0.00-13.69

1/29 2/25 3/11 4/20 5/12 6/15 7/22 8/17 9/21

7.40 7.81 7.49 7.57 5.98 7.55 7.90 7.49 7.65

2.0 2.0 6.0 5.0 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 4.0

6 3 161 35 30 27 29 5 19

99.9 90.0 29.8 99.9 66.7 37.0 86.2 40.0 31.6

1 2 14 9 1 3 1 1

150 115 1,800 2,500 50 6,400 3,600 5,400 8,000

2.42 7.12 0.28

38.44 0.00

7.90 5.98

2.7 6.0 1.9

28 161 2

69.8 99.9 29.8

3 14 1

8,000 10

Notes: mgd = million gallons per day; CBOD = carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand; TSS = total suspended solids; FOG = fat, oil, and grease.

42

Table 10c Effluent Quality of Sheffield Pumping Station - Hammond Sanitary District into Pool 8

Month 1992 October November December 1993 January February March April May June July August September Mean Maximum Minimum

Flow, med Mean Range

Sampling date

CBOD, TSS, pH mg/L mg/L

Volatile solids, %

Fecal FOG, coliform. mg/L per 100 mL

0.04 0.15 0.11

0.00-0.20 0.00-0.77 0.00-1.17

10/14 11/17 12/18

7.69 9.02 8.65

2.0 1.9 2.0

9 10 10

33.3 70.0 80.0

4 4 4

130 9 80

0.26 0.06 0.17 0.17 0.06 0.86 0.13 0.17 0.24

0.00-1.38 0.00-0.10 0.05-0.97 0.00-0.77 0.00-0.31 0.00-8.36 0.00-0.82 0.00-3.01 0.00-0.87

1/29 2/25 3/11 4/20 5/12 6/15 7/21 8/17 9/21

8.68 7.62 8.64 9.29 9.13 8.39 7.29 7.32 8.13

3.0 8.0 3.0 3.0 2.0 1.9 6.0 6.0 3.0

7 7 19 55 12 6 68 266 42

42.9 (1?) 36.8 90.9 (99.0) 99.9 73.5 95.9 14.3

7 1 8 4 1 0.9 3 1 2

3,000 9,800 2,000 270 510 1,800 1,600 3,100 3,400

9.29 7.29

3.5 8.0 1.9

43 266 6

61.4 99.9 1

3.3 8 0.9

9,800 9

0.20 0.86 0.04

8.36 0.00

Notes: mgd = million gallons per day; CBOD = carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand; TSS = total suspended solids; FOG = fat, oil, and grease.

43

BASELINE AND CURRENT LIMNOLOGICAL DATA In order to evaluate the lake water quality, both historical and current limnological data were gathered. A sampling program was developed to collect data from the lake and its tributaries for 12 consecutive months from October 1992 through September 1993. These data are referred to as the current baseline data. In situ monitoring and water and sediment sample collections were carried out. In addition, monitoring for macrophytes and macroinvertebrates, a bathymetric survey, stage level measurements, and flow determinations were carried out as required. The historical data were obtained from the IEPA, IDEM, other agencies, and publications. Morphometric Data The pertinent morphometric details regarding all Wolf Lake pools are listed in table 11. Bathymetric Survey A bathymetric survey of Wolf Lake was conducted as part of the diagnostic study. The data were collected using a range-range methodology, whereby a microwave transponder was set up in the boat to monitor distances to two or three shore-based remote transponders. Based on the known coordinates of the shore-based transponders and their relative distances, horizontal coordinates could be determined at any time as the boat moved along a transect. As data for each surveyed point were collected, personnel in the boat simultaneously added an electronic mark to the sounding chart and downloaded horizontal coordinates to a laptop computer. A total of 148 transects were run to collect the depth and horizontal position data. Data collected during the field survey were processed and plotted using the Water Survey's Geographic Information System (GIS). Depth contours for the lake (appendix A) were digitized from hand-drawn contours prepared on the original survey depth plots. Surface areas for these contours were used for the depth-volume analyses presented in table 12. Average depth in the pools varies from 3.3 feet in Pool 3 to 8.5 feet in Pool 2. Less than 20 percent of Pool 3 has depths greater than 4 feet. In comparison, more than 70 percent of the area in Pool 8 has a depth of at least 4 feet. Materials and Methods Field Measurements In order to assess the current conditions of the lake, certain of its physical, chemical, and biological characteristics were monitored during the period of October 1, 1992, to October 27, 1993. The lake was monitored monthly from October through April and twice a month during the remaining period, for a total of 17 visits. Because the tributary creeks for the lake are ephemeral in nature, tributary samples were not collected during these regularly scheduled visits to the lake; instead, special trips were made to collect tributary samples during storm events. However, samples were collected routinely from the outflow creek (Indian Creek, RHA 01). The locations of the lake and tributary monitoring stations are shown in figure 8. The regular lake sampling locations are at the deepest point of each water body (pool). In addition to periodic water sample collections, trips were made to the lake for collecting storm event samples, surficial and core sediment samples, and for collection and identification of macrophytes and benthic organisms.

44

Table 11. Wolf Lake Areal and Volumetric Parameters

Pool

Surface area, acres

Volume, acre-feet

Shoreline length, miles

Maximum depth, feet

Average depth, feet

1

99.1

797

1.58

16.2

8.0

0*

0*

2

75.7

645

1.41

15.4

8.5

0.05

18

3

108.2

353

4.39

14.4

3.3

0.03

10

4

123.5

662

2.37

12.0

5.4

0.05

19

5

46.9

373

2.68

18.4

8.0

0*

0*

6

64.1

252

1.89

6.4

3.9

0.02

7

7

57.4

231

1.80

7.2

4.0

0.02

7

8

347.3

2,260

8.65

18.2

6.5

0.18

64

Retention time years days

Note: *No detailed inflow and outflow data were generated for these pools. No retention time can be calculated.

45

Table 12. Summary of Wolf Lake Hydrographic Survey Results

Pool

Depth, feet

Area, acres

Volume, acre-feet

Pool

Depth, feet

Area, acres

Volume, acre-feet

8

0 2 4 8 12 16 18

347 322 195 118 113 33 0

2,260 1,591 1,081 462 34 22 0

4

0 4 8 12

123 109 6 0

662 197 8 0

3

0 4 7.2

57 38 0

231 41 0

0 4 8 14.4

108 39 3 0

353 69 5 0

2

6

0 4 6

64 47 0

252 31 0

0 4 8 12 14.8

76 66 44 25 0

645 362 160 22 0

5

0 4 8 12 16 18.4

47 35 18 12 8 0

373 210 . 105 45 6 0

99 72 53 30 1 0

797 457 207 49 0 0

7

1

0 4 8 12 16 16.2

46

Table 13 outlines the protocol for field data collections, including the type and frequency of observations required during the one-year data gathering effort. In situ observations for temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) and Secchi disc readings were made at the sampling sites on the lake. A dissolved oxygen meter, Yellow Springs Instrument model 58, with a 50-foot cable and probe was calibrated at the site using the saturated air chamber standardization procedure. Temperature and DO measurements were obtained in the water column at 1-foot intervals from the surface. Secchi disc transparencies were measured using an 8-inch diameter Secchi disc, which was lowered until it disappeared from view, and the depth noted. The disc was lowered further, then slowly raised until it reappeared. This depth was also noted, and the average of the two depths was recorded. Secchi disc visibility is a measure of a lake's water transparency or its ability to allow sunlight penetration. Water Chemistry Grab samples for water chemistry analyses were collected near the surface (1 foot below) and near the bottom (2 feet above the lake bottom if the water depth is greater than 10 feet) in two 500-milliliter (mL) plastic containers. Water samples for nutrients analyses were collected in 125-mL plastic bottles with and without filtration (0.45-micrometer, urn, membrane filter) that contained reagent-grade sulfuric acid as preservative. These samples were kept on ice until transferred to the laboratory for analyses. Determinations for pH, phenalphthalein alkalinity, and total alkalinity were made at the site before the samples were taken to the laboratory. Samples for metals were collected in 500-mL plastic bottles containing reagent-grade nitric acid as preservative. Samples for organic analyses were collected in 1-gallon dark amber bottles filled to the brim without any headspace. The methods and procedures involved in the analytical determinations are given in table 14. Chlorophyll and Phytoplankton Vertically integrated samples for chlorophyll and phytoplankton were collected using a weighted bottle sampler with a half-gallon plastic bottle. The sampler was lowered at a constant rate to a depth twice the Secchi depth, or to 2 feet above the bottom of the lake, and raised at a constant rate to the surface. For chlorophyll analysis, a measured amount of sample was filtered through a Whatman GF/C (4.7-centimeters, cm, glass microfibre filter) using a hand-operated vacuum pump. The chlorophyll filters were then folded into quadrants, blotted with a paper towel, and wrapped in aluminum foil, and the filtrate volume was measured using a graduated cylinder. Filters were kept frozen in the laboratory until analysis. Chlorophyll a, b, c, and pheophytin a were determined by the IEPA laboratory. For algal identification and enumeration, 380-mL water subsamples were taken, preserved with 20 mL of formalin at the time of collection, and stored at room temperature until they could be examined. Zooplankton Vertically integrated 10-liter (L) samples were collected for zooplankton identification and enumeration. The samples were filtered through a Wisconsin net, and the collected zooplankton were placed in a 250-mL bottle with 10 mL of ethyl alcohol and 190 mL of deionized water. In the laboratory, each sample was filtered through a 0.45-μm-pore size filter. The organisms were resuspended in 10 mL of deionized water. One mL of sample was placed in a Sedgwick Rafter Cell and examined using a differential contrast microscope at 100X magnification. Organisms in the five widths of the cell were counted and recorded. The sizes and shapes of various zooplanktons found in water samples are given in table 15.

47

Table 13. Protocol for Field Data Collections in Wolf Lake

I.

In-Lake Monitoring A.

Water (RHA-1 through RHA-9, and RHA 01) 1. Sites (sampling and in situ monitoring) a. One site in each of the eight water bodies and Wolf Lake Channel b. Deepest point in each water body 2. Depths a. Dissolved oxygen/temperature profile at each site b. Sample collected at 1 foot below surface and at 2 feet above bottom c. Chlorophyll-a - integrated sample in euphotic zone 3. Frequency a. Core parameters - bimonthly from May to September and monthly from October to April b. Organics, metals - once 4. Parameters a. Core (samples each time monitored) Field observations, Secchi disc transparency, dissolved oxygen/temperature profiles, pH, total alkalinity, phenolphthalein alkalinity, conductivity, chlorides, total suspended solids, volatile suspended solids, dissolved phosphorus, total phosphorus, ammonia-N, nitrate and nitrite-N, total kjeldahl nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, and chlorophyll-a, b, c and pheophytin b. Metals and organics Cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, silver, zinc, PCBs, aldrin, dieldrin, DDT and analogs, total chlordane and isomers, endrin, methoxychlor, hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, and pentachlorophenol

B.

Sediment 1. Sites (see figure 8) a. Surficial - 20 b. Core 10 2. Frequency - replicate core and sediment samples once 3. Parameters a. Metals listed in A.4.b. above b. Organics listed in A.4.b. above c. In addition, total phosphorus, total kjeldahl nitrogen, percent total and volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, particle size, and density

C.

Phytoplankton and Zooplankton 1. Sites - same as for water in the lake 2. Depths • integrated euphotic zone, twice Secchi depth 3. Frequency - monthly from April to October 4. Parameters a. Identification to lowest possible taxon and enumeration b. Biovolume

48

Table 13. Concluded

II.

D.

Aquatic Macrophytes 1. Sites - littoral zone, shoreline to twice Secchi depth 2. Frequency - once in summer 3. Parameters a. Identification to lowest possible taxon b. Mapping of locations and abundance c. Biomass

E.

Benthic Macroinvertebrates 1. Sites - same as for lake water 2. Frequency - spring turnover and peak summer stratification 3. Parameters a. Identification to lowest possible taxon b. Biomass

F.

Fecal and Total Coliforms and Fecal Streptococci 1. Sites - same as for lake water plus RHA 02 through RHA 14, RHA 71 and RHA 72 2. Frequency - monthly

Inflows and Outflows A.

Sites 1. 2. 3.

Storm discharges Industrial discharges Outflow

B.

Depth integrated

C.

Frequency - same as for water

D.

Parameters 1. Total and volatile suspended soids, total phosphorus, ammonia-N, nitrate and nitrite-N, for outflows and storm discharges 2. Metals and organics listed in A.4.b, once for outflows and storm discharges

49

Table 14. Analytical Procedures Parameter

Method

of

analysis

(reference)

Unit of measure

Detection limits

Temperature

In situ measurement using YSI Model 58 Dissolved Oxygen meter

°C

Dissolved Oxygen

In situ measurement using YSI Model 58 DO meter

mg/L

pH

On site using Necter model 47 after collection

none

Alkalinity

Titration of 25-mL sample Necter Model 47 pH meter with 0.02 N H 2 SO 4 to pH 8.3 (phenolphthalein alk) and to pH 4.5 (total alkalinity)

Conductivity

EPA 120.1 Wheatstone bridge

Chloride

Standard Methods 4500 Cl B Argertometric

Chemical Oxygen Demand

E1A 410.4 Colorimetric

Chlorophyll

Standard Methods 10200 Spectrophotometric

Ammonia-N

Potentiometric, ISE

mg/L

0.1 mg/L

Nitrite-N

EPA 353.2 Colorimetric, automated Cd redn

mg/L

0.10 mg/L N0 2 -N

Nitrate-N

EPA 353.2 Colorimetric, automated Cd redn

mg/L

0.10 mg/L

Total Kjeldahl-N

EPA 351.4 Potentiometric, mg/L ISF after digestion

mg/L

0.10 mg/L

Oil & Grease, 1R

EPA 413.2 Spectrophometric, IR

mg/L

1.0 mg/L

Phosphorus, total

EPA 365.2 Persulfate digestion Ascorbic acid colorimetric

mg/L

0.05 mg/L

Phosphorus, dissolved

EPA 365.2 after field filtration through 0.45-u filter Persulfate Digestion ascorbic acid colorimetric

mg/L

0.05 mg/L

17th

using

edition

17th

50

0.1° O2

0.1 mg/L 0.05

mg/L or Ca

CO3

1 mg/L as CaCO 3

umho/cm

1 umho/cm

mg/L

5 mg/L

mg/L

1 mg/L

edition,

μg/L

2-7 μg/L

Table 14. Continued

Parameter

Method

of

analysis

(reference)

Unit of measure

Detection limits

Total Solids

EPA 160.3 Gravimetric, dried at 103-105°C

mg/L

1 mg/L

Total Dissolved Solids

EPA 160.1 Gravimetric Residue, filterable Dry at 180°C

mg/L

1 mg/L

Total Suspended Solids

EPA 160.2 Gravimetric Residue, nonfilterable Dryatl03-105°C

mg/L

1 mg/L

Volatile Suspended Solids

EPA 160.4 Gravimetric Ignition at 550°C

mg/L

1 mg/L

Cadmium

EPA 200.7, ICP

μg/L

<5 μg/L

Chromium

EPA 200.7, ICP

¦Ìg/L

10 ¦Ìg/L

Copper

EPA 200.7, ICP

μg/L

10 μg/L

Iron

EPA 200.7, ICP

μg/L

100 Mg/L

Lead

EPA 239.2, AA Furnace

¦Ìg/L

5 μg/L

Manganese

EPA 200.7, ICP

μg/L

10 μg/L

Nickel

EPA 200.7, ICP

μg/L

20 μg/L

Silver

EPA 200.7, ICP

μg/L

10 μg/L

Zinc

EPA 200.7, ICP

μg/L

20 μg/L

μg/L μ g/L μg/L μg/L μg/L μg/L μg/L μg/L μg/L μg/L μg/L μg/L μg/L μg/L

0.5 μg/L 0.5 μg/L 0.5 μg/L 0.5 μg/L 0.5 μg/L 1.0 μg/L 1.0 μg/L 0.05 μg/L 0.10 μg/L 0.10 μg/L 0.10 μg/L 0.10 μg/L 0.10 μg/L 0.50 μg/L

Arochlor -

1016 1221 1232 1242 1248 1254 1260

Aldrin Dieldrin 4,4'-DDE Endrin 4,4'-DDD 4,4'-DDT Methoxychlor

SW-846/8080 " " " " " " " " " " " " "

51

Table 14. Concluded Parameter

Method of analysis (reference)

Alpha-chlordane Gamma chlordane Hexachlorobenzene a-BHC b-BHC g-BHC d-BHC Pentachlorphenol

SW-846/8080 " " SW-846/8080 " " " SW-846/8270

Unit of measure

Detection limits

¦Ìg/L μg/L μg/L μg/L μg/L μg/L μg/L μg/L

0.5 μg/L 0.5 μg/L 10 μg/L 0.05 μg/L 0.05 μg/L 0.05 μg/L 0.05 μg/L 50 μg/L

Sources: 1.

APHA, AWWA, and WEF. 1992. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater.

2.

U.S.EPA. 1993. Methods for the determination of inorganic substances in environmental samples. EPA/600/R-93/100, Washington, DC.

3.

U.S.EPA. 1994. Methods for the determination of metals in environmental samples. EPA/600/R-94/111, Washington, DC.

4.

U.S.EPA. 1991. Analytical methods for pesticides/aroclors, Exhibit D in USEPA Contract Laboratory Program: statement of work for organics analysis, multi-media, multi-concentration. Document number OLM01.0 (Dec. 1990) through OLM01.7, pp. D-l/PEST through D-63/PEST.

52

Table 15. Sizes and Shapes of Zooplankton Used in Biovolume Determination for Wolf Lake Name

Shape

Size (μn)

Cladocera (Water Fleas) Bosmini coregoni B. longirostris B. pulex Daphnia ambigas D. catarila D. dubia D. laevis D. pulex D. rosea Lepotodora rindtii Polyphemus pediculus

Spherical Spherical Spherical Spherical Spherical Spherical Spherical Spherical Spherical Spherical Spherical

700 diam. 500 diam. 2,000 diam. 1,500 diam. 2,000 diam. 2,000 diam. 2,000 diam. 2,000 diam. 2,000 diam. 9,000 diam. 1,500 diam.

Copepoda (Copepods) Diaptomus minutus Eucyclops speratus

Cylindrical Cylindrical

100 × 500 200 × 900

Spherical

500 diam.

Rotifera (Rotifers) Ascomorpha saltan Asplanchua priodonta Brachionus bidentata B. quadridentata Chromogaster ovalis Elose woralli Horaella brehmi Keratella quadrata K. sp. K. stipitata Philodina sp.

Spherical Cylindrical Cylindrical Spherical Cylindrical Spherical Spherical Cylindrical Cylindrical Cylindrical Cylindrical

150 diam. 200×500 200 × 300 200 diam. 10x150 90 diam. 200 diam. 50 × 200 50 × 200 75 × 200 10 × 200

Acaris (Water Mites) Chelomideopris besselingi

Spherical

2.5 diam.

Ostracoda (Seed shrimps) Cyclocypris

forbesi

53

Algae For algal identification and enumeration, the sample was thoroughly mixed, and a 1-mL aliquot was pipetted into a Sedgwick Rafter Cell. A differential interface contrast microscope equipped with a 10X or 20X eyepiece, 20X or 100X objective, and a Whipple disc was used for identification and counting purposes. Five short strips were counted. The algae species were identified and were classified into five main groups: blue-greens, greens, diatoms, flagellates, and desmids. For enumeration, blue-green algae were counted by trichomes. Green algae were counted by individual cells except for Actinastrum, Coelastrum, and Pediastrum, which were recorded by each colony observed. Each cell packet of Scenedesmus was counted. Diatoms were counted as one organism regardless of their grouping connections. For flagellates, a colony of Dinobryon or a single cell of Ceratium was recorded as a unit. The dimensions and shapes of various algae found in the water samples are given in table 16. Macroinvertebrates Benthic samples for macroinvertebrate examination were collected using a Petite Ponar dredge ( 6 × 6 inches). Three grab samples were taken at ten sites, the same in-lake water monitoring stations used for macroinvertebrate analyses. The samples were washed in a 30-mesh screen bucket, and the residue was preserved in 1-quart plastic bottles containing 95 percent ethyl alcohol. In the laboratory, the samples were washed again. The organisms were picked from the bottom detritus, preserved in 70 percent ethyl alcohol, identified, and counted. Then the biomass was determined. Indicator Bacteria Bacterial samples from the lake and storm drains were examined for total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC), and fecal streptococcus (FS). Procedures from Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (American Public Health Association et al, 1992) for using 0.45-um membrane filters were employed in the bacterial determinations. For TC density, one-step LES Endo agar at 35°C for 22 + 2 hours was used. Fecal coliforms were grown in MFC agar in a water bath (44.5 ± 0.2°C) for 22 ± 2 hours. To test for FS, the filter was incubated on KF streptococcus agar at 35°C for 48 + 2 hours. Macrophytes The macrophyte survey of the lake was done in two stages. A reconnaissance survey of the macrophyte beds was carried out on June 22-23, 1993, using a boat and a GIS-generated lake map with a square grid. The macrophyte beds were probed thoroughly with a garden rake to determine the presence/absence of macrophytes, type and qualitative assessment of densities of vegetation (dense, medium, sparse, etc.), and so forth. The grid made it easy to mark the boat position on the map. The reconnaissance survey enabled the delineation of the areal extent and abundance of macrophytes in the lake and the tentative selection of sites for quantitative sampling of macrophytes. Macrophyte samples were collected at several locations with the aid of scuba divers on July 22-23, 1993, using 18- or 12-inch quadrats, depending on whether the site had sparse or dense growth. At each sampling site, observations were made and recorded for water depth, plant length, depth and character of the sediments, etc. All the plants within the quadrat were collected with roots intact and placed in plastic bags, which were then sealed. These samples were then examined with a stereo microscope and identified. Next, all the plants from each sampling site were air-dried, then dried at 105°C in a drying oven to constant weight, and finally weighed to determine the biomass.

54

Table 16. Sizes and Shapes of Algae Used in Biovolume Determination for Wolf Lake Name Blue-Greens Anabaena planctonica A. spiroides Anacystis thermolis Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Oscillatoria chlorina O. sp. Greens Actinastrum haratschii Closteriopsis longissima Coelastrum microporum Crucigenia rectangulahs Oocystis borgei Pediastrum biradiatum P. duplex P. simplex P. tetras Scenedesmus carinatus S. dimorphus Ulothrix variabilis U. zonata Diatoms Amphiprora ornata A. paludosa Amphora ovalis Asterionella formosa Caloneis amphisbaena Cylotella atomus C. meneghiniana C. ocellata Cymatopleura solea Cymbella affmis C. prostrata Diatoma vulgare Diploneis smithii Fragilaria virescens Gomphonema olivaceum Gyrosigma kutzingii Melosira granulata Navicular cryptocephala N. cuspidata N. gastrum Neidium dubium Nitzschia dentecula

Shape Flat, rectangular Spherical, filamentous Spherical, colony Cylindrical, filamentous Cylindrical Cylindrical Spherical Flat, rectangular Spherical Flat, rectangular, colony

Size (urn) 11×

9 10 diam., 100 5 diam., 6 to 16 in a colony 4.5 × 90 9 × 67.5 8 × 55

Spherical Spherical Cylindrical Cylindrical Spherical Flat, rectangular Flat, rectangular Cylindrical, filamentous Flat, rectangular

42 diam. 5 × 210 24 diam. 4.5 × 24, 250 in a colony 22 diam. 15 diam. 3 × 150 10 × 22 9 diam. 3 × 12 5 × 19 5 × 10, 10 31 × 55

Flat, rectangular Flat, rectangular Flat, rectangular Flat, rectangular Flat, rectangular Spherical Spherical Spherical Flat, rectangular Cylindrical Cylindrical Flat, rectangular Cylindrical Flat, rectangular Flat, rectangular Cylindrical Cylindrical Cylindrical Cylindrical Cylindrical Cylindrical Cylindrical

44 × 60 44 × 60 13 × 65 2 × 125 5×8 4 diam. 21 diam. 11 diam. 22 × 155 12 × 60 25 × 85 11 × 45 15 × 8 9 × 88 7 × 20 7 × 20 12 × 60 5 × 25 22 × 120 12 × 45 12 × 33 5 × 51

55

Table 16. Concluded Name

Shape

Size (μm)

Diatoms Rhoicosphenia cruvata Stephanodiscus niagarae Synedra actinastroides S. acus S. delicatissima S. ulna Tabellaria fenestrata

Cylindrical Spherical Spherical, colony Cylindrical Cylindrical Cylindrical Cylindrical

7 × 45 52 diam. 3 diam., 55 4.5 × 200 3 × 220 4.5 × 200 6 × 90

Flagellates Carteria multifilis Ceratium hirundinella Chlamydomonas reinhardi Dinobryon sertularia Eudorina elegans Eugtena gracilis Phacus pleuronectes Trachemonas crebea

Spherical Triangular Spherical Cylindrical Flat, rectangular, colony Cylindrical Cylindrical Spherical

14 diam. 48 × 48 × 200 7 diam. 30 × 60 10x21,135 6 × 45 40 × 87 18 diam.

Desmids Closterium sp. Staurastrum cornutum

Flat, rectangular Flat, rectangular

20 × 110 18 × 32

56

Sediment Sediment samples were collected from the 19 locations shown in figure 8 and from the ten regular water quality monitoring sites, for a total of 29 sampling sites. Core samples were collected either from a boat or by wading, using a 2-inch hand-driven sediment corer thrust into the lake bottom to the point of refusal. Wildco (Wildlife Supply Company, Saginaw, MI) clear plastic core-liner tube was used to collect the sediment samples, which were subsequently divided into three equal parts, designated top, middle, and bottom. Each of these portions was examined in the laboratory for heavy metals and trace organics. Surficial sediment samples were collected using an epoxy-coated Petite Ponar dredge. Portions of each sample were placed in a 250-mL plastic bottle for metal and nutrient analysis and in a specially prepared 200-mL glass bottle for trace organics and toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) tests according to the IEPA Quality Assurance and Field Methods Manual (IEPA, 1987). Particle-size analyses of the surficial sediments were carried out using the hydrometer analyses procedure, American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) D422-63. USEPA method 1311, published in the Federal Register, 40 CFR 261, March 29, 1990, was used for the TCLP extraction of the surficial sediment sample (USEPA, 1990a). Hydrologic Data Hydrologic data were collected for the period October 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993, to evaluate the inflow, outflow, and interflow conditions in the lake. Hydrologic data collection for this diagnostic phase of the study included water-level monitoring for nine staff gages on at least a monthly basis and discharge measurements in the pool connecting channels at the Tollway culvert, the State Line Road culvert, the railroad culvert, and the Indian Creek outlet. Stage and discharge measurements made during the diagnostic phase of the study are listed in table 17. During summer 1993, water levels in Pools 8 and 3 were monitored by 5-pounds per square inch (psi) Druck pressure transducers connected to an Omnidata Data Pod II electronic data logger. Each data logger was programmed to measure water levels at hourly intervals and then record the levels once every 12 hours. The data logger also monitored for a specific water-level change at each hourly reading and recorded a date and time listing for major water-level rise or fall. In-Lake Water Quality Characteristics Wolf Lake has been monitored for its water quality characteristics under two statewide programs: the IEPA's Volunteer Lake Monitoring Program (VLMP) and the Ambient Lake Monitoring Program (ALMP). The VLMP enlists volunteers who monitor lake conditions (Secchi disc reading and field observations) twice a month from May through October and transmit the collected data to the IEPA for analysis and report preparation. The ALMP performs a much more comprehensive set of chemical analyses on the collected water samples than the VLMP. Appendix B lists the limnological data obtained from the current one-year (October 1992 through September 1993) monitoring and the historical ALMP. Appendix C presents the statistical summaries of each parameter measured for each station. The printout was prepared by IEPA staff. The historical and current conditions of each parameter monitored were compared. Spatial (within pools) and temporal (seasonal) differences were evaluated. The results of water quality analyses in Pools 1-5 were compared to the applicable General Use Water Quality Standards for the state of Illinois, as promulgated by the Illinois Pollution Control Board. The results of the monitoring program in Pools 6 through 8 and Wolf Lake Channel were evaluated against the standards established by the Indiana Water Quality Standards, 327 1AC 2, from 1993 version of Indiana Administrative Code which was incorporated in IDEM's rules (1995). 57

Table 17a. Staff Gage Readings Collected during the Wolf Lake Diagnostic Study

Date 8/13/92 8/14/92 9/1/92 9/2/92 9/3/92 9/4/92 10/13/92 11/9/92 11/12/92 11/13/92 12/21/92 1/19/93 1/20/93 2/4/93 2/10/93 3/3/93 3/8/93 3/16/93 3/30/93 4/13/93 4/14/93 5/10/93 5/11/93 5/25/93 5/26/93 6/7/93 6/9/93 6/10/93 6/21/93 6/22/93 7/7/93 7/8/93 7/19/93 7/20/93 7/21/93 8/2/93 8/4/93 8/17/93 8/18/93 9/8/93 9/9/93 9/28/93 10/1/93 10/25/93 11/30/93

1

Wolf Lake Pool (Units in feet) 3 4 5 6

2

7

8

9

1.63 1.58

1.57

1.56

1.74 1.96 2.07 2.08

1.89

2.01 2.11 2.08 1.84

2.83 3.01 3.11

2.80 3.35 3.37 3.61 3.60 3.57 3.54 3.32 3.28 3.24 2.88 2.82 2.55 2.67 2.62 2.65 2.54 2.62

1.78

2.30 2.35 2.35 2.22 2.20 1.84 1.78 2.26 2.86 2.90 3.05 3.02 2.60 2.56 2.31 2.34 2.35 1.61 1.57 1.57 1.57 2.24 2.17 2.38 2.39 2.42 2.58

2.04 2.14 2.15 2.48 2.46 2.33 2.24 2.16 2.21 2.25 2.39 2.46 2.40 2.33 2.29 1.90 1.88 2.36 2.92 2.98 3.13 3.10 2.68 2.65 2.40 2.43 2.46 1.68 1.64 1.66 1.64 2.32 2.27 2.47 2.46 2.50 2.66

2.07 2.17 2.15 2.48 2.30 2.22 2.17 2.23 2.24 2.36 2.40 2.38 2.29 2.24 1.95 1.90 2.35 2.94 2.96 3.09 3.08 2.66 2.63 2.35 2.36 2.38 1.81 1.76 1.77 1.76 2.32 2.28 2.44 2.44 2.47 2.61

58

2.36 2.43 2.29

1.90 2.92 2.97 3.12 3.08 2.68 2.64 2.36 2.39 2.42 1.87 1.82 1.80 1.80 2.32 2.48 2.49 2.65

1.58

1.56

1.41

1.40

1.53 1.69 1.65 1.55 1.77 1.77 1.64 1.58 1.59 1.58 1.58 1.63 1.62 1.60 1.61 1.62 1.50 1.48 2.10 2.23 2.20 2.26 2.21 1.88 1.85 1.62 1.60 1.62 1.42 1.41 1.44 1.43 1.61 1.55 1.76 1.68 1.70 1.83

1.38 1.54 1.65 1.66 1.76 1.72 1.64 1.57 1.58 1.58 1.64 1.62 1.62 1.63 1.52 1.50 2.10 2.28 2.23 2.28 2.26 1.90 1.83 1.60 1.61 1.41 1.43 1.45 1.45 1.63 1.58 1.74 1.70 1.86

1.60 1.49 1.47 1.53 1.5 1.47 1.62

1.59

1.61

1.77 1.65

1.60

1.47 1.49

1.54 1.52 1.63 1.59 1.49 1.48 2.29 2.28 2.20 2.24 2.21 1.86 1.86 1.62 1.58 1.41 1.42 1.42 1.6 1.61 1.74 1.70 1.69 1.84

1.54 0 1.42 2.21

2.16 1.84 1.79 1.56 1.54 1.34 1.35 1.35 1.55 1.55 1.68 1.63 . 1.78

Table 17b. Discharge Measurements Collected during the Wolf Lake Diagnostic Study

Date 11/9/92 12/22/92 1/20/93 2/4/93 3/8/93 4/14/93 5/11/93 5/25/93 6/7/93 6/10/93 6/21/93 7/8/93 7/21/93 8/2/93 8/17/93 10/1/93

Indiana Toll Road 16.5 13.6 18.6 14.0 15.4 12.5 130.0 10.4 50.84 27.8 23.5 17.8 14.6 13.1 13.1 18.0

Discharge measurements, cfs State Line Road Railroad 14.8 16.1 17.9 15.6 14.6 13.6 15.3 13.4 36.0 28.3 24.6 19.9 13.5 11.4 11.9 15.8

59

14.1 13.5 17.1 13.8 13.1 13.1 14.6 14.1 22.4 28.8 24.2 24.0 10.1 11.8 11.2 13.2

Indian Creek 20.0 17.6 23.0 17.9 16.6 16.5 16.7 15.4 12.3 25.9 29.3 26.3 5.9 14.8 11.9 14.8

Physical Characteristics Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen. Lakes in the temperate zone generally undergo seasonal variations in temperature throughout the water column. These variations, with their accompanying phenomena, are perhaps the most influential controlling factors within the lakes. The temperature of a deep lake in the temperate zone is about 4°C during early spring. As air temperatures rise, the upper layers of water warm up and are mixed with the lower layers by wind action. Spring turnover is complete mixing of a lake when the water temperature is uniform from top to bottom. By late spring, differences in thermal resistance cause the mixing to cease, and the lake approaches the thermal stratification of the summer season. Almost as important as water temperature variations is the physical phenomenon of increasing density with decreasing temperature. These two interrelated forces are capable of creating strata of water of vastly different characteristics within the lake. During thermal stratification, the upper layer (epilimnion) is isolated from the lower layer of water (hypolimnion) by a temperature gradient (thermocline). Temperatures in the epilimnion and hypolimnion are essentially uniform. The thermocline will typically have a sharp temperature drop per unit depth from the upper to the lower margin. When thermal stratification is established, the lake enters the summer stagnation period, so named because the hypolimnion becomes stagnated. With cooler air temperatures during the fall season, the temperature of the epilimnion decreases and density of the water increases. This decrease in temperature continues until the epilimnion is the same temperature as the upper margin of the thermocline. Successive cooling through the thermocline to the hypolimnion results in a uniform temperature throughout the water column. The lake then enters the fall circulation period (fall turnover) and is again subjected to a complete mixing by the wind. Declining air temperatures and the formation of ice cover during the winter produce a slightly inverse thermal stratification. The water column is essentially uniform in temperature at about 3 to 4°C, but slightly colder temperatures of 0 to 2°C prevail just below the ice. With the advent of spring and gradually rising air temperatures, the ice begins to disappear, and the temperature of the surface water rises. The lake again becomes uniform in temperature, and spring circulation occurs (spring turnover). The most important phase of the thermal regime from the standpoint of eutrophication is the summer stagnation period. The hypolimnion, by virtue of its stagnation, traps sediment materials such as decaying plant and animal matter, thus decreasing the availability of nutrients during the critical growing season. In a eutrophic lake, the hypolimnion becomes anaerobic or devoid of oxygen because of the increased content of highly oxidizable material and because of its isolation from the atmosphere. In the absence of oxygen, the conditions for chemical reduction become favorable and more nutrients are released from the bottom sediments to the overlying waters. However, during the fall circulation period, the lake water becomes mixed, and the nutrient-rich hypolimnetic waters are redistributed. The nutrients that remained trapped during the stagnation period become available during the following growing season. Therefore, a continuous supply of plant nutrients from the drainage basin is not mandatory for sustained plant production. After an initial stimulus, the recycling of nutrients within a lake might be sufficient to sustain highly productive conditions for several years.

60

Impoundment of running water alters its physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. The literature is replete with detailed reports on the effects of impoundments on various water quality parameters. The physical changes in the configuration of the water mass following impoundment reduce reaeration rates to a small fraction of those of free-flowing streams. Where the depth of impoundment is considerable, thermal stratification acts as an effective barrier for the wind-induced mixing of the hypolimnetic zone. Oxygen transfer to the deep waters is essentially confined to the molecular diffusion transport mechanism. During the period of summer stagnation and increasing water temperatures, the bacterial decomposition of the bottom organic sediments exerts a high rate of oxygen demand on the overlying waters. When this rate of oxygen demand exceeds oxygen replenishment by molecular diffusion, anaerobic conditions begin to prevail in the zones adjacent to the lake bottom. Hypolimnetic zones of man-made impoundments were also found to be anaerobic within a year of their formation (Kothandaraman and Evans, 1983a, 1983b). The isothermal and iso-dissolved oxygen concentration plots for Wolf Lake at stations RHA-1, RHA-2, RHA-3, RHA-4, RHA-5, and RHA-8 are shown in figures 9a - 9f, respectively. Maximum depths at these stations were greater than 10 feet. Figures 10a - 10c show DO and temperature profiles on selected dates for stations RHA-6, RHA-7, and RHA-9, respectively. All the observed data for DO and temperature in Wolf Lake are included in appendix D. An examination of the isothermal plots reveals that the lake system does not experience typical lake thermal stratification. There were no well-defined hypolimnia even during the peak summer period from June - August. The system exhibits isothermal conditions except during the period May - August when temperature gradients exist. The maximum surface temperatures noted at stations RHA-1, RHA-2, RHA-3, RHA-4, RHA-5, and RHA-8 were 27.1, 26.4, 27.7, 26.9, 26.7, and 26.1°C, respectively. The first four of these maxima occurred in August and the last two occurred in July. The maximum temperature differences between the surface and bottom observations at these stations were 5.3, 5.7, 5.6, 6.8, 7.9, and 5.2°C, respectively. The iso-dissolved oxygen plots indicate that the lake exhibited a very weak stratification with respect to DO during the months May through August. Anoxic conditions (DO < 1.0 mg/L) in the lake were encountered occasionally, but they were transitory. Generally, DO concentrations greater than 2.0 mg/L were encountered at depths 2 to 3 feet above the lake bottom. At station RHA-1 where the lake bottom is sandy gravel, the lowest DO measured was 3.1 mg/L on June 22, 1993. At station RHA-8, which has a maximum depth of 18 feet, the anoxic zone extended 3 to 5 feet from the lake bottom on two different occasions. The exertion of a high rate of DO demand by organically rich sediment at RHA-8 during summer was the cause of the oxygen depletion. The DO and temperature profiles for stations RHA-6 and RHA-7 (figures 10a and 10b) indicate that the water bodies are well mixed and the DO in the bottom waters was more than 5.0 mg/L. However, the DO conditions at station RHA-9 (Wolf Lake Channel) presented in figure 10c reveal significant DO depletions in the lower strata of the water column during summer months. DO concentrations observed at this station were generally lower than those at other stations in the lake system. On four different occasions the DO at this station was less than 5.0 mg/L from top to bottom of the water column (appendix C-8). Such conditions did not exist in any other station monitored. The bottom sediment at this station was found to be dark, gritty, and malodorous. The surface and near surface DO values observed in the lake met the Illinois Pollution Control Board's general use standards with respect to minimum level, viz: not less than 5.0 mg/L at any time, with the exception of the observations at RHA-9, where DO values were less than 5.0 mg/L on four of the 17 occasions monitored. The Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board's 61

Figure 9. Isothermal and iso-dissolved oxygen plots for the deep stations at Wolf Lake: a) RHA-l,b) RHA-2, c) RHA-3, d) RHA-4, e) RHA-5, and f) RHA-6

Figure 9. Continued

Figure 9. Concluded

Figure 10a. Temperature and dissolved oxygen profiles for RHA-6 at Wolf Lake

65

Figure 10b. Temperature and dissolved oxygen profiles for RHA-7 at Wolf Lake

66

Figure 10c. Temperature and dissolved oxygen profiles for RHA-9 at Wolf Lake

67

regulation stipulates that DO shall average at least 5.0 mg/L per calender day and shall not be less than 4.0 mg/L at any time. The surface DO at station RHA-9 was less than 4.0 mg/L on three different occasions. Percent DO saturation values are determined for the observed DO and temperature and are given in appendix E. Saturation DO values were computed using the formula (Committee on Sanitary Engineering Research, 1960):

where

The highest saturation levels computed at stations RHA-1 through RHA-9 are 105, 131, 130, 138, 127, 144, 139, 142, and 129, respectively. It should be pointed out that supersaturation conditions at stations RHA-1 to RHA-8 occurred during warm periods. The saturation condition at station RHA-9 (Wolf Lake Channel) was noted during January. Also, significantly lower saturation values are readily discernible at this station during June - October compared to all other stations. The tabulations of percent saturation in appendix E provide an excellent basis for judging the oxygen resources in the lake system. DO levels are excellent throughout the water column at RHA-1. The lake exhibits anoxic conditions up to 2 to 3 feet from the bottom during June - August at RHA-2, whereas anoxic conditions at stations RHA-3, RHA-4, RHA-5, and RHA-8 were minimal or sporadic. Oxygen conditions in the two shallow water bodies (RHA-6 and RHA-7) were excellent with no anoxic conditions in the near-bottom waters. Overall, oxygen conditions in the lake system are excellent everywhere, except in the Wolf Lake Channel, for sustaining sports fisheries. Secchi Disc Transparency. Secchi disc visibility is a measure of a lake's water transparency, which suggests the depth of light penetration into a body of water (its ability to allow sunlight penetration). Even though the Secchi disc transparency is not an actual quantitative indication of light transmission, it provides an index for comparing similar bodies of water or the same body of water at different times. Since changes in water color and turbidity in deep lakes are generally caused by aquatic flora and fauna, transparency is related to these entities. The euphotic zone or region of a lake where enough sunlight penetrates to allow photosynthetic production of oxygen by algae and aquatic plants is taken as two to three times the Secchi disc depth (USEPA, 1980). Suspended algae, microscopic aquatic animals, suspended matter (silt, clay, and organic matter), and water color are factors that interfere with light penetration into the water column and reduce Secchi disc transparency. Combined with other field observations, Secchi disc readings may furnish information on 1) suitable habitat for fish and other aquatic life, 2) the lake's water quality and aesthetics, 3) the state of the lake's nutrient enrichment, and 4) problems with and potential solutions for the lake's water quality and recreational use impairment. Figures 11-14 show the temporal variations in Secchi disc transparency, along with the other physical, chemical, and biological parameters for Pools 2 (RHA-2), 6 (RHA-6), 8 (RHA-8), and Wolf Lake Channel (RHA-9), respectively. Statistical summaries of the historical and currently observed Secchi disc transparency data are presented in tables 18-20. It should be noted that historical data cover only a few of the pools in the lake system. Table 18 summarizes the results of the study carried out on ten dates between May 4 and September 14, 1983, under the IEPA's Volunteer Lake Monitoring Program (IEPA, 1984). It should also be noted that the 68

Figure 11a. Historical observations of surface water characteristics at RHA-2, Wolf Lake

69

Figure 1 lb. Temporal variations of surface water characteristics at RHA-2, Wolf Lake

70

Figure 11c. Temporal variations of near-bottom water characteristics at RHA-2, Wolf Lake

71

Figure 12. Temporal variations in surface water characteristics at RHA-6, Wolf Lake

72

Figure 13. Temporal variations in surface water characteristics at RHA-8, Wolf Lake

73

Figure 14. Temporal variations in surface water characteristics at RHA-9, Wolf Lake 74

Table 18. Summary of Secchi Disc Transparency in Wolf Lake, May - September 1983

Average depth, feet

Station Pool 1, center Pool 2, center Pool 3, center Pool 4, near center

Minimum, inches

14.3 14.0 5.3 4.6

Maximum, inches

66 18 16 12

168 42 52 48

Standard deviation, inches

Mean, inches 97 21 29 23

37 9 12 12

Table 19. Summary of Historical Secchi Disc Transparency Data in Wolf Lake at RHA-1, RHA-2, and RHA-3

Station

Minimum Inches

RHA-1 RHA-2 RHA-3

96 12 24

Maximum Inches Date

Date 7/16/91 8/17/79 10/6/91

159 99 120

5/9/91 5/9/91 5/2/89

Mean, inches 128 41 59

Standard deviation, inches 29 25 36

Table 20. Summary of Secchi Disc Transparency in Wolf Lake, 1992-1993

Station

Average depth. feet

RHA-1 RHA-2 RHA-3 RHA-4 RHA-5 RHA-6 RHA-7 RHA-8 RHA-9

16.0 15.1 13.1 11.3 17.1 4.8 5.8 16.7 6.8

Minimum Inches Date 91 25 31 21 32 20 23 23 24

Maximum Inches Date

4/13/93 9/28/93 9/28/93 9/8/93 8/4/93 9/28/93 7/20/93 10/13/92 6/9/93

188 131 130 134 132 66 62 70 86

75

11/12/92 12/21/92 2/10/93 12/21/92 12/21/92 12/21/92 1/19/93 3/17/93 12/22/92

Mean, inches 129 58 75 56 79 40 38 40 43

Standard deviation, inches 29 28 32 33 34 14 14 15 17

sampling locations in the four pools were at the center of each pool rather than at the deepest point of each pool as in the current study. Excluding the 1983 data, historical Secchi disc transparency data prior to 1992 (appendix B) were used to develop the summary in table 19. Each of the other water quality parameters will be evaluated in a similar manner. Mean values observed for Secchi disc transparency at the nine stations in Wolf Lake were 129, 58, 75, 56, 79, 40, 38, 40, and 43 for RHA-1 through RHA-9, respectively. An examination of the data in tables 18-20 shows that Pool 1 has the highest (best) Secchi disc transparency among the pools at all times. The mean values of historical and current observed transparency for RHA-1 are nearly identical (tables 19 and 20). At stations RHA-2 and RHA-3, the mean values of current transparency data were greater than those of historical data (IEPA, 1984). These differences are attributable to differences in the water depths of sampling sites. Higher transparencies occurred in May for the historical data (table 19) and during cold weather periods for the study data (table 20). The highest value, 188 inches, was recorded at RHA-1 on November 2, 1992. During this study, the lowest Secchi disc readings in different pools were obtained between mid-April and mid-October, generally coinciding with the period of high biological activity (algae and macrophytes) in the lake. Overall, the lowest Secchi disc transparency, 20 inches, occurred at RH-6 on September 28, 1993. The IEPA's Lake Assessment Criteria state that Secchi depths less than 18 inches indicate substantial lake use impairment and depths between 18 and 48 inches indicate moderate lake use impairment (IEPA, 1978). The minimum recommended Secchi transparency set by the Illinois Department of Public Health for bathing beaches is 48 inches. Nevertheless, a lake that does not meet the transparency criteria does not necessarily constitute a public health hazard, as long as it is not used for swimming. The Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board (1973) has established that all waters of Wolf Lake should be maintained for whole body contact recreation and all waters of Wolf Lake Channel should be maintained for partial body contact recreation. Significant spatial differences in water clarity (Secchi disc reading) were observed among the pools. The mean values for stations RHA-1 through RHA-5 (all in Illinois) were higher than 48-inches, generally indicating no lake use impairment based on transparency. Using the 48-inch visibility criteria for whole body contact recreation, stations RHA-6 through RHA-9 (all in Indiana) fall under the moderate lake use impairment category. Pool 8 is heavily used for whole body contact recreation. Twelve out of 16 (75 percent of) Secchi readings obtained during this study at RHA-8 were less than 48 inches. The average value for RHA-8 was 40 inches (appendix B). Turbidity. Turbidity is an expression of the property of water that causes light to be scattered and absorbed by a turbidimeter, and it is expressed as nephelometric turbidity units (NTU). Turbidity in water is caused by colloidal and suspended matter, such as silt, clay, finely divided inorganic and organic materials, soluble colored organic compounds, and plankton and other microorganisms. Generally, turbidity in lake waters is influenced by sediment in runoff from the lake's watershed, shoreline erosion, algae in the water column, and resuspension of lake bottom sediments by wind or wave action, or by bottom-feeding fish, power boat, etc. Elevated turbidity values make the appearance of the lake less pleasing from an aesthetic standpoint. Table 21 summarizes the historical data on turbidity and other water quality parameters for RHA-1 (surface), RHA-2 (surface and bottom), and RHA-3 (surface). These data are listed in appendix B and were collected during 1977, 1979, 1989, and 1991 under the ALMP by the IEPA. A statistical summary of turbidity data collected during this diagnostic study for all the stations is presented in table 22. During the current study, zero turbidity values were encountered in many samples in each of the nine lake stations. The highest turbidity was observed in Indian Creek (RHA 01) on November 12, 1992 (table 22). High turbidity in this shallow water body was 76

Table 21. Summary of Historical Water Quality Characteristics in Wolf Lake (Illinois) RHA-1 Surface Number of samples

Parameters

Mean

Turbidity, NTU Conductivity, umho/cm2 COD.mg/L pH T. alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO3

5 6 5 6 6

1 584 15

Total suspended solids, mg/L Volatile SS, mg/L Ammonia-nitrogen, mg/L T. kjeldahl nitrogen, mg/L Total phosphorus, mg/L Dissolved phosphorus, mg/L

6 5 6 5 6 4

Range

RHA-3 Surface Standard deviation

Number of samples

1 43 8.0

115

1-2 560-670 17-23 7.60-8.60 92-140

16

11 11 10 11 11

4.5 3.2 0.075 0.58 0.013 0.0055

2-9 1-5 0.02-0.13 0.50-0.70 0.006-0.040 0.002-0.007

2.5 1.8 0.045 0.08 0.013 0.0024

12 11 12 11 11 11

RHA-2 Surface* Parameters

of

Number samples

Mean

Turbidity, NTU Conductivity, umho/cm2 COD, mg/L pH T. alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO3

12 12 10 11 12

6.7 386 20.7

Total suspended solids, mg/L Volatile SS, mg/L Ammonia-nitrogen, mg/L T. kjeldahl nitrogen, mg/L Total phosphorus, mg/L Dissolved phosphorus, mg/L

13 13 13 12 13 12

Range

5.5 363 20.7 87 8.9 6.5 . 0.055 0.71 0.017 0.0076

Range

Standard deviation

1-18 295-440 9-29 8.30-9.00 66-150

5.3 46 6.8

1K-40 1K-24 0.02-0.12 0.5-1.5 0.000-0.090 0.000-0.016

10.5 6.6 0.037 0.28 0.0086 0.0041

34

RHA-2 Bottom* Standard deviation 4.5 156 6.6

91

3-15 280-860 12-32 8.35-9.20 70-140

12.7 10.0 0.045 0.725 0.0335 0.0056

2-43 2-28 0.01-0.14 0.50-1.50 0.010-0.100 0.000-0.011

Note: * Surface = 1 foot below surface; Bottom = 2 feet above bottom

Mean

Number of samples

Mean 7.0 406 24.0

22

8 8 7 8 8

11.3 8.3 0.041 0.286 0.0276 0.0031

8 8 8 8 8 8

Range

Standard deviation 4.0 175 6.4

94

4-16 291-830 14-33 8.10-8.90 65-140

11.6 9.5 0.049 0.713 0.0338 0.0060

4-26 3-23 0.00-0.13 0.50-0.90 0.015-0.090 0.000-0.009

7.6 6.5 0.049 0.146 0.0244 0.0037

26

Table 22.

Station RHA-1

Sample*

Summary of Turbidity in Wolf Lake, 1992-1993

Maximum NTU Date

RHA-9

S B S B S B S B S B S S S B S

13 4 14 9 7 7 14 13 16 9 17 16 13 12 5

RHA 01

S

24

RHA-2 RHA-3 RHA-4 RHA-5 RHA-6 RHA-7 RHA-8

5/10/93 11/12/92 9/28/93 9/8/93 9/8/93 8/4/93 9/8/93 9/8/93 9/8/93 9/8/93 8/4/93 8/4/93 9/8/93 8/4/93 7/7/93 and 8/4/93 11/12/92

Note: * S = 1 foot below surface; B = 2 feet above bottom

78

Mean NTU

Standard deviation, NTU

3 1 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 4 5 4 4 2

4 1 4 3 2 2 4 4 3 3 4 6 4 4 2

3

5

caused by a four-day continuous precipitation event prior to this date. For other lake stations, high turbidity readings were observed on either August 4 or September 8, 1993. The mean turbidity for each station was between 1 and 5 NTU. In terms of mean turbidity, there was no significant difference between surface and bottom samples at any given station. For station RHA-1, high turbidity values were found on November 12, 1992 (4 NTU), for the near-bottom sample and on May 10, 1993 (13 NTU), for the surface sample. The cause of high turbidity in the May sample is unknown. Except for these two samples, other observations were comparable to the historical data (very low turbidity). At station RHA-2, current mean turbidity tends to be lower than the historical values for both surface and bottom waters. In comparison with historical data, surface turbidity at RHA-3 has improved (tables 21 and 22). Chemical Characteristics pH. The pH value, or hydrogen ion concentration, is a measure of the acidity of water; values below 7.0 indicate acidic water, and values above 7.0 indicate basic (or alkaline) water. A pH of 7.0 is exactly "neutral". pH values are influenced by the concentration of carbonate in water. One species of carbonate, carbonic acid, which forms as a result of dissolved carbon dioxide, usually controls pH to a great extent. Carbonic acid is also consumed by photosynthetic activity of algae and other aquatic plants after the free carbon dioxide in water has been used up. A rise in pH can occur due to photosynthetic uptake of carbonic acid, causing water to become more basic. Decomposition and respiration of biota tend to reduce pH and increase bicarbonates. It is generally considered that pH values above 8.0 in natural waters are produced by a photosynthetic rate that demands more carbon dioxide than the quantities furnished by respiration and decomposition (Mackenthun, 1969). Although rainwater in Illinois is acidic (pH about 4.4), most of the lakes can offset this acidic input by an abundance of natural buffering compounds in the lake water and the watershed. Most Illinois lakes have a pH between 6.5 and 9.0. The IPCB (JEPA, 1990) general-use water quality standard for pH is also in a range between 6.5 and 9.0, except for natural causes. Indiana Surface Water Quality Standards (IDEM, 1995) state that no pH values below 6.0 nor above 9.0, except for daily fluctuations which exceed pH 9.0 and are correlated with photosynthetic activity, shall be permitted. The minimum and maximum pH values and their occurrence dates are shown in table 23. Low pH levels were generally found during cold weather periods with few exceptions. The lowest pH, 7.3, was observed at RHA-1 and RHA-9. The maximum pH for most stations occurred during July - September. The highest pH observed was 9.50 at RHA-4 (surface) on August 18, 1993. Elevated pH is attributable to photosynthesis during times of heavy algal activity. All pH values observed at the ten stations were above the minimum acceptable value of 6.5, as published in the General Use Water Standards for Illinois and in the Indiana Water Quality Standards for surface water. The upper limit of acceptable pH (9.0 in both Illinois and Indiana) was exceeded several times in all the pools except Pools 1 and 5. Comparison of historical and current pH data (tables 21 and 23) shows that the current pH values at RHA-1 were similar to the historical values. Water samples from stations RHA-2 (surface and bottom) and RHA-3 (surface) showed wide ranges of pH during this study period, whereas no pH value below 8.0 had been reported for these sampling stations in the past. Alkalinity. The alkalinity of a water is its capacity to accept protons, and it is generally imparted by bicarbonate, carbonate, and hydroxile components. The species makeup of alkalinity is a function of pH and mineral composition. The carbonate equilibrium, in which carbonate and 79

Table 23. Summary of pH and Total Alkalinity in Wolf Lake, October 1992 - September 1993

Station RHA-1

Sample*

pH Minimum Value Date

Maximum Value Date

Minimum Value Date

Total Alkalinity. me/L as CaCO 3 Maximum Standard Value Date Mean deviation

RHA-9

S B S B S B S B S B S S S B S

7.38 7.35 7.75 7.70 7.70 7.65 7.75 7.68 7.77 7.67 7.80 7.82 7.80 7.68 7.38

2/10 2/10 2/10 2/10 11/12 2/10 2/10 2/10 2/10 8/18 2/10 2/10 11/13 8/18 8/4

8.75 8.74 9.38 8.95 9.30 8.97 9.50 9.1 8.84 8.57 9.14 9.10 9.10 8.95 8.45

8/18 8/18 8/18 8/4 8/18 7/20 8/18 7/20 8/18 7/20 8/18 8/18 8/18 9/8 5/10

98 90 67 72 72 75 66 67 73 75 79 85 51 89 94

9/28 5/10 7/7 7/7 7/20 7/7,20 7/7 7/7 6/9,22 6/9 8/4 8/18 7/20 8/18 6/9

180 180 120 118 121 118 118 120 98 117 122 123 123 122 120

RHA 01

S

7.55

2/10

9.42

8/18

71

7/19

119

RHA-2 RHA-3 RHA-4 RHA-5 RHA-6 RHA-7 RHA-8

Note: * S = 1 foot below surface;

B = 2 feet above bottom

80

12/21 12/21 5/10 5/10 12/21 12/21 12/21 5/10 3/16 3/16 12/21 4/13 5/10 3/17 3/17 & 4/13 12/21

109 108 % 97 97 96 93 96 85 88 100 106 103 107 112

19 20 20 17 17 16 20 20 8 10 16 13 18 12 7

95

17

bicarbonate ions and carbonic acid are in equilibrium, is the chemical system present in natural waters. Alkalinity is a measure of water's acid-neutralizing capacity. It is expressed in terms of an equivalent amount of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Total alkalinity is defined as the amount of acid required to bring water to a pH of 4.5, and phenolphthalein alkalinity is measured by the amount of acid needed to bring water to a pH of 8.3 (APHA et al., 1992). Lakes with low alkalinity are, or have the potential to be, susceptible to acid rain damage. However, midwestern lakes usually have high alkalinity and thus are well buffered from the impacts of acid rain. Natural waters generally have a total alkalinity between 20 to 200 mg/L (APHA, era/., 1992). Total Alkalinity. Table 23 shows the ranges and average total alkalinity for 16 locations in Wolf Lake. Overall, it ranged from a low of 51 mg/L as CaCO3 in the RHA-8 surface sample on July 20, 1993, to a high of 180 mg/L as CaCO3 in RHA-1 surface and bottom samples on December 21, 1992. The smallest range (73 to 98 mg/L as CaCO3) was found at the RHA-5 surface. Low alkalinity was generally observed in summer, and higher alkalinity during cooler periods. Concomitant with an increase in pH due to active photosynthesis in summer was a significant decrease in alkalinity values in the lake. Mean total alkalinity in Wolf Lake ranged from 85 mg/L as CaCO3 at RHA-5 (surface) to 112 mg/L as CaCO3 at RHA-9 (surface). These waters were found to be well buffered, which is typical of lakes in this region. The mean total alkalinities at the surface and bottom waters for each pool were almost identical. Alkalinity values from historical (table 21) and current data (table 23) for RHA-1 (surface), RHA-2 (surface and bottom), and RHA-3 are comparable. Phenophthalein Alkalinity. Phenophthalein alkalinity in lake waters was generally found only in low concentration during summers with high pH periods. The highest phenophthalein alkalinity observed was 11 mg/L as CaCO3 at RHA-3 on August 18, 1993. Historical data show higher phenophthalein alkalinity at RHA-1, RHA-2, and RHA-3 than the current results (appendix B). Conductivity. Specific conductance provides a measure of a water's capacity to convey electric current and is used as an estimate of the dissolved mineral quality of water. This property is related to the total concentration of ionized substances in water and the temperature at which the measurement is made. Specific conductance is affected by factors such as the nature of dissolved substances, their relative concentrations, and the ionic strength of the water sample. The geochemistry of the soils in the drainage basin is the major factor determining the chemical constituents in the waters. The higher the conductivity reading, the higher the concentration of dissolved minerals in the lake water. Practical applications of conductivity measurements include determination of the purity of distilled or deionized water, quick determination of the variations in dissolved mineral concentrations in water samples, and estimation of dissolved ionic matter in water samples. It can be seen from table 24 that conductivity in Wolf Lake ranged from 320 micromhos per centimeter (umho/cm) at RHA-4 (surface) on June 20, 1993, to 640 umho/cm at RHA-1 (bottom) on May 10, 1993. The mean conductivity values for the lake water samples were between 373 umho/cm at RHA-9 and 545 umho/cm at the RHA-1 surface. (A high mean value was also observed at the RHA-1 bottom). These values are typical for northern Illinois lake waters and similar to those found in Herrick Lake, DuPage County, Illinois (Hill et al., 1994). However, these values are much less than that reported for Lake George (712 umho/cm, Raman et al., 1995) and higher than that in Lake Le-Aqua-Na and Johnson Sauk Trail Lake (Kothandaraman and Evans, 1983a, 1983b). The Illinois General Use Water Quality Standard for

'81

Table 24. Summary of Conductivity in Wolf Lake, October 1992 - September 1993

Station RHA-1

Sample*

Minimum μmho/cm Date

Maximum μmho/cm Date

RHA-6 RHA-7 RHA-8

S B S B S B S B S B S S S

490 370 336 337 346 346 320 330 390 370 337 331 324

9/28 9/28 9/8 10/13 10/13 10/13 6/22 6/22 9/28 9/28 10/13 10/13 10/13

600 640 470 500 540 470 470 510 530 530 590 490 450

RHA-9

B S

326 322

10/13 10/13

510 480

RHA-2 RHA-3 RHA-4 RHA-5

Note: * S = 1 foot below surface;

B = 2 feet above bottom

82

4/13 5/10 5/10 5/10 7/20 5/10 5/10 9/28 3/16 3/16 4/13 4/13 4/13 & 5/10 9/28 3/17

Mean, μmho/cm

Standard deviation, μmho/cm

545 528 395 402 403 398 386 393 483 498 408 394 384

28 68 37 49 47 36 44 53 41 40 71 46 44

399 373

52 41

total dissolved solids is 1,000 mg/L, which is approximately equivalent to a conductivity of 1,700 μmho/cm. The obtained conductivity results did not exceed this criterion. In comparing the historical and current data on conductivity for sampling sites RHA-1 (surface), RHA-2 (surface), and RHA-3 (surface), no significant change with time could be discerned. The use of salt on the Indiana Toll Road for snow and ice removal in the area of Wolf Lake does not appear to have any long-term impact on Pools 6, 7, and 8. The toll road straddles the east side of Pool 8 and the west side of Pools 6 and 7. The average salt applications during the 1991-1992, 1992-1993, and 1993-1994 winter seasons were, respectively, 86.8, 150.0, and 167.5 tons (Samuel Wolfe, personal communication, September 14, 1994). The Department of Transportation's policy for salt usage on the Indiana Toll Road and Mr. Wolfe's correspondence are included in appendix F. The minimum observed conductivity values in these three pools were lower than the values for the other pools with the exception of Pool 9. The maximum observed and mean conductivity values observed in Pools 6, 7, and 8 were lower than those observed for Pool 1 and are very similar to the values observed for the other pools (table 24). Based on the conductivity observations, it can be concluded that road salt usage has had no long-term effect on Wolf Lake. No deleterious impact has been discerned in the lake system due to the application of road salt on the Indiana Toll Road. Total Suspended Solids. Total suspended solids (TSS) are the portion of total solids retained by a filter ≤ 2.0 μm nominal pore size. Total solids is the term applied to the material residue left in the vessel after evaporation of a sample and its subsequent drying in an oven at 103-105°C. Total solids include TSS and total dissolved solids, the portion that passes through the filter (APHA et al., 1992). Total suspended solids represent the amount of all inorganic and organic materials suspended in the water column. Typical inorganic components originate from the weathering and erosion of rocks and soils in a lake's watershed and from resuspension of lake sediments. Organic components are derived from a variety of biological origins, but in a lacustrine environment are mainly composed of algae and resuspended plant and animal material from the lake bottom. Generally, the higher the TSS concentration, the lower the Secchi disc reading. A high TSS concentration results in decreased water transparency, which can reduce photosynthetic activities beyond a certain depth in the lake and subsequently decrease the amount of oxygen produced by algae, possibly creating anoxic conditions. Anaerobic water may limit fish habitats and potentially cause taste and odor problems by releasing noxious substances such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, iron, and manganese from the lake bottom sediments. A high concentration of TSS may also cause aesthetic problems in the lake. The amount of suspended solids found in impounded waters is small compared with the amount found in streams because solids tend to settle to the bottom in lakes. However, in shallow lakes, this aspect is greatly modified by wind and wave actions and by the type and intensity of uses to which these lakes are subjected. As shown in table 25, higher TSS occurred at RHA-1 on June 9, 1993, after a three-day storm event. However, the TSS in other RHA-1 samples were 4 mg/L or less. For other sampling stations, high TSS values were observed during summer months. The minimum TSS values were 1 mg/L or lower for all stations. The mean TSS values for all stations were 15 mg/L or less. On the basis of Illinois Lake Assessment Criteria (IEPA, 1978), water with TSS > 25 mg/L is classified as having a high lake-use impairment, while TSS between 15 and 25 mg/L 83

Table 25. Summary of Suspended Solids in Wolf Lake, October 1992 - September 1993

Station RHA-1 RHA-2 RHA-3 RHA-4 RHA-5 RHA-6 RHA-7 RHA-8 RHA-9 RHA 01

Sample* S B S B S B S B S B S S S B S S

Total suspended solids. mg/L Maximum Standard Value Date Mean deviation 53 23 23 21 29 30 30 32 30 31 35 37 32 37 36 20

Note: * S = 1 foot below surface;

6/9 9/28 9/8 7/20 8/4 8/4 9/28 9/28 9/28 9/28 9/8 7/20 8/4 9/8 9/28 7/19

6 5 9 8 8 8 10 12 7 7 14 15 15 15 8 7

13 6 9 6 8 8 9 10 8 8 11 11 10 11 8 5

B = 2 feet above bottom

84

Volatile suspended solids. mg/L Maximum Standard Value Date Mean deviation 6 17 16 17 18 15 21 23 22 22 25 26 22 26 23 16

6/9 9/28 9/8 7/20 9/28 9/28 9/8 9/8 9/28 9/28 8/4 9/8 8/3 9/8 9/28 7/19

2 3 6 5 5 4 7 8 4 5 10 10 10 9 5 4

1 4 5 5 5 4 6 7 6 6 9 8 7 7 6 4

indicates moderate use impairment. Water with TSS < 15 mg/L is considered to have minimal impairment. In this study, the number of samples that exceeded TSS levels of 25 mg/L were 1,1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 1, 1, and 0 at RHA-1 (surface and bottom), RHA-2 (surface and bottom), RHA-3 (surface and bottom), RHA-4 (surface and bottom), RHA-5 (surface and bottom), and RHA 01, respectively. At these same stations, the number of samples having TSS values between 15 and 25 mg/L were, respectively, 0, 0, 3, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2, 1, and 1 (appendix B). On the basis of mean TSS concentrations, all the pools on the Illinois side can be considered to have minimal impairment. The historical and current TSS values (tables 21 and 25) are similar for stations RHA-1 (surface), RHA-2 (bottom), and RHA-3 (surface). However, the historical TSS results were higher than current TSS values for station RHA-2 (surface). Volatile Suspended Solids. Volatile suspended solids (VSS) are the portion of TSS lost to ignition at 500 ± 50°C. VSS represent the organic portion of TSS, such as phytoplankton, zooplankton, other biological organisms, and other suspended organic detritus. Resuspended sediments and other plant and animal matter resuspended from the lake bottom either by bottomfeeding fish, wind action, human activities, can be major contributors of VSS and TSS. Volatile suspended solids levels in the surface and bottom samples at any given sampling site did not differ. Mean VSS ranged from a low of 2 mg/L at RHA-1 surface to 10 mg/L at RHA-6, RHA-7, and RHA-8 (table 25). Relatively high VSS in these pools might have been due to the abundance of macrophytes. The percentage of TSS composed of VSS ranged from 17 to 100 percent, with a majority of pools in the range of 40 to 70 percent. Tables 21 and 25 reveal that the historical VSS values are comparable to the current VSS values for RHA-1 and RHA-3. Nevertheless, for both surface and bottom samples at RHA-2, current VSS values are approximately 40 percent lower than the historical values. Phosphorus. The term total phosphorus (TP) represents all forms of phosphorus in water, both particulate and dissolved forms, and includes three chemical types: reactive, acidhydrolyzed, and organic. Dissolved phosphorus (DP) is the soluble form of TP (filterable through a 0.45-um filter). Phosphorus as phosphate may occur in surface water or ground water as a result of leaching from minerals or ores, natural processes of degradation, or agricultural drainage. Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plant and animal growth and, like nitrogen, it passes through cycles of decomposition and photosynthesis. Because phosphorus is essential to the plant growth process, it has become the focus of attention in the entire eutrophication issue. With phosphorus being singled out as probably the most limiting nutrient and the one most easily controlled by removal techniques, various facets of phosphorus chemistry and biology have been extensively studied in the natural environment. Any condition which approaches or exceeds the limits of tolerance is said to be a limiting condition or a limiting factor. In any ecosystem, the two aspects of interest for phosphorus dynamics are phosphorus concentration and phosphorus flux (concentration times flow rate) as functions of time and distance. The concentration alone indicates the possible limitation that this nutrient can place on vegetative growth in the water. Phosphorus flux is a measure of the phosphorus transport rate at any point in flowing water. Unlike nitrate-nitrogen, phosphorus applied to the land as a fertilizer is held tightly to the soil. Most of the phosphorus carried into streams and lakes from runoff over cropland will be in 85

the particulate form adsorbed to soil particles. On the other hand, the major portion of phosphate-phosphorus emitted from municipal sewer systems is in a dissolved form. This is also true of phosphorus generated from anaerobic degradation of organic matter in the lake bottom. Consequently, the form of phosphorus, namely particulate or dissolved, is indicative of its source to a certain extent. Other sources of dissolved phosphorus in the lake water may include the decomposition of aquatic plants and animals. Dissolved phosphorus is readily available for algae and macrophyte growth. However, the DP concentration can vary widely over short periods of time as plants take up and release this nutrient. Therefore, TP in lake water is the more commonly used indicator of a lake's nutrient status. From his experience with Wisconsin lakes, Sawyer (1952) concluded that aquatic blooms are likely to develop in lakes during summer months when concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and inorganic phosphorus exceed 0.3 and 0.01 mg/L, respectively. These critical levels for nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations have been accepted and widely quoted in scientific literature. To prevent biological nuisance, the IEPA (1990), stipulates, "Phosphorus as P shall not exceed a concentration of 0.05 mg/L in any reservoir or lake with a surface area of 8.1 hectares (20 acres) or more or in any stream at the point where it enters any reservoir or lake." Total Phosphorus. Table 26 summarizes the data obtained for total and dissolved phosphorus in the lake, and figures 11-13 depict the temporal variations in phosphorus contents at RHA-2, RHA-6, RHA-8, and RHA-9. High TP values were generally observed in the summer, and low TP values in the winter. Mean TP concentrations were between 0.005 mg/L at RHA-1 (surface) and 0.038 mg/L at RHA-8 (bottom). Relatively high mean TP values were also found at RHA-7, RHA-8 (surface), and RHA-9. TP levels in the Illinois side of the lake were significantly lower than those in the Indiana side. On the Illinois side, out of 187 surface and bottom lake samples collected during the study period, only two individual samples had a TP level greater than the 0.05 mg/L standard. The two samples were taken at RHA-5 (surface and bottom) on September 28, 1993 (appendix B). An examination of TP results in Tables 21 and 26 indicates that the historical TP concentrations for all four stations - RHA-1 (surface), RHA-2 (surface and bottom), and RHA-3 (surface) - were higher than the current results, indicating a water quality improvement. In Indiana, 17 water samples were collected for TP analysis from each of five stations. An examination of TP data in appendix B shows that high TP levels occurred from May through October. TP standard is not stipulated in Indiana Environmental Rules: Water (Rules 327, IDEM, 1995). Bell and Johnson (1990) reviewed the literature and stated the following: The phosphorus levels in Wolf Lake have been known to be a problem for some time. Tests conducted in the spring of 1974, while the lake was still in complete circulation from annual turnover, showed that the concentration of total phosphorus in the lake waters averaged 0.090 mg/L. In 1978, several studies conducted by Lever Brothers Company showed the average concentrations of phosphorus in the water column to be: 0.163 mg/L in May, 0.123 mg/L in October, and 0.147 mg/L in November. In 1980, a limnological survey of the lake conducted by the Indiana State Board of Health confirmed the high phosphorus readings. Concentrations of phosphorus at the surface of the lake ranged from 0.08 to 0.17 mg/L. However, two sampling stations showed phosphorus concentrations just above the lake bottom to exceed 0.35 mg/L in 1981. This would indicate that the lake sediments are serving as a possible source of phosphorus. Indeed, the sediment phosphorus concentration has 86

Table 26. Summary of Total and Dissolved Phosphorus in Wolf Lake, October 1992- September 1993

Station RHA-1 RHA-2

RHA-3 RHA-4 RHA-5

RHA-6 RHA-7 RHA-8 RHA-9 RHA 01

Sample*

Total phosphorus. mg/L Minimum Maximum Value Date Value Date Mean

Standard deviation

S B S

.001 .001 .007

8/18 8/4,18 1/19

.010 .039 .036

5/26 9/28 9/8

.005 .010 .018

.003 .009 .008

B S B S B S B

.005 .005 .007 .006 .009 .009 .010

9/28 3/16 1/19 1/19 2/10 4/13 7/7

.036 .036 .033 .041 .044 .058 .055

5/10 9/28 9/28 9/8 9/8 9/28 9/28

.020 .015 .018 .021 .025 .017 .018

.010 .009 .008 .010 .011 .012 .011

S S S B S S

.012 .008 .013 .010 .011 .008

12/21 1/19 1/20 2/10 1/20 1/19

.068 .061 .068 .068 .064 .034

9/28 8/4 9/8 9/8 6/9 9/28

.029 .035 .033 .038 .035 .016

.015 .017 .016 .017 .018 .006

Dissolved phosporus.+ mg/L Maximum Standard Value Date Mean deviation

Note: * S = 1 foot below surface; B = 2 feet above bottom + Minimum concentration of dissolved phosphorus was 0.01 mg/L in one or more samples for all stations

87

.004 12/21 .007 6/9 .005 9/8 & 10/13 .005 1/19 .004 5/26 .004 5/26 .004 5/26 .005 6/9 .004 5/26 .004 6/9 & 5/26 .007 9/28 .040 6/9 .018 9/28 .006 5/26 .011 6/9 .010 6/23

.001 .002 .002

.001 .002 .001

.002 .002 .002 .002 .002 .002 .002

.001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001

.002 .004 .003 .002 .003 .002

.002 .009 .004 .001 .003 .002

been found to be extremely high; the 1980 study by the State Board of Health showed that total phosphorus concentrations in the sediment of the Lake Channel reached as high as 2,700 mg/kg. Wolf Lake is in almost constant violation of this standard (p. 13). From the TP concentration values for Wolf Lake, it can be concluded that the lake (especially in Indiana) will not be limited by phosphorus in sustaining high biological productivity. The major portion of the lake is likely to remain eutrophic with high biological productivity. Dissolved Phosphorus. The dissolved phosphorus (DP) results listed in appendix B indicate that many samples collected from each location have DP concentrations below the detectable limit of 0.001 mg/L. Thus, the percentage of DP to TP in samples is not determined, but it is generally very low. Observed DP levels were also generally low, especially in the Illinois portion of the lake. Most maximum DP values for sampling stations in Illinois were 0.004 and 0.005 mg/L (table 26). In Wolf Lake, the highest DP concentration observed was 0.040 mg/L at RHA-7 on June 9, 1993. Mean DP concentrations for all stations except RHA-1 (surface) were between 0.002 and 0.004 mg/L. The mean DP for RHA-1 (surface) was 0.001 mg/L. Nitrogen. Nitrogen is generally found in surface waters in the form of ammonia (NH3), nitrite (NO2), nitrate (NO3), and organic nitrogen. Organic nitrogen is determined by subtracting NH3 nitrogen from the total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) measurements. Organic nitrogen content can indicate the relative abundance of organic matter (algae and other vegetative matter) in water, but has not been shown to be directly used as a growth nutrient by planktonic algae (Vollenweider, 1968). Total nitrogen is the sum of nitrite, nitrate, and TKN. Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant and animal growth, but it can cause algal blooms in surface waters and create public health problems at high concentrations. The Illinois Pollution Control Board (IEPA, 1990) has stipulated that nitrate not exceed 10 mg/L nitrate nitrogen or 1 mg/L nitrite nitrogen for public water-supply and food processing waters. Nitrates are the end product of the aerobic stabilization of organic nitrogen, and as such they occur in polluted waters that have undergone self-purification or aerobic treatment processes. Nitrates also occur in percolating ground waters. Ammonia-nitrogen, being a constituent of the complex nitrogen cycle, results from the decomposition of nitrogenous organic matter. It can also result from municipal and industrial waste discharges to streams and lakes. The concerns about nitrogen as a contaminant in water bodies are twofold. First, because of adverse physiological effects on infants and because the traditional water treatment processes have no effect on the removal of nitrate, concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen are limited to 10 mg/L in public water supplies. Second, a concentration in excess of 0.3 mg/L is considered sufficient to stimulate nuisance algal blooms (Sawyer, 1952). The IEPA (1990) stipulates that ammonia-nitrogen and nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen should not exceed 1.5 and 10.0 mg/L, respectively. Nitrogen is one of the principal elemental constituents of amino acids, peptides, proteins, urea, and other organic matter. Various forms of nitrogen (for example, dissolved organic nitrogen and inorganic nitrogen such as ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, and elemental nitrogen) cannot be used to the same extent by different groups of aquatic plants and algae. Vollenweider (1968) reports that in laboratory tests, the two inorganic forms of ammonia and nitrate are, as a general rule, used by planktonic algae to roughly the same extent. However, Wang et al. (1973) reported that during periods of maximum algal growth under laboratory conditions, ammonium-nitrogen was the source of nitrogen preferred by planktons. In the case of higher initial concentrations of ammonium salts, yields were noted to be lower than with 88

equivalent concentrations of nitrates (Vollenweider, 1968). This was attributed to the toxic effects of ammonium salts. The use of nitrogenous organic compounds has been noted by several investigators, according to Hutchinson (1957). However, Vollenweider (1968) cautions that the direct use of organic nitrogen by planktons has not been definitely established, citing that not one of 12 amino acids tested with green algae and diatoms was a source of nitrogen when bacteriafree cultures were used. But the amino acids were completely used up after a few days when the cultures were inoculated with a mixture of bacteria isolated from water. He has opined that in view of the fact that there are always bacterial fauna active in nature, the question of the use of organic nitrogen sources is of more interest to physiology than to ecology. Ammonia Nitrogen. The statistical summary for ammonia (NH3) and TKN is shown in table 27, and temporal variations in these parameters for some stations are included in figures 1 1 14. Concentrations of NH3-N less than the detectable limit of 0.01 mg/L occurred in one or more samples at all the stations. Maximum NH3-N concentrations for most stations were less than 0.40 mg/L and were observed in samples from October - December 1992. The highest NH3-N concentration found was 0.89 mg/L at RHA-8 (bottom) on November 13, 1992. Even the highest observed value for NH3-N is much lower than the 1.5 mg/L considered critical for fish in terms of ammonia toxicity. Ammonia nitrogen contents in the surface and bottom samples for Pools 1 - 5 were practically the same. The Illinois General Use Water Quality Standards for NH3-N vary according to water temperature and pH value, with the allowable concentration of NH3-N decreasing as temperature and pH rise. High water temperatures and higher pH of water increase the toxicity of NH3-N for fish and other aquatic organisms. The allowable concentration of NH3-N varies from 1.5 to 13.0 mg/L, depending on the temperature and pH values. An examination of appendix B and tables 21 and 27 suggests that the ranges of NH3-N values for RHA-1 (surface), RHA-2 (surface and bottom), and RHA-3 (surface) in the current study were greater than the historical data. All mean values were comparable. Regarding historical NH3-N in Wolf Lake in Indiana, Bell and Johnson (1990) state the following: The previous surveys cited show that NH3-N levels have been below 0.12 mg/L except in the vicinity of the bottom sediments where they can be as high as 0.90 mg/L. This is most likely due to high levels of nitrogen in the sediment, which, similar to phosphorus, may serve as a source for many years. Total nitrogen levels in the sediments are highest in the region of the lake channel where they have registered as high as 8,900 mg/kg (page 16). Indiana Environmental Rule: Water (IDEM, 1995) sets ammonia standard as a function of pH and temperature. Under the conditions of pH 8.1 and temperature 20°C and above, the maximum ammonia limit and 24-hour average ammonia concentration are set at 0.2137 and 0.0294 mg/L of unionized ammonia as N, respectively. It corresponds to a total ammonia nitrogen of 4.260 and 0.583 mg/L, respectively. Inspection of table 27 reveals Pools 6-9 (0.38 to 0.74 mg/L) did not exceed the maximum limit. There was no 24-hour average data gathered to compare with standard. The annual mean ammonia concentrations were 0.11 to 0.14 mg/L for Pools 6-9. Nitrate/Nitrite Nitrogen. Historical and current results of nitrate/nitrite nitrogen concentrations are included in appendix B, and their statistical summaries are shown in appendix C. Many samples from historical and current studies have nitrate and nitrite concentrations under the detectable level of 0.1 mg/L, especially during the warm weather period. For most stations, the concentrations of nitrate/nitrite nitrogen ranged from 0.0 to 0.4 mg/L with a mean of 0.1 mg/L 89

Table 27. Summary of Ammonia Nitrogen and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen in Wolf Lake, October 1992 - September 1993

Station RHA-1 RHA-2 RHA-3 RHA-4 RHA-5

RHA-6 RHA-7 RHA-8 RHA-9 RHA 01

Sample*

Ammonia nitrogen.+ mg/L Maximum Standard Value Date Mean deviation

Minimum Value Date

Total kjeldahl nitroeen. mg/L Maximum Standard Value Date Mean deviation

S B S B S B S B S B

0.38 0.37 0.36 0.34 0.32 0.26 0.33 0.41 0.34 0.35

10/13 10/13 10/13 10/13 10/13 10/13 10/13 10/13 10/13 7/7

0.05 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.13

0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.10 0.10

0.1K 4/13 0.28 7/20 0.32 7/20 0.35 7/7 0.29 7/7 0.20 2/10 0.35 7/20 0.41 2/10 0.28 9/8 0.26 7/7

0.78 0.94 0.93 1.08 0.96 0.90 0.99 1.24 1.06 1.08

6/9 6/22 6/9 5/26 6/9 5/26 5/26 10/13 9/28 5/26

0.51 0.58 0.63 0.64 0.62 0.64 0.65 0.75 0.63 0.64

0.20 0.19 0.20 0.23 0.17 0.18 0.23 0.25 0.22 0.23

S S S B S S

0.38 0.39 0.40 0.89 0.74 0.77

12/21 10/13 12/22 11/13 11/13 11/13

0.11 0.14 0.12 0.17 0.13 0.10

0.13 0.14 0.13 0.23 0.19 0.17

0.1K 0.49 0.62 0.47 0.29 0.28

1.20 1.17 1.40 1.28 1.10 0.82

12/21 6/9 9/8 5/26 6/9 5/26

0.70 0.79 0.89 0.83 0.65 0.38

0.27 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.27 0.14

5/26 2/10 3/17 7/7 1/20 2/10

Note:> * S = 1 foot below surface; B = 2 feet above bottom + Minimum concentration of ammonia nitrogen was less than the detectable level of 0.01 mg/L occurred in one or more samples for all stations K = less than detection value

90

except at RHA-5 (surface and bottom) and RHA-9. At these three sites, the mean values were 0.2 mg/L. The ranges for RHA-1 (surface and bottom) were 0.0 mg/L to 0.2 mg/L. Inorganic nitrogen (ammonia plus nitrate and nitrite nitrogen) concentrations in excess of 0.30 mg/L are known to stimulate nuisance algal blooms. For the surface samples at stations RHA-1 through RHA-9 and RHA 01, inorganic nitrogen exceeded 0.30 mg/L in one (6 percent), six (35 percent), seven (41 percent), six, eight (50 percent), six, six, six, seven, and six samples, respectively. Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen. TKN was not detected in two samples: at RHA-1 (surface) on April 13, 1993, and at RHA-6 on May 26, 1993. Excluding these samples, TKN values found in Wolf Lake ranged from 0.2 mg/L at RHA-3 (bottom) on February 10, 1993 to 1.40 mg/L at RHA-8 (surface) on September 8, 1993 (table 27). Unlike NH3-N, which fluctuated with season, TKN levels in the lake varied without any pattern. Mean TKN ranged from 0.38 mg/L (RHA 01) to 0.89 mg/L (RHA-8 surface). An examination of the NH3-N and TKN data reveals that suspended matter in the water column was predominantly of organic origin (algae, zooplankton, bacteria, plant fragments, etc.). Organic nitrogen constituted 74 to 90 percent of the TKN determined for the water samples. In general, TKN concentrations measured during this study were lower than the historical results at RHA-1 (surface) and RHA-2 (surface and bottom) and higher at RHA-3 (surface) (appendix B and tables 21 and 27). Chemical Oxygen Demand. When organic material decomposes within a lake's water column, the feeding bacteria consume oxygen. Thus, the concentration of DO in the water may be reduced significantly if the amount of decomposing organic material is large. The measurement of the amount of oxygen consumed by these bacteria is termed biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). A less costly substitute for monitoring DO trends is to test for chemical oxygen demand (COD). Rather than directly measuring the amount of oxygen consumed by bacteria, COD tests measure the amount of potassium dichromate required to completely oxidize the organic materials present in the water. COD represents the amount of oxygen needed to oxidize all the oxidizable organic and inorganic constituents (biota and other organic matter, iron, manganous compounds, ammonia, etc.) under specified conditions. It is an indirect but efficient method of assessing the BOD exerted on the oxygen resources of the water body under ambient conditions. COD values are generally higher than BOD values, because COD may indicate the presence of materials that are not biologically degradable (inorganic nitrogen, metals, etc.). However, higher BOD or COD indicate greater potential for depletion of DO. Results in table 28 indicate that COD levels at 16 sampling stations in the lake ranged from 8 mg/L at three locations to 46 mg/L at RHA-9 on August 4, 1993. Low COD concentrations occurred in the winter (January 1993), and high COD concentrations in late summer (August and September 1993). The mean COD concentrations were found to be in a narrow range between 15 and 19 mg/L. These COD values were much lower than those in Lake George in Lake County, IN. A diagnostic-feasibility study of Lake George was carried out concomitantly with this investigation. The mean COD values for the north and south basins of Lake George were 31 and 58 mg/L, respectively, ranging from 1 to 65 mg/L and 22 to 200 mg/L. The COD of the two water samples collected in the south basin at the beginning of the investigation (October and November 1992) was very high - 200 and 133 mg/L, respectively - compared to that of the other samples, 91

Table 28. Summary of Chemical Oxygen Demand in Wolf Lake, October 1992 - September 1993

Minimum Station

Sample*

mg/L

Date

RHA-1

S B S B S B S B S B S S S B S S

14 13 9 10 11 10 9 10 12 10 8 10 8 8 6 10

6 dates 10/21 1/19 1/19 12/21,6/9 1/19 12/21, 1/19 1/19,2/10 12/21, 1/9,8/18 1/19 1/19 1/19 1/20 1/20 1/20,2/10 1/19

RHA-2 RHA-3 RHA-4 RHA-5 RHA-6 RHA-7 RHA-8 RHA-9 RHA 01

Note: * S = 1 foot below surface;

Maximum mg/L Date 17 25 25 27 25 24 30 31 28 24 27 28 28 29 46 23

B = 2 feet above bottom

92

10/13,4/13,8/18 9/28 9/28 9/28 9/28 9/28 9/8 9/8 9/28 8/28 8/4 9/28 9/28 9/8 8/4 9/28

Mean, mg/L

Standard deviation. mg/L

15 17 16 16 16 16 17 17 15 16 17 19 19 18 18 16

1 3 4 4 5 4 6 6 4 4 6 6 6 6 12 4

which had COD ranging from 22 to 70 mg/L. In the north basin, COD in samples ranged from 11 to 65 mg/L, except for two samples collected on June 10, 1993, and September 18, 1993, which showed values of 2 mg/L and less (Raman et al., 1995). Under its lake assessment criteria, the EEPA (1978) considers that COD values greater than 30 mg/L indicate a high degree of "organic enrichment," while values between 20 and 30 mg/L indicate moderate enrichment. RHA-1 (surface) can be classified as having minimal organic enrichment for all dates. On the basis of mean COD, all other sampling locations in Illinois can also be considered as having minimal enrichment, although one sample taken from RHA-4 (bottom) on September 8, 1993, was 31 mg/L. In fact, one (6 percent), three (18 percent), three, three, four (24 percent), four, four, three, and three samples, respectively, collected from RHA-1 (bottom), RHA-2 (surface and bottom), RHA-3 (surface and bottom), RHA-4 (surface and bottom), and RHA-5 (surface and bottom) have COD levels between 20 and 30 mg/L. No difference in COD concentration was noted between the surface and bottom samples where such measurements were made. A comparison of current COD values with the historical data indicates that they are identical for RHA-1 (surface); and lower for RHA-2 (surface and bottom), and for RHA-3 (appendix B, tables 21 and 28). Chlorophyll. All green plants contain chlorophyll a, which constitutes approximately one to two percent of the dry weight of planktonic algae (APHA et al., 1992). Other pigments that occur in phytoplankton include chlorophyll b and c, xanthophylls, phycobilius, and carotenes. The important chlorophyll degradation products in water are the chlorophyllides, pheophorbides, and pheophytines. The concentration of photosynthetic pigments is used extensively to estimate phytoplanktonic biomass. The presence or absence of the various photosynthetic pigments is used, among other features, to identify the major algal groups present in the water body. Chlorophyll α is a primary photosynthetic pigment in all oxygen-evolving photosynthetic organisms. Extraction and quantification of chlorophyll a can be used to estimate biomass or the standing crop of planktonic algae present in a body of water. Other algae pigments, particularly chlorophyll b and c, can give information on the type of algae present. Blue-green algae (Cyanophyta) contain only chlorophyll a, while both the green algae (Chlorophyta) and the euglenoids (Euglenophyta) contain chlorophyll α and c. Chlorophyll a and c are also present in the diatoms, yellow-green and yellow-brown (Chrysophyta), as well as dinoflagellates (Pyrrhophyta). These accessory pigments can be used to identify the types of algae present in a lake. Pheophytin a results from the breakdown of chlorophyll a, and a large amount indicates a stressed algal population or a recent algal die-off. Because direct microscopic examination of water samples was used to identify and enumerate the type and concentrations of algae present in the water samples, the indirect method of making such assessments was not employed in this investigation. The observed, mean, and range of values for chlorophyll a and other pigments are given in table 29. The mean concentrations of chlorophyll a in the nine water bodies (RHA-1 to RHA-9) were 3.69, 11.57, 8.77, 12.01, 8.66, 17.15, 24.49, 28.02, and 12.52 μg/L, respectively. Higher chlorophyll concentrations were observed in the Indiana portion of Wolf Lake, especially in Pools 6, 7, and 8, than in the other pools in the lake system. Chlorophyll concentrations in most Wolf Lake pools were higher than those in nearby Lake George. The mean concentration of chlorophyll a in the north basin of Lake George was 5.32 μg/L and ranged from 0.90 to 15.5 μg/L; values in the south basin had a mean of 10.95 μg/L and ranged from 3.00 to 48.3 μg/L (Raman et al., 1995). The highest chlorophyll a concentration of 63.55 μg/L was found in Pool 8 on July 20, 1993, while Pool 9 had the lowest chlorophyll a, 0.00 μg/L on January 19, 1993. Nevertheless, the chlorophyll a concentrations observed in Wolf Lake are typical of Midwestern lakes. 93

Table 29. Chlorophyll Concentrations in Wolf Lake, October 1992 - September 1993

Date

Cha

RHA-1 Chb Che

Pha

Cha

RHA-2 Chb Che

Pha

Cha

Chb

RHA-3 Che

Pha

10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 1/19/93 2/10/93 3/16/93 5/10/93 5/26/93 6/9/93 6/22/93 7/7/93 7/20/93 8/3/93 8/18/93

2.51 2.14 1.60 3.20 5.34 8.01 2.67 6.94 4.27 3.20 2.14 3.20 3.74 2.67

0.49 0.49 0.35 0.75 0.82 1.92 0.12 1.21 1.29 0.00 0.00 0.26 0.00 0.00

0.00 0.04 0.42 1.36 0.53 0.93 0.00 0.00 0.91 0.00 0.12 0.70 0.00 0.12

0.00 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.21 0.00 0.85 0.16 0.00 0.00

10.68 6.94 6.94 7.48 7.48 7.48 10.15 13.35 22.43 9.08 9.61 12.82 22.03 15.49

1.32 0.58 0.48 1.46 0.99 1.57 0.00 1.13 1.94 0.00 0.22 0.86 0.08 0.00

0.00 0.91 1.16 0.85 0.00 0.88 0.00 0.13 0.77 0.22 0.24 0.55 0.59 0.49

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

6.41 3.74 7.48 6.41 6.41 5.87 6.41 6.94 8.01 6.94 9.61 10.15 19.76 18.69

1.06 0.41 0.83 1.21 1.01 0.80 0.00 1.05 1.19 0.42 0.71 0.49 0.44 0.51

0.00 0.00 1.22 0.83 0.03 0.25 0.25 1.28 0.25 0.00 0.00 0.83 0.48 0.27

0.00 0.37 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Mean Minimum Maximum Standard deviation

3.69 1.60 8.01

0.55 0.00 1.92

0.37 0.00 1.36

0.09 0.00 0.85

11.57 6.94 22.43

0.76 0.00 1.94

0.49 0.00 1.16

0.00 0.00 0.00

8.77 3.74 19.76

0.72 0.00 1.21

0.41 0.00 1.28

0.03 0.00 0.37

1.87

0.59

0.45

0.23

5.21

0.66

0.39

0.00

4.70

0.36

0.45

0.10

RHA-4 Chb Che

Cha

RHA-5 Chb Che

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.85 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

10.68 5.87 4.27 4.27 5.87 3.20 4.27 6.94 9.61 7.48 8.54 12.28 19.22 18.69

2.37 0.70 0.56 0.61 0.60 0.53 0.26 1.04 0.19 0.26 0.49 1.49 1.19 1.30

0.00 0.22 1.24 0.75 0.47 0.28 0.70 0.00 0.29 0.08 0.83 0.18 0.43 0.46

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.91 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

6.41 13.35 8.54 13.88 10.15 9.08 19.76 5.87 18.16 11.75 24.03 26.70 39.31 33.11

0.98 1.64 1.23 2.62 1.88 1.39 0.93 1.06 0.81. 0.16 1.59 1.90 0.17 1.42

0.00 0.45 1.51 3.18 1.09 1.05 1.14 0.55 0.42 0.44 0.10 1.32 0.22 1.06

2.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.32 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.64 0.00 1.76

0.06 0.00 0.85

8.66 3.20 19.22

0.83 0.19 2.37

0.42 0.00 1.24

0.07 0.00 0.91

17.15 5.87 39.31

1.27 0.16 2.62

0.90 0.00 3.18

0.17 0.00 2.00

0.57

0.23

5.10

0.60

0.35

0.24

10.29

0.67

0.81

0.53

Date

Cha

10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 1/19/93 2/10/93 3/16/93 5/10/93 5/26/93 6/9/93 6/22/93 7/7/93 7/20/93 8/3/93 8/18/93

9.61 5.34 5.87 8.01 7.48 5.87 4.27 13.35 21.36 12.82 14.95 13.35 27.23 18.69

1.44 0.34 0.70 2.23 1.10 1.95 0.00 1.60 2.31 0.14 0.62 0.84 0.64 0.40

0.00 0.16 1.23 1.76 0.79 0.49 0.00 1.23 1.11 0.16 0.00 0.99 0.77 0.24

Mean Minimum Maximum Standard deviation

12.01 4.27 27.23

1.02 0.00 2.31

6.79

0.77

Note:

Pha

Ch a = chlorophyll a; Ch b = chlorophyll b;

Pha

Ch c - chlorophyll c;

94

Cha

Chb

RHA-6 Che

Ph a = pheophytin a

Pha

Table 29. Concluded

RHA-7 Chb Che

Ch a

RHA-8 Chb Che

Pha

Ch a

RHA-9 Chb Che

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.21 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

30.66 16.02 8.54 17.09 19.76 12.28 18.16 21.89 35.78 24.56 44.86 63.55 46.46 32.57

1.77 1.86 1.60 2.35 2.91 1.86 0.85 1.53 1.56 0.08 2.86 3.87 1.40 1.20

0.00 0.91 1.85 3.99 2.81 1.53 0.66 1.21 0.32 0.54 1.00 1.21 1.06 1.00

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

4.45 2.14 1.07 0.00 3.20 5.87 10.88 13.88 12.28 25.10 37.38 17.09 18.69 23.50

0.45 0.27 0.65 0.52 0.44 0.86 0.59 1.68 0.67 2.57 2.87 2.83 1.13 4.78

0.00 0.00 0.60 0.61 0.53 0.00 0.58 0.69 0.04 0.80 1.51 0.60 1.48 1.08

0.00 0.85 1.17 0.75 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.93 0.00

0.78 0.00 1.45

0.02 0.00 0.21

28.01 8.54 63.55

1.84 0.08 3.87

1.29 0.00 3.99

0.00 0.00 0.00

12.52 0.00 37.38

1.45 0.27 4.78

0.61 0.00 1.51

0.26 0.00 1.17

0.54

0.06

15.39

0.94

1.03

0.00

10.93

1.33

0.50

0.44

Date

Cha

10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 1/19/93 2/10/93 3/16/93 5/10/93 5/26/93 6/9/93 6/22/93 7/7/93 7/20/93 8/3/93 8/18/93

19.22 11.21 5.87 0.53 16.02 14.95 35.78 20.83 30.97 21.89 41.65 51.26 45.39 27.23

2.13 1.24 0.81 0.46 2.64 2.18 1.55 1.53 1.25 0.76 2.32 3.24 1.70 0.87

0.00 0.16 1.26 0.09 1.10 1.01 1.05 1.21 1.12 0.29 1.45 1.40 0.63 0.10

Mean Minimum Maximum Standard deviation

24.49 0.53 51.26

1.62 0.46 3.24

15.02

0.80

Note:

Pha

C h a = chlorophylls; ChA = chlorophyllb\

C h e = chlorophyllc;

95

P h a = pheophytina

Pha

Chlorophyll b and c and pheophytin a in the lake were found to be generally low, below 4.8 μg/L. For many samples at each station, no pheophytin a was found (table 29). Metals. On August 4, 1995, surface and bottom water samples were taken for metals and organic analyses from nine regular lake sampling locations and Indian Creek. The results of 21 metals analyses for those samples and a field blank are presented in table 30. At all stations, concentrations of beryllium, cadmium, lead, nickel, silver, and zinc were found to be less than the detectable values. Aluminum, chromium, cobalt, copper, and vanadium were below detectable limits for most of the samples. Unexpectedly, the nickel concentration in the field blank was 19 μg/L, which was higher than any lake water sample. The IPCB (IEPA, 1990) stipulated the chemical constituents for secondary contact and indigenous aquatic life standards as follows: arsenic, 1,000 μg/L; barium, 5,000 μg/L; cadmium, 150 μg/L; chromium, 1,000 μg/L; copper, 1,000 μg/L; iron, 2,000 μg/L; lead, 100 μg/L; manganese, 1,000 μg/L; silver, 1,100 μg/L; and zinc, 1,000 μg/L. The metal contents of Wolf Lake water samples were much lower than these standards. According to Bell and Johnson (1990), the IDEM analyzed surface water in 1966 for metal concentrations at the State Line Road culvert monthly. Metals concentrations are usually below detection limits and are even within drinking water standards. The USEPA STORET database contains information on metal concentrations in Wolf Lake in Illinois for 1977, 1979, and 1989. None of the metals exceeded the general use standards. Organics Table 31 presents the results of analyses for 19 organic constituents in Wolf Lake samples collected on August 4, 1993. It can be seen that the concentrations of each organic constituent examined were below the laboratory detectable level for all samples. Biological Characteristics Indicator Bacteria. Pathogenic bacteria, pathogenic protozoan cysts, and viruses have been isolated from wastewaters and natural waters. The sources of these pathogens are the feces of humans and of wild and domestic animals. Identification and enumeration of these diseasecausing organisms in water and wastewater are not recommended because no single technique is currently available to isolate and identify all the pathogens. In fact, concentrations of these pathogens are generally low in water and wastewater. In addition, the methods for identification and enumeration of pathogens are labor intensive and expensive. Instead of direct isolation and enumeration of pathogens, total coliform (TC) has long been used as an indicator of pathogen contamination of a water that poses a public health risk. Fecal coliform (FC), which is more fecal-specific, has been adopted as a standard indicator of contamination in natural water in Illinois, Indiana, and many other states. Both TC and FC are used in standards for drinking water and natural waters. Fecal streptococcus (FS) is used as a pollution indicator in Europe. FC/FS ratios have been employed for identifying pollution sources in the United States. Fecal streptococci are present in the intestines of warm-blooded animals and of insects, and they are present in the environment (water, soil, and vegetation) for long periods of time. The Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) has promulgated the indicator bacteria standards for recreational-use waters as follows: ■

A beach will be posted "Warning - Swim At Your Own Risk" when bacterial counts exceed 1,000 TC per 100 mL or 100 FC per 100 mL. 96

Table 30. Metal (Total) Concentrations in Wolf Lake Waters, August 4, 1993

Metal* Aluminum Arsenic Barium Beryllium Boron Cadmium Calcium, mg/L Chromium Cobalt Copper

RHA-1 S B

S

RHA-2 B

100K 100K 100K 1.0 1K 3.7 54 54 28 1K 1K 1K 460 460 140

S

RHA-3 B

RHA-4 S B

RHA-5 RHA-6 S B S

RHA-7 S

270 2.5 33 1K 140

100K 2.5 28 1K 140

100K 1.6 28 1K 140

200 2.8 29 1K 140

100 4.0 26 1K 130

260 4.2 39 1K 180

350 100K 100K 2.2 1K 2.0 40 28 27 1K 1K 1K 170 51 39

RHA-8 S B 100K 1K 26 1K 28

RHA-9 S

130 100K 1.0 1.0 34 26 1K 1K 37 10K

RHA01 Field S Blank 100K 3.2 25 1K 130

100K 1K 6 1K 10K

3K 41 5K 5K 9

3K 41 5K 5 7

3K 23 5K 5K 5K

3K 25 5K 5K 5K

3K 24 5K 5K 8

3K 24 5K 5K 5K

3K 24 5K 5K 5K

3K 23 5K 5K 5K

3K 46 5K 5K 5K

3K 46 6 5 5K

3K 25 5K 5K 5K

3K 28 5K 5K 6

3K 30 5K 5K 5K

3K 32 5K 5K 5K

3K 38 5K 5K 5K

3K 23 5K 5K 7

3K 2.4 5K 5K 5K

Iron 50K Lead 50K Magnesium, mg/L 20 Manganese 29 Nickel 15K

50K 50K 20 30 15K

120 50K 12 120 15K

65 50K 12 180 15K

89 50K 11 150 15K

120 50K 11 150 15K

140 50K 11 130 15K

170 50K 11 130 15K

110 50K 8 160 15K

330 50K 8 180 15K

150 50K 11 130 15K

250 50K 11 120 15K

250 50K 11 100 15K

360 50K 11 120 15K

340 50K 11 59 15K

77 50K 11 110 15K

50K 50K 0.8 15K 19

4.4 4.2 3K 3K 35 35 140 140 5K 5K 100K 100K

3.6 3K 29 140 5K 100K

3.6 3K 29 130 5K 100K

2.9 2.9 11 3K 3K 3K 28 28 41 130 130 220 5K 5K 6 100K 100K 100K

11 3K 40 210 8 100K

2.1 3K 26 130 5K 100K

2.2 3K 25 130 5K 100K

2.3 2.3 3K 3K 23 24 130 130 5K 5K 100K 100K

1.7 3K 14 130 5K 100K

3.6 3K 29 130 5K 100K

1.0K 3K 47 27 5K 100K

Potassium, mg/L 13 12 Silver 3K 3K Sodium, mg/L 35 36 Strontium 220 220 Vanacium 5K 5K Zinc 100K 100K

Notes: S = surface samples collected 1 foot from surface B = bottom samples collected 2 feet from lake bottom K = less than detection value * All metals in μg/L, except where noted otherwise.

Table 31. Organic Concentrations in Wolf Lake, August 4, 1993

Organic, mg/L

RHA-1 SB

RHA-2 SB

RHA-3 SB

RHA-4 SB

RHA-5 SB

RHA-6 RHA-7 S S

RHA-8 RHA-9 RHA01 S B S S

Field blank

(11/30/93) 13

Aldrin Alpha-BHC Gamma-BHC (lindane) Chlordane, CIS isomer Chlordane, trans isomer Chlordane, total

.01k .01k .01k 01k .01k .02k

.01k .01k .01k .01k .01k .02k

01k .01k .01k 01k .01k .02k

.01k 01k .01k .01k .01k .02k

.01k .01k .01k 01k .01k .02k

.01k .01k .01k .01k .01k .02k

.01k .01k .01k .01k .01k 02k

.01k 01k .01k .01k .01k .02k

.01k 01k .01k .01k .01k .02k

.01k 01k .01k .01k 01k .02k

01k .01k .01k .01k .01k 02k

.01k 01k 01k .01k 01k .02k

.01k 01k .01k .01k .01k .02k

.01k 01k .01k .01k .01k .02k

01k .01k .01k .01k 01k .02k

01k .01k 01k .01k .01k 02k

.01k .01k .01k .01k .01k .02k

01k 01k 01k 01k 01k 02k

O.P'-DDD P.P'-DDD O.P'-DDE P.P'-DDE 0,P'-DDT P.P'-DDT Total DDT

.01k .01k .01k .01k .01k .01k 01k

.01k .01k 01k .01k .01k .01k .01k

.01k 01k 01k .01k .01k .01k 01k

.01k 01k 01k .01k .01k .01k 01k

.01k .01k .01k .01k .01k .01k 01k

.01k .01k 01k .01k .01k .01k 01k

.01k 01k 01k .01k .01k .01k 01k

01k .01k .01k .01k .01k .01k .01k

01k .01k .01k .01k .01k .01k .01k

.01k .01k .01k .01k .01k .01k .01k

.01k .01k 01k .01k .01k 01k 01k

01k .01k .01k .01k .01k 01k 01k

.01k 01k .01k .01k .01k .01k .01k

.01k 01k .01k .01k .01k .01k .01k

01k .01k .01k .01k .01k .01k .01k

.01k 01k 01k .01k .01k .01k 01k

01k .01k 01k .01k .01k .01k 01k

.01k .01k .01k .01k .01k .01k .01k

Dieldrin Endrin Hexachlorobenzene Methoxychlor PCBs-total Pentachlorophenol

.01k .01k .01k .05k 01k .01k

.01k .01k .01k .05k .01k .01k

.01k .01k .01k .05k 01k .01k

.01k .01k 01k .05k .01k 01k

.01k .01k .01k .05k .01k .01k

.01k .01k .01k .05k .01k .01k

.01k .01k 01k .05k .01k .01k

.01k .01k .01k .05k .01k .01k

.01k .01k .01k .05k .01k .01k

.01k .01k .01k .05k .01k .01k

01k .01k 01k 05k .01k .01k

.01k .01k 01k .05k .01k .10k

.01k .01k .01k .05k .01k .01k

.01k .01k .01k .05k .01k .01k

.01k .01k .01k .05k .01k .01k

01k .01k 01k .05k .01k .01k

.01k .01k 01k .05k .01k .01k

.01k .01k 01k .05k .01k 01k

Note:

S = surface samples collected 1 foot from surface B = bottom samples collected 2 feet from lake bottom k = less than detection value



A beach will be closed when bacterial densities exceed 5,000 TC per 100 mL or 500 FC per 100 mL in water samples collected on two consecutive days.

The Illinois Pollution Control Board has adopted rules regarding FC limits for general-use water quality standards applicable to lakes and streams. The rules of Section 302.209 are (IEPA, 1990): a. During the months May through October, based on a minimum of five samples taken over not more than a 30-day period, fecal coliforms (STORET number 31616) shall not exceed a geometric mean of 200 per 100 mL, nor shall more than 10 percent of the samples during any 30-day period exceed 400 per 100 mL in protected waters. Protected waters are defined as water that, due to natural characteristics, aesthetic value, or environmental significance, are deserving of protection from pathogenic organisms. Protected waters must meet one or both of the following conditions: 1)

They presently support or have the physical characteristics to support primary contact.

2)

They flow through or adjacent to parks or residential areas.

The IDEM (1995) stipulates (Title 327) that for recreational uses, bacteriological quality during April - October should be such that Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria shall not exceed 125 per 100 mL (using a membrane filter method) as a geometric mean based on not less than five samples equally spaced over a 30-day period, nor shall it exceed 235 per 100 mL in any one sample in a 30-day period. Tables 32 and 33 present the indicator bacteria analyses results from the monthly in-lake monitoring in Wolf Lake and periodic sampling in its tributaries and other specific locations. All sampling locations are plotted in figure 8. Bacterial quality in Wolf Lake was generally found to be excellent except in Wolf Lake Channel. Excluding RHA-9, the highest TC density was 1,900 per 100 mL at RHA-8 on November 12, 1992; almost all samples had TC less than 100 per 100 mL. In addition, FC and FS were not detected in many samples (table 32). For the five pools (RHA-1 to RHA-5) and at RHA 01 in Illinois, the FC results obtained during the one-year monitoring period could not be evaluated with the IPCB's moving geometric mean standard. (A five-sample minimum was not collected over the prescribed 30-day period). It is believed, however, that the bacterial quality in Wolf Lake's Illinois pools would meet the IPCB's standard (200 FC/100 mL). On the basis of in-lake FC density, no violation of the 400 FC/100 mL limit occurred in five Illinois pools. No E. coli enumerations were made; therefore bacterial quality in the Indiana side of Wolf Lake could not be evaluated with the EDEM's E. coli standards An examination of the data in table 32 shows that FC counts at RHA-9 in Wolf Lake Channel varied widely and had a yearly geometric mean of 260 per 100 mL. However, 42 percent (5 out of 12) of the samples exceeded 2,000 FC per 100 mL; only ten percent of the samples are allowed to exceed this limit. Poor bacterial quality and violations at RHA-9 could be traced to high bacterial counts at RHA 02 (discharge from Lever Brothers Company), RHA 03 (Roby pumping station), and RHA 04 (Forsythe Park pumping station) (table 33, figure 8). Table 32 also shows that the Wolf Lake outlet (RHA 01) had good bacterial quality and should meet the IPCB's ambient bacteria standard. 99

Table 32. Indicator Bacterial Densities in Wolf Lake

Date 10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 1/19/93 2/10/93 3/16/93 4/10/93 5/9/93 6/9/93 7/7/93 8/4/93 9/8/93 10/27/93

Date 10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 1/19/93 2/10/93 3/16/93 4/10/93 5/9/93 6/9/93 7/7/93 8/4/93 9/8/93 10/27/93

Date 10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 1/19/93 2/10/93 3/16/93 4/10/93 5/9/93 6/9/93 7/7/93 8/4/93 9/8/93 10/27/93

TC 21 1 2 2 24 14 16 2 100 6 2 5 11

TC 10 36 2 19 15 14 5 24 3 13 9 11

TC 19 14 31 4 48 20 2 4 53 28 8 4 3

RHA-1 FC 2 nd nd nd 4 1 1 <1 33 2 3 4 RHA-3 FC

FS

TC

1 nd nd nd 1 nd 1 <1 37 2 11 1 2

12 170 8 1 33 14 4 5 53 68 8 13 6

FS

TC

nd 3 (bottle broken) nd 3 nd 1 2 16 2 4 2 3

7 10 nd <1 nd 5 nd 7 2 1 <1 <1

RHA-5 FC 2 6 nd nd 13 1 <1 36 15 2 1

FS 6 9 nd nd nd 1 12 nd 5 13 1 11 nd

100

17 34 9 10 50 40 4 10 62 30 70 15 4

TC 10 20 5 2 26 30 20 10 30 16 6 9 7

RHA-2 FC nd 23 1 nd 3 <1 nd 1 26 20 4 2 2 RHA-4 FC 2 8 1 nd 2 1 3 30 10 25 4 2 RHA-6 FC 3 6 2 nd 12 nd 2 3 20 6 2 2 2

FS nd 15 nd nd nd nd 3 <1 13 25 <1 <1 <1

FS 4 21 nd nd nd <1 13 2 24 19 nd 2 nd

FS 6 20 1 nd nd nd 1 nd 1 4 nd <1 nd

Table 32. Concluded RHA-7 FC

FS

TC

50 98 16 8 82 16 11 12 1,800 130 34 23 33

10 6 nd nd 9 1 <1 1 480 20 20 6 5

9 13 1 nd nd nd 2 nd 37 60 1 2 <1

20 1,900 70 2 10 34 45 8 540 55 32 9 170

4 46 2 nd 6 2 <1 <1 88 10 14 4 22

4 20 nd nd nd 1 2 <1 37 10 1 nd 2

Date

TC

RHA-9 FC

FS

TC

FC

RHA01 FS

10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 1/19/93 2/10/93 3/16/93 4/10/93 5/9/93 6/9/93 7/7/93 8/4/93 9/8/93 10/27/93

58,000 44,000 700 110 2,100 210 130 170 190,000 7,000 27,000 23,000 34,000

3 4 <1 nd <1 nd nd 13 35 22 20 2 4

nd 8 1 nd nd nd 2 nd 31 23 7 1 4

Date

TC

10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 1/19/93 2/10/93 3/16/93 4/10/93 5/9/93 6/9/93 7/7/93 8/4/93 9/8/93 10/27/93

Notes:

4,400 60 4 63 7 3 25 68,000 300 7,000 4,300 3,600

730 10 nd 2 nd 2 nd 310 100 100 67 100

RHA-8 FC

9 25 7 3 14 31 7 20 54 51 38 22 8

Density in bacteria per 100 mL; TC = total coliform; FC = fecal coliform; FS = fecal streptococcus; nd = not detected.

101

FS

Table 33. Indicator Bacterial Densities in Wolf Lake Tributaries and Storm Sewer Discharges

Station

Date

RHA 02

4/20/93 6/7/93 8/8/93 7/7/93 7/24/93 8/4/93 8/19/93 10/27/93

RHA 03

RHA 04

RHA 05

RHA 06

2/21/93 3/16/93 4/10/93 4/20/93 5/9/93 6/7/93 6/8/93 6/8/93 7/7/93 8/4/93 8/19/93 9/9/93 5/10/93 6/8/93 6/8/93 6/8/93 6/8/93 7/7/93 8/4/93 8/19/93 9/9/93 4/20/93 5/10/93 6/7/93 6/8/93 6/8/93 6/8/93 7/7/93 8/4/93 8/19/93 9/9/93 6/8/93 6/8/93

Time

13:45 18:55 19:05 08:05 09:50

12:30

15:45 11:00 20:03

09:30

11:00 15:10 18:55 21:00 07:40 09:20

11:50 11:25 19:00 20:50 11:30 09:00

09:05 19:40

Total coliform. per 100 mL

Fecal coliform, per 100 ml

Fecal streptococcus per 100 ml

1,200 21,000 500,000 960 2,000 3,700 2,900 300

70 220 36,000 40 300 360 420 80

160 510 1,500 10 100 8 38 4

85,000 230,000 100,000 13,000 480,000 70,000 86,000 58,000 760,000 17,000,000 2,000,000 1,200,000

2,900 21,000 2,000 3,100 50,000 7,500 9,600 12,000 180,000 1,600,000 140,000 130,000

900 5,600 1,900 750 13,000 14,000 5,200 750 69,000 15,000 21,000 5,500

3,100 130,000 35,000 140,000 39,000 310,000 10,000,000 200,000 91,000

380 42,000 8,800 570 2,100 9,800 1,100,000 11,000 520

57 23,000 12,000 1,900 840 1,700 110,000 320 110

2,800 3,600 22,000 21,000 620,000 1,300 64,000 1,900,000,000 3,600,000 28,000

800 420 2,200 2,000 3,800 120 13,000 340,000,000 500,000 1,400

250 320 6,800 7,200 3,100 680 1,800 6,200,000 1,700 170

15,000 9,000

1,500 1,200

2,100 700

102

Table 33. Concluded

RHA 07

6/8/93 6/8/93

14:08

2,100 2,300

310 160

510 80

RHA 08

6/8/93 6/8/93

13:45 22:57

2,600 2,300

730 95

1,600 40

RHA 09

6/8/93 6/8/93 10/27/93

10:20 19:27

47,000 26,000 380

4,600 1,900 38

12,000 1,800 2

RHA 10

6/8/93 6/8/93 7/7/93 7/19/93 9/9/93

12:50 22:33

15,000 2,800 2,600 1,200 1,200

3,700 200 890 310 290

2,800 70 74 260 260

RHA 11

8/19/93 10/27/93

10:15

20 1,800

6 430

nd 110

RHA 13

9/8/93 10/27/93

16:35

nd 1,900

nd 230

nd 15

RHA 14

8/19/93 9/18/93 10/27/93

10:30 16:24

nd 130 nd

nd 10 nd

nd 1 1

RHA 71

6/8/93 6/8/93

14:20 21:30

600 2,200

370 360

470 57

RHA 72

6/8/93 6/8/93 6/10/93 7/7/93

14:25 21:40 17:05

4,600 400 66 640

820 45 30 25

1,200 40 20 15

2,700 150 610 670

53 120 270 170

5 56 16 22

8/4/93 9/10/93 9/10/93 10/27/93

103

per

Fecal streptococcus 100 mL

Time

Swimming beach Center N portion S portion Center

perl

Fecal coliform. 00 mL

Date

18:35 10:45

per

Total coliform. 100 mL

Station

In Wolf Lake Channel, indicator bacterial samples were also collected from seven tributaries or discharges (RHA 02, RHA 03, RHA 04, RHA 09, RHA 11, RHA 13, and RHA 14), shown in figure 8. As shown in table 33, stations RHA 02, RHA 03, RHA 04, and RHA 09 exceeded the limit of". . . . 2,000 FC per 100 mL in more than ten percent of the samples". The FC geometric mean values for these four stations were, respectively, 310, 26,000, 6,000, and 690 per 100 mL. Only stations RHA 03 and RHA 04 violated the FC geometric mean limit. RHA 02 is at the discharge from Lever Brothers Company, which manufactures soaps and detergent products. Samples at RHA 03 represent Roby station stormwater pumpages, while RHA 04 samples represent stormwater pumped from the Hammond Sanitary District's Forsythe Park station. RHA 09 samples were collected at the confluence of an unnamed creek and Wolf Lake Channel. FC counts at the other three stations in Wolf Lake Channel, RHA 11, RHA 13, and RHA 14, met the Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board's limits. These three stations received minor discharges from Amaizo. An extremely high bacterial count (TC, FC, and FS) was reported for RHA 05 in an August 4, 1993, sample. This was not a stormwater sample pumped from the Sheffield Avenue station, but rather a sample taken from stagnant water in the deep-well inside the pumping house. This sample was excluded from geometric mean calculations. The observed geometric mean FC density for RHA 05 was 2,600 per 100 mL. On June 7 and 8, 1993, bacterial samples were collected at different times from the three pumping stations (RHA 03, 04, and 05). It can be seen from table 33 that during a storm event, variations in bacterial densities were more pronounced at RHA 04 and RHA 05, and less so at RHA 03. The geometric mean of FC densities for station RHA 06 (connecting channel between Pools 7 and 8) was 1,300 per 100 mL. During this study period, four bacterial samples were taken at the beach area (northeast corner of Pool 8). The bacterial results are shown in table 33. The geometric mean of FC counts was 130 per 100 mL. However, one sample collected on September 10, 1993, exceeded 200 FC/100 mL, which is the IDPH set guideline whether to permit public swimming or not. Table 34 presents the ten-year historical summer FC densities at four locations (figure 8) along the swimming beach, (data obtained from the Hammond Health Department). In general, FC counts were low and ranged from undetectable to too numerous to count (TNTC). However, 9.6 (12/125), 2.4 (3/125), 1.6 (2/126), and 4.0 (5/126) percent of samples exceeded the 200 FC per 100 mL limit. The third bench station showed the best FC quality in the beach area (table 34). On August 18, 1992, all four locations were reported to have very high bacterial counts (TNTC). Bacterial samples were also collected at locations RHA 08, RHA 07, RHA 71, RHA 72, and RHA 10, all on the Illinois side (figure 8). These stations are located at the northeast end of Pool 1 (RHA 08), at the wetland area next to Pool 5 (RHA 7, 71, and 72), and at the southern tip of Pool 5. During the June 8, 1993, storm event, bacterial counts were initially elevated but tapered off later at all of these stations (table 33). Four of the 15 samples obtained from these locations exceeded the FC limit of 400 per 100 mL. The use of FS in conjunction with FC was first suggested by Geldreich et al. (1964). In applying the FC/FS ratio to a natural stream system, best results are obtained if the stream samples are collected within a 24-hour streamflow time of a pollution source. A series of studies (Geldreich, 1967; Geldreich et al., 1964; Geldreich and Kenner, 1969) determined that ratios greater than 4.0 are indicative of a pollution source primarily of human origin, such as domestic wastewater: whereas ratios less than 0.7 suggest that the pollution source is likely waste from warmblooded animals other than humans, i.e., livestock, poultry, wild animals, etc. Intermediate values between 0.7 and 4.0 represent a mixed pollution source. 104

Table 34. Long-Term Fecal Coliform Densities (per 100 mL) at Wolf Lake Park Swimming Beach

Date 6/19/85 6/26/85 7/03/85 7/10/85 7/17/85 7/24/85 7/31/85 8/07/85 8/14/85 8/21/85 8/28/85 6/11/86 6/18/86 6/25/86 7/02/86 7/09/86 7/23/86 7/30/86 8/06/86 8/13/86 8/20/86 8/27/86 6/17/87 6/24/87 7/01/87 7/08/87 7/15/87 7/22/87 7/29/87 8/05/87 8/12/87 8/19/87 8/26/87 9/02/87 6/09/88 6/15/88 6/22/88 6/29/88 7/06/88 7/14/88 7/20/88 7/27/88 8/03/88 8/10/88 8/17/88

Wolf

Point 1 31 19 2 18 500 26 % 2 7 56 14 4 16 250 34 0 52 0 24 0 4 0 0 1 32 58 400 2 8 0 0 2 0 8 0 6 6 24 0 20 68 0 54

First

bench

3 5 6 1 3 5 4 10 200 84 6 12 10 22 4 2 20 50 12 3 0 0 4 0 No sample 0 50 12 2 42 0 0 18 20 0 0 4 4 0 12 0 2 2 0 12 0 28

105

Third

bench 7 3 5 0 2 12 8 14 4 6 10 4 6 12 30 0 14 0 2 0 0 6 0 3 0 2 58 0 6 32 4 18 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Last post 11 0 12 4 2 12 6 22 0 6 2 38 6 0 20 24 18 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 21 1 6 264 0 0 32 0 1,000 4 6 0 10 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 44

Table 34. Continued

Date 8/24/88 8/31/88 6/06/89 6/13/89 6/20/89 6/27/89 7/03/89 7/11/89 7/18/89 7/25/89 8/01/89 8/08/89 8/15/89 8/22/89 8/29/89 6/05/90 6/19/90 6/26/90 7/03/90 7/10/90 7/17/90 7/24/90 7/31/90 8/07/90 8/14/90 8/21/90 8/28/90 5/07/91 5/21/91 6/04/91 6/11/91 6/20/91 6/25/91 7/09/91 7/11/91 7/16/91 7/23/91 7/30/91 8/06/91 8/20/91 8/27/91 9/10/91 9/17/91

Wolf

Point

0 30 0 7 10 84 20 44 222 6 12 29 26 112 112 70 12 18 4 50 2 0 No sample 0 12 60 18 130 28 21 TNTC 8 2 200+ 320 42 38 22 43 % 42 18 12

First bench 0 0 0 8 10 96 5 4 8 20 2 16 14 20 68 8 24 TNTC 120 26 94 18 34 0 24 156 62 178 16 20 64 16 12 8 114 10 38 18 16 124 20 60 20

106

Third bench 0 0 0 10 2 22 2 35 4 138 14 8 0 6 32 2 10 200+ 10 130 6 4 24 0 6 125 18 6 4 2 10 22 74 16 16 8 24 1 73 4 62 24

Last post 0 0 0 12 0 36 0 26 2 76 40 8 8 12 12 2 6 0 2 276 4 4 4 0 20 72 8 10 8 21 60 30 14 8 8 12 20 2 0 104 6 14 6

Table 34. Concluded

Date 5/19/92 5/26/92 6/02/92 6/09/92 6/16/92 6/23/92 6/30/92 7/07/92 7/14/92 7/21/92 7/28/92 8/04/92 8/11/92 8/18/92 8/25/92 9/01/92 6/08/93 6/15/93 6/22/93 6/29/93 7/06/93 7/13/93 7/20/93 7/27/93 8/03/93 8/10/93 8/17/93 8/24/93 5/24/94 5/31/94 6/07/94 6/14/94 6/21/94 6/28/94 7/05/94 7/12/94 7/19/94 7/26/94

Wolf

Point 14 20 0 200 20 154 4 264 54 70 354 4 1 TNTC 72 26 194 10 46 88 56 194 62 200+ 190 30 24 106 6 14 20 38 48 TNTC 10 8 200+ 28

First bench 6 25 4 50 14 6 10 16 22 12 56 6 6 TNTC 18 2 190 52 64 18 42 18 58 178 36 54 50 22 14 2 16 26 36 28 12 22 20 40

Third bench 0 11 12 10 4 2 4 2 38 10 0 8 8 TNTC 30 14 108 20 12 58 28 22 134 144 14 42 76 26 12 6 6 32 16 32 8 28 24 46

Note: TNTC = too numerous to count Source: Dr. Franklin F. Premuda, Health Officer, Hammond Health Department

107

Last post 2 7 4 18 8 4 20 6 42 62 8 12 10 TNTC 12 2 110 36 36 54 36 36 68 200+ 26 56 106 18 54 6 16 48 22 18 8 18 20 42

Tables 32 and 33 indicate that FS densities in Wolf Lake (not Wolf Lake Channel) were generally very low and even undetectable on many occasions. Geldreich et al. (1964) also suggested that FC/FS ratios should not be used if FS counts are less than 100 per 100 mL. Therefore, only samples from RHA-9, tributaries, and storm sewer discharges with FS densities greater than 100 per 100 mL were evaluated. For stormwater discharges (RHA 03, RHA 04, and RHA 05) high bacterial densities were found during and after storm events. This was also true for site RHA-9. On the basis of FC/FS ratios, RHA-9 samples indicate that the pollution sources are of human origin. Samples from Wolf Lake Channel locations, namely, RHA 02, RHA 03, RHA 04, RHA 05, RHA 06, RHA 09, and RHA 10, suggest mixed pollution sources. At stations RHA 07, RHA 08, and RHA 72 in Illinois, the FC/FS ratios for samples taken on June 8, 1993, were low (<0.7) indicating a nonhuman, warm-blooded animal pollution source. Algae. Phytoplanktonic algae form the base of the aquatic food web and provide the primary source of food for fish and other aquatic insects and animals. The algae produce oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the water through photosynthesis. Nevertheless, excessive growths (blooms) of algae can degrade water quality and cause problems such as bad taste and odor, increased color and turbidity, decreased filter run at a water treatment plant, unsightly surface scums and aesthetic problems, and even oxygen depletion after die-off. Sampling of plankton (algae and zooplankton) communities was carried out monthly during the period from April - October 1993. Algal densities (standing crops) expressed as the total number of counts per milliliter (cts/mL), frequency of occurrence, species distribution, and biovolumes, are presented for nine stations in Wolf Lake in table 35a-i. Chlorophyll values are also listed in the table. Traditionally, two significant digits are used for reporting total algal density. The total number of algae listed in table 35a-i can be rounded off to two digits to follow this convention. Ranges of algal densities for stations RHA-1 through RHA-9 were 59 to 2,100; 140 to 940; 130 to 2,400; 170 to 840; 130 to 720; 200 to 7,400; 52 to 5,300; 310 to 6,700; and 180 to 4,300 cts/mL, respectively. For RHA-1 to RHA-4, the lowest algal densities occurred in September 1993, and the highest densities in April and August 1993. For RHA-5, observed algal densities were generally low compared to other stations, with high algal counts in July and April. For the Indiana side, in contrast, highest algal densities were observed in September 1993 for RHA-6 and RHA-7, and in July 1993 for RHA-8 and RHA-9. Relatively high algal densities also occurred in September 1993 for RHA-8. The lowest algal counts were observed in June 1993 for RHA-7 and RHA-9 and in August 1993 for RHA-8. For Lake George in Lake County, IN (Raman et al., 1995), high algal counts occurred in April 1993 in both north and south basins. This trend in algal growth was not observed in any Illinois lakes investigated by the authors. In general, high algal densities are found in early spring and during the summer months (Kothandaraman and Evans, 1983a, 1983b; Raman and Bogner, 1994). There were between 2 and 15 algal species found in each of the samples collected from different stations in the lake. There were in all 22, 27, 26, 24, 27, 27, 26, 26, and 29 different algal species identified at different times at stations RHA-1 through RHA-9, respectively. A total of 60 different species were found in all of the 63 algal samples examined. These species included 6 blue-greens (Cyanophytes), 13 greens (nonmobile Chlorophytes), 31 diatoms (Bacillariophytes), 8 flagellates (Chrysophytes, Euglenophytes, etc.), and 2 desmids. At all these sampling stations, diatoms and greens were generally the predominant algae present, not the problem-causing bluegreen algae.

108

Table 35a. Algal Types and Densities, Biovolume, and Chlorophyll in Wolf Lake at RHA-1,1993

Algal species Blue-greens Anabaena planctonica A. spiroides Anacystis thermolis Aphanizomenon Oscillatoria chlorina 0.sp. Greens Actinustrum hantzchii Closteriopsis longissima Coelsatrum microporum Crucigenia rectangularis Oocystis borgei Pediastrum biradiatum P. duplex P. simplex P. tetras Scenedesmus carinatus S.dimorphus Ulothrix variabilis U. zonata Diatoms Amphiprora ornata A. paludosa Amphora ovalis Asterionellaformosa Caloneis amphisbaena Cyclotella atomus C. meneghiniana C. ocellata Cymatopleura solea Cymbella affinis C. prostrata C. sp. Diatoma vulgare Diploneis smithii Fragilaria virescens Gomphonema olivaceum Gyrosigma kutzingii

4/13

5/26

Density 7/20

6/22

189 Jlos-aquae

8/18

9/28

88 174

10/27

14 43 14

48 38

17 88 16

25

14 6

11

61

29 11

71

29 69

8

11

721

25

23

59

2

74

14 71

63

57

14 2

25

%of time occurred

14

14

109

Table 35a. Concluded

Algal species

4/13

5/26

6/22

Diatoms Melosira granulata Navicula cryptocephala N. cuspidata N. gastrum Neidium dubium Nitzschia dentecula Rhoicosphenia curvata Stephanodiscus niagarae Synedra actinastroides S. acus S. delicatissima S. ulna Tabellariafenestrata T. sp. Flagellates Carteria multifilis Ceratium hirundinella Chlamydomonas reinhardi Dinobryon sertularia Eurorina elegans Euglena gracilis Phacus pleuronectes Trachemonas crebea

Density 7/20

8/18

9/28

50

1,283

17

10/27

82 17

29 14

8 92

15

14 29

8

11 55

14 43

17

126

185

8

57 14

8

Desmids Closterium sp. Staurastrum cornutum

%of time occurred

14

13

4

29

Total algal density

2,069

398

605

124

203

Number of species Biovolume, mm 3 /L Chlorophyll-a, μg/L Chlorophyll-b, μg/L Chlorophyll-c, μg/L Pheophytin a, μg/L

4 54.60

9 1.54 6.94 1.21 0.00 0.00

13 35.09 3.20 0.00 0.00 0.00

4 8.04 3.20 0.26 0.70 0.16

8 5.41 2.67 0.00 0.12 0.00

Note: Densities in cts/mL, except where noted otherwise.

110

59

404

2 0.01

4 8.56

Table 35b. Algal Types and Densities, Biovolume, and Chlorophyll in Wolf Lake at RHA-2,1993

Algal species

4/13

5/26

Blue-greens Anabaena planctonica A. spiroides Anacystis thermolis Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Oscillatoria chlorina O. sp. Greens Actinustrum hantzchii Closteriopsis longissima Coelsatrum microporum Crucigenia rectangularis Oocystis borgei Pediastrum biradiatum P. duplex P. simplex P. tetras Scenedesmus carinatus S.dimorphus Ulothrix variabilis U. zonata

Density 7/20

6/22

8/18

9/28

%of time occurred

10/27

407 116

336

237 99

330

14 88

151

65

14

11

36 8

6

17 8

32

4 11

48

8

15

14 11

14

11

43

4

86 14 29

8

57

4

44

86 14

Diatoms

Amphiprora omata A. paludosa Amphora ovalis Asterionella formosa Caloneis amphisbaena Cyclotella atomus C. meneghiniana C. ocellata Cymatopleura solea Cymbella affmis

2

17

13

14

29

86

14 153

14

C. prostrata

C. sp. Diatoma vulgare Diploneis smithii Fragilaria virescens Gomphonema olivaceum Gyrosigma kutzingii

34

14

111

Table 35b. Concluded

Algal species

4/13

5/26

6/22

Diatoms Melosira granulata Navicula cryptocephala N. cuspidata N. gastrum Neidium dubium Nitzschia dentecula Rhoicosphenia curvata Stephanodiscus niagarae Synedra actinastroides S. acus S. delicatissima S. ulna Tabellaria fenestrata T.sp. Flagellates Carteria multifilis Ceratium hirundinella Chlamydomonas reinhardi Dinobryon sertularia Eurorina elegans Euglena gracilis Phacus pleuronectes Trachemonas crebea

Density 7/20

Number of species Biovolume, mm 3 /L Chlorophyll-a, μg/L Chlorophyll-b, μg/L Chlorophyll-c, μg/L Pheophytin a, μg/L

9/28

10/27

32 11 4

13

447 21 158

1

1

8

53

2

14 14 14

275

57 14 57

11 50 11

15

29

23

8

4

720

336

546

431

936

139

522

5 212.69

9 7.82 13.35 1.13 0.13 0.00

9 6.14 9.08 0.00 0.22 0.00

5 0.24 12.82 0.86 0.55 0.00

7 0.69 15.49 0.00 0.49 0.00

7 5.61

11 12.12

Note: Densities in cts/mL, except where noted otherwise.

112

14 14 14

53

Desmids Closterium sp. Staurastrum comutum Total algal density

8/18

%of time occurred

43

Table 35c Algal Types and Densities, Biovolume, and Chlorophyll in Wolf Lake at RHA-3, 1993

Algal species Blue-greens Anabaena planctonica A. spiroides Anacystis thermolis Aphanizomenon Jlos-aquae Oscillatoria chlorina O. sp. Greens Actinustrum hantzchii Closteriopsis longissima Coelsatrum microporum Crucigenia rectangularis Oocystis borgei Pediastrum biradiatum P. duplex P. simplex P. tetras Scenedesmus carinatus S.dimorphus Ulothrix variabilis U. zonata Diatoms Amphiprora ornata A. paludosa Amphora ovalis Asterionella formosa Caloneis amphisbaena Cyclotella atomus C. meneghiniana C. ocellata Cymatopleura solea Cymbella qffinis C. prostrata C. sp. Diatoma vulgare Diploneis smithii Fragilaria virescens Gomphonema olivaceum Gyrosigma kutzingii

4/13

5/26

Density 7/20

6/22

8/18

9/28

%of time occurred

10/27

53 122

71

229 63

63 191 101

405

50

162

6 6

14

8

4 61 17

32

8

6 38 8

74

8

14 14 100 29

11 15 25

17

8 8

13

1,256

43 14 14 14 71 43 14 57

14

32

19

113

29

4

14

4

14

Table 35c Concluded

Algal species Diatoms Melosira granulata Navicula cryptocephala N. cuspidata N. gastrum Neidium dubium Nitzschia dentecula Rhoicosphenia curvata Stephanodiscus niagarae Synedra actinastroides S. acus S. delicatissima S. ulna Tabellaria fenestrata T. sp. Flagellates Carteria multifilis Ceratium hirundinella Chlamydomonas reinhardi Dinobryon sertularia Eurorina elegans Euglena gracilis Phacus pleuronectes Trachemonas crebea

4/13

5/26

Density 7/20

6/22

8/18

9/28

%of time occurred

10/27

38

14

21 6 48 8

912

Desmids Closterium sp. Staurastrum cornutum

13

11

86

105

15

29

15

13

4

43 151

57

8

14

6

43

Total algal density

2,417

229

530

423

508

128

423

Number of species Biovolume, mm 3 /L Chlorophyll-a, μg/L Chlorophyll-b, ng/L Chlorophyll-c, μg/L Pheophytin a, μg/L

6 40.01

7 9.% 6.94 1.05 1.26 0.00

11 10.08 6.94 0.42 0.00 0.00

7 3.71 10.15 0.49 0.83 0.00

5 0.48 18.69 0.51 0.27 0.00

8 7.02

9 6.98

Note: Densities in cts/mL, except where noted otherwise.

114

14 14 14

Table 35d. Algal Types and Densities, Biovolume, and Chlorophyll in Wolf Lake at RHA-4, 1993

Algal species

4/13

Blue-greens Anabaena ptanctonica A.spiroides Anacystis thermotis Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Oscillatoria chlorina O. sp. Greens Actinustrum hantzchii Closteriopsis longissima Coelsatrum microporum Crucigenia rectangularis Oocystis borgei Pediastrum biradiatum P. duplex P. simplex P. tetras Scenedesmus carinatus S.dimorphus Ulothrix variabilis U. zonata Diatoms Amphiprora ornata A. paludosa Amphora ovalis Asterionella formosa Caloneis amphisbaena Cyclotella atomus C. meneghiniana C. ocellata Cymatopleura solea Cymbella affinis C. prostrata C. sp. Diatoma vulgare Diploneis smithii Fragilaria virescens Gomphonema olivaceum Gyrosigma kutzingii

5/26

Density 7/20

6/22

8/18

9/28

%of time occurred

10/27

288 155

57 313

13 204 48

23

443 63 6

48 11

13 137

13

6

43

4

38 15

21

8 8

17

19

132

6

6

2 4 376

65

71

14 14 29 43

8 4

6

6

4

29

14 14 71

11

4

14 57 86 29

14

14

115

Table 35d. Concluded

Algal species

4/13

Diatoms Melosira granulata Navicula cryptocephala N. cuspidata N. gastrum Neidium dubium Nitzschia dentecula Rhoicosphenia curvata Stephanodiscus niagarae Synedra actinastroides S. acus S. delicatissima S. ulna Tabellaria fenestrata T. sp. Flagellates Carteria multifilis Ceratium hirundinella Chlamydomonas reinhardi Dinobryon sertularia Eurorina elegans Euglena gracilis Phacus pleuronectes Trachemonas crebea

Number of species Biovolume, mm 3 /L Chlorophyll-a, μg/L Chlorophyll-b, μg/L Chlorophyll-c, μg/L Pheophytin a, μg/L

6/22

8/18

9/28

10/27

34

14

11

76

267

36

168

8

8

67

8

29 378

71

8

14

6

43

6

675

552

630

275

844

165

555

4 11.47

9 7.67 13.35 160 1.23 0.00

10 9.93 12.82 0.14 0.16 0.00

4 0.77 13.35 0.84 0.99 0.00

11 4.50 18.69 0.40 0.24 0.00

9 3.13

7 17.17

116

14

29

6

Note: Densities in cts/mL, except where noted otherwise.

%of time occurred

14

2

Desmids Closterium sp. Staurastrum cornutum Total algal density

5/26

Density 7/20

Table 35e. Algal Types and Densities, Biovolume, and Chlorophyll in Wolf Lake at RHA-S, 1993

Algal species

4/13

Blue-greens Anabaena plane tonica A. spiroides Anacystis thermolis Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Oscillatoria chlorina O.sp. Greens Actinustrum hantzchii Closteriopsis longissima Coelsatrum microporum Crucigenia rectangularis Oocystis borgei Pediastrum biradiatum P. duplex P. simplex P. tetras Scenedesmus carinatus S. dimorphus Ulothrix variabilis U. zonata Diatoms Amphiprora ornata A. paludosa Amphora ovalis Asterionella formosa Caloneis amphisbaena Cyclotella atomus C. meneghiniana C.ocellata Cymatopleura solea Cymbella qffinis C. prostrata C. sp. Diatoma vulgare Diploneis smithii Fragilaria virescens Gomphonema olivaceum Gyrosigma kutzingii

5/26

6/22

50

88

Density 7/20

29 405 193

8/18

9/28

%of time occurred

10/27

86

151 34

27

32

29

29 4

8

14 14 14 29 57

8 8

17 4

100 29

13 2 8 55 11

11 23

21

21

15

11

15 15

14 29

11 44

477

14 86 43

306 113

14

25

29

36

11 4

117

65

29

14 14

Table 35c Concluded

Algal species

4/13

Diatoms Melosira granulata Navicula cryptocephala N. cuspidata N. gastrum Neidium dubium Nitzschia dentecula Rhoicosphenia curvata Stephanodiscus niagarae Synedra actinastroides S. acus S. delicatissima S. ulna Tabellariafenestrata T. sp. Flagellates Carteria multifilis Ceratium hirundinella Chlamydomonas reinhardi Dinobryon sertularia Eurorina elegans Euglena gracilis Phacus pleuronectes Trachemonas crebea

5/26

6/22

Density 7/20

8/18

9/28

40

%of time occurred

10/27

126

32

4

17

6

11 55

14

53

29

181

43 14 43

11

105

27 8 8

6 8

Desmids Closterium sp. Staurastrum cornutum

29 8

4 631

130

232

716

533

492

462

Number of species Biovolume, mm 3 /L Chlorophyll-a, μg/L Chlorophyll-b, μg/L Chlorophyll-c, μg/L Pheophytin a, μg/L

5 5.09

6 2.90 6.94 1.04 0.00 0.91

6 5.61 7.48 0.26 0.08 0.00

7 3.35 12.28 1.49 0.18 0.00

9 5.64 18.69 1.30 0.46 0.00

16 3.23

10 8.23

118

43

14

Total algal density

Note: Densities in cts/mL, except where noted otherwise.

43

Table 35f. Algal Types and Densities, Biovolume, and Chlorophyll in Wolf Lake at RHA-6, 1993

Algal species

4/13

5/26

Blue-greens Anabaena planctonica A. spiroides Anacystis thermolis Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Oscillatoria chlorina O. sp. Greens Actinustrum hantichii Closteriopsis longissima Coelsatrum microporum Crucigenia rectangularis Oocystis borgei Pediastrum biradiatum P. duplex P. simplex P. tetras Scenedesmus carinatus S.dimorphus Ulothrix variabilis U. zonata Diatoms Amphiprora ornata A. paludosa Amphora ovalis Asterionellaformosa Caloneis amphisbaena Cyclotella atomus C. meneghiniana C. ocellata Cymatopleura solea Cymbella qffinis C. prostrata C. sp. Diatoma vulgare Diploneis smithii Fragilaria virescens Gomphonema olivaceum Gyrosigma kutzingii

6/22

128

134

Density 7/20

397 433

8/18

46 36 78

9/28

210 1,512 147 95

32

19

29 86 43

13

29

4,368 42

11 13

10/27

2

36

8

21

11

13

6

307

118

6

17

%of time occurred

14 29

74 32 32

36

100 14 29

42

13

81

29

44

14 200 2 2

119

14 14 14

Table 35f. Concluded

Algal species Diatoms Melosira granulata Navicula cryptocephala N. cuspidata N. gastrum Neidium dubium Nitzschia dentecula Rhoicosphenia curvata Stephanodiscus niagarae Synedra actinastroides S. acus S. delicatissima S. ulna Tabellaria fenestrata T.sp. Flagellates Carteria multifilis Ceratium hirundinella Chlamydomonas reinhardi Dinobryon sertularia Eurorina elegans Euglena gracilis Phacus pleuronectes Trachemonas crebea

4/13

5/26

Density 7/20

6/22

8/18

9/28

11 13

116

10/27

53

2

17

29

57 63

14 14 14

74

29

32

29

8

11

13 111

8 4

179

384

74

Desmids Closterium sp. Staurastrum cornutum

13

4

Total algal density

544

396

211

860

Number of species Biovolume, mm 3 /L Chlorophyll-a, μg/L Chlorophyll-b, μg/L Chlorophyll-c, μg/L Pheophytin a, μg/L

8 6.35

8 4.95 5.87 1.06 0.55 0.00

6 6.17 11.75 0.16 0.44 0.00

8 2.11 26.70 1.90 1.32 0.00

Note: Densities in cts/mL, except where noted otherwise.

120

43 29

32

132

%of time occurred

71 14

14

8

53

11

196

7,409

603

6 20 2.63 153.77 33.11 1.42 1.06 0.00

9 18.64

71

Table 35g. Algal Types and Densities, Biovolume, and Chlorophyll in Wolf Lake at RHA-7, 1993

Algal species

4/13

Blue-greens Anabaena planctonica A.spiroides Anacystis thermolis Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Oscillatoria chlorina O.sp. Greens Actinustrum hantzchii Closteriopsis longissima Coelsatrum microporum Crucigenia rectangularis Oocystis borgei Pediastrum biradiatum P. duplex P. simplex P. tetras Scenedesmus carinatus S.dimorphus Ulothrix variabilis U. zonata Diatoms Amphiprora ornata A. paludosa Amphora ovalis Asterionella formosa Caloneis amphisbaena Cyclotella atomus C. meneghiniana C. ocellata Cymatopleura solea Cymbella qffinis C. prostrata C. sp. Diatoma vulgare Diploneis smithii Fragilaria virescens Gomphonema olivaceum Gyrosigma kutzingii

5/26

Density 7/20

6/22

8/18

9/28

%of time occurred

10/27

164 183

15

494 2,195 2,762

210

168 431

27

147

74

197

29

23 11

29 14 14 14 43

4

29 15

15 13

552

4,001 74

6 29

11

11

32

15

71

8

53

32

71 14

4

14

2

29 14

25

2 21

121

14 29 86 14

14 14

Table 35g. Concluded

Algal species Diatoms Melosira granulata Navicula cryptocephala N. cuspidata N. gastrum Neidium dubium Nitzschia dentecula Rhoicosphenia curvata Stephanodiscus niagarae Synedra actinastroides S. acus S. delicatissima S. ulna Tabellariafenestrata T. sp. Flagellates Carteria multifilis Ceratium hirundinella Chlamydomonas reinhardi Dinobryon sertularia Eurorina elegans Euglena gracilis Phacus pleuronectes Trachemonas crebea

4/13

5/26

6/22

Density 7/20

8/18

9/28

%of time occurred

10/27

59

14

15

14

4

86

63

6

29

166

43 14

13

11

14

187

Desmids Closterium sp. Staurastrum cornutum

116

13

Total algal density

297

358

52

Number of species Biovolume, mm 3 /L Chlorophyll-a, μg/L Chlorophyll-b, μg/L Chlorophyll-c, μg/L Pheophytin a, μg/L

6 8.80

7 5.60 20.83 1.53 1.21 0.00

4 0.08 21.89 0.76 0.29 0.00

Note: densities in cts/mL, except where noted otherwise.

122

5,567 4 34.88 51.26 3.24 1.40 0.00

8

95

344

36

116

544

5,275

800

11 12 1.65 121.92 27.23 0.87 0.10 0.00

10 16.52

71

43

Table 35h. Algal Types and Densities, Biovolume, and Chlorophyll in Wolf Lake at RHA-8, 1993

%of Algal species Blue-greens Anabaena planctonica A.spiroides Anacystis thermolis Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Oscillatoria chlorina O. sp. Greens Actinustrum hantzchii Closteriopsis longissima Coelsatrum microporum Crucigenia rectangularis Oocystis borgei Pediastrum biradiatum P. duplex P. simplex P. tetras Scenedesmus carinatus Sdimorphus Ulothrix variabilis U. zonata

4/13

5/26

6/22

Density 7/20

8/18

9/28

time occurred

10/27

57 218 128

250

462 3,035 2,625

111 15

179 651 116

76

63

13

29

27

14 14 14 29 57

6 6 23 6

4

200 13

14 43 86 43

903 84

50

8 2 4

53

8

57 43

8

57

17

17

53

252

50

21

Diatoms

Amphiprora ornata A. paludosa Amphora ovalis Asterionella formosa Caloneis amphisbaena Cyclotella atomus C. meneghiniana C. ocellata Cymatopleura solea Cymbella qffinis C.prostrata C. sp. Diatoma vulgare Diploneis smithii Fragilaria virescens Gomphonema olivaceum Gyrosigma kutzingii

43

19

14

2

6

2

29

14

123

Table 35h. Concluded

Algal species

4/13

5/26

Diatoms Melosira granulata Navicula cryptocephala N. cuspidata N. gastrum Neidium dubium Nitzschia dentecula Rhoicosphenia curvata Stephanodiscus niagarae Synedra actinastroides S. acus S. delicatissima S. ulna Tabellariafenestrata T. sp. Flagellates Carteria multifllis Ceratium hirundinella Chlamydomonas reinhardi Dinobryon sertularia Eurorina elegans Euglena gracilis Phacus pleuronectes Trachemonas crebea

Density 7/20

6/22

8/18

126

88

9/28

10/27

74

74

63

29

17

25

32 162

11

21

137 32

8

6

Desmids Closterium sp. Staurastrum cornutum

57

4 15

11

14 29

594

440

311

6,660

258

2,313

348

Number of species Biovolume, mm3/L Chlorophyll-a, μg/L Chlorophyll-*, μg/L Chlorophyll-c, μg/L Pheophytin a, μg/L

8 7.04

8 0.55 21.89 1.53 1.21 0.00

4 11.63 24.56 0.08 0.54 0.00

9 57.83 63.55 3.87 1.21 0.00

11 5.55 32.57 1.20 1.00 0.00

14 20.88

9 8.78

124

43 14

21

Total algal density

Note: densities in cts/mL, except where noted otherwise.

57 14

43 143

11

%of time occurred

Table 35i. Algal Types and Densities, Biovolume, and Chlorophyll in Wolf Lake at RHA-9, 1993

Algal species

4/13

Blue-greens Anabaena planctonica A. spiroides Anacystis thermolis Aphanizomenon Jlos-aquae Oscillatoria chlorina O.sp. Greens Actinustrum hantzchii Closteriopsis longissima Coelsatrum microporum Crucigenia rectangularis Oocystis borgei Pediastrum biradiatum P. duplex P. simplex P.tetras Scenedesmus carinatus S.dimorphus Ulothrix variabilis U. zonata Diatoms Amphiprora ornata A. paludosa Amphora ovalis Asterionella formosa Caloneis amphisbaena Cyclotella atomus C. meneghiniana C.ocellata Cymatopleura solea Cymbella qffinis C. prostrata C.sp. Diatoma vulgare Diploneis smithii Fragilaria virescens Gomphonema olivaceum Gyrosigma kutzingii

5/26

6/22

160

Density 7/20

8/18

9/28

10/27

924 1,229 1,334

25 78

95

55

11

%of time occurred

15 44

29

17

14

15

29

19

17

14 14 71

25

14 14 86

57 29

2 36

53

11 19 13

255

13

116

43 57 14

11

8

46

29

172

14 193

86

8

125

29

14

Table 35i. Concluded

Algal species

4/13

5/26

Diatoms Melosira granulata Navicula cryptocephala N. cuspidata N. gastrum Neidium dubium Nitzschia dentecula Rhoicosphenia curvata Stephanodiscus niagarae Synedra actinastroides S. acus S. delicatissima S. ulna Tabellaria fenestrate! T. sp. Flagellates Carteria multifilis Ceratium hirundinella Chlamydomonas reinhardi Dinobryon sertularia Eurorina elegans Euglena gracilis Phacus pleuronectes Trachemonas crebea

Density 7/20

6/22

8/18

9/28

74

48

%of time occurred

10/27

59

11

14 14

2 4

14

21 74

15

21

8

32 92 6

122 57

242 21 95 11

11

27

40

137

8 4 11

21

366

588

177

4,279

378

328

361

Number of species Biovolume, mm 3 /L Chlorophyll-a, μg/L Chlorophyll-b, μg/L Chlorophyll-c, μg/L Pheophytin a, μg/L

4 4.00

11 0.67 13.88 1.68 0.69 0.00

5 5.25 25.10 2.57 0.80 0.00

15 82.85 17.09 2.83 0.60 0.00

11 2.64 23.50 4.78 1.08 0.00

10 3.98

8 7.53

126

86 14 57 29 29

29

Total algal density

Note: Densities in cts/mL, except where noted otherwise.

14 57

14

6

Desmids Closterium sp. Staurastrum cornutum

43

The most frequently occurring algae were Pediastrum duplex (green) at all stations, Scenedesmus dimorphus (green) at all stations except RHA-5, Anacystis thermolis (blue-green) at all stations but RHA-1, and Dinobryon sertularia (flagellate) at all stations except RHA-5, RHA6, and RHA-8. Asterionella formosa (diatom) and Ceratium hirundinella (flagellate) also frequently occurred at stations RHA-1 and RHA-2, respectively. Oocystis borgei (green) was frequently found at RHA-5 and RHA-8. Although a high number of diatom species were observed, very few diatoms occurred frequently. Asterionella formosa was found 57 percent of the time at RHA-1 and another diatom, Tabellaria fenestrata, occurred frequently at RHA-8 and RHA-9. It should be noted that Crucigenia rectangularis (green) predominated with very high densities at stations RHA-6 and RHA-7 on September 28, 1993, although it was not frequently observed. The species mentioned above were also the most frequently occurring algae in Lake George (Raman et al, 1995) and in two central Illinois lakes, Lake Bloomington and Lake Evergreen (Raman and Twait, 1994). Inspection of tables 35a-i indicates that there is no correlation between total algal density and chlorophyll a concentrations. The reason for this is unknown, but it was also the case for Lake George (Raman et al., 1995). High chlorophyll a contents were found in July and August samples for almost all stations. The highest observed chlorophyll a concentration was 63.55 μg/L for RHA-8 on July 20, 1993. The calculated biovolume values showed a wide range at all stations. The highest range (0.24 to 212.69 cubic millimeters per liter, mm3/L) was found at stations RHA-2. The highest observed biovolumes occurred at different times for different sampling sites: April 13, 1993, for stations RHA-1, RHA-2, and RHA-3; October 27, 1993, for RHA-4 and RHA-5; September 28, 1993, for RHA-6 and RHA-7; and on July 20, 1993, for RHA-8 and RHA-9. Algal growths in Wolf Lake do not seem to be a problem either in terms of the densities or the types of algae found in the lake. Zooplankton. The term "plankton" refers to those microscopic aquatic forms having little or no resistance to currents and living free-floating and suspended in open or pelagic waters (American Public Health Association et al., 1992). Plankton can be divided into planktonic plants or phytoplankton (microscopic algae) and planktonic animals (zooplankton). The zooplankton in freshwater comprise principally protozoans, rotifers, cladocerans, copepods, and ostracods; a greater variety of organisms occur in marine waters. Since a Wisconsin plankton net was used for collecting plankton samples, protozoans (microplanktons) were not detected. In this report, protozoans are not included in the zooplankton. Zooplankton densities in Wolf Lake are presented in tables 36a-i. Total observed zooplankton densities ranged from 100 to 1800 cts/L, from 300 to 2,800 cts/L, 200 to 2,800 cts/L, 300 to 2,400 cts/L, 400 to 1,800 cts/L, 200 to 2,500 cts/L, 400 to 3,500 cts/L, 500 to 6,300 cts/L, and 200 to 1,200 cts/L at RHA-1 through RHA-9, respectively. Generally, high zooplankton counts were observed in April through July depending on the pool. Highest densities occurred in May at RHA-6, RHA-7, and RHA-8, and in June at RHA-1, RHA-2, and RHA-3. The temporal variations of zooplankton communities in each of the pools did not show the same trend with time. At the nine sampling stations, 26 zooplankton species were found, comprising 11 cladocerans, 2 copepods, 1 ostracod, 11 rotifers, and 1 acaris. Dominant zooplanktons were found to be either cladocera or copepoda based on their densities and frequency of occurrence. The dominant species for all stations were Bosmina longirostris and Diatomus minutus, which are similar to the dominant species in Lake George (Raman et al., 1995). Daphnia pulex is one of the dominant zooplankton in Lake George, it is significant only at RHA-8 and RHA-9 in Wolf Lake. Eucyclops speratus, a copepod, was the dominant zooplankton at RHA-9 in Wolf Lake Channel 127

Table 36a. Zooplankton Densities in Wolf Lake at RHA-1, 1993

Species

4/13

Cladocera Bosmina coregoni B. longirostris B. pulex Daphnia ambigus D. catavila D. dubia D. laevis D. pulex D. rosea Leptodora kindtii Polyphemus pedicuius

5/26

6/22

Density 7/20 8/18

9/28

10/27

100 1,300

100

400

300

100

100

400

100

14 43 14

14 14

300

Copepoda Diaptomus minutus Eucyclops speratus

Percent occurrence

14

100

100

100 100

71 14

Ostracoda Cyclocypris forbesi Rotifera Ascomorpha sattam Asplanchna priodonta Brachionus bidentata B. quadridentata Clomogaster ovalis Elose woralli Horaella brehmi Keratella quadrata K.sp. K. stipitata Philodina sp.

100

100

29

200

14

Acaris (water mites) Chelomideopris besselingi Total zooplankton density Number of Biovolume, mm 3 /L

species

800 3 1,260

300 3 195

1,800 4 1,340

Note: Density in counts/L

128

500 4 427

100 0.4

100 400 1 1 1 2.8 2.6

Table 36b. Zooplankton Densities in Wolf Lake at RHA-2, 1993

Species

4/13

Cladocera Bosmina coregoni B. longirostris B. pulex Daphnia ambigus D. catavila D. dubia D. laevis D. pulex D. rosea Leptodora kindtii Polyphemus pediculus Copepoda Diaptomus minutus Eucyclops speratus

5/26

6/22

200

900 1,300

300

Density 7/20

8/18

100

9/28

100

10/27

200

200 100

100

700

200

29 71

14 14

100 500

Percent occurrence

14 29

200 300

200

57 29

200

14

100

29

100

Ostracoda Cyclocypris forbesi Rotifera Ascomorpha sattam Asplanchna priodonta Brachionus bidentata B. quadridentata Clomogaster ovalis Elose woralli Horaella brehmi Keratella quadrata K.sp. K.stipitata Philodina sp.

400

100 100

200

200

200

100

700 5 213

2,800 5 432

500 3 7.4

500 3 1,260

300 3 9.4

71

Acaris (water mites) Chelomideopris besselingi Total zooplankton density Number of Biovolume, mm 3 /L

species

1,900 4 907

Note: Density in counts/L

129

700 4 14.6

Table 36c Zooplankton Densities in Wolf Lake at RHA-3,1993

Species Cladocera Bosmina coregoni B. longirostris B. pulex Daphnia ambigus

4/13

5/26

100

500

6/22

600 1,700

Density 7/20

100

8/18

100 200

9/28

100

10/27

700

Percent occurrence

57 71

D. catavila

D. dubia D. laevis D. pulex D. rosea Leptodora kindtii Polyphemus pediculus Copepoda Diaptomus minutus Eucyclops speratus Ostracoda Cyclocypris Rotifera Ascomorpha sattam Asplanchna priodonta Brachionus bidentata B. quadridentata Clomogaster ovalis Elose woralli Horaella brehmi Keratella quadrata K. sp. K.stipitata Philodina sp.

100

14 14

100

200

300

100

100

forbesi

100

200 100

100

100

100

14

100

43 14

200 200

300

1,000 3 91.1

2,800 5 38,600

29

Acaris (water mites) Chelomideopris besselingi Total zooplankton density Number of species Biovolume, mm 3 /L

Note: Density in counts/L

500 4 438

86 14

300 3 184

700 5 38.1

200 2 7.0

1,000 3 49.4

Table 36d. Zooplankton Densities in Wolf Lake at RHA-4, 1993

Species Cladocera Bosmina coregoni B. longirostris B. pulex Daphnia ambigus D. catavila D. dubia D. laevis D. pulex D. rosea Leptodora kindtii Polyphemus pediculus Copepoda Diaptomus minutus Eucyclops speratus

4/13

5/26

400

200

6/22

700

Density 7/20

100

8/18

200

9/28

100

10/27

500

200

200

100

100

100

100

100

700

29 71 14

200 600

Percent occurrence

200 300

100

14 43 29

100

57 43

200

14

Ostracoda Cyclocypris forbesi Rotifera Ascomorpha sattam Asplanchna priodonta Brachionus bidentata B. quadridentata Clomogaster ovalis Elose woralli Horaella brehmi Keratella quadrata K. sp. K. stipitata Phitodina sp.

500

100

400

200 100

300

100

2,400 5 3430

900 5 817

1,300 3 48.3

700 5 845

700 4 456

300 3 9.8

86 14

Acaris (water mites) Chelomideopris besselingi Total zooplankton density Number of species Biovolume, mm 3 /L

Note: Density in counts/L

131

900 4 455

Table 36e. Zooplankton Densities in Wolf Lake at RHA-S, 1993

Species Cladocera Bosmina coregoni B. longirostris B. pulex Daphnia ambigus D. catavila D. dubia D.laevis D. pulex D. rosea Leptodora kindtii Polyphemus pediculus Copepoda Diaptomus minutus Eucyclops speratus Ostracoda Cyclocypris Rotifera Ascomorpha sattam Asplanchna priodonta Brachionus bidentata B. quadridentata Clomogaster ovalis Elose woralli Horaetla brehmi Keratella quadrata K.sp. K.stipitata Philodina sp.

4/13

5/26

400

100

6/22

Density 7/20

1,200

8/18

200

9/28

300

10/27

300

600 100 200

100 100

400

100

300

200

100

forbesi

100

200

400

100

200

1,000 4 916

400 3 1,270

1,300 4 40,700

Note: Density in counts/L

132

1,800 4 676

29

43

100

100

100

900 5 963

700 5 442

600 4 22.7

Acaris (water mites) Chelomideopris besselingi Total zooplankton density Number of species Biovolume, mm 3 /L

43 43

14

100

200

29 57

14 29 14 43 14

100

100 200

Percent occurrence

43

Table 36f. Zooplankton Densities in Wolf Lake at RHA-6, 1993

Species

4/13

Cladocera Bosmina coregoni B. longirostris B. pulex Daphnia ambigus

5/26

6/22

Density 7/20

8/18

9/28

1,900 200

700

100

100

10/27

200 200

Percent occurrence

29 71

D. catavila

D. dubia D. laevis D. pulex D. rosea Leptodora kindtii Polyphemus

100

14 14 14 14 14

400 300 100 pediculus

Copepoda Diaptomus minutus Eucyclops speratus

200

300 100

200

200

100

200

100

Ostracoda Cyclocyprisforbesi Rotifera Ascomorpha sattam Asplanchna priodonta Brachionus bidentata B. quadridentata Clomogaster ovalis Elose woralli Horaella brehmi Keratella quadrata Ksp. K. stipitata Philodina sp.

200

200

Acaris (water mites) Chelomideopris besselingi Total zooplankton density Number of species Biovolume, mm 3 /L

100

57 57

100

14

300

43

400 1,300 6 1,630

2,500 3 2,020

1,600 5 38,200

Note: Density in counts/L

133

14 300 2 7.3

500 3 420

200 2 9.4

600 4 58.4

Table36g. Zooplankton Densities in Wolf Lake at RHA-7, 1993

Species Cladocera Bosmina coregoni B. longirostris B. pulex Daphnia ambigus

4/13

6/22

Density 7/20

8/18

9/28

10/27

2,400 200

D. catavUa

600

300

100

200

200

200

D. dubia D. taevis D. pulex D. rosea Leptodora kindtii Polyphemus pediculus Copepoda Diaptomus minutus Eucyclops speratus

5/26

14 14 43

100 600

200

100

100

300

200

14

100

100

Ostracoda Cyclocyprisforbesi Rotifera Ascomorpha sattam Asplanchna priodonta Brachionus bidentata B. quadridentata Clomogaster ovalis Elose woralli Horaella brehmi Keratella quadrata Ksp. K. stipitata Philodina sp.

200

100 100

86 29

100

100

29

100 300

200

14 29

200

Acaris (water mites) Chelomideopris besselingi Total zooplankton densityNumber of species Biovolume, mm 3 /L

400 2 13.9

3,500 4 3,300

14 86

14

300

200

Percent occurrence

1,600 6 40,300

Note: Density in counts/L

134

500 3 197

700 5 427

500 3 25.3

700 5 23.0

14

Table 36h. Zooplankton Densities in Wolf Lake at RHA-8, 1993

Species Cladocera Bosmina coregoni B. longirostris B. pulex Daphnia ambigus D. catavila D. dubia D. laevis D. pulex D. rosea Leptodora kindtii Polyphemus pediculus Copepoda Diaptomus minutus Eucyclops speratus

4/13

5/26

6/22

Density 7/20

8/18

9/28

10/27

2,300 100

100

100

400

400

200

Percent occurrence

14 71 14

100 200 100

1,800 1,100

300

900

200 200 100

14 57 43 14

100

300

300 < 100

100

57 29

100

14

Ostracoda Cyclocypris forbesi Rotifera Ascomorpha sattam Asplanchna priodonta Brachionus bidentata B. quadridentata Clomogaster ovalis Elose woralli Horaella brehmi Keratella quadrata K. sp. AT. stipitata Philodina sp.

100

14

100

200

100

100 100

Acaris (water mites) Chelomideopris besselingi Total zooplankton density Number of species Biovolume, mm 3 /L

300 100

900 5 1,620

6,300 6 12,600

100

100

700 5 39,900

800 5 427

Note: Density in counts/L

135

57 14 14 14

29 900 5 840

500 2 290

800 5 31.1

Table 36i. Zooplankton Densities in Wolf Lake at RHA-9, 1993

Species Cladocera Bosmina coregoni B. longirostris B. pulex Daphnia ambigus D. catavila D. dubia D. laevis D. pulex D. rosea Leptodora kindtii Polyphemus Copepoda Diaptomus minutus Eucyclops speratus

4/13

5/26

6/22

8/18

9/28

10/27

400 300

200

200

100

300

200

100

200

100 100

700

100

100 100

100

400

priodonta

100

100

100

100

600 3 493

1,200 5 39,500

Note: Density in counts/L

136

14 86

29

200

14

200

29

200

1,200 3 877

14 71

100

14

Acaris (water mites) Chelomideopris besselingi Total zooplankton density Number of species Biovolume, mm 3 /L

Percent occurrence

57 14 14 14

100 pediculus

Ostracoda Cyclocyprisforbesi Rotifera Ascomorpha sattam Asplanchna Brachionus bidentata B. quadridentata Clomogaster ovalis Elose woralli Horaella brehmi Keratella quadrata K.sp. K. stipitata Philodina sp.

Density 7/20

500 5 841

900 6 203

200 2 9.4

300 2 15.9

(table 36i), while RHA-2, Keratella stipitata was found most frequently (table 36b). Horaella brehmi, a rotifer, was the most frequently (86 percent) observed species at RHA-4 (table 36d). Biovolumes of zooplankton found in the samples were computed using the shape and size information provided in table 15 and included in tables 36a-i for RHA-1 through RHA-9, respectively. A wide variation in biovolumes was observed from sample to 3sample for each station, and from station to station. Overall, they ranged from a low of 0.4 mm /L at RHA-1 on August 18, 1993, to a high of 40,700 mm3/L at RHA-5 on June 22, 1993. On this latter date, the highest zooplankton biovolumes were also found for other stations, except for RHA-2 and RHA4 for which the highest biovolumes were recorded in August and April samples, respectively. Macrophytes. Macrophytes are commonly called aquatic vegetation (or weeds). The macrophyton consists principally of aquatic vascular flowering plants. It also includes aquatic mosses, liverworts, ferns, and larger macroalgae APHA et al., 1992). Macrophytes may include submerged, emerged, and floating plants; and filamentous algae. In most lakes and ponds, aquatic vegetation is found that may beneficially and/or adversely impact the natural ecosystem. Reasonable amounts of aquatic vegetation improve water clarity by preventing shoreline erosion, stabilizing sediment, storing nutrients, and providing habitat and hiding places for many small fish (fingerlings, bluegill, sunfish, etc.). They also provide food, shade, and oxygen for aquatic organisms; block water movement (wind wave); and use nutrients in the water, reducing the excessive growth of phytoplankton. However, excessive growth of aquatic vegetation generally interferes with recreational activities (fishing, boating, surfing, etc.); adversely affects aquatic life (overpopulation of small fish and benthic invertebrates); causes fish kills; produces taste and odor in water due to decomposition of dense weed beds; blocks water movement and retards heat transfer, creating vertical temperature gradients; and destroys aesthetic value to the extent of decreasing the economic values of properties surrounding a lake. Under these circumstances, aquatic plants are often referred to as weeds. Historical Data. More than two decades ago, on June 18-21, 1974, the Illinois Department of Conservation conducted an aquatic vegetation survey in Pools 1-4 of Wolf Lake. Common species of aquatic plants observed in Pool 3 (15 percent of bottom covered) are listed in table 37. Macrophyte maps for Pools 1 - 4 are reproduced in figures 15a-d, respectively. These maps were prepared by fishery biologist, Harry Wight. The survey information was furnished by the Illinois Department of Conservation. Current data. The macrophyte survey for this investigation was conducted on July 22-23, 1993. Table 38 presents the types of macrophytes observed and their biomass2expressed in terms of grams of dry weight of macrophytes per square meter of lake bottom (g/m ). The locations of the quantitative macrophyte sampling stations are shown in figure 16a-i. The areal extent of macrophyte beds as determined by the reconnaissance survey and dominant species observed are also plotted in the figure. The quadrat size used, water depth, sediment characteristics at the sampling location, and plant heights are described in table 37. Figure 17 shows some views of the lake taken during the macrophyte survey. The probing of the lake bottom for macrophytes, the quadrat used in sample collection, the nylon bag containing the collected sample, and the dense growth in the lake that interferes with boating can all be noted in this figure. Seventeen species of macrophytes were found in Wolf lake at 40 sampling locations (table 38). Chlodophora, a filamentous algae, American lotus {Nelumbo lutea), and water lily (Nymphae spp.) pads were also observed in some places in Wolf Lake. Eurasian water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) is the most frequently occurring (33 out of 40 stations, 82.5 percent) and dominant species in all pools except Pool 1. This plant constituted nearly 100 percent of the vegetative mass recovered at sites 2-1, 2-III, 3-1, 3-VII, 5-II, 6-II, 6-V, 6-IX, 6-X, 7-III, 8-V, 9137

Table 37. Common Species of Aquatic Plants in Pool 3, Wolf Lake, June 18-21, 1974

Common name Emergents Cattail

Where found in lake

Scientific name

Typhaspp.

White water lilly

Nymphaea tuberosa

Spatterdock

Nupharadvena

Bulrush

Scirpusspp.

Arrowhead

Sagittaria latifolia

Submersed Coontail

scattered north end scattered north end scattered north end scattered north end scattered north end

Ceratophyllum spp.

Water milfoil

Myriophyllum spp.

American elodea

Elodea canadensis

Curlyleafpondweed

Potamogeton crispus

Sago pondweed

P. percinatus

Leafy pondweed

P. foliosus

Richardson pondweed

P. richardsonii

Slender naiad

Najas

Fel grass

Vallisneria americana

scattered south end scattered south end scattered south end scattered south end scattered south end scattered south end scattered south end scattered south end scattered south end

flexilis

Depth found. feet

Percent covered

2

1

2

1

2

1

1

nr

1

nr

5

2

5

2

5

2

5

2

5

2

5

nr

5

nr

5

Rare

3

nr

Floating Duckweed

Lemnaspp.

scattered

-

Rare

Algae Algae

Filamentous & Planktonic

scattered

-

Abundant at times

Chara

scattered south end

5

2

Chara

Notes: Some dense beds of submersed vegetation are present in the southern and eastern portion of the lake. Emergents are no problem at present, nr = not reported Source: Formerly Illinois Department of Conservation

138

Figure 15a. Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 1, Wolf Lake on July 8, 1974

139

Figure 15b. Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 2, Wolf Lake on July 8, 1974

140

Figure 15c. Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 3, Wolf Lake on July 8, 1974

141

Figure 15d. Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 4, Wolf Lake on July 8, 1974

142

Table 38. Percent Composition of M acrophytes Collected in Wolf Lake (Illinois and Indiana) Pool 1 Macrophyte Eurasian water milfoil Chara (Stonewart) Naiad Pondweeds Sago pondweed Broadleafpondweed Pondweed Small pondweed Curlyleaf pondweed Flatstem pondweed American elodea Tapegrass Waterstargrass Coontail Spatterdock Water lily Arrowhead Bulrush

I

Note: tr = trace

I

20

Pool 2 II

100

50 50

48

III 100

I

II

100

1 40 tr

80

Pool 3 IV

III 2 80

Pool 4 V

VI

.98

80

VII

tr

I

II

96

75 90 8

tr 2

1

25

4

3 6

1

2 10

5

100

2

3 10 5

1 2

50 50

Numberoftaxa Biomass, g/m2

II

2 73.4

395.7

4

1

84.8

102.6

2

1

1

6

25.0

41.4

352.7

688.8

5

4 550.3

2 73.4

5 29.3

3 38.3

3 313.8

2 224.8

Table 38. Continued Pool 4 IV

Macrophyte Eurasian water milfoil Chara (Stonewart) Naiad Pondweeds Sago pondweed Broadleaf pondweed Pondweed Small pondweed Curlyleaf Flatstem pondweed American elodea Tapegrass Waterstargrass Coontail Spatterdock Water lily Arrowhead Bulrush Number

o f

Biomass, g/rri2

taxa

Pool I

40

5 II

I

II

III

98

75

99

IV

70

8

Pool 6 V VI 94

95 60

3 1

4

15

1

30

7

VII

1 1 98

66

VIII

25 25 5

IX

X

XI

98

92

67 33

99

25

2

26

4 4

tr

20

pondweed 5

2 186.3

55.3

tr

1

2 3

2

4 20.7

1

50.8

2 104.1

2 16.6

3

4

3

87.1

260.3

161.4

5

2

8.9

276.4

2 175.6

3

3

197.2

100.3

Table 38. Concluded

Macrophyte

I

Eurasian water milfoil Chara (Stonewart) Naiad Pondweeds Sago pondweed Broadleafpondweed Pondweed Small pondweed Curly Flatstem pondweed American elodea Tapegrass Waterstargrass Coontail Spatterdock Water lily Arrowhead Bulrush Number

o f

Biomass, g/m2

Pool 7 11

taxa

4 35 40

Pool 8

50

III

1

II

100

47 2 50

20

III 2 33 33

IV

V

VI

5 80 4

100

tr

I

Pool 9 II

Number of stations found

III

98

65

tr

15 80

9

1 leaf 10 10

pondweed

30 5 3

1

1 10

25 15 10

2 34

1

tr 100 50 20

6 100.3

4 1 68.1

63.5

Note: tr = trace; Pool 9 = Wolf Lake Channel

4 12.0

2 314.6

6 299.1

5 598.1

1 33.9

3 698.6

117.6

4

2 53.3

4 99.4

31 16 16 11 5 4 3 2 1 12 10 3 2 2 1 1 1

Key for Figures 16a through 16i Macrophyte species: 1. Eurasian water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) 2. Chara, stonewart, muskgrass (Chara sp.) 3. Naiad (Naias flexilis) 4. Sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) 5. Broad leaf pondweed (Potamogeton amplifolious) 6. Pondweed (Potamogeton filiformis) 7. Small pondweed (Potamogeton pusillus) 8. Curly leaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus) 9. Flat stem pondweed (Potamogeton) zosteriformis) 10. Elodea or American elodea (Elodea canadensis) 11. Tape grass (Vallisneria americana) 12. Water stargrass (Heteranthera dubia) 13. Coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum) 14. Spatterdock (Nuphar variegatum) 15. Water lily (Nyphae sp.) 16. Arrowhead (Sagittaria sp.) 17. Bulrush (Scirpus sp.) 18. Chlodophora Density legend: Dense Moderate Sparse Lily pad Roman Numerals = Macrophyte sampling stations

146

Figure 16a. Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 1, Wolf Lake on July 22, 1993

147

Figure 16b. Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 2, Wolf Lake on July 22, 1993

148

Figure 16c. Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 3, Wolf Lake on July 22, 1993

149

Figure 16d. Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 4, Wolf Lake on July 22, 1993

150

Figure 16e. Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 5, Wolf Lake on July 23,1993

151

Figure 16f. Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 6, Wolf Lake on July 23, 1993

152

Figure 16g. Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 7, Wolf Lake on July 23, 1993

153

Figure 16h. Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 8, Wolf Lake on July 22, 1993 154

Figure 16i. Aquatic vegetation map for Pool 9, Wolf Lake on July 22, 1993

155

Figure 17. Views taken during the macrophytes survey

156

II, and 9-III. Chara, an algae, is the second dominant species in all pools except Pool 9. Chara is important in Pool 3 (3-II, 3-V, 3-VI) and at sites 4-1, 5-1, 6-VIII, and 8-IV. Naiad (Najasflexilis) was dominant at 1-1, 6-VI, 4-III, 6-VI, 6-XI, 7-1, and 8-1. This macrophyte was also important at some other sites in Pools 6 and 8. Engel (1988, 1990) reports that Eurasian water milfoil, naiad, and chara are also commonly found in Wisconsin lakes. It can be seen from table 38 that sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus), American elodea {Elodea canadensis), and tapegrass (Vallisneria americana) also occurred frequently in Wolf Lake. Sago pondweed was an important species in Pool 6 at sites 6-IV (where it was the dominant species), 6-IV, 6-III, and 6-VIII. American elodea was found in Pools 3 and 9; it constituted nearly 100 percent of the vegetative mass at site 3-IV. Tapegrass was also observed frequently in Pools 3 and 9, and it was the codominant species at site 9-III. Spatterdock (Nuphar variegatum) was the dominant species at sites 3-II and 8-VI while bulrush (Scirpus sp.) and water lily (Nymphae spp.) were, respectively, the dominant macrophytes at sites l-II and 9-1. Eurasian water milfoil is a non-native aquatic plant that has become a widespread problem throughout North America. It has fine, featherlike leaves and produces a dense canopied bed. It can impact extensive areas because of this dense canopylike growth form and its highly aggressive and weedy characteristics. Eurasian water milfoil spreads both within and between lakes by the formation of vegetative autofragments, which are stem pieces that break off the plant through stem abscission. Dense colonies may also spread locally by the growth of root crowns. It grows entirely under water, possibly at depths of 8 to 10 feet, and it will usually become the dominant species in the lake (Pullman, 1992; Madsen, 1993). Chara is an advanced form of algae that grows from the lake bottom with stems and branches. It feels bristly, has a musky odor, and is usually found in hard water. Common names are chara, muskgrass, and stonewart. Like Eurasian water milfoil, chara is often difficult to control even when proper herbicides are used (Illinois Department of Conservation, 1990). Water depths at the macrophyte sampling stations ranged from 2.0 feet to 6.5 feet (table 39). At sites where chara was the dominant species, measured plant heights were between 0.3 to 0.8 feet lower than the water depths. However, plant heights at the sites where Eurasian water milfoil was dominant were from 3.0 to 5.5 feet taller than water depths, and the plants tended to form a thick canopy. Generally, the soft sediment in the lake was black in color and not more than 9 inches thick. There was no putrid odor emanating from the bottom when disturbed. This soft sediment is underlain by a firm, gritty, and sandy bottom. Comparison of historical and current macrophyte areal extent maps (figures 15a-d versus figures 16a-d) indicates that current macrophyte growth in Pool 1 is much smaller in terms of species diversity and areal extent. In Pool 2, macrophytes were prevalent almost everywhere along the shorelines and in the center; however, in the current study, macrophytes were found only along the west and southwest shorelines of Pool 2. For Pool 3, the areas of macrophyte beds were similar except that no macrophyte growth was found along the southwest shore of the main pool and dense growth was found in the southwest bay during the current study period. In a 1974 study, macrophytes existed in almost the entire area of Pool 4 except the north-central portion, whereas in the current survey, macrophytes did not occur around shorelines except in the northern one-half of the west shore, which had dense growth. Drastic changes in macrophyte beds were observed in Wolf Lake. The densities of macrophytes were not determined in the 1974 survey. Schloesser and Manny (1984) provided guidelines2 for defining density of macrophyte growths in lakes. They considered growths of 20 to 80 g/m low density, 60 to 160 g/m2 medium 2 density, and 150 to 220 g/m high density. Based on this scale, the relative denseness of macrophyte beds is plotted in figures 16a-i. Among the 40 sites examined, the biomass of the macrophytes ranged from 8.9 g/m2 at site 6-VII to 698.6 g/m2 at site 8-VI (table 36). Extremely 157

Table 39. Observations in Wolf Lake during Macrophytes Survey, July 22-23,1993

Station, pool-site

Quadrat size, inches

Water depth, feet

Plant height, feet

1-I l-II 2-I 2-II 2-III 3-I 3-II

18 18 18 18 18 18 18

2.5 5.5 6 5 6 5 3

1-1.5 9-10 3 0.5-1 0.5 4-5 3

3-III 3-IV

18 18

3 3

0.5-1.5 2

3-V

18

2

0.25

3-VI

18

3.5

0.5

3-VII 4-I 4-II 4-III 5-I

18 12 18 12 12

5 2.8 4.5 5.5 4.3

2.5 1 3 2.5 6.7

5-II

18

5.5



6-I

18

4

2.5-3.5

6-II

18

5

3-4

6-III

18

5

2-3

6-IV

12

5

2-3

6-V 6-VI

18 12

4.3 4.8

4 4.3

6-VII

18

4.3

2

6-VIII

18

3.5

1.5

6-IX

18

4.8

3

6-X

18

5

4.5

6-XI

18

4.8

4.2

7-I

18

3.3

6.7

7-II

18

4.8

2

Sediment characteristics/notes Black, sandy, gritty, firm Black, soft muck, semi-firm Dark brown, organic silt, semi-firm, no odor Dark brown, sandy clay, semi-soft, no odor Light, brown, sandy, firm hard bottom, no odor Black, clayey sand, no odor Black, silty, lots of plant fibers, partial root of lily plant was retrieved Black, sandy clay, soft, musty odor Black, silt-clayey muck, septic, gas bubbles (one huge clump of chara was pulled) Firm, rock, stone, sand, clay, silt (fine gravel, shell, etc. in the sample) Black organic clay, lots of plant fibers, musty odor Clayey sandy muck, dark, no odor Fine sand, black mud, no odor Black, organic silt, semi-firm Organic silt, black, musty Muck, loose, soft, organic silt, black, nonodorous Dark brown, fine soft silty muck, sediment thickness > 3 feet Black, organic muck, loose, gray sand and gravel, sediment 1.3 feet Black, organic muck, loose, gray sand and gravel, sediment 1 foot Black, organic muck overlays gray sand and gravel, hard bottom, sediment 6 inches Black, organic muck overlays gray sand and gravel, hard bottom, sediment 6 inches Black, oozy, organic muck, sediment 3.3 feet Black, fine sandy muck, gray sandy bottom, sediment 6 inches Fine sand grained muck, hard gray sandy bottom, sediment 4 inches Fine sand grained muck, hard gray sandy bottom, sediment 3 inches Black fine muck, hard gray sandy bottom, odoroless, sediment 6 inches Black fine muck, hard gray sandy bottom, odorless, sediment 1 foot Black fine muck, hard gray sandy bottom, odorless, sediment 3 inches Fine sandy muck, semi-firm bottom, sediment 2 feet Black muck, hard bottom, sediment depth 9 inches

158

Table 39. Concluded

Station, pool-site

Quadrat size, inches

Water depth, feet

Plant height, feet

7-III

18

5

4

8-I 8-II

18 18

4 3

1.5 3

8-III

18

3

0.5

8-IV

12

2.3

-

8-V

18

6.5

5

8-V1

18

2

4-5

9-I

12

4

4

9-II 9-III

12 12

3 3

4-5 4-5

Sediment characteristics/notes Black fine loose muck, clayey sandy bottom, sediment 9 inches No muck, fine sandy firm bottom Loose fine muck, sandy and gravelly bottom, sediment 1 foot Black fine sandy organic muck, gray sandy bottom, sediment 4 inches Black, gritty organic fine muck, sandy firm bottom Sandy organic muck, no septic odor, sediment 2.3 feet At lily pad bed, collected 2 lily plants for biomass determination; counted 7 plants with 84 stems in 4 feet × 4 feet area Firm bottom, lots of brush, branches, twigs, oily and greasy smell in the 6-inch deep sediment Gravelly substrate (pebbles), a dug channel Rip-rap bottom, opposite to Forsyth Park

159

dense biomass also occurred at sites 3-III, 3 -VI, and 8-IV.2 Forty percent (16 out of 40) of the macrophyte survey sites had biomass greater than 150 g/m , which could be classified as heavy growth. Thirty percent (12) of the sites experienced medium-density growth and 30 percent had low-density growth. It is apparent that the excessive macrophyte growths in the lake could adversely impact recreational opportunities such as boating, fishing, and surfing (Pools 6 and 7). Without a doubt, the massive growths of macrophytes decrease the aesthetic value of the water body. If lake dredging is carried out in Pools 6, 7, and 9, the quantity of macrophytes removed can be estimated. From the areal extent of macrophyte beds, it is estimated that approximately 95, 60, and 20 percent of Pools 6, 7, and 9, respectively, were covered by macrophytes (figures 16f, 16g, and 16i). On the basis of biomass data and the areal extent of macrophyte beds, it is estimated that approximately 315.5 metric tons (695,000 pounds or 348 tons), 57.1 metric tons (126,000 pounds or 63 tons), and 4.9 metric tons (10,800 pounds or 5.4 tons) of macrophytes existed (dry-weight basis) in Pools 6, 7, and 9, respectively. Information about the areal extent of macrophyte coverages in other pools is included in the segment of this report titled Lake Use Support Analysis. Benthic Macroinvertebrates. Benthic macroinvertebrates are animals within the aquatic system visible to the unaided eye and capable of being retained by a U.S. Standard No. 30 mesh sieve. These common, easily collected organisms have limited mobility and are present throughout the growing season. An abundant and diverse community of macroinvertebrates is important for a reliable source of food for fish. Macroinvertebrates are sensitive to changes in the aquatic environment. The benthic macroinvertebrate communities in Wolf Lake were sampled on May 10, 1993, and August 3, 1993. These samples were taken at the regular sampling stations representing the deepest part of each pool (RHA-1 through RHA-9). The numbers of individuals, taxa, and biomass collected are listed in table 40. The benthic population observed were quite different among the stations and between the two sampling dates. On May 10, 1993,2 total observed benthic macroinvertebrates ranged from none at RHA-1 to a high of 1,594 cts/m at RHA-6; while on August 3, 1993, the benthic populations were between 28 cts/m2 at stations RHA-4 and RHA-5 and 545 cts/m2 at RHA-1. Results in table 40 indicate that the taxa observed in Wolf Lake were between 0 and 5 for all stations. High diversities occurred at RHA-3 in the May sample and at RHA-6 in the August sample. These were less diverse than the taxa observed in Lake George (Raman et al., 1995). On May 10, 1993, at RHA-1, good grab samples could not be obtained even after nine attempts. The lake bottom at RHA-1 is mostly rocky gravel and sand lacking any macrophytes. Fewer taxa (1 or 2) were found at RHA-9, which has an oily bottom sediment. At this station, sediment was composed of gritty, black, granular, unnatural particles. Excluding RHA-1, biomass in the lake ranged from a low of 0.013 g/m2 in an August 2 sample at RHA-2 to a high of 0.690 g/m for a May sample at RHA-6. Both the benthic population and biomass were higher in May collections than in August collections for all stations except RHA-1. This is probably due to the emergence of mature insects in May and fish predation rather than to low DO conditions in August. The benthos community was dominated by relatively intolerant members of the Chironomidae (non-Chironomus), and tolerant members of Chironomus (bloodworm), and Oligochaeta (aquatic worms). The benthos in this lake is more diverse and pollution sensitive than that found in most stratified lakes. The abundant macrophytes provide a more complex habitat for aquatic macroinvertebrates. 160

Table 40. Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Wolf Lake

Organism

Station, individuals/m" RHA-1 RHA-2 RHA-3 RHA-4 RHA-5 RHA-6 RHA-7 RHA-8

5/10/93 Chironomus (bloodworm) Chironomidae (mm-Chironmus) Chaoborus (phantom midge) Oligochaeta (aquatic worm) Amphipoda (scud) Ceratopogonidae (biting midge) Total number Total dry weight, g/m 2

8/3/93 Chironomus (bloodworm) Chironomidae (non-Chironomus) Chaoborus (phantom midge) Oligochaeta (aquatic worm) Amphipoda (scud) Hirudinea (leech) Physa (snail) Total number Total dry weight, g/m 2

230 43 244 86

172 316 14 43

273 172

258 86 43

474 732

344

187 301

RHA-9

330

273 416 14 316

402

201

388 57 0 0

603 0.471

301 158 86

545 0.334

14

602 803 0.442 0.647

387 0.517

1,594 0.690

818 0.498

1,019 0.398

603 0.210

14

57 43

115 244 158

86 14 29 29

445

517 0.099

158 0.159

445 0.095

244 43

43 0.013

14 29 14 14

14

201 14 43

287 28 0.023 0.251

28 0.033

358 0.119

161

Surface Inflow Water Quality Data Monitoring of tributaries to a lake system, both for quantity and quality characteristics, is generally routinely carried out for base flows and storm event flows. These data are used for developing a hydraulic budget and flow-weighted nutrient and sediment budgets for the lake. The details of the methodology for developing hydraulic, sediment, and nutrient budgets are discussed elsewhere. Storm event samples were collected primarily for assessing the water quality characteristics of the inflows to the lake. All surface inflow points to Wolf Lake were identified and sampled. The monitoring stations are shown in figure 8. The inflow stations were RHA 02 through RHA 14, and RHA 71 and RHA 72. Station RHA 01 provides information about the outflow from the lake. Water quality samples were collected during routine sampling trips and during storm events. Water samples were taken for physical, chemical, and bacteriological analyses. In addition, one set of water samples was collected from several locations on June 7, 1993, for metals and organic analyses. All inflow water quality samples were grab samples. The numbers of samples collected varied with location. Station RHA 03 was the most frequently sampled station, whereas limited numbers of samples were collected at RHA 06, 07, 08, 09, 11, 13, and 14. Storm event samplings were conducted at various stations on April 19-20 and June 7-8, 1993. Thirteen rainwater samples were collected using the Water Survey's raingaging station at Grayco Corporation near Wolf Lake. Rainwater samples were analyzed for nutrient concentrations. The results of physical and chemical analyses of rainwater and inflow water are presented in tables 41a-k. The results of metal and organic analyses for storm event samples are shown in tables 42 and 43, respectively. Indicator bacterial densities in the inflows are presented in table 33 and discussed elsewhere in this report. Inflow point RHA 02 is the outfall at Lever Brothers. Inflows RHA 03, RHA 04, and RHA 05 are stormwater pump discharges at the Roby station (outfall 017), the Forsythe Park station (outfall 018), and the Sheffield Avenue station (outfall 019) of the Hammond Sanitary District, respectively. Inflows RHA 11, RHA 12, RHA 13, and RHA 14 are, respectively, outfalls 002, 003, 004, and 005 of Amaizo. The monthly NPDES data for one year (the study period) for the outfalls mentioned above are summarized in tables 7, 8, 9, 10a, 10b, and 10c. The results are discussed in detail in the section on point source discharges. As shown in table 41b, the discharges from Lever Brothers at RHA 02 exhibit fairly stable water quality characteristics that are unaffected by storm events. During any storm event, the greatest number of samples collected at any site was three, which was not enough, especially at the three pumping stations, to identify any trend. An automatic sampler with more frequent sampling would have provided additional information, but the high costs of such a scheme precluded this effort. Chloride, fluoride, sulfate, cyanide, oil, and phenol were analyzed in some storm event samples. The data for these were sporadic (see tables 41a-k) and will not be discussed here. The following discussion covers only turbidity, total and volatile suspended solids, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, pH, alkalinity, nutrients, metals, and organics. Physical Characteristics Turbidity. Turbidity values equal to or greater than 15 NTU are indicative of the presence of substantial suspended sediments. This value was exceeded in most of the storm event 162

Table 41a. Rainwater Quality at Grayco Corporation, Rain gage G19, near Wolf Lake

Nitrogen. me/L Nitrite/nitrate

Date

Ammonia

6/8/93 6/29/93 7/6/93 7/12/93 7/20/93 7/27/93 8/9/93 9/9/93 9/9/93 9/9/93 9/14/93 10/4/93 9/28/93

0.37 0.79 0.91 0.75 0.71 0.51 0.92 0.52 0.67 0.33 0.37 0.55 0.37

0.47 0.57 1.00 0.94 0.77 1.60 1.40 0.66 2.40 0.54 0.68 0.63 0.59

Mean

0.60

0.94

Kjeldahl

Phosphorus, me/L Dissolved Total

0.72

0.322 0.159 0.358 0.200 0.108 0.128 0.049 0.06 0.15 0.03 0.122 0.077 0.037 0.072

163

0.168

Table 41b. Summary of Water Quality Characteristics at Inflow Point RHA 02, Wolf Lake

Parameters

1993 2/21 4/14 5/10 5/27 6/23 7/8 7/19 8/3 8/19

Turbidity, NTU

5.9 2.3

Conductivity, umho/cm

900 350 330 320 310

COD pH, units Total alkalinity Phenolphthalein alkalinity

11 7.7

0.3

68

8.1

2.1

26

7

0.2

Mean

0.5

1

0.8

0.1

1.5

340 320

300

310

340

382

9

6

5

6

7

9

8.6

9.3

8.4

8.0

115 114 106 105

107

71 107

107

114

105

2.4

7.1

2

0

3.8

4

4

4

6

1

2

1K

1

1

2

1K

.01 .01K

.01

.03

.05

0.03

0

0 3

2

8.0

1.1

10/1

8.2

Total suspended solids Volatile suspended solids

1.8

9/9

0 2

1

0 3

2

1

1

.04 01K

.09

4

1

3

1K

1

Ammonia-N

0.05

Total kjeldahl nitrogen-N

.139 .456

.76

.52 1.05

.38

.33

.42

.43

.23

.29

0.37

Nitrate-nitrite-N

0.37

.30

.26

.21

.25

.20

.17

.21

.26

0.26

Total phosphate-P

.045 .015 .006 .010 .005 .009 .009 .003

.009

.005

.009

0.011

.41

Chloride

37

Sulfate

26

Water temperature, °C

7.0 13.1

19.0

10.9 8.5

7.7

Dissolved oxygen

.02 .01K

0

.23

Note: Concentrations are in mg/L except where noted; K = less than detection value; Blanks indicate values not determined.

164

Table 41c Summary of Water Quality Characteristics at Inflow Point RHA 03, Wolf Lake Date. 1993 Parameters Turbidity, NTU

2/21 65

3/3 46

1,600

2,400

COD

71

36

pH, units

7.7 208

Conductivity, umho/cm

Total alkalinity Phenolphthalein alkalinity Total suspended solids

3/9 20

3/17 37

4/14 9.4

4/20 41

5/11 21

6/7 (15:45) 96

2,200

2,300

1,100

1,700

210

18

29

21

30

28

190

7.6

7.7

7.7

7.5

7.7

7.4

8.5

295

299

299

303

136

295

46

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

255

72

19

66

21

68

44

440

Volatile suspended solids

75

22

6

32

7

22

15

170

Ammonia-N

1.3

1.7

1.7

1.6

.52

1.3

.25

.627

1.875

1.446

1.82

1.61

1.06

1.40

.91

.24

.13

.28

.37

.39

.23

.13

.147

.085

.131

.094

.110

.107

.306

Fluoride

0.74

0.83

Cyanide

.01K

Total kjeldahl nitrogen-N Nitrate-Nitrite-N Total phosphate-P

.213

Chloride

5,300

Sulfate

124

Oil

.17 3

Phenol

10K

Note: Concentrations are in mg/L except where noted; K = less than detection value; Blanks indicate values not determined.

165

Table 41c Concluded Date. 1993 Parameters Tuibidity, NTU

6/8 (11:00)

6/8 (20:03)

75

6/8 (22:57)

6/22

1.6

13

24

7/8

30

Conductivity, umho/cm

300

COD

140

pH, units

8.2

7.5

7.7

Total alkalinity

64

307

294

Phenolphthalein alkalinity

1,900 54

33

8/8 8/19 .7

29

30.9

1,500 1,600

1,500

19

19

7.5

7.5

295

310

233

300

122

3

12

Volatile suspended solids

100

38

1

7

Ammonia-N

.20

.29

.22

1.0

1.1

1.3

1.1

1.1

1.0

.99

Total kjeldahl nitrogen-N

.78

1.63

1.44

1.45

.89

.99

1.3

.94

1.42

1.18

Nitrate-Nitrite-N

.04

.16

.09

.37

.27

.17

.52

.41

.41

.26

Total phosphate-P

.359

.206

.113

.080

.071

.125

.112

.069

.062

.140

49

0

48

Total suspended solids

14

0

19

0

166

0

4.5

0

Note: Concentrations are in mg/L except where noted. Blanks indicate values not determined.

0

107

10/1 Mean

15

1,300 1,400

22

0

9/9

12

0

0

13

3 1 7 7

0

8 6

2

89 3

1

Table 41d. Summary of Water Quality Characteristics at Inflow Point RHA 04, Wolf Lake Date. 1993 Parameters Tuibidity, NTU

5/11

6/8 6/7

6/8 (11:00)

5.6

6.3

6.6

1300

130

270

COD

14

31

50

pH, units

7.9

7.4

Total alkalinity

217

Phenolphthalein alkalinity

Conductivity, umho/cm

(21:00) 2.5

6/22 7/8 12

2.4

1200

9/9

10/1 Mean

11

0.1

1.6

0.6

4.9

470

700

880

1100

756

59

32

15

18

29

15

20

7.5

8.1,

9.1

7.9

8.0

45

77

25

239

153

231

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Total suspended solids

8

92

184

48

9

4

28

98

2

5

48

Volatile suspended solids

4

34

78

14

6

3

12

39

1

1

19

Ammonia-N

.68

.35

.10

.29

.61

.75

.43

.15

.28

.37

.40

Total kjeldahl nitrogen-N

.85

.87

1.05

1.56

1.30

.76

1.10

.82

.69

.75

.98

Nitrate-Nitrite-N

1.0

.21

.24

.64

1.30

1.2

.51

.51

1.20

1.40

.82

Total phosphate-P

1.21

.160

.218

.130

.087

.156

.238

.194

.138

.114

.156

Fluoride Oil

0.1K 1

Note: Concentrations are in mg/L except where noted; K = less than detection value; Blanks indicate values not determined.

167

34

8/3 8/19

141

Table 41c Summary of Water Quality Characteristics at Inflow Point RHA 05, Wolf Lake

Parameters Turbidity, NTU

6/8 4/19 5/11 6/7 (11:25) 78 11 35 26

Conductivity, umho/cm

880 1,800

240

230

COD

73

61

55

32

pH, units

9.9

8.2

8.4

Total alkalinity

57

180

52

Phenolphthalein alkalinity

18

0

240

222

190

340

Volatile suspended solids

48

54

40

Ammonia-N

.84

1.50

2.05

Nitrate-Nitrite-N Total phosphate-P

Total suspended solids

Total kjeldahl nitrogen-N

Fluoride Oil

Date. 1993 6/8 (20:50) 6/22 7/8 11 12 3.1 1,400

1,300 1,100 1,300 1,300

25

29

9.2

8.7

8.5

49

166

189

8 54

62

.39

1.81

.54 .258

25

7.8

8.6

156

136

149

5

0

0

12

7

12

37

8

7

102

14

5

2

6

10

2

2

22

.28

.35

1.70

1.30

.73

.83

1.50

1.50

.99

6.19

.53

1.06

2.63

1.00

1.20

1.60

1.30

1.53

1.90

.14

.15

.18

.01K

.77

1.90

2.10

1.80

2.00

1.70

1.03

.281

.324

.197

.159

.045

.085

.273

.161

.042

.042

.170

3

Note: Concentrations are in mg/L except where noted; K = less than detection value; Blanks indicate values not determined.

168

82

25

1,061

39

.32

36

8/4 8/19 9/9 10/1 Mean 11 0.3 1.6 0.7 17.2 44 126

Table 41f. Summary of Water Quality Characteristics at Inflow Points RHA 06 and RHA 07, Wolf Lake

Parameters Turbidity, NTU Conductivity, umho/cm COD

RHA 06 2/21/93 6/8/93 13:50 17:10 09:05 19:40 Mean 49

110

8.1

2,800 2,700

120

2.1

3/16/93 4/13 5/10

6/7

42.3

.4

.3

5.8

7.4

1,873

820

1,100

960

760

140

10

13

15

22

6/8/93 14:08 21:20 Mean 4.5

5.9

4.1 910

230

295

16

pH, units

7.6

7.4

7.7

Total alkalinity

42

44

0

0

0

445

550

33

38

267

2

11

17

27

3

17

13

Volatile suspended solids

85

125

17

13

60

1

5

5

12

2

5

5

Ammonia-N

.96

1.10

.22

.20

.62

.82

.43

.10

.09

.21

.36

.34

.435

.980

.31

.86

.646

.85

.852

.83

.46

.84

.99

.80

-

2.00

.13

.34

.82

.75

.67

.37

.23

.36

.36

.46

.107

.312

.027

.068

.129

.013

.014

.040

.046

.046

.039

.039

Phenolphthalein alkalinity Total suspended solids

Total kjeldahl nitrogen-N Nitrate-Nitrite-N Total phosphate-P Chloride Sulfate Fluoride Oil

9.3 43

10,100 9,300 163

18

RHA 07

34

8.5 40

4

42 10

0.1K

.70

1

1

169

16

8.3

8.0 43

0

161

Note: Concentrations are in mg/L except where noted; K = less than detection value; - Blanks indicate values not determined.

16

53

9,700

159

17

Table 41g. Summary of Water Quality Characteristics Inflow Point RHA 71, Wolf Lake

Parameters Turbidity, NTU

4/13

4/20

6/7

Date. 1993 6/8 6/8 (14:20) (21:30)

11

12

1,400

960

240

COD

13

18

13

pH, units

9.9

9.9

8.1

Total alkalinity

37

57

23

39

Phenolphthalein alkalinity

19

18

0

12

Total suspended solids

10

136

56

41

59

10

7

46

2

4

14

10

9

2

4

6

.72

.80

.27

.31

.41

.85

1.20

.65

Total kjeldahl nitrogen-N

1.07

1.38

.29

.88

.74

1.35

2.56

1.18

Nitrate-Nitrite-N

.53

.67

.33

.36

.41

.24

.16

.39

Total phosphate-P

.009

.027

.068

.058

.061

.026

.007

.037

Volatile suspended solids Ammonia-N

Flouride

.17

Oil

1K

Note: Concentrations are in mg/L except where noted; K = less than detection value; Blanks indicate values not determined.

170

12

9.2 23

2.4

6/23 Mean

.1

Conductivity, umho/cm

6.8

6/10

19

6.3

6.8

1,100

925

17

16

Table 41h. Summary of Water Quality Characteristics at Inflow Point RHA 72, Wolf Lake

Parameters Turbidity, NTU

.1

4/20 5.2

5/10 2.2

6/7 5.8

890

630

900

260

COD

12

12

13

15

pH, units

9.5

9.8

9.6

9.0

9.9

Total alkalinity

31

40

35

35

44

37

9

12

9

19

12

7

16

46

2

3

11

12

.89

1.10

.47

.47

.47

Total kjeldahl nitrogen-N

1.21

1.74

.86

.56

Nitrate-Nitrite-N

.51

.73

.52

Total phosphate-P

.007

.012

.018

Conductivity,

4/13

Date. 1993 6/8 6/8 (14:25) (21:40) 5.5 2.6

μmho/cm

Phenolphthalein alkalinity Total suspended solids Volatile suspended solids Ammonia-N

1K 1K

7/8 Mean 3.7

590 17

17

14

16

19

2

3

2

4

.41

.60

.40

.45

.58

.90

.83

1.20

1.46

.68

1.05

.42

.45

.41

.31

.25

.23

.43

.032

.042

.032

.043

.017

.012

.024

1K

3

17

3

Oil

80

25

654

5

.23

171

6/23 5.0

11

Fluoride

Note: Concentrations are in mg/L except where noted; K = less than detection value; Blanks indicate values not determined.

6/10 2.8

1K

Table 41i. Summary of Water Quality Characteristics at Inflow Points RHA 08 and RHA 09, Wolf Lake

Parameters

6/7/93

Turbidity, NTU Conductivity,

RHA 08 6/8/93 6/10/93

3.4 μmho/cm

6.2

2.1

160 47

6/8/93 (10:20)

3.9

16

160

590

23

24

COD

28

pH, units

7.6

7.6

Total alkalinity

50

74

Phenolphthalein alkalinity

0

Total suspended solids

6

10

Volatile suspended solids

5

Ammonia-N

36

Mean

RHA 09 6/8/93 (19:27) 1.9

Mean 9 590

39

32

0

0

5

7

96

13

55

5

2

4

40

5

23

.16

.19

.45

.27

.34

.70

.52

Total kjeldahl nitrogen-N

.49

1.14

1.42

1.02

.56

1.85

.71

Nitrate-Nitrite-N

.15

.06

.01K

.07

.29

.24

.27

Total phosphate-P

.123

.086

.072

.094

.146

.201

.174

Fluoride Oil

.16

.29 1K

1K

Note: Concentrations are in mg/L except where noted; K = less than detection value; Blanks indicate values not determined.

172

0

Table 41j. Summary of Water Quality Characteristics at Inflow Point RHA 10 (1993), Wolf Lake 6/8 Parameters

12:50

Turtridity, NTU Conductivity,

4.9 μnho/cm

22:33

6/10

6/23

7/8

7/22

9/9

4

4.7

.7

.1

.5

.8

2.6

630

630

660

578

26

27

30

29

29

.6

420

550

COD

29

pH, units

7.9

7.6

8.2

7.6

Total alkalinity

118

279

109

213

180

Phenolphthalein alkalinity

0

0

0

0

0

Total suspended solids Volatile suspended solids

18 10

15 11

3 3

3 2

5 5

6 2

1K

17 5

Anunonia-N

.10

.13

.06

.05

.01

.06

.17

.09

.08

Total kjeldahl nitrogen-N

.59

1.22

.92

1.15

.57

.54

.91

.77

.83

Nitrate-Nitrite-N

.15

.03

.01

.02

.04

.06

.08

.06

.06

Total phosphate-P

.069

.046

.027

.029

.031

.033

.032

.023

.036

Fluoride

44

25

2 1K

.39

Note: Concentrations are in mg/L except where noted; K = less than detection value; Blanks indicate values not determined.

173

25

10/1 Mean

Table 41k. Summary of Water Quality Characteristics at Inflow Points RHA11, RHA 13, and RHA 14 (1993), Wolf Lake RHA11 8/19 10/1 Mean .3 2.4 1.4

Parameters Tuibidity, NTU Conductivity,

μmho/cm

980

COD

380 6

RHA 13 9/8 10/1 11/30 Mean 8/19 .2 .1 .2 .2 .1

680

300

320

77

23

8

310

380

16

RHA 14 9/8 10/1 Mean .1 .3 .2 310 6

6

pH, units

7.7

8.0

8.3

8.0

Total alkalinity

282

99

108

102

0

0

0

0

Phenolphthalein alkalinity Total suspended solids Volatile suspended solids Ammonia-N

1K

7

6 105

4

1

1K

4

2

1

1

1K

1K

1

1

.02

.03

.39

.45

15

19

6

2

4

1K

2

2.8

01K

1.41

.01

01K

.26

.24

.14

.21

.52

.26

337

3

22

Total kjeldahl nitrogen-N

6

320

0.1 .01K

.05

Nitrate-Nitrite-N

.01K

.33

.17

.21

.24

.32

.26

.18

.21

.26

.22

Total phosphate-P

2.88

.043

.166

.004

.012

.003

.006

.004

.003

.007

.005

Note: Concentrations are in mg/L except where noted; K = less than detection value; Blanks indicate values not determined.

174

Table 42. Metal Concentrations in Inflow Waters, Wolf Lake (1993)

3/9

RHA03 3/17

6/7

150K 6.3 69 1K 340

15K 6.3 81 1K 320

3300 180 3 34

Cadmium Calcium, mg/L Chromium Cobolt Copper

5K 170 5K 5K 5K

5K 170 5K 5K 5K

Iron, mg/L Lead Magnesium, mg/L Manganese Nickel

4.5 50K 32 520 15K

Potassium, mg/L Silver Sodium, mg/L Strontium Vanadium Zinc

10 5K 270 560 5K 100

Parameter Aluminum Arsenic Barium Beryllium Boron

RHA 04 6/7

RHA OS 6/7

RHA 06 6/8

RHA 07 6/7

1100 1K 33 3 20

3700 1K 100 3 72

570 1K 45 2 10K

290 1K 41 2 260

1200 1K 28 3 18

690 1K 24 1K 65

100K 1K 11 1K 120

280 1K 53 1K 69

100K 1.9 35 1K 210

6 51 55 85 5K

3K 14 9 17 5

3K 59 39 60 5K

3 16 5K 29 5K

3K 70 5K 5K 5K

3K 24 8 12 5K

3K 27 56 7 5K

3K 12 5K 5K 5K

3K 46 5K 8 6

3K 25 5K 7 7

5.8 50K 33 580 15K

12 400 11 1400 15K

2.4 70 3.8 320 15K

7.5 100 9.3 1400 15K

1.4 50K 3.0 240 15K

.24 50K 2.9 96 15K

1.2 120 2.0 400 15K

.53 180 2.2 200 15K

.14 50K 5.9 24 15K

1.8 50K 4.6 140 15K

.62 50K 18 48 15K

11 5K 330 580 6 65

1.4 3K 9.3 98 41 550

1K 3K 1.6 22 7 150

1.8 3K 15 74 34 250

1K 3K 1.8 51 5K 380

22 3K 64 360 8 100K

1.5 3K 2.7 45 5K 140

5.8 3K 14 100 8 100K

4.7 3K 3.9 54 5K 100K

7.2 3K 77 170 5K 100

7.8 3K 25 95 5K 100K

Note: All parameters expressed as μg/L except where noted; K = less than detection level.

RHA 71 6/7

RHA 72 6/7

RHA 08 6/7

RHA 09 6/8

RHA 10 6/8

Table 43. Organic Concentrations in Inflow Waters, Wolf Lake (1993)

samples collected at RHA 03 (table 41c), and the highest turbidity observed was 96 NTU on June 7, 1993. Subsequent sampling at this site, on July 8, 1993, indicated a lower value. High turbidity was also found at RHA 05 for samples on April 19 and June 7, 1993. At RHA 06, a winter storm event caused high turbidity on February 21, 1993 (table 4If). For a moderate amount of sediment, Illinois Lake Assessment Criteria set turbidity values between 7 and 14 NTU (IEPA, 1978). On the basis of mean turbidity values, only RHA 09 belongs in this category. Inflows RHA 03, RHA 05, and RHA 06 are considered to have substantial amount of sediment; the other inflows (RHA 02, 04, 07, 71, 72, 08, 10, 11, 13, and 14) as having a small amount of sediment. Chemical Characteristics Total and Volatile Suspended Solids. High TSS and VSS occurred during storm events when turbidity values were high. At RHA 03, high TSS (255 to 440 mg/L, table 41c) was recorded during February and June 7-8 storm events. During other storm events, however, TSS did not exceed 100 mg/L at RHA 03. Although no high turbidity values were observed at RHA 04 during the June 7-8 storm event, maximum TSS concentrations (184 mg/L) were recorded. High TSS (98 mg/L, table 41d) was found in the August 19 sample from RHA 04. Inspection of table 41e indicates high TSS (190 to 340 mg/L) in association with April, May, and June 6-7 storm events at RHA 05. And table 41f shows that very high TSS (445 to 550 mg/L) was found at RHA 06 in February 21, 1993, samples. At RHA 09, maximum TSS (96 mg/L) was recorded on June 8, 1993 (table 41 i). TSS values at the other nine inflow stations are consistently lower, with mean concentrations between 2 and 19 mg/L. For the samples with high TSS at RHA 03, 04, 05, and 06, VSS were approximately 20 to 25 percent of TSS (tables 41c-f). At RHA 09, approximately 40 percent of TSS were volatile. For the other nine-inflow points samples, VSS averaged approximately 25 to 70 percent of TSS; however, VSS concentrations were generally low. Generally, the suspended sediments are inorganic in nature. Conductivity and COD. Very high conductivity values (2,700-2,800 μmho/cm) were observed in the February 21, 1993, samples taken from RHA 06 (table 4If) during a snowmelt runoff from the Interstate Tollway 90. This was due to the use of salt on the interstate. High COD values (230 to 295 mg/L) were also measured for these samples. At RHA 06, however, conductivity and COD values in June 8 samples (summertime storm event samples) were very low (120 umho/cm). Generally, a strong linear correlation can be discerned between conductivity and total dissolved solids (TDS). TDS can be estimated to be approximately 0.6 times the conductivity. The Illinois general use water quality standard for TSS is 1,000 mg/L, which is approximately equivalent to a conductivity value of 1,700 umho/cm. Five out of 13 samples (38 percent) collected at RHA 03 had conductivity levels exceeding 1,700 umho/cm. Only one sample (11 percent) exceeded 1,700 umho/cm of conductivity at RHA 05. At both of these inflow points, the conductivity values were found to be very low (130 to 270 umho/cm) during the June 7-8 storm event. The reason for this is unknown. Excluding RHA 03, 05, and 06, the other inflow points had mean values of conductivity between 160 umho/cm (RHA 08) and 926 umho/cm (RHA 71). High COD concentrations (140 to 190 mg/L) were found in the samples taken at RHA 03 during the June 7-8 storm event (table 41c). Moderate COD concentrations (25 to 82 mg/L) with a mean of 44 mg/L were measured at RHA 05 (table 41e). COD represents the amount of oxygen required to completely oxidize all oxidizable organic and inorganic material present in the water. Hence, the higher the COD concentration, the greater the potential for depletion of DO in 177

the water. The mean COD concentrations at 11 other inflows (excluding RHA 03, 05, and 06) ranged from 6 mg/L at RHA 14 to 32 mg/L at RHA 09. pH and Alkalinity. The range (or one reading) of pH values observed at inflows RHA 02, 03, 04, 05, 06, 07, 71, 72, 08, 09, 10, 11, 13, and 14 were 7.7 to 8.6, 7.4 to 8.5, 7.4 to 9.1, 7.8 to 9.9, 7.4 to 7.7, 8.0 to 9.3, 8.1 to 9.9, 9.0 to 9.9, 7.6, 7.6, 7.6 to 8.2, 7.7, 8.0, and 8.0 to 8.3, respectively. High pH levels were found at RHA 71 and RHA 72. pH for April 13 and April 20, 1993, samples at RHA 71 were both 9.9. High pH in this wetland area is probably influenced by the U.S. Army's nearby storage facilities. pH levels of samples at RHA 07 were relatively higher than at other inflows. However, high pH of flows at RHA 07, RHA 71, and RHA 72 did not significantly affect the pH values of Pool 5 at RHA-5. In Indiana, the recommended pH values for Wolf Lake are between 6.5 and 8.5. However, inflows at RHA 02, 04, 05, 07, 71, and 72 had pH values exceeding 8.5 respectively, in 25 (2 out of 8 samples), 14 (1/17), 50 (4/8), 14 (1/7), 67 (2/3), and 100 (5/5) percent of samples examined. Samples collected from RHA 71 and 72 had high pH and low total alkalinity. Mean total alkalinity for these two inflows were 39 and 37 mg/L as CaCO3, respectively. Both mean phenolphthalein alkalinity values were 12 mg/L as CaCO3. Mean total alkalinity for RHA 06, 07, 08, and 09 was also low (43 to 74 mg/L as CaCO3). Other inflow stations showed total alkalinity values above 100 mg/L as CaCO3. Nitrogen. Ammonia and nitrate are readily used by algae and other aquatic plants as growth nutrients. A concentration of inorganic nitrogen (ammonia plus nitrite and nitrate) in excess of 0.3 mg/L is considered to be a sufficient to stimulate algal growth (Sawyer, 1952). An examination of tables 41a-k indicates that concentrations of mean inorganic nitrogen for rainwater inflows, RHA 03, 04, 05, 06, 07, 71, 72, 08, 09, and 11, exceeded the suggested critical value (0.3 mg/L). An unexpectedly very high ammonia level of 2.8 mg/L was observed in August 19, 1993, sample from RHA 11 (table 41k). The reason for this elevated ammonia level is unknown. For the inflow points mentioned above, all except RHA 08 had ammonia levels greater than 0.3 mg/L. The mean inorganic nitrogen levels at RHA 02, 10, 13, and 14 were below the critical concentration. In Illinois, the allowable ammonia nitrogen level varies from 1.6 to 13.0 mg/L depending upon the water temperature and pH values. Inflows RHA 07, 08, and 10 did not exceed the 0.3 mg/L ammonia nitrogen limit. However, on the Indiana side, any single daily concentration of ammonia nitrogen is limited to 0.12 mg/L (Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board, 1973). Except for one sample from RHA 04, all samples taken from RHA 03, 04, 05, 06, 71, and 72 exceeded the ammonia nitrogen limit. Concentrations of ammonia nitrogen at RHA 02 were very low, even under the detectable limit in many samples. Organic nitrogen is determined by subtracting ammonia nitrogen from the total kjeldahl nitrogen measurements. Organic nitrogen in inflow samples varied widely from zero to approximately 90 percent. Total Phosphorus. As with in-lake TP levels, the IEPA (1990) limits TP concentrations for any stream at the point where it enters a reservoir or lake to no more than 0.050 mg/L. TP in the rainwater samples exceeded this limit 89 percent of the time (eight out of nine samples) (table 41a). All six samples collected from RHA 07 met the TP standard (table 41b). All three samples taken at RHA 08 had TP exceeding 0.050 mg/L, with an average of 0.094 mg/L (table 41i). At RHA 10, seven out of eight samples (88 percent) had TP below 0.050 mg/L (table 41j).

178

The TP standard for Wolf Lake set by the Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board (1973) is 0.04 mg/L. However, all inflow samples collected from RHA 03, 04, 05, 09, and 11 had TP values above 0.04 mg/L, with mean TP concentrations of, respectively, 0.140, 0.156, 0.170, 0.174, and 0.166 mg/L. In addition, samples taken at RHA 02, 06, 71, and 72 exceeded the TP standard 9, 75, 43, and 22 percent of the time, respectively, with mean concentrations of 0.011, 0.129, 0.037, and 0.024 mg/L, respectively. The concentrations of TP at RHA 13 and 14 were low, with mean values of 0.006 and 0.005 mg/L, respectively. Metals. During the June 7-8, 1993, storm event, one grab stormwater sample was taken at each of the ten inflow sites for metal analyses. In addition, two more samples at RHA 03 were collected in March 1993 for metal analyses. The results of analyses on the 12 samples are listed in table 42, which indicates that arsenic, cadmium, copper, nickel, and silver are under detectable levels for all or almost all samples. As expected, metal concentrations are higher at the urban storm water discharges, RHA 03, 04, and 05. Concentrations of metals for secondary contact and indigenous aquatic life standards stipulated by the IPCB (1990) are as follows: arsenic, 1,000 μg/L; barium, 5,000 μg/L; cadmium, 150 μg/L; chromium, 1,000 μg/L; copper, 1,000 μg/L; iron, 2,000 μg/L; lead, 100 μg/L; manganese, 1,000 μg/L; nickel, 1,000 μg/L; silver, 1,100 μg/L; and zinc, 1,000 μg/L. Three inflow sites, RHA 07, 08, and 10, are in Illinois. The metal concentrations at these three locations were much lower than the IPCB's standards. Applying the IPCB's standards to Indiana sites, only RHA 03, 04, and 05 exceeded iron standards. Lead limits were exceeded at RHA 03, 05, 71, and 72. Organics. Samples for organic analyses were collected from nine inflows during the June 7-8, 1993, storm event. In addition, a sample was collected at RHA 03 on March 17, 1993, and at RHA 13 on November 30, 1993. Nineteen organic analyses were performed for each sample, and the results of these analyses are shown in table 43. The table suggests that concentrations of 17 parameters tested were below detection levels in all samples. Total PCBs at RHA 03 on June 8, 1993, were 2.0 μg/L; while PCBs were not detected at the other ten inflows. Pentachlorophenol was present in eight samples ranging from 0.02 μg/L at RHA 06 and 10 to 0.27 μg/L at RHA 03. Trophic State Eutrophication is a normal process that affects every body of water from its time of formation. As a lake ages, the degree of enrichment from nutrient materials increases. In general, the lake traps a portion of the nutrients originating in the surrounding drainage basin. Precipitation, dry fallout, and ground-water inflow are the other contributing sources. A wide variety of indices of lake trophic conditions have been proposed in the literature. These indices have been based on Secchi disc transparency; nutrient concentrations; hypolimnetic oxygen depletion; and biological parameters, including chlorophyll a, species abundance, and diversity. In its Clean Lake Program Guidance Manual, the USEPA (1980) suggests the use of four parameters as trophic indicators: Secchi disc transparency, chlorophyll a, surface water total phosphorus, and total organic carbon. In addition, the lake trophic state index (TSI) developed by Carlson (1977) on the basis of Secchi disc transparency, chlorophyll a, and surface water total phosphorus can be used to calculate a lake's trophic state. The TSI can be calculated from Secchi disc transparency (SD) in meters (m), chlorophyll a (CHL) in micrograms per liter (μg/L), and total phosphorus (TP) in μg/L as follows: 179

on the basis of SD, TSI = 60 - 14.4 In (SD) (1) on the basis of CHL, TSI = 9.81 In (CHL) + 30.6 (2) on the basis of TP, TSI = 14.42 In (TP) + 4.15 (3) The index is based on the amount of algal biomass in surface water, using a scale of 0 to 100. Each increment of ten in the TSI represents a theoretical doubling of biomass in the lake. The advantages and disadvantages of using the TSI were discussed by Hudson et al. (1992). The accuracy of Carlson's index is often diminished by water coloration or suspended solids other than algae. Applying TSI classification to lakes that are dominated by rooted aquatic plants may indicate less eutrophication than actually exists. The values of TSI for Wolf Lake were calculated using formulas (1 through 3) for each basin, based on Secchi disc transparency, TP, and chlorophyll a concentrations of each sample. The TSI results, average range of TSI values, and trophic state are listed in table 44. Categorizing the trophic state of a lake can be accomplished using TSI values and the information provided in table 45. Lakes are generally classified by limnologists into one of three trophic states: oligotrophic, mesotrophic, or eutrophic. Oligotrophic lakes are known for their clean and cold waters and lack of aquatic weeds or algae, due to low nutrient levels. There are few oligotrophic lakes in the Midwest. At the other extreme, eutrophic lakes are high in nutrient levels and are likely to be very productive in terms of weed growth and algal blooms. Eutrophic lakes can support large fish populations, but the fish tend to be rougher species that can better tolerate depleted levels of DO. Mesotrophic lakes are in an intermediate stage between oligotrophic and eutrophic. The great majority of Midwestern lakes are eutrophic. A hypereutrophic lake is one that has undergone extreme eutrophication to the point of having developed undesirable aesthetic qualities (e.g., odors, algal mats, and fish kills) and water-use limitations (e.g., extremely dense growths of vegetation). The natural aging process causes all lakes to progress to the eutrophic condition over time, but this eutrophication process can be accelerated by certain land uses in the contributing watershed (e.g., agricultural activities, application of lawn fertilizers, and erosion from construction sites). Given enough time, a lake will grow shallower and will eventually fill in with trapped sediments and decayed organic matter, such that it becomes a shallow marsh or emergent wetland. The mean calculated TSI values shown in table 44 suggest that the mean Secchi disc TSI (SD-TSI) was the highest for each station except for RHA-8; and the mean total phosphorous TSI (TP-TSI) was the lowest for each station except RHA-9. For the channel and all pools other than Pool 1 (RHA-1), low values of SD-TSI, TP-TSI, and CHL-TSI were observed in the winter and high values in the summer (table 44). There was no hypereutrophic condition noted in the lake system. Pools 6 and 7 had excessive growths of macrophytes. According to Carlson (1977), applying the TSI to classification of lakes that are dominated by rooted aquatic plants may indicate less eutrophication than actually exists. The overall average TSI values for Pools 1-8 and Wolf Lake Channel using the average of mean SD-TSI, TP-TSI, and CHL-TSI, were 37.0, 51.4, 48.0, 52.2, 48.4, 56.3, 57.7, 58.6, and 54.0, respectively. These indicate Pools 1-8 and Wolf Lake Channel could be classified respectively as oligotrophic, eutrophic, mesotrophic, eutrophic, mesotrophic, eutrophic, eutrophic, eutrophic, and eutrophic. When considering the results of TSI calculations, one should keep in mind the assumptions on which the Carlson formulae are based: 1) Secchi disc transparency is a function of phytoplankton biomass; 2) phosphorus is the factor limiting algal growth; and 3) total phosphorus concentration is directly correlated with algal biomass. These assumptions will not 180

Table 44. Trophic State Index and Trophic State of Individual Pools of Wolf Lake

Date 10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 1/19/93 2/10/93 3/16/93 4/13/93 5/10/93 5/26/93 6/9/93 6/22/93 7/7/93 7/20/93 8/4/93 8/18/93 9/8/93 9/28/93

Maximum Minimum Mean TSI Trophic State (Overall)

Notes:

SD

RHA-1 TP

46.2 38.1 43.2

37.4 20.0 30.0

39.7 43.8 48.3 43.1 47.6 48.3 41.2 43.1 44.7 45.9 40.1 41.9 44.9

24.2 34.3 30.0 27.5 4.2 36.0 20.0 20.0 24.2 20.0 4.2 30.0 34.3

48.3 38.1 43.7 Mesotrophic

37.4 4.2 24.8 Oligotrophic (Oligotrophic, 37.0)

RHA-2 TP

CHL

SD

39.6 38.1 35.2 42.0 47.0 51.0 40.2

61.8 49.4 43.2 49.6 48.3 49.3 52.8 56.6 53.6 57.8 55.2 59.2 61.4 61.4 61.0 65.6 66.7

51.7 37.4 38.7 32.2 43.2 38.7 37.4 49.4 47.3 51.1 48.0 42.2 46.6 48.7 37.4 55.8 52.7

66.7 43.2 56.0 Eutrophic

55.8 32.2 44.6 Mesotrophic (Eutrophic, 51.4)

49.6 44.8 42.0 38.1 42.0 43.3 40.2

35.2 51.0 42.4 Mesotrophic

CHL

SD

RHA-3 TP

53.8 49.6 49.6 50.3 50.3 50.3

56.6 48.3 43.5 47.3 43.4 45.2 49.4 51.2 46.6 53.6 49.8 54.2 56.9 59.2 61.4 61.4 63.5

51.1 34.1 32.2 30.0 34.1 27.4 37.4 40.0 43.2 45.0 37.4 41.1 34.1 48.0 47.3 53.2 55.8

63.5 43.4 52.4 Eutrophic

55.8 27.4 40.7 Mesotrophic (Mesotrophic, 48.0)

53.3 56.0 60.1 52.2 52.8 55.6 60.9 57.5

60.1 49.6 53.7 Eutrophic

SD = Secchi disc transparency TSI; TP = total phosphorus TSI; CHL = chlorophyll a TSI.

CHL 48.8 43.5 50.3 48.8 48.8 48.0 48.8 49.6 51.0 49.6 52.8 59.9 59.3 51.9

59.9 43.5 50.9 Eutrophic

Table 44. Continued

Date 10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 1/17/93 2/10/93 3/10/93 4/13/93 5/10/93 5/26/93 6/9/93 6/22/93 7/7/93 7/20/93 8/4/9/93 8/18/93 9/8/93 9/28/93

Maximum Minimum Mean YSI Trophic state (Overall)

Notes:

SD

RHA-4 TP

62.3 53.2 42.9 51.0 44.1 49.4 53.9 59.2 53.6 60.0 52.6 61.8 64.0 64.5 64.0 69.2 68.5

52.2 44.1 35.8 30.0 32.2 38.7 38.7 48.0 48.7 53.7 47.3 48.0 46.6 52.2 46.6 57.6 57.0

69.2 42.9 57.3 Eutrophic

57.6 30.0 45.7 Mesotrophic (Eutrophic, 52.2)

SD = Secchi disc transparency TSI;

RHA-5 TP

CHL

SD

52.8 47.0 48.0 51.0 50.3 48.0

59.2 49.2 43.0 47.8 43.1 45.1 50.0 46.2 44.5 54.6 50.8 49.4 56.2 63.0 56.7 57.5 62.6

50.6 42.2 38.7 37.4 37.4 38.7 35.8 40.0 42.2 45.0 40.0 43.2 41.1 46.6

63.0 43.0 51.7 Eutrophic

62.6 35.8 43.2 Mesotrophic (Mesotrophic, 48.4)

44.8 56.0 60.6 55.6 57.1 56.0 63.0 59.3

63.0 44.8 53.5 Eutrophic

TP = total phosphorus TSI;

RHA-6 TP

CHL

SD

53.8 48.0 44.8 44.8 48.0 42.0

61.4 58.4 52.8 54.9 55.8 56.0 56.2 61.8 56.6 60.0 60.0 65.6 66.2 66.2 67.9 66.2 70.0

48.0 44.1 40.0 50.6 43.2 45.0 41.1 55.4 51.1 55.4 49.4 50.6 52.7 60.3 57.0 60.3 65.0

70.0 52.8 60.9 Eutrophic

65.0 40.0 51.1 Eutrophic (Eutrophic, 56.3)

44.8 49.6 52.8 50.3 51.6 55.2 59.6 59.3

50.0 62.6

59.6 42.0 50.3 Eutrophic

CHL = chlorophyll a TSI.

CHL 48.8 56.0 51.6 56.4 53.3 52.2 59.9 48.0 59.0 54.8 61.8 62.8 66.6 64.7

66.6 48.0 56.9 Eutrophic

Table 44. Concluded

Date 10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 1/19/93 2/10/93 3/16/93 4/13/93 5/10/93 5/26/93 6/9/93 6/22/93 7/7/93 7/20/93 8/4/93 8/18/93 9/8/93 9/28/93 Maximum Minimum Mean TSI Trophic state (Overall)

SD

RHA-7 TP

62.3 56.0 53.9 53.6 54.2 55.8 60.0 64.5 58.1 63.5 62.6 66.2 67.9 65.6 66.7 65.6 67.3

57.3 47.3 40.0 34.1 42.2 51.1 50.6 59.7 52.2 62.6 52.7 60.0 61.1 63.4 58.7 61.7 50.0

67.9 53.6 61.4 Eutrophic

63.4 34.1 53.2 Eutrophic (Eutrophic, 57.7)

CHL

SD

59.6 54.3 48.0 24.4 57.8 57.1

67.9 58.4

65.7 60.4 64.3 60.9 66.6 69.2 68.0 63.0

69.2 24.4 58.5 Eutrophic

53.4 53.6 52.0 60.0 58.1 60.7 66.7 61.8 64.0 57.2 65.0 62.3 64.5 67.3 67.9 52.0 60.8 Eutrophic

RHA-8 TP 61.4 50.6 42.2 41.1 43.2 47.3 45.0 51.1 55.0 58.7 51.7 57.3 58.7 62.9 52.7 65.0 57.6 65.0 41.1 53.0 Eutrophic (Eutrophic, 58.6)

CHL

SD

RHA-9 TP

64.2 57.8 51.6 58.4 59.9 55.2

50.8 58.8 49.2 55.8 57.5 66.2 61.0 56.2 57.5 67.3 61.8 64.5 61.8 63.0 63.5 59.2 58.8

45.8 51.1 44.1 38.7 45.0 55.8 48.7 50.0 51.1 64.1 61.1 63.2 53.7 63.4 53.2 54.6 63.4

67.3 49.2 59.6 Eutrophic

64.1 38.7 53.4 Eutrophic (Eutrophic, 54.0)

59.0 60.9 65.7 62.0 67.9 71.3 68.3 64.8

71.3 51.6 61.9 Eutrophic

Notes: SD = Secchi disc transparency TSI; TP = total phosphorus TSI; CHL = chlorophyll a TSI.

CHL 45.2 38.1 31.3 8.1 42.0 48.0 53.8 56.4 55.2 62.2 66.1 58.4 59.3 61.6

66.1 8.1 49.0 Mesotrophic

Table 45. Quantitative Definition of Lake Trophic State

Trophic state

Secchi disc transparency (inches) (meter)

Chlorophyll a (μg/L)

Total phosphorus, lake surface (μg/L)

TSI

Oligotrophy

>157

>4.0

<2.6

<12

<40

Mesotrophic

79-157

2.0-4.0

2.6-7.2

12-24

40-50

Eutrophic

20-79

0.5-2.0

7.2-55.5

24-%

50-70

<20

<0.5

>55.5

>96

>70

Hypertrophic

184

necessarily hold where suspended solids other than algal biomass are a major source of turbidity; where short retention times prohibit a large algal standing crop from developing; or where grazing by zooplankton affects algal populations. Lake Use Support Analysis Definition An analysis of Wolf Lake's use support was carried out employing a methodology developed by the IEPA (1994). The degree of use support identified for each designated use indicates the ability of the lake to: 1) support a variety of high quality recreational activities, such as boating, sport fishing, swimming, and aesthetic enjoyment; 2) support healthy aquatic life and sport fish populations; and 3) provide adequate, long-term quality and quantity of water for public or industrial water supply (if applicable). Determination of a lake's use support is based upon the state's water quality standards as described in Subtitle C of Title 35 of the State of Illinois Administrative Code (IEPA, 1990). Each of four established use designation categories (including General Use, Public and Food Processing Water Supply, Lake Michigan, and Secondary Contact and Indigenous Aquatic Life) has a specific set of water quality standards. For the lake uses assessed in this report, the General Use standards - primarily the 0.05 mg/L TP standard - were used. The TP standard has been established for the protection of aquatic life, primary-contact (e.g., swimming) and secondary-contact (e.g., boating) recreation, agriculture, and industrial uses. In addition, lake-use support is based in part on the amount of sediment, macrophytes, and algae in the lake and how these might impair designated lake uses. The following is a summary of the various classifications of use impairment: Full = full support of designated uses, with minimal impairment Full/threatened = full support of designated uses, with indications of declining water quality or evidence of existing use impairment Partial/minor = partial support of designated uses, with slight impairment Partial/moderate = partial support of designated uses, with moderate impairment Nonsupport = no support of designated uses, with severe impairment Lakes that fully support designated uses may still exhibit some impairment, or have slight to moderate amounts of sediment, macrophytes, or algae in a portion of the lake (e.g., headwaters or shoreline); however, most of the lake acreage shows minimal impairment of the aquatic community and uses. It is important to emphasize that if a lake is rated as not fully supporting designated uses, it does not necessarily mean that the lake cannot be used for those purposes or that a health hazard exists. Rather, it indicates impairment in the ability of significant portions of the lake waters to support either a variety of quality recreational experiences or a balanced sport fishery. Since most lakes are multiple-use water bodies, a lake can fully support one designated use (e.g., aquatic life) but exhibit impairment of another (e.g., swimming). Lakes that partially support designated uses have a designated use that is slightly to moderately impaired in a portion of the lake (e.g., swimming impaired by excessive aquatic macrophytes or algae, or boating impaired by sediment accumulation). So-called nonsupport lakes have a designated use that is severely impaired in a substantial portion of the lake (e.g., a large portion of the lake has so much sediment that boat ramps are virtually inaccessible, boating is nearly impossible, and fisheries are degraded). However, in other parts of the same nonsupport 185

lake (e.g., near a dam), the identical use may be supported. Again, nonsupport does not necessarily mean that a lake cannot support any uses, that it is a public health hazard, or that its use is prohibited. Lake-use support and level of attainment were determined for aquatic life, recreation, swimming, and overall lake use, using methodologies described in the IEPA's Illinois Water Quality Report 1992-1993 (IEPA, 1994). The primary criterion in the aquatic life use assessment is an Aquatic Life Use Impairment Index (ALI); while in the recreation use assessment the primary criterion is a Recreation Use Impairment Index (RUI). While both indices combine ratings for TSI (Carlson, 1977) and degree of use impairment from sediment and aquatic macrophytes, each index is specifically designed for the assessed use. ALI and RUI relate directly to the TP standard of 0.05 mg/L. If a lake water sample is found to have a TP concentration at or below the standard, the lake is given a "full support" designation. The aquatic life use rating reflects the degree of attainment of the "fishable goal" of the Clean Water Act; whereas the recreation use rating reflects the degree to which pleasure boating, canoeing, and aesthetic enjoyment may be obtained at an individual lake. The assessment of swimming use for primary-contact recreation was based on available data using two criteria: 1) Secchi disc transparency depth data and 2) Carlson's TSI. The swimming use rating reflects the degree of attainment of the "swimmable goal" of the Clean Water Act. If a lake is rated "nonsupport" for swimming, it does not mean that the lake cannot be used or that health hazards exist. It indicates that swimming may be less desirable than at those lakes assessed as fully or partially supporting swimming. Finally, in addition to assessing individual aquatic life, recreation, and swimming uses, the overall use support of the lake was assessed. The overall use support methodology aggregates the use support attained for each of the individual lake uses assessed. Values assigned to each use-support attainment category are summed and averaged, and then used to assign an overall lake-use attainment value for the lake. Wolf Lake Use Support Support of designated uses in Wolf Lake was determined based on Illinois' lake-use support assessment criteria. Table 46 presents basic information along with assessed lake-use support information. The use-support analysis results for both Pools 1 and 5 are the same: for aquatic life, recreation, swimming, and overall use, they are classified as full support. For aquatic life use, Pools 2, 3, and 8 are also classified as full support; while Pools 4, 6, 7, and 9 (Wolf Lake Channel) are full/threatened. For recreation use, five pools (Pools 2, 3, 4, 8, and 9) were determined to be partial-use support with minor impairment; Pools 6 and 7 are partial-use support with moderate impairment. For swimming use, five pools in Illinois are considered full support, and four pools in Indiana are classified as partial support with minor impairment. It should be noted that Pool 8 was evaluated with data obtained at RHA-8, rather than at the beach area in Pool 8. For overall use, there are two full support pools (Pools 1 and 5), three full/threatened support (Pools 2, 3, and 4), and four partial support with minor impairment (Pools 6, 7, 8, and 9). The results of analyses suggest that the water quality of Wolf Lake in Illinois is better than that on the Indiana side. Even though the IEPA's methodology for lake-use impairment assessment indicates that Pools 6 and 7 have a recreation classification of partial-use support with moderate impairment, a major portion of these pools was found to be impaired and not conducive for high quality recreational opportunities such as boating, sailing, surfing, and fishing. The RUI point (weight) assigned for macrophyte impairment is 15 on a scale of 0 to 15 (for macrophyte coverage > 25 186

Table 46. Assessment of Use Support in Wolf Lake

Value I. Aquatic life use 1. Mean trophic state index 2. Macrophyte impairment 3. Mean nonvolatile suspended solids Total points: Criteria points:

RHA-1 ALI

3. Mean nonvolatile suspended solids Total points: Criteria points:

51.4

40

15%

0

15%

0

4 mg/L

0_ 40 <75

3 mg/L

0 40 <75

Full RUIpoints*

Full Value

RUI

points*

37.0

37

51.4

51

15%

10

15%

10

4 mg/L

5 52 RUI <60

3 mg/L

5 66 60≤RUI<75

Use Support:

Full Degree of use support

Value III. Swimming use 1. Secchi depth < 24 inches

Allpoints*

40

Value

2. Macrophyte impairment

Value

37.0

Use Support:

II. Recreation use 1. Mean trophic state index

RHA-2 points*

Partial/Minor

Value

Degree of use support

0%

Full

0%

Full

2. Fecal coliform > 200/100 mL

0%

Full

0%

Full

3. Mean trophic state index

30.7

Full

51.4

Full

Use Support: IV. Overall use

Full 5.0

Full 4.3

Use Support:

Full

Note: * ALI: Aquatic life use impairment index; RUI: Recreation use impairment index.

187

Full/Threatened

Table 46. Continued

Value L Aquatic life use 1. Mean trophic state index 2. Macrophyte impairment 3. Mean nonvolatile suspended solids Total points: Criteria points:

RHA-3 ALI

3. Mean nonvolatile suspended solids Total points: Criteria points:

points*

52.2

40

45%

5

60

10

3 mg/L

0 45 <75

4 mg/L

0 50 <75

Full RUIpoints*

Full/Threatened Value

RU1points*

48.0

48

52.2

52

45%

15

60

15

3 mg/L

5 68 60≤RU1<75

Use Support:

4 mg/L

Partial/Minor Degree of use support

Value III. Swimming use 1. Secchi depth < 24 inches

RHA-4 ALI

40

Value

2. Macrophyte impairment

Value

48.0

Use Support:

II. Recreation use 1. Mean trophic state index

points*

5 72 60≤RUI<75 Partial/Minor

Value

Degree of use support

0%

Full

8%

Partial/Minor

2. Fecal coliform > 200/100 mL

0%

Full

0%

Full

3. Mean trophic state index

48.0

Full

52.2

Full

Use Support: IV. Overall use

Full 4.3

Use Support:

Full 4.0

Full/Threatened

Note: * ALI: Aquatic life use impairment index; RUI: Recreation use impairment index.

188

Full/Threatened

Table 46. Continued

Value I. Aquatic life use 1. Mean trophic state index 2. Macrophyte impairment 3. Mean nonvolatile suspended solids Total points: Criteria points:

RHA-5 All

3. Mean nonvolatile suspended solids Total points: Criteria points:

56.3

40

10%

5

85%

15

2 mg/L

0. 45 <75

4 mg/L

0 55 <75

Full RUIpoints*

Full/Threatened Value

RUJpoints*

48.4

48

56.3

56

10%

5

85%

15

2 mg/L

0 53 RUI<60

4 mg/L

5 76 75
Use Support:

Full Degree of use support

Value III. Swimming use 1. Secchi depth < 24 inches

RHA-6 ALIpoints*

40

Value

2. Macrophyte impairment

Value

48.4

Use Support:

II. Recreation use 1. Mean trophic state index

points*

Partial/Moderate

Value

Degree of use support

0%

Full

16%

Partial/Minor

2. Fecal coliform > 200/100 mL

0%

Full

0%

Full

3. Mean trophic state index

48.4

Full

56.3

Partial/Minor

Use Support: IV. Overall use

Full 5.0

Partial/Minor 3.0

Use Support:

Full

Note: * ALI: Aquatic life use impairment index; RUI: Recreation use impairment index.

189

Partial Minor

Table 46. Continued

Value L Aquatic life use 1. Mean trophic state index 2. Macrophyte impairment 3. Mean nonvolatile suspended solids Total points: Criteria points:

RHA-7 ALI

3. Mean nonvolatile suspended solids Total points: Criteria points:

points*

58.6

40

60%

10

14%

5

5 mg/L

0 50 <75

5

mg/L

Full RUIpoints*

0 45 <75 Full

Value

RUI

points*

57.7

58

58.8

59

60%

15

14%

5

5 mg/L

_5_ 78 75≤RUI<90

5 mg/L

5 69 60≤RUI<75

Use Support:

Partial/Moderate Degree of use support

Value III. Swimming use 1. Secchi depth < 24 inches

RHA-8 ALI

40

Value

2. Macrophyte impairment

Value

57.7

Use Support:

EL Recreation use 1. Mean trophic state index

points*

Partial/Minor

Value

Degree of use support

8%

Partial/Minor

8%

Partial/Minor

2. Fecal coliform > 200/100 mL

8%

Full

0%

Full

3. Mean trophic state index

57.7

Partial/Minor

58.8

Partial/Minor

Use Support: IV. Overall use

Partial/Minor 3.0

Partial/Minor 3.7

Use Support:

Partial/Minor

Note: * ALI: Aquatic life use impairment index; RUI: Recreation use impairment index.

190

Partial/Minor

Table 46. Concluded

Value

RHA-9 ALI

points*

I. Aquatic life use 1. Mean trophic state index

54.0

40

2. Macrophyte impairment

55%

10

3 mg/L

0 50 <75

3. Mean nonvolatile suspended solids Total points: Criteria points: Use Support:

Full/Threatened Value

RUIpoints*

II. Recreation use 1. Mean trophic state index

54.0

54

2. Macrophyte impairment

55%

15

3. Mean nonvolatile suspended solids Total points: Criteria points:

3

Use Support:

Partial/Minor

Degree of use support

Value III. Swimming use 1. Secchi depth < 24 inches

5 74 60≤RUI<75

mg/L

0%

Full

2. Fecal coliform > 200/100 mL

50%

Partial/Minor

3. Mean trophic state index

54.0

Partial/Minor

Use Support:

IV. Overall use

Partial/Minor

3.3 Use Support:

Partial/Minor

Note: * ALI: Aquatic life use impairment index; RUI: Recreation use impairment index.

191

percent of the lake surface). The mean TSI, especially Secchi disc TSI, at these two pools was also relatively high, (table 44). Sediment Characteristics Lake sediment can act both as sinks and as potential pollution sources (for pollutants such as phosphorus and metals) affecting lake water quality. Its metal and/or organic chemical toxicities can directly affect the presence of aquatic animals and plants on the lake bottom. Lake sediments, if and when dredged, should be carefully managed to prevent surface water and ground-water contamination. Sediment monitoring is becoming increasingly important as a tool for detecting pollution loadings in lakes and streams. The reasons are as follows: 1) Many potential toxicants are easier to assess in sediments because they accumulate there at levels far greater than those normally found in the water column. 2) Sediments are less mobile than water and can be used more reliably to infer sources of pollutants. 3) Nutrients, heavy metals, and many organic compounds can become tightly bound to the fine particulate silts and clays of the sediment deposits where they remain until they are released to the overlying water and made available to the biological community through physical, chemical, or bioturbation processes. Remedial pollution mitigation projects may include the removal of contaminated sediments as a necessary step (IDEM, 1992). Sediment Quality Standards While there are no regulatory agencies that promulgate sediment quality standards, sediment quality in Illinois is generally assessed using data by Kelly and Hite (1981). For the study in question, they collected 273 individual sediment samples from 63 lakes across Illinois during the summer of 1979. On the basis of each parameter measured, they defined "elevated levels" as concentrations of one to two standard deviations greater than the mean value, and "highly elevated levels" as concentrations greater than two standard deviations from the mean. A statistical classification of Illinois lake sediment developed by Kelly and Hite is shown in table 47. It should be noted that in this classification, lake sediment data are considered to be elevated based on a statistical comparison of levels found in 1979 and not on toxicity data. Therefore, elevated or highly elevated levels of parameters do not necessarily indicate a human health risk. In Indiana, the maximum sediment background concentrations were determined from the analyses of sediment samples from 83 "non-contaminated" sites throughout the state (IDEM, 1992). Each sediment sample was collected from a lake or from a small stream at a location upstream of all known point sources of pollution, including municipal or industrial discharges and combined sewer overflows. Aerial sources of contaminants and contamination from nonpoint urban and agricultural runoff may have affected those sampling sites. While it is unlikely that any areas of the state are free of inputs from these sources, the background concentrations calculated are considered to represent the best possible estimate of "unpolluted" sediment in Indiana. The maximum background levels of constituents of Indiana lake and stream sediments determined by the study are shown in table 48. Sediments containing less than two times the maximum background concentration for each constituent are classified as "uncontaminated." In Indiana, lake (reservoir) and stream sediments were also grouped into four levels of concern - high, medium, low, and unknown - based on the presence and concentration of priority pollutants measured. The criteria for such groupings are listed in table 49. If background concentrations of particular contaminants found were not known, the water body was placed into the "unknown" category of concern.

192

Table 47. Classification of Illinois Lake Sediments

Constituent Chemical oxygen demand Total kjeldahl nitrogen Total phosphorus Volatile solids (%) Total organic carbon Arsenic Cadmium Chromium Copper Iron Lead Manganese Mercury Zinc

Below normal

Normal

<32,500 <1,650 <225 <5 <26,500

32,500-162,000 1,650-5,775 225-1,175 5-13 26,500-65,000

162,000-226,000 5,775-7,850 1,175-1,650 13-17 65,000-85,100

>226,000 >8,750 >1,650 >17 >85,100

<27 <1.8 14-30 <100 18,000-36,000 15-100 <3,000 <0.25 50-175

27-41 1.8-2.6 30-38 100-150 36,000-45,000 100-150 3,000-3,900 0.25-0.40 175-250

>41 >2.6 >38 >150 >45,000 >150 >3,900 >0.40 >250

<14 <18,000 <15

<50

Highly elevated

Elevated

Note: Constituents measured in mg/kg except where noted otherwise. Source: Kelly and Hite (1981)

Table 48. Maximum Background Concentrations of Pollutants in Indiana Stream and Lake Sediments

Parameter

Maximum background (mg/kg)

Parameter

Maximum background (mg/kg)

Aluminum Antimony Arsenic Beryllium Boron Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Iron Lead Manganese Mercury Nickel Nitrogen (TKN) Phosphorus Selenium

9,400 0.49 29 0.7 8.0 1.0 50 20 20 57,000 150 1,700 0.44 21 1,500 610 0.55

Silver Strontium Thallium Zinc Phenol Cyanide PCB (Total) Chlordane Dieldrin DDT (Total) BHC (Total) Pentachlorophenol Heptachlor Aldrin HCB Methoxychlor Endrin

<0.5 110 <3.8 130 <0.2 <0.1 0.022 0.029 0.033 0.020 0.014 0.003 0.002 0.0007 0.001 <0.001 <0.001

Source: Indiana Department of Environmental Management (1993)

193

Table 49. Indiana Criteria for Grouping Sediments into Levels of Concern High Concern: Any contaminant present in concentrations greater than 100 times background Medium Concern: Any contaminant present in concentrations 10 to 100 times background Low Concern: Any contaminant present in concentrations 2 to 10 times background Unknown Concern: Contaminants present for which background concentration has not been established

194

Historical Sediment Data The available historical data on sediment in Wolf Lake are presented in table 50. These data are adopted from the report of Bell and Johnson (1990). The sources are from the IEPA STORET database sediment data taken in 1977, 1979, and 1989, and from sediment data (five studies, 1980-1990, see p. 31 of Bell and Johnson, 1990) compiled by the IDEM. Each sample usually represents a composite of at least three grabs. The number (N) of samples listed in table 50 is not necessarily the same as the number of sampling locations. Some locations had repeat sampling. The results in table 50a suggest that the metal concentrations in the sediment of Wolf Lake tend to vary from place to place, with the highest concentration being found in the vicinity of the northern Wolf Lake Channel. In fact, the highest concentration for each metal measured occurred at or near RHA-8 and RHA-9 for Pools 8 and 9, respectively. The reason for high concentrations of metals in the vicinity of RHA-8 is unknown. In fact, the highest chromium concentration (1,200 mg/kg) in the lake was found north of RHA-8 and east of the yacht club. The Water and Sewage Laboratory of Indiana State Board of Health received four bottom sediment samples from Wolf Lake - Hammond, IN on February 13, 1980 (no sampling date was given). The results of analyses for volatile solids, TKN, phosphorus, COD, lead, zinc, mercury, oil and grease, and PCBs are listed in appendix G (March 28, 1980 letter). On July 22, 1981, sediment and water samples were collected from five locations in Wolf lake (Indiana side) for heavy metals analyses. Those results are shown in tables II, IIB, and III of appendix G. On July 16, 1982, sediments from various locations in Wolf Lake were collected by the Water Pollution Control Division of the Indiana State Board of Health. Samples were named #1 Discharge, #2 - Indiana Pond, #3 - Illinois Pond, #3 A - Illinois Pond (duplicate), Wolf Lake #1, Wolf Lake #1A (duplicate), Wolf Lake #3, Wolf Lake #4, and Wolf Lake #5. Unfortunately, the exact sampling locations could not be ascertained. Extensive analyses of total solids, 6 metals (mercury, chromium, cadmium, copper, lead, and arsenic), and 35 organic compounds were performed for each sediment sample (appendix G). The concentrations of most of the organics were below the detectable levels. On July 16, 1986, sediment samples were collected from Wolf Lake Channel, West Basin, and East Basin for metals and organic analyses. Exact locations in the lake are unknown. Extensive analyses were performed for metals, extractable compounds (acid, base, and neutral), pesticides, and other organic compounds and the results are included in appendix G. Wente (1994) used an iterative maximum likelihood estimate method for estimating sediment background concentration distributions of 23 inorganic and 149 organic chemicals in Indiana. All 172 chemical distributions have estimates based on a single statewide distribute model (with no consideration for spatial variability). Fifteen of the inorganic chemical distributions have background estimates by spline techniques that account for some spatial variability. Maps of the mean and 95th percentile (on individual county basis) for each of the 15 spatially variable distributions are presented in the appendices of his report. Table 50b lists the statewide mean concentration, estimated northwest tip of the state mean (Wolf Lake area), and maximum 95th percentile in Lake County for 15 inorganics. Current Study Data During this study, sediment samples (both surficial and core) were taken at 30 sites (figure 8) on September 29 and 30, 1993. The sampling locations and water depths are also listed in 195

Table 50a. Concentration of Metals in Wolf Lake Sediments (1977,1979, and 1989)

Pool 3 Range

N

Pool 7 Range

3 6.4-18 2 1.0-2.0 3 8-26 3 3-32 3 9,800-18,000

3 21-23 3 <0.1-3.0 3 23-24.8 3 37-50 3 20,000-22,600

5 3 3 4 1

1.7-11 0.78-<2 10-29 23-160 10,000

6 10 10 10 3

1.5-15 <0.4-2.5 5-1200 3.5-110 5,700-25,000

5 5 5 5 1

2.1-17 0.7-7.2 34-160 10-340 37,000

3 3 3 1

3 3 3 1

3 1

35-110 440 0.81 100-240

10 3 7 5 1 5

8.8-290 330-690 <.02-0.046 3.7-22 0.87 60-600

9 1 8 2 1 6

19-1,000 740 <02-1.40 23-46 1.80 52-1,300

Parameter

N

Arsenic Cadmium Chromium Copper Iron Lead Manganese Mercury Nickel Selenium Zinc

Note:

3

Pool 2 Range

16-120 550-1100 <.0005-07 5.8 53-220

N

3

95-150 810-1136 .003-.08 13 240-270

1 2

N = number of samples; all parameters expressed in mg/kg.

196

N

Pool 8 Range

Wolf Lake Channel N Range

Table 50b. Sediment Background Concentration Distributions of Metals in Indiana Concentration,

mg/kg

Indiana Northwest Maximum 95th statewide corner of state percentile in Element meant mean* Lake Count† Aluminum 7,284 6,400 16,000 Arsenic 6.433 18 S4.4 Barium 89.3 90 230 Calcium 40,466 22,000 121,000 Chromium 16 62 346 Copper 20 110 505 Iron 15,633 33,000 83,000 Lead 24 440 1,539 Magnesium 6,840 7,300 22,000 Manganese 495 680 1,600 Mercury 0.0577 0.32 1.521 Nickel 13.2 24 101 Potassium 939 1,160 2,500 Vanadium 14.6 22 54 Zinc 84 620 2,780 Source: Wente, S.P. (1994) Note: * = from table A1, appendix A of the source * = estimated from figures B la through B 15a, appendix B of the source † = from tables C1 and C2, appendix C of the source

197

table 51. The surficial sediment samples were collected using a Petite Ponar dredge, and the core samples were taken using a 2-inch Wildco sediment corer with liner tubes. Each core sediment sample could be divided into three equal parts - top, middle, and bottom - and each portion thoroughly mixed and then analyzed. However, because of funding constraints, the whole core sample was homogenized and a subsample analyzed. The sediment qualities of surficial and core samples analyzed are presented in table 52. Nutrients. For the purposes of comparison, Illinois maximum normal background concentrations and Indiana maximum concentrations of metals and nutrients are listed in table 52. For the Illinois side, the values that exceeded the maximum normal concentrations are shown in bold type and the values that exceeded the maximum elevated concentrations are underscored. For the Illinois side of Wolf Lake, TP levels in the 13 sediment samples were between 116 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) at station 1A and 952 mg/kg at station 5 (RHA-5), below the Illinois maximum normal concentration of 1,175 mg/kg. TKN nitrogen concentrations in the 13 Illinois sediment samples were generally high and ranged from 286 mg/kg at station 1A to 13,898 mg/kg at station 4 (RHA-4). In fact, TKN levels at stations 3 (RHA-3), 3B, 4, 5, and 5B exceeded the maximum elevated concentration of 1,650 mg/kg; while TKN concentrations in station 5A sediment exceeded the maximum normal concentration of 1,175 mg/kg. For the Indiana side, TP concentrations in 14 sediment samples ranged from 121 mg/kg at station 8B to 1,848 mg/kg at station 9C. Underscored values (table 52) are in the category of "low concern" (i.e., greater than two times the background concentration, but less than ten times). Table 52 shows that TP concentrations in sediments collected from stations 9 (RHA-9), 9B, and 9C exceeded two times the Indiana maximum background concentration of 610 mg/kg. TP at station 6 (RHA-6) is more representative for Pool 6. Average TP values for Pools 7 and 9 are, respectively, 162 and 1,280 mg/kg. TP values of 431, 162, and 1,280 mg/kg are the best available estimate and can be used for calculating TP removed from Pools 6, 7, and 9, respectively, if they are dredged. TKN levels in 14 Indiana sediments ranged from less than detectable at station 9C to 10,393 mg/L at station 6. TKN concentrations at sites wetland IB, 6, 6A, 8 (RHA-8), 8A, 8D, and 9B were found to be three to seven times greater than the Indiana maximum background concentration. Metals. For the Illinois side, table 52 shows that arsenic levels at stations 4 and 5 exceeded the maximum normal concentration. Cadmium concentrations at all three stations of Pool 3 were greater than the maximum normal concentration; those at stations 4 and 5 were higher than the maximum elevated concentration. Chromium levels exceeded the maximum elevated concentration at stations 1 (RHA-1), 3, 3B, 4, and 5. Copper levels in stations 4 and 5 samples were above the maximum normal concentration. Lead values at stations 3, 3B, 4, and 5 exceeded the maximum elevated concentration; and those at stations 4A and 5B exceeded the maximum normal concentration. The mercury concentration at station 4 was higher than the maximum normal concentration; and at station 5B it was extremely high, exceeding the maximum elevated value. Concentrations of zinc in many pools were high: zinc levels at stations 1 and 3 A exceeded the maximum normal concentration; levels at stations 3, 3B, 4, 4A, 5, and 5A were much greater than the maximum elevated concentration. For the Indiana side (table 52), cadmium concentrations at stations 8A, 9, and 9B are classified as low concern. Copper levels in sediment samples taken from many stations (wetland 1B, 8, 8 A, 8D, 9, 9A, 9B, and 9C) were elevated. Concentrations of copper at stations 9 and 9B were nearly 10 and 12 times the maximum background concentration, respectively. These are 198

Table 51. Sediment Samples Collected in Wolf Lake

Station

Depth, feet

Core sample

Date

Time

RHA-1 1A RHA-2 2A RHA-3 3A 3B

9/30/93 9/30/93 9/30/93 9/30/93 9/30/93 9/30/93 9/30/93

18:15 18:30 18:00 17:45 17:25 17:00 17:15

16 9 15 5 13 2.5 8

RHA-4 4A RHA-5 5A 5B W-1A

9/30/93 9/30/93 9/30/93 9/30/93 9/30/93 9/30/93

15:20 15:30 12:30 12:40 13:10 13:30

11 5 17 4 4 4

W-1B

9/30/93

13:50

5

RHA-6 6A 6B RHA-7 7A

9/30/93 9/30/93 9/30/93 9/30/93 9/30/93

09:50 10:10 10:20 11:05 10:45

5.5 5 4 6.5 4

X X

7B RHA-8 8A 8B 8C

9/30/93 9/30/93 9/29/93 9/29/93 9/30/93

10:50 08:50 17:15 18:50 09:00

4 16 10 4 2

X

8D RHA-9 9A 9B 9C RHA 01

9/30/93 9/29/93 9/29/93 9/29/93 9/29/93 9/30/93

09:30 17:45 18:00 18:15 18:30 16:10

3 3 8 8 5 4

X X X X X X

Remarks

X

Center of lake

X

Center of lake

X X

H 2 S, southeast end H 2 S, south channel

X

1/4 south of Pool, center

X X X

Near RR bridge Southend Center of wetland near Army installation Near creek

Southwest edge Between Pools 6 & 7

X

X X

199

50'offhwy culvert between Pools 7 & 8 Center of lake 200'off CSO outfall Near beach South of pumping station at wetland South end side channel Near RHA-03 North of wetland At RHA-09 At hwy bridge

Table 52. Sediment Quality Characteristics of Wolf Lake (September 29-30, 1993)

Pool 1 1 1A

Parameter* Water depth,

ft

Pool 2 2 2A

Pool 3 3A

3

Pool 4 4 4A

3B

Illinois maximum concentration Normal Elevated

16

8

15

5

13

2.5

8

11

5

288 1264 34.6 5.7

116 286 59.6 2.5

191 1230 47.7 4.2

213 5064 30.2 7.1

521 12063 16.9 16.6

140 5508 33.9 10.2

554 12276 12.1 21.8

738 13898 11.7 20.0

429 902 22.5 11.2

1175 5775

1650 8750

13

17

Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Copper Iron

11.1 34 1 40 26 18000

7.8 12 1K 6 4 5700

3.4 21 1K 28 16 11000

12.2 35 1K 23 21 12000

26.8 70 2 39 63 27000

21.4 54 2 14 37 13000

22.8 143 2 43 79 28000

29.1 101 5 52 108 34000

20.5 83 2 22 60 20000

27

41

1.8 30 100 36000

2.6 38 150 45000

Lead Manganese Mercury Nickel Potassium Silver Zinc

26 1200 0.1K+ 18 1000K 1K 208

171 1100 0.14 22 1000K 1K 352

94 465 0.13 11 1000K 1K 214

215 1100 0.20 23 1000K 1 423

256 1300 0.26 27 1000 1K 550

131 799 0.15 16 1000K 1K 322

100 3000 0.25 -

150 39000 0.40 -

175

250

Normal

Highly elevated

Phosphorus Kjeldahl nitrogen Solids, % wet Volatile solids, %

Classification/ concern

1K

Normal

13 338 0.1K 5 1000K

34 921 0.1K 9 1000K 1K

36

66 600 0.1K 12 1000K 1K 100 142

Below Normal Normal

Normal

Highly elevated

Highly Elevated elevated

* Units = mg/kg, unless specified; + K = less than detection value. Note: Values in bold = greater than Normal limit; values in italics = greater than Elevated limit

Table 52. Continued

Parameter*

5

Water depth,

5B

Illinois maximum, concentration Normal Elevated

17

4

4

4

Phosphorus Kjeldahl nitrogen Solids, % wet Volatile solids, %

952 12774 13.1 19.2

87 6927 46.8 3.9

284 8983 30.5 9.3

151 894 56.4 7.3

1175 5775 13

1650 8750 17

Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Copper Iron

28.1 121 3 49 101 33000

15.9 112 1K 23 12 13000

22.9 95 1 25 48 23000

15.4 44 1K 27 22 17000

27

41

1.8 30 100 36000

Lead Manganese Mercury Nickel Potassium Silver Zinc

270 1300 0.22 29 1400

37 1200 0.1K 8 1000K 1K 71

118 797 0.87 15 1000K 1K 264

31 656 0.1K 19 1100 1K 95

100 3000 0.25 175

Normal

Elevated

Normal

Classification/ concern

ft

Pool 5 5A

Outlet (Indian Creek)

1K 484 Highly elevated

Indiana maximum background Concentration

Wetland 1B

6

Pool 6 6A

6B

5

5.5

5

4

610 1500 -

344 7850 23.6 10.7

431 10393 26.5 9.6

377 9290 27.7 9.0

143 371 50.8 1.6

11.9 320 2 53 84 19000

14.5 59

2.6 38 150 45000

29 1.0 50 20 57000

28 38 26000

20.6 77 11 31 39 6300

5.7 23 1K 13 8

150 39000 0.40 250

150 1700 0.44 21 <0.5 130

259 3300 0.16 19 2800 1 495

109 574 0.10 16 1000K 1K 271

104 765 0.11 17 1000K 1K 267

* Units = mg/kg, unless specified; + K = less than detection value. Note: for Indiana, values with underline = low concern; values in the parenthesis = medium concern

Low concern

Low

Low

20 368 0.1K 5 1000K 1K 72 No

Table 52. Concluded

Parameter* Water depth,

1 ft

Phosphorus Kjeldahl nitrogen Solids, % wet Volatile solids, % Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Copper Iron Lead Manganese Mercury Nickel Potassium Silver Zinc Classification/ concern

7B

8

8A

Pool 8 8B

8C

Indiana background 9C concentration

Pool 9 8D

9

9A

9B

6.5

4

4.5

16

10

4

2

3

8

3

8

690 12670 20.1 14.3

170 798 44.1 4.9

154 860 44.4 2.6

591 5727 22.0 11.1

790 8105 17.2 20.1

121 144 66.2 1.0

96J 144 7.9 0.34

524 6084 24.3 11.3

1309 1677 19.6 24.0

632 1076 54.2 21.4

1331 5546 14.0 24.1

2.4 84 3 52 33000

5.0 27 1K 22 16 7600

5.3 17 1K 8 15 6200

7.4 47 1 31 64 18000

8.4 129 3 95 161 33000

1.6 5 1K 2 1K 2700

1.9 149 6 777 167 52000

6.1 64 2 29 56 19000

8.1 101 3 97 (1%) 34000

8.7 147 1K 56 66 19000

8.9 99 4 96 (247) 43000

28.1 144 2 51 113 56000

206 895 0.26 25 1000K 1K 543

48 527 0.1K 7 1000K 1K 116

29 287 0.1K 7 1000K 1K 85

142 246 10K 454 162 660 1800 126 1100 838 0.21 0.27 0.1K 0.34 0.12 18 23 5K 31 15 1000K 1000K 1000K 1000K 1000K 1K 1K 1K 1K 333 558 11 1100 394

388 774 0.80 43 1200 1K 870

294 919 0.1K 41 1000K 1K 283

361 728 0.98 50 1400 1K 932

135 648 0.44 32 1000K 1K 450

Low

No

No

Medium

Low

Medium

Low

108

1K

Pool 7 1A

Low

Low

No

Low

Low

* Units = mg/kg, unless specified; + K = less than detection value. Note: for Indiana, values with underline = low concern; values in the parenthesis = medium concern

5 1848 81K 20.5 16.4

610 1500

29 1.0 50 20 57000 150 1700 0.44 21 0.5 130

considered medium concern. Concentrations of lead and nickel at these two stations (9 and 9B) and mercury concentrations at 9B were all greater than two times the maximum background concentrations. Zinc concentrations in sediments collected from stations wetland IB, 6, 6 A, 8, 8A, 8D, 9, 9 A, 9B, and 9C were of "low concern." In Wolf Lake Channel, the concentrations of zinc at stations 9, 9B, and 9C are greater than, respectively, six, seven, and five times the maximum background concentration. Examination of tables 50a and 52 reveals that the concentrations of heavy metals in Pool 2 and Pool 7 sediments decreased since the earlier studies (1987, 1979, 1989). However, there were no changes, generally, in the heavy metals levels in Pools 3 and 8. Comparing Tables 50b and 52, one can conclude that the observed heavy metal concentrations in Wolf Lake sediments are comparable to the regional mean concentrations indicated by Wente (1994). Organic Compounds. Chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds consist of a group of pesticides that are no longer in use but are persistent in the environment. These compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordane, dieldrin, and DDT, present a somewhat unique problem in aquatic systems, due to their potential for bioaccumulation in fish in the food web. Organochlorine compounds are relatively insoluble in water but highly soluble in lipids where they are retained and accumulated. Minute and often undetectable concentrations of these compounds in water and sediment may ultimately pose a threat to aquatic life and then possibly to human health. The observed concentrations of tested organochlorine compounds are presented in table 53. In Illinois, standards for organochlorine compounds in lake sediments have not been developed. The Indiana maximum background levels for several compounds tested are listed in table 53, which shows that the majority of compounds in Wolf Lake sediments were below detection limits. Total and P,P'-DDT; P,P'-DDE; and P,P'-DDD were detected in Pools 1 through 7; however, concentrations were low and can be classified as nonelevated. Total PCBs were found at all locations sampled. On the Illinois side, they ranged from 27 micrograms per kilogram (ug/kg) at RHA 01 (Indian Creek) to 170 ug/kg at RHA-3 and RHA-4. On the Indiana side, very high concentrations of total PCBs (1,000 to 4,000 ug/kg) were found in the sediments at station 8A and four stations in Pool 9 (Wolf Lake Channel). Total PCBs at stations 9, 9A, and 9B were classified as "high concern;" at stations 7, 8A, 8C, 9C, and wetland 1B as "medium concern;" at stations 6, 6A, 7 A, 8, and wetland 1A as "low concern;" and at stations 6B, 7B, 8B, and 8D as "no concern." Sediment Classification and Concern. On the basis of sediment data on nutrients and heavy metals, classifications of lake sediment in Illinois and levels of concern in Indiana are also listed in table 52. In Illinois, only sediment at station 1A is classified as "below normal." For the purpose of this study, if at least three of 12 parameters evaluated at a station exceed the Illinois maximum normal concentrations, then sediment quality at the station will be considered "elevated;" otherwise that station will be classified as "normal." Thus, sediment qualities at stations 1, 2, 2A, 3A, 5A, and Indian Creek are classified as "normal." Sediment samples collected from 4A and 5B are considered "elevated." Four stations (3, 3B, 4, and 5) have "highly elevated" constituent concentrations in sediments. On the Indiana side of Wolf Lake, the quality of sediments collected from stations 6B, 7 A, 7B, and 8B falls in the category of "no concern." The sediment qualities for wetland 1B, 6, 6A, 8, 8A, 8D, 9 A, and 9C are classified as "low concern." In this study, the worst sediment characteristics were found at stations 9 and 9B, which are considered as "medium concern."

203

Table 53. Organic Concentrations in Wolf Lake Sediments (September 29-30, 1993)

204

Table 53. Concluded

205

As expected, sediment quality varied from location to location. The results of sediment data indicate that the deepest location of each pool exhibited the worst sediment quality, i.e., high concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals. TCLP Results. The cornerstone of safe waste management and disposal practices in determining whether or not the waste in question is considered "hazardous." The process of determining a waste's toxicity and subsequently classifying it as "hazardous" or "nonhazardous" involves various state-of-the-art analytical procedures. The Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Characteristics has been used for years. The TCLP was driven by the Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and its amendments. The "Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste" Rule was originally proposed in June 1986, designed to replace the EP Toxicity Characteristics. Over a four-year period, the USEPA has significantly changed the actual procedure; they replaced the EP Toxicity Test with the TCLP in 1990. The effective date of the TCLP rule for all large-quantity generators was September 25, 1990, and for all small-quantity generators was March 29, 1991. The TCLP test is designed to simulate the leaching action that would occur in a conventional municipal landfill and to give an indication of what contaminants might migrate to the ground water under these conditions. It consists of performing an extraction procedure on the sample using a weak acid (acetic) similar to what may be generated by organic decomposition in a municipal landfill. Allowable maximum levels for metals (and pesticides) in the leachate are set at 100 times the chronic toxicity reference level. This hundred-fold dilution is an arbitrary determination made by the USEPA in an attempt to account for the undetermined amount of dilution that the leachate would experience before reaching a ground-water source. Since the TCLP is designed to simulate landfill conditions, it is not indicative of the conditions in situ at the lake, but can only be taken as an indicator of whether or not the sediment (if dredged) could be taken to a conventional landfill. Furthermore, the final decision as to where the sediment can be disposed of would reside with each state's environmental protection authority. The TCLP test is intended to simulate the potential release of contaminants from sediments that might occur during dredging operations or be encountered in leachate from a disposal area of dredged lake sediment If solid waste such as sludge or, in this case, sediment is to be land-applied in such a manner that it will not be subjected to the leaching action experienced in a municipal landfill, then different criteria can be applied. For land application to agricultural land, the IEPA mandates maximum hydraulic application rates as well as total accumulation of metals and organics. States may apply these criteria to nonagricultural land if they have reason to believe that the land may someday revert to agricultural use. In most states, such application requires a permit and is decided on a case-by-case basis. The limitations on land application of the lake sediment in the same area would probably hinge on the high water table and/or the organic contaminant concentrations. Table 54 presents the concentration of metals determined by TCLP tests of ten sediment samples collected from six pools in Wolf Lake. PCBs and pesticides were not determined. Not all parameters determined were required by the regulatory agency; only five of 11 parameters are in the TCLP regulatory list (table 54). TCLP test concentrations of barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and silver were all under the regulatory limits for the ten sediments. In fact, most metal concentrations were below the detectable levels. The pH values of the sediments were acidic and ranged from 5.40 at station 9B to 6.50 at station 7B. If any dredging is to be conducted in a lake, the amount of nutrients removed with the lake sediments can be estimated using the collected data.

206

Table 54. Results of Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure for Wolf Lake Sediments, November 9, 1993

Parameter

3A

3B

5B

RHA-6

Station 7B 8A

RHA-9

9A

9B

9C 6.12 0.35 .005K 0.005 .005K

pH-final, units Barium Cadmium Chromium Copper

5.52 0.52 0.009 .005K .005K

6.29 6.39 0.53 0.46 .005K . .005K .005K .005K .005K .005K

6.13 0.34 .005K .005K .005K

6.50 0.27 .005K .005K .005K

6.48 0.43 005K 0.005 .005K

5.49 0.27 0.013 0.006 0.028

5.78 0.54 .005K .005K 0.007

5.40 0.25 0.022 005K 0.089

Iron Lead Manganese Nickel Silver Zinc

05K 0.17 4.7 0.026 .01K 1.7

.05K .05K 3.2 .015K .01K 0.28

.05K 05K 2.5 015K 01K 0.11

.05K .05K 3.0 .015K .01K 0.29

0.31 .05K 1.1 015K .01K 0.17

.05K .05K 8.6 .015 01K .34

0.11 0.24 2.6 0.060 .01K 4.0

0.19 .05K 12.3 0.034 01K 1.5

0.13 0.39 1.9 0.070 .01K 4.1

3.5

10

6

6

5.5

9

9

3

7

Water depth, feet

Note:

Parameters in mg/L unless otherwise noted.

207

Regulatory limit, mg/L

106.8 .05K 2.2 015K 01K .05K 4

100 1.0 5.0

5.0

5.0

Lakebed Characteristics. Lakebed conditions in Wolf Lake were evaluated by collecting samples of bed materials from the lake bottom through dredge sampling and shallow coring. This sampling was supplemented by probing of the lake bottom with a 1-inch-diameter pole. The bed material sampling indicated that in general the lakebed is composed of a sandy base material intermixed with fine and decomposed organic matter. In limited areas, the surface muck layer was thicker, particularly in Pool 5 and the Wolf Lake channel. The thickest deposits probed by the pole were 7 feet thick at the main sampling station in Wolf Lake Channel (RHA-9). Other probe measurements in the channel and Pool S indicated muck deposits ranging from 1 to 3.5 feet thick. Particle-size distributions of the bed material samples are plotted in smaller sets by lake segments in figures 18a-18f (the legends for these plots also list applicable unit weights for these samples where available). These analyses show that bed materials range from sandy silt to silty sand. The figures portray the particle size distribution for the inorganic portion of the samples: no organic content analysis was done for this sample set. Unit weight values below 30 pounds per cubic foot are generally associated with materials of high organic content. At Wolf Lake, these low unit weights are associated with unusually coarse particle-size fractions. Based on particle-size distribution, unit weight values, and field observations, the Wolf Lake bed materials appear to be highly organic material that has mixed with the original glacial sand deposits. Where the organic muck layer is thicker, fine grit is still found either from atmospheric deposition or in-lake resuspension and transport of sand materials. Lake Budgets Hydrologic Budget The hydrologic budget of Wolf Lake or any other lake system takes the general form: Storage change = Inflows - outflows In general, inflows to the lake include direct precipitation, watershed runoff, ground-water inflow, and pumped input. Outflows include surface evaporation, discharge at the lake outlet, ground-water outflow, and withdrawals. For Wolf Lake, withdrawals are not a factor. Various parameters necessary to develop a hydrologic budget for Wolf Lake were monitored for a one-year period (October 1992 to September 1993) during the diagnostic phase of the project. Table 55 presents monthly results of this monitoring for the total lake system. Figure 19 presents continuous stage plots for the Pool 1, Pool 3, and Pool 8 staff gages and water-level recorders. All other staff gage readings fell in the generally narrow range between the Pool 3 and Pool 8 levels and are not presented. The most significant water-level drops occured at State Line Road with an occasional significant drop at the railroad culvert. Changes in basin storage were estimated by multiplying the monthly change in lake stage (recorded during the diagnostic monitoring site visits) by the lake surface area to determine net monthly inflow or outflow volume in acre-feet. Inputs to the lake system are the NPDES permit discharges, direct watershed runoff, and direct precipitation on the lake surface. Discharges for the NPDES sites were determined using the monthly reporting system under the permitting program. Discharges for all of the permitteedischarges are estimated on a monthly basis by the permit holder and reported to the IDEM. These discharges are listed for each permitted discharge in table 55. Most of the overland

208

a. SITE: Wolf Lake Pools 1 DATE: July 6, 1994 COLLECTED BY: Bill Bogner, Tim Nathan ANALYZED BY: Yi Han DATE: September.October 1994 PROJECT: Wolf Lake Clean Lakes Phase I COMMENTS:

b. SITE: Wolf Lake Pools 2 and 3 DATE: July 6, 1994 COLLECTED BY: Bill Bogner, Tim Nathan ANALYZED BY: Yi Han DATE: September.October 1994 PROJECT: Wolf Lake Clean Lakes Phase I COMMENTS:

Figure 18. Particle size distribution plots for Wolf Lake pools

209

C. SITE: Wolf Lake Pools 4 and 5 DATE: July 6, 1994 COLLECTED BY: Bill Bogner, Tim Nathan ANALYZED BY: Yi Han DATE: September, October 1994 PROJECT: Wolf Lake Clean Lakes Phase I COMMENTS:

d. SITE: Wolf Lake Pools 6 and 7 DATE: July 6, 1994 COLLECTED BY: Bill Bogner, Tim Nathan ANALYZED BY: Yi Han DATE: September, October 1994 PROJECT: Wolf Lake Clean Lakes Phase I COMMENTS:

Figure 18. Continued

210

e. SITE: Wolf Lake Pools 8 and 9 DATE: July 6, 1994 COLLECTED BY:Bill Bogner, Tim Nathan ANALYZED BY: Yi Han DATE: September .October 1994 PROJECT: Wolf Lake Clean Lakes Phase I COMMENTS:

f.

SITE: Wolf Lake All Data DATE: July 6, 1994 COLLECTED BY:Bill Bogner, Tim Nathan ANALYZED BY: Yi Han DATE: September.October 1994 PROJECT: Wolf Lake Clean Lakes Phase I COMMENTS:

Figure 18. Concluded

211

Table 55.

Month October

Monthly Summary of NPDES Discharges to Wolf Lake in acre-feet, October 1992-September 1993 Roby Station

Forsythe Park Station

Sheffield Avenue Station

Lever Brothers

American Maize

All NPDES discharges

8

27

3

633

431

1,103

November

15

54

14

572

500

1,156

December

15

42

10

498

629

1,194

January

23

368

24

504

419

1,339

February

12

133

5

435

432

1,018

March

17

225

16

500

255

1,012

April

18

284

16

450

608

1,377

May

13

119

6

420

643

1,201

June

48

655

79

498

622

1,903

July

23

234

13

496

496

1,261

August

24

239

16

519

632

1,429

September

24

323

22

540

528

1.437

212

Figure 19. Water-level variation and differentials in the Wolf Lake system

213

stormwater discharge to the lake is included in the Hammond Park District stormwater pumping station reports. Direct watershed surface runoff rates were not measured during this study. Surface inflow volume was evaluated by using the daily precipitation rates from the two raingage sites as inputs to the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) watershed runoff algorithm. For this analysis, a Curve Number value of 50 was used for the 925 acres of pervious surfaces that drain directly to the lake. It was determined that there are no significant areas of impervious surfaces in the watershed that are not artificially drained. Results indicated that the direct inflow to the lake occurred during June and August 1993. These runoff values have been added as noted in table 56. The volume of direct precipitation input to the lake is based on the monthly precipitation data for the Hammond Sanitary District raingage at the Robertsdale pump station and an Illinois State Water Survey raingage located on the property of Grayco Corporation on Highway O, 0.5 miles north of Frank Powers State Park. The precipitation data from these two stations were averaged and the depth was multiplied by the lake surface area to determine inflow volume in acre-feet. Monthly evaporation rates are the long-term average monthly evaporation rates for Chicago as presented by Roberts and Stall (1967). These rates do not vary significantly from year to year, and they are representative of normal lake evaporation rates in the area. Monthly lake surface evaporation volume was determined for the study period by multiplying the long-term average monthly evaporation depth by the lake surface area. A budget of the amount of ground water flowing into and out of each pool of Wolf Lake was developed using Darcy's Law, which states that flow is proportional to hydraulic conductivity (permeability), gradient, and cross-sectional area. The hydraulic conductivity was assumed to be 75 feet per day (ft/d) based on slug tests, flow-net analysis from the wells clustered around well 26, and the modeling efforts of Fenelon and Watson (1993). The hydraulic conductivity was lowered to 50 ft/d near wells 28 and BH-8 based on lower values from slug tests. Because the vertical permeability of the aquifer was lower than the horizontal permeability, the gradients calculated for the wells within 400 feet of the aquifer were reduced to reflect the true gradient based upon the relationship found around well 26. The net ground-water inflow was computed to be 781 acre-feet per year or 1.08 cubic feet per second (cfs). This estimate closely matches estimates by Fenelon and Watson (1993) of 1.0 cfs and 2.2 cfs for cases in their regional computer model in which the hydraulic conductivity was assigned values of 50 ft/d and 100 ft/d, respectively. Table 57 summarizes the hydrologic budget on a monthly basis for the one-year monitoring period. During this period, total measured inflow to the lake was 19,350 acre-feet and was distributed as shown in table 57. For the purpose of comparing inflow volumes to and outflow volumes from the lake system, it was assumed that outflow volume combined with an overall increase in storage for the study period should be exactly equal to the inflow volume. A listing of the distribution of outflow and storage factors is given in table 57. In this analysis the unaccounted factor has been allocated to the outflow portion of the flow balance. It can be treated as a positive factor since calculated inflows exceeded calculated outflows and storage. This factor is more correctly considered as an unbalanced sum of error factors for all measured, estimated, or unmeasured inflow and outflow values. All of the flow values in this analysis contain an error factor, and several known small inflows could not be adequately monitored. The flow volume estimate for Amaizo discharge 6 (inflow 12 for this study) appears to be substantially overestimated. This flow is a discharge of excess Lake Michigan water that is 214

Table 56. Annual Summary of the Hydrologic Budget for Wolf Lake, October 1992-September 1993

Source

Inflow volume, acre-feet

Outflow volume. acre-feet

Inflow percent

Lever NPDES discharge

6,063

30%

Hammond Sanitary District pump stations

3,170

16%

American Maize NPDES discharge

6,196

31%

115

1%

3,806

19%

781

4%

Direct watershed runoff Direct precipitation fall on lake surface Ground-water inflow

Indian Creek Lake surface evaporation Pool storage Unaccounted factors Total

20,131

215

Outflow percent

12,851

66%

2,509

13%

452

2%

4,320

19%

20,132

Table 57.

Summary of the Hydrologic Analysis for the Wolf Lake System, October 1992-September 1993

Month

Inflow from NPDES sites

October

Outflow at Indian Creek

Evaporation

Storage change

Net inflow

Unaccounted inflow (+); outflow (-)

Precipitation

Ground-water inflow

1,103

52

53

1,230

155

70

-177

247

November

1,156

326

92

1,190

66

144

318

-174

December

1,194

228

117

1,082

29

74

427

-354

January

1,339

283

39

1,414

29

54

217

-164

February

1,018

47

64

994

48

-96

87

-183

March

1,012

344

83

1,021

113

124

305

-181

April

1,377

231

66

1,016

213

86

445

-359

May

1,201

124

61

953

334

-329

98

-427

June*

1,903

1,068

60

1,315

414

767

1,356

-589

July

1,261

197

38

1,112

468

-766

-83

-683

August*

1,429

530

56

729

382

263

965

-702

September

1,437

376

52

796

257

61

813

-752

15,430

3,806

781

12,852

2,508

452

4,771

-4,321

Annual Note:

All units in acre-feet June and August net inflow increased by 53.7 and 61.7, respectively, for direct surface runoff

216

withdrawn for plant usage but not used in the plant. The discharge volume to Wolf Lake is not closely monitored and the resulting estimates are questionable. Since the quality of Lake Michigan water is presumed to be far superior to the quality of Wolf Lake water, the impact of this discharge is positive for Wolf Lake regardless of volume. Its impact on this hydrologic balance analysis may be the large unaccounted flow volume and the possible hiding of other small flow factors. A separate hydrologic analysis was prepared for the lake section from the Toll Road to Indian Creek. This analysis is based completely on parameters that were physically measured during the field data collection phase of the study without influence from the NPDES permit discharge tallies. Table 58 presents the results of this analysis using the measured flows at the Indiana East-West Toll Road opening as input, Indian Creek flows as output, and precipitation and evaporation as previously described. This analysis greatly reduces the unaccounted system flows. Annually, less than five percent of the Pool 1-7 outflow was unaccounted. The greatest unaccounted volume was less than 25 percent of total outflow for the month of August 1993. Interpool flow patterns were evaluated to better define the hydrologic operation of the lake system. The lake was divided into five discrete basins on the basis of the available interpool discharge measurements at the Indiana East-West Toll Road, State Line Road, the Indiana Harbor Belt Railroad causeways, and Pool 1, which has no direct connection to the other lake pools. The hydrologic operation of each of these pool segments is summarized in tables 59a-e. Of these segmental pool analyses, the analysis for Pool 1 (table 59a) is obviously the simplest and least subject to unaccounted flows because of limited or no surface inflows. All the other pool analyses are subject to uncertainty in the number of inflow and outflow measurements and errors associated with extrapolating these limited data to monthly discharges. Much of the unaccounted flow can be traced to limitations in the NPDES flow estimates and the monthly and bimonthly flow measurements between pools. The water balance for Pools 8 and 9 (table 59b) is very poor. This accounting includes all of the NPDES discharges as inflows and the flow under the Indiana Toll Road as an outflow. Given the highway's width, the presumption of a well-compacted base for the highway, and the low head differential between Pools 8 and 7, it is assumed that the highway causeway has a very low permeabilty.The main reason for the imbalance is presumed to be the inadequate accounting of the Lake Michigan overflow from the Amaizo NPDES discharge. The estimated discharge of 6.48 mgd for significant periods of time is believed to be greatly exaggerated since this discharge was never observed to operate during the 17 lake monitoring visits. No other discrepancies in the inflows or outflows to Pools 8 and 9 were apparent. For Pools 6 and 7 (table 59c), the flow from the Toll Road is the only inflow and flow at the State Line Road opening the only outflow. The fill materials and compaction used in constructing the road causeway are suspected of allowing leakage into Pools 4 and 5. Since the nature of the unaccounted flow for these pools alternates between inflows and outflows, it is presumed that the source of the discrepancies is in the accuracy of the individual elements of the estimates, primarily the extrapolation of the measured discharges to monthly values. For Pools 4 and 5 (table 59d) the State Line Road opening is the inflow and the railroad culvert is the outflow. Some additional inflow is likely from the area on the east side of Pool 4 where drainage from a wetland area and the Federal Surplus Commodities Facility enters the lake system. Small amounts of flow were observed from these sites on an intermittent basis, but were not measured. Potential leakage from the State Line Road causeway was discussed previously and would be an additional source of inflow to the pools. The causeway for the railroad along the west side of these pools is a very likely source of additional leakage out of the pools. Details about the construction of this causeway are not known, but numerous low points provide 217

Table 58.

Summary of the Hydrologic Analysis for Pools 1-7 of the Wolf Lake System, October 1992-September 1993

Month

Toll Road inflow

Precipitation

October

1,015

33

47

November

982

203

December

836

Outflow at Indian creek

Evaporation

Storage change

Net inflow

Unaccounted inflow (+); outflow (-)

1,230

97

39

-233

272

55

1,190

41

81

9

73

142

80

1,082

18

63

-42

106

1,144

176

69

1,414

18

64

-43

107

February

778

29

57

994

30

-65

-160

95

March

947

215

70

1,021

70

89

141

-51

April

786

144

61

1,016

133

34

-158

192

May

729

77

52

953

208

-236

-303

68

June*

1,729

665

61

1,315

258

534

936

-402

July

1,038

123

44

1,112

292

-540

-199

-341

August*

823

330

44

729

238

128

292

-164

September

923

235

53

796

160

110

255

-145

11,729

2,372

692

12,851

1,564

302

494

-192

January

Annual

Ground-water inflow

Note: All units in acre-feet June and August net inflow increased by 53.7 and 61.7, respectively, for direct surface runoff

218

Table 59a. Summary of the Hydrologic Analysis for Pool 1 of the Wolf Lake System, October 1992-September 1993

Unaccounted inflow (+); outflow (-)

Precipitation 6

17

17

20

6

14

November

35

18

7

18

45

-28

December

24

19

3

22

41

-19

January

30

9

3

33

36

-4

February

5

-1

5

10

-1

11

March

37

2

12

10

27

-17

April

25

-11

23

25

-9

34

May

13

-21

36

-28

-44

16

June

115

-3

45

78

67

11

July

21

-27

50

-70

-56

-14

August

57

-36

41

-25

-20

-5

September

40

-4

28

2

9

-7

409

-38

270

94

101

-7

Month

Inflow

October

Annual

Outflow

Note: All units in acre-feet

219

Evaporation

Storage change

Net inflow

Ground-water inflow

Table 59b. Summary of the Hydrologic Analysis for Pools 8 and 9 of the Wolf Lake System, October 1992-September 1993

Month

Inflow from NPDES sites

Precipitation

Ground-water inflow

Outflow at Toll Road Culvert Evaporation

Storage change

Net inflow

Unaccounted inflow (+); outflow (-)

October

1,103

20

7

1,015

58

31

56

-25

November

1,156

123

37

982

25

63

309

-246

December

1,194

86

37

836

11

10

470

-459

January

1,339

107

-31

1,144

11

-10

260

-271

February

1,018

18

7

778

18

-31

247

-278

March

1,012

130

12

947

43

35

165

-130

April

1,377

87

5

786

80

52

602

-550

May

1,201

47

10

729

126

-94

402

-495

June

1,903

402

1,729

156

233

420

-187

July

1,261

74

-5

1,038

176

-226

116

-342

August

1,429

200

12

823

144

135

673

-538

September

1,437

142

-1

923

97

-49

558

-607

15,429

1,434

89

11,729

945

149

4,278

-4,128

Annual

Note: All units in acre-feet

220

Table 59c. Summary of the Hydrologic Analysis for Pools 6 and 7 of the Wolf Lake System, October 1992-September 1993

Inflow at Toll Road

Precipitation

1,015

7

-21

910

November

982

43

-21

December

836

30

1,144

February

Unaccounted inflow (+); outflow (-)

Storage change

Net inflow

20

10

70

-60

881

9

21

114

-94

-13

990

4

6

-140

146

37

-8

1,101

4

-6

68

-74

778

6

-12

866

6

-7

-101

93

March

947

45

-9

898

15

5

70

-65

April

786

30

-5

809

28

-2

-26

24

May

729

16

-11

873

44

-16

-183

167

June

1,729

141

-6

1,570

55

69

239

-170

July

1,038

26

-5

1,053

62

-77

-57

-20

August

823

70

-24

739

50

16

79

-64

September

923

50

9

824

34

16

123

-107

11,729

501

-127

11,514

330

34

258

-224

Month October

January

Annual

Ground-water inflow

Outflow at Stateline Road

Note: All units in acre-feet

221

Evaporation

Table 59d. Summary of the Hydrologic Analysis for Pools 4 and 5 of the Wolf Lake System, October 1992-September 1993

Month

Inflow at State Line

Precipitation

Ground-water inflow

Outflow at Indian Creek

Evaporation

Storage change

Net inflow

Unaccounted inflow (+); outflow (-)

43

-43

October

910

10

19

867

29

November

881

60

20

839

12

15

110

-95

December

990

42

18

830

5

17

214

-197

1,101

52

10

1,051

5

15

106

-90

February

866

9

23

766

9

-31

123

-154

March

898

64

18

805

21

32

153

-120

April

809

43

25

780

39

-7

58

-65

May

873

23

31

867

62

-72

-2

-70

June

1,570

197

18

1,405

77

165

304

-138

July

1,053

36

32

1,067

86

-174

-33

-141

August

739

98

22

690

71

34

99

-65

September

824

70

17

726

48

66

137

-71

11,514

703

252

10,695

463

63

1,311

-1,248

January

Annual

Note: All units in acre-feet

222

Table 59e.

Summary of the Hydrologic Analysis for Pools 2 and 3 of the Wolf Lake System, October 1992-September 1993

Precipitation

Ground-water inflow

Outflow at Indian Creek

867

10

32

November

839

65

December

830

Inflow at Railroad

October

Unaccounted inflow (+); outflow (-)

Evaporation

Storage change

Net inflow

1,230

31

9

-351

360

38

1,190

13

28

-261

288

45

56

1,082

6

18

-157

175

1,051

56

59

1,414

6

22

-253

275

February

766

9

47

994

10

-37

-181

144

March

805

69

60

1,021

23

42

-109

152

April

813

46

53

1,016

42

18

-147

165

May

867

25

53

953

67

-120

-75

-46

June

1,405

213

51

1,315

83

222

272

-51

July

1,067

39

45

1,112

93

-220

-54

-166

August

690

106

81

729

76

103

72

31

September

726

75

49

796

51

26

3

23

10,728

759

623

12,851

500

111

-1,241

1,352

Month

January

Annual

Note: All units in acre-feet

223

opportunity for leakage through the ballast stone of the railbed itself. All of the unaccounted flows for this pool area indicate additional outflow from the pools. Since several potential sources of undocumented inflows have been noted it should be assumed that leakage through the railroad causeway is probably underestimated given the unaccounted outflows. For Pools 2 and 3 (table 59e) the railroad culvert is the only inflow point and Indian Creek is the only outflow point. Inflow from the Powderhorn Lake area passes through a 12-inchdiameter culvert under 136th Street, then through a small wetland strip before entering the southeast corner of Pool 3. During the storm event in early June 1993, the roadway at 136th Street flooded. Under the flooded conditions, flow moved in both directions at different times. The probable leakage of the railroad causeway was discussed previously and would act as an additional inflow to these two pools. The western side of the pools is composed of relatively undisturbed original soil materials and is not a likely source for major inflow or outflow seepage. The relatively high unaccounted inflow values from October 1992 to April 1993 as compared to the last five months of the monitoring period have not been explained. Overall, this analysis indicates that: ■ ■ ■ ■

The NPDES permitted discharges are essential to maintaining flows through the lake system. In general, the continuous daily discharges from the Lever Brothers and Amaizo plants maintain a flow of 13 to 17 cfs through the lake. The questionable accuracy of the Amaizo plant's excess Lake Michigan water discharge is significant in achieving a hydrologic balance on paper but is not a water quality concern as long as the water is unadulterated Lake Michigan water. Leakage of the causeways that compartmentalize the lake are likely a factor in the sometimes poorly balanced hydrologic analysis.

Sediment and Nutrient Budgets The results of the hydrologic budget of the lake were combined with an analysis of the sediment and nutrient concentrations in the inflowing and outflowing water to estimate sediment and nutrient budgets for the lake. For each of the inflow and outflow sources for the lake a monthly data table was prepared to show water flow volume and the representative monthly concentrations of the major nutrients and suspended sediment from samples collected during the monitoring period. When multiple samples were collected during a monthly period, samples were averaged. When no sample data were collected during a monthly period, an annual average value was used. Site 12 (Amaizo discharge 6) was never observed to run during the site visits and could not be sampled. Water quality data for the city of Hammond's water intake were substituted to represent an unadulterated Lake Michigan source for the water. Table 60 presents a summary of the measurable-source sediment and nutrient loading into and out of the lake. Site 1 is the outflow from the lake at Indian Creek, and all other sites are inflows to the lake. Evaporation, pool storage, and the "unaccounted" outflow make up the 33 percent of the lake outflow not passed by Indian Creek and were not included in the sediment nutrient analysis. All of the loading values noted in table 60 are very low for a lake of this size. Annual loading of suspended sediment is unmeasurable in terms of sediment deposition on the lakebed.

224

Table 60. Annual Sediment and Nutrient Loading to Wolf Lake

American Maize Lake Michigan excess NPDES discharges

Indian Creek outflow

Lever NPDES discharge

Roby Station NPDES discharge

12,851

6,063

241

2,705

224

242

5,954

3.806

19.235

5,530

499

671

3,344

635

273

1,618

6,183

13,224

Kjeldahl nitrogen, (pounds)

18,399

6,986

792

7,481

1,218

188

0

Nitrate-nitrite-N, (pounds)

5,061

4,635

188

7,274

616

145

3.776

9.748

26,382

Total phosphorous, (pounds)

503

287

74

1,022

92

30

971

1,737

4.212

Total solids, (tons)

91.6

71.9

20.3

86.0

28.7

2.2

0.0

209.1

Volatile solids, (tons)

57.9

15.3

7.1

33.9

6.2

0.6

0.0

63.1

Monthly discharge

66.8

31.5

1.3

14.1

1.2

1.3

31.0

19.8

Ammonia-ammonium-N

41.8

3.8

5.1

25.3

4.8

2.1

12.2

46.8

Kjeldahl nitrogen

110.4

41.9

4.8

44.9

7.3

1.1

Nitrate-nitrite-N

19.2

17.6

0.7

27.6

2.3

0.5

14.3

37.0

Total phosphorous

11.9

6.8

1.8

24.3

2.2

0.7

23.1

41.2

Total solids

43.8

34.4

9.7

41.1

13.7

1.0

Volatile solids

91.7

24.2

11.3

53.7

9.8

1.0

Parameter Annual discharge, (acre-feet) Ammonia-ammonium-N, (pounds)

Sheffield Avenue Station NPDES discharge

American Maize small volume NPDES discharges

Forsythe Park Station NPDES discharge

Direct precipitation

Totals

16.665

Sediment and nutrient loads as a percent of total input

For assessing the internal regeneration of nutrients from lake bottom sediments, reliance was placed on values reported in the literature. 2 USEPA's Clean Lakes Program Guidance Manual (1980) suggests values of 0.5 to 5 g/m /year under aerobic conditions and 10 to 20 g/m2/year under anaerobic conditions. Nurnberg (1984) compiled and reported phosphorus release rates in anoxic and oxic core tubes for lake sediments of several lakes. The release rates 2 under anoxic conditions are reported to vary from 1.2 to 34.3 mg/m /day and under oxic conditions to vary from -16.0 to 15.0 mg/m2/day for the same sediments. The negative release rates are indicative of adsorption of phosphorus to sediments under aerobic conditions. Generally, phosphorus release rates were found to be 2 to 10 times higher under anoxic conditions compared to under aerobic conditions for the same core sediments. Analyses of Wolf Lake bottom sediments except those of Wolf Lake Channel indicate that phosphorus concentrations were below the levels found in other lake sediments (table 52). Assuming a phosphorus release rate of 2 mg/m2/day for the aerobic conditions that prevailed in the lake, phosphorus loading to the lake due to internal regeneration is 1,500 pounds/year. The release rate assumed for Wolf lake is in the mid-range of values reported by Nurnberg and the low end of the range suggested in USEPA's Clean Lakes manual. The contribution of phosphorus from internal regeneration during summer months to the total lake loading was computed as 1,500 pounds which is significant (26.3 percent) taking into account all the other sources of phosphorus to the lake. The total annual phosphorus loading to the lake was found to be 0.69 g/m2. Vollenweider (1968) suggested that for lakes with2 mean depths of 5 meters (16.4 feet) or less, a permissible level of phosphorus loading is 0.07 g/m /year. For the same average depth, loading rate greater than 0.13 g/m2/year2 is considered excessive from the point of view of eutrophication. The actual level of 0.69 g?m /year for Wolf Lake is about fivefold higher than the critical level. It should be pointed out that the phosphorus input to the lake from natural causes (precipitation and internal regeneration) account for 57 percent of the total. A more significant factor in analyzing the loadings to the lake may be the localized impact of the discharges to the Amaizo/Wolf Lake Channel area. In an area that includes only two percent of the lake surface area and less than two percent of the volume, 99 percent of the inflow to the lake is discharged. This concentration of inflows to the lake increases the sedimentation rate in the channel area to a still small 0.01 foot per year, but significantly increases the impact of nutrient loading. This impact may be slightly reduced by the high flow rates and resulting low retention time in the channel.

BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES AND ECOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS Lake Fauna Detailed and systematic records of the fisheries management efforts are available from the Illinois Department of Natural Resources. These records provide details of periodic fish population surveys, installation offish attractors, macrophyte surveys, herbicide applications, fish kills, fish stocking, etc. The annual reports summarize major activities such as fish population surveys, and stocking, and make recommendations for fisheries management for the following year. In one of the fish surveys conducted on June 18-21, 1974, by the IDOC, 829 fish representing 21 species were collected. Game species included bluegill, yellow perch, largemouth bass, crappie, northern pike, and channel catfish. The types and percent distribution of fish 226

collected during this survey were: bluegill, 34.0; alewife, 22.6; yellow perch, 12.6; golden shiner, 8.6; warmouth, 4.2; largemouth bass, 4.1; pumpkinseed sunfish, 3.9; gizzard shad, 3.0; carp, 1.8; black bullhead, 0.9; longear sunfish, 0.7; common shiner, 0.7; northern pike, 0.6; yellow bullhead, 0.5; grass pickerel, 0.5; lake chubsucker, 0.5; green sunfish, 0.4; black crappie, 0.2; bowfin, 0.1; bluntnose minnow, 0.1; and channel catfish, 0.1. The lake system is known to have desirable underwater structures conducive to good fisheries. In a 1975 article, Don Natonski, an avid fisherman, observes that "[Wolf Lake] has many weedy bars with some sheltered weedy bays which provide good spawning ground for northern pike. Most of the bottom is covered by a soft, black muck which rapidly changes to hard sand and rock bars with a lot of gravel, especially at the north end of the Illinois side of Wolf Lake . . . . There are a few exceptionally good bars having weed growth called tobacco and broad leaf cabbage associated with other good changing types of weed growth running down to the deepest water. These bars provide excellent northern pike and bass fishing all year long." Historical records indicate that there were two fish kills in the past 20 years. The first was in April 1975, with an estimated 1,958 fish killed for a total value of about $680.00. Fish species observed in the kill were largemouth bass, bluegill, pumpkinseed, black crappie, warmouth, brown bullhead, black bullhead, alewife, gizzard shad, and carp. The cause of the fish kill was undetermined. The second fish kill was reported in April 1982 and was attributed to industrial discharge from the Wolf Lake terminals, adjacent to Wolf Lake in Indiana. The IDOC/Division of Fisheries Wolf Lake Supplemental Survey, dated April 17, 1982, states that "an inspection of the area revealed numerous dead carp along the shoreline of section G. These fish appeared to have been dead for a considerable period of time; all fish were severely decomposed. An inspection of the east shoreline of section F revealed only two dead gizzard shad near the wooden walk bridge. No other relatively fresh dead or moribund fish were observed." A newspaper article (Anon., appendix H) reports on the significant fishing success in Wolf Lake. According to the article, the lake was known to provide for better fishing in terms of numbers of fish caught than another area lake long regarded as a premier bass fishing lake. Fishing pressure was heavy, more than 600 person-hours per acre. More than 98 percent of the anglers came from within a radius of 25 miles. Fishermen managed to catch an average of 0.69 fish per hour; a catch rate of 0.5 fish per hour is regarded by fishery biologists as indicative of decent fishing when that catch rate is reflective of all fishermen at a lake over an entire summer. The 1982 annual report by the IDOC district fishery biologist (file copy) indicates that heavy algal blooms reduced and limited macrophyte plant growth, and that unseasonable weather encountered during the fall survey reduced sampling efficiency, resulting in a poor sample. However, the report noted that spawning success was relatively good for largemouth bass as evidenced by a substantial number of fingerlings collected. The 1983 IDOC annual report (file copy) indicates an improved sampling efficiency and notes that the most significant change in the fishery over the previous four years was the deterioration of bluegill, crappie, and northern pike populations due primarily to habitat degradation. It also notes that the largemouth bass fishery benefitted as evidenced by an improvement in spawning success and the recruitment of quality size fish. Fish surveys carried out during 1989 to 1992 lead to the general conclusion that largemouth bass continue to be the dominant sports fish population followed by bluegill, yellow perch, other centrarchids, and channel catfish. Gizzard shad remained the dominant forage species.

227

Austen et al. (1993) listed nongame fish found in Wolf Lake were alewife, bluntnose minnow, emerald shiner, gizzard shad, golden shiner, goldfish, grass pickerel, Johnny darter, lake chubsucker, orangespotted sunfish, and pumpkinseed. The Illinois portion of Wolf Lake has been stocked every year since 1975. Appendix I summarizes the fish stocking record for the period 1963 to 1992, giving the date of stocking; number, size, and type offish; and the location of stocking. Walleye, northern pike, and channel catfish were the species stocked in large numbers. Use of Christmas trees as fish attractors has been practiced in the Illinois portion of the lake. The 1985 JDOC annual report indicates that nine Christmas tree fish attractors were installed in Pools 2 and 3 in an effort to enhance existing natural cover. Each attractor consisted of six to ten trees bundled together, weighted, and installed at depths between 10 and 15 feet beyond the range of anglers. Records of the fishery biologists at the Indiana Department of Natural Resources indicate that fisheries surveys were carried out in Wolf Lake in 1969, 1974, 1977, and 1987. During the August 4-8, 1969, survey, a total of 1,113 fish (25 species) were examined. Relative abundance (in percent) of the major species were: bluegill, 26.3; alewife, 19.9; yellow perch, 14.5; golden shiner, 11.7; largemouth bass, 6.5; pumpkinseed, 5.8; warmouth, 3.8; black crappie, 3.5; and carp, 2.5. Additional fish of importance included hybrid sunfish, bullheads, northern pike, walleye, sauger, and channel catfish. The survey summary concluded that submersed aquatic weeds were present in some locally dense beds. The waters entering the lake from the Wolf Lake Channel exhibited color and offensive odor. Although many people complained that fish from Wolf Lake had disagreeable taste, fish sampled at the time of the survey were found to be edible. However, this did not eliminate the possibility that some fish may have had a bad flavor. During the June 18-21, 1974, fish survey, a total of 829 fish (21 species) were examined. Relative abundance of the major species (in percent) were: bluegill, 34.0; alewife, 22.6; yellow perch, 12.6; golden shiner, 8.6; warmouth, 4.2; largemouth bass, 4.1; pumpkinseed, 3.9; gizzard shad, 3.0; and carp, 1.8. Additional fish of importance included bullhead (both black and yellow), northern pike, black crappie, and channel catfish. Similar information is available for the 1977 and 1987 fish surveys. In 1987, the Wolf Lake fish population was dominated by nongame fish. Alewife, gizzard shad, carp, and golden shiner made up 66 and 58 percent of the fish collected by number and weight, respectively. In 1977, these four species accounted for 71 and 74 percent of the fish collected by number and weight. Despite the abundance of nongame fish, Wolf Lake continues to support fishing as a recreational resource. Fisheries records indicate that 10,000 northern pike fingerlings were stocked during May 1976 and 7,180 channel catfish varying in lengths from 6 to 10 inches were stocked during September 1977. Fish Flesh Analyses The primary concern in fish flesh analyses regards the possibility of the bioaccumulation of toxic substances like mercury, organochlorine, and other organochemicals in fish, which may prove detrimental to higher forms of life in the food chain, including humans, the ultimate consumers. In taking a preventive approach, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has adopted cancer risk assessment guidelines as well as guidelines for other health effects. To protect the public from such long-term health effects, states have used the FDA guidelines to

228

establish threshold concentrations for organics and metals in fish tissues above which an advisory will be issued that the fish not be consumed. The federal action levels are: Federal Action Levels (parts per million)

Contaminants Heptachlor epoxide PCBs Chlordane Total DDT Dieldrin Mercury

0.3 2.0 0.3 5.0 0.3 1.0

Table 61 (file copies, Illinois Department of Conservation) provides details of past fish flesh analyses carried out on Wolf Lake fish including fish species, weight, type of sample, and individual weight. Fish flesh samples were analyzed for pesticides, organochlorines, and mercury. Species offish examined were black crappies, bluegills, carp, largemouth bass, and northern pike. The highest concentrations of total DDT, PCBs, and mercury were 0.80, 0.84, and 0.30 parts per million, respectively. These were all well below the federal action levels. Other parameters for which analyses were reported showed values at or below their detection limits. The levels of mercury, pesticides, and other organochemicals found in the fish flesh samples were not cause for concern. Data for fish flesh analyses of fish samples (whole carp and carp fillets without skin) collected on June 16, 1982, and reported by Bureau of Laboratories, Indiana State Board of Health dated August 8, 1983, are included in appendix G. Results are reported for pesticides and other organic compounds. DDT was not detected and PCB concentrations in whole samples were within limits. Also, data for fish flesh analyses of whole fish samples (carp, largemouth bass, and white bass) collected from Wolf Lake Channel, east basin, and west basin on July 16, 1986 are included in appendix G. Analyses for metals, pesticides, extractable organic compounds (acid, base, and neutral), PCBs; and other organic compounds are reported. Again, PCBs, DDT, dieldrin, and mercury levels were lower than the regulatory limits. Terrestrial Vegetation and Animal Life A wealth of information is available on local plant, animal, and avian life, prepared by TAMS Consultants, Inc. (1991) as part of the site selection report for the proposed IllinoisIndiana regional airport. The inventory of natural and cultural resources prepared by TAMS is based on available existing data and field data collected over a one-year period at five of the proposed sites. The information in this segment of the report was gleaned from the TAMS report (1991). Information pertaining to avian life is the only item specific to Wolf Lake; whereas plant and animal life information pertains to Wolf Lake and Eggers Woods. Plant Communities The vegetation existing at the sites of interest was categorized into ten community types: forest, prairie, savanna, dune complex, wetland, open water, primary, cave, and cultural and urban types of vegetation or land use. Field inventories of vegetation emphasized the forest, prairie, savanna, dune complex, and wetland community types, plus selected cultural and urban community classes. The community classes associated with Eggers Woods and Wolf Lake are 229

Table 61. Results of Fish Contaminant Analyses from Wolf Lake

Date 2/10/78

5/4/82

9/7/88 10/8/92

Species BKS BKS BKS BKS BGS BGS BGS BGS BGS C C C C C LMB LMB LMB LMB LMB NP NP NP NP NP C C C LMB LMB LMB CHC CHC CHC NP C C CHC C LMB

Weight, pounds 0.11 0.16 0.22 0.11 0.26 0.30 0.16 0.16 0.11 6.50 9.75 3.53 3.10 2.25 4.90 0.45 1.40 2.35 3.52 8.75 5.75 2.70 6.75 1.60 4.78 2.36 1.18 1.82 1.20 0.44 2.72 1.62 0.49 7.75 3.54 3.47 1.14 5.13 1.75

Type of sample

Dieldrin

Fillet Fillet Fillet Fillet Fillet Fillet Fillet Fillet Fillet Fillet Fillet Fillet Fillet Fillet Fillet Fillet Fillet Fillet Fillet Fillet Fillet Fillet Fillet Fillet Whole Whole Whole Whole Whole Whole Whole Whole Whole Whole Whole Fillet Whole Fillet Fillet

0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.02 0.02 0.01k 0.01 0.01 0.01k 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.01k 0.01k 0.01 0.01 0.01

Heptachlor Epoxide

Total DDT

PCBs

Chlordane

0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k

0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.09 0.08 0.06 0.07 0.12 0.07 0.18 0.27 0.80 0.26 0.68 0.28 0.09 0.11 0.02

0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k "0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.01k 0.26 0.18 0.10 0.30 0.41 0.24 0.56 0.83 0.84 0.77 0.51 0.28 0.29 0.11 0.10

-

Notes: Concentrations are in ppm; k - value below detection limit; BKS - black crappies; BGS - blue gills; C - carp; LMB - largemouth bass; NP - northern pike. Source: File copies, Illinois Department of Conservation

230

0.01k 0.03 0.01k 0.01k 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.08 0.02

Mercury 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.03 0.02 0.05 0.03 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.30 0.06 0.10 0.05 0.10 0.30 0.10 0.15 0.10 0.05

sand forest, marsh, shrub swamp, and prairie. Characteristic species for these vegetation classes are listed below in alphabetical order by genus and then by species within genera. Sand Forest. This forest community has 80 percent or greater canopy cover and occurs on sandy soil. Black oak (Quercus velutina) is typically the dominant tree. Associates include Pennsylvania sedge (Carex pennsylvanica), flowering spurge (Euphorbia corollata), witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana), woodland sunflower (Helianthus divaricates), round-headed bush clover (Lespedeza capitata), panic grass (Panicum villosissimum pseudopubescens), choke cherry (Prunus virginiana), bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum latiusculum), white oak (Quercus alba), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), starry false Solomon's seal (Smilacina stellata), old-field goldenrod (Solidago nemoralis), showy goldenrod (Solidago speciosa), spiderwort (Tradescantia ohioensis), and early low blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium laevifolium). Prairie. Prairies occur on black soil (including clayey morainal soils), within a wide variety of soil moisture conditions. This community is distinguished from the cultural vegetation classes discussed below by the presence of native grassland species, including lead plant (Amorpha canescens), big bluestem grass (Andropogon gerardi), little bluestem grass (Andropogon scoparius), shooting star (Dodecatheon meadia), rattlesnake master (Eryngium yuccifolium), flowering spurge (Euphorbia corollata), prairie alum root (Heuchera richardsonii), yellow star grass (Hypoxis hirsuta), round-headed bush clover (Lespedeza capitata), hoary puccoon (Litospermum canescens), switch grass (Panicum virgatum), wild quinine (Parthenium integrifolium), purple prairie clover (Petaolstemum purpureum), prairie phlox (Phlox pilosa), yellow coneflower (Ratibida pinnata), compass plant (Silphium laciniatum), prairie dock (Silphium terebinthinaceum), Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans), prairie dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepis), porcupine grass (Stipa sported), spiderwort (Tradescantia ohioensis), and Culver's root (Veronicastrum virginicum), silverweed (Potentilla anserina), among many others. Marsh. This emergent wetland community is usually dominated by common cattail (Typha latifolia) or common reed (Phragmites communis berlandieri). Many marshes in the Gary, IN, and Lake Calumet, IL, search areas are becoming infested with purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), an aggressive non-native species. Associate marsh species include common water plantain (Alisma subcordatum), swamp milkweed (Asclepias incarnata), blue joint grass (Calamagrostis canadensis), marsh shield fern (Dryopteris thelypteris pubescens), common boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum), blue flag (Iris virginica shrevei), Chairmaker's rush (Scirpus americanus), great bulrush (Scirpus validus creber), water parsnip (Sium suave), and prairie cord grass (Spartina pectinata). Shrub swamp. This permanent or semipermanent wetland contains at least SO percent shrub cover. Typical shrub species include buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), silky dogwood (Cornus obliqua), and sandbar willow (Salix interior). Herbaceous associates include many marsh and wet prairie species, some of which are listed above. This community occurs sporadically throughout the study region. Mammals Two distinctly different communities were originally present within the general study area; examples of each remain intact. The black soil prairies and marshes are inhabited by masked shrews (Sorex cinereus), deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), and meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus). These species have survived even in severely disturbed sites, including slagfilled areas, but in such locations they coexist with the non-native house mouse (Mus musculus) and Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus). Sand savannas support species such as the gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) and white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus).

231

The rare Franklin's ground squirrel (Spent ophilus franklinii) has been trapped or observed at three locations within the Lake Calumet area. It is most often seen in dry sand prairie, but also occurs in sand savanna and black soil prairie. One of the Lake Calumet sightings was in a disturbed area where slag fill is more prevalent than soft soil. Lake Calumet is in close proximity to the study lake. Details of trapping results from Eggers Woods can be found in the report by TAMS Consultants, Inc. (1991, p. 72). During their field work, some of the authors have observed the presence of muskrats, beavers, raccoons, opossums, and evidence of white-tailed deer. Birds According to the TAMS report (1991), mute swans nested along the shores of Wolf Lake, and the following species were seen during spring migration: wood ducks, green-winged teal, American coots, American wigeons, Canada geese, canvasbacks, gadwalls, mallards, pied-billed grebes, redheads, red-breasted mergansers and ring-necked ducks. Great blue herons, greenbacked herons, and least bitterns hunted in the marshes, and semipalmated plovers and least sandpipers foraged along the marshes' margins. A flock of Caspian terns was seen in August 1991 at the lake. Yellow-billed and black-billed cuckoos were seen in the upland forest used by many migrants, including American redstarts, bay-breasted warblers, black-and-white warblers, blackthroated blue warblers, black-throated green warblers, Canada warblers, chestnut-sided warblers, golden-crowned kinglets, magnolia warblers, Nashville warblers, northern parulas, palm warblers, ruby-crowned kinglets, Tennessee warblers, white-crowned sparrows, white-throated sparrows and yellow-rumped warblers. Table 62 lists the types of birds sighted in Wolf Lake, along with their breeding information and status in Indiana. Reptiles and Amphibians Thirteen species of amphibians and reptiles occur in the vicinity of the Lake Calumet site. Some sensitive species are believed to have disappeared from the immediate vicinity within historic times, possibly because of habitat destruction and fragmentation. The smooth green snake (Opheodrys vernalis) was once the second most abundant snake in the Lake Calumet prairies, but now survives in only one location. Black soil prairie and marsh inhabitants include American toads (Bufo americamus), western chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata), northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens), and plains garter snakes (Thamnophis radix). In the sand savannas near the eastern and southern edges of Lake George, the plains garter snake becomes less common and the Chicago garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) and midland brown snake (Storeria dekayi) are the dominant species (Raman et al., 1995). Both types of garter snake and the brown snake are quite adaptable, and they are often abundant in urban vacant lots. They are usually simple to collect in such areas because of their habit of hiding under boards, roofing shingles, sheet metal, and other debris from human activities.

232

Table 62. Birds Sighted in Wolf Lake Area

Common name Pied-billed Grebe Least Bittern Great Blue Heron Green-backed Heron Mute Swan Canada Goose Wood Duck Green-winged Teal Mallard Gadwall American Wigeon Canvasback Redhead Ring-necked Duck Red-breasted Merganser Virginia Rail Sora American Coot Semipalmated Plover Killdeer Spotted Sandpiper Least Sandpiper Caspian Tern Rock Dove Mourning Dove Black-billed Cuckoo Yellow-billed Cuckoo Belted Kingfisher Red-bellied Woodpecker Downy Woodpecker Northern Flicker Great Crested Flycatcher Tree Swallow Northern Rough-winged Swallow Blue Jay Black-capped Chickadee House Wren Marsh Wren Golden-crowned Kinglet Ruby-crowned Kinglet Blue-gray Gnatcatcher Hermit Thrush American Robin Gray Catbird Red-eyed Vireo Tennessee Warbler Nashville Warbler Northern Parula

Scientific name Podilymbus podiceps Ixobrychus exilis Ardea herodias Butorides striatus Cygnus olor Branta canadensis Aixsponsa Anas crecca Anas platyrhynchos Anas strepera Anas americana Aythya valisineria Aythya americana Aythya collaris Mergus serrator Rallus limicola Porzana Carolina Fulica americana Charadrius semipalmatus Charadrius vociferus Actitis macularia Calidris minutilla Sterna caspia Columba livia Zenaida macroura Coccyzus erythropthalmus Coccyzus americanus Ceryle alcyon Melanerpes carolinus Picoides pubescens Colaptes auratus Myiarchus crinitus Tachycineta bicolor Stelgidopteryx serripennis Cyanocitta cristata Parus atricapillus Troglodytes aedon Cistothorus Regulus satrapa Regulus calendula Polioptila caerulea Catharus guttatus Turdus migratorius Dumetella carolinensis Vireo olivaceus Vermivora peregrina Vermivora ruficapilla Parula americana

233

Breeding Status* Conf. Prob. Pos.

X

Indiana status+

SSC WL

X X X

X X

SSC

X X X X

X X X X

X X

palustris

X X X

SSC

Table 62. Concluded

Common name Yellow Waibler Chestnut-sided Waibler Magnolia Waibler Black-throated Blue Warbler Yellow-rumped Warbler Black-throated Green Warbler Palm Warbler Bay-breasted Warbler Black-and-white Warbler American Redstart Common Yellowthroat Wilson's Warbler Canada Warbler Northern Cardinal Rufous-sided Towhee Field Sparrow Fox Sparrow Song Sparrow White-throated Sparrow White-crowned Sparrow Dark-eyed Junco Red-winged Blackbird Eastern Meadowlark Common Grackle Northern Oriole American Goldfinch House Sparrow

Scientific name

Breeding Status* Conf. Prob. Pos.

Dendroica petechia Dendroica pensylvanica Dendroica magnolia Dendroica caerulescens Dendroica coronata Dendroica virens Dendroica palmarum Dendroica castanea Mniotilta varia Setophaga ruticilla Geothlypis trichas Wilsonia pusilla Wilsonia canadensis Cardinalis cardinalis Pipilo erythropthalmus Spizella pusila Passerella iliaca Melospiza melodia Zonotrichia albicollis Zonotrichia leucophrys Junco hyemalis Agelaius pheoniceus Sturnella magna Quiscalus quiscula Icterus galbula Carduelis tristis Passer domesticus

Note: * Breeding Status: Conf. = Confirmed, Prob. = Probable, Pos. = Possible + Indiana Status: SSC = State Special Concern, WL = Watchlist

234

Indiana status+

SSC X SSC X X

X X X X

PART 2: FEASIBILITY STUDY OF WOLF LAKE

INTRODUCTION On the basis of the information obtained and the conclusions derived from the diagnostic portion of this lake restoration and protection study (see Part 1), a feasibility study was undertaken to investigate potential alternatives for restoring the environmental quality and enhancing the recreational and aesthetic value of Wolf Lake. The feasibility portion of this Phase I study extends the diagnostic study. Its purposes are to identify and evaluate possible alternative techniques for restoring and/or protecting the lake water quality to maximize public benefits; to provide sufficient technical, environmental, socioeconomic, and financial information to enable decision-makers to select the most cost-effective techniques; and to develop a technical program for using the techniques selected. Alternative methods to address various problems at Wolf Lake are identified and evaluated. The proposed restoration plan is presented for consideration as a Phase II project under the Clean Lakes Program. The anticipated benefits, cost estimates, and time schedule of the proposed lake restoration program are also presented. EXISTING LAKE QUALITY PROBLEMS On the basis of the detailed and systematic study of the lake ecology, which covered a period of more than 12 months, an assessment of the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the lake water and sediment was made. Additionally, factors affecting the lake's aesthetic and ecological qualities were assessed, and the causes of its use degradation were determined. The lake's hydraulic, sediment, and nutrient budgets were estimated using the data collected for precipitation, lake-level fluctuations, and the water quality characteristics of ephemeral runoffs into the lake after storm events. The dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions in the lake were very good throughout the investigation, except in Wolf Lake Channel, and at no time did anoxic conditions prevail. Station RHA-9 exhibited a high degree of DO depletion. However, DO at or near the surface met the 5.0 mg/L standard at all stations. This is primarily because of the profuse aquatic vegetation present in the lake. Because of macrophyte competition for nutrients, phytoplankton densities were low except for some samples collected in April and September at only a few stations. The obnoxious blue-green algae were not dominant at any time. The benthic macroinvertebrate survey revealed that the benthos community was dominated by relatively pollution-intolerant members of the Chironomidae. The benthos in this lake is more diverse and pollution sensitive than that found in most stratified lakes. Secchi disc transparencies in Wolf Lake were less than 48 inches on the Indiana side and greater than 48 inches on the Illinois side. The chemical quality characteristics of parameters for which standards are set either in Illinois or in Indiana were generally all within the stipulated limits especially on the Illinois side. Mean chemical oxygen demand (COD) was less than 20 mg/L. Ammonia levels met the Illinois standard at all times, but there were a few violations on the Indiana side during the cold period from October 1992 - April 1993. Similar to ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus concentrations on the Illinois side were all below the 0.05 mg/L limit, while those in Indiana waters had few violations. Total phosphorus values found in Wolf Lake were significantly lower than the values observed for lakes in agricultural watersheds. 235

Based on the diagnostic results for this study, it is apparent that the major problems in the lake that need to be addressed are shallow water depths, the profusion of unbalanced aquatic macrophytes, high fecal coliform (FC) counts and poor sediment quality in Wolf Lake Channel, and poor lake aesthetics in some parts of the lake area. Shallow Water Depths Pools 3, 6, 7, and 9 (Wolf Lake Channel) are relatively shallow. Their maximum depths are 14.4, 6.4, 7.2, and 8.0 feet, respectively. The average water depths of these four pools are, respectively, 3.3, 3.9, 4.0, and 4.0 feet. Shallow lakes are more susceptible to some lake management problems, such as bottom sediment resuspension, rooted macrophyte growth, and limited recreational activities. Bottom sediment resuspension is greater in shallow lakes because the wind forces can cause agitation along the sediment/water interface to a depth of 6 feet or more (Wagner, 1990). Large portions of Pools 6, 7, and 9 have water depths less than 6 feet. Extensive macrophyte growth can also be stimulated in shallow pools because a greater proportion of the lake bottom is in water sufficiently shallow to allow sunlight to reach the plant seedings on the lake bottom. As mentioned in the diagnostic study, the water bodies appear well mixed in Pools 6 and 7 based on DO and temperature profiles (figures 10a and 10b). This is primarily because of the large unprotected areal extent and shallowness of these water bodies. However, the DO level in Wolf Lake Channel (figure 10c) indicates significant DO depletion in the lower strata of the water column. Low DO levels are caused by the large oxygen demand of lake bottom sediments and the oxygen demands of the organic matter in the water. Boating, fishing, and other recreational activities in Pools 6 and 7 are very limited because of the extensive and dense macrophyte growths. In Wolf Lake Channel, the water is slightly oily and odorous. It is not suitable for whole-body contact water sports and it exhibits degraded aesthetic conditions. Excessive Macrophyte Growth A lake ecosystem should be diverse and balanced. The plant community in Wolf Lake encompasses phytoplankton (algae) and macrophytes, which are competing for nutrients in the lake. An overabundance of macrophytes can lead to overpopulation and stunting of panfish due to decreased predation success by predatory fish. In addition, decomposition of a large macrophyte crop emits taste and odor in water and can even cause fish kills. Dense vegetation blocks water movement, retards heat transfer, and decreases recreational uses. The results (table 38) of the macrophyte survey conducted during the diagnostic study indicate that approximately 85, 60, and 55 percent of the lakebed in Pools 6, 7, and 9, respectively, supported macrophyte growth. Pools 3 and 4 also had a relatively high percentage of macrophyte growths (45 and 60 percent, respectively); however, water milfoil and chara were the dominant species, and aquatic vegetation was more diverse in these two pools. Power boaters have difficulty making their way through the dense growth of Eurasian water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) in Pools 6 and 7. Heavy macrophyte growths occurred along both banks in Wolf Lake Channel. Fishing enjoyment has been impaired by extensive growth of macrophytes in which hooks and lines become tangled. 236

Several of the fish management reports prepared by Mr. Bob Robertson, fishery biologist, Indiana Department of Natural Resources, made the following recommendations and observations as early as the late 1960s (Internal Reports): 1. Water quality in the channel area of the lake should be improved. Foul smelling sediment and a lower dissolved oxygen content is characteristic of the channel area. The area may be the source of the "bad tasting" fish occasionally reported in Wolf Lake. The channel also sustained a large fish kill during the winter of 1974-1975. 2. Fishing access to Wolf Lake should be increased by establishing shoreline paths, piers, and a row-boat rental. 3. The dense area of submersed vegetation should be controlled. A citysponsored weed control program should be initiated to reduce weed beds near the shore which presently hinder shore fishing. Eurasian water milfoil is considered to be an extreme exotic nuisance species due to its prolific rate of growth and spread. Often, the plant will completely dominate a lake's plant community and obliterate most native vegetative species. This reduction in vegetative species diversity in turn affects the diversity of the lake's other aquatic life. Eurasian water milfoil can sprout a new plant from even a very tiny plant fragment. If broken apart by watercraft or other recreational activities, the plant can be inadvertently transported or drift to remote areas of the lake where it can then develop roots and start a new colony. High Fecal Coliform Counts In general, FC densities in all Wolf Lake pools met Illinois and Indiana standards, except in Wolf Lake Channel and the stormwater discharges to the lake and to the channel. At RHA-9 in Wolf Lake Channel, high bacteria (TC and FC) counts were observed during warm weather periods. In fact, 42 percent (5 out of 12) of the samples exceeded 2,000 FC per 100 mL (table 32); the Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board allows only ten percent of samples to exceed that limit. Poor FC quality at RHA-9 could be traced to high bacterial counts in discharges from Lever Brothers Company (RHA 02), Roby pumping station (RHA 03), and Forsythe Park pumping station (RHA 04) of the Hammond Sanitary District (table 33). In addition, samples collected during storm events at RHA OS (the Sheffield Avenue pumping station of the Hammond Sanitary District) violated FC geometric mean standards and density standards for Wolf Lake waters (discharge to Pool 8). Also, frequent violations of FC standards at the swimming beach in Pool 8 were recorded. As Bell and Johnson (1990) pointed out, high FC densities in stormwater discharges may be the result of cross-connections of the sanitary sewers and the storm sewers. In 1989, tests showed that another source of pollution was industrial runoff along Sheffield Avenue. Poor Sediment Quality in Wolf Lake Channel As mentioned earlier, the worst sediment characteristics were observed at Wolf Lake Channel, particularly at stations 9 and 9B. As shown in table 52, high total phosphorus levels (1,309 to 1,848 mg/kg) occurred at stations 9, 9B, and 9C. Concentrations of copper (60 to 247 mg/kg) and zinc (283 to 932 mg/kg) in all four sediment samples collected from Wolf Lake 237

Channel were elevated. In fact, copper levels at stations 9B and 9 were greater than, respectively, 12 and nine times of the Indiana maximum background concentration of 20 mg/kg. Zinc levels at these two stations were also greater than seven and six times, respectively, of the background concentration of 130 mg/kg. At stations 9 and 9B, concentrations of cadmium, lead, and nickel were also elevated. In addition, total kjeldahl nitrogen and mercury levels in sediment collected from station 9B were elevated. The sediment characteristics of Wolf Lake Channel were found to be generally of "medium concern." Very high concentrations (1,000 to 4,000 ug/kg) of total PCBs were found at station 8A and in Wolf Lake Channel (table 53). Total PCBs at stations 9, 9A, and 9B were classified as "high concern," as they were greater than 100 times the Indiana maximum background level of 22 μg/kg. Dredging is needed to remove poor quality sediment and to control macrophytes. Because of high concern of PCB levels in Wolf Lake Channel, the sediments are considered hazardous and consequently the dredging and disposal of these sediments warrant special considerations. Evaluation of the sediment characteristics using the TCLP indicates that heavy metals concentrations in the leachate were all well within the regulatory limits. Lake Aesthetics In general, the appearance of the pools of Wolf Lake vary from poor to excellent (e.g. Pool 9 and Pool 1). However, urban debris such as tires, shopping carts, and construction materials strewn in and around the lake creates aesthetic and pollution problems, particularly in the southern ends of Pools 3 and 5. At times, fragments of aquatic plants (macrophytes) floated on the lake surface or along certain sections of shorelines. This reduced the visual appeal of the lake. There is a wide unpaved road (section of 129th Street, south of Pool 6 and west of Sheffield Avenue). The road surface is bumpy, making it very difficult to drive through that segment, and thus limiting access to Pool 5. Trash and debris were found illegally dumped and piled in this location. These not only detract from the lake's aesthetic appeal, but may also be a source of pollution. WATER QUALITY AND ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES This section provides a review of the techniques for mitigating the existing problems in Wolf Lake. Most of the information was compiled from a few excellent published reports dealing with in-lake and watershed management techniques. The most significant of these are by Dunst et al. (1974), Peterson (1981), Cooke et al. (1986), and USEPA (1973, 1988, 1990b). Shallow Lake Dredging Sediment removal in freshwater lakes is usually undertaken to increase lake water volume, improve sport fishery habitats, enhance overwinter fish survival, remove nutrient-rich sediments and/or hazardous materials, reduce the abundance of rooted aquatic plants, reduce the sediment's oxygen demand on the overlying water, reduce the potential for sediment resuspension, and control algae. Advantages of sediment-removal techniques include the ability to selectively deepen parts of a lake basin, increase the lake volume, recover organically rich sediment for soil enrichment, and improve limnetic water quality. Disadvantages include high cost, possible phosphorus release 238

from sediment, increased phytoplankton productivity, noise, lake drawdown, temporary reduction in benthic fish food organisms, and the potential for release of toxic materials to the overlying water and environmental degradation at the dredged material disposal site (Peterson, 1981). In addition, the nutrient content of the sediments may remain high at a considerable depth, thus making it impossible to reach a low nutrient level in sediment. Although satisfactory disposal of the spoils may be very expensive, however, high quality dredge material can be used for beneficial purposes and may offset the initial high cost of dredging. In nearly all cases, permits from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers are required (USEPA, 1990b). Peterson's (1981) report on the restoration of Wisconsin Spring Ponds through dredging is one of the most thoroughly documented studies concerning the ecological effects of dredging small lakes. The purpose of the dredging was to deepen the ponds to improve fish production. Incidental to the deepening was the control of aquatic macrophytes. It is reported that even though there was a temporary decrease in the benthic organisms soon after dredging, four to five years after lake restoration the average density and biomass of fishable-size fish were substantially greater than during the predredging period. During the dredging process, there will be an increase in turbidity in the immediate surrounding area and a possible decrease in the ambient DO concentrations. However these problems are short-lived and many of these problems can be minimized with proper planning. Peterson (1981) also reports on the successful restoration of Lilly Lake (southeastern Wisconsin) by dredging. The main problems in the lake were severe shoaling, abundant aquatic plant growths, and winter fish kills. In addition to dredging the whole basin, ten percent of the 97-acre lake was dredged to a depth of approximately 6.0 meters (20 feet). Dredging was completed in September 1979, and as of 1981, water quality had remained good, macrophytes had virtually been eliminated, and local sponsors were generally pleased with the outcome. The city of Springfield, IL, successfully employed hydraulic dredging to dredge Lake Springfield to meet multiple objectives: namely, to deepen the shallow end of the lake in order to increase sediment retention capacity, control emergent aquatic vegetation, and enhance aesthetic and recreational opportunities. This project is considered the largest inland lake dredging project completed in the early 1990s (Cochran & Wilkin, Inc., personal communication, 1994). Sediment removal can be accomplished either by hydraulic dredging or by exposing lake sediments for removal by conventional earth-moving equipment. Pierce (1970) describes various types of hydraulic dredging equipment and provides guidance on the engineering aspects of dredge selection. Peterson (1981) describes various grab, bucket, and clam-shell dredges; hydraulic cutterhead dredges; and specialized dredges to minimize secondary water quality impacts. Sediment removal using earth-moving equipment after lake-level drawdown was successfully used in Crystal Lake, Urbana, IL, during 1990-1991. The advantages and disadvantages of mechanical dredging or excavation and hydraulic dredging have been discussed by Berrini (1992). There are several methods of mechanical dredging or excavation presently available. The lake can either be dredged at normal pool with a dragline, or the water level can be lowered enough to allow low ground pressure excavation equipment into the dry lakebed. There are several advantages to dry lakebed excavation as compared to hydraulic or dragline dredging, such as the elimination of excessive turbidity or resuspended solids, and a smaller quantity of material to remove due to consolidation and compaction. However, there are many disadvantages and problems that would be encountered. Although initial water level drawdown could be accomplished quickly with high capacity pumps, the length of time required for the sediment to dewater and consolidate sufficiently enough to support excavation equipment would be a year or more.

239

Another method of mechanical dredging would be accomplished with a dragline while the lake water level is at normal pool. This is accomplished by extending excavating equipment from shore, or by mounting the equipment on a barge. This method is more practical for smaller lakes or when a large quantity of rocks or debris is anticipated. Removal of accumulated lake sediment is inefficient and can leave high percentages of material behind. Disposal of the sediment is also very inefficient and labor intensive since it must be handled several times. Once the sediment is removed from the lake, it must be placed on a barge or a truck and transported to the retention site. This repeated handling is generally not cost effective, and can result in sediment losses during transfer. Equipment access for the removal and placement of dredged sediment would also have a negative impact on the lake shoreline. Therefore mechanical dredging would not be considered as a feasible restoration method. Hydraulic dredging involves a centrifugal pump mounted on a pontoon or hull which uses suction to pull the loose sediment off the bottom and pump it through a polyethylene pipeline to a sediment retention area. Generally, a cutterhead is added to the intake of the suction line in order to loosen the accumulated or native sediment for easy transport and discharge. A slurry of sediment and water, generally between 10 percent and 30 percent solids, can be pumped for distances as much as 5,000 feet or as much as 10,000 feet with the use of a booster pump. The efficiently pumped sediment slurry must reach a suitable constructed earthern dike-walled containment area with adequate storage capacity. The sediment contaminant or retention area must be properly designed to allow sufficient retention time for the sediment particles to settle throughout the project, and allow the clear decant or effluent water to flow through the outlet structure back to the lake. One of the advantages of hydraulic dredging is the efficiency of sediment handling. The removal, transport, and deposition are performed in one operation, which minimizes expenses and potential sediment losses during transport. Another advantage is that the lake does not have to be drained, and most areas can remain open for public use. Most hydraulic dredges are considered portable and area easily moved from one site to another. They are extremely versatile and capable of covering large areas of the lake by maneuvering with their spud anchorages system and moving the discharge pipeline when necessary. Dredging as a restoration technique for Wolf Lake Channel, and Pools 6 and 7, if accepted, pool drawdown and excavation cannot be considered because no flow control devices exist for the pools. Mechanical dragline dredging at these pools would also be of very limited applicability due to inadequate access and is also uneconomical for large-scale dredging operations. Equipment access for the removal and placement of dredged sediment would also have a negative impact on the shorelines. Hydraulic dredging is the recommended method of sediment removal for Wolf Lake Channel and Pools 6 and 7 because of its efficiency, versatility, and capability of removing large quantities of sediment without dewatering the pools. Hydraulic dredging will require a Section 404 permit from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. A 401 Water Quality Certification permit will be required by Illinois EPA for the clarified return water from the sediment retention site. Coordination and consultation with IDEM, City of Hammond, Indiana Department of Transportation, IEPA, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will also be necessary. The permit application process will have to be initiated during the design phase of the dredging project. Dredging costs are difficult to determine accurately and even more difficult to compare because they vary a great deal depending on a number of factors (Peterson, 1981): 1) types and quantity of sediment removed, 2) type of dredges used, 3) nature of the operational environment, 4) geographic location, and 5) mode of disposal of the dredged material. The USEPA (1980) indicated that costs of sediment removal vary widely from $0.76 to $12.00 per cubic yard.

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Table 63 supplies details of dredging costs for those lakes in Illinois where dredging has either been completed in recent years or is being contemplated for the near future. These data were obtained from Cochran & Wilken, Inc., Springfield, IL (personal communication, 1994). It should be noted that the unit cost of dredging decreases with increased volume of dredging. It is also influenced by the location of the dredging project; namely, the cost is relatively high in urban centers. Macrophyte Control Macrophytes are generally grouped into classes: emergents (such as cattails), floating leaves (water lilies), and submergents (Eurasian water milfoil and pondweeds), plus the mats of filamentous algae that develop in weed beds. They reproduce by the production of flowers and seeds, by asexual propagation from fragments and shoots extending from roots, or by both mechanisms. It is obvious that overabundant rooted and floating plants are a major nuisance to lake users, interfere with recreation, and detract from the aesthetic values of lakes. Available light is a significant factor in how profusely and where the plants will grow. Submergent plants will grow profusely only where underwater illumination (sunlight penetration) is sufficient. The growth rate of macrophytes, especially exotic species like Eurasian water milfoil and water hyacinth, can be very high. Turbid lakes and reservoirs are unlikely to have dense beds of submerged plants. Direct in-lake controls of macrophytes include sediment removal and tilling; sediment exposure and desiccation; sediment covers; herbicide treatment; harvesting by machine, hand, and other manual removal methods; and biological control. The most commonly considered techniques for controlling and managing excessive weeds are discussed below. Sediment Removal and Sediment Tilling Sediment removal can limit submerged weed growth through deepening, thereby limiting light, and/or by removing favorable substrate for weed growth. These techniques can also eliminate or limit plant growth through removal of roots. Sediment removal was discussed in detail in the previous section. The amount of sediments removed, and hence the new depth and associated light penetration, is critical to successful long-term control of rooted submerged plants. USEPA (1988) provided a criterion for determining the maximum depth of colonization (MDC) by macrophytes based on Secchi disc (SD) values. For Wisconsin, the suggested relationship is: log MDC = 0.79 log SD + 0.25 in which MDC and SD are expressed in meters. Adapting this empirical relationship developed for Wisconsin to Indiana and Illinois and assuming the SD values in the range of 6 to 10 feet, the corresponding depths to which rooted vegetation could colonize are between 9.4 and 14.1 feet. This implies that in order to prevent colonization of aquatic weeds in the lake, the lake has to be dredged to a depth of more than 9 to 14 feet, depending on the likely SD readings (i.e., 6 to 10 feet). Data obtained during the Wolf Lake investigation indicate that this range of SD values is within the realm of possibility, depending on the depths of the measurement sites. Rototilling and the use of cultivation equipment are newer procedures, which are under development and testing by the British Columbia Ministry of Environment (Newroth and Soar, 1986). A rototiller is a bargelike machine with a hydraulically operated tillage device that can be lowered to depths of 10 to 12 feet for the purpose of tearing out roots. The purpose of this 241

Table 63. Costs of Dredging in Illinois

Item

Paris Twin Lake, Edgar County

Skokie Lagoons. Cook County

Lake Decatur, Macon County

Lake Springfield, Sangamon County

Retention basin, dollars

290,000

1,030,000

941,400

1,153,000

Dredging, dollars

690,500

1,260,000

3,352,500

4,400,000

Engineering, dollars

134,000

200,000

463,000

360,000

1,114,500

2,550,000

4,756,900

5,913,000

410,000

470,000

2,100,000

3,200,000

2.72

5.42

2.26

1.85

Total cost, dollars Volume, cubic yards Unit cost, dollars/cubic yard

242

method is to stress rooted aquatic plants and to prevent the development of surfacing colonies that could cause rapid fragment dispersal or nuisance conditions. Rototilling or tillage using agricultural plows is best applied during the nongrowing season, when shoot material is minimal. Root masses may be buried, stressed, or dislodged. Containment using floating boom systems may be required or root masses may be washed into shoreline areas and raked manually or gathered by shore-based equipment. A detailed discussion of this method, including capital and operating costs, can be found elsewhere (Province of British Columbia, 1978). The use of sediment removal for long-term control of macrophytes is effective when the source of sediments is controlled. Dredging below the lake's photic zone will prevent macrophyte growth. However, the cost of dredging often makes the use of this technique unfeasible. It is reported that rototilling to remove water milfoil is as effective as three to four harvesting operations. Costs of rototiller operations were found to be similar to herbicides and harvesting methods, but speed of operation is slower. Sediment Exposure and Desiccation Water-level manipulation has been employed as a mechanism for enhancing the quality of certain lakes and reservoirs. The exposure of lake-bottom mud to prolonged freezing and drying reduces sediment oxygen demand and increases the oxidation state of the mud surface. This procedure may retard the movement of nutrients from the sediments to the overlying water when flooded once again. Sediment exposure can also curb sediment nutrient release by physically stabilizing the upper flocculant zone of the sediments. Lake drawdown has been investigated as a control measure for submerged rooted aquatic vegetation and as a mechanism for lake deepening through sediment consolidation. Lake drawdown also allows repair to dams and docks, fish management, sediment removal, and installation of sediment covers to control plant growth. Some rooted plant species are permanently damaged by freezing conditions over two to four weeks of lake water-level drawdown. Species such as Eurasian water milfoil, coontail, elodea, and water lily may be decreased. However, other species are either enhanced (bushy pondweed, and hydrilla) or unaffected (cattail and common elodea). The most significant problems with drawdown are the loss of use of the lake and the sharp reduction in the abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates essential to fish diets, which can even lead to a fish kill. Since there is no water-flow control system for Wolf Lake, drawdown is not a technically feasible alternative. Moreover, since the lake bottom is mostly composed of fine gritty sand, the method does not hold promise. Lake-Bottom Sealing Sediment covering to control macrophytes and sediment nutrient release has been widely used as an in-lake treatment technique. Covering of bottom sediments with sheeting material (plastic, rubber, fiberglass, nylon, etc.) or particulate material (sand, clay, fly ash, etc.) can prevent the exchange of nutrients from the sediments to the overlying waters either by forming a physical barrier or by increasing the capacity of surface sediments to hold nutrients. The problem encountered when covering sediments with sheeting is the ballooning of the sheeting in the underlying sediments. Sand and other large materials tend to sink below flocculent sediments. Cooke et al. (1986) report that polyethylene sheeting has not had long-term effectiveness due to macrophyte regrowth on its surface. Bottom covering in small areas, such as dock space or a swimming beach, can terminate plant growth. However, covering large areas is not cost effective and is difficult to apply and to relocate (USEPA, 1990b).

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Cooke et al. (1986) also discussed PVC-coated fiberglass screen, which they note is expensive but nontoxic and appears to give long-term macrophyte control. They report that PVC 2 fiberglass screening (aqua screen) of size 62 apertures per square centimeter (cm ) was very effective in controlling macrophytes. Screenings with 9.9 and 39 2apertures/cm2 were either ineffective or less effective than the screens with 52 apertures/cm . Seed germination and regrowth occurred on screens after significant sedimentation (two to three years after deployment) had taken place, but autumnal removal of the screens followed by repositioning in2 spring seemed to correct the sedimentation problem. Cost of the screen with 62 apertures/cm was $140 (1979 prices), for a roll 7 feet wide and 100 feet long. Unless the lake is drawn down, screening must be placed directly over vegetative growth by scuba divers and anchored with metal T-bars. In view of the extensive macrophyte growth in Pools 6 and 7 of Wolf Lake, the high initial cost of $8,640 per acre for materials alone (1979 prices), and the need for skilled labor to remove and reposition the screens almost annually, covering sediment with screens to control macrophytes is not economically justifiable at Wolf Lake. Shading Use of dyes to suppress plant growth was first suggested in 1947 (Cooke et al., 1986). Commercial products are designed specifically to shade hydrologically closed systems such as ponds. The dye is added as a concentrate, and winds disperse it throughout the pond giving a blue or aqua-green color to the lake water. The manufacturers claim that the materials are effective against several species of macrophytes, including Myriophyllum spicatum (Eurasian water milfoil), without toxicity to aquatic life. The mode of action is light limitation rather than direct toxicity to the plants. There is insufficient published information at this time to evaluate commercial dyes. Chemical Controls USEPA (1988) considers herbicide treatment as an effective, short-term management procedure to produce a rapid reduction in vegetation for periods of weeks to months. Plants are left to die and decompose, resulting in high demand on the lake's oxygen resources. Subsequently, new plants regrow, sometimes to densities greater than before. The use of herbicides to control rooted vegetation and algae remains a controversial and emotionally charged issue, and the pros and cons of herbicides have not been well understood by proponents and opponents alike. Chemical control of nuisance weed growths involves less labor and generally costs less. Years of testing chemical effectiveness, toxicity, and residues have weeded out questionable, hazardous materials. Now only a limited number of highly effective, approved products are available for weed control. Certain chemicals and application rates selectively control only target weed species, so the applicator has the option of treating only specific nuisance weeds. Applications can be made to areas that cannot be reached by mechanical harvesters, and waters under piers and docks can be treated easily. A detailed list of various chemicals and dosage rates, and the macrophytes' responses to chemical treatments, can be found in Fishery Bulletin No. 4 (IDOC, 1990) and the Lake and Reservoir Restoration Guidance Manual (USEPA, 1988). Application of copper sulfate for algae control may improve water clarity for macrophyte growth. However, the treatment of Eurasian water milfoil in North Carolina with the herbicide 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) stimulated a blue-green bloom (Getsinger et al., 1982). Diquot is more effective against native pondweeds than against Eurasian water milfoil (Nichols, 1986). However, chara is resistant to most herbicides (Hurlbert, 1975; Newbold, 1976).

244

Herbicides disappear from lake water within a few days or weeks, but Diquat is absorbed by sediment for more than two years (Berry et al., 1975). Table 64 lists the types of herbicides, recommended by the IDOC, that can be used to control water milfoil. Hudson etal. (1992) recommended using 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorphenoxy acetic acid), in granular form (trade name Aqua-Kleen), for Eurasian water milfoil control in McCullom Lake, McHenry County, IL. It is reported that 2,4-D has the advantage of killing the entire plant, including the root. 2,4-D is selective for water milfoil and does not affect narrow-leaved pondweeds (monocots). The proper dosage of 2,4-D can kill dicots such as lilies and broadleaved pondweeds. Under favorable conditions, a 95 to 100 percent decrease in Eurasian water milfoil biomass can be seen within two to three weeks of 2,4-D treatment; and full-season control is possible with successive annual treatments. A minimum of 24 to 36 hours contact time at 1 mg/L is recommended. No long-term adverse impacts are expected from the proper application of 2,4-D. In dosages below labeled rates, the herbicide is not toxic to fish nor does it bioaccumulate at significant levels nor does it persist for more than a few days after 2,4-D exposure. Risks to human health from low levels of carcinogenic impurities found in some 2,4-D samples are considered negligible. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Westerdahl and Getsinger, 1988) lists ten registered herbicides for aquatic plant control. It also clearly states chemical formulations, made of action, application formulations, time of application, application rates, maximum water concentration, use restrictions, waiting period, toxicological data, precautions, field instructions, adjuvant use, application techniques, and antidote information for each herbicides. For Eurasian water milfoil control, 2,4-D (both butoxyethyl ester and dimethylamine, DMA), Diquat plus complexed copper, and endothall (dipotassium salt, K2, K2 plus complexed copper, and dimethylalkylamine salts) are reported to be excellent. The use of Diquat, fluridone, and simazine each gives only good results of water milfoil control. The use of fluridone (trade name Sonar) to control water milfoil is relatively new. The manufacturer claims that Sonar does not eliminate desirable vegetation; low concentrations of fluridone (0.015 to 0.025 mg/L) are selective for Eurasian water milfoil and hydrilla. After treatment, desirable native species can become more abundant, creating a more diverse habitat. Sonar does not harm fish or waterfowl. Its application can be less frequent than that of other aquatic herbicides. However, results from evaluation of the use of fluridone in northern U.S. lakes are not available. Following are some of the drawbacks to chemical control of macrophytes. ■ ■ ■ ■

Different chemicals are required to control different plant species. Chemical application permits and monitoring programs are required. Restrictions are often placed on water usage after chemical applications. Success or failure of the treatment depends on various factors, such as chemical dosage, water temperature, pH, weather conditions, wind, and water velocity. ■ Toxicity and residue problems may make chemical control controversial and less acceptable environmentally. ■ Decaying vegetation creates unsightly conditions in the lake. Released nutrients become readily available for recycling. Algal blooms occur subsequent to chemical treatments. The cost of chemical control of macrophytes is estimated to vary between $200 and $300 per acre. Herbicide treatments are reportedly expensive for what they accomplish. They produce no restorative benefit, show no carry-over of effectiveness to the following season, and may require several applications per year. The short-term benefit-cost ratio can be desirably high, but the long-term benefit-cost ratio is likely to be very low (USEPA, 1988). Additionally, the

245

Table 64. Recommended Herbicide Dosages for Controlling Water Milfoil

Chemical

Concentration, parts per million

Liquid silvex Granular endothail Granular 2,4-D ester Diquat Liquid potassium endothail Dichlobenil acquatic granules Liquid fenac

2.0 3.0 2.0 0.5 2.0 - 3.0 -

Liquid endothail and silvex Granular endothail and silvex Aquazine*

2.0 • 3.0 2.0-3.0 1.0-

Dosage

2.0

1.4 gallons per acre foot 81 pounds per acre foot 27 pounds per acre foot 0.7 gallon per acre foot 1.3 to 1.9 gallons per acre foot 100 to 150 pounds per surface acre 10 to 13 gallons per acre of exposed bottom soil 1 to 1.6 gallons per acre foot 51 to 77 pounds per acre foot 3.4-6.8 pounds per acre foot

* Treat whole body of water. Note: Dosages recommended by the Illinois Department of Conservation

246

USEPA considers chemical control of macrophytes and algae to be a palliative approach to lake restoration. Therefore, these measures are rarely eligible for financial assistance. Harvesting The harvesting of nuisance organisms by mechanical harvesters or scuba hand removal is limited to macrophytes and some undesirable fish. The technique has been advocated as a practical means of accelerating the nutrient outflow from lake systems; however, this technique alone is deemed inadequate for lowering nutrient input to lakes receiving enrichment from anthropogenic activities. Conyers and Cooke (1983) reported that stumps of Eurasian water milfoil plants about 0.5 to 3 inches in height were left after cutting, and complete regrowth occurred in 21 days. The removal of roots is essential. Harvesting is as effective as herbicide treatment; it is no more expensive than chemical control in the long run (USEPA, 1988); and it has several distinct advantages over herbicide treatments. Following are some of the advantages. ■ The procedure is target-specific, and the time and place of harvesting are decided by lake managers. ■ The nuisance vegetation is immediately removed along with a certain quantity of plant nutrients. ■ No toxicants are introduced, hence no toxic residues remain. ■ The lake can remain open during harvesting. ■ The plants do not remain in the lake to decompose, utilize oxygen, and release nutrients that may stimulate algal growth. ■ Harvested weeds may be used for compost, mulch, methane production, etc. ■ Harvesting can be easily regulated to preserve fish habitats and recreational access, and at the same time avoid any major upset in the ecological balance. ■ Regrowth after harvesting is usually delayed, and reharvesting in one year tends to inhibit regrowth in subsequent years. ■ The adverse impact on fish abundance is slight. ■ Fish growth rates may increase, and fish may increasingly turn to grazing on algae instead of snails and insects. The following are potential negative impacts of harvesting. ■ The procedure requires high capital outlay for equipment. ■ The technique is energy and labor intensive. ■ Only relatively small areas can be treated per unit time, which may create lake-user dissatisfaction. ■ Plants may fragment and spread the infestation. ■ Harvesting constitutes habitat removal, and with it will come a reduction in species of the shallow area of the lake, particularly animals such as snails, insects, and worms. ■ Machine breakdown can be frequent, especially if an undersized piece of equipment is employed. The cost of harvesting depends on several factors, including equipment cost, labor, fuel, insurance, disposal, and the amount of downtime. Harvesting costs in the Midwest have ranged from $135 to $300 per acre (USEPA, 1988). It should be noted that the Clean Lakes Program considers harvesting to be a palliative approach to lake restoration in most cases, and it is therefore rarely eligible for financial assistance.

247

Biological Controls Using plant-eating or plant pathogenic biocontrol organisms is a long-term control approach to reduce nuisance aquatic vegetation without introducing expensive machinery or toxic chemicals. This approach encompasses the introduction or promotion of organisms that are inimical to the target organisms. White amur, or grass carp, has been widely recognized as a plant-control agent. Grass carp have been used in Illinois for small ponds. Even though it is permitted in Indiana to use sterile grass carp for aquatic plant control, this biological control technique is considered experimental and has not been successfully employed in large water bodies. Also Eurasian water milfoil is not a preferred plant food for grass carp. Hence its utility in controlling aquatic plants in Wolf Lake is questionable. The USEPA has awarded a $448,000 grant to the state of Vermont for a four-year study of the success of weevil (Eurhychiopsis lecontei) against Eurasian water milfoil. So far, the results of placing weevils in Lake Bomoseen near Castleton are encouraging. The weevil is a prolific breeder with a seemingly insatiable appetite for Eurasian water milfoil. Additionally, the weevil does not have to devour the whole plant to destroy it. The effectiveness of weevils varies with locations of the lake (U.S. Water News, 1994). Declines in Eurasian water milfoil populations in other parts of the nation have been correlated with weevils. In Illinois, milfoil decline due to weevil attack was first discovered in McCullom Lake, McHenry County on June 3, 1995 (Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission, 1995). The weevil feeds exclusively on Eurasian water milfoil, and it has the potential to be an effective "biological control": in research experiments, weevils have not damaged any other nonmilfoil plant species. This is very important, because the goal of lake management programs is to maintain a balanced community of native plants. A research and demonstrtion study of milfoil control by weevil in Pools 6 and 7 may be made with possible funding from the USEPA. OBJECTIVES OF WOLF LAKE MANAGEMENT PLAN The objectives of the Wolf Lake management plan are to correct existing lake problems and to restore and protect beneficial uses, including cultural uses such as fishing, water sports, swimming, and aesthetics, as well as environmental quality concerns such as lake water and sediment quality and fish and wildlife habitat. Some portions of Wolf Lake are shallow and eutrophic, and some are covered with dense non-native macrophytes, which impair lake aesthetics and beneficial lake uses. It is essential to eliminate the problem sources that impair beneficial uses in Wolf Lake. The major goals and objectives of the lake management plan should include: ■ Selective deepening of the lake for macrophyte control. ■ Eradicating the invasive exotic plant, Eurasian water milfoil (Myriophyltum spicatum), and preventing its reestablishment by promoting diversity of native macrophytes. ■ Reducing bacterial contamination of Wolf Lake Channel and improving water quality at the swimming beach. ■ Managing discharges from storm sewer pumping stations in the Hammond Sanitary District. ■ Enhancing aesthetic and recreational opportunities in and around the lake by cleaning up debris and improving fish management. A basic eligibility requirement for Clean Lakes Program funding is that the lake be open and publicly accessible and that such access be across publicly owned land. Public access must be provided independent of a Clean Lakes Program project, and Section 314 funds may not be used 248

to purchase or lease property solely to provide access. The intent of this regulation is to ensure that the benefits of a lake restoration or protection project are in fact enjoyed by the public (USEPA, 1980). All pools of Wolf Lake have public accesses. PROPOSED RESTORATION ALTERNATIVES Under the Wolf Lake restoration plan, three alternative pollution control and restoration measures are proposed, as shown in table 65. Alternative I Under Alternative I (table 65) no action needs to be taken for Pools 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, and 8. Pools 1, 2, and 4 have good water quality. Pools 6 and 7 can be left alone despite excessive macrophyte growths because there are adequate open waters elsewhere in the system to meet the demands of recreational uses. Although there is macrophyte growth in small parts of Pool 8, the major portion of the pool is in good condition. Although Pools 3 and 5 have good water quality, discarded urban debris such as tires and shopping carts exist in the south end of both pools. These debris need to be removed for aesthetic enhancement. In addition, as mentioned earlier, the dumping site at the roadside of 129th Street (south of Pool 6) needs to be cleaned up to eliminate potential pollution. The road surface of this access road also needs to be improved. Major attention should be focused on Wolf Lake Channel (Pool 9). Dredging the channel with or without sediment treatment is definitely required to improve its water and sediment quality, aesthetic conditions, and other uses. Improving the water quality of discharges from the Hammond Sanitary District (the Forsythe Park, Roby, and Sheffield pumping stations) is essential to restore Wolf Lake Channel and to reduce bacterial contamination. Diversion of the Pump Station discharges out of the Wolf Lake System could be considered but is beyond the scope of this project. Suitable management schemes need to be developed and implemented to improve the water quality of these discharges. Also, the stormwater discharges from the Sheffield Avenue pumping station to Pool 8 need to be managed for possible water quality enhancement. Alternative II In addition to the actions proposed under Alternative I, this alternative includes dredging in Pools 6 and 7 to increase lake volume and to control the non-native aquatic vegetation dominant in these pools. Use of herbicides or harvesting of macrophytes to control Eurasion water milfoil may also be an option. Alternative III Alternative III includes all the approaches of Alternative II and adds some selective dredging in Pool 3. The additional dredging is primarily to improve boating opportunities. Proposed Restoration Scheme The restoration scheme comprises cleanup of debris in and around the lake, lake dredging, macrophyte control, and lake ecosystem management such as replanting of desirable native aquatic plants, addition of physical structures for fish cover, and fish community manipulation.

249

Table 65. Proposed Alternatives for Achieving Wolf Lake Management Plan Objectives

Area

I

Alternative II

III

Pool 1

No action

No action

No action

Pool 2

No action

No action

No action

Pool 3

Cleanup debris

Cleanup

Cleanup, dredging

Pool 4

No action

No action

No action

Pool 5

Cleanup debris

Cleanup

Cleanup

Pool 6

No action

Dredging or chemical control

Dredging or chemical control

Pool 7

No action

Dredging, or chemical control

Dredging, or chemical control

Pool 8

No action

No action

No action

Pool 9*

Dredging

Dredging

Dredging

Discharges to Pools 8 & 9

Management

Management

Management

Cleanup area

Cleanup

Cleanup

Road to Pool

5

Note: * Wolf Lake Channel

250

Cleanup Campaign Historically, cleanup activities near shorelines have been conducted in both Illinois and Indiana by nonprofit organizations or volunteers. Unfortunately, regular illegal dumping persists in and around the lake. Urban debris at the south ends of Pools 3 and 5 should be removed. Signs stating "No littering" and the penalty for violation should be posted in those areas and at the dumping areas on 129th Street from Sheffield Avenue to Pools 4 and 5 (south of Pool 6), after all the trash and debris are cleared. Labor costs for cleanup may be minimal or nothing if a volunteer force can be mobilized. Costs of signs and enforcement will be minimal and can probably be handled by the Illinois Department of Natural Resources and the Hammond Park District. The cleanup campaign and the enforcement scheme should be developed by these two agencies. Paving of the wide unpaved bumpy approach road for Pool 5 (western portion of 129th Street) is recommended. The road is approximately 1,800 feet long with a good foundation. The pavement can be two-lanes with a total width of 20 feet. The estimated cost for 4-inch thickness of asphalt with sub-base is over $60,000. The use of gravel with rock sub-base will cost about $18,000. The latter is recommended since this segment is not heavily traveled, terminates on the east side of Pool 5, and is not a thoroughfare. Lake Deepening and Macrophyte Control Dredging the lake accomplishes the multiple objectives of increasing the lake volume, removing the undesirable rooted vegetation, and providing additional space for winter fish survival. Harvesting and removal of macrophytes are not viable options for controlling the dominant and dense growths of Eurasian water milfoil. Hence, for the reasons discussed earlier, dredging and herbicide application are the most technically and economically feasible methods for eliminating the predominance of this non-native aquatic vegetation in the lake. Because the lake's sediment characteristics were found to be nonhazardous, no special handling or precautions are needed for disposing the dredged materials. Hydraulic dredging would be conducted with the lake at its normal water level. Using this method, sediment is loosened and pumped as slurry to a retention pond where the sediment settles out and the clarified effluent water is returned to the lake. Selection of a retention pond site for permanent deposition of the sediment is a major factor in implementing this approach. The dredged spoil could be disposed of in a suitable containment facility created on the nearby Bairstow property, which is currently owned by Lake County, IN. The IDOC (1986) recommends that for fish stocking and survival in small lakes and ponds in northern Illinois, the water depth must be about 10 feet in one-quarter of the water area. The maximum depth of macrophyte colonization is estimated to range from 9 to 14 feet. These two criteria, in addition to the resources available for dredging, will determine the area, depth, and volume of lake to be dredged. Wolf Lake Channel. Dredging. The main purpose of dredging of Wolf Lake Channel (Pool 9) is to remove lake bottom materials and near-bank macrophytes. The sediment is greasy and malodorous; it also contains leaves, tree stems, etc. Preventing leaves from blowing into the lake is another important task. Installation of snow fencing may serve this purpose. The upper one-third of Wolf Lake Channel (Pool 9) varies in width from 140 to 190 feet. The width increases to about 300 feet in the southern part of the channel. The proposed length of 251

channel to be dredged is approximately 3,500 feet. The final cut will be a trapezoidal shape with 1:2 slope on both sides of the banks. The average depth of dredging will be between 8 and 9 feet, and the estimated volume of bottom material dredged is about 7,100,000 cubic feet or 263,000 cubic yards. The estimated total cost of dredging Wolf Lake Channel is $1,052,000, using a unit cost of $4.00 per cubic yard. The total cost includes $90,000 for engineering design and construction inspection services, surveying, mapping, testing, and geotechnical investigation; $220,000 for retention site preparation and construction; and $742,000 for sediment dredging and transportation. Thermo-Plasma Destruction. This process includes dredging and sediment treatment. Wangtec's WPS-2000 technology is recommended for an on-site treatment of the contaminated PCBs, hydrocarbons, and heavy-metals. However, the whole process requires three steps; namely, sediment removal (dredging), contaminant treatment, and soil restoration (or disposal elsewhere or sale to beneficial reuser). The following tasks are proposed in order to achieve the goal of the project: Task 1. Removal (dredging) of the sediment from the lake Task 2. Treatment of the contaminated sediment Task 3. Disposal, return to lake, or sales to beneficial reuser of the treated sediment soils Note that the dredged sediment can be directly sent to a special landfill without treatment (Task 1); however, the cost would be higher than treatment-and-return-to-the-lake due to the massive amount contaminated with PCBs. Either return-to-the-lake or sale-to-beneficial-reuser, requires sediment pre-treatment to remove its toxic chemicals. The main purpose of dredging the Wolf Lake Channel (Pool #9) is to remove lake bottom materials and near-bank macrophytes. The sediment is greasy and malodorous; it also contains leaves, tree stems, and other debris. The hydraulic cutter head dredges will be used to remove contaminated sediment and deposit the material into settling impoundments at the lake edge. Upon sufficient dewatering, the sediment will be pre-conditioned to remove debris and optimized particle size and moisture content. Then the processable sediment shall be delivered to WPS2000 system for removal of toxic metals and destruction of hazardous chemicals including PCBs. It is estimated that the dredging operation will take about six months (based on 900 cubic yards per day); and the treatment processing will occur concurrently. The WPS-2000 system is a high-temperature, nonincineration, thermo-plasma destruction process. No air is required in the high-temperature destruction process; therefore, no combustion-derived toxic emission is produced. The current Wangtec Plasma System (WPS) uses thermo-plasma reaction in a high-temperature environment to perform the destruction/ dissociation of the waste stream. The "volume" plasma is generated within the entire reactor volume. It produces highly energetic free radicals which possess a special affinity for the waste compounds such as chlorinated hydrocarbons. Once the collisions occur between these free radicals and the waste molecules, new unstable chemical compounds are formed and the chemical bonds are broken into short-chain nontoxic materials. This results in a high degree of chemical bond destruction and dissociation. The WPS-2000 is an integrated multistage, closed-ioop treatment system for hazardous wastes, such as PCBs, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), low-level mixed wastes, heavy metals, acidic gases, etc. This closed-loop process eliminates the potential for any uncontrolled emissions often found with incinerators. It is a mobile, transportable unit that is excellent for emergency responses and on-site treatment needs. This integrated, mobile system also contains innovative safety concepts that significantly reduce 252

the risk to the public and the environment. The WPS-2000's mobility and unique features result in safe, clean, and reliable treatment of the high-strength hazardous and acute wastes, and make it ideal for effectively treating the chemical compounds. A fluidized-bed reactor located in the closed-loop system is used to remove the toxic heavy-metals and to neutralize the acidic gases. The sub-micron-sized particles of the heavy metals are nucleated and condensed from their vapor state onto existing particles in the bed. Since the bed material is made of absorbing agents, the acidic gases passing through the bubbling bed will be scrubbed and neutralized by the bed materials. Therefore, if the input waste stream contains halogenated organic compounds, the process also removes the halogen acids, products of their destruction. This closed-loop system uses several off-gas treatment components and on-line computercontrolled diagnostic sensors and monitors for complete and safe treatment of the contaminated wastes. Finally, a catalytic oxidizer, located after the exit of the closed-loop system, converts the trace light-hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide to the final, and only emission products: water and carbon dioxide. The advantages of thermo-plasma technology (WPS-2000) are: • • • • •

An on-site generator supplies system power, and utility power is not necessary. The system is small [6 feet × 7 feet × 8 feet], and can be moved around the lakeshore. Only small working area near the shoreline is needed. The system has high treatment efficiency and is cost effective. A closed-loop system provides safe, clean, and reliable treatment to the public and operators. • The 4 mg/kg PCB-contaminated sediment is not a hazardous waste, so no stringent Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) permit is required. Pool #9 of the Wolf Lake Channel varies in width from 140 to 190 feet. The width increases to about 300 feet in the southern part of the channel. The proposed length of channel to be dredged is approximately 3,500 feet. An average water depth is about 4 feet. The average depth of dredging the contaminated sediment for treatment is about 3 feet. For an estimate, a dimension of 250-feet (wide) × 3 500-feet (long) × 3-feet (deep) is being used. Therefore, an estimated volume of bottom material dredged is about 2,625,000 cubic feet or 97,236 cubic yards. An estimated breakdown of cost includes: Dredging/Sediment Removal $5.00/yd3, Chemicals/Metal Treatment $2.50/yd3, Treated Soils/Sediment Return to Lake $3.50/yd3, (Option of Selling Soils to Beneficial Reuser) ($Income). The estimated overall cost is about $1,069,600 (or $11.00 per cubic yard). This cost estimate for thermo-plasma destruction of pollution in sediment is close to that of dredging without the sediment treatment (larger volume removed). Only the cost of dredging is presented in the budget table. Pools 6 and 7. The dredging proposed in Pools 6 and 7 (Alternative II) is for macrophyte control, fishery management, and boaters. As shown in figure 16f, a dense growth of Eurasian water milfoil occurred in the center portion of the east bay of Pool 6. Diverse species of aquatic >lants were found near shorelines and in the west (narrow) bay at the Illinois-Indiana state border ! ine. No action needs to be taken in these areas. Most of Pool 6 has a water depth of 2 to 4 feet except one area where the water depth is 6 feet. Assuming that the average depth of sediment to be dredged is 10 feet and the area to be dredged in the central portion of the pool is 740 feet x 253

1,000 feet, then the total volume of lake bottom material removed will be 274,000 cubic yards. Using the unit cost of $4.00 per cubic yard, the estimated total cost of dredging part of Pool 6 is $1,096,000. As in Pool 6, the central area of Pool 7 (600 feet × 700 feet) is proposed for dredging. The area covers approximately 9.6 acres, or 20 percent of the the total lake surface area. The water depths in this area are about 4 feet, an the depth of sediment removal will be 10 feet, for a total volume of 156,000 cubic yards. On the basis of $4.00 per cubic yard, the total cost of dredging in this pool is estimated at $604,000. Pool 3. The dredging in Pool 3 is for the purpose of enhancing fisheries and boating. The major portion of Pool 3 has a water depth of 4 to 6 feet. Only a few small areas (less than 10 percent) have depths of 6 to 12 feet. It is proposed (Alternative III) that the central part of the lake (1,300 feet × 1,100 feet, or 32.8 acres; approximately 40 percent of the lake bottom) be dredged to remove an average of 9 feet of sediment. The volume of bottom material removed from the lake (477,000 cubic yards) will leave the lake with a water depth of at least 14 feet. According to Raman et al. (1995) the unit cost of sediment removal from Lake George is $4.00 per cubic yard, which includes geotechnical and engineering services and sediment retention site construction. Using the same unit cost, the total cost of sediment removal from Pool 3 by hydraulic dredging will be $1,908,000. It should be pointed out that the dredged spoils could be a potential sand-and-gravel resource. However, the State of Indiana opposes any lake dredging for sand mining purposes. The estimated cost for dredging includes costs of disposal site acquisition, surveying, mapping, geotechnical investigation, engineering design and construction inspection services, retention site preparation and construction, and sediment removal. The unit rate for dredging used provides for the special handling required for dealing with the hazardous sediments from the Wolf Lake Channel and utilizes the economy of scale in dredging costs. Dredged spoil disposal site selection, size of the retention basin which is dependent on the sediment settling rate, security requirements to exclude public access etc., will be dealt with under Phase II of the project once the dredging program is approved and funded. Macrophyte Control by Herbicides 2,4-D Treatment in Pools 6 and 7. In a Phase I Clean Lakes Program diagnosticfeasibility study of McCullom Lake, McHenry County, IL, Hudson et al. (1992) proposed application of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid to eradicate Eurasian water milfoil. This approach has been accepted by the IEPA and USEPA. 2,4-D is selective for water milfoil and has the advantage of killing the entire plant, including the root, within two to three weeks of application; and full-season control is possible with successive annual treatments. A minimum of 24 to 36 hours contact time at 1 mg/L is recommended by Hudson et al. (1992). For Pools 6 and 7, instead of expensive dredging, treatment with 2,4-D seems to be an option worth considering. The treatment scheme and cost estimates are adopted from Hudson et al. (1992). 2,4-D should be applied in the spring when plants are young and vigorously growing. Recently, it has been suggested that Eurasian water milfoil may be more vulnerable to fall application of 2,4-D due to active storing of carbonates in the roots in preparation for winter. Chemical application must be carried out by a licensed aquatic herbicide applicator. The cost is relatively high for the initial treated acre, but additional acres are treated at a reduced rate. On the basis of an average contractor rate of $250 per acre, the initial spring application to 17 and 9.6 acres in Pools 6 and 7 would cost $4,250 and $2,400, respectively. It is necessary to run an application program for two to three years, even four years. Assuming half the cost for one fall

254

application and two spring treatments, the three-year treatment cost would be $10,600 and $6,000 for Pools 6 and 7, respectively. Two to three weeks following 2,4-D application, the treated areas should be inspected along with the remainder of the lake. Hand-harvesting of isolated plants and removal of milfoil fragments must also be carried out. Scanning of the lake by boat should then be performed at least monthly throughout the growing season to remove isolated plants. A fragment barrier, such as a small-mesh fishnet supported by buoys, can be placed around the area being harvested to collect drifted fragments. Hudson et al. (1992) assumed that five acres of lake inspection and hand-pulling of Eurasian water milfoil would require 68 person-hours during the first year. It is estimated that 850 (50 per acre) and 580 (60 per acre) person-hours, respectively, for Pools 6 and 7 would be needed for lake inspection and hand-pulling of plants during the first year of treatment. A team of four persons (two divers and two technicians) is recommended. On average, professional divers cost $35 per hour and technicians cost $15 per hour (i.e., $25 for an average person-hour). Therefore, the first year follow-up job will cost $21,250 and $14,500 for Pools 6 and 7, respectively. The second and third years will require approximately 75 and 50 percent of the person-hours estimated for year one, for a cost of $16,000 and $10,900, respectively, for Pool 6, and $10,900 and $7,250, respectively, for Pool 7. Thus, the costs of manual removal in a threeyear Eurasian water milfoil control program are estimated to be $48,000 and $32,600 for Pools 6 and 7, respectively. Total costs of three years of 2,4-D applications to eradicate Eurasian water milfoil in the overgrown areas of Pools 6 and 7 are $58,600 and $38,600, respectively, including costs of chemical application and follow-up manual removal. Application of Sonar. The use of fluridon (tradename Sonar) to control Eurasian water milfoil is promoted by its manufacturer, Dow Chemical Company. There are no published reports in technical journals about the efficacy of Sonar in controlling Eurasian water milfoil. The manufacturer claims that a low concentration of fluridon (0.015-0.020 mg/L) is selective for milfoil control and does not seriously affect native plant species. Sonar could be tried in Pool 7 on an experimental basis. Any chemical application needs licensed operator and permit. Use of any federally approved herbicide, following the manufacturer's guidelines, should impact the lake system minimally. Mechanical Harvesting. Mechanical harvesting is applicable to Pools 6 and 7 for macrophyte control. However, as stated previously, mechanical harvesting does not completely collect the cut plant at all. The plant (Eurasian water milfoil) fragments can easily drift and regrow to previously uninfested areas. Special care should be taken to eliminate or minimize plant fragment drift in the lake during harvesting. Special care should be exercised to prevent drifting of plant fragments to Pool 4. The large quantities of biomass removed have to be dewatered and disposed of to a landfill or composted. As mentioned earlier, USEPA (1988) estimated harvest costs at $135 to $300 per acre. The ranges of per-acre costs for harvesting and herbicide treatment are similar in northern climates (USEPA, 1990). For the purpose of this report, cost of harvesting is assumed to be the same as herbicide treatment costs for Pools 6 and 7.

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Mitigation Bacterial Contamination To address the high indicator bacterial densities problem, detailed monitoring of the stormwater discharges and engineering studies needs to be carried out to determine the course of action to mitigate this problem. The city of Hammond has been directed by the IDEM to investigate this aspect and take appropriate action. Lake Ecosystem Management Replanting of Desirable Native Aquatic Plants. To help prevent reinfestation of Eurasian water milfoil in areas where it has been controlled, it is desirable to reintroduce and reestablish native aquatic plants. The goal of aquatic plant management is to provide the appropriate number of aquatic plants, taking into account the effects of macrophytes on fish communities and other lake uses such as boating and aesthetics. Macrophytes can help stabilize the lakebed and shoreline, reducing problems with lake shore erosion and high turbidity. Fisheries are enhanced by moderate growth of aquatic plants; the complete elimination of macrophyte beds may be as harmful as excessive plant growth. Some desirable rooted aquatic submerged vegetation suited for Midwestern lakes are: certain broad-leaved pondweeds, Potamogeton ampljfolius (largeleaf pondweed), P. illinoensis (Illinois pondweed), P. natans (floating leaf pondweed), and P. richardsonii (Richardson pondweed); some narrow-leaved pondweeds, Potamogeton berchtoldii (Berchtold pondweed), P. foliosus (leafy pondweed), and P. pectinatus (sago pondweed); and wild celery (Vallisneria americana) (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, personal communication, November 21, 1994). P. pectinatus tubers as well as those of P. richardsonii and P. americanus (American pondweed) can be purchased commercially at a cost of approximately $150 per 1,000 tubers. Sago pondweed should be planted in April or May, two to three weeks following 2,4-D application. Broad-leaved pondweeds and naiads are best planted in June as cuttings, six to eight per bunch spaced 12 to 15 inches apart (Hudson et al., 1992). Cost of materials and labor to plant aquatic plants has been reported to be approximately $3,250 per acre (Chicago Park District, 1994) for small park lagoons. Hudson et al. (1992) estimated the cost for planting a five-acre area to be $8,250 for McCullom Lake in McHenry County, a collar county in the Chicago region. For Lake George, considering the economy of scale, the unit cost for replanting aquatic vegetation in the lake was estimated at about $1,500 per acre (Raman et al., 1995). No planting of native aquatic plants is recommended for Pools 3, 6, and 7 due to the abundance of mixed species near shorelines. Pool 9 needs to be replanted on both sloping banks. Planting in an area of 4.82 acres (30 feet × 7,000 feet) will cost $7,200. Addition of Physical Structures for Fish Cover. Some lakes and reservoirs lack sufficient structural features and areas for fish to hide, particulary areas where younger, smaller fish can find cover to escape from larger fish and other predators. Without adequate cover, survival rates of young fish are often low. Structural features provide safety from predators, substrate for food organisms, and in some cases spawning habitat. Additionally, predators, which include most game species, tend to concentrate around structural features in search of prey. By concentrating fish in specific areas, the addition offish cover, such as artificial reefs, can increase fishing success and angler satisfaction (USEPA, 1993). Common types of physical structural habitat include docks and piers, brush piles, and rock reefs, as well as constructed artificial reefs such as cribs, piping, and plastic structures. In addition to replanting native aquatic vegetation in Wolf Lake Channel, other artificial reef

256

structures in adequate number and size should be considered for fisheries enhancement. The cost of installation offish cribs or artificial reefs in Pool 9 is $2,000. Other Related Programs Wolf Lake and its watershed are within the areas of concern (AOC) identified by the International Joint Commission (UC). The Remedial Action Plan (RAP) of the IJC is an ongoing effort to control and mitigate the effects of past waste disposal practices in the AOC. The management scheme for Wolf Lake could be integrated into the RAP of the IJC. The city of Hammond has the management authority for Wolf Lake. Benefits Expected from Restoration Project Once implemented, the proposed restoration plan (Alternative I) will improve the aesthetic appeal of Pools 3 and 5 and Wolf Lake Channel, and enhance water quality, habitat, and recreational uses in Wolf Lake. In addition to yielding water quality benefits, dredging and fisheries management in Wolf Lake Channel will also improve bank fishing at Forsythe Park. In addition to providing the benefits of Alternative I, Alternative II will control Eurasian water milfoil, particularly in Pools 6 and 7, which interferes with boating activities and creates an extensive canopy formation that detracts from the aesthetic enjoyment of the water body. Control of this non-native aquatic vegetation and re-establishment of native aquatic plants will provide and sustain conditions for an ecological balance and desirable aquatic food chain in the ecosystem. Conditions will be vastly improved by the addition of strategically placed fish cribs and other fish structures. Selective deepening will increase fish survival over harsh winters, and the sports fisheries in the lake can be improved through the proposed fisheries management activities. Overall, the aesthetics and recreational opportunities provided by the lake environment will be increased significantly under Alternative II. Alternative III includes the dredging of Pool 3 in addition to all the activities proposed in Alternative II. If Alternative III is implemented, the area for boating and fishing will be increased in the Illinois side of Wolf Lake. Resource (sand) recovery is a possible extra benefit of dredging Pool 3. A report prepared by J AC A Corporation (1980) for the USEPA, assessing the economic benefits derived from 28 projects in the Section 314 Clean Lakes Program, shows a return in benefits of $8.30 per federal dollar expended, or $4.15 per total project dollar. The projects produced benefits in 12 categories: recreation, aesthetics, flood control, economic development, fish and wildlife, agriculture, property value, public health, public water supply, education, and research and development, resource recovery and reduced management cost, and pollution reduction. The report also indicates that while many benefits could not be measured in monetary terms, the success of many Clean Lakes Program projects appears to have been a catalyst for other community activities.

PHASE II LAKE MONITORING SCHEDULE AND BUDGET Monitoring Program In order to evaluate the response of Wolf Lake and Wolf Lake Channel to Phase II restoration activities, a monitoring program will be implemented once the restoration project is in place to document the changes in the lake's water quality. The following monitoring schedule will be used in evaluating the effectiveness of the in-lake management technique adopted for the lake.

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The lake water will be monitored for dissolved oxygen, temperature, and Secchi disc readings at the deepest locations, one in each of Pools 8 and 9 (Alternative I), and Pools 6 and 7 (Alternative II), and Pool 3 and Indian Creek (Alternative III). Observations for dissolved oxygen and temperature will be made at 1-foot intervals commencing from the surface. Water samples for chemical analyses will be taken at these deep stations from two different points: 1 foot below the water surface and 2 feet above the bottom. Analyses will be made for pH, alkalinity (phenolphthalein and total), conductivity, total suspended and dissolved solids, volatile suspended solids, turbidity, total phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, total kjeldahl nitrogen, turbidity, and chemical oxygen demand. Integrated water samples (integrated to a depth of twice the Secchi disc depth) will be collected at each deep station for determining chlorophyll-a, b, c, and pheophytin. Integrated water samples will also be collected for algae and zooplankton identification and enumeration. Physical and chemical water quality characteristics will be monitored at biweekly intervals (May - September) and at monthly intervals (October - April). Algae and zooplankton samples will be collected at monthly interval (May - September), and benthos will be examined once in late spring and again in midsummer. A macrophyte survey and a fish survey using an electroshocking technique will be made once, approximately 12 to 18 months after the implementation of the management techniques. A fish-flesh contamination assessment is desirable. Sediment samples taken with an Ekman/Petite Ponar dredge will be examined for macroinvertebrate identification and enumeration. Surficial sediment will be collected once at each water sample location for metals and organics analyses. Sediment samples will be collected at the same locations as in the Phase I study. Implementation Schedule The proposed implementation schedule is listed in table 66, which outlines planning, design, in-lake management, and report phases. The proposed duration of Phase II is 27 months. The schedule has not yet been assigned specific target dates, due to the uncertainty of funding availability. Budget The estimated costs for various alternatives are as follows: Alternative I ($1,269,000); Alternative II with dredging in Pools 9, 6, and 7 ($2,969,000); Alternative II using 2-4-D to control macrophytes or harvesting in Pools 6 and 7 ($1,366,000); Alternative III with dredging in Pools 3,6,7, and 9 ($4,877,000); and Alternative III using chemical control in Pools 6 and 7 and dredging in Pool 3 ($3,279,000). The lake will be monitored during the implementation of Phase I recommendations and for a period of one year after the implementation of all the recommendations. The initial monitoring of the lake will be much less frequent (once a month), and the subsequent monitoring will be at the same schedule as for the Phase I diagnostic study. The estimated costs for these two monitoring phases are $50,000 and $140,000 for a total of $190,000.

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Table 66. Proposed Implementation Schedule for Wolf Lake Restoration

Month

Activity

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Final Design and Construction Document Development

XXXX

Obtain Necessary Permits

XX

Cleanup Campaign

X

Advertise and Award Construction Contracts

XX

Hydraulic Dredging Removal and Restocking

XXXX of

Rough

Replanting

of

Native

Installation Artificial Reefs

of

Fish

Post Restoration Monitoring Phase II Report

Fish

X

Vegetation Cribs

X X and

X X X

X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

A breakdown of project costs is as follows:

1.

2.

3.

Sediment removal Pool 9 1,052,000 Pool 6 N/A Pool 7 N/A Pool 3 N/A Macrophyte control a. Chemical Pool 6 Pool 7 b. Three-year manual removal Pool 6 Pool 7 Replanting native plants Pool 9 7,200

1,052,000 1,052,000 1,096,000 N/A 604,000 N/A N/A N/A

1,052,000 1,096,000 604,000 1,908,000

1,052,000 N/A N/A 1,908,000

10,600 6,000

10,600 6,000

48,000 32,600

48,000 32,600

7,200

7,200

7,200

7,200

2,000

2,000

2,000

2,000

2,000

5.

Improvement of 129th Street 18,000

18,000

18,000

18,000

18,000

6.

Post-implementation study

190.000

190.000

190.000

190.000

190.000

1,269,200

2,969,200

1,366,400

4,877,200

3,274,400

4.

Installation of fish cribs or artificial reefs

Project total

EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS This section covers some of the environmental impacts of the proposed Phase II restoration project. The Clean Lakes Program requires that the following questions be addressed. Will the project displace people? The project will not displace people, since all project-related activities occur in park areas. Will the project deface residential areas? The project will not deface residences located near the project areas. In any case, hydraulic dredging, if chosen as a mitigation technique, is considerably less noisy than drag-line equipment and earth-moving machinery. The dredged spoils from Wolf Lake Channel have to be disposed of in a sealed containment area and monitored for contamination of ground water. The PCB levels of the Channel were found to be of "high concern". Some noise associated with cutterhead operation and pumping is unavoidable. Nonetheless, no defacement of residences is anticipated. 260

Will the project entail changes in land-use patterns or increases in development pressure? No land-use pattern will be affected. However, improved aesthetics and recreational opportunities will positively impact the surrounding educational, commercial, and residential entities. There will be no increase in development pressure. Will the project impact prime agricultural land or activities? No agricultural land is affected by the project. Will the project adversely affect parkland, public, or scenic land? There will be some visual and noise impacts during the transitory period of restoration activities. However, lake restoration will provide long-term enhancement of the environmental, aesthetic, and recreational values in the general area. Will there be adverse impacts to historical, architectural, archaeological, or cultural resources? There are no known lands or structures of historical, architectural, archaeological, or cultural significance in the project area. Will the project entail long-range increases in energy demand? Once the major components of the restoration scheme are implemented, there will be no activity requiring excessive energy use in the operation and maintenance of the lake system. Are changes in ambient air quality expected? Because the project area is in a highly industrialized region of Indiana and Illinois, changes in air quality due to the operation of the diesel-powered dredge may not be perceptible. Are there any adverse effects due to chemical treatment? No long-term adverse impacts are expected from the proper application of 2,4-D to eradicate Eurasian water milfoil. Laboratory tests suggest that 2,4-D application at approved dosages is not toxic to tested fish and does not bioaccumulate at significant levels in the bodies of those fish. However, certain macroinvertebrates, such as Daphnia and midges, may be affected by some formulations, especially liquid esters at label application rates (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 1990). Adverse impacts to aquatic life from 2,4-DCP (a breakdown product of 2,4-D) have not been documented in the field. Because 2,4-D is selective for water milfoil when applied at the proper rate and time, nontargeted plants will not be adversely affected, and low levels of carcinogenic impurities detected in some 2,4-D sample are of negligible risk to human health. Furthermore, it is believed that no significant risk will occur to recreational users from exposure to water treated with 2,4-D (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 1990). Does the management plan comply with Executive Order (E.O.) 11988 on floodplain management? The restoration of Wolf Lake does not involve any activities in floodplains and consequently does not infringe on E.O. 11988.

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Will the dredged material be discharged into the waters of the United States? The dredged materials will not be discharged into any waterway. Are any adverse effects on wetlands and related resources anticipated? The small parcels of wetland on the south side of the lake and south of Wolf Lake Channel will not be affected by the lake improvement activities. Have all the feasible alternatives been considered? All the relevant and applicable management options were considered and discussed, and appropriate suggestions and recommendations have been made. Are there other mitigative measures required? The pros and cons of various alternatives have been considered, and the need for no other mitigative measure should arise. Proper management of stormwater outfalls from the Hammond Sanitary District is required. REFERENCES American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association (AWWA), and Water Environment Federation. 1992. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 18th ed., APHA, Washington, DC. Austen, D.J., J.T. Peterson, B. Newman, ST. Sobaski, and P.B. Bayley. 1993. Compendium of 143 Illinois Lakes: bathymetry, physico-chemical features, and habitats. Vol. 1, Illinois Natural History Survey, Aquatic Ecology Technical Report 93/9(1), Champaign, EL. Bell, J.M., and R.W. Johnson. 1990. Environmental site assessment of Wolf Lake. Purdue University, THP 901126, Lafayette, IN. Berrini, P.J. 1992. Phase I diagnostic/feasibility study of Paris Twin Lakes, Edgar County, Illinois, Cochran & Wilken, Inc., Springfield, IL. Berry, C.R., Jr., C.B. Schreck, and S.L. Van Horn. 1975. "Aquatic macroinvertebrate response to field application of the combined herbicides diquot and endothall." Bulletin of Environmental Contamination Toxicology. 14:3 74-479. Bretz, J.H. 1939. Geology of the Chicago region, part 1 - general. Illinois State Geological Survey Bulletin 65, Champaign, IL. Bretz, J.H. 1955. Geology of the Chicago region, part 2 - the Pleistocene. Illinois State Geological Survey Bulletin 65, Champaign, EL. Carlson, R.E. 1977. 22(2):361-369.

"A trophic state index for lakes." Limnology and Oceanography.

Carnow, B.W. 1990. Calumet College project - toxicologic review. CCA Project No. 102179E001, Carnow, Conibear & Associates Ltd. 262

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Dunst, R.C., MB. Born, P.D. Uttormack, S.A. Smith, S.A. Nichole, J O . Peterson, DR. Knauer, S.L. Serns, D.R. Winter, and T.L. Wirth. 1974. Survey of lake rehabilitation techniques and experiences. Technical Bulletin 75, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI. Duwal, K.G., 1994. Event-based and seasonal precipitation effects on ground water-wetlands interactions near Lake Calumet, Southeast Chicago, Illinois. Master's Thesis, University of Illinois-Chicago. Engel, S. 1988. 'The role and interactions of submersed macrophytes in a shallow Wisconsin lake." Journal of Freshwater Water Ecology. 4(3):329-341. Engel, S. 1990. Ecosystem responses to growth and control of submerged macrophytes: A literature review. Technical Bulletin 170, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI. 20 p. Fenelon, J.M., and L.R.Watson. 1993. Geohydrology and water quality of the Calumet aquifer, in the vicinity of the Grand Calumet River/ Indiana Harbor Canal, Northwestern Indiana. U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Resources Investigations Report 92-4115, Indianapolis, IN. Geldreich, E.E. 1967. Tecal conform concepts in stream pollution." Water and Sewage Works. 114 (reference number):R98-R109. Geldreich, E.E., H.F. Clark, and C.B. Huff. 1964. "A study of pollution indicators in a waste stabilization pond." Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation. 36(11):1372-1379. Geldreich, E.E., and B.A. Kenner. 1969. "Concepts of fecal streptococci in stream pollution." Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation. 41(8): R336-R352. Getsinger, K.D., G.J. Davis, and M.M. Brinson. 1982. "Changes in Myriophyllum spicatum L. community following 2,4-D treatment." Journal Aquatic Plant Management. 20:4-8.

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Hill, R.A., H.L. Hudson, J.J. Clark, T.R. Gray, and R.J. Kirschner. 1994. Clean Lakes Program. Phase 1 diagnostic-feasibility study of Herrick Lake, DuPage County, Illinois. Forest Preserve District of DuPage County Planning and Development Department, Wheaton, IL. Hudson, H.L., R.J. Kirschner, and J.J. Clark. 1992. Clean Lakes Program, Phase 1 diagnostic/feasibility study of McCullom Lake, McHenry County, Illinois. Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission, Chicago, IL. Hurlbert, S.H. 1975. "Secondary effects of pesticides on aquatic ecosystems." Residue Review. 58:81-148. Hutchinson, G.E. 1957. A treatise on limnology, volume 1: geography, physics, and chemistry. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. Illinois Department of Conservation. 1977. William W. Powers Conservation Area, IDOC, Land and Historic Sites, Springfield, IL. Illinois Department of Conservation. 1986. Management of small lakes and ponds in Illinois. First Edition, Division of Fisheries, Springfield, IL. Illinois Department of Conservation. 1990. Aquatic weeds and their identification and methods of control. Fishery Bulletin No. 4, Division of Fisheries, Springfield, IL. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. 1978. Assessment and classification of Illinois lakes. Volume II, Springfield, IL. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. 1984. Volunteer lake monitoring program report for 1983 Wolf Lake/Cook Co. Division of Water Pollution Control, Springfield, IL. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. 1987. Quality assurance and field methods manual. Division of Water Pollution Control, Planning Section, Springfield, IL. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. 1990. Title 35: environmental protection, subtitle C: water pollution. State of Illinois, Rules and Regulations, Springfield, IL. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. 1994. Illinois water quality report 1992-1993 (draft version). Bureau of Water, Springfield, IL. Indiana Department of Environmental Management. 1986. Indiana lake classification system and management plan. Indianapolis, IN. Indiana Department of Environmental Management. 1992. Indiana 305(b) report 1990-91. Office of Water Management, Indianapolis, IN. Indiana Department of Environmental Management. 1995. Indiana Environmental Rules: Water. Updated through the February 1, 1995 Indiana Register, 1994 Edition. IDEM, Indianapolis, IN. Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board. 1973. Water quality standards for Wolf Lake. Regulation SPC 10R, ISPCB, Indianapolis, IN. JACA Corporation. 1980. An assessment of economic benefits of 28 projects in the Section 314 Clean Lakes Program. Fort Washington, PA. 264

Kelly, M.H., and R.L. Hite. 1981. Chemical analysis of surficial sediments pom 63 Illinois lakes, summer 1979. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Springfield, IL. Kothandaraman, V., and R.L. Evans. 1983a. Diagnostic-feasibility study of Johnson Sauk Trail Lake. Illinois State Water Survey Contract Report 312, Champaign, IL. Kothandaraman, V., and R.L. Evans. 1983b. Diagnostic-feasibility study of Lake Le-Aqua-Na. Illinois State Water Survey Contract Report 313, Champaign, IL. Mackenthun, KM. 1969. The practice of water pollution biology. U.S. Department of the Interior, Federal Water Pollution Control Administration. Madsen, J.D. 1993. Control points in the phenological cycle of Eurasian water milfoil. Aquatic Control Research Program, Volume A-93-1, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station. Natonski, D. 1975. "Wolf Lake." unknown source, pp. 20-21. Newbold, C. 1976. "Environmental effects of aquatic herbicides." In Proceedings of a symposium on aquatic herbicides, T.O. Robson and J.H. Fearon, eds. January 5-7, 1976, Oxford, England, pp. 78-90. Newroth, P.R., and R.J. Soar. 1986. "Eurasian water milfoil management using newly developed technologies." Lake and Reservoir Management. 2:252-257. Nichols, S.A. 1986. "Community manipulation for macrophyte management." In Lake and Reservoir Management. Volume 2, G. Redfield, J.F. Taggart, and L.M. Moore, eds. North American Lake Management Society, Washington, DC. pp. 245-251. Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission. 1995. McCullom Lake, McHenry, Illinois. A program for its restoration and protection, a project update. 8 p. Numberg, G.K. 1984. "The prediction of internal phosphorus load in lakes with anoxic hypolimnia." Limnology and Oceanography. 29(1): 111 -124. Peterson, S.A. 1981. Sediment removal as a lake restoration technique. EPA-600/3-81-013, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR. Pierce, N.D. 1970. Inland lake dredging evaluation. Technical Bulletin 46, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI. Province of British Columbia. 1978. Information bulletin, aquatic plant management program, Okanagan Lakes. Volume IV, Ministry of the Environment, Water Investigations Branch. Pullman, G.D. 1992. Aquatic vegetation management guidance manual, version 1. Midwest Aquatic Plant Management Society, Flint, MI. Raman, R.K., and W.C. Bogner. 1994. Frank Holten State Park Lakes: Phase III, postrestoration monitoring. Illinois State Water Survey Contract Report 564, Champaign, IL. Raman, R.K., S.D. Lin, W.C. Bogner, J.A. Slowikowski, and G.S. Roadcap. 1995. Diagnosticfeasibility study of Lake George, Lake County, Indiana. Illinois State Water Survey Contract Report (draft), Champaign, IL. 265

Raman, R.K., and R.M. Twait. 1994. Water quality characteristics of Lake Bloomington and Lake Evergreen. Illinois State Water Survey Contract Report 569, Champaign, IL. Roadcap, G.S., and W.R. Kelly. 1994. Shallow ground-water quality and hydrogeology of the Lake Calumet area, Chicago, Illinois. Illinois State Water Survey Interim Report, Champaign, IL. Roberts, W., and J.B. Stall. 1967. Lake Evaporation in Illinois. Illinois State Water Survey Report of Investigation 57, Champaign, IL. Rosenshein, J.S., and J.D. Hunn. 1968. Geohydrology and ground water potential of Lake County, Indiana Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources Bulletin 31. 36 p. Sawyer, C.N. 1952. "Some aspects of phosphate in relation to lake fertilization." Sewage and Industrial Wastes. 24(6): 768-776. Schloesser, D.W., and B.A. Manny. 1984. "Rapid qualitative method for estimating the biomass of submersed macrophytes in large water bodies." Journal Aquatic Plant Management. 22:102-104. Sefton, D.F., M.H. Kelly, and M. Meyer. 1980. Limnology of 63 Illinois lakes. Environmental Protection Agency, Springfield, IL.

Illinois

Suter, M., R E . Bergstrom, H.F. Smith, H.E. Emrich, W.C. Walton, and T.E. Larson. 1959. Preliminary report on ground-water resources of the Chicago region, Illinois. Illinois State Geological Survey and State Water Survey Cooperative Ground-Water Report 1, Champaign, IL. TAMS Consultants, Inc. 1991. Illinois-Indiana regional airport. Site Selection Report, Appendix E, Volume II, State of Illinois. Presented to the State of Indiana and the city of Chicago. Chicago, IL. U.S. Department of Commerce. 1992. 1990 Census of Population, General Population Characteristics, Illinois, 1990 CP-1-5. Economics and Statistics Administration, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. U.S. Department of Commerce. 1993. 1990 Census of Population, Social and Economic Characteristics, Illinois, Sections 1 and 2, 1990 CP-2-15. Economics and Statistics Administration, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1973. Measures for the restoration and enhancement of freshwater lakes. EPA 430/9-73-005. Washington, DC. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1980. Clean Lakes Program guidance manual. EPA 440/5-81-003, Office of Water Regulation and Standards, Washington, DC. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1988. The lake and reservoir restoration guidance manual, first edition. EPA 440/5-88-002, Washington, DC. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Edition), 261.24.

1990a.

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Federal Register, 40 CFR Ch. 1 (7-1-90

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1990b. Monitoring lake and reservoir restoration, technical supplement to the lake and reservoir restoration guidance manual. EPA 440/490-007, Washington, DC. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1993. Fish and fisheries management in lakes and reservoirs, technical supplement to the lake and reservoir restoration guidance manual. EPA 841-R-93-002, Water Division (WH-553), Washington, DC. U.S. Water News. 1994. "Tiny weevil is taking a liking to water weed." U.S. Water News. 11(4):20. Vollenweider, R.A. 1968. Scientific fundamentals of lakes and flowing waters, with particular reference to nitrogen and phosphorus as factors in eutrophication. DAS/CSI/68.27, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris. Wagner, K.J. 1990. "Assessing impacts of motorized watercraft on lakes: issues and perceptions." In: Proceedings of a National Conference on Enhancing the State's Lake Management Programs, Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission, Chicago, IL, pp. 7793. Wang, W.C., W.T. Sullivan, and R.L. Evans. 1973. A technique for evaluating algal growth potential in Illinois surface waters. Illinois State Water Survey Report of Investigation 72, Champaign, IL. Watson, L.R., R.J. Shedlock, K.J. Banaszak, L.D. Arihood, and P.K. Doss. 1989. Preliminary analysis of the shallow ground-water system in the vicinity of the Grand Calumet River/Indiana Harbor Canal, Northwestern Indiana. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 88-492. Wente, S.P. 1994. Sediment background concentration distribution of 172 potential pollutants in Indiana. A contract report. Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. Westerdahl, H.E. and K.D. Getsinger (eds). 1988. Aquatic plant identification and herbicide use guide, volume I: aquatic herbicides and application equipment; volume II: aquatic plants and susceptibility to herbicides. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Aquatic Plant Control Research Program, Technical report A-88-9, Vicksburg, MS. Willman, H.B. 1971. Summary of the geology of the Chicago area. Illinois State Geological Survey Circular 160, Champaign, IL. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 1990. Chemical fact sheet: 2,4-D. PUBL-WR23690. Madison, WI.

267

Appendix A. Bathymetric Maps of Wolf Lake

268

Pool 1 of Wolf Lake Cook County, Illinois

269

Pool 2 of Wolf Lake Cook County, Illinois

270

Pool 3 of Wolf Lake Cook County, Illinois

Pool 4 of Wolf Lake Cook County, Illinois

Pool 5 of Wolf Lake Cook County, Illinois

273

Pool 6 of Wolf Lake Lake County, Indiana

Pool 7 of Wolf Lake Lake County, Indiana

Pool 8 of Wolf Lake Lake County, Indiana

Pool 9 of Wolf Lake Lake County, Indiana

277

Appendix B. Ambient Lake Monitoring Data for Wolf Lake

278

Appendix B. Ambient Lake Monitoring Data for Wolf Lake Station

Sample

Sample

Sample

Code

Date

Time

Depth

(It.)

RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1

08/04/77 05/09/91 06/11/91 07/16/91 08/13/91 10/08/91 10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 02/10/93 03/16/93 04/13/93 05/10/93 05/26/93 06/09/93 06/22/93 07/07/93 07/20/93 08/04/93 08/18/93 09/08/93 09/28/93 04/27/94 08/21/94 08/23/94 10/04/94 05/09/91 10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 02/10/93 03/16/93 04/13/93 05/10/93 05/26793 06/09/93 06/22/93 07/07/93

1200 1125 1340 1250 1215 820 1535 930 1140 1040 935 935 930 925 1010 1030 1605 1945 1410 1640 900 930 1220 1225 1400 1407 1125 1535 930 1140 1040 935 935 930 925 1010 1030 1650

Turbidity

(NTU)

0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13 13 14 13 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15

1 1 2 1 1 3 11 3 0 0 0 13 4 4 0 0 0 10 1 0 2 1 1 2 1 3 4 3 0 0 0 2 3 2 0

Secchl

Cond-

Chemical

Trans.

udMty

Oxygen

(In.)

104 159 158 96 108 144 105 188 131 168 126 91 132 95 91 151 132 118 108 163 144 116 126 168 81 120

(umho/cm)

670 573 563 560 566 570 577 553 568 540 570 600 530 550 520 530 560 540 520 520 490 565 552 536 524 576 579 559 569 540 570 570 640 550 520 520

pH

Total

Phenoph.

Total

Volatile

Ammonia

Total

Nitrate

Total

Dlaiolved

Total

Alkalinity

Alkalinity

Susp.

Susp.

Nitrogen

KlekJahl

Nitrite

Phos-

Phos-

Depth

(moA

Solids

Solids

Nitrogen

Nitrogen

CeC03)

(mg/L)

(mg/L)

(mg/L)

Demand

(mg/L

(mg/L)

CaC03)

23.00 16.00 17.00 19.00 19.00 17.00 15.00 14.00 14.00 14.00 17.00 16.00 14.00 16.00 16.00 14.00 14.00 15.00 17.00 16.00 15.00

14.00 16.00 18.00 13.00 15.00 17.00 17.00 17.00 16.00 17.00 15.00 16.00

8.60 7.60 8.30 8.29 8.34 8.19 8.30 7.90 7.70 7.38 8.41 8.44 8.30 8.39 8.33 8.58 8.39 8.68 8.62 8.75 8.40 8.44 8.24 8.34 8.55 8.57 7.70 8.30 8.00 7.80 7.35 8.53 8.47 8.24 8.31 8.38 8.33 8.23

92 108 120 122 140 110 102 102 180 100 107 106 112 114 106 107 101 105 108 102 100 98 120 144 116 100 116 101 101 180 103 110 106 90 114 106 103 105

0 2 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 4 2 0 0 0 4 0 2 4 3 1 2 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 0 0 1 0

9 3 3 5 5 2 4 3 1 1 2 4 3 2 23 3 4 2 2 1 K 2 3 1 1 K 2 2 6 3 2 1 1 K 3 3 4 3 7 3 5

(mg/L)

3 1 5 5 2 2 1 1K 1K 1K 2 1 1 6 2 2 1 1 1 1K 1 1 1 2 1K 5 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3

(mg/L)

K

K

K K

0.02 0.13 0.09 0.05 0.04 0.12 0.38 0.06 0.06 0.02 0.05 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.05 0.07 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.10 0.08 0.02 0.01 0.15 0.37 0.03 0.05 0.03 0.04 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.11 0.01 0.01

K K

K

K

K K K K

0.70 0.50 0.60 0.60 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.32 0.58 0.10 K 0.76 0.73 0.78 0.74 0.33 0.31 0.77 0.47 0.36 0.47 0.50 0.40 0.50 0.90 0.60 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.29 0.56 0.59 0.67 0.66 0.86 0.94 0.32

0.0 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0

phorus (mg/L)

K K K K

K K K K

K K K

K

0.040 0.006 0.006 0.009 0.007 0.013 0.010 0.003 0.006 0.004 0.008 0.006 0.005 0.001 K 0.009 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.003 0.001 K 0.006 0.008 0.016 0.003 0.006 0.016 0.008 0.009 0.005 0.007 0.018 0.010 0.006 0.004 0.007 0.011 0.007 0.005

phorus (mg/L)

(ft.)

0.002 0.006 0.007 0.007 0.003 0.001 0.004 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.015 0.001 0.002 0.010 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.007 0.001 0.001

K K K K K K K K K K K

K K K K K K K

15.0 15.5 14.0 14.0 12.0 15.0 16.0 15.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.5 16.0 17.0 17.0 15.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 14.0 14.0 15.0 14.0 15.0 15.0 16.0 15.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.5 16.0 17.0 17.0 17.0

Appendix B. Continued Station

Sample

Sample

Sample

Code

Date

Time

Depth

(fl.)

RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2

07/20/93 08/04/93 08/18/93 09/08/93 09/28/93 04/27/94 06/21/94 08/23/94 10/04/94 08/04/77 06/12/79 08/17/79 05/02/89 06/12/89 07/20/89 08/24/89 10/04/89 05/09/91 06/11/91 07/16/91 08/13/91 10/08/91 10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 01/19/93 02/10/93 03/16/93 04/13/93 05/10/93 05/26/93 06/09/93 06/22/93 07/07/93 07/20/93 07/23/93 08/04/93 00/18/93

1945 1410 1640 900 930 1220 1225 1400 1407 1200 1430 1000 1250 1205 1100 1030 1615 1215 1420 1330 1240 850 1630 1055 1030 1120 840 1105 1040 1000 1040 1225 1140 1650 1815 1815 1455 1720

Turbidity

(NTU)

14 0 14 1 14 0 14 0 14 2 12 2 12 2 13 1 12 2 0 1 14 1 15 1 4 1 4 1 5 16 1 3 12 1 3 1 5 1 7 1 12 13 12 1 3 1 0 10 1 1 1 0 1 4 1 5 1 5 1 2 1 3 1 0 1 1 8 1 0

Secchl

Cond-

Chemical

Trans.

uctlvlty

Oxygen

(In.)

35

(umho/cm)

400 530 510 500 370 563 553 541 526 400

pH

Total AkalMy

Demand

(mg/L

(mg/L)

CaC03)

17.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 25.00

12 72 48 26 34 38 99 72 39 26 18 35 84 131 82 91 85 66 51 62 46 56 42 36

860 383 280 298 284 290 407 370 366 352 345 336 344 364 400 410 420 430 470 460 390 370 410

12.00 15.00 24.00 25.00 19.00 12.00 19.00 22.00 27.00 32.00 18.00 15.00 11.00 9.00 12.00 14.00 12.00 15.00 14.00 17.00 15.00 16.00 18.00

36 37

390 380

18.00 20.00

6.73 6.60 8.74 8.40 8.40 8.28 8.35 6.61 8.57 8.60

106 102 102 100 101 120 128 128 108 82

8.70 8.10 9.10 9.20 9.00 8.80 8.30 8.50 8.78 8.86 8.35 8.10 7.90 7.90 8.08 7.75 8.34 8.22 8.28 8.58 8.55 9.13 9.04 9.30 9.00 9.38

70 126 82 66 70 69 100 94 86 140 92 102 107 116 117 113 117 110 120 112 89 74 67 7 70 76 70

Phenoph.

Total

Volatile

Ammonia

Total

Nitrate

Total

Dissolved

Total

AfcaMty

Susp.

Suap.

Nitrogen

KjekJahl

Nitrite

Phos-

Phos-

Depth

Nitrogen

Nitrogen

(mg/L)

(mg/L)

(mg/L

Solids

Solids

CaC03)

(mg/L)

(mg/L)

4 4 4 1 1 0 0 8 0

11 10 6 2 23 3 1 1 2 12 43 10 26 0 4 14 2 10 12 10 6 8 4 2 4 4 7 8 12 30 16 0 17 1 K B 0 4 0 1 0 2 0 2 1 5 0 4 0 6 1 8 1 10 8 16 2 6 8 15 8 10

11 8

10 3 2 1 17 3 1 K 1 1K 10 28 25 4 2 11 6 4 4 3 10 8 16 6 2 1 K 1 2 3 2 3 4 6 11 6 13 8 2

(mg/L)

0.02 0.15 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.10 0.08 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.05 0.11 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.14 0.02 0.03 0.08 0.36 0.08 0.13 0.18 0.11 0.05 0.02 0.04 0.01 0.04 0.09 0.01 0.01

K K

.

K

K

0.01 K 0.03

0.26 0.75 0.48 0.66 0.71 0.50 0.30 0.50 0.50

phorus (mg/L)

1.50 1.00 0.50 0.50 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.50 0.70 0.60 0.80 0.80 0.70 0.50 0.50 0.65 0.43 0.51 0.43 0.81 0.89 0.93 0.86 0.43 0.32

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

K K

K K K

0.020 0.001 0.001 0.010 0.039 0.026 0.006 0.006 0.012 0.040 0.080 0.100 0.011 0.015 0.029 0.028 0.016 0.010 0.015 0.019 0.024 0.046 0.027 0.010 0.011 0.007 0.015 0.011 0.010 0.023 0.020 0.026 0.021 0.014 0.019

0.72 0.45

0.0 K 0.0 K

0.022 0.010

K K

K K K K K K K K K

phorus (mg/L)

0.001 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.001 0.009 0.001 0.003 0.012

(ft.)

K K K K

16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 14.0 14.0 15.0 14.0

0.000 0.000 0.007 0.007 0.009 0.005 0.006 0.005 0.008 0.006 0.005 0.011 0.005 0.001 0.003 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001

K K K K

13.0 14.0 14.5 14.5 13.0 14.0 12.0 13.0 13.5 13.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 15.0 15.5 15.0 15.0 16.0 14.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 16.0 16.0

0.001 K 0.001 K

14.0 15.0

K

K K K K

Appendix B. Continued Station

Sample

Sample

Sample

Code

Date

Time

Depth

Turbidity

Secchl

Cond-

Chemical

Trans.

uctlvily

Oxygen Demand

(ft.)

RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 Rh-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A08-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3

09/08/93 09/28/93 04/27/94 06/21/94 08/23/94 10/04/94 08/17/79 05/02/89 08/24/89 10/04/89 06/11/91 07/16/91 08/13/91 10/08/91 10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 01/19/93 02/10/93 03/16/93 04/13/93 05/10/93 05/26/93 06/09/93 06/22/93 07/07/93 07/20/93 08/04/93 08/18/93 09/08/93 09/28/93 08/04/77 06/12/79 05/02/89 06/12/89 07/20/89 08/24/89 10/04/89

950 1020 1145 1200 1313 1334 1000 1250 1030 1615 1420 1330 1240 850 1630 1055 1030 1120 840 1105 1040 1000 1040 1225 1140 1650 1815 1455 1720 950 1020 1200 1130 1340 1315 1130 1115 1700

(NTU)

1 1 1 1 1 11 99 11 12 11 12 11 10 12 14 13 14 13 13 14 12 12 13 14 14 14 12 13 13 13 0 1 1 1 1 1 1

14 1 19 6 16 12 16 5 6 4 5 4 8 8 4 1 3 0 0 0 0 5 2 4 2 5 0 7 0 9 0 18 2 1 3 5 3

(In.)

27 25 36 51 18 24

(umho/em)

370 380 465 425 367 343 830 382 284 291 371 374 368 350 337 338 362 390 400 420 430 500 450 400 380

34

380 380 390 370 500 420

120 100 41 30 48

369 337 310 316 295

pH

14.00 28.00 22.00 19.00 24.00 28.00 33.00 18.00 12.00 11.00 10.00 13.00 13.00 12.00 15.00 16.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 14.00 20.00 23.00 27.00 14.00

11.00 12.00 22.00 28.00 24.00

Phenoph.

Total

Volatile

Ammonia

Total

Nitrate

Total

Dissolved

Total

Alkalinity

Susp.

Susp.

Nitrogen

Kjektahl

Nitrite

Phos-

Phos-

Depth

Solids

Solids

Nitrogen

Nitrogen

(mg/L)

(mg/L)

(mg/L

(mg/L)

25.00 25.00

Total Alkalinity

(mg/L CaCO3)

CaCO3)

8.85 8.67 8.11 8.54 8.81 8.77 8.80 8.20 8.50 8.90 8.30 8.10 8.12 8.38 8.10 7.90 7.90 8.02 7.70 8.52 8.18 8.17 8.52 8.50 8.56 7.88 8.74 8.95 7.90 8.80 8.65 9.00

80 88 132 124 120 108 65 126 74 80 86 88 140 96 100 105 115 115 112 115 110 118 113 88 82 72 72 75 88 79 87 76

5 2 0 8 12 8 5 0 8 12 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 1 1 1

8.30 9.00 8.40 8.60 8.90

100 76 66 84 86

6 10 7 6 6

2 6 0 4 2

(mg/L)

23 20 9 5 17 13 26 4 6 6 6 12 17 16 7 4 1 3 2 3 2 12 8 12 7 14 21 20 6 15 1 2 40 2 1 K 11 6 4

(mg/L)

16 10 6 3 14 8 23 4 6 6 3 10 10 14 6 2 1 K 2 2 1K 1 K 6 5 6 5 8 17 13 1 12 1 K 24 2 1 K 11 5 4

(mg/L)

0.01 0.01 0.08 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.04 0.02 0.06 0.13 0.03 0.02 0.11 0.34 0.11 0.14 0.20 0.07 0.03 0.09 0.03 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.08 0.03 0.02 0.04

K K

K K K

K K

0.62 0.91 1.00 0.60 1.10 0.70 0.90 0.50 0.60 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.70 0.90 0.60 0.50 0.60 0.62 0.38 0.49 0.66 0.89 1.08 1.06 0.97 0.35 0.45 0.67 0.55 0.58 0.42 1.50 0.50 0.50 0.60 0.60 0.60

0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

phorus

K

K K K

K K K K K K K

K K K K K K

K K K K

phorus

(mg/L)

(mg/l)

0.036 0.029 0.035 0.015 0.029 0.031 0.090 0.015 0.021 0.020 0.026 0.024 0.029 0.045 0.027 0.011 0.011 0.009 0.008 0.011 0.013 0.036 0.024 0.024 0.023 0.027 0.023 0.026 0.030 0.034 0.005 0.000 0.090 0.013 0.011 0.022 0.017 0.022

0.005 0.001 0.009 0.003 0.002 0.012 0.000 0.007 0.007 0.006 0.005 0.007 0.007 0.009 0.002 0.001 0.003 0.005 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.004 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.000 0.007 0.005 0.008 0.009 0.006

(ft.)

K

K

K K

K K K

K

15.0 15.0 13.0 14.0 12.5 11.5 14.0 13.0 14.0 13.0 13.5 13.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 15.0 15.5 15.0 15.0 16.0 14.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 14.0 15.0 15.0 15.0

13.0 13.0 15.5 13.0 13.0

Appendix B. Continued Station

Sample

Sample

Sample

Code

Date

Time

Depth

Turbidity

Secchl

Cond-

Chemical

Trans.

uctMty

Oxygen Demand

(ft.)

RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RKNA06-A-3

05/09/91 06/11/91 07/16/91 08/13/91 10/08/91 10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 01/19/93 02/10/93 03/16/93 04/13/93 05/10/93 05/26/93 06/09/93 06/22/93 07/07/93 07/20/93 08/04/93 08/16/93 09/08/93 09/28/93 04/27/94 06/21/94 08/23/94 10/04/94 08/17/79 10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 01/19/93 02/10/93 03/16/93 04/13/93 05/10/93 05/26/93 06/09/93 06/22/93

1245 1445 1410 1315 930 1715 1130 825 1005 950 1230 1155 1040 1200 1307 1225 1730 1900 1550 1805 1040 1055 1125 1135 1226 1305 1100 1715 1130 825 1005 950 1230 1155 1040 1200 1307 1225

(NTU)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 17 1 1 16 1 1 4 9 12 11 12 11 11 11 10 11 12 12

2 2 5 13 7 4 1 3 1 1

3 1 1 2 3 0 6

2 5 16 10 20 4 1 2 1 0 0 0 4 1 2 2

(in.)

105 66 40 26 24 51 91 129 97 130 113 84 74 102 62 81 60 49 42 36 36 31 66 45 14 30

(umho/cm)

440 395 386 369 358 346 353 393 410 400 420 440 450 430 370 380 540 390 370 390 370 468 442 379 351 800 346 358 397 430 390 420 460 470 430 370 350

pH

Total

Alkallnlty (mg/L

(mg/L)

13.00 18.00 23.00 27.00 29.00 19.00 17.00 11.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 14.00 13.00 11.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 19.00 23.00 23.00 25.00

17.00 15.00 12.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 12.00 14.00 14.00 15.00 14.00

Phanoph. Alkallinlty

CaCO3)

8.30 8.60 8.81 8.88 8.45 8.10 7.70 7.80 8.03 7.77 8.43 8.14 8.28 8.66 8.57 9.17 9.16 9.17 8.92 9.30 8.52 8.44 7.97 8.25 8.80 8.68 8.80 8.10 7.90 7.70 7.80 7.65 8.55 8.14 8.25 8.57 8.58 8.97

106 89 90 150 102 99 106 121 117 110 111 110 112 104 83 114 74 72 75 77 85 87 140 136 128 100 75 99 106 118 110 109 112 110 114 103 83 79

Total

Volatile

Ammonia

Total

Nitrate

Total

Dissolved

Total

Susp.

Susp.

Nitrogen

Kjeldahl

Nitrite

Phos-

Pros-

Depth

Nitrogen

Nitrogen

(mg/L)

(mg/L)

(mg/L

Solids

Solids

CaCO3)

(mg/L)

(mg/L)

2 4 10 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 4 1 5 5 6 4 11 2 1 0 0 4 4 5 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 2 1 8

6 7 5 13 10 5 3 2 2 4 4 4 3 3 8 6 6 2 29 16 18 24 5 3 13 13 35 6 2 1 1 2 4 2 2 5 9 2

6 2 2 5 9 2 2 1 K 1K 3 2 2 1 2 4 5 4 2 14 8 10 18 3 2 13 10 27 4 2 1 K 1K 1K 1 2 1 2 4 2

(mg/L)

0.04 0.08 0.05 0.12 0.12 0.32 0.10 0.17 0.17 0.06 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.10 0.12 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.26 0.08 0.19 0.17 0.12 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.04 0.01

K K K

K K K

K K

0.50 0.70 0.80 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.70 0.66 0.31 0.48 0.61 0.70 0.83 0.96 0.68 0.29 0.53 0.68 0.60 0.59 0.78 0.70 0.60 0.80 0.90 1.20 0.50 0.50 0.70 0.68 0.20 0.54 0.66 0.75 0.90 0.87 0.67

0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0

phorus (mg/L)

K K K K K

K K K K K K

K K K K

K

0.012 0.017 0.022 0.026 0.031 0.026 0.008 0.007 0.006 0.008 0.005 0.010 0.012 0.015 0.017 0.010 0.013 0.008 0.021 0.020 0.030 0.036 0.025 0.022 0.032 0.027 0.100 0.020 0.009 0.012 0.007 0.009 0.011 0.010 0.020 0.015 0.018 0.023

phorus (mg/L)

0.005 0.011 0.007 0.016 0.010 0.004 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.001 0.011 0.004 0.002 0.012 0.010 0.002 0.001 0.004 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.004 0.003 0.001

(It.)

13.0 13.0 13.5 13.0 4.5 11.0 K 14.0 13.0 13.5 K 13.0 13.0 13.0 K 12.0 13.0 14.0 K 14.0 K 14.0 13.0 K 13.0 K 13.0 13.0 K 14.0 6.0 6.0 14.0 5.0 9.0 11.0 K 14.0 13.0 13.5 K 13.0 K 13.0 K 13.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 14.0

Appendix B. Continued Station

Sample

Sample

Sample

Code

Date

Time

Depth

Turbidity

Secchl

Cond-

Chemical

Trans.

uctlvity

Oxygen Demand

(ft.)

RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06^A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A0&A-4 RH-A08-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4

07/07/93 07/20/93 08/04/93 08/18/93 09/08/93 09/28/93 10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 01/19/93 02/10/93 03/16/93 04/13/93 05/10/93 05/26/93 06/09/93 06/22/93 07/07/93 07/20/93 08/04/93 08/18/93 09/08/93 09/28/93 10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 01/19/93 02/10/93 03/16/93 04/13/93 05/10/93 05/26/93 06/09/93 06/22/93 07/07/93 07/20/93 08/04/93 08/18/93

1730 1900 1550 1805 1040 1055 1500 1340 1435 1340 1225 1415 1310 1155 1310 1450 1330 1505 1730 1310 1540 1150 1200 1500 1340 1435 1340 1225 1415 1310 1155 1310 1450 1330 1505 1730 1310 1540

(NTU)

12 4 11 0 11 7 11 1 11 6 12 2 14 11 12 1 0 1 1 10 10 1 5 1 2 1 4 1 2 15 1 1 1 9 1 0 1 14 14 9 4 9 1 9 3 10 0 9 0 9 0 9 0 10 6 9 3 10 4 10 2 10 5 10 0 8 9 9 0

(in.)

(umho/cm)

400 390 380 390 380 34 64 134 75 123 84 61 42 62 40 67 35 30 29 30 21 22

336 363 380 380 420 440 470 450 380 320 400 4 350 360 360 338 336 370 380 390 420 440 480 450 380 330 380 380 360

pH

Phenoph.

Total

Volatile

Ammonia

Tolal

Nitrate

Total

Alkalinity

Susp.

Susp.

Nitrogen

kjeldahl

Nitrite

Phos-

Nitrogen

Nitrogen

(mg/L)

(mgA)

(mg/L

(mg/L.)

17.00 20.00 19.00 21.00 24.00 23.00 17.00 15.00 9.00 9.00 10.00 14.00 12.00 17.00 17.00 18.00 15.00 18.00 17.00 21.00 22.00 30.00 25.00 18.00 13.00 11.00 10.00 10.00 16.00 11.00 15.00 17.00 19.00 20.00 1900 15.00 22.00 25.00

Total Alkalinity

(mg/L CaCO3)

8.83 8.95 8.70 7.98 8.50 8.44 8.30 7.80 7.80 8.03 7.75 6.48 8.24 8.24 8.52 8.38 9.28 9.07 9.33 8.97 9.50 8.95 8.68 8.30 7.90 8.00 8.00 7.68 8.50 8.25 7.98 8.50 8.43 8.99 8.92 9.10 8.95 8.73

75 75 77 81 83 90 104 110 118 118 114 114 112 81 109 88 68 66 70 76 67 78 88 103 109 120 116 116 115 113 120 110 88 71 67 72 71 81

CaCO3)

3 0 4 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 1 8 4 8 6 11 4 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 5 1 5 4 1

Solids

Solids

(mg/L)

(mg/L)

8 10 30 11 16 20 9 9 1 K 2 2 4 4 9 7 17 8 9 6 27 5 25 30 9 4 1 1 3 3 6 9 8 20 9 15 17 27 10

5 8 13 4 9 15 6 5 1 K 1 1 1 2 4 4 10 6 7 6 16 2 21 20 6 2 1 K 1 K 1 2 4 5 5 13 6 9 15 19 4

(mgA)

0.01 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.33 0.14 0.18 0.18 0.07 0.06 0.03 0.06 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.20 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.41 0.14 0.18 0.19 0.08 0.04 0.06 0.11 0.04 0.04 0.01 0.22 0.02 0.02 0.03

K K K K

K K

K K K K

K

0.40 0.66 0.73 0.46 0.44 0.76 0.60 0.40 0.67 0.58 0.42 0.46 0.95 0.82 0.99 0.93 0.90 0.37 0.35 0.84 0.62 0.38 0.74 0.80 0.52 0.70 0.88 0.41 0.56 0.74 0.79 1.19 1.24 1.13 0.45 0.46 0.78 0.56

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

phorus

K K K K K K

K K K K K K K

K K K K K

Dissolved

Total

Phos-

Depth

phorus

(mg/L)

(mg/L)

0.014 0.025 0.026 0.026 0.030 0.033 0.028 0.016 0.009 0.006 0.007 0.011 0.011 0.021 0.022 0.031 0.020 0.021 0.019 0.028 0.019 0.041 0.039 0.030 0.023 0.010 0.010 0.009 0.012 0.011 0.036 0.024 0.033 0.031 0.024 0.026 0.030 0.033

0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.004 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.005 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001

(ft.)

K K K K

K K K K K

K K K K K

K K K K

K

14.0 13.0 13.0 13.0 13.0 14.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 12.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.5 11.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 10.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 12.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.5 11.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 10.0 11.0

Appendix B. Station

Sample

Sample

Sample

Code

Date

Time

Depth

(ft)

RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06.A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6

09/08/93 09/28/93 10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 01/19/93 02/10/93 03/16/93 04/13/93 05/10/93 05/26/93 06/09/93 06/22/93 07/07/93 07/20/93 08/04/93 08/18/93 09/08/93 09/28/93 10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 01/19/93 02/10/93 03/16/93 04/13/93 05/10/93 05/26/93 06/09/93 06/22/93 07/07/93 07/20/93 08/04/93 08/18/93 09/08/93 09/28/93 10/13/92 11/13/92

1150 1200 1315 1530 1630 1650 1615 1645 1745 1400 1810 1640 1945 1340 1530 1205 1410 1325 1400 1315 1530 1630 1650 1615 1645 1745 1400 1810 1640 1945 1340 1530 1205 1410 1325 1400 1130 1050

Turbidity

(NTU)

9 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14 15 15 16 14 15 15 15 14 16 16 16 15 14 15 15 15 1

13 3 14 1 3 10 0 0 0 3 1 1 2 2 0 6 0 16 1 5 1 3 0 0 0 0 4 2 1 2 2 0 5 0 9 0 4 12

Secchl

Cond-

Chemical

Trans.

uctivlty

Oxygen

(in.)

42 86 132 94 131 114 80 105 120 58 76 84 52 32 50 47 33

36 44

(umho/cm)

350 510 467 479 493 500 490 530 510 510 520 470 460 400 520 500 390 469 480 494 530 490 530 520 530 520 480 480 520 530 520 510 370 337 341

pH

Continued

Total Alkalinity

Demand

(moA

(mg/L)

CaCO3)

31.00 22.00 20.00 16.00 12.00 12.00 13.00 13.00 13.00 13.00 15.00 13.00 16.00 15.00 15.00 16.00 12.00 20.00 28.00 20.00 19.00 14.00 10.00 13.00 13.00 12.00 12.00 14.00 13.00 21.00 14.00 14.00 17.00 17.00 20.00 24.00 15.00 14.00

8.80 8.67 8.30 7.80 7.80 7.80 7.77 8.33 8.10 8.10 8.63 8.15 8.48 8.30 8.80 8.55 8.84 8.60 8.52 8.20 7.80 7.80 7.88 7.68 8.35 8.25 7.93 8.42 8.06 7.85 7.86 8.57 8.51 7.67 8.20 8.55 8.00 8.20

77 87 87 92 98 98 94 98 84 87 84 73 73 79 79 63 80 78 83 86 93 100 91 94 117 85 87 87 75 80 79 81 83 91 79 82 103 110

Phenoph.

Total

Volatile

Ammonia

Total

Nitrate

Total

Dissolved

Total

Alkeinlty

Susp.

Susp.

Nitrogen

Kjektahl

Nitrite

Phos-

Phos-

Depth

Nitrogen

Nitrogen

(mg/L)

(mgrL)

(mot

Solids

Solids

CaCO3)

(mg/L)

(mg/L)

3 3 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 4 6 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 0 0

32 23 26 17 7 5 3 2 1 K 1 K 1 K 2 2 2 1 4 2 2 1 3 2 4 2 9 6 5 4 16 14 16 8 2 1 9 2 30 22 11 7 2 1 K 1 1 K 1 1 K 2 1 2 1K 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 5 3 4 2 12 9 16 11 7 5 10 31 22 8 2 4 1

(mg/L)

0.06 0.01 0.34 0.09 0.16 0.24 0.16 0.15 0.09 0.07 0.11 0.08 0.09 0.29 0.03 0.11 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.30 0.12 0.15 0.25 0.17 0.16 0.14 0.09 0.07 0.10 0.22 0.35 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.31 0.18

K

K K

K K K

0.67 0.83 0.60 0.50 0.70 0.63 0.34 0.51 0.56 0.78 0.85 0.94 0.88 0.45 0.37 0.77 0.57 0.28 1.06 0.70 0.50 0.80 0.66 0.42 0.40 0.61 0.71 1.08 0.89 0.99 0.26 0.28 0.68 0.51 0.57 0.83 0.60 0.60

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1

phorus (mg/L)

K K

K K K K

K K K K

0.044 0.036 0.025 0.014 0.011 0.010 0.010 0.011 0.009 0.012 0.014 0.017 0.012 0.015 0.013 0.019 0.024 0.058 0.024 0.019 0.011 0.010 0.012 0.012 0.012 0.018 0.016 0.020 0.014 0.010 0.013 0.023 0.016 0.027 0.055 0.021 0.016

phorus (mg/L)

0.001 0.003 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.004 0.004 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.004 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.004

(ft.)

K

K K K K K

K

K K K K

11.0 11.0 16.0 17.0 17.0 18.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 16.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 17.0 16.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 16.0 17.0 17.0 18.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 16.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 17.0 16.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 4.0 5.0

Appendix B. Continued Station

Sample

Sample

Sample

Code

Date

Time

Depth

(ft.)

RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06^A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8

12/21/92 01/19/93 02/10/93 03/16/93 04/13/93 05/10/93 05/26/93 06/09/93 06/22/93 07/07/93 07/20/93 08/04/93 08/18/93 09/08/93 09/28/93 10/13/92 11/13/92 12/22/92 01/19/93 02/10/93 03/16/93 04/13/93 05/10/93 05/26/93 06/09/93 06/22/93 07/07/93 07/20/93 08/04/93 08/18/93 09/08/93 09/28/93 10/13/92 11/13/92 12/22/92 01/20/93 02/10/93 03/17/93

1530 1540 1355 1530 1550 1600 1545 1855 1715 1125 1320 1030 1135 1530 1550 1200 1115 1230 1440 1320 1500 1615 1625 1630 1916 1750 1150 1355 1055 1225 1600 1620 1000 1210 1130 930 1500 1000

Turbidity

(NTU)

1 1 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14 1 1 1 1 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 1 1 1 10

3 1 0 0 7 4 8 2 6 0 17 1 9 2 2 3 0 0 0 14 3 10 2 12 0 16 2 12 0 4 3 0 0

Sscchl

Cond-

Chemical

Trans.

activity

Oxygen

(In.)

66 57 54 53 52 35 51 40 40 27 26 26 23 26 20 34 53 61 62 60 54 40 29 45 31 33 26 23 27 25 27 24 23 44 63 62 70

(umho/cm)

383 420 410 440 590 460 430 360 370 530 380 350 360 360 331 336 378 400 410 440 490 470 430 390 380 400 380 350 370 350 324 331 400 400 440

pH

Total Alkalinity

Demand

(mg/L

(mg/L)

CaCO3)

10.00 8.00 12.00 15.00 12.00 19.00 17.00 17.00 22.00 22.00 22.00 27.00 27.00 12.00 25.00 20.00 13.00 11.00 10.00 11.00 14.00 13.00 21.00 20.00 20.00 15.00 22.00 24.00 23.00 26.00 26.00 28.00 21.00 18.00 9.00 8.00 9.00 15.00

7.60 8.20 7.80 8.56 8.35 8.64 8.89 8.77 6.98 8.60 9.04 8.91 9.14 8.82 8.41 6.10 7.90 7.90 8.07 7.82 8.43 8.38 8.48 8.79 8.44 8.97 8.73 8.97 8.87 9.10 8.90 8.65 8.20 7.80 8.00 7.96 7.90 8.49

122 119 111 111 118 120 97 83 87 2 63 79 80 87 80 101 109 121 122 116 120 123 122 114 96 102 101 90 8 85 93 98 100 110 119 119 118 122

Phenoph.

Total

Volatile

Ammonia

Total

Nitrate

Total

Dissolved

Total

Alkalinity

Susp.

Susp. .

Nitrogen

Kjeldahl

Nitrite

Phos-

Phos-

Depth

Nitrogen

Nitrogen

(mg/L)

(mg/L)

(mg/L

Solids

Solids

CaCO3)

(mg/L)

(mg/L)

0 0 0 2 0 3 4 3 8 5 4 7 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 4 1 8 2 4 7 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 3

4 2 3 3 5 13 6 23 10 13 23 30 29 35 29 18 6 1 K 2 4 8 8 16 21 23 11 18 37 34 25 8 10 23 8 2 3 4 4

2 1 K 1 2 3 8 4 10 8 8 19 25 22 23 23 11 4 1 K 1K 2 5 5 11 12 15 8 12 28 25 20 8 6 16 4 1K .1 1 3

(mg/L)

0.38 0.31 0.07 0.09 0.13 0.05 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.24 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.39 0.25 0.39 0.32 0.15 0.22 0.14 0.03 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.23 0.02 0.08 0.08 0.02 0.01 0.33 0.27 0.40 0.30 0.18 0.21

1.20 0.80

K K

K K K K

K

K

0.61 0.77 0.87 0.10 K 0.94 0.74 0.59 0.19 0.84 0.67 0.83 0.84 0.70 0.70 1.00 0.69 0.49 0.59 0.92 0.88 1.04 1.17 0.75 1.10 0.71 0.86 0.65 0.68 0.58 0.80 0.80 1.10 0.77 0.62

0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4

phorus (mg/L)

K K K K K K K

K K K K K K K

0.012 0.025 0.015 0.017 0.013 0.035 0.026 0.035 0.023 0.025 0.029 0.049 0.039 0.049 0.068 0.040 0.020 0.012 0.008 0.014 0.026 0.025 0.047 0.028 0.058 0.029 0.048 0.052 0.061 0.044 0.054 0.024 0.053 0.025 0.014 0.013 0.015 0.020

phorus (mg/L)

0.001 0.001 0.004 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.004 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.007 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.005 0.001 0.001 0.004 0.040 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.003 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003

(ft)

6.0 5.0 4.5 4.0 5.0 K 4.5 4.5 K 5.0 5.0 K 5.0 K 5.0 K 5.0 K 4.0 5.0 5.0 8.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 K 5.0 6.0 7.0 K 7.0 K 7.0 K 6.0 6.0 K 6.0 6.0 6.0 16.0 K 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0

Appendix B. Continued Station

Sample

Sample

Sample

Code

Date

Time

Depth

(ft.)

RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH^A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9

04/13/93 05/10/93 05/26/93 06/09/93 06/22/93 07/07/93 07/20/93 08/04/93 08/18/93 09/08/93 09/28/93 10/13/92 11/13/92 12/22/92 01/20/93 02/10/93 03/17/93 04/13/93 05/10/93 05/26/93 06/09/93 06/22/93 07/07/93 07/20/93 08/04/93 08/18/93 09/08/93 09/28/93 10/13/92 11/13/92 12/22/92 01/20/93 02/10/93 03/17/93 04/13/93 05/10/93 05/26/93 06/09/93

1450 1530 1455 1828 1630 1050 1245 930 1100 1450 1510 1000 1210 1130 930 1500 1000 1450 1530 1455 1828 1630 1050 1245 930 1100 1450 1510 1100 1145 940 1310 1725 1325 1640 1700 1700 1940

Turbidity

(NTU)

1 0 1 6 1 5 1 7 12 1 8 1 0 1 12 11 1 13 1 2 14 4 15 3 15 3 15 0 15 0 15 0 15 0 15 6 14 4 15 9 15 2 15 5 15 0 15 12 14 0 14 12 15 3 1 4 11 13 11 1 0 1 3 1 0 1 3 1 3 14

Secchl

Cond-

Chemical

Trans.

uctlvltyy

Oxygen

(In.)

40 45 38 25 35 30 48 28 34 29 24

76 43 86 54 47 26 37 52 47 24

(umho/cm)

450 450 430 360 350 400 380 340 340 360 326 333 8 420 400 440 450 460 430 370 360 380 380 370 350 510 322 342 357 380 360 480 450 380 380 340

pH

Total

Phenoph.

Total

Volatile

Ammonia

Total

Nitrate

Total

Dissolved

Total

Alkalinity

Alkalinity

Susp.

Susp.

Nitrogen

kjekdahl

Nitrite

Phos-

Phos-

Depth

Nitrogen

Nitrogen

(mg/L)

(mg/L)

Demand

(mg/L

(mg/L)

CaCO3)

19.00 17.00 21.00 21.00 22.00 22.00 23.00 20.00 19.00 27.00 28.00 21.00 16.00 9.00 8.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 15.00 17.00 21.00 22.00 21.00 24.00 23.00 22.00 29.00 22.00 9.00 12.00 8.00 6.00 6.00 10.00 10.00 8.00 13.00 25.00

8.43 8.40 8.63 8.38 9.00 8.29 9.03 8.57 9.10 9.00 8.45 8.20 7.90 7.90 7.73 7.83 8.53 8.27 8.38 8.45 8.40 7.98 7.90 8.83 8.57 7.68 8.95 8.57 8.00 7.70 7.70 7.60 7.55 8.25 8.30 8.45 8.01 7.39

116 123 114 95 95 97 51 94 83 90 98 100 110 121 118 117 122 117 122 122 96 96 105 90 94 105 89 99 107 109 114 114 118 120 120 118 114 94

(mg/L

Solids

Solids

CaCO3)

(mg/L)

(mg/L)

2 2 0 0 7 4 2 7 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 1 0 3 2 0 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

10 9 14 25 10 13 25 32 13 21 31 24 8 1 2 4 4 10 5 13 30 12 14 25 30 17 37 23 4 5 1K 2 4 10 10 3 6 19

6 5 9 16 8 10 20 22 10 14 20 16 5 1K 1 2 2 6 3 8 18 8 9 10 20 10 26 16 1 2 1 K 1 K 2 2 4 2 4 10

(mg/L)

0.11 0.05 0.01 0.03 0.06 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.37 0.89 0.40 0.36 0.17 0.21 0.12 0.11 0.08 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.06 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.35 0.74 0.20 0.05 0.18 0.19 0.28 0.05 0.01 0.04

K

K K K K

K K K K

K

0.89 0.78 1.0A 1.09 0.87 0.68 0.73 0.80 0.71 1.40 1.20 0.80 0.80 1.20 0.82 0.56 0.59 0.82 0.91 1.28 1.10 0.85 0.47 0.76 0.98 0.64 0.69 0.91 0.30 0.40 1.10 0.29 0.36 0.60 0.84 0.68 0.81 1.10

0.4 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.0

phorus (mg/L)

K K K K K K K

K K K K K K

0.017 0.026 0.034 0.044 0.027 0.040 0.044 0.059 0.029 0.068 0.041 0.060 0.028 0.018 0.020 0.010 0.022 0.022 0.029 0.036 0.054 0.048 0.041 0.046 0.057 0.045 0.068 0.035 0.018 0.026 0.016 0.011 0.017 0.036 0.022 0.024 0.026 0.064

phorus (mg/L)

0.001 0.001 0.004 0.006 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.018 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.006 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.005 0.001 0.002 0.004 0.011

(ft.)

K

K K K K K

K

K K K K

K K

17.0 16.5 16.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 16.0 16.0 17.0 16.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 16.5 16.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 16.0 16.0 17.0 7.0 8.0 7.0 4.5 8.0 8.0 8.0 7.5 7.0 8.0

Appendix B. Station

Sample

Sample

Sample

Code

Date

Time

Depth

Turbidity

Secohl

Cond-

Chemical

Trans.

uctlvilty

Oxygen

pH

Demand (ft.)

RH-A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9

06/22/93 07/07/93 07/20/93 08/04/93 08/18/93 09/08/93 09/28/93

1825 1215 1425 830 1900 1645 1645

(NTU)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 5 0 5 0 2 1

(In.)

35 29 35 32 31 42 43

(umho/cm)

360 380 370 330 370 370

Total

Phanoph.

Total

Volatile

Ammonia

Total

Nitrate

Total

Dissolved

Total

Alkalinity

Alkalinity

Susp.

Susp.

Nitrogen

kjeldahl

Nitrite

Pros-

Pnos-

Depth

Nitrogen

Nitrogen

(mg/L)

(mg/L)

(mg/L (mg/L)

28.00 27.00 36.00 46.00 13.00 26.00 28.00

CaCO3)

7.98 7.93 7.66 7.38 7.77 7.60 7.59

Continued

107 106 111 114 112 114 105

(mg/L

Solids

CaCO3)

(mg/L)

0 0 0 0 0 0

7 12 11 6 6 2 36

Solids (mg/L)

3 8 11 4 2 1 K 23

(mg/L)

0.04 0.01 K 0.02 0.03 0.01 K 0.02 0.01 K

1.05 0.60 0.38 0.80 0.46 0.54 0.78

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

phorus (mg/L)

K K K K

0.052 0.060 0.031 0.061 0.030 0.033 0.061

phoros (mg/L)

0.003 0.003 0.001 K 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.007

(ft.)

8.0 8.0 7.0 3.0 3.0 7.0 7.0

Appendix B. Continued Station Cods

Sampl* sts

Sample Sampl Chlorophyll Time Depth a (μg/L)

RH-A06HA-1

05/09/91

1125

15

3.37

RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A0&*-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A0&A-1 RH-A0&A-1 RH-A06W-1

06/11/91 07/16/91 08/13/91 10/08/91 10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 01/19/93 02/10/93

1340 1250 1215 830 1535 930 1140 1240 1040

16 14 14 12 13 19 13 14 14

2.26 3.40 2.69 1.08 2.38 2.24 1.22 2.21 4.72

RH-A06HA-1

03/16/93

935

14

8.06

RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH^A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A0&A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-1 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A0&A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 R»+A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A0&A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RHA06nA-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 Rr+A06nA-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RHA06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06nA-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2 RH-A06-A-2

05/10/93 05/26/93 06/09/93 06/22/93 07/07/93 07/20/93 08/03/93 08/18/93 04/27/94 07/19/94 08/23/94 10/04/94 06/12/79 08/17/79 05/02/89 06/12/89 07/20/89 08/24/89 10/04/89 05/09/91 06/11/91 07/16/91 08/13/91 10/08/91 10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 01/19/93 02/10/93 03/16/93 05/10/93 05/26/93 06/09/93 06/22/93 07/07/93 07/20/33 08/03/93 08/18/93 04/27/94 07/19/94 08/23/94 10/04/94

930 925 1010 1030 1605 1945 1410 1640 1220 1350 1400 1407 1430 1000 1250 1205 1100 1030 1615 1215 1420 1330 1240 850 1630 1055 1030 1120 840 1105 1000 1040 1225 1140 1650 1815 1455 1720 1145 1315 1313 1334

14 14 15 15 15 14 14 14 12 12 13 1 2 2 12 8 4 6 7 12 12 7 5 3 6 14 13 14 13 13 9 10 8 9 8 6 6 6 6 7 3 1

2.28 6.53 4.45 2.55 2.75 3.39 2.99 2.75 2.09 4.28 6.74 4.25 51.00 38.40 5.53 11.70 14.77 13.93 8.60 4.69 9.35 12.16 18.56 20.09 10.93 6.79 6.11 7.41 7.00 7.17 9.13 11.55 20.38 8.21 9.34 12.02 20.24 14.83 12.91 32.04 10.92 14.03

288

Chlorophyll a Corrected

Chlorophyll b

Chlorophyll c

Phaeophytll

(μg/L)

(μg/L)

<μg/L)

(μg/L)

2.67

0.74

0.06

3.56 3.12 3.12 0.89 2.51 2.14 1.60 3.20 5.34

0.23 0.34 0.00 0.77 0.49 0.49 0.35 0.75 0.82

0.00 0.00 0.05 0.14 0.00 0.04 0.42 1.36 0.53

8.01

2.67 6.94 4.27 3.20 2.14 3.20 3.74 2.67 1.99 4.27 5.34 4.81 43.60 36.30 4.58 11.87 15.13 13.35 8.01 4.27 8.90 12.46 20.47 20.47 10.68 6.94 6.94 7.48 7.48 7.48 10.15 13.35 22.43 9.08 9.61 12.82 22.03 15.49 14.05 32.93 10.68 3.18

1.92

0.12 1.21 1.29 0.00 0.00 0.26 0.00 0.00 0.41 0.56 4.96 3.13 0.00 K 0.00 0.06 1.37 0.73 1.71 1.53 1.19 1.95 0.00 0.76 0.91 1.32 0.58 0.48 1.46 0.99 1.57 0.00 1.13 1.94 0.00 0.22 0.86 0.08 0.00 2.65 3.26 1.14 1.49

1.07

'

0.00 0.31 0.00 0.36 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.93

0.00

0.00 0.00 0.91 0.00 0.12 0.70 0.00 0.12 0.49 1.24 8.47 6.37 5.75 0.00 0.91 2.72 0.51 1.19 2.16 0.87 0.98 0.84 1.65 0.00 0.00 0.91 1.16 0.85 0.00 0.88 0.00 0.13 0.77 0.22 0.24 0.55 0.59 0.49 1.84 3.45 1.57 10.35

0.00 0.00 0.21 0.00 0.85 0.16 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.00 2.76 0.00 10.40 2.30 1.30 0.00 0.00 0.36 0.71 0.59 0.45 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 17.96

Appendix B. Continued Station Code

Sample ate

Sample Sampl Chlorophyll

Time

Dapth

a

Chlorophyll

Chlarophyl

Chlorophyll

a

b

e

(μg/L)

(μg/L)

Phaeophytin

Corrected (μg/L)

RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A0&A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A0&A-3 RH-A0&A-3 RH-A0&A-3 RRA0&A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A0&A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-3 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-4 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RKA06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5

06/12/79 08/17/79 05/02/89 06/12/89 07/20/89 08/24/89 10/04/89 05/09/91 06/11/91 07/16/91 08/13/91 10/08/91 10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 01/19/93 02/10/93 03/16/93 05/10/93 05/26/93 06/09/93 06/22/93 07/07/93 07/20/93 08/03/93 08/18/93 04/27/94 07/19/94 08/23/94 10/04/94 10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 01/19/93 02/10/93 03/16/93 05/10/93 05/26/93 06709/93 06/22/93 07/07/93 07/20/93 08/03/93 08/18/93 10/13/92 11/12/92 12/21/92 01/19/93 02/10/93 03/16/93 05/10/93 05/26/93 06/09/93

1130 1100 1340 1315 1130 1115 1700 1245 1445 14i0 1315 930 1715 1130 825 1005 950 1230 1040 1200 1307 1225 1750 1900 1550 1805 1125 1250 1226 1305 1500 1340 1435 1340 1225 1415 1155 1310 1450 1330 1505 1730 1310 1540 1315 1530 1630 1650 1615 1645 1400 1810 1640

2 2 11 11 7 6 8 13 13 7 5 4 9 12 11 12 11 11 10 11 10 12 10 8 7 6 5 3 3 3 6 9 9 10 9 7 7 9 7 10 6 5 5 5 7 15 15 16 12 10 15 14 10

<μg/L)

46.90 20.70 3.54 4.86 9.85 12.03 10.19 4.31 5.27 11.66 15.27 16.64 6.08 4.08 7.00 6.29 6.08 5.64 5.50 6.52 8.12 6.59 8.39 8.62 18.67 17.76 9.17 14.32 24.22 17.11 8.57 4.99 5.64 8.02 6.52 6.46 3.22 11.96 20.35 11.17 14.33 13.62 26.41 17.99 9.86 5.88 4.28 4.28 5.20 2.90 3.39 7.68 7.74

289

40.90 19.10 3.05 4.88 7.12 12.21 9.79 3.74 6.23 13.35 17.80 18.69 6.41 3.74 7.48 6.41 6.41 5.87 6.41 6.94 8.01 6.94 9.61 10.15 19.76 18.69 9.63 14.24 24.92 20.66 9.61 5.34 5.87 8.01 7.48 5.87 4.27 13.35 21.36 12.82 14.95 13.35 27.23 18.69 10.68 5.87 4.27 4.27 5.87 3.20 4.27 6.94 9.61

0.46 0.70 0.39 0.00 0.46 0.34 0.89 0.25 0.79 1.39 0.00 1.05 1.06 0.41 0.83 1.21 1.01 0.80 0.00 1.05 1.19 0.42 0.71 0.49 0.44 0.51 2.14 1.44 1.37 6.60 1.44 0.34 0.70 2.23 1.10 1.95 0.00 1.60 2.31 0.14 0.62 0.84 0.64 0.40 2.37 0.70 0.56 0.61 0.60 0.53 0.26 1.04 0.19

0.00 K 0.20 1.41 0.60 0.61 0.75 1.12 0.42 0.00 2.03 0.14 1.36 0.00 0.00 1.22 0.83 0.03 0.25 0.25 1.28 0.25 0.00 0.00 0.83 0.48 0.27 2.69 1.94 1.18 3.21 0.00 0.16 1.23 1.76 0.79 0.49 0.00 1.23 1.11 0.16 0.00 0.99 0.77 0.24 0.00 0.22 1.24 0.75 0.47 0.28 0.70 0.00 0.29

(μg/L)

8.83 2.50 0.69 0.00 4.09 0.00 0.18 0.75 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.37 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.66 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.85 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.91 0.00

Appendix B. Continued Station Coda

Sample

Sample

ate

Time

Sampl Chorophyll Dapth

a

Chlorophyll

Chlorophyll

Chlorophyll

a

b

c

(μg/L)

(μg/L)

Phasophytin

Corrected

(μg/L)

(μg/L)

(uo/L)

RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-5 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6

06/22/93 07/07/93 07/20/93 08/03/93 08/18/93 10/13/92 11/13/92 12/21/92

1945 1340 1530 1205 1410 1130 1050 1530

13 14 9 5 8 6 4 4

6.82 8.62 12.43 17.93 17.69 7.81 12.88 8.56

7.48 8.S4 12.28 19.22 18.69 6.41 13.35 8.54

0.26 0.49 1.49 1.19 1.30 0.98 1.64 1.23

0.08 0.83 0.18 0.43 0.46 0.00 0.45 1.51

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.00 0.00 0.00

RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-6 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06nA-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-7 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH,A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-8 RH-A06-A-9

01/19/93 02/10/93 03/16/93 05/10/93 05/26/93 06/09/93 06/22/93 07/07/93 07/20/93 08/03/93 08/18/93 10/13/92 11/13/92 12/22/92 01/19/93 02/10/93 03/16/93 05/10/93 05/26/93 06/09/93 06/22/93 07/07/93 07/20/93 08/03/93 08/18/93 10/13/92 11/13/92 12/22/92 01/20/93 02/10/93 03/17/93 05/10/93 05/26/93 06/09/93 06/22/93 07/07/93 07/20/93 08/03/93 08/18/93 10/13/92

1540 1355 1530 1600 1545 1855 1715 1125 1320 1030 1135 1200 1115 1230 1440 1320 1500 1625 1630 1916 1750 1150 1355 1055 1225 1000 1210 1130 930 1500 1000 1530 1455 1828 1630 1050 1245 930 1100 1100

3 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 4 5 3 2 3 4 3 4 7 15 11 10 6 8 6 4 6 5 8 5 6 5

13.45 10.57 8.32 17.49 5.84 15.45 10.25 22.92 26.08 36.12 30.46 18.55 11.31 5.40 0.65 15.53 14.88 31.82 19.49 27.50 18.88 39.97 47.88 42.84 25.26 29.87 15.59 8.53 17.11 18.68 12.16 16.13 19.49 31.14 21.90 42.21 58.11 45.29 30.93 4.53

13.88 10.15 9.08 19.76 5.87 18.16 11.75 24.03 26.70 39.31 33.11 19.22 11.21 5.87 0.53 16.02 14.95 35.78 20.83 30.97 21.89 41.65 51.26 45.39 27.23 30.66 16.02 8.54 17.09 19.76 12.28 18.16 21.89 35.78 24.56 44.86 63.55 46.46 32.57 4.45

2.62 1.88 1.39 0.93 1.06 0.81 0.16 1.59 1.90 0.17 1.42 2.13 1.24 0.81 0.46 2.64 2.18 1.55 1.53 1.25 0.76 2.32 3.24 1.70 0.87 1.77 1.86 1.60 2.35 2.91 1.86 0.85 1.53 1.56 0.08 2.86 3.87 1.40 1.20 0.45

3.18 1.09 1.05 1.14 0.55 0.42 0.44 0.10 1.32 0.22 1.06 0.00 0.16 1.26 0.09 1.10 1.01 1.05 1.21 1.12 0.29 1.45 1.40 0.63 0.10 0.00 0.91 1.85 3.99 2.81 1.53 0.66 1.21 0.32 0.54 1.00 1.21 1.06 1.00 0.00

0.00 0.32 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.21 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

RH-A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9

11/13/92 12/22/92 01/20/93 02/10/93 03/17/93

1145 940 1310 1725 1325

6 5 3 6 4

2.72 1.77 0.41 2.24 5.64

2.14 1.07 0.00 3.20 5.87

0.27 0.65 0.52 0.44 0.86

0.00 0.60 0.61 0.53 0.00

0.85 1.17 0.75 0.00 0.00

290

Appendix B. Concluded Station Code

Sample ate

Sample Sampl Time

Depth

Chtorophyll

Chtarophyfl

Chlorophyll

Chlorophyll

a

b

c

(μg/L)

(μg/L)

a

Phaeophytin

Corrected

(μg/L)

RH-A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9 RH-A06-A-9

05/10/93 05/26/93 06/09/93 06/22/93 07/07/93 07/20/93 08/03/93 08/18/93

1700 1700 1940 1825 1215 1425 830 1015

6 5 4 6 5 5 4 5

(μg/L)

9.30 13.55 10.90 23.98 34.68 16.89 19.86 23.35

10.68 13.88 12.28 25.10 37.38 17.09 18.69 23.50

291

0.59 1.68 0.67 2.57 2.87 2.83 1.13 4.78

0.58 0.69 0.04 0.80 1.51 0.60 1.48 1.08

(μg/L)

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.93 0.00

Appendix C. Summary of Water Quality Characteristics in Wolf Lake

292

Appendix C1. Summary of Water Quality Characteristics in Wolf Lake at RHA-1, October 1992 - September 1993

Parameters Turbidity, NTU

Surface Range

Mean

0-13

4

1

129

91-188

29

545

490-600

28

528

15

14-17

1

7.38-8.75

3

Secchi readings, in Conductivity,

Standard deviation

Mean

μmho/cm

COD pH, units

-

Total alkalinity

109

Phenolphthalein alkalinity

98-180 1 0 - 4

Total suspended solids

6

1-53

Volatile suspended solids

2

1-6

Bottom Range 4

1

370-640

68

17

13-25

3

-

-

7.35-8.74

19

108

2 13

1

0

0

5

-

Standard deviation

-

90-180

20

4

2

1-23

6

1 3 1-17

4

Ammonia-N

0.05

0.01-0.38

0.09

0.06

0.01-0.37

0.09

Total kjeldahl nitrogen-N

0.51

0.10-0.78

0.20

0.58

0.28-0.94

0.19

0.1

0.0-0.2

0.1

0.1

0.0-0.2

0.1

Nitrate/nitrite-N Total phosphate-P

0.005

0.001-0.01

0.003

0.01

0.001-0.039

0.009

Dissolved phosphate-P

0.001

0.001-0.004

0.001

0.002

0.001-0.007

0.002

Chlorophyll-a,

μg/L

3.69

1.60-8.01

1.87

Chlorophyll-b,

μg/L

0.55

0.00-1.92

0.59

Chlorophyll-c,

μg/L

0.37

0.00-1.36

0.45

Pheophytin-a,

μg/L

0.09

0.00-0.85

0.23

Notes:

Concentrations are in mg/L except where noted. Surface samples were collected 1 foot from surface and bottom samples were collected 2 feet from lake bottom.

293

Appendix C2. Summary of Water Quality Characteristics in Wolf Lake at RHA-2, October 1992 - September 1993 Surface Mean Range

Parameters Turbidity, NTU

3

Secchi readings, in Conductivity,

μmho/cm

COD pH, units Total alkalinity

Standard deviation

Mean

Bottom Range

Standard deviation

0-9

3

0-14

4

58

25-131

28

395

336-470

37

402

337-500

49

16

9-25

4

16

10-27

4

-

7.75-9.38

-

97

%

67-120

20

Phenolphthalein alkalinity

3

0-10

4

Total suspended solids

9

1-23

7

Volatile suspended solids

6

1-16

2

7.70-8.95 72-118 1

0

-

17

6

2

8

1-21

6

5

5

1-17

5

Ammonia-N

0.07

0.01-0.36

0.09

0.07

0.01-0.34

0.09

Total kjeldahl nitrogen-N

0.63

0.32-0.93

0.20

0.64

0.35-1.08

0.23

0.1

0.0-0.4

0.2

0.1

0.0-0.4

0.1

Nitrate/nitrite-N Total phosphate-P

0.018

0.007-0.036

0.008

0.020

0.005-0.036

0.010

Dissolved phosphate-P

0.002

0.001-0.005

0.001

0.002

0.001-0.005

0.001

Chlorophyll-a,

μg/L

11.57

6.94-22.43

5.21

Chlorophyll-b,

μg/L

0.76

0.00-1.94

0.66

Chlorophyll-c,

μg/L

0.49

0.00-1.16

0.39

Pheophytin-a,

μg/L

0.00

0.00-0.00

0.00

Notes: Concentrations are in mg/L except where noted. Surface samples were collected 1 foot from surface and bottom samples were collected 2 feet from lake bottom.

294

Appendix C3. Summary of Water Quality Characteristics in Wolf Lake at RHA-3, October 1992 - September 1993

Parameters

Mean

Turbidity, NTU Secchi readings, in Conductivity,

μmho/cm

COD pH, units

Surface Range

Mean 2

Bottom Range

Standard deviation

0-7

2

2

0-7

2

75

31-130

32

403

346-540

47

398

346-470

36

16

11-25

5

16

10-24

4

7.70-9.30

-

-

-

Total alkalinity

Standard deviation

7.65-8.97

97

72-121

17

96

75-118

16

Phenolphthalein alkalinity

2

0-11

3

1

0-8

2

Total suspended solids

8

2-29

8

8

1-30

8

Volatile suspended solids

5

1-18

5

4

1-15

4

Ammonia-N

0.06

0.01-0.32

0.08

0.06

0.01-0.26

0.08

Total kjeldahl nitrogen-N

0.62

0.29-0.%

0.17

0.61

0.20-0.90

0.18

Nitrate/nitrite-N

0.10

0.0-0.4

0.1

0.1

0.0-0.4

0.1

Total phosphate-P

0.015

0.005-0.036

0.009

0.018

0.007-0.033

0.008

Dissolved phosphate-P

0.002

0.001-0.004

0.001

0.002

0.001-0.004

0.001

Chlorophyll-a,

μg/L

8.77

3.74-19.76

4.70

Chlorophyll-b,

μg/L

0.72

0.00-1.21

0.36

Chlorophyll-c,

μg/L

0.41

0.00-1.28

0.45

Pheophytin-a,

μg/L

0.03

0.00-0.37

0.10

Notes:

Concentrations are in mg/L except where noted. Surface samples were collected 1 foot from surface and bottom samples were collected 2 feet from lake bottom.

295

Appendix C4. Summary of Water Quality Characteristics in Wolf Lake at RHA-4, October 1992 - September 1993 Surface Mean Range

Parameters Turbidity, NTU Secchi readings, in Conductivity, umho/cm COD pH, units Phenolphthalein alkalinity Total suspended solids Volatile suspended solids

Mean 3

Bottom Range

Standard deviation

0-13

4

3

0-14

4

56

21-134

33

386

320-470

44

393

330-510

53

17

9-30

6

17

10-31

6

7.75-9.50

-

-

-

Total alkalinity

Standard deviation

7.68-9.10

93

66-118

20

96

67-120

20

3

0-11

4

1

0-5

2

10

1-30

9

12

1-32

10

7

1-21

6

8

1-23

7

Ammonia-N

0.08

0.35-0.99

0.09

0.10

0.01-0.41

0.10

Total kjeldahl nitrogen-N

0.65

0.35-0.99

0.23

0.75

0.41-1.24

0.25

0.1

0.0-0.4

0.1

0.1

0.0-0.4

0.1

Nitrate/nitrite-N Total phosphate-P

0.021

0.006-0.041

0.010

0.025

0.009-0.044

0.011

Dissolved phosphate-P

0.002

0.001-0.004

0.001

0.002

0.001-0.005

0.001

Chlorophyll-a,

μg/L

12.01

4.27-27.23

6.79

Chlorophyll-b,

μg/L

1.02

0.00-2.31

0.77

Chlorophyll-c,

μg/L

0.64

0.00-1.76

0.57

0.006

0.00-0.85

0.23

Pheophytin-a,

Notes:

μg/L

Concentrations are in mg/L except where noted. Surface samples were collected 1 foot from surface and bottom samples were collected 2 feet from lake bottom.

296

Appendix CS. Summary of Water Quality Characteristics in Wolf Lake at RHA-5, October 1992 - September 1993 Surface Mean Range

Parameters Turbidity, NTU Secchi readings, in Conductivity, umho/cm COD pH, units

2

0-16

4

79

32-132

34

483

390-530

41

15

12-28

-

Total alkalinity

Standard deviation

85

Phenolphthalein alkalinity

Bottom Mean Range 0-9

3

498

370-530

40

4

16

10-24

4

7.77-8.84

-

-

7.67-8.57

73-98

8

88

75-117

10

2

0

0-2

1

1 0 - 6

2

Standard deviation

Total suspended solids

7

1-30

8

7

1-31

8

Volatile suspended solids

4

1-22

6

5

1-22

6

Ammonia-N

0.12

0.01-0.34

0.10

0.13

0.01-0.35

0.10

Total kjeldahl nitrogen-N

0.63

0.28-1.06

0.22

0.64

0.26-1.08

0.23

0.2

0.0-0.5

0.2

0.2

0.0-0.5

0.2

Nitrate/nitrite-N Total phosphate-P

0.017

0.09-0.058

0.012

0.018

0.100-0.055

0.011

Dissolved phosphate-P

0.002

0.001-0.004

0.001

0.002

0.001-0.004

0.001

Chlorophyll-a,

μg/L

8.66

3.20-19.22

5.10

Chlorophyll-b,

μg/L

0.83

0.19-2.37

0.60

Chlorophyll-c,

μg/L

0.42

0.00-1.24

0.35

Pheophytin-a,

μg/L

0.07

0.00-0.91

0.24

Notes:

Concentrations are in mg/L except where noted. Surface samples were collected 1 foot from surface and bottom samples were collected 2 feet from lake bottom.

297

Appendix C6. Summary of Water Quality Characteristics in Wolf Lake at RHA-6 and RHA-7, October 1992 - September 1993

Parameters Turbidity,

Mean NTU

Secchi readings, in

4

RHA-6. Surface Standard Range deviation 0-17

RHA-7. Surface Standard Mean Range deviation

4

5

0-16

6

40

20-66

14

38

23-62

14

408

337-590

71

394

331-490

46

17

8-27

6

19

10-28

6

7.80-9.14

-

-

79-122

16

106

3

0-8

3

Total suspended solids

14

2-35

Volatile suspended solids

10

1-25

Conductivity,

μmho/cm

COD pH, units

-

Total alkalinity

100

Phenolphthalein alkalinity

7.82-9.10 85-123

13

3

0-8

3

11

15

1-37

11

9

10

1-26

8

Anunonia-N

0.11

0.01-0.38

0.13

0.14

0.01-0.39

0.14

Total kjeldahl nitrogen-N

0.70

0.10-1.20

0.27

0.79

0.49-1.17

0.20

0.1

0.0-0.4

0.2

0.1

0.0-0.4

0.2

Nitrate/nitrite-N Total phosphate-P

0.029

0.012-0.068

0.015

0.035

0.008-0.061

0.017

Dissolved phosphate-P

0.002

0.001-0.007

0.002

0.004

0.001-0.040

0.009

Chlorophyll-a,

μg/L

17.15

5.87-39.31

10.29

24.9

0.53-51.26

15.02

Chlorophyll-b,

μg/L

1.27

0.16-2.62

0.67

1.62

0.46-3.24

0.80

Chlorophyll-c,

μg/L

0.90

0.00-3.18

0.81

0.78

0.00-1.45

0.54

Pheophytin-a,

μg/L

0.17

0.00-2.00

0.53

0.02

0.00-0.21

0.06

Notes:

Concentrations are in mg/L except where noted. Surface samples were collected 1 foot from surface and bottom samples were collected 2 feet from lake bottom.

298

Appendix C7. Summary of Water Quality Characteristics in Wolf Lake at RHA-8, October 1992 - September 1993 Surface Mean Range

Parameters Turbidity, NTU

Standard deviation

4

399

326-510

52

6

18

8-29

6

-

-

51-123

18

107

2

0-7

3

Total suspended solids

15

2-32

Volatile suspended solids

10

1-22

Conductivity,

μmho/cm

COD pH, units

0-13

4

40

23-70

15

384

324-450

44

19

8-28 7.80-9.10

-

Total alkalinity

103

Phenolphthalein alkalinity

4

Standard deviation

0-12

Secchi readings, in

4

Bottom Mean Range

7.68-8.95 89-122

12

1

0-5

2

10

15

1-37

11

7

9

1-26

7

Ammonia-N

0.12

0.01-0.40

0.13

0.17

0.01-0.89

0.23

Total kjeldahl nitrogen-N

0.89

0.62-1.40

0.21

0.83

0.47-1.28

0.22

0.1

0.0-0.4

0.2

0.1

0.0-0.4

0.2

Nitiate/nitrite-N Total phosphate-P

0.033

0.013-0.068

0.016

0.038

0.100-0.068

0.017

Dissolved phosphate-P

0.003

0.001-0.018

0.004

0.002

0.001-0.006

0.001

Chlorophyll-a,

28.01

8.54-63.55

15.39

μg/L

Chlorophyll-b,

μg/L

1.84

0.08-3.87

0.94

Chlorophyll-c,

μg/L

1.29

0.00-3.99

1.03

Pheophytin-a,

μg/L

0.00

0.00-0.00

0.00

Notes:

Concentrations are in mg/L except where noted. Surface samples were collected 1 foot from surface and bottom samples were collected 2 feet from lake bottom.

299

Appendix C8. Summary of Water Quality Characteristics in Wolf Lake at RHA-9, October 1992 - September 1993 Surface Parameters Tuibidity, NTU Secchi readings, in Conductivity,

μmho/cm

COD

Range

2

0-5

2

43

24-86

17

373

322-480

41

18

pH, units

-

Total alkalinity

Standard deviation

Mean

112

6-46

12

7.38-8.45 94-120

7

Phenolphthalein alkalinity

0

0-1

0

Total suspended solids

8

1-36

8

Volatile suspended solids

5

1-23

6

Ammonia-N

0.13

0.01-0.74

0.19

Total kjeldahl nitrogen-N

0.65

0.29-1.10

0.27

0.2

0.0-0.4

0.2

Nitrate/nitrite-N Total phosphate-P

0.035

0.011-0.064

0.018

Dissolved phosphate-P

0.003

0.001-0.011

0.003

Chlorophyll-a,

μg/L

12.52

0.00-37.38

10.93

Chlorophyll-b,

μg/L

1.45

0.27-4.78

1.33

Chlorophyll-c,

μg/L

0.61

0.00-1.51

0.50

Pheophytin-a,

μg/L

0.26

0.00-1.17

0.44

Notes:

Concentrations are in mg/L except where noted. Surface samples were collected 1 foot from surface and bottom samples were collected 2 feet from lake bottom.

300

Appendix D. Dissolved Oxygen and Temperature Observations in Wolf Lake

301

Appendix D1. Dissolved Oxygen and Temperature Observations in Wolf Lake at RHA-1 Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

10/13/92 Temp DO 11.5 8.39 11.5 8.38 11.5 8.38 11.5 8.38 11.4 8.38 11.4 8.37 11.4 8.37 11.3 8.36 11.3 8.37 11.2 8.37 11.2 8.38 11.2 8.38 11.1 8.39 11.1 8.40 11.0 8.40 11.0 8.40

11/12 Temp DO 4.6 13.1 4.6 13.2 4.6 13.3 4.6 13.3 4.6 13.3 4.6 13.2 4.6 13.2 4.6 13.2 4.6 13.2 4.6 13.2 4.6 13.2 4.5 13.1 4.5 13.1 4.5 13.1 4.5 13.1 4.6 13.1 4.6 13.1

12/21 Temp DO P 14.4 r 14.4 o 14.4 b 14.4 e 14.4 14.5 m 14.5 a 14.5 1 14.5 f 14.5 u 14.5 n 14.5 c 14.5 t 14.5 i 14.5 o 14.4 n e d

1/19/93 Temp DO 1.4 14.5 1.5 14.5 1.7 14.5 1.7 14.5 1.7 14.6 1.7 14.6 1.7 14.6 1.7 14.6 1.8 14.6 1.9 14.6 2.0 14.5 2.1 14.4 2.3 14.3 2.5 14.2 2.6 14.0 2.7 13.8 3.0 13.5

2/10 Temp DO 2.4 13.2 2.4 13.4 2.4 13.5 2.4 13.5 2.4 13.5 2.4 13.5 2.4 13.5 2.4 13.5 2.4 13.5 2.4 13.5 2.4 13.5 2.4 13.5 2.4 13.5 2.4 13.5 2.4 13.5 2.4 13.5 2.4 13.5

3/16 Temp DO 1.4 13.7 1.5 13.7 1.6 13.8 1.6 13.8 1.7 13.7 1.8 13.7 1.8 13.6 1.9 13.6 1.9 12.7 1.9 13.2 1.9 13.3 1.9 13.3 1.9 13.3 1.9 13.3 1.9 12.4 2.0 13.0 2.0 12.9

4/13 Temp 8.8 8.7 8.8 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7

DO 11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0

6/9 Temp 18.7 18.7 18.7 18.8 18.8 18.8 18.5 18.2 18.1 18.0 17.8 17.4 17.3 17.0 16.6 16.4 16.2

6/22 Temp 24.8 24.8 24.8 24.8 24.8 24.8 24.8 24.4 24.4 24.2 24.2 24.0 23.8 23.3 22.6 20.0 19.3

7/7 Temp DO 26.1 8.0 26.1 8.0 26.1 8.0 26.1 8.0 26.1 8.0 25.9 8.0 25.9 8.0 25.8 8.0 25.7 7.9 25.7 7.9 25.6 7.8 25.6 7.8 25.6 7.8 25.5 7.8 25.5 7.7 24.2 6.6 23.2 5.3 22.3 4.0

7/20 Temp 26.6 26.6 26.6 26.6 26.6 26.6 26.6 26.7 26.7 26.6 26.6 26.7 26.7 26.6 26.6 26.3 26.0

8/4 Temp 24.8 24.8 24.8 24.8 24.8 24.8 24.8 24.8 24.8 24.8 24.8 24.8 24.6 24.6 24.5 24.5 24.5

8/18 Temp 27.1 27.1 27.1 27.1 26.7 26.6 26.6 26.6 26.5 26.1 25.8 25.5 25.4 25.3 25.0 24.5 24.3

9/8 Temp 22.2 22.0 22.0 22.0 22.1 22.1 22.0 21.9 22.0 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.8 21.8 21.8 21.9

DO 8.7 8.7 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.0 8.0 8.0 7.9

DO 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.3 9.3 9.2 9.2 8.7 8.5 8.2

DO 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.2 8.1 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.1 8.0 7.9 7.7 6.9 4.2 3.1

DO 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 7.7 7.0

DO 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.4 8.0 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.0 8.0

DO 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.3 8.1 6.2 4.6 3.8

5/10 Temp DO 20.8 8.4 20.6 8.4 20.4 8.4 20.3 8.4 20.2 8.4 20.1 8.4 20.0 8.4 20.0 8.4 19.9 8.4 19.7 8.4 19.7 8.4 19.3 8.4 18.9 8.3 17.8 8.1 16.8 7.6 15.1 6.3 14.9 4.3

9/28 Temp 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 15.9 16.0 15.9 15.9 15.8 15.8

DO 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.9

5/26 Temp 18.2 18.3 18.2 18.1 17.9 17.9 17.8 17.8 17.7 17.7 17.7 17.6 17.6 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.3

DO 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.6 9.6 9.4 9.0 8.0

Appendix D2. Dissolved Oxygen and Temperature Observations in Wolf Lake at RHA-2 Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

10/13/92 Temp DO 11.5 10.3 11.5 10.3 11.5 10.3 11.5 10.3 11.5 10.3 11.4 10.3 11.4 10.3 11.4 10.3 11.3 10.3 11.2 10.3 11.1 10.2 11.1 10.2 11.0 10.1 10.9 9.7 10.8 9.5

11/12 Temp DO 4.4 13.1 4.3 13.1 4.3 13.1 4.3 13.1 4.3 13.1 4.3 13.1 4.2 13.1 4.3 13.1 4.3 12.8 4.2 12.8 4.2 12.8 4.2 12.7 4.3 12.8 4.3 12.8 4.3 12.8 4.3 12.8 4.3 12.8

12/21 Temp DO 14.2 14.2 14.2 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.6 14.5 14.5 14.4 14.4 14.3

1/19/93 Temp DO 0.5 15.3 0.7 15.3 1.1 15.2 1.0 15.3 1.0 15.3 1.0 15.3 1.0 15.3 1.0 15.3 1.0 15.3 1.0 15.4 1.0 15.3 1.1 15.4 1.2 14.8 1.3 14.8 1.5 14.3 2.1 12.1

2/10 Temp 1.5 2.2 2.2 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.5

DO 15.3 15.3 15.4 15.4 15.4 15.4 15.4 15.4 15.4 15.4 15.4 15.4 15.5 15.4 15.2 15.1

6/9 Temp 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.5 19.5 19.5 19.5 19.5 19.5 19.5 19.5 19.5 19.5 19.5 19.4

6/22 Temp 24.4 24.4 24.4 24.3 24.0 24.0 23.9 23.9 23.8 23.7 23.6 23.4 22.8 22.1 21.3 19.8 19.0

7/7 Temp DO 26.7 8.8 26.7 8.8 26.7 8.8 26.7 8.8 26.7 8.8 26.7 8.8 26.7 8.8 26.7 8.8 26.7 8.8 26.7 8.8 26.7 8.8 26.7 8.8 24.8 8.0 24.2 2.5 24.0 2.0 23.6 0.7 23.5 0.6

7/20 Temp 26.5 26.6 26.6 26.6 26.6 26.5 26.4 26.1 25.9 25.8 25.6 25.5 25.1 24.7 24.5 24.1

8/4 Temp 24.2 24.3 24.3 24.2 24.1 24.1 24.1 23.9 23.9 23.8 23.8 23.8 23.7 23.7 23.7

DO 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.3 8.1 8.0 8.0 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.6 7.4 7.3

DO 9.8 9.7 9.7 9.6 9.7 9.6 9.6 9.8 9.7 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.7 9.7 9.6 9.4

DO 9.0 9.0 9.1 9.1 9.0 8.9 8.9 8.8 8.6 8.4 8.3 7.5 5.6 4.6 2.3 0.1 0.1

DO 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.1 9.1 9.0 8.5 8.3 8.1 6.9 6.4 4.2 2.0 0.1 0.1

3/16 Temp 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3

DO 14.0 13.9 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8

8/18 Temp 26.4 26.4 25.9 25.6 25.5 25.3 25.2 25.0 23.9 23.3 22.9 22.4 22.2 21.8 21.8 21.5

DO 10.1 10.1 10.5 10.3 10.1 9.8 8.9 8.6 7.0 4.7 2.9 0.9 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

4/13 Temp 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.9 8.9 8.0 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.9

DO 11.3 11.3 11.3 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.2 10.9

9/8 Temp 21.7 21.6 21.4 21.2 21.3 21.2 21.1 21.2 21.1 21.1 21.3 21.3 21.1 21.1 21.0

DO 8.6 8.8 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.8 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.6 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.5 8.3

5/10 Temp 21.9 21.9 21.6 21.3 21.2 21.0 20.9 20.8 20.7 20.6 20.4 19.3 18.3 17.1 16.2

DO 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.3 8.2 8.2 7.9 6.6 5.9 3.2 1.6

9/28 Temp 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.4 15.3 15.3 15.2 15.2 15.1 15.0 14.9 14.8 14.8

DO 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.9

5/26 Temp 18.7 18.7 18.5 18.3 18.2 18.2 18.0 17.9 17.9 17.8 17.7 17.7 16.5 16.7

DO 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.4 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.6 10.6 10.5 10.4 10.2 5.9

Appendix D3. Dissolved Oxygen and Temperature Observations in Wolf Lake at RHA-3 Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

10/13/92 Temp DO 11.2 10.7 11.1 10.7 11.1 10.8 11.1 10.8 11.1 10.8 11.1 10.7 11.1 10.7 11.1 10.7 11.0 10.7 11.0 10.6 11.0 10.6 11.0 10.6

11/12 Temp DO 4.5 13.3 4.5 13.1 4.5 13.0 4.5 13.0 4.5 13.0 4.5 13.0 4.5 13.0 4.5 13.0 4.5 13.0 4.5 13.0 4.5 13.0 4.5 13.0 4.5 13.0 4.5 12.9

12/21 Temp DO 15.4 15.8 15.7 15.7 15.8 14.4 13.5 12.8 11.9 11.3 11.2 11.0 10.4 10.3

1/19/93 Temp DO 0.9 15.2 0.8 15.3 1.0 15.2 1.2 15.1 1.5 15.1 1.6 15.2 1.9 14.9 2.2 14.1 2.4 13.2 2.5 13.0 2.6 12.7 2.7 12.3 2.8 12.3 2.8 12.3 3.0 11.5

2/10 Temp 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4

DO 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.4

6/9 Temp 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.4 20.4 20.2 20.2 20.2 20.0 17.5 15.5

6/22 Temp 25.1 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 24.9 24.8 24.3 23.6 23.3 22.4 21.9 21.7 20.7 20.7

7/7 Temp 27.0 27.0 27.0 27.1 27.1 27.0 27.0 26.6 25.9 25.7 25.3 25.1 24.2 22.6 21.7

7/20 Temp 26.9 26.9 26.9 26.9 27.0 27.0 26.7 26.5 26.2 25.9 25.2 25.5 25.3 24.9

8/4 Temp 24.3 24.3 24.4 24.3 24.4 24.4 24.2 24.0 23.9 23.7 23.6 23.5 23.4 23.3

DO 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2 7.5 7.2 7.0 6.6 6.4 6.3 6.4 6.3

DO 10.0 10.0 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.5 10.5 10.3 10.0 8.3 7.6

DO 9.2 9.3 9.1 9.1 9.0 9.0 8.8 8.5 7.7 7.0 6.4 5.8 5.2 3.6 3.6

DO 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.5 9.0 6.9 6.8 7.1 6.9 5.5 2.5 1.1

DO 9.3 9.3 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.0 8.6 8.1 8.0 6.8 5.9 4.5 3.4

3/16 Temp 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

DO 13.9 13.9 13.9 13.9 14.0 13.9 14.0 13.9 13.9 13.9 14.0 13.9 13.9 13.9

8/18 Temp 27.7 27.7 27.7 27.5 25.7 25.5 25.3 25.0 24.6 23.4 22.9 22.5 22.1

DO 9.9 10.0 10.0 10.1 8.2 7.9 7.0 5.8 3.8 1.7 1.4 0.1 0.1

4/13 Temp 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.2 9.2 9.1 9.1 8.9 8.9 8.9

DO 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0

9/8 Temp 21.6 21.4 20.9 20.9 20.8 21.1 20.8 20.8 20.8 2.08 20.7 20.7 20.6 20.6

DO 8.1 8.1 8.6 8.5 8.5 8.3 8.2 8.1 7.9 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.8 7.6

5/10 Temp 22.2 22.1 22.1 21.9 21.7 21.4 21.3 21.2 21.1 20.5 19.9 19.1 18.5

DO 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.8 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.1 8.9 8.1 7.3 7.0 5.5

9/28 Temp 14.9 14.9 14.9 14.8 14.8 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.4 14.4 14.4 14.3 14.3 14.3 14.2

DO 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.8

5/26 Temp 19.8 19.4 19.4 19.2 18.6 18.4 18.4 18.2 18.1 17.8 17.8 18.0 17.8 17.7

DO 11.2 11.2 11.3 11.3 11.7 11.6 11.4 11.2 10.6 10.1 9.5 10.2 10.3 10.3

Appendix D4. Dissolved Oxygen and Temperature Observations in Wolf Lake at RHA-4

Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

10/13/92 Temp DO 10.6 8.5 10.6 8.5 10.6 8.5 10.5 8.5 10.5 8.5 10.6 8.5 10.6 8.5 10.5 8.5 10.5 8.5 10.4 8.5 10.4 8.4 10.4 8.2

11/12 Temp DO 4.2 12.8 4.2 12.7 4.2 12.7 4.2 12.7 4.2 12.7 4.3 12.7 4.3 12.7 4.3 12.7 4.3 12.8 4.3 12.8 4.3 12.9 4.3 12.9

12/21 Temp DO 13.8 13.8 13.9 13.7 13.7 13.7 13.7 13.7 13.6 13.7 13.7 13.5

1/19/93 Temp DO 0.9 15.9 1.2 15.9 1.4 15.9 1.5 15.9 1.6 16.0 1.5 16.0 1.6 16.0 1.7 16.0 1.8 15.1 2.5 13.3 2.6 11.2 3.3 9.2 3.3 9.1

2/10 Temp 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0

DO 13.3 13.2 13.3 13.3 13.2 13.0 13.0 13.0 13.0 12.9 12.9 12.9

6/9 Temp 20.4 20.4 20.4 20.4 20.3 20.4 20.4 20.4 20.4 20.4 20.4 20.3 20.3

6/22 Temp 25.3 25.3 25.1 24.8 24.6 24.2 24.0 23.8 23.7 23.6 23.6 23.1 23.3

7/7 Temp 26.6 26.6 26.6 26.6 26.6 26.5 26.5 26.5 26.3 25.0 25.0 24.7

7/20 Temp 26.8 26.9 27.0 26.9 26.7 26.2 25.8 25.6 25.4 25.4 24.8 24.4

8/4 Temp 24.1 24.1 24.1 24.0 23.9 23.6 23.6 23.4 23.3 23.2 23.2

DO 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.8 8.6 8.0 7.7 7.1 7.1

DO 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.7

DO 9.3 9.3 9.4 9.4 9.5 9.3 8.8 8.4 7.8 7.7 7.4 5.7 5.6

DO 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.7 6.4 3.5 2.2

DO 9.7 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.0 8.7 7.0 4.9 0.4 0.1

3/16 temp 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4

8/18 Temp 26.9 26.9 26.7 26.2 25.4 25.1 24.8 24.2 22.3 22.1 21.8 21.7

DO 13.8 13.8 13.9 13.9 13.9 13.9 13.9 13.9 14.0 14.0 13.9 13.9

DO 10.5 10.5 10.7 11.0 10.5 9.9 9.2 6.6 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

4/13 Temp 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.6 9.6

DO 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1

9/8 Temp 21.8 21.9 21.9 21.5 20.6 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.4 20.5

DO 9.5 9.6 9.6 9.6 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.8 8.4 8.1

5/10 Temp 22.9 22.8 22.8 22.7 22.4 21.8 21.2 21.1 21.0 19.4 18.0 17.2

DO 8.2 8.3 8.3 8.3 7.9 7.7 7.9 7.7 7.4 5.3 2.8 1.4

9/28 Temp 14.8 14.9 14.9 14.9 14.9 14.9 14.9 14.9 14.9 14.9 14.9 14.9

DO 9.6 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 5.6 5.6

5/26 Temp 19.8 19.6 19.2 19.0 19.0 18.8 18.6 17.5 17.2 16.9 16.8 16.7

DO 10.6 10.5 10.3 10.4 10.4 10.3 10.2 9.9 9.6 8.9 8.1 7.9

Appendix DS. Dissolved Oxygen and Temperature Observations in Wolf Lake at RHA-5 Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

10/13/92 Temp DO 11.6 8.0 11.6 8.1 11.6 8.1 11.6 8.2 11.6 8.3 11.6 8.3 11.6 8.3 11.6 8.3 11.6 8.3 11.6 8.3 11.6 8.3 11.6 8.3 11.7 8.3 11.6 8.3 11.7 8.3 11.7 8.3

11/12 Temp DO 4.2 12.9 4.3 12.7 4.2 12.7 4.2 12.7 4.2 12.7 4.3 12.7 4.3 12.8 4.3 12.8 4.3 12.8 4.3 12.8 4.3 12.8 4.3 12.8 4.3 12.9 4.3 13.0 4.3 13.0 4.3 13.0 4.3 13.0 4.3 13.0

12/21 Temp DO 13.2 13.2 13.2 13.2 13.2 13.2 13.1 13.2 13.2 13.2 13.1 13.1 13.1 13.1 13.0 13.0 13.0 12.9

1/19/93 Temp DO 1.3 14.4 1.4 14.4 1.4 14.4 1.4 14.4 1.3 14.5 1.3 14.5 1.4 14.6 1.4 14.6 1.3 14.6 1.3 14.6 1.3 14.5 1.4 14.5 1.4 13.8 1.6 14.0 1.7 13.6 1.8 13.5 1.8 11.5 2.2 10.6

2/10 Temp 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0

6/9 Temp DO

6/22 Temp DO

7/7 Temp DO

7/20 Temp DO

8/4 Temp DO

8/18 Temp DO

9/8 Temp DO

9/28 Temp DO

20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.1 20.1 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 17.5 16.5 15.6

25.5 25.5 25.5 25.5 25.5 25.5 25.3 25.3 24.9 24.5 24.3 24.0 23.6 23.0 21.0 19.7 18.6 17.8 17.6

26.5 8.2 26.5 8.2 26.5 8.2 26.5 8.2 26.5 8.2 26.5 8.2 26.5 8.2 26.5 8.2 26.5 8.2 26.4 8.1 25.8 7.7 25.7 7.5 25.5 7.2 25.3 7.0 25.1 6.4 24.3 5.7 23.0 3.4 20.2 0.1 20.0 0.1

26.7 26.7 26.7 26.7 26.6 26.5 26.4 26.3 26.1 26.1 26.1 26.0 25.9 25.5 25.0 24.8 24.3 22.8

24.5 24.5 24.5 24.5 24.6 24.5 24.5 24.4 24.4 24.3 24.4 24.4 24.3 24.4 24.4 24.5 24.2

26.6 26.6 26.5 26.1 25.8 25.8 25.6 25.4 25.3 25.2 24.4 23.9 23.6 23.1 22.9 22.6 22.3

22.5 22.4 22.3 21.6 21.6 21.6 21.4 21.3 21.4 21.3 21.3 21.2 21.2 21.2 21.2 21.2 21.2 21.1

15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.7 15.7 15.7 15.7 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.5

9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 8.7 7.3 5.1

8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.4 8.4 7.9 8.1 8.3 7.6 6.8 6.2 4.0 2.2 1.1 0.2 0.2

8.6 8.6 8.6 8.6 8.6 8.5 8.4 8.3 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.0 7.8 6.3 4.9 4.2 1.5 0.1

DO 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8

7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.6 7.6 7.7 7.7

3/16 Temp 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8

DO 13.5 13.5 13.5 13.5 13.5 13.5 13.5 13.5 13.5 13.5 13.5 13.5 13.5 13.5 13.5 13.5 13.5 13.5

9.0 9.0 9.0 9.4 9.5 9.5 9.2 8.8 8.5 7.9 5.8 4.8 4.1 2.3 1.0 0.1 0.1

4/13 Temp 9.7 9.6 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.5 9.4 9.5 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3

DO 11.9 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 11.9 11.9 11.8 11.8 11.8 11.8 11.8 11.8 11.8 11.8 11.8 11.7 11.7

9.3 9.4 9.4 9.3 9.2 8.8 8.5 8.4 8.0 8.0 8.1 7.9 7.2 7.2 7.0 6.8 6.4 5.7

5/10 Temp 21.9 21.9 21.8 21.7 21.7 21.6 21.6 21.2 20.5 20.4 20.1 19.7 19.2 18.2 17.1 16.1 15.4 14.8

DO 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.9 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.8 9.0 8.6 8.4 8.2 7.5 6.3 4.9 3.4 1.7

9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.3

5/26 Temp DO 20.6 11.3 20.5 11.3 20.5 11.2 19.7 10.6 19.7 10.5 19.6 10.5 19.4 10.5 18.7 10.5 18.3 10.8 18.6 10.8 18.4 10.9 17.9 10.8 17.9 10.5 18.0 9.9 17.7 9.4 17.2 7.9 17.1 6.4 17.1 6.0

Appendix D6. Dissolved Oxygen and Temperature Observations in Wolf Lake at RHA-6 Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5

Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5

10/13/92 Temp DO 9.3 9.5 9.3 9.8 9.3 9.8 9.3 9.8 9.3 9.4

11/12 Temp DO 2.2 13.7 2.2 13.6 2.3 13.6 2.3 13.6 2.3 13.6 2.3 13.3

12/21 Temp DO 13.6 13.5 13.4 13.4 13.3 12.4

1/19/93 Temp DO 0.9 15.7 1.1 15.8 1.5 15.0 1.6 16.0 2.8 15.8 3.0 13.7

2/10 Temp 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4

6/9 Temp 21.1 21.2 21.2 21.2 21.2 21.2

6/22 Temp 26.0 26.0 26.0 25.5 24.3 24.0

7/7 Temp DO 26.2 9.0 26.1 9.1 26.0 9.1 25.6 9.0 25.4 8.3 25.3 7.5

7/20 Temp 26.5 26.5 26.5 26.2 25.7

8/4 Temp 22.3 22.4 22.4 22.3 22.3

DO 10.6 10.6 10.6 10.5 10.4 10.2

DO 10.5 10.6 10.6 11.0 10.0 7.6

DO 9.2 9.3 9.3 9.4 6.9

DO 14.4 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.6 14.6

3/16 Temp 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0

DO 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.5

8/18 Temp 26.0 26.0 25.9 25.2 25.0

DO 14.5 14.5 14.6 14.6 14.5 14.3

4/13 Temp 10.0 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1

DO 9.4 9.4 9.5 8.7 5.3

9/8 Temp 21.8 21.9 21.9 20.6 20.2

DO 11.6 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7

DO 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 10.5

5/10 Temp 23.9 24.0 24.0 23.8 22.2

DO 10.1 10.2 10.2 10.4 9.1

9/28 Temp 13.9 13.9 13.9 13.9 14.0

DO 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3

5/26 Temp DO 20.7 12.6 20.7 12.7 20.9 12.8 19.7 12.7 18.7 12.1

Appendix D7. Dissolved Oxygen and Temperature Observations in Wolf Lake at RHA-7 Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

10/13/92 Temp DO 10.0 9.7 10.0 9.6 10.0 9.6 10.0 9.6 10.0 96 10.0 9.7 10.0 9.5

11/12 Temp DO 2.4 13.5 2.4 13.4 2.5 13.3 2.5 13.3 2.6 13.3 2.5 13.2

12/21 Temp DO 14.5 14.4 14.5 14.4 14.5 14.5

1/19/93 Temp DO 0.7 15.7 0.9 15.7 1.1 15.7 1.2 15.7 1.3 15.8 1.5 15.9

2/10 Temp 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.5

DO 14.1 14.1 13.9 14.0 13.8 14.0

3/16 Temp 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.3

DO 13.6 13.6 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.8

4/13 Temp 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.5 10.5

DO 11.5 11.5 11.5 11.5 11.5 11.5

5/10 Temp 24.4 24.5 25.5 24.1 22.2 21.9

DO 10.7 10.8 10.8 10.5 9.4 8.8

6/9 Temp 20.8 20.9 20.9 20.9 20.9 20.6 20.4 20.4

6/22 Temp 26.2 26.2 25.9 25.6 25.5 24.7 24.5

7/7 Temp 26.3 26.3 26.3 26.3 26.2 25.7 25.3 25.3

7/20 Temp 26.9 26.9 26.9 26.9 26.8 26.5 26.4

8/4 Temp 24.1 24.2 23.8 23.2 22.9 23.0 22.9

DO 9.6 9.6 9.7 9.0 8.6 8.5 8.3

8/18 Temp 26.6 26.4 25.8 25.5 25.4 25.3 25.0

DO 10.1 10.1 9.3 8.9 8.7 7.5 4.8

9/8 Temp 22.2 22.2 22.2 22.0 21.4 21.4 21.2

DO 11.6 11.6 11.6 11.5 11.1 11.0 10.6

9/28 Temp 14.8 14.8 14.8 14.7 14.6 14.6 14.5

DO 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4

DO 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.1 10.0 9.8

DO 10.4 10.4 10.6 10.6 10.6 9.8 9.1

DO 10.2 10.2 10.3 10.3 9.7 8.4 6.3 6.1

DO 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.4 10.4 10.0 9.5

5/26 Temp DO 20.3 12.3 20.4 12.3 20.3 12.4 20.2 12.4 20.0 12.5 18.5 12.9

Appendix D8. Dissolved Oxygen and Temperature Observations in Wolf Lake at RHA-8 Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

10/13/92 Temp DO 11.0 10.4 11.0 10.4 11.0 10.4 11.0 10.4 11.0 10.4 11.0 10.4 11.0 10.4 11.0 10.4 11.0 10.3 11.0 10.4 11.0 10.3 11.0 10.3 11.0 10.3 11.0 10.3 10.9 10.3 10.7 10.3 10.6 10.2

11/12 Temp DO 3.3 12.9 3.3 12.8 3.3 12.8 3.3 12.8 3.3 12.8 3.3 12.8 3.3 12.8 3.3 12.8 3.3 12.8 3.3 12.7 3.3 12.8 3.3 12.8 3.3 12.7 3.3 12.8 3.3 12.8 3.3 12.7 3.3 12.6 3.4 12.3

12/21 Temp DO 14.6 14.6 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.4 14.4 14.4 14.1

1/19/93 Temp DO 1.0 15.6 1.0 15.6 1.1 15.7 1.0 16.1 1.1 16.5 1.0 16.6 1.0 16.0 1.0 16.1 1.0 16.1 1.0 16.0 1.0 16.0 1.1 15.1 1.6 12.7 1.8 12.6 2.2 13.0 2.4 12.7 2.5 10.9

2/10 Temp 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6

6/9 Temp 19.2 19.2 19.2 19.2 19.2 19.1 19.1 19.1 19.1 19.1 19.1 19.1 19.1 19.1 19.1 19.1 19.1 19.1

6/22 Temp 25.8 25.8 25.8 25.8 25.8 25.8 25.6 25.5 25.3 25.2 24.6 24.2 23.8 23.3 23.3 22.0 21.6 20.6

7/7 Temp DO 25.6 8.5 25.5 8.5 25.5 8.6 25.3 8.0 25.3 7.9 25.2 7.6 25.2 7.4 25.2 7.3 25.1 7.2 25.1 7.0 25.1 6.8 25.0 6.8 25.0 6.9 25.0 7.0 24.9 5.6 24.8 3.8 24.6 3.6 24.3 2.2

7/20 Temp DO 26.1 10.0 26.1 10.0 26.1 10.1 26.1 10.0 26.0 10.0 26.0 9.9 26.0 10.0 26.0 10.0 25.9 9.7 25.9 9.7 25.9 9.7 25.9 9.7 25.9 9.6 25.9 9.6 25.9 9.6 25.9 9.6 25.9 9.6 25.9 9.4

8/4 Temp DO 23.8 7.7 23.8 7.7 23.8 7.6 23.8 7.7 23.8 7.6 23.8 7.6 23.8 7.5 23.8 7.5 23.7 7.4 23.7 7.4 23.7 7.4 23.7 7.4 23.6 7.4 23.6 7.5 23.6 7.4 23.5 7.0 23.4 6.9 23.4 7.0

DO 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.8 9.8

DO 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.9 9.7 9.7 8.8 8.0 7.1 5.9 4.9 1.2 0.2 0.1

DO 14.7 14.7 14.7 14.8 14.8 14.8 14.8 14.8 14.8 14.8 14.8 14.8 14.7 14.7 14.7 14.7 14.7 14.6

3/16 Temp 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4

DO 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.2 13.2 13.2 13.2 13.2 13.2 13.2 13.2 13.1

4/13 Temp 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4

DO 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.6

5/10 Temp 20.8 21.2 21.2 21.1 20.9 20.9 20.9 20.9 20.8 20.8 20.8 20.8 20.6 20.6 20.6 20.6 20.3 20.1

DO 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.1 9.1 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.6 8.6 8.5

8/18 Temp 26.0 26.1 26.1 26.0 26.0 25.8 25.7 25.6 25.5 25.3 25.1 23.9 23.4 23.1 22.9 22.3 22.1

DO 10.0 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1 9.9 9.7 9.6 9.3 8.8 7.5 2.3 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

9/8 Temp DO 22.4 12.2 22.4 12.2 22.4 12.2 22.4 12.2 22.4 12.2 22.3 12.1 22.2 11.9 22.2 11.7 22.2 11.6 22.2 11.6 22.2 11.6 22.2 11.5 21.9 11.5 21.4 9.7 21.2 9.4 21.1 8.9 21.1 8.6

9/28 Temp 15.3 15.3 15.4 15.4 15.4 15.4 15.4 15.4 15.4 15.4 15.4 15.4 15.4 15.4 15.4 15.4 15.4

DO 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5

5/26 Temp 18.7 18.7 18.7 18.7 18.4 18.3 18.3 18.2 17.9 17.5 17.3 17.1 16.9 16.8 16.7 16.6 16.5 16.4

DO 11.8 11.8 11.7 11.6 11.5 11.4 11.4 11.4 10.7 10.4 10.4 9.5 8.8 8.5 8.2 7.7 6.6 5.8

Appendix D9. Dissolved Oxygen and Temperature Observations in Wolf Lake at RHA-9 Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

10/13/92 Temp DO 13.4 7.1 13.5 6.9 13.4 7.0 13.1 7.1 12.9 7.6 12.9 7.6 12.9 7.6 12.8 7.6

11/12 Temp DO 5.9 1.2 5.9 10.2 5.9 10.2 5.9 10.2 5.9 10.1 5.9 10.1 5.9 10.1 5.9 10.1 5.9 10.1

12/21 Temp DO 14.3 14.3 14.2 14.2 14.2 14.0 14.0 13.4

1/19/93 Temp DO 3.0 17.1 3.3 17.1 3.4 16.8 3.6 16.9 3.7 17.1

2/10 Temp DO 5.0 11.3 5.0 11.3 5.0 11.3 5.0 11.3 5.0 11.3 5.0 11.3 5.0 11.3 4.9 11.4 5.0 11.4

3/16 Temp DO 3.7 11.0 3.8 11.0 3.8 11.0 3.8 11.0 3.8 11.0 3.8 11.0 3.8 11.0 3.8 11.0 3.8 11.0

4/13 Temp 10.4 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5

DO 11.8 11.8 11.8 11.8 11.9 11.9 11.9 12.0 11.9

6/9 Temp 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.1 20.1

6/22 Temp 24.5 24.5 24.5 24.3 24.1 22.9 21.5 21.0 19.7

7/7 Temp 26.0 25.9 25.9 25.9 25.9 24.2 21.8 21.2 21.2

7/20 Temp 26.8 26.8 26.7 26.7 26.7 26.6 26.2 26.1

8/4 Temp 23.7 23.7 23.8 23.8 23.8 23.8 23.8 23.7 23.7

8/18 Temp 25.3 25.4 25.3 25.1 25.0 24.8 24.5 24.0

9/8 Temp 23.1 23.2 23.1 23.1 22.9 22.6 22.3 22.2

DO 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.3 2.7 2.0 1.8

DO 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2 2.4 4.1

DO 7.9 7.8 7.8 7.9 7.9 5.9 4.1 4.3 5.4

DO 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.2 5.7 5.9 5.9

DO 5.5 5.5 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.8 5.6 5.3

DO 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.7 2.8

DO 6.1 6.1 5.9 5.7 5.6 5.0 2.6 1.8

5/10 Temp DO 22.6 10.0 22.5 10.0 22.4 9.9 21.1 9.8 19.2 9.4 18.3 9.2 17.6 8.9 16.2 8.7

9/28 Temp DO 19.1 4.2 19.2 4.2 19.2 4.1 19.1 4.0 19.0 3.9 18.2 2.6 17.2 1.3 16.6 1.2

5/26 Temp DO 20.7 8.4 20.7 8.4 20.6 8.7 20.5 8.9 20.5 9.0 20.3 8.9 18.3 8.8

Appendix E. Percent Dissolved Oxygen Saturation in Wolf Lake

311

Appendix E1. Percent Dissolved Oxygen Saturation in Wolf Lake at RHA-1 Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

10/13/92 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 76 77 77 77 77 76 76

11/12

12/21

101 101 101 101 101 102 102 102 102 102 102 101 101 101 101 101 101

1/19/93

2/10

3/16

103 103 104 104 104 104 104 104 105 105 105 104 104 104 103 101 100

% 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98

97 97 98 98 98 98 98 98 91 95 96 96 96 96 89 94 93

4/13 103 102 103 102 102 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103

5/10 95 94 94 94 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 92 90 86 79 63 43

5/26 106 106 106 106 105 104 104 104 104 103 103 102 101 101 99 95 84

6/9 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 100 100 100 98 98 96 96 90 87 84

6/22 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 98 96 94 91 81 47 34

7/7 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 98 97 97 97 96 95 79 63 47

7/20 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 97 87

8/4 97 97 97 97 97 99 97 99 99 99 99 99 99 98 98 97 97

8/18 107 107 107 107 107 107 107 107 107 106 106 105 102 76 76 56 46

9/8 94 93 93 93 94 94 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 92 92 92 91

9/28 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 88 90 90 90

Appendix E2. Percent Dissolved Oxygen Saturation in Wolf Lake at RHA-2 Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

10/13/92 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 94 94 93 93 92 92 88 86

11/12 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 98 98 98 97 98 98 98 98 98

12/21

1/19/93 106 106 107 107 107 107 107 107 107 108 107 108 104 105 102 88

2/10

3/16

109 111 112 112 112 112 113 113 113 113 113 113 113 113 111 110

99 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 98

4/13 98 98 98 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 94

5/10 96 96 95 94 95 96 97 94 92 92 88 72 63 33 16

5/26 111 111 111 110 111 111 112 112 112 112 111 110 108 61

6/9

6/22

7/7

108 107 107 106 107 105 105 108 106 106 106 105 106 106 105 103

109 109 110 110 108 107 107 105 103 103 99 89 66 53 26 1 1

111 111 111 111 111 111 111 111 111 111 111 111 97 30 24 8 7

7/20 116 116 116 116 115 115 113 106 103 103 85 79 51 24 1 1

8/4 101 101 101 100 97 96 96 92 92 92 92 92 91 88 87

8/18 127 127 131 127 125 121 109 105 84 84 34 10 1 1 1 1 1

9/8 99 101 103 102 102 100 99 99 99 99 97 99 97 % 94

9/28 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 88 88 88

Appendix E3. Percent Dissolved Oxygen Saturation in Wolf Lake at RHA-3 Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

10/13/92 98 98 98 98 98 97 97 97 97 96 96 %

11/12

12/21

103 101 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

1/19/93

2/10

3/16

106 107 107 107 107 108 107 102 96 95 93 90 91 91 85

110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 111 111 111 111 112 112

99 99 99 99 100 99 100 99 99 99 100 99 99 99

4/13 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 95 95 95 95 95

5/10 102 102 102 101 104 104 104 103 101 91 81 76 59

5/26

6/9

124 112 123 112 124 113 123 113 126 113 124 113 122 114 120 114 113 114 107 117 101 117 108 115 109 111 109 87 77

6/22

7/7

113 114 111 111 110 110 107 103 92 83 74 67 60 40 40

123 123 123 123 123 123 121 113 86 84 87 85 66 29 13

7/20 118 118 119 119 119 119 114 108 101 100 83 73 55 42

8/4 99 99 99 99 99 99 90 86 84 79 76 75 76 75

8/18 127 129 129 130 102 98 86 71 46 20 16 1 1

9/8 93 92 97 96 96 94 92 91 89 86 85 85 88 85

9/28 91 91 91 91 91 89 89 89 88 88 88 86 86 86 86

Appendix E4. Percent Dissolved Oxygen Saturation in Wolf Lake at RHA-4 Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

10/13/92 77 77 77 76 76 77 77 76 76 76 75 73

11/12 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 97 98 98 99 99

12/21

1/19/93 111 112 113 113 114 114 114 114 108 97 82 69 68

2/10

3/16

99 98 99 99 98 98 96 96 96 96 96 96

97 98 98 98 98 99 99 99 99 99 99 99

4/13 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 98 98

5/10 96 97 97 97 92 88 90 87 84 58 30 15

5/26

6/9

117 110 115 110 112 110 113 110 113 109 111 110 110 110 104 110 100 110 92 110 84 110 82 109 108

6/22

7/7

114 114 115 115 115 112 106 100 93 92 88 67 66

113 113 113 113 113 113 113 113 109 78 43 27

7/20 123 122 122 122 123 123 112 108 86 60 5 1

8/4 107 107 107 107 107 105 102 95 91 84 84

8/18 133 133 135 138 129 121 112 79 1 1 1 1

9/8 109 111 111 110 96 97 99 99 94 91

9/28 95 96 96 96 96 96 95 95 95 95 95 95

Appendix E5. Percent Dissolved Oxygen Saturation in Wolf Lake at RHA-5

Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

10/13/92 74 75 75 76 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77

11/12

12/21

98 97 97 97 97 97 98 98 98 98 98 98 99 100 100 100 100 100

1/19/93 102 102 102 102 103 103 104 104 103 103 103 103 98 100 97 97 83 77

2/10

3/16

102 102 102 102 102 102 102 102 102 102 102 102 102 102 102 102 102 102

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

4/13 105 105 106 106 106 105 104 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 102 102

5/10 102 102 102 102 103 103 103 102 99 101 96 93 89 80 66 50 34 17

5/26 127 127 125 117 116 115 115 113 116 116 117 115 111 105 99 83 67 63

6/9 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 92 75 52

18

6/22

7/7

105 105 105 105 105 105 103 103 96 98 100 91 81 73 45 24 12 2

103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 102 96 93 89 86 78 69 40 1

2

1

7/20 109 109 109 109 108 107 106 104 101 101 101 100 97 78 60 51 18 1

8/4 94 94 94 94 95 94 94 94 93 93 93 93 93 92 92 93 93

8/18 113 113 113 117 118 118 114 108 105 97 70 57 49 27 12 1 1

9/8 108 109 109 106 105 101 97 96 91 91 92 90 82 82 79 77 73 65

9/28 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 94

Appendix E6. Percent Dissolved Oxygen Saturation in Wolf Lake at RHA-6 Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5

10/13/92 83 85 85 85 82

11/12 99 99 99 99 99 97

12/21

1/19/93 110 111 114 114 116 102

2/10

3/16

105 105 105 106 106 106

105 105 105 105 105 103

4/13 103 104 104 104 104 104

5/10 121 122 122 124 105

5/26 142 143 144 140 131

6/9 120 120 120 119 118 116

6/22 131 132 132 136 121 91

7/7 113 114 113 111 102 92

7/20 116 117 117 118 86

8/4 103 104 104 103 99

8/18 117 117 118 107 65

9/8 128 128 128 125 117

9/28 100 100 100 100 100

Appendix E7. Percent Dissolved Oxygen Saturation in Wolf Lake at RHA-7 Depth 0 1 2 4 5 6 7

10/13/92 86 86 86 86 86 84

11/12

12/21

98 98 97 97 97

1/19/93 109 110 110 111 113

2/10

3/16

103 103 102 102 102

99 99 99 100 100

4/13 103 103 103 103 103

5/10 129 131 131 126 101

5/26 137 137 137 138 139 135

6/9 116 116 116 116 113 112 110

6/22 130 130 132 131 119 110

7/7 128 128 128 128 104 78 75

7/20 133 133 133 133 126 119

8/4 115 116 116 106 100 97

8/18 127 127 116 110 92 59

9/8 134 134 134 133 125 120

9/28 103 103 103 103 103 102

Appendix E8. Percent Dissolved Oxygen Saturation in Wolf Lake at RHA-8

Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

10/13/92 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 94 95 94 94 94 94 94 93 93 92

11/12 96 % 96 % % 96 96 96 96 95 96 % 95 % 96 95 94 92

12/21

1/19/93 109 109 110 113 116 116 112 113 113 113 113 106 91 90 94 93 80

2/10

3/16

107 107 107 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 107 107 107 107 108 107

97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96

4/13

5/10

102 101 102 102 102 102 102 102 102 102 102 102 102 102 102 102 102 101 102 101 102 103 102 103 102 100 102 100 102 100 102 96 102 96 102 94

5/26 127 127 127 125 123 123 122 122 114 109 109 99 91 85 85 79 68 60

6/9

6/22

7/7

109 109 109 109 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 107 107

122 122 122 122 122 122 121 122 119 119 107 96 85 70 58 14 2 1

105 105 105 98 97 93 91 90 88 86 83 83 84 86 68 46 44 27

7/20 125 125 125 125 125 123 125 125 121 121 121 121 119 119 119 119 119 117

8/4 92 92 92 92 92 92 90 90 88 88 88 88 88 89 88 83 82 83

8/18 125 125 125 125 125 123 120 119 115 108 92 28 4 1 1 1 1

9/8 142 142 142 142 142 140 138 136 134 134 134 133 132 110 107 101 97

9/28 95 95 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96

Appendix E9. Percent Dissolved Oxygen Saturation in Wolf Lake at RHA-9 Depth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

10/13/92 68 66 67 68 72 72 72 72

11/12 12/21 82 82 82 82 81 81 81 81 81

1/19/93 127 128 126 127 129

2/10

3/16

88 88 88 88 88 88 88 89 89

83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83

4/13 106 106 106 106 107 107 107 108 107

5/10 117 117 115 111 102 98 94 89

5/26 94 94 98 100 101 99 94

6/9 41 41 40 40 39 38 36 27 46

6/22 96 94 94 95 95 69 47 49 59

7/7 98 98 98 98 98 87 66 67 67

7/20 70 70 71 71 71 73 70 66

8/4 36 36 36 35 33 35 35 32 33

8/18 75 75 73 70 68 61 31 22

9/8 44 44 42 41 39 32 23 21

9/28 46 46 45 44 42 28 14 12

Appendix F. Salt Usage on the Indiana Toll Road

317

Illinois State Water Survey P. 0. Box 697 Peoria, Illinois 61652 Attn: Ramon K. Ramon Re: Wolf Lake - Winter Salt Dear Mr. Ramon: The information on salt used on the Indiana Toll Road for snow and ice removal in the area of Wolf Lake and Lake George is as follows: Winter Period

Harbor Belt Railroad to 129th Street Salt spread adjacent to Wolf Lake

1991-92 1992-93 1993-94

86.8 Tons 150.0 Tons 167.5 Tons

A copy of our "Policy For Straight Salt Usage" Indiana Toll Road is enclosed for your information. Very truly yours,

Road Operations Engineers SEW:BAB Enclosures

318 An Equal Opportunity Employer

*INDIANA TOLL ROAD* POLICY FOR STRAIGHT SALT USAGE I. EQUIPMENT A. All spreading equipment will be calibrated and posted in trucks. 1. 350 lbs/Miles - Mainline 2. 250 lbs/Miles - Plaza Ramps 3. 200 lbs/Miles - Service Areas B. All spreader trucks will be equipped with spreader lights for nighttime spreading. II. SPREADING PROCEDURES - MAINLINE A. Spreader rate will be determined by projected and/or type of accumulation when possible. B. Priority areas and spot spreading will be determined by supervisors only. In the event of a supervisors absence, crew leaders will assume responsibility. C. Spreading in both lanes will only be done during peak traffic hours. During low volume traffic hours, spreading may be done from only the driving lane if conditions allow passing lane to be kept safe using this procedure. D. No spreading will be allowed on roadway shoulders with the exception of extreme drifting resulting in hazardous conditions being created in roadway and/or unplowable ice conditions. (Drifting is to be controlled by plowing as needed). E. Crossovers will only be spread on approach and acceleration area. F. At no time will any "Pre-Spreading" be done. III. SPREADING PROCEDURES - PLAZAS A. Plaza ramps will only be spread so as to accommodate curves, deceleration areas, and grades. Straight-away sections on ramp areas will not be spread. B. Ramp bridges will be spread - deck only. C. Closed lanes at toll booths will only be treated prior to usage (upon request of Toll Collection). IV. SPREADING PROCEDURES - SERVICE AREAS A. Ramps [ 1. Off-ramps only, except if curves, bridge decks, or grades exist ' at on-ramp. B. Truck parking areas will only be spread when non-plowable ice exists. C. Fuel pump and car parking areas will be spread as needed. Only the parking areas that are lined for parking will be treated. D. Back dock area will only be spread to ramp, i.e. only sloped delivery/ walkway area behind each building. E. Employee parking area to be treated same as truck parking area. NOTE:

NON-PLOWABLE ICE CONDITIONS WILL BE TREATED AS NEEDED TO MAINTAIN SAFETY IN ALL AREAS. THIS SITUATION MAY IMPLEMENT THE USE OF ABRASIVES AND/OR ALTERNATIVES. 11-06-91 Revised 07-05-94

I

319

11-06-91 *INDIANA TOLL ROAD* POST STORM CLEAN-DP

I.

Pavement sensors and/or ambient temperature will determine the cut-off of salt spreading unless packing conditions exist.

II.

As soon as mainline lanes and plaza ramps are cleared, clean-up of salt handling areas will begin. All unused salt will be returned to the building.

III.

Salt trucks will be unloaded as post storm clean-up progresses. NO salt will be used during post storm operations unless packing conditions are present and as needed around walkways. Trucks may remain loaded only if weight is needed to remove snow.

IV. V. VI.

Trucks will be unloaded inside salt storage facilities as room allows. All salt handling equipment will be rinsed only in designated areas. All facilities will be inspected for compliance following each storm.

320

INDIANA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Toll Road Division INTER-OFFICE CORRESPONDENCE orm SR-6 tern 7-146 ev. 07-81 o: Samuel E. Wolfe Road Operations Engineer ubiect: Toll Road Snow Policy

From; Patrick W. Baird Roadway Maintenance Superintendent Date: December 22. 1992

Our current policy, which will remain in effect, for snow removal on the Toll Road is as follows: 1. Mainline Roadway 2. Toll Road Interchanges (

3. Service Areas NOTE: Ramps at Plazas and Service Areas may be included in Mainline Priority when needed to keep traffic flowing.

/PWB cc: Joseph Agostino W. J. Steely

321

Appendix G. A Sampling of Historical Data for Wolf Lake from Old IDEM Files

322

333

337

338

339

340

341

342

343

344

345

346

347

348

349

351

352

353

354

355

356

357

358

363

364

368

Mr. Al Ackerman U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 219 South Dearborn St. Chicago, IL 60604 Dear Mr. Ackerman: Re:

Bottom Samples—Wolf Lake, Hammond, Indiana

On February 13, 1980, samples of bottom sediment were received in the Water and Sewage Laboratory. The samples were given the following laboratory identification numbers: ISBH Field Identification Water & Sew. Lab (see attached sheet) I.D. Numbers #1 #2 #3 #4

D D D D

0301 0302 0303 0304

The samples, as received, consisted of a sediment layer and a water layer. The water layer was decanted and a total residue analysis was done on each sample. The remaining sludge was air dried, homogenized, and stored in a dessicator. Mr. John Leads of the Corp. of Engineers requested the following parameters be analyzed using the dry method: Volatile Solids Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen Oil and Grease Lead Zinc

PCB Phosphorus Mercury C.O.D. (leachate on dry material)

The results of the tests are shown on the attached report forms.

Enclosure cc:

Mr. Mike B i c a n i c Hammond Parks & R e c r e a t i o n Dep 5823 Sohl Hammond, IN 46320

Craig f. Hinshaw, Chemist Supervisor Water and Sewage Laboratory Division Bureau of Laboratories Mr. Dick T i l l o t s o n , D i s t r i c Manager 371 Mud Division 15670 West Ten Mile, S u i t e 107 S o u t h f i e l d , MI 48075

D0301 (mg/kg) COD *1. Leachate 2. Total

<5.0 (mg/1) 4,000.

19.

Lead Mercury

0.21

D0302 (mg/kg)

D0303 (mg/kg)

D0304 (mg/kg)

140. (mg/1] 120. (mg/1) 180. (mg/1) 300,000. 350,000. 630,000. 860. 1.40

200. 0.43

260. 0.86

TKN

460.

8,900.

3,600.

6,900.

Oil & Grease

600.

23,300.

7,700.

6,000.

PCB:

<0.1 <0.1

Aroclor 1248 Aroclor 1260

P Zinc

1.3 0.8

0.3 0.2

0.6 0.4

190.

2,700.

1,090.

1,560.

52.

1,310.

430.

610.

Z by weight of the dry residue Total Volatile Residue

Total Residue

*

4.5

13.4

5.8

10.0

Z by weight of the sample i s received in the lab 23.6 35.9 15.5 75.5

See attached procedure for

leachate method.

372

EPA LEACIIATE PROCEDURE

1. Homogenize sample without chancing its physical nature. 2. Weigh 100 gms. of samplc and place into a 2 liter beaker. 3. Add 1600 ml of deionized - distilled water to the 2 liter beaker * and begin agitation (16 x weight of sample = ml volume). A.

Adjust pH to' 5.0 ± 0.2 using 0.5 N. Acetic acid.

5.

Mix for 24 hours. Check pH initially, 15 min; 30 min; and then hourly. Adjust pH to 5.0 ± 0.2 if necessary.

6. After 24 hours, check pH and record. 7.

Filter the mixture, using a 0.45 micron membrane filter (millipore type HAW/142 or equivalent) and a prefilter (millipore AP25124 or a equivalent).

8.

Adjust volume of the filtrate to 2000 ml using deionized - distilled water. (20 × weight of sample) = ml volume

9.

Run analysis on the filtrate. Reference: Federal Register, Vol. 43, No. 243 - Monday, December 18, 1978.

373

Summary of Limnological Survey Wolf Lake, Lake County July 22, 1981

In past years, many limnologlcal and chemical surveys have been conducted at Wolf Lake. These have all provided data that indicated the advanced eutrophic condition of the lake. Excessive concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus have consistently been found throughout the water column and nuisance blue-green algal blooms are common. Fish kills have occurred and complaints concerning poor water quality conditions are regularly received by this office. The Indiana Lake Classification System and Management Plan lists Wolf Lake in Group IV, Subgroup A. Group IV contains most of the problom lakes of the state. The majority of these lakes have water quality problems that often impair recreational uses. The choice of specific restoration techniques for an individual lake depends in part on the area and depth of the lake. Group IV, Subgroup A lakes have shallow mean depths. Some of the more feasible restoration techniques are dredging, bottom sealing, or sediment consolidation. Restoration projects must be accompanied by curbing future nutrient and sediment inputs in order to achieve long-term improvements. Wolf Lake is a high use problem lake and, as such, it is a likely candidate for restoration. This agency reviews and comments on lake restoration feasibility plans and restoration project proposals; therefore, up-to-date background limnological data on Wolf Lake is necessary. Aquatic Vegetation There are significant wetlands around the mouth of Wolf Lake Channel and the north end of the lake basin. The south end of the lake contains smaller areas of wetland. These wetlands closely resemble a Type 4 Deep Marsh. The wetland soils are covered with one-half to three feet of water and the dominant macrophytes are cattails, yellow and white pond lily, and various aquatic grasses. This vegetation provides the only fish habitat available for spawning and protection of fry, as the lake is shallow and contains little bottom structure. Many shore birds and migratory waterfowl were observed in the wetland areas. Tows were made with a plankton net from bottom to surface. Examination of these samples revealed that, at the time of survey, the plankton population was almost entirely composed of the blue-green algae, Microcystis sp. There were also trichomes of Anabaena sp. present. These are two of the most common genera in nuisance algae blooms. In quiet waters, they will often form dense floating scums and

381

produce odors that are often Che source of complaints. The sediments of midlake also contained masses of pea-sized gelatinous bodics. Examination under the microscope indicated that these were probably the blue-green algae, Aphanothece sp. Large numbers of pennate diatoms were found adhering to the copious mucilage of the blue-green colonies. The constant turbidity and low secchi-disk measurements are a result of the presence of large populations of blue-green algae and algal remains that are wind and current circulated from bottom sediments. The high turbidities of the epilimnion waters are light-limiting and, therefore, prevent even higher populations of plankton from developing. Turbidity also restricts the area of maerophyte growth. Sediments Sediment samples were collected with a dredge at five lake stations. Most of the sediments were jet black in color and of very fine composition. When the sediments were washed, they all passed quickly through a #30 sieve. The sediments were at least several inches deep throughout the lake. There was practically no odor to the sediments and this indicates aerobic decomposition had taken place. The sediments resembled completely stable plankton remains. Most highly eutrophic lakes deep enough to completely stratify thermally will have organic sediments that have undergone anaerobic decomposition. The sediments may not be completely stable and will usually have a characteristic hydrogen sulfide odor. Hypolimnetic water may also smell of hydrogen sulfide. This is prevented in Wolf Lake, for dissolved oxygen is readily circulated throughout the water column by wind-induced currents. There are also partially decomposed algal remains and macrophyte detritus that forms most of the flocculent suspended sediments of Wolf Lake. This lies just above the bottom during quiet weather, but is often dispersed throughout the water column by wind and motor boat activity. Nutrients are also recycled to the trophic zone along with sediments. Benthic Aquatic Life and Zooplankton The sediments were examined at five stations for benthic macroinvertebrates. None were found except in Wolf Lake Channel. In the channel only a few Oligochaets were found. This absence of benthic organisms is partially due to the poor habitat provided by the soft shifting sediments of the substrate. Laboratory analysis of the sediments revealed very high concentrations of metals (Table I I ) . These high concentrations may also inhibit colonization by benthic life. The littoral regions of the lake were not examined. It is possible that some macroinvertebrate may exist there, especially midge larvae.

382

No zooplankton was found in samples obtained by towing a plankton net through the water column. This is also unusual for most eutrophic lakes containing large populations of certain zooplankton. These organisms may also be limited by excessive metals concentrations. The zooplankton food supply may not be suitable. The phytoplankton of Wolf Lake, upon which much zooplankton feeds, is composed of blue-green genera which are not a preferred food source. Lake Uses Wolf Lake is a heavily used resource. During weekdays, many fishermen were observed in boats and along the banks. Fishing activity must be heavy on the weekend. The Northeastern Sportsman magazine states that Wolf Lake supports significant populations of largemouth bass and northern pike. We observed a fisherman bringing in a fifteen-inch bass. Personnel of this office have observed fishermen on Wolf Lake on many occasions throughout the year. There is a public boat ramp and parking lot on the south side of the lake and a marina on the west side. Water skiing and pleasure boating are popular although Wolf Lake is shallow and boats must keep to the lake center. Forsyth Park is located along the Wolf Lake Channel and the north end of the lake. This area offers extensive bank fishing, three ball fields, and picnic areas. There is also a large swimming beach along the northeast quadrant of the lake. The wetland areas attract numerous birds and animals and nature study may be enjoyed at Wolf Lake. General Statements The July 22, 1981, survey of Wolf Lake confirms the lake's position in the Lake Classification and Management Plan. The lake contains excessive amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus (Table III) and periodically supports blue-green algal blooms. Fish kills have been recorded. Recreational uses have been impaired by industrial discharges, storm water overflow, bacterial contamination, and algal blooms. Pollution complaints have been received from the Lake County Health Department, private citizens, and conservation organizations. Wolf Lake is heavily used by Lake County residents and provides the only water-oriented recreation available to a large number of people. The sediments of Wolf Lake contain excessive concentrations of several metals. Care should taken with the disposal of any dredged bottom sediments.

383

Dissolved Oxygen Table I Wolf Lake is noc protected by natural features such as hills or stands of forest. It is open to the strong winds of Lake Michigan which frequently move and stir the water column. Wolf Lake averages only about five feet in depth. A maximum depth of fourteen feet was found. The strong winds and shallow depth result in the mixing of the waters and the prevention of strong thermal stratification. The lack of dissolved oxygen is not a common problem with Wolf Lake; however, it is probable that nighttime low dissolved oxygen concentrations are a factor in fish kills during extended, quiet, hot weather periods, as well as during winter ice cover.

384

Station #1 Wolf Lake Channel. American Maize complex.

Mid-channel near the last building in the

Depth (Feet)

Temperature (C)

Dissolved Oxygen (mg/l)

0 1 2 3 4 5 (Bottom) Secchi-Disk - 30 in.

23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 22.0 22.0 Wind = N 15 mph

7.0 6.9 6.9 7.1 6.7 5.6 Hazy Sun 12 noon

Station #2.

100 yards south of the island on the east side of Wolf Lake

Depth (Feet)

Temperature (C)

Dissolved Oxygen (mg/1)

0 23.0 8.8 1 23.0 8.6 2 23.0 8.4 3 23.0 8.3 4 23.0 8.1 5 23.0 8.1 6 23.0 7.9 7 23.0 7.8 8 23.0 7.5 9 23.0 7.5 10 22.5 7.3 11 22.5 7.1 12 22.0 6.5 13 (Bottom) 22.0 5.3 Secchi-Disk - 18 in. Wind = N 10 mph Hazy Sun 1:45 p.m. Station #3. 50 yards east of the culvert which leads under Toll Road #90. In the main Wolf Lake basin. Depth (Feet)

Temperature (C)

Dissolved Oxygen (mg/1)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Secchi-Disk = 18 in.

23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 Wind = N 15

9.8 9.5 9.3 9.3 9.0 9.0 8.9 8.9 7.2 Hazy Sun

385

mph

1:15 p.m.

sration #4. Center of the West Basin.

West of Toll Road culvert.

Depth (Feet)

Temperature (C)

0 1 2 3

22.0 22.0 22.0 22.0

Secchi-Disk = 12 in.

Wind = N 15 mph

Dissolved Oxygen (mg/l) 10.1 10.1 10.0 9.6 Hazy Sun

12:45 p.m.

Station #5. South end of Wolf Lake. Depth (Feet) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Secchi-Disk = 18 in.

Temperature (C) 24.0 24.0 24.0 23.5 23.5 23.5 23.5 23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 Wind - N 10 mph

386

Dissolved Oxygen (mg/1) 9.9 9.7 9.5 9.5 9.2 9.0 8.8 8.8 8.6 8.5 8.5 Direct Sun 2:15 p.m.

Table II Wolf Lake, Lake County Results of Analysis, Sediment Metals, Analysis on Dry Weight July 22, 1981

Station

PCB ug/kg

Arsenic ug/kg

#1 (see below) 17,000 #2 11,000 #3 15,000 3,000 #4 17,000 #5 2,300

Cadmium ug/kg

Total Chromium ug/kg

Copper ug/kg

Iron ug/kg

7,000 160,000 340,000 37,000,000 2,000 42,000 81,000 19,000,000 54,000 110,000 25,000,000 1,000 29,000 160,000 10,000,000 800 9,700 8,000 5,700,000

Lead ug/kg 1,000,000 240,000 290,000 110,000 25,000

Manganese ug/kg

Nickel ug/kg

740,000 690,000 690,000 440,000 330,000

46,000 18,000 22,000 8,800 3,700

#1 Wolf Lake Channel. Mid channel near the last building in the American Maize complex. #2 100 yards south of the island on the east side of Wolf Lake. #3 The main Wolf Lake basin, 50 yards east of the culvert which leads under Toll Road 90. #4 Center of the west basin, west of the Toll Road 90 culvert. #5 South end of Wolf Lake. PCB ug/kg Station #1

AROCLOR AROCLOR

1242 1260

0.67 0.94

Station

#2

AROCLOR AROCLOR

1242 1260

< 0.10 < 0.10

Station

#3

AROCLOR AROCLOR

1242 1260

< 0.10 < 0.10

Station

#4

AROCLOR AROCLOR

1242 1260

< 0.10 < 0.10

AROCLOR AROCLOR

1242 1260

< 0.10 < 0.10

Station f?5

Zinc ug/kg 1,300,000 430,000 600,000 240,000 60,000

Table III Wolf Lake, Lake County Results of Analysis, Water Samples, Surface and Bottom July 22, 1981

Parameter Alkalinity

Station #1 Surface 5 Feet

Station #2 Surface 13 Feet

100.0

Total CaCo3 mg/1 Ammonia-N mg/1 0.1 0.5 Arsenic ug/1 2.9 3.1 Cadmium ug/1 2.0 2.0 Chronium-Total ug/1 10.0 10.0 Copper ug/1 22.0 27.0 Cvmiide mg/1 0.005 Iron ug/1 1,500.0 2,000.0 Lead ug/1 50.0 60.0 Manganese ug/1 100.0 110.0 Nickel ug/1 10.0 10.0 No2+No3-N mg/1 0.2 0.2 Phosphorus-P mg/1 0.08 0.32 TKN mg/l 0.1 2.4 Zinc ug/1 100.0 120.0 Hardness mg/l 156.0 CaCo3 PCB ug/kg

Station #3 Surface 8 Feet

60.0 0.1 2.4 2.0 10.0 A.O A30.0 10.0 100.0 10.0 0.6 0.12 0.1 10.0

0.1 2.5 2.0 10.0 4.0 0.005 .480.0 10.0 100.0 10.0 0.5 0.12 0.1 10.0 100.0

68.0 0.1 2.4 2.0 10.0 4.0

0.9 4.9 2.0 10.0 24.0 0.005 430.0 2,800. 10.0 50.0 90.0 260.0 10.0 10.0 0.1 0.1 0.13 0.35 0.1 1.1 10.0 90.0 . 1A8.0

Station #4 Surface 3 Feet ---0.1 5.6 2.0 10.0 6.0 ---520.0 10.0 100.0 10.0 0.1 0.17 0.1 10.0 ----

60.0 0.1 6.5 2.0 10.0 6.0 0.005 680.0 10.0 110.0 10.0 0.1 0.19 2.2 30.0 128.0

Station #5 Surface 10 Feet ---0.1 2.4 2.0 10.0 4.0 ---A60.0 10.0 90.0 10.0 0.1 0.13 1.6 10.0 ----

66.0 0.1 2.6 2.0 10.0 4.0 0.005 560.0 10.0 100.0 10.0 2.4 0.15 2.3 10.0 108.0

TABLE II B Wolf Lake, Lake County Results of Analysis, Laboratory Leachate of Sediment Samples July 22, 1981 Station

Arsenic ug/1

#1

2.3

#2

2.5

#3

2.2

#4

3.1

#5

1.9 3.8

Ccnposlte of Samples

#1,#2, #3, #4, and #5

Cadmium ug/1

<2.0 <2.0 <2.0

Chromium -Total ug/1

Lead ug/1

Mercury ug/1

Barium ug/1

Selenium ug/1

Silver ug/1

<10.0

<10.0

0.3

<30.0

<0.2

<10.0

<10.0

<10.0

0.1

<30.0

0.2

<10.0

<10.0

<10.0

0.2

50.0

0.6

<10.0

<10.0

<10.0

<0.1

50.0

0.3

<10.0

<2.0

<10.0

<10.0

0.1

60.0

0.2

<10.0

<2.0

< 10.0

<10.0

0.1

80.0

0.3

<10.0

<.2.0

August 7, 1981 C. Lee Bridges, Chief Biological Studies & Standards Section Harold L. BonHomme, Supervisor of Lake Studies Biological Studies & Standards Section Wolf Lake Limnological Survey

Biologists of this section conducted a limnological survey of Wolf Lake in Lake County on July 22, 1981. The survey was done under about as stable weather conditions as is possible that near to Lake Michigan. A cool front had moved in the day before the survey and temperatures had fallen from daytime highs of 90 to 65 ; however, the winds had subsided to a relatively moderate 10-15 mph for the duration of the survey. There was constant sunlight-sometimes direct and sometimes hazy. Only the Indiana waters of Wolf Lake were surveyed because no boat inlet to the Illinois waters was found. The shoreline of the lake was observed and no flowing outfalls or drainage was noticed at the time of the survey. There are significant wetlands around the mouth of the Wolf Lake Channel and the north end of the lake basin. The south end of the lake also contains smaller wetlands. These wetlands closely resembled a Type 4 Deep Marsh. The wetland soils were covered with one-half to three feet of water; and the dominant macrophytes were cattail, yellow and white pond lily, and various aquatic grasses. Much of this vegetation provides the only available fish cover for spawning and fry survival, as the lake averages about five feet deep and bottom structure is scarce. Many shore birds and ducks were observed using the wetland areas. Sediment samples were collected with a dredge at the five lake stations. These were for PCB and metals analysis. Samples were taken from the Wolf Lake Channel and midlake for benthic life. The bottom sediments were jet black and were of very fine composition. When washed, it all passed quickly through a #30 sieve. There were numerous bits of grass-like vegetative detritus in the sediments. The sediments were at least several inches deep throughout the lake basin. There was practically no odor to the sediments and they closely resembled decomposed stable plankton remains. Most lakes deep enough to stratify long enough for anaerobic conditions to develop will have bottom sediments and hypolimnetic waters with a hydrogen sulfide odor. The sediments will not be completely stable. This is prevented in Wolf 391

-2-

Lake, for the lake is open and very shallow so that the epilimnetic waters and dissolved oxygen are usually well circulated by the frequent winds of that area. Sediments of this type should be easier than most to dispose of if dredged. The sediment is light in weight (at least the interface sediments) and they are easily stirred by wind-induced currents so that nutrients are circulated and some suspended solids turbidity is practically always present. Motorboat activity contributes to sediment stirring. Plankton tows were made with a net from top to bottom in several locations. Examination of these samples revealed that at the time of survey the plankton was almost entirely composed of the bluegreen algae, Microcystis. There were also trichomes of Anabaena present. These are the most common genera in nuisance algae blooms. In quiet waters they will form dense floating scums and produce the odors that are often the source of complaints. The sediments in midlake also contained masses of pea-sized gelatinous bodies. Examination under the microscope indicated that these were probably the blue-green algae, Aphanothece or Gloeothece. Large populations of pennate diatoms of various species were found adhering to the firm copious mucilage of the blue-green colonies. No zooplankton was observed in any of the tows. The bottom sediments were examined for macroinvertebrates. No macroinvertebrates were found except four oligochaetes in the Wolf Lake Channel station. No visible living organisms were found in the midlake sample except the aforementioned gelatinous blue-green algae colonies. I would have expected great numbers of midge larvae in this shallow, organically-rich lake. Perhaps even midge larva are confined to more firm bottom shore areas because of the fine shifting sediments farther out in the lake basin. The following are Wolf Lake sampling stations and temperature and DO profiles: Station #1. Wolf Lake Channel. the American Maize complex. Depth (ft.) 0 1 2 3 4 5 (Bottom) Secchi-disc = 30"

Mid-channel near the last building in

Temperature (C°) 23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 22.0 22.0 Wind = 15 mph Chop N

Dissolved Oxygen (mg/l) 7.0 6.9 6.9 7.1 6.7 5.6 Hazy Sun

Station #2, 100 yards south of the island on the east side of the lake.

392

-3Depth (ft.)

Temperature (C )

Dissolved Oxygen (mg/1)

0 23.0 8.8 1 23.0 8.6 2 23.0 8.4 3 23.0 8.3 4 23.0 8.1 5 23.0 8.1 6 23.0 7.9 7 23.0 7.8 8 23.0 7.5 9 23.0 7.5 10 22.5 7.3 11 22.5 7.1 12 22.0 6.5 13 (Bottom) 22.0 5.3 Secchi = 18" Wind = N 10 mph Hazy Sun Station #3. 50 yards east of the culvert which Leads under the Toll Road #90. In the main Wolf Lake Basin. Depth (ft.) Temperature (C°) Dissolved Oxygen (mg/l) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Secchi = 18"

23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 Wind = N 15 mph Chop

9.8 9.5 9.3 9.3 9.0 9.0 8.9 8.9 7.2 Hazy Sun

Station #4. Center of West Basin. West of Toll Road Culvert. Depth (ft.)

Temperature (C°)

0 1 2 3 Secchi = 12"

22.0 22.0 22.0 22.0 Wind = 15 mph-N

Dissolved Oxygen (mg/1) 10.1 10.1 10.0 9.6 Hazy Sun

Station #5. South end of Wolf Lake. Depth (ft.) 0 1 2

Temperatures (C ) 24.0 24.0 24.0

393

Dissolved Oxygen (mg/1) 9.9 9.7 9.5

-4-

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Secchi = 18"

23.5 23.5 23.5 23.5 23.0 23.0 23.0

9.2 9.0 8.8 8.8 8.6 8.5 8.7

Wind = N 10 mph

Sunny

Wolf Lake is a heavily used lake. During a weekday, many fishermen were observed in boats and along the bank. Fishing pressure must be heavy on weekends. The Northeastern Sportsman magazine states that Wolf Lake supports a significant population of Largemouth Bass and Northern Pike. We observed a fisherman bringing in a fifteen-inch bass. There is a public boat ramp and parking lot on the south side of the lake and a marina on the west side. Water skiing and pleasure boating are popular. Fishing and boating are more compatible on Wolf Lake, for the large boats must keep more to the center of the lake because of the extensive shallows near shore. Forsyth Park is located along the Wolf Lake Channel and the north end of the lake. This has extensive bank fishing, three ball fields, and picnic areas. There is also a large swimming beach on the northeast side of the lake. Wolf Lake is an important resource for the Calumet area. It provides a game and rough fish fishery, wildlife habitat and observation opportunities, boating, swimming, and a park area for sports and relaxation. These are available for people who cannot reach or afford Lake Michigan activities. The water quality of Wolf Lake is not good; however, the rather constant wind-induced circulation of its waters permits the biological and physical processes to keep lake conditions at something more than a tolerable level. The lake cannot adequately assimilate more organic wastes without the risk of the more constant and intense nuisance lake conditions that will inhibit lake uses and the fishery. Surface and bottom water samples for nutrients, metals, cyanide, and alkalinity were taken at the five stations and will be added to this report when results of analyses are received.

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INDIANA DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT NANCY A. MALOLEY. Commissioner

A u g u s t 5,

1987

105 South Meridian Street P.O. Box 6015 Indianapolis 46206-6015 Telephone 317-232-8603

Marvin W. Acklin, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Psychology Department of Psychology Loyola University of Chicago 6525 North Sheridan Road Chicago, Illinois 60626 Dear Dr. Acklin: This is in response to your letter of July 20, 1987, requesting information regarding Wolf Lake monitoring activities. Since 1966, representatives of the Indiana water pollution control agency have monitored Wolf Lake at the state line culvert as part of the state's fixed station water quality monitoring program. For a time, samples were also collected from Wolf Lake channel and from the beach area on a regular basis. Data from the fixed station water quality monitoring program are normally published each year. However, publication of the 1985 and 1986 data has been delayed. Copies of the 1983 and 1984 data are enclosed. Lever Brothers and American Maize Products have discharges to Wolf Lake channel. Compliance sampling inspections of Lever Brothers conducted in 1982, 1985, and 1986 disclosed that the plant effluent was of good quality and met all NPDES permit limits and conditions. American Maize discharges only excess intake waters from Lake Michigan and/or noncontact cooling water. Wolf Lake Terminal has no valid NPDES permit to discharge to Wolf Lake. We understand the lawsuit against Wolf "Lake Terminal was dismissed late last winter. We suggest that you contact Mr. Mathew Scherschel of the Indiana Attorney General's Office if you want specific information regarding this case. In June of 1982, representatives of this office collected a carp fillet sample from the sound end of Wolf Lake. Analysis for PCBs, pesticides, and certain heavy metals disclosed that none of these materials was present in concentrations approaching FDA action levels.

413

Marvin W. Acklin, Ph.D. Page 2 August 5, 1987

Six additional fish samples were collected from the east and west basins and the channel in July of 1986. These are split evenly between whole fish and fillet samples. Results of priority pollutant analyses are expected by mid-winter. LimnologjLcal surveys were conducted at Wolf Lake in July of 1981 and in July of 1986. To date, no formal reports have been prepared for distribution. Survey results are contained in our files in a form intended for administrative use only, but they may be reviewed at our office located at 5 500 West Bradbury in Indianapolis during normal working hours. Sincerely,

Jane Magee Assistant Commissioner Office of Water Management JLW/vs Enclosure

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Appendix H. An Article Regarding Fishing in Wolf Lake

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Appendix I. Fisheries Information