district human development report paschim medinipur - Department of

district human development report paschim medinipur - Department of

DISTRICT HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT PASCHIM MEDINIPUR DEVELOPMENT & PLANNING DEPARTMENT GOVERNMENT OF WEST BENGAL District Human Development Report :...

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DISTRICT HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT PASCHIM MEDINIPUR

DEVELOPMENT & PLANNING DEPARTMENT GOVERNMENT OF WEST BENGAL

District Human Development Report : Paschim Medinipur © Development & Planning Department Government of West Bengal First Published May, 2011 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior permission from the Publisher.

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Front Cover Photograph : Back Cover Photograph :

Highlights of the District

Published by : Development & Planning Department Government of West Bengal Setting and Design By : Saraswaty Press Ltd. (Government of West Bengal Enterprise) 11, B.T. Road, Kolkata — 700056 Printed by : Saraswaty Press Ltd. (Government of West Bengal Enterprise) 11, B.T. Road, Kolkata — 700056

While every care has been taken to reproduce the accurate data, oversights/errors may occur. If found, please convey it to the Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal.

Minister-in-Charge Departments of Commerce & Industries, Industrial Reconstruction, Public Enterprises, Development & Planning and Power &NES GOVERNMENT OF WEST BENGAL E-mail: [email protected]

Foreword Any descriptive account of West Bengal is incomplete without the mention of Medinipur. A bastion of freedom struggle, bedrock of peoples' movements and a place of reverence to the students of political history, Medinipur is the birth-place of Iswarchandra Vidyasagar, Kshudiram Bose, Matangini Hazra, Birendranath Sashmal and many stalwarts who have made the nation proud through their contributions in the social and political spheres. It also has a rare combination of urban agglomeration and rural settings interspersed by forest tracts and hillocks. The eyes of the wanderlust mingle the views of the historical mansions of Mahishadal and Jhargram with the Indian Institute of Technology at Kharagpur, the barrage of Kansabati and banks of Rupnarayan. The enormous size of the district repeatedly drew the attention of the administrators since the latter half of the nineteenth century for bifurcation. Finally, on the 1st of January, 2002, the twin districts of Paschim Medinipur and Purba Medinipur were carved out of the erstwhile "Midnapore" which was the largest Indian district in size and proportion till that day. Paschim Medinipur provides an endless canvass of opportunities. Featuring in the lower range of all-round development, it was brought under the Rashtriya Sam Vikas Yojana of the Planning Commission in 2003-2004 during the Tenth Plan and later included under the Backward Regions Grant Fund in 2006-07, in order to usher in a series of multi-faceted programmes aimed at economic well being of a large section of the district population which was either living below the poverty line or on the edge of subsistence. The surge of Left Wing Extremism (LWE) activities in some areas of the district bordering Orissa and Jharkhand has posed a great threat not only to the lives and livelihood of the people of this area but also to the spread of developmental activities. It (LWE) has challenged the basic authority of governance and has compelled the State Government to resort to a control mechanism that may not be populist but effective to check the growth of militancy that erodes the very platform of progress which the State Government is bent to build for betterment of the district and its people. 4, Abanindranath Tagore Sarani (Camac Street), 6th floor, Kolkata 700 016 z Ph.: 2282 0770/2282 0771 z Fax : 2282 0769 Writers' Buildings, Kolkata 700 001 z Ph : 2214 5919/3475 z Fax : 2214 4900 Poura Bhawan, FD-415A, Bidhannagar, 5th floor, Kolkata 700 106 z Ph.: 2321 1113 z Fax : 2321 1827 New Secretariat Buildings, 1 Kiron Sankar Roy Road, Kolkata 700 001 z Ph. 2248 0706 z Fax : 2243 8114

Minister-in-Charge Departments of Commerce & Industries, Industrial Reconstruction, Public Enterprises, Development & Planning and Power &NES GOVERNMENT OF WEST BENGAL E-mail: [email protected]

The collation and collection of data to prepare this DHDR has indeed been a very, very uphill task and I have no words to appreciate the team of academicians and administrators who have strived to prepare this document which accumulates much required information about a district that demands a concerted and continuous effort from all of us to improve its hitherto underdeveloped status. I thank the members of the State Planning Board whose advice and guidance had been pivotal in the making of this document. I also thank the officers and staff of the Development and Planning Department for doing all that is needful to bring out this DHDR which is a follow up to the SHDR published in 2004. It would be a real pleasure if this Report helps to upgrade the position of Paschim Medinipur in the Human Development scenario.

Kolkata

Nirupam Sen

March, 2011

4, Abanindranath Tagore Sarani (Camac Street), 6th floor, Kolkata 700 016 z Ph.: 2282 0770/2282 0771 z Fax : 2282 0769 Writers' Buildings, Kolkata 700 001 z Ph : 2214 5919/3475 z Fax : 2214 4900 Poura Bhawan, FD-415A, Bidhannagar, 5th floor, Kolkata 700 106 z Ph.: 2321 1113 z Fax : 2321 1827 New Secretariat Buildings, 1 Kiron Sankar Roy Road, Kolkata 700 001 z Ph. 2248 0706 z Fax : 2243 8114

Preface Located in the southern part of West Bengal, Paschim Medinipur in its existing part, has been carved out of the erstwhile Midnapore in year 2002. Being the second largest district in the State, has been always in focus because of perpetual underdevelopment in the western part. In the last two years, Maoist violence has rapidly spread over eleven western blocks of the district and it has again brought the issues of Human Development in the forefront. The district has two distinct divisions- western part with arid red lateritic soil along with tribal population concentration and eastern part with alluvial soil deposits with people of different caste groups being present. All the twenty nine blocks of the district, do present a unique opportunity to understand the issues associated with the different aspects of human development, viz., demography, physiological conditions, literacy, economic livelihood etc. In the different chapters of the report, we have made efforts to analyse each of these aspects and try to understand their relevance to human development. Availability of the authentic data at sub-district level is always a problem. However, we have generally made efforts to rely on Census and Rural Household Survey data. As the current census operation is yet to be over, we have used Census-2001 data. Rural House Hold survey data of the year 2005, has also been used as this provides interesting information on conditions of rural population specially as regards their housing conditions, economic status and asset position. With plethora of programmes running at the district level, we do generate lots of data regarding health, education, nutritional status, agriculture production etc from the lowest level. These data have also been used however, the veracity has been verified vis a vis actual field condition after discussing the same with different field officers. The process of preparation of HDR in its present form has received contribution from different academic institutions such as Vidyasagar University and IIT Kharagpur. I thankfully acknowledge the contribution of Prof. Sacchidanand Sahaoo of Economics Department, Vidyasagar University for working tirelessly for the preparation of the report and giving his valuable inputs on different issues. I would also like to thank Prof. P. K. Bhowmick, Prof. Arif Merchant & Prof. R. N. Chatterjee of IIT Kharagpur and Prof. D. Mondal & Prof. Sankar Majumder of Vidyasagar University for their contributions to different chapters of the report. The contributions of ADM (Development) Sri R K Maiti, DPLO both past and present, Sri Malay Mukhopadhyay & Sri Pranab Ghosh, ECCP Sri Nirmal Ghorai, Sri Partho Ghosh, erstwhile SDO Sadar, Sri Rupam Banerjee, DNO, NREGA and Smt Aditi Dasgupta, erstwhile DPO, SSA have been praiseworthy. I would also like to thank the entire staff of Development and Planning section of Medinipur Collectorate, with special thanks to NRDMS cell, Dr. Arabinda Maity & others for assisting us in compiling the report in its present form. I also take this opportunity for extending our gratitude to Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, specially to Additional Chief Secretary, Smt. Jaya Dasgupta, IAS for guiding the entire process and giving us the valuable inputs on different occasions. Paschim Medinipur Zilla Parishad has provided valuable inputs and participated in the entire process. In this regard, I extend my sincere thanks to Smt. Antara Bhattacharya, Hon'ble Sabhadhipati and all the Karmadhyakshas of Paschim Medinipur Zilla Parishad. I am sure HDR in present form will help us and provide a deeper insight into the different aspects of Human Development in the district and enable us to carry forward the development agenda in the focussed manner. (Narayan Swaroop Nigam, IAS) District Magistrate, Paschim Medinipur & Lead Co-ordinator

vii

Contents Foreword Preface Chapter

I

Introduction and Human Development Indices for Paschim Medinipur

1 - 20

Chapter

II

Regional Profile of Paschim Medinipur District

21 - 47

Chapter

III

Status of Education

48 - 87

Chapter

IV

Status of Health

Chapter

V

Economic Livelihoods

125 - 183

Chapter

VI

Gender Development

185 - 208

Chapter

VII

Community Development and Diversity

209 - 238

Chapter

VIII

Urbanization and Industrialization

239 - 258

Chapter

IX

Human Vulnerability

259 - 274

Chapter

X

The Way Forward

275 - 283

89 - 123

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

List of Tables Chapter I

Sl. No

Table No.

Title

Page No.

1.

1.1

Geographical Location and Climate of Paschi Medinipur District, 2006

7

2.

1.2

Forest Areas and its Percentage to Total Reporting Area in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal, 2003-04 & 2004-05

8

3.

1.3

Some Geographical Features of Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal

8

4.

1.4

Population and Its Growth in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal, 1961 to 2001

9

5.

1.5

Some Indicators of Paschim Medinipur vis-à-vis the West Bengal ( 2001)

10

6.

1.6

Percentage Share in Population in the Age Group 0-6 by Caste of Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal, 2001

10

7.

1.7

Literacy Rate by Sex in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal 1981 to 2001

11

8.

1.8

Literacy Rate by Sex and Region in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal, 1991

11

9.

1.9

Literacy Rate and Work Participation Rate by Caste in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal, 2001

11

10.

1.10

Percentage Share of Workers across Livelihoods in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal, 2001

11

11.

1.11

Percentage of Main Workers and Marginal workers to Total Workers by Caste in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal, 2001

12

12.

1.12

Percentage of Main Cultivators and Agricultural Labourers to Total Main Workers by Caste in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal, 2001

12

13.

1.13

Percentage of Main Household Industry Workers and Other Main Workers to Total Main Workers by Caste in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal, 2001

12

xi

List of Tables

Chapter

II

Sl. No

Table No.

Title

14.

1.14

Percentage of Villages Electrified in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal, 2004 and 2005

13

15.

1.15

Population per bank Office, Per capita Deposits and Per capita Advance in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal, 2006

13

16.

1.16

Health Services in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal, 2003-04

14

17.

1.17

Number of Primary and Upper Primary Schools in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal, 2008-09

14

18.

1.18

Per capita Own Source Revenue of Gram Panchayats in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal, 2002-03 to 2007-08

16

19.

1.19

Percentage of Total Cumulative Revenue Collection to Demand and Pattern of Utilisation of Own Source Revenue in Gram Panchayats of Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal, 2005-06

16

20.

1.20

BPL Families as per RHS vis-à-vis the West Bengal (2005)

16

21.

1.21

Human Development Index for Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District

17

22.

1.22

Distributions of Blocks by Value of Human Development Index

19

1.

2.1

Rural Area and Types of Net Cultivated Area by Block and Sub-Division , 2005-06

23

2.

2.2

Textural Classification of Soil by Block in Paschim Medinipur District,2005-06

25

3.

2.3

Classification of Blocks by Predominant Soil Type in the District, 2005- 06

26

4.

2.4

Land Use in Paschim Medinipur District by Block, 2005-06

28

5.

2.5

Area under Forest by Type and Division in Paschim Medinipur District, 2007

30

6.

2.6

Area under Principal Crops by Block Paschim Medinipur District, 2006-07

31

7.

2.7

Crop Diversification Index, 1994-95 to 2006-07

33

xii

Page No.

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Chapter

III

Sl. No

Table No.

Title

Page No.

8.

2.8

Length of Roads by Block in Paschim Medinipur District, August, 2007

36

9.

2.9

Percentage of Mouzas Electrified by Block in Paschim Medinipur District, 1991 to 2007

38

10.

2.10

Present status of Mouza Electrification and Intensification works under RGGVY

39

11.

2.11

Population Density and Sex Ratio by block , 1991 to 2001

44

12.

2.12

Percentage of Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe and General Caste Population, 2001

46

1.

3.1

Literacy Rates in Paschim Medinipur District, 2001

53

2.

3.2

Block wise literacy percentage highlighting the literacy rate of underprivileged sections

55

3.

3.3

Different types of schools in the district (Govt. or Govt. aided)

58

4.

3.4

Ratio of Primary to Upper Primary School (as on 31.10.09)

59

5.

3.5

Types of School Buildings in the district

60

6.

3.6

SSR & SCR of Primary and Upper Primary Schools

62

7.

3.7

Percentage of schools having sanitation, drinking water and other infrastructural facilities in Paschim Medinipur District

63

8.

3.8

Year wise Enrolment Overview

64

9.

3.9

Total No. of Learners in SSK and (as on 13.11.09)

10.

3.10

Gender Parity Index (Primary & Upper Primary)

67

11.

3.11

Examination Result (Primary & Upper Primary)

68

12.

3.12

Mid-Day Meal for Primary Stage (Classes I to V)

71

13.

3.13

Mid-Day Meal for Upper Primary Stage (Classes VI to VIII)

71

14.

3.14

Location of schools under NPEGEL scheme

73

15.

3.15

Enrolment Status in KGBV Hostels

74

16.

3.16

Secondary Education- present scenario

76

17.

3.17

Educational Units As on 01-04-2009

76

xiii

MSK

67

List of Tables

Chapter

IV

Sl. No

Table No.

Title

Page No.

18.

3.18

Indicators in the development in Education for the blocks of Paschim Medinipur District

80

19.

3.19

Dimension Indices and the Education Index for the blocks of Paschim Medinipur District

81

1.

4.1

District scenario as reflected in District Level Household Survey-3

92

2.

4.2

Health infrastructure in the district

93

3.

4.3

Block-wise availability of doctor, bed and health centre during 2004-2005

94

4.

4.4

Block-wise status of construction of Sub-centre buildings

96

5.

4.5

Sub-centre level additional manpower provided

97

6.

4.6

Health institution profile of twelve focused Blocks

97

7.

4.7

Block-wise requirement of Sub-centres as per national norm for twelve focused Blocks

98

8.

4.8

Reproductive & Child Health - Key indicators of Paschim Medinipur

100

9.

4.9

Delivery status in the district

101

10.

4.10

Coverage under Ayushmati Scheme in Paschim Medinipur

101

11.

4.11

Incentive to pregnant mothers of SC & ST families belonging to BPL under Janani Surakshya Yojana (JSY)

102

12.

4.12

Block-wise estimated birth rate and female literacy rate

103

13.

4.13

Incidence of malaria in the district

104

14.

4.14

Tuberculosis - district fact sheet

106

15.

4.15

Progress under National Leprosy Programme (NLEP)} in Paschim Medinipur

106

16.

4.16

Incidence of diarrhea in Paschim Medinipur

107

17.

4.17

Number of cases detected positive for HIV till March, 2008

108

18.

4.18

Project-wise coverage and infrastructural facilities available under ICDS (as on September, 2009)

109

19.

4.19

Number of schemes under various water supply Programmes (up to September, 2009)

111

xiv

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Chapter

V

Sl. No

Table No.

Title

20.

4.20

Status of piped water supply schemes in Paschim Medinipur (as on September, 2009)

112

21.

4.21

School Sanitation (up to July, 2009)

113

22.

4.22

Block-wise progress under Total Sanitation campaign (up to October, 2009)

114

23.

4.23

Indicators in the development in Health for the blocks of Paschim Medinipur District

115

24.

4.24

Dimension Indices and the Health Index for the blocks of Paschim Medinipur District

117

1.

5.1

Agricultural Development in Paschim Medinipur District

129

2.

5.2

Estimated Number and Area of Operational Holdings according to Size Class in Paschim Medinipur District , 2005-06

131

3.

5.3

Area of Vested Agricultural Land Distributed and Number of Beneficiaries in Paschim Medinipur District, 2002 to 2006

131

4.

5.4

Area Irrigated by Source in Paschim Medinipur District, 2001-02 to 2006-07

132

5.

5.5

Number of Sources of Irrigation in Paschim Medinipur District, 2002-03 to 2006-07

132

6.

5.6

Fertilizer Consumption in Paschim Medinipur District, 2001-02 to 2006-07

133

7.

5.7

Amount of Outstanding Credit Advanced by Scheduled Commercial Banks to Agriculture by Type in Paschim Medinipur District, 2007

134

8.

5.8

Warehousing and Cold Storage Facilities Available to Cultivators in Paschim Medinipur District, 2001-02 to 2006-07

135

9.

5.9

Forest area, Milk and Egg Production, Cattle, Buffaloes and Poultry, 2001-02 to 2005-06

135

10.

5.10

Selected Characteristics of Factories by Industry Group in Paschim Medinipur District, 2004-05 (P)

136

11.

5.11

Growth and Structural Change in Net District Domestic Product, 2002-03 to 2005-06

137

xv

Page No.

List of Tables

Chapter

Sl. No

Table No.

Title

12.

5.12

Per capita Outstanding Credit Advanced by Scheduled Commercial Banks to Non- agricultural Sector in Paschim Medinipur District, 2007

138

13.

5.13

Growth of Workers in Paschim Medinipur District, 1991 to 2001

139

14.

5.14

Percentage of Food grains Area to Gross Cropped Area in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District, 1994-95 to 2005-06

140

15.

5.15

Food grains Yield in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District, 1994-95 to 2006-07

141

16.

5.16

Frequency Distribution of Blocks by Foodgrains Yield (tonnes) in Paschim Medinipur District, 1994-95 to 2006-07

141

17.

5.17

Per Capita Food grains Production in Blocks 1994-95 to 2006-07

143

18.

5.18

Classifications of Farmers in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District, 1994-95 & 2006-07

145

19.

5.19

Percentage Share of Irrigated Area to Gross Cropped Area and fertilizer consumption per hectare in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District, 1994-95 to 2006-07

146

20.

5.20

Work Participation Rate in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District, 1991 and 2001

149

21.

5.21

Economic Livelihood Pattern in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District, 1991 and 2001

150

22.

5.22

Change in Percentage Point in Respect of Economic Livelihoods in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District, 1991 to 2001

151

23.

5.23

Percentage of Main and Marginal Workers to Total Workers in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District, 2001

153

24.

5.24

Percentage distribution of workers by economic livelihood classes, 2005

155

25.

5.25

Performance under SGSY up to December, 2009 since Inception

157

26.

5.26

Number of Self Help Groups (SHGs) Formed, Passed Grade I and Grade II and Credit Linked by Bank under SGSY since Inception in Paschim Medinipur District (up to March 2008)

160

xvi

Page No.

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Chapter

VI

Sl. No

Table No.

Title

27.

5.27

Performance of MGNREGA in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District, 2008-09

172

28.

5.28

Performance of Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District in MGNREGA, 2007-08 and 2008-09

174

29.

5.29

Percentages of BPL Families after 1st revision by Blocks in Paschim Medinipur District, 2005

177

30.

5.30

Frequency Distribution of Blocks by Percentage of Rural Poor, 2005

178

31.

5.31

Principal and Subsidiary Activities of Workers in Sample Villages

180

32.

5.32

Economic Livelihood (EL) Indicators

182

33.

5.33

Frequency distribution of Blocks by Value of Economic Livelihood Index in Paschim Medinipur District, 2001

183

1.

6.1

Gender Gap in Literacy Rate by Sub-Division in Paschim Medinipur District, 2001

187

2.

6.2

Gender Gap in Literacy in Blocks f Paschim Midnapore District, 1981 to 2001

188

3.

6.3

Literacy Rate among Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe by Block , 1991 & 2001

190

4.

6.4

Gender Gap in Literacy among SCs and STs, 1991 to 2001 and Its Change

191

5.

6.5

Work Participation Rate by Sex in Paschim Medinipur District, 2001

193

6.

6.6

Proportion and Annual Growth Rate of Main and Marginal Male and Female Workers in Paschim Medinipur District, 1991 to 2001

194

7.

6.7

Percentage share of Total Workers by Categories and Sex in Blocks , 2001

195

8.

6.8

Percentage Share of Scheduled Caste Workers by Categories and Sex in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District, 2001

198

9.

6.9

Percentage Share of Scheduled Tribe Total Workers by Categories and Sex in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District, 2001

200

10.

6.10

Participation of Women in PRI

207

11.

6.11

Gender Violence & Offences against Women

208

xvii

Page No.

List of Tables

Chapter VII

VIII

Sl. No

Table No.

Title

Page No.

1.

7.1

Population by Religion and Block in Paschim Medinipur District, 1981to 2001

212

2.

7.2

Population by Religion in the Block in Paschim Medinipur District, 2001

214

3.

7.3

Some Demographic Features / Indicators by Community in Sample Villages

216

4.

7.4

Distribution of Scheduled Tribe Population across Paschim Medinipur District , 2001

217

5.

7.5

Major Tribal Communities in Midnapore

218

6.

7.6

Literacy Rate among SCs and STs in Blocks , 1991 and 2001 and Its Change, 1991-2001

219

7.

7.7

Broad Classifications of Scheduled Caste Workers by Block and Municipality , 1991 & 2001

220

8.

7.8

Percentage Distributions of Scheduled Caste Workers by Block and Municipality in Paschim Medinipur District, 1991 & 2001

222

9.

7.9

Percentage of SC Main workers and SC marginal workers to SC total workers in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District, 2001

224

10.

7.10

Broad Classifications of Scheduled Tribe Workers by Block and Municipality in Paschim Medinipur District, 1991 & 200

225

11.

7.11

Percentage Distribution of Scheduled Tribe Workers by Block and Municipality in Paschim Medinipur District, 1991 and 2001

227

12.

7.12

Percentage of ST Main workers and ST marginal workers to ST total workers in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District, 2001

230

13.

7.13

Principal and Secondary Activities of Tribal Communities in Paschim Medinipur

231

14.

7.14

Lodha Families in different Blocks

235

1.

8.1

Growth of Population by Sex in different Census Years in Paschim Medinipur District

241

2.

8.2 (a)

Area, Population and Population Density in Urban Areas of Paschim Medinipur District, 1991

242

xviii

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Chapter

Sl. No

Table No.

Title

Page No.

8.2(b)

Area, Population and Population Density in Urban Areas of Paschim Medinipur District, 2001

243

3.

8.3

Population distribution by sex in municipalities and 'Census towns' in Paschim Medinipur.

243

4.

8.4

Change in the share of urban work force during 1991-2001

244

5.

8.5

Change in the share of workers employed in different sectors during 1991-2001

244

6.

8.6

Roads maintained by municipalities in Paschim Medinipur district

247

7.

8.7

Street lights maintained by municipalities in Paschim Medinipur district

247

8.

8.8

Drainage and sanitation by municipalities in Paschim Medinipur district

248

9.

8.9

Water supply systems in municipalities in Paschim Medinipur district

249

10.

8.10

Factories by Industry type in Paschim Medinipur district for the year 2004-05

249

11.

8.11

List of the big Industries above 50 employees

251

12.

8.12

New industries under construction

253

13.

8.13

Number of SSI units and their employment in Medinipur district

254

14.

8.14

Mulberry and Tasar production and earnings for Paschim Medinipur district

255

15.

8.15

Proposed industries in Paschim Medinipur district

256

IX

1.

9.1

Some Vulnerability indicators and Indices in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District

273

X

1.

10.1

Human Development Indices of the Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District

280

2.

10.2

Ranks of Blocks for Human Development Indicators in Paschim Medinipur District

281

xix

List of Figures

List of Figures Chapter

Sl. No

Figure No.

Title

Page No.

I

1.

1.1

Human Development Index for Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District

18

II

1.

2.1

Crop Diversification -Joint bar

33

III

2. 1.

2.2 3.1

Sex Ratio in Blocks , 1991 and 2001 Type of Primary School Building

45 61

2.

3.2

Type of Upper Primary School Building

61

3.

3.3

SCR for Primary Schools

61

4.

3.4

SCR for Upper Primary Schools

61

5.

3.5

Classroom availability in Primary Schools

62

6.

3.6

Classroom availability in Upper Primary Schools

62

7.

3.7

PTR for Primary Schools (Avg.30.25%)

63

8.

3.8

PTR for Upper Primary Schools (Avg.56.49%)

63

9.

3.9

Sex wise Upper Primary Teacher Position

64

10.

3.10

Sex wise Upper Primary Teacher Position

64

11-20.

3.11-3.20

21-49. 3.21 - 3.49

IV

V

Graphical presentation on changed scenario in respect 65-66 of total enrolment, enrolment of SC, ST, OBC and minority children, teacher's strength and pupil-teacher ratio in four consecutive years. Block -wise Radar Diagram on Enrolment index, Female Literacy Index, SC Literacy Index, ST Literacy Index, School Student Ratio Index, Teacher Student Ratio Index

83-87

1.

4.1

Population per bed- a comparison

2.

4.2

New Smear positive case detection rate as % of expected level

105

3.

4.3

Participation in Cataract operation during 2007-08

107

4.

4.4

Spot sources of water in Paschim Medinipur as on 2009

112

5.

4.5-4.33

1.

5.1

Area under Oilseeds, Potato, Fruits and Vegetables

130

2.

5.2

Net Cropped Area and Food grain Production

130

3.

5.3

Productivity of Food grains and Oilseeds

130

Block -wise Radar Diagram on Child Non-Malnutrition Index, Full Immunization Index, Adult NonMalnutrition Index, Non- Low Birth Weight Index, Institutional Delivery Index, Sanitation Index

xx

94

119-123

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Chapter

VI

VII

VIII

IX

Sl. No

Table No.

Title

Page No.

4.

5.4

Percentage shares of Economic sectors in Net District Domestic Product (2005-06)

138

5.

5.5

Percentage of Main Worker to Total Worker

154

6.

5.6

Percentage of Marginal Worker to Total Worker

154

7.

5.7

Distribution of Workers by Economic Livelihood Classes (in %) 2005

156

8.

5.8

Distribution of Non-Agricultural Workers by Economic Livelihood Classes (in %) 2005

156

9.

5.9

SHG formed in Paschim Medinipur up to Dec. 2009

159

10.

5.10

Credit Linked relating to SHG, Paschim Medinipur up to Dec.2009

159

11.

5.11

Average Persondays per household 2007-08

175

12.

5.12

BPL % with respect to total households of Paschim Medinipur 2005

178

13.

5.13

Economic Livelihood Index (FGP+NMW+APL ) of Paschim Medinipur

183

1.

6.1

Gender Gap in Literacy across Paschim Medinipur District, 1981, 1991 and 2001

189

2.

6.2

Gender Gap in Literacy for SC

192

3.

6.3

Gender Gap in Literacy for ST

192

4.

6.4

Social Awareness among the Members

206

5.

6.5

Division of Labour in the Family

206

6.

6.6

Change in Income of SHG Members after linked with Credit

207

1.

7.1

Population by Religion in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District,2001

215

2.

7.2

Degree of concentration of tribal population

217

3.

7.3

Major Tribal Communities in Midnapore

218

4.

7.4

Lodha Families in different Blocks

236

1.

8.1

Receipt and expenditure for Midnapore, Kharagpur, Jhargram and Ghatal Municipalities during the period 2002-07

245

8.2

Receipt and expenditure for Kharar, Khirpai, Ramjibanpur and Chandrakona Municipalities during the period 2002-07

246

9.1

Vulnerability Index in the Blocks of Paschim Medinipur

274

1.

xxi

List of Maps

List of Maps Chapter I

Sl. No

Map No.

Title

Page No.

1

1.1

West Bengal and Paschim Medinipur Perspective

4

2

1.2

Rivers and Drainage across the district.

6

3

1.3

Human Development Index (HDI) in the Blocks of Paschim Medinipur

17

1

2.1

Classification of Blocks of the District by Predominant Soil type.

27

2

2.2

Cropping Intensity by blocks of the district.

29

3

2.3

River and Forest by type along with Block and Panchayat Boundary

30

4

2.4

Major Crop producing Blocks of the District.

32

5

2.5

Location of Health Infrastructure in the district.

35

6

2.6

Road network in the district.

36

7

2.7

Power Network in the District.

39

8

2.8

Present status of Electrification in Paschim Medinipur District

41

9

2.9

Industrial Growth Centre in the district.

41

10

2.10

Tourist Spots in the District

42

11

2.11

Administrative Units in the district

43

1

5.1

Yield of Food grains (in MT per ha.) in Paschim Medinipur during 1994-95

142

2

5.2

Yield of Food grains (in MT per ha.) in Paschim Medinipur during 2006-07

143

3

5.3

Distribution of BPL Families IN Paschim Medinipur District

179

VI

1

6.1

Gender Gap in Literacy (1981 - 2001) in Paschim Medinipur District

189

VII VIII

1 1

7.1 8.1

Lodha Populated Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District Existing medium and large scale industries in Paschim Medinipur District

235 250

8.2

Existing medium and large scale industries in Paschim Medinipur District

253

8.3

Existing and proposed industries in Paschim Medinipur District

257

1

9.1

Areas affected with Maoist Violence

271

2

9.2

Vulnerability Index in the district of Paschim Medinipur

274

II

V

IX

xxii

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

List of Charts Chapter I

Sl. No

Chart No.

Title

Page No.

1.

4.1

Primary health care facilities : Comparison of Paschim Medinipur with National Norm

94

2.

4.2

Gram-Panchayat based Mobile Health Camp

95

3.

4.3

Tribal Health Plan

98

4.

4.4

Health awareness campaign & Health Camps Involvement of NGO

99

xxiii

Introduction and Human Development Indices

2

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Chapter – I Introduction and Human Development Indices for Paschim Medinipur “SARBE BHABANTU SUKHINO SARBE SANTU NIRAMAYA SARBE BHADRANI PASWANTU MA KASHYACHIT DUKSHABHAG BHABET” “ May all people be happy May all be healthy May all be decent May none be unhappy”

1.1 Backdrop Human development as a concept implies a process of change attributes to human being - both quantitatively and qualitatively. The concept of human development has long been echoed by sages of ancient India. The sages wished that every human being should be happy, healthy and educated. It is always emphasized as centre to development of society. In recent years, the Human Development Report of the UNDP has seen development as a process of increasing people's choices so that they should have a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and income, assets and employment, for a decent standard of living. Human Development is not only related to the environmental resources, its utilization through overall economic activities but also to the quality and vision of governance. The macro variables including policy changes also affect the level and pattern of human development. West Bengal Human Development Report, 2004 is a pioneering work on the part of the Government of West Bengal, which throws light on various issues concerning Human Development at the district level. The framework which this Report provides as a broad guidance to the preparation of Human Development report of a district, time availability and quality of data at sub-district level pose difficulty in preparation of District Human Development Report. Against this brief backdrop, the objectives of this Report are to examine the level and pattern of human development across the district of Paschim Medinipur, to discuss diverse issues including the measurement of attributes and parameters to human development and to analyse the variations and finally to suggest measures for narrowing down the variation in human development. The rest of this chapter is organized as follows. Section 1.2 presents some geographical features of Paschim Medinipur district, which highlights some characteristics essential for understanding its economic backwardness and also human development differential across the district. This is followed by a discussion on some human development indicators and achievements of the district vis-à-vis the whole of the state of West Bengal in section 1.3. Section 1.4 highlights progress of the district in respect of infrastructures which are related to the achievements and human development indicators of the district. Section 1.8 presents human development indices of blocks of the district. The last section, i.e., section 1.10 presents the chapterisation plan of the whole Report.

1.2 About Paschim Medinipur Paschim Medinipur, located in the southern part of West Bengal, has been carved from the erstwhile Medinipur district, the then largest district of India, and came into existence in the present form from 1st January 2002. It is situated between 220 57' 10" and 210 36' 35" North latitude and between 880 12' 40"

3

Introduction and Human Development Indices

and 860 33' 50" East longitude. Paschim Medinipur is bounded by Bankura district from the northern side and Purba Medinipur district from the south-eastern side The southern boundary of the district is merged with Balasore and Mayurbhanj district of Orissa and western boundary is merged with Singbhum and east district of Jharkhand. (see Map 1.1). The present population of the district is 57 lakh with 18.05 % SC and 14.87 % ST population. Geographical area of the district is 9295.28 Sq. Km. The district is further divided into four Sub-dvisions, 29 blocks and 8 municipalities.

Map 1.1 West Bengal and Paschim Medinipur Perspective

Paschim Medinipur district represents regional diversity in terms of physiographic, agro-climatic characteristics, economic development, social composition etc. Geo-morphologically, the district can be sub-divided into three parts, viz. Chhotonagpur Flanks with hills, mounds and rolling lands in the westernmost part, Rahr Plain with lateritic uplands in the middle part and Alluvial plain of the east with recent deposits. It is hilly in the north-west but represents low basins in the south-east and east. It has drought-affected dry areas in the west but highly wet flood-affected in the east. Dense dry deciduous forest in the west is replaced by semi-aquatic vegetations of marsh lands in the east. It has barren lateritic, nonarable lands in the west and north-west, which gradually changes with highly productive alluvial soil areas in the central and eastern part of the district. It is the abode of tribes and primitive tribes in the western blocks while most of the other areas are inhabited by all castes of the mass society. It represents cultural diversity across blocks. The area of the district is 9295.28 Sq. Km. The general appearance of the district is that of a large and well-cultivated plain, but towards the north and west gently undulations appear, with ridges covered by a thick growth of sal trees and other scrub jungle, while the intervening depression produces rich crops of

4

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

rice. Partly from the poor fertility of the soil, and also from the ruthless way forest have been cut down in past, large forest trees are scares, but still in the neighborhood of some of the villages, a few fine tamarind, sal and mahua trees still do remain. The western boundary is more broken and picturesque, for the lower ranges of the Chhotanagpur Hills line the horizon, the jungle assumes the character of forest, and large trees begin to predominate. The soil, however, is lateritic, a considerable area is unproductive, almost uninhabited, especially in the extreme north-west where there are several hills over 1000 feet in height. The remainder of the country is an almost level plain broken only by the sand hills. Broadly speaking, there are two natural divisions of the district. The metalled road from Raniganj and Bankura, which traverses the district from north to south, passing through the station of Medinipur and onwards to Balasore and Cuttack, may be generally taken as a dividing line between them. To the east of this road, the soil is purely alluvial, the country is flat, and the land is fertile and fully cultivable. To the west, the country is undulating, the high lands of Central India here terminating in long rolling waves of laterite rock, and most of the surface consists of alternative ridges and depressions. The characteristic formation of the district is laterite, which occupies nearly the whole country in the north and west, but in the south and the east it gradually gives way to the ordinary alluvium of the Gangetic delta. The alluvial portion may be subdivided into two divisions; first, there is a strip of purely deltaic country bordering Hooghly, intersected by numerous river and water-courses, which are subject to tidal influence. These water-streams are usually connected with one another, thereby rendering it to travel by water. This low-lying tract extends for about 20 miles inland from the Rupnarayan and Hooghly. The alluvial deposits seem to cover the final swells of the laterite formation. None of this formation as yet appeared on the surface, but the watersheds between the streams are distinct, and the general elevation of the country is higher. The second division consists of the alluvial tract constituting the remainder of the eastern half of the district. This is monotonous rice plain intersected by numerous waterways and tidal creeks, which are lined with embankments to protect the fields from flood water. Much of the area is waterlogged, and this is particularly the case with the tract bounded by the Kasai River on the south and the Silai River on the north. This latter tract is a low laying depression formed of the combined details of the Kasai and Silai rivers and intersected by numerous Khals. The river beds have been raised by the constant deposit of silt above the level of the surrounding country; the latter has to be protected from inundation by a complicated system of embankments. Many of these unfortunately obstruct the natural drainage of the country with the result that the soil being deprived of its increment of deposit is permanently depressed, while the waterways have become choked with silt and the land below them is waterlogged. The river system of Paschim Medinipur district consists of the Rupnarayan, the Kansai and the Subarnarekha which enters this district from Singbhum and passes into the Balasore district, where it falls into the Bay of Bengal. The principal tributary of the Rupnarayan is the Silai or Silabati. This river enters Midnapore from the Manbhum district on the north, and follows a tortuous course. It runs fast in an easterly direction through the north of the Medinipur (Sadar) Sub-division, and then turns to the south east and south through the Ghatal Sub-division. Near Narajole it takes a sharp turn to the north, and eventually it falls into the Rupnarayan at Bhandar, 4 miles below Ghatal. The Silai is navigable throughout the year for a short distance in its lower reaches, which are within tidal influence. It is fed by two small streams from Bankura district on the north, the Purandar and Gopa, and by the Chandur and Kubai in Medinipur its rise in the north-west of the district and flows east till it empties itself into the Silai near Narajole. The Kasai enters the district in the north-west from Bankura. It flows an exceedingly tortuous course, running first

5

Introduction and Human Development Indices

south and south-west and then eastwards past the town of Medinipur, which is situated on its north bank. Below Medinipur the channel contracts rapidly, till at Kapastikti, 13 miles lower down, it bifurcates, one small branch going north and eventually into the Rupnarayan, while the main channel runs south-east. The Subarnarekha is the only other river of Paschim Midnapore requiring notice. It enters the district on the north-west from Dhalbhum and pass through the south-west of Medinipur (Sadar) sub-division intersecting Gopiballavpur thana. To the South of Dantan it enters Balasore district and finally falls into the Bay of Bengal. The Subarnarekha has a rapid stream with a sandy bed, and its banks are generally high and well defined. In seasons of high flood the river overflows it's left bank about 4 miles above the point where it leaves Paschim Medinipur district to enter Balasore district. The Dulongs is also an important river of the district.

Map 1.2 Rivers and Drainage across Paschim Medinipur district.

The experiences of drought and flood are common in the district. The flood prone area is about 142647 ha. (Ghatal & part of Kharagpur sub-divisions). Draught prone area is about 335248 ha (Jhargram and Sadar sub-divisions). Ghatal and the Southern parts of Kharagpur sub-divisions are affected by water logging during the rainy season. As a result, there is frequent loss of crop. Sabang, Pingla and Narayangarh block in Kharagpur sub-division often suffer from such losses. Many areas in Jhargram sub-division have an undulating topography and laterite soil, which is unsuitable for large-scale cultivation. Drought affects the population here frequently and causes damage to the limited agriculture in the area, affecting food security of the people living here. Though the district does not have a coastline, it is affected frequently by the cyclones during the months of October and November and untimely rains during April and May.

6

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

The climate is tropical and the land surface of the district is characterized by hard rock uplands, lateritic covered area, and flat alluvial and deltaic plains. Extremely rugged topography is seen in the western part of the district and rolling topography is experienced consisting of lateritic covered area. These rolling plains gradually merge into flat alluvial and deltaic plains to the east and south east of the district. The soil is fairly fertile. Normal rainfall in the district is around 1400 - 1500 mm. However, for the last few years, it has been highly erratic in nature. Average temperature of the district varies widely across seasons, varying between maximum of 39 degree Celsius and minimum 10 degree Celsius in 2006 (Table 1.1). The climate is characterized by hot summer, cold winter, abundant rainfall and humidity. Rainfall fluctuates widely over years and concentrates over a few months of a year under monsoon. Normal rainfall estimated over 21 years during 1994 to 2005 is 1549 mm.

Table 1.1 Geographical Location and Climate of Paschim Medinipur District, 2006 Latitude

North

South

22057/ 10// 21036’35//

Longitude

Temperature (Degree Celsius) 2006

Rainfall Normal (m.m.)

Rainfall Actual (m.m.)

Rainfall Actual (m.m.)

East

West

Maximum

Minimum

2006

2002

2006

88012/40//

86033/50//

39

10

1537

1663

1436

Source: Government of West Bengal, District Statistical Handbook, Paschim Medinipur 2006

1.3 Some Indicators of Paschim Medinipur vis-à-vis the whole of West Bengal ±

It ranks 1st among 19 districts of the state of West Bengal in sex ratio (961) followed by Bankura and Purulia (953), Murshidabad (952), Dakshin Dinajpur (950), the all-West Bengal average being 934 in 2001.

±

It ranks 2nd in terms of geographical area (9295.28 sq. km.), next to South 24-Parganas (9960 sq. km.) but is followed by Burdwan (7024 sq. km.) and Bankura (6882 sq. km.)

±

It ranks 3rd in terms of rural population (45.76 lakh) following South 24-Parganas ( 58.20 lakh) and Murshidabad (51.33 lakh) but is followed by Burdwan (43.48 lakh), North 24-Parganas ( 40.83 lakh) and Purba Medinipur ( 40.51 lakh) as in 2001.

±

It ranks 4th in terms of percentage of ST population (14.87) following Jalpaiguri ( 18.87), Purulia (18.27) and Dakshin Dinajpur (16.12).

Paschim Medinipur is rich in a variety of environmental resources like land, forest and human resources. As per Census of India, total geographical area of Paschim Medinipur district in 2001 (9.75 thousand sq. km.) accounted for 11.01 per cent of the total geographical area of the state (88.75 thousand sq.km.). Total forest area of the district was 1.70 thousand sq. km. which accounted for 14.31 per cent of the total forest area of the state (11.88 thousand sq. km.).

7

Introduction and Human Development Indices

Table 1.2 Forest Areas and its Percentage to Total Reporting Area in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal, 2003-04 & 2004-05 2003-04

2004-05

District/ State

Reporting area (‘000hectares)

Forest area (‘000hectares)

Percentage of forest to Reporting area

Reporting Forest area area (‘000hectares) (‘000hectares)

Percentage of forest to Reporting area

Paschim Medinipur

928.6

169.7

18.27

928.6

171.9

18.51

West Bengal

8687.5

1171.3

13.48

8687.5

1174.8

13.52

Per Cent

10.69

14.49

136

10.69

14.63

137

Source: Government of West Bengal, District Statistical Handbook, Paschim Medinipur 2006

Similarly, percentage shares of the district to all West Bengal area under orchard, permanent pasture and grazing land, barren and unculturable waste, culturable waste, fallow land other than current fallow were above its percentage share to its geographical area. Percentage shares of the district in non-agricultural area, urban area, and irrigated area were, however, below that in geographical area of the State (Table 1.3), which indicates that there is deficiency of the district in these indicators and demands planned intervention of the government and panchayats in these areas for improvement of economic conditions of people of this district.

Table 1.3 Some Geographical Features of Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal

25.75

Per cent

11.01

16.96

13.66

15.65

Irrigated Area ('000 hectares) 2002-03

4.54

Urban Area (Sq Km)2001

58.54

Rural Area (Sq Km)2001

88.75

Area Under non-agricultural use (2004-05)

West Bengal

Current Fallow Land (2004-05)

4.03

Fallow land other than Current Fallow(2004-05)

0.62

Cultural Waste land (2004-05)

9.93

Paschim Medinipur

Barren and Unculturable Waste (2004-05)

Permanent pasture and Grazing Land (2004-05)

9.79

District/ State

Geographical Area (‘000 sq. km.)

Area Under Orchard and other (2004-05)

(in thousand hectares)

9076

219

345.31

35.56 25.34

314 1874.24 85427

3324

4974

14.23 18.11

6.96

6.58

6.98

5.06

4.59

21.84

158.46

8.45 10.62

Source: Government of West Bengal, Statistical Abstract 2005

Inhabited villages (over 7500) of the district show highly differential features and indicators of human development. While there are pockets/agglomeration of highly prosperous and developed villages in the eastern part of the district, there are also villages of distress in the western part. 637 villages have been identified by the Government of West Bengal as backward villages that belong mostly to the western part. There is high concentration of backward villages in the drought prone blocks.

8

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Net area under cultivation is 585222 ha. (63 per cent of the reporting area of the district), Where as 18932 ha. (2 per cent), 20132 ha. (2.16 per cent) and 141290 ha. (15.20 per cent) of land cone under category of culturable waste, barren and uncultivable and area under non-agricultural use respectively As per Census of India, total population of the 29 blocks of Paschim Medinipur district was 23.80 lakh in 1961, which increased in 2001 to 51.93 lakh accounting for 6.48 per cent of the total population of the State. The rate of growth of population of the district during 1961 to 1971 was 27.52 per cent, which has come down to 15.76 per cent during 1971 to 2001. The decadal growth rate of population of the district during 1971 to 2001 was below that of the State as a whole (Table 1.4).

Table 1.4 Population and Its Growth in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal, 1961 to 2001 District/ State

Population (in lakh) 1961

Paschim Medinipur West Bengal Per cent

1981

1991

2001

36.97

48.46

51.93

27.52

21.81

21.34

15.76

349.26 443.12 545.81 680.78 801.76

26.87

23.17

24.73

17.77

102.42

94.13

86.29

88.69

23.80 6.81

1971

Growth rate of population (Per cent)

30.35 6.85

6.77

6.59

6.48

1961-71 1971-81 1981-91 1991-01

Source: Census of India, West Bengal, Relevant Issues

Some other human development indicators of Paschim Medinipur vis-à-vis the whole of West Bengal are presented in Table 1.21. Percentage share of urban population in the district was 11.90 in 2001, which was much lower than that in the whole State (27.96). This indicates that level of urbanization of the district has been comparatively low. In 2001, Hindus accounted for 85.58 per cent of total population of this district, which was higher than that of the whole the State (72.47 per cent). Conversely, percentage share of Muslims in this district was lower (11.33 per cent) than the State average (25.25 per cent). The percentage share of ST population to total population of this district (14.87) in 2001was far above that of the State as a whole (5.50 per cent) while that of population in the age group 0-6 as well as sex ratio of this district was almost equal to the State average but higher for general caste and scheduled caste than those of the State as a whole. Literacy rate of the district has been increasing at rapid rate over the census years. One distinguishing feature of the district is that in 1981 literacy rate of the district (39.80 per cent), which was below that of the State (46.32 per cent) increased significantly to 70.41 per cent in 2001, which was above that of the State (68.64 per cent). Both rural and urban literacy rates of the district were higher than those of rural West Bengal. In case of SC and ST, the literacy percentage in the district was also higher than those in the whole of the State. Gender gap in literacy rate (i.e., difference between female and male literacy rates) is, however, substantial and higher in Paschim Medinipur district in both rural and urban areas than that in West Bengal as a whole. Literacy rate is substantially low in the western part. The gender gap in literacy tends to increase in some blocks of the district. Literacy rate among general caste people as well as work participation rate across all castes of this district was higher than that of the State as a whole (Table 1.6 to 1.9).

9

Introduction and Human Development Indices

Table 1.5 Some Indicators of Paschim Medinipur vis-à-vis the West Bengal ( 2001) INDICATORS

Paschim Medinipur

West Bengal

% Share of Urban Population

11.90

27.96

% Share Rural Population

88.10

72.03

Hindus

85.58

72.47

Muslims

11.33

25.25

% Share of SC

18.05

23.02

%Share of ST

14.87

5.50

% Share of Children(0-6)

14.36

14.24

All

961

934

SC

973

949

ST

977

982

Children of (0-6)

951

960

531

903

Total

70.41

68.64

Male

81.30

77.02

Female

59.10

59.61

Rural

68.70

63.42

Urban

82.40

81.25

Total

63.57

59.04

Male

76.88

70.54

Female

49.84

46.90

Total

47.05

43.40

Male

62.92

57.38

Female

30.83

29.15

22.20

17.41

% Share of Major Religious Communities

Sex Ratio

Population Density (Per Sq.Km)

Literacy Rate (%)

All

SC

ST Gender Gap In Literacy Source: Census of India, West Bengal, Relevant Issues

Table 1.6 Percentage Share in Population in the Age Group 0-6 by Caste of Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal, 2001 District/State

Percentage share of population in the age group 0-6

Sex ratio

Total

General

SC

ST

Total

General

SC

ST

Paschim Medinipur

14.50

14.40

18.60

16.60

961

954

973

977

West Bengal

14.20

13.80

15.10

16.70

934

925

949

982

Source: Census of India, West Bengal, Relevant Issues

10

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Table 1.7 Literacy Rate by Sex in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal, 1981 to 2001 District/State

1981

1991

2001

Person

Male

Female

Person

Male

Female Person

Male

Female

Paschim Medinipur

39.80

51.84

27.20

65.50

77.50

52.50

70.40

81.30

59.10

West Bengal

46.32

57.04

34.43

58.00

68.00

47.00

69.00

77.00

60.00

Source: Census of India, West Bengal, Relevant Issues

Table 1.8 Literacy Rate by Sex and Region in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis West Bengal, 1991 District /State

Rural Male

Urban

Female

Person

Male

Female

Person

Paschim Medinipur

76.40

49.90

63.50

84.70

69.80

77.60

West Bengal

76.00

59.00

68.00

94.00

82.00

88.00

Difference?

0.40

-9.10

-4.50

-9.30

-12.20

-10.40

Source: Census of India, West Bengal, Relevant Issues

Note: ? between value of Paschim Medinipur and that of West Bengal as a whole.

Table 1.9 Literacy Rate and Work Participation Rate by Caste in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis West Bengal, 2001 District /State

Literacy rate (Per cent) Total

General

Work participation rate (Per cent)

SC

ST

Total

General

SC

ST

Paschim Medinipur

70.50

84.80

43.30

38.90

41.10

39.20

39.80

51.20

West Bengal

68.60

73.60

59.00

43.40

36.80

35.20

38.80

48.80

Difference?

1.90

11.20

-15.70

4.50

4.30

4.00

1.00

2.40

Source: Census of India, West Bengal, Relevant Issues

Table 1.10 Percentage Share of Workers across Livelihoods in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis West Bengal, 2001 District/State

Total Cultivators Workers

Agricultural labourers

Total Household Other Number of AgriculIndustry Workers Nontural Workers agricultural Workers Workers

Paschim Medinipur

100

29.99

35.12

65.11

7.69

27.20

34.89

West Bengal

100

19.18

24.97

44.15

7.37

48.48

55.85

Source: Census of India, West Bengal, Relevant Issues

Distribution of main workers by caste shows that percentages of main workers to total workers across all castes were lower in the district while those of marginal workers were higher than those in the state as a whole (Tables 1.11).

11

Introduction and Human Development Indices

Table 1.11 Percentage of Main Workers and Marginal workers to Total Workers by Caste in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal, 2001 District /State

Paschim Medinipur West Bengal Difference?

Percentage of main workers to total workers Total

General

67.06

70.53

78.1 -11.04

SC

Percentage of marginal workers to total workers

ST

Total

General

SC

ST

64.84

58.88

32.99

29.73

33.91

41.8

80.9

74.0

65.7

21.9

19.1

26.0

34.3

-10.37

-9.16

-6.82

11.09

10.63

7.91

7.5

Source: Census of India, West Bengal, Relevant Issues

The castewise break up shows that the ownership of land is less among SC/ST population.

Table 1.12 Percentage of Main Cultivators and Agricultural Labourers to Total Main Workers by Caste in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal, 2001 District /State

Percentage of cultivators to total workers Total

General

Percentage of agricultural labourers to total workers

SC

ST

Total

General

SC

ST

Paschim Medinipur

32.5

31.4

21.9

19.2

37.7

24.1

51.4

64.5

West Bengal

19.2

19.3

18.6

19.5

25.0

17.3

38.0

53.2

Difference?

13.3

12.1

3.3

-0.3

12.7

6.8

13.4

11.3

Source: Census of India, West Bengal, Relevant Issues

Table 1.13 Percentage of Main Household Industry Workers and Other Main Workers to Total Main Workers by Caste in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis West Bengal, 2001 District /State

Percentage of household industry workers to total workers Total

Paschim Medinipur

General

SC

ST

Percentage of other workers to total workers Total

General

SC

ST

10.3

12.1

8.1

6.9

22.7

27.2

18.0

12.2

West Bengal

7.4

8.4

5.8

3.0

48.5

55.0

37.5

24.2

Difference?

2.9

3.7

2.3

3.9

-25.8

-27.8

-19.5

-12

Source: Census of India, West Bengal, Relevant Issues

Occupational structure is considerably diversified in the relatively developed blocks of Kharagpur and Ghatal sub-divisions, while in the arid regions of Jhargram and Sadar sub-divisions, the occupational structure is less diversified and percentage of non-agricultural workers is relatively low. There is significant correlation between literacy rate and proportion of non-agricultural workers and rural poverty across 29 blocks of the district. There is high agricultural productivity differential across 29 blocks of the district. The differential being high across drought prone blocks of the western part of the district and substantially irrigated blocks of its eastern part. Low productivity of agriculture has considerable relevance for high level of poverty among households in the drought prone regions specially among the SCs and STs.

12

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

1.4 Infrastructure The district is relatively backward in the development of infrastructures. Road length per square km. of geographical area, particularly of BT type, is considerably low for the district as a whole, particularly in the relatively backward blocks. As per RGGVY programme, rural electrification works are going on at a full pace and it is expected that all mouzas in the district will be electrified by 2011.

Table 1.14 Percentage of Mouza Electrified in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal, 2004 and 2010 District / State

2004 Total

Paschim Medinipur West Bengal

Electrified

2010 Percentage

Total

Electrified

Percentage

7478

4752

63.55

7478

5742

76.79

37945

31705

83.56

37945

32190

84.83

Source: Government of West Bengal, Statistical Abstract & WBSEDCL

Percentage share of the district in respect of length of total roads maintained by Panchayat Samities and Gram Panchayats in the whole of West Bengal in 2002-03 was 16.65, that by Zilla Parishad 3.04 while that by PWD was 7.51 and by Municipalities and Corporations 5.67. Per capita advance of commercial banks in the district (Rs. 2184 in 2006) was far lower than that of West Bengal (Rs. 8371) accounting for only 26.09 percent of the state figures (Table 1.15).

Table 1.15 Population per Bank Office, Per capita Deposits and Per capita Advances in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis West Bengal, 2006 District /State

Commercial Bank Number of offices

Paschim Medinipur

Population per Bank Office (in thousand)

Per Capita Deposits (in Rs)

Per Capita Advances (in Rs)

297

21

5438

2184

West Bengal

4581

19

14525

8371

Per cent

6.48

111

37.44

26.09

Source: Government of West Bengal, Department of Panchayats and Rural Development, Annual Administrative Report.

Percentage share of the district in total number of medical institutions of the State on 31.3.2006 was 8.19 but that in number of beds was substantially less (5.22), which was even less than the population share, (Table 1.16). Percentage share of the district in total number of primary and upper primary schools of the whole of the State have been, is significant (Table 1.17).

13

Introduction and Human Development Indices

Table 1.16 Health Services in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis West Bengal, 2003-04 District /State Paschim Medinipur West Bengal Per cent

Medical Institution

Family Welfare Centre

Number

Beds

Rural (Number)

Urban**(Number)

1117

4815

29

6

13640*

92315#

335

135

8.19

5.22

8.66

4.44

Notes: * Includes Post Partum Centre, ** Includes only those centres currently under Government Grant, # Includes private institutions. # includes private institutions Source: CMOH, Department of Health, Govt. of West Bengal

Table 1.17 Number of Primary and Upper Primary Schools in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis West Bengal, 2008-09 District/State

Primary School

Upper Primary School

Ratio of Primary and Upper Primary Schools (Per cent)

Paschim Medinipur

4673

750

6.23

West Bengal

49893

9528

5.24

9.37

7.87



Per cent Source: DISE 2008-09

1.5 Decentralized Planning and People's Participation Paschim Medinipur district like all other districts of the State practices decentralized planning formally starting at the lowest level with planning at the Gram Sansad and ending with the compiled plan prepared by the District Planning Committee for the whole district. It is worthwhile to mention here that the undivided Medinipur district was the first district in West Bengal to experiment with 'village-based district planning' since the early 1980s. The SRD cell of the Department of Panchayats and Rural Development, Government of West Bengal, functions in several arid and semi-arid blocks of the district for preparation of plans of villages based on people's participation. #

It has been possible to install Gram Sansad Plan-based and Upasamiti-based Integrated Gram Panchayat planning process in 43 selected Gram Panchayats and about 428 Gram Sansads. These Gram Panchayats have been able to demonstrate positive evidence of convergence of initiatives of Gram Panchayats and of the line departments for improved delivery of essential services.

#

428 Gram Unnayan Samitis under these Gram Panchayats have also started implementation of community-based and community-owned plans, as part of the Gram Panchayat plans, with focus on low-tech and low-cost activities, ensuring and dovetailing community contributions (around 20% of their total budgets) and Untied Poverty Fund available under the SRD Programme.

14

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

In order to invoke participation of the community and ensure transparency, accountability and inclusiveness, the Gram Unnayan Samitis shared the summary of their annual plan budgets with each and every household in the respective areas. Most of the Untied Poverty Funds under the SRD programme are utilised by Gram Unnayan Samitis through disadvantaged Self Help Groups and indigent households, identified at Gram Sansad level, for social development and livelihoods expansion. #

The SRD programme has been able to create hundreds of evidences of community initiative, participatory democracy, transparency and meeting so-far-unperceived needs of the communities in areas of public health, education and expansion of livelihoods. The examples of success are significantly stimulating replication in neighbouring areas with community initiative.

Expanding Scope of Livelihoods through Management of Degraded Land Through the participatory planning process, 73 schools in 10 Gram Panchayats of Jamboni block have been motivated to prepare 75 mango orchards under NREGA in the year 2008-09. Around 3087 mango trees (mostly of Amrapali variety) have grown up to 5-6 feet high in a year in the nearly wasteland with the help of school teachers, students, and local SHG members. The Gram Panchayat paid substantially for labour for earthwork and primary materials including saplings. This initiative not only created scope of additional livelihood opportunity for the poor and marginalized but also showed how the unutilised barren land in Paschim Medinipur could be brought back to use for productive purpose and also for soil conservation. Nursery by Self Help Groups for Social Forestry As part of Gram Sansad Plans and Support to NREGA, more than 40 nurseries were raised by Gram Unnayan Samitis in the year 2009-10 through women's Self Help Groups who have raised nearly 6 lakhs saplings. The SHG members collected some seeds from a nearby jungle. As part of other external support, the SHG got technical know-how from a trainer-facilitator deployed under the SRD programme. The SHG worked hard for bed preparation, fencing, seed sowing, caring etc. Local planning is, however, plagued with unique problems related to setting proper priorities as also selection of beneficiaries, and the lack of trained manpower or mechanism to store and make use of local data and indeed a proper environment for taking up the complex task of planning at the local level. Generally, PRIs receive schematic fund. Schematic funding alone restricts the scope of planning. Seriousness to use the mechanism of fiscal devolution to enhance the efficiency of panchayats is not yet in sight. The process has not been carried to its logical extent of 'devolution' type of transfer of functions, resources and authority from the state government to the PRIs. Besides, own source revenue mobilization also determines fiscal autonomy of PRIs. Revenue mobilization of panchayats is increasing significantly but remains low. Average annual growth rate of own source revenue mobilization of gram panchayats during 2002-03 to 2007-08 was higher in the district ( 44.26 per cent) than that in the State as a whole (32.31 per cent) (Table 1.18).

15

Introduction and Human Development Indices

Table 1.18 Per capita Own Source Revenue of Gram Panchayats in Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis West Bengal, 2002-03 to 2007-08 Item

Number 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Average of Gram Annual Panchayats growth rate(%)

Paschim Medinipur

219

4.84

6.38

11.43

14.35

24.64

23.72

44.26

West Bengal

3173

7.13

8.40

11.11

12.61

17.36

18.65

32.31

Source: Government of West Bengal, Department of Panchayats and Rural Development, Annual Administrative Report.

Percentage of total cumulative revenue collection to demand and pattern of utilisation of own source revenue in gram panchayats of Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis the Whole of West Bengal for 2005-06 is presented in Table 1.19. Percentage of revenue collection to demand in the district in this year was 33.27 which was higher than that (28.10 per cent) in West Bengal as a whole.

Table 1.19 Percentage of Total Cumulative Revenue Collection to Demand and Pattern of utilisation of Own Source Revenue in Gram Panchayats of Paschim Medinipur District vis-à-vis West Bengal, 2005-06 District/State

2005-06

2004-05 Percentage of Utilisation of Own Source Revenue

Total Cumulative Revenue Demand (Rs lakh)

Total Cumulative Revenue Collection (Rs lakh)

Percentage Collection to Demand

Commission

Contingency

Development

679.55

226.10

33.27

8.48

43.48

56.52

8068.89

2267.51

28.10

7.79

58.99

41.01

Paschim Medinipur West Bengal

Source: Government of West Bengal, Department of Panchayats and Rural Development.

1.7 Rural Poverty In 2005, a Rural Household Survey(RHS) was conducted by the Department of Panchayats and Rural Development, Government of West Bengal to estimate the number of BPL families. The survey reveals that out of 1.16 million rural families in the district, 0.5 million families are Below the Poverty Line. Generally, these families belong to marginal farmers and agricultural labourers.

Table 1.20 BPL Families as per RHS vis-à-vis the West Bengal (2005) District/ State Paschim Medinipur West Bengal

No. of Families

No. of BPL Families

BPL %

1163394

509494

43.79

13393530

4569834

34.12

Source: Zilla Parishad, Paschim Medinipur

16

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

1.8 Human Development Indices The indicators presented above shows human development scenario of Paschim Medinipur district vis-à-vis the whole of West Bengal. However, appropriate indicators need to be combined to form composite index so that variation across the district can be explained. This is done by forming education index, health index and economic livelihood index. The indices have been combined together to analyse the Human Development Index(HDI) of the different blocks. O

Education index has been prepared by giving one third weightage to children's enrollment ratio and two-third weightage to adult literacy rate and by adopting normative approach where both these indicators have minimum value of 0 and maximum value of 1.

O

Health index has been prepared by giving equal weightage to child health indicator and adult health indicator.

O

Economic livelihood index is prepared based on equal weightage to foodgrains productivity index, percentage of non-marginal workers index and APL index by adopting normative approach.

O

Human development index has been prepared by giving equal weightage to education index, health index and economic livelihood index.

O

Daspur II ranks first in terms of human development index (0.772) followed by Daspur I ( 0.728) and Ghatal (0. 649). Nayagram has the lowest value of Human Development Index (0. 423) followed by Jamboni ( 0.454) and Binpur II (0.479).

Table 1.21 Human Development Index for Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District Block

Education index

Rank

Health index

Rank

ELI

Rank

HDI

Rank

Chandrakona-I

0.74

8

0.646

7

0.501

10

0.629

5

Chandrakona-II

0.683

21

0.676

4

0.525

6

0.628

6

Daspur-I

0.77

4

0.738

2

0.677

2

0.728

2

Daspur-II

0.823

3

0.803

1

0.690

1

0.772

1

Ghatal

0.763

5

0.669

5

0.515

3

0.649

3

Binpur -II

0.665

26

0.564

16

0.208

29

0.479

27

Binpur-I

0.678

22

0.471

27

0.367

19

0.505

26

Gopiballavpur-I

0.623

28

0.553

21

0.395

15

0.524

23

Gopiballavpur-II

0.655

27

0.553

19

0.397

16

0.535

20

Jamboni

0.669

25

0.465

28

0.227

27

0.454

28

Jhargram

0.692

19

0.547

23

0.309

26

0.516

25

Nayagram

0.622

29

0.387

29

0.260

28

0.423

29

Sankrial

0.705

15

0.545

24

0.332

24

0.527

22

Dantan-I

0.687

20

0.553

20

0.391

17

0.544

17

Dantan-II

0.756

7

0.574

14

0.425

11

0.585

14

17

Introduction and Human Development Indices

Block

Education index

Rank

Health index

Rank

ELI

Debra

0.727

12

0.693

3

0.503

Keshiary

0.734

9

0.506

26

Kharagpur-I

0.693

18

0.552

Kharagpur -II

0.695

17

Mohanpur

0.761

Narayangarh

Rank

HDI

Rank

4

0.641

4

0.356

22

0.532

21

22

0.379

20

0.541

18

0.559

18

0.351

23

0.535

19

6

0.564

15

0.473

5

0.599

9

0.729

11

0.611

11

0.368

18

0.569

15

Pingla

0.829

2

0.591

13

0.430

13

0.617

8

Sabang

0.837

1

0.559

17

0.460

7

0.619

7

Garhbeta-I

0.708

14

0.622

9

0.431

12

0.587

13

Garhbeta-II

0.675

24

0.621

10

0.349

25

0.548

16

Garhbeta-III

0.701

16

0.649

6

0.434

8

0.595

11

Keshpur

0.733

10

0.599

12

0.443

9

0.592

12

Medinipur

0.676

23

0.515

25

0.371

21

0.521

24

Salboni

0.721

13

0.644

8

0.422

14

0.596

10

Figure 1.1 Human Development Index for Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District

18

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Table 1.22 Distributions of Blocks by Value of Human Development Index HDI Class

Number of blocks

Names of Blocks

0.423-0.499

3

Nayagram, Jamboni, Binpur-II

0.500-0.549

11

0.550-0.599

7

Narayangarh, Dantan-II, Garhbeta=-I, Keshpur, Garhbeta-III, Salboni, Mohonpur

0.600 - 0.699

6

Pingla, Sabang, Chandrakona-II, Chandrakona-I, Debra, Ghatal,

0.700 and above

2

Daspur-I, Daspur-II

Binpur-I, Jhargram, Midnapore, Gopi-I, Sankrail, Keshiary, Gopi-II, Kharagpur-II, Kharagpur-I, Dantan-I, Garhbeta-II

While value of HDI, varies widely across 29 blocks of the district from 0.423 in Nayagram to 0.772 in Daspur II, this variation is positively and significantly explained by foodgrains productivity, percentage of electrified villages, road density, i.e., road length per square km. of geographical area, cropping intensity, crop diversification index, per capita own source revenue of panchayats, percentage of non-agricultural workers, percentage of households above poverty line and percentage of cultivators to total workers, and is negatively and significantly explained by percentage of laterite soil area, percentage of SC and ST population, percentage of marginal workers and agricultural labourers.

Map 1.3 Human Development Index (HDI) in the Blocks of Paschim Medinipur

19

Introduction and Human Development Indices

1.9 Conclusion The wide variation in human development index and gender development index across the blocks need substantial explanations. The rest of this Report is devoted to seeking analysis of those factors and forces responsible for this wide variation.

1.10 Plans for the Rest of the Report Chapter 2

Regional profile of this district where accent is made on physical characteristics of the constituent blocks.

Chapter 3

Highlights issues relating to education and the related variables.

Chapter 4

Sets itself to the discussion of the process of building health index and the factors related to it.

Chapter 5

Discusses issues relating to economic livelihood index and related factors.

Chapter 6

Presents gender dimensions including gender gap in literacy and work participation concerning human development.

Chapter 7

Analyses issues relating to community diversity in respect of human development.

Chapter 8

Discusses the questions concerning human vulnerability affecting human development

Chapter 9

Discusses issues relating to industrialization and urbanization of this district both of which form an important aspect of human development.

Chapter 10

The final chapter tries to delineate the way forward making some concluding observations.

20

Regional Profile of Paschim Medinipur District

22

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Chapter - II REGIONAL PROFILE OF PASCHIM MEDINIPUR DISTRICT 2.1 Introduction The 29 blocks that comprise Paschim Medinipur district vary widely in respect of geographical features, infrastructure and development indicators. It is held that variation in human development indices across the district can largely be explained by the variation in the regional characteristics. The plan of the rest of this chapter is as follows. Section 2.2 presents some geographical features of the blocks and section 2.3 the relevant infrastructures. Section 2.4 highlights some human development indicators at the block level.

2.2 Some Geographical Features This section presents the regional profile of the district by types of net cropped area and textural characteristics of soil by block, classification of blocks by predominant soil, land use and cropping intensity by block and forest by sub-division.

2.2.1

Types of Net Cropped Area

Of the 29 blocks of the district Daspur-II represents the highest proportion (61.52 per cent) of low land to net cultivated area (NCA) followed by Ghatal (52.24 per cent), the lowest proportion (2.97 per cent) being witnessed in Jamboni. Kharagpur-II has the highest proportion (74.79 per cent) of medium land, the lowest proportion being observed in Daspur-II. Jhargram block has the highest proportion (51.18 per cent) of high land followed by Nayagram (49.83 per cent) and Jamboni (48.70 per cent), the lowest proportion (8.36 per cent) being registered in Kharagpur-II (Table 2.1).

Table 2.1 Rural Area and Types of Net Cultivated Area by Block and Sub-Division, 2005-06 (in hectare) Sub division

Ghatal

Jhargram

C.D Block

Net Cultivated Area (NCA)

% of Low land

% of Medium land

% of High land

Chandrakona-I

17000

23.53

45.88

30.59

Chandrakona-II

13100

23.25

53.87

22.88

Daspur-I

13200

50.7

33.73

15.57

Daspur-II

13000

61.52

23.33

15.15

Ghatal

17900

52.24

32.15

15.61

Binpur-I

20052

21.71

48.02

30.27

Binpur-II

21870

10.91

31.34

57.74

Gopiballavpur-I

15265

27.66

36.01

36.33

Gopiballavpur-II

15565

9.98

53.19

36.83

Jamboni

20450

2.97

48.33

48.7

Jhargram

25425

12.05

36.77

51.18

Nayagram

22826

12.97

37.19

49.83

Sankrail

21153

22.85

41.92

35.23

23

Regional Profile of Paschim Medinipur District

Sub division

Kharagpur

Medinipur Sadar

C.D Block

Net Cultivated Area (NCA)

% of Low land

% of Medium land

% of High land

Dantan-I

20663

14.56

53.45

31.99

Dantan-II

15887

11.6

66.46

21.94

Debra

29287

12.56

67.92

19.52

Keshiary

20720

29.54

55.26

15.2

Kharagpur-I

18500

17.1

57.74

25.16

Kharagpur-II

20440

16.85

74.79

8.36

Mohanpur

12000

16.95

46.84

36.21

Narayangarh

40046

25.05

62.43

12.53

Pingla

18600

15.72

64.85

19.43

Sabong

21083

17.21

36.97

45.82

Garhbeta-I

18452

9.05

49.63

41.32

Garhbeta-II

15100

30.64

55.72

13.64

Garhbeta-III

14500

19.23

43.34

37.43

Keshpur

36219

14.51

63.57

21.92

Medinipur

17700

17.36

53.36

29.28

Salboni

17572

17.56

35.81

46.63

Source : PAO, Deptt. of Agriculture

2.2.2

Textural Classification of Soil •

Textural classification of soil across the district shows that Nayagram block has the highest sandy area (6575 hectare) followed by Keshiary (5300 hectare), the lowest being in Chandrakona-I (60 hectare).



Sandy loam is the predominant soil in the district, where the highest area belongs to Jhargram followed by Binpur-II, the lowest being observed in Dantan-II.



Next to sandy loam, loam soil is predominant in the district, where the highest area belongs to Kharagpur-II followed by Debra, the lowest being registered in Dantan-I.



Next to loam is, clay loam soil where the highest area belongs to Narayangarh followed by Sabong, the lowest being observed in Garhbeta-III.



Clay soil is highest in Sabong followed by Pingla, the lowest being in Kharagpur-II.



Sandy clay loam is highest in Ghatal followed by Daspur-II, the lowest being registered in Chandrakona-II (Table 2.2).

24

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Table 2.2 Textural Classification of Soil by Block in Paschim Medinipur District, 2005-06 (Area in ha.) Subdivision

Sandy

Sandy Loam

Loam

Sandy Clay Loam

Clay Loam

Clay

Catchments of river

Chandrakona-I

60

7262

1800

1200

4000

2000

Shilabati

Chandrakona-II

116

6600

2000

786

2730

1120

Silaboti

Daspur-I

336

3969

5090

800

1832

1486

Silaboti

Daspur-II

150

2393

3600

1213

3887

1796

Silaboti

Ghatal

400

600

5000

2980

5466

2020

Silaboti

Binpur-I

3845

12280

1780

-

770

-

Kangsaboti

Binpur-II

4826

18090

1066

-

-

-

Dulung Tarafeni

Gopiballavpur-I

2502

7146

2790

-

1346

-

Subarnarekha

Gopiballavpur-II

1749

10435

1772

-

1712

-

Subarnarekha

Jamboni

3245

15245

710

-

-

-

Dulung Keleghai

Jhargram

3490

18826

3790

-

2200

-

Dulung Keleghai

Nayagram

6575

13709

2570

-

906

-

Keleghai

Sankrail

3410

15555

1425

-

720

-

Dulung Keleghai

Dantan-I

1370

2890

570

-

5190

10855

Subarnarekha

Dantan-II

-

270

790

-

3575

11228

Keleghai

Keshiary

5300

8700

3945

-

3362

-

Subarnarekha

Kharagpur-I

2110

13320

3230

-

1210

-

Kangsaboti

Kharagpur-II

1510

2815

14310

-

1110

790

Kangsaboti

Mohanpur

840

1030

1370

-

2104

6463

Kangsaboti

Narayangarh

2270

14474

3225

-

6770

15121

Pingla

-

-

-

-

3684

15788

Sabong

-

-

-

-

6720

17745

Debra

2942

7375

12702

-

4500

1907

Garhbeta-I

2210

5675

10425

-

1654

-

Medinipur

Garhbeta-II

3895

12340

4550

-

839

-

Sadar

Garhbeta-III

2560

10225

2210

-

311

-

Keshpur

2250

1508

7250

-

6147

20425

Medinipur

10002

6030

3000

-

1009

-

Salboni

2320

18588

3250

-

1456

-

70283

237350 104220

6979

75210

-

Ghatal

Jhargram

Kharagpur

Block

District Total Source : PAO, Deptt. of Agriculture

25

Regional Profile of Paschim Medinipur District

2.2.3

Predominant Soil

Classification of blocks by predominant soil type shows that laterite soil to the tune of 90 per cent of net cultivated area is found in Garhbeta III, Binpur-II, Jhragram and Nayagram which rank low in value of human development index. On the other hand, 100 per cent alluvial soil characterizes 9 blocks, namely Sabong, Pingla, Debra, Dantan-I, Dantan-II, Mohanpur, Chandrakona-I, Daspur-I and Daspur-II which rank high in the human development ladder (Table 2.3 and Table 1. 24 referred back).

Table 2.3 Classification of Blocks by Predominant Soil Type in the District, 2005- 06 Subdivision

Ghatal

Jhargram

Kharagpur

Medinipur Sadar

Name of Block

Chandrakona-I Chandrakona-II Daspur-I Daspur-II Ghatal Binpur-I Binpur-II Gapiballavpur-I Gapiballavpur-II Jamboni Jhargram Nayagram Sankrail Dantan-I Dantan-I Debra Keshiary Kharagpur-I Kharagpur-II Mohanpur Narayangarh Pingla Sabong Garbeta-I Garbeta-II Garbeta-III Keshpur Medinipur Salboni

Net Cultivated Area (in hectare) 17000 13100 13200 13000 17900 20052 21870 15265 15566 20450 25424 22826 21153 20663 15887 29287 20720 18500 20440 12000 40046 18600 21083 18452 15100 14500 36219 17700 17572

Source : PAO, Deptt. of Agriculture

26

Predominant type

% Total area

Other Type

Alluvium Alluvium Alluvium Alluvium Alluvium Letaritic Letaritic Letaritic Letaritic Letaritic Letaritic Letaritic Letaritic Alluvium Alluvium Alluvium Letaritic Letaritic Alluvium Alluvium Alluvium Alluvium Alluvium Letaritic Letaritic Letaritic Alluvium Letaritic Letaritic

100% 90% 100% 100% 95% 70% 95% 60% 55% 85% 90% 90% 80% 100% 100% 100% 60% 60% 65% 100% 90% 100% 100% 85% 90% 95% 75% 55% 80%

Letaritic Letaritic Letaritic Letaritic Letaritic Alluvium Alluvium Alluvium Alluvium Alluvium Alluvium Alluvium Alluvium Alluvium Alluvium Letaritic Letaritic Alluvium Alluvium Alluvium Letaritic Alluvium Alluvium

% of Total Area 10% 5% 30% 5% 40% 45% 15% 10% 10% 20% 40% 40% 35% -10% 15% 10% 5% 25% 45% 20%

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

2.2.4

Land Use Pattern and Cropping Intensity •

Distribution of geographical area of the district and land use pattern across shows that Binpur-II block has the largest geographical area followed closely by Jhargram and Salboni and the smallest block being Mohanpur.



Narayangarh block records the largest net cropped area, the smallest being again Mohanpur.



Area under pasture and orchard is largest in Salboni followed by Jhargram, the smallest being observed again in Mohanpur.



It is revealed that Pingla block recorded in 2005-06 the highest cropping intensity (199 per cent) followed by Daspur-I, Sabang and Garbeta-I, Jhargram. Sankrail and Jamboni registering the lowest (Table 2.4).

Map 2.1 lassification of Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District by Predominant Soil type.

27

Regional Profile of Paschim Medinipur District

Table 2.4 Land Use in Paschim Medinipur District by Block, 2005-06 (Area in hectare) Block

Geogra -phical Area

Net Cropped Area

Medinipur Salbani Keshpur Garhbeta-I Garhbeta-II Garhbeta-III Medinipur Sub-division Kharagpur-I Kharagpur-II Sabang Pingla Debra Narayangarh Dantan-I Dantan-II Mohanpur Keshiary Kharagpur Sub-division Jhargram Nayagram Sankrail Jambani Binpur-I Binpur-II Gopiballabpur-I Gopiballabpur-II Jhargram Sub-division Ghatal Chandrakona-I Chandrakona-II Daspur-I Daspur-II Ghatal Sub-division

33300 52639 47567 36117 43970 30308 243901 32600 26587 30075 21948 34231 49197 25552 18430 13994 29352 281966 53951 50560 27610 33110 36243 57574 27392 19777 306217 23901 22228 17982 16719 16614 97444

District Total

929528

Note:

17700 17572 36219 18452 15100 14500 119543 18500 20440 21083 18600 29287 40046 20663 15887 12000 20720 217226 25425 22826 21153 20450 20052 21870 15265 15565 162606 17900 17000 13100 13200 13000 74200

Area under Pasture & Orchard 950 2350 380 1050 1576 1375 7681 825 618 372 300 499 760 290 90 44 585 4383 1760 1170 446 375 1087 550 140 225 5753 585 400 487 470 462 2404

Cultivable Wasteland / Current fallow land 570 1450 1453 500 1500 900 6373 300 300 300 1308 1081 348 33 50 400 4120 960 4805 420 1510 1240 987 3409 1026 14357 30 120 72 222

573575

20221

25072

Forest Land

5940 18688 2070 7460 9750 6242 50150 4000 0 540 2152 2314 9006 15400 13600 1620 7640 8240 20220 5449 1110 73279 1050 1050

Area Gross under Cropped more Area than once 9927 27627 12427 29999 24526 60745 17826 36278 12527 27627 12411 26911 89644 209187 11327 29827 15066 35506 20526 41609 18377 36977 25376 54663 26266 66312 11876 32539 10827 26714 9327 21327 11827 32547 160795 378021 15326 40751 15126 37952 11275 32428 10843 31293 15377 35429 13694 35564 10547 25812 13455 29020 105643 268249 16326 34226 12827 29827 9326 22426 12826 26026 12127 25127 63432 137632

133485 419514

993089

Cropping Intensity % 156 171 168 197 183 186 175 161 174 197 199 187 166 157 168 178 157 174 160 166 153 153 177 163 169 186 165 191 175 171 197 193 185

173

1 Cropping intensity is defined as ratio of gross cropped area to net cropped area.

Source: Department of Agriculture, Office of the Principal Agricultural Officer, Paschim Medinipur, Annual Plan, 2005-06, Govt. of West Bengal

28

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Map 2.2 Cropping Intensity by blocks of Paschim Medinipur District.

H

PASCH IM MEDIN IPUR

18 3 ( %) G arhbet a- I I

A

LI A P UR U

A

N

K

U

O

197 ( % ) Ga rh bet a- I

D is t ri ct M ap sh ow i n g B l oc k -w is e C ro p pi n g I n t en si t y

B

O

R

186 ( %) G arhb et a- I I

N

G

H

W

L

Chan drako na- I I 17 1 % ( ) 175 ( % ) C han drako na- I 19 1 ( %) G hat al

W

N

H

A

H

19 7 ( %) D aspu r- I 19 3 ( %) D aspu -r I I

16 8 ( %) K eshp ur

A

171 ( %) Sal bo ni

R

160 ( % ) B in pur- I

D

H

O

17 7 ( %) B in pur-I I

E S

Y

156 ( %) Mi dn apore

R U P

166 ( % ) N arayan garh

197 ( %) Sa bong

O

E

178 ( % ) Mo hanp ur

P

NR DMSGISC ENT RE Pas chi mMedini pu r

U

R

18 Ki lometer s

168 ( %) D ant an- I I

A

157 ( %) D ant an- I

B

I

M

166 (% ) N ayag ram R

A

9

I

153 ( %) San krai l 157 ( % ) K eshi ary

S

0

199 ( % ) P i ngl a

N

16 3 ( %) Gopi bal l avpur- I

161 ( %) Kha ra gpur- I

I

169 ( % ) Go pi bal la vpur- I I

S

pi n g I nt ens it y 153 - 15 7 % ( ) 158 - 16 3 % ( ) 164 - 17 1 % ( ) 172 - 17 8 % ( ) 179 - 19 1 % ( ) 192 - 19 9 % ( ) D ist ri ct Bo un dary D ist ri ct Sub -D i vi sio nal B oun dary D isri ct Bl o ck B oun da ry

187 ( %) D eb ar

Kh aragpu r- I I 174 ( % )

J

H

15 3 ( %) Jh argram

D

A

R

K

186 ( %) Jamb oni

2.2.5

Forests

There are four forest divisions in Paschim Medinipur district. Medinipur Forest Division has under it 50267.49 ha. of area in nine Territorial Ranges. Jhargram Forest Division comprising forest area over 621 Sq. km is one of the oldest forest divisions of South West Bengal. Kharagpur Forest Division is primarily a Social Forestry Division constituted in 1982 with a view to implementing Social Forestry Scheme / Project throughout erstwhile Midnapore district. Rupnarayan Planning and Survey Division since November 1995 emerged as a Territorial Division and it is also implementing different schemes related to soil conservation and social forestry works. The forest under each Division is managed with active cooperation of the Forest Protection Committees. Reserved forest and open scrub are largest in Medinipur Forest Division while protected forest which constitutes the highest percentage of total forest area of the district is largest in Jhargram Forest Division and un-classed forest area is largest in Kharagpur Division (Table 2.5).

29

Regional Profile of Paschim Medinipur District

Table 2.5 Area under Forest by Type and Division in Paschim Medinipur District, 2007 (in hectare) Forest Area Division

Reserved Forest

Medinipur

3814.05

Jhargram Rupnarayan Kharagpur Total

Protected Forest

Forest Type Unclassed Forest

Sal Coppice

Open Scrub

Plantation

Total

43715.23

2738.21

19677.00

9620.00

4955.00

50267.49

100.00

80400.00

-

64320.00

8040.00

11000.00

80743.034

28.51

30429.45

0.65

16213.94

2741.95

8906.67

30458.61

-

10054.00

4903.00

4764.00

3626.00

6537.00

14957.00

3942.56

164598.68

7641.86 104975.00 24028.00

31398.00

176183.00

Source: District Planning Committee, Paschim Medinipur (2008), District Annual Plan 2008-09.

Map 2.3 River and Forest by type along with Block and Panchayat Boundary of Paschim Medinipur District

30

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

2.2.6

Cropped Area and Crop Diversification Index •

In 2006-07, Sabong recorded the largest area under Aus rice (10.42 thousand hectares) followed by Garhbeta I and Garhbeta III blocks.



The area under Aman crop was largest in Keshpur (37.46 thousand hectares) followed by Narayangarh and Debra, the lowest being registered in Daspur-I.



The area under Boro cultivation was largest in Sabang (21.51 thousand hectares) followed by Debra and Pingla.



Garhbeta-I block recorded the largest acreage under potato (12.72 thousand hectares) followed by Chandrakona-I, Chandrakona-II, Keshpur and Garhbeta-III.



Garhbeta-I block registered the largest acreage under til (9.85 thousand hectares) followed by Chandrakona-I and Garhbeta-III.



The acreage under mustard was largest in Sabong (2.76 thousand hectares) followed by Keshpur and Salboni.



Garhbeta-I recorded the largest area under vegetables ( 5.31 thousand hectares) followed by Narayangarh and Jhargram (Table 2.6).

Table 2.6 Area under Principal Crops by Block Paschim Medinipur District, 2006-07 (in '000 hectares) Block Medinipur

Aus

Aman

Boro

Wheat

Potato

Til

Mustard

Vegetables Others*

0.20

19.62

0.49

-

2.14

0.73

0.28

1.98

-

Salboni

-

24.41

0.89

1.14

7.26

5.43

2.26

1.91

-

Keshpur

1.75

37.46

6.94

2.22

9.28

5.08

2.69

2.16

0.433

Garhbeta-I

7.31

14.72

1.75

-

12.72

9.85

-

5.31

-

Garhbeta-II

0.58

18.30

1.67

1.69

8.93

7.11

0.09

2.92

-

Garhbeta-III

4.51

13.21

0.09

0.03

9.13

7.34

1.73

2.49

-

Kharagpur-I

-

17.13

1.00

-

-

0.41

0.02

1.29

-

0.80

21.07

3.58

0.01

0.01

0.03

0.03

1.31

0.002

Sabang

10.42

21.40

21.51

0.05

0.06

0.12

2.76

2.28

1.295

Pingla

1.79

15.83

15.93

0.03

0

0.35

0.84

1.77

0.869

Debra

1.06

26.29

19.57

0.04

0.22

0.76

0.23

2.00

0.040

Narayangarh

0.15

36.02

7.95

-

-

2.04

0.08

2.97

-

Dantan-I

0.11

19.41

3.94

-

-

0.55

-

1.50

-

Dantan-II

0.20

13.45

5.62

-

-

0.11

0.01

1.14

-

Mohanpur

-

6.27

4.97

-

-

0.03

-

1.11

-

Keshiary

-

17.00

0.61

-

0.01

0.44

0.01

1.01

-

Jhargram

-

13.98

0.42

0.02

-

0.65

0.16

2.95

0.012

Nayagram

0.01

17.80

1.25

-

-

0.31

0.09

1.39

-

Sankrial

1.65

15.70

2.68

0.09

0.01

1.2

0.49

2.45

0.046

Jamboni

0.75

16.14

-

-

-

-

-

2.32

0.027

Kharagpur -II

31

Regional Profile of Paschim Medinipur District

Block

Aus

Binpur-I

Aman

Boro

Wheat

Potato

Til

Mustard

Vegetables Others*

0.88

23.86

0.56

1.06

2.52

2.72

1.66

1.81

0.160

-

23.23

1.26

0.11

0.15

0.44

0.09

2.33

0.048

Gopiballavpur-I

3.48

11.48

0.87

0.09

0.09

0.32

1.43

2.35

0.028

Gopiballavpur-II

2.75

10.86

0.14

0.01

0.02

0.77

0.35

2.01

0.069

Ghatal

1.25

11.6

8.38

0.48

2.95

2.36

0.47

1.94

1.191

Chandrakona-I

1.73

15.84

4.17

0.06

10.16

8.41

0.66

1.46

0.087

Chandrakona-II

0.06

11.24

2.04

-

9.9

5.44

0.06

0.86

0.005

Daspur-I

0.01

7.72

8.98

-

3.44

1.38

0.27

2.49

1.096

-

12.05

10.69

-

0.45

0.11

0.16

2.42

0.585

Binpur -II

Daspur-II

Note: * includes area of Jute, Masur, Maskali, Khesari and Gram Source: District Statistical Handbook Paschim Medinipur,

Map 2.4 Major Crop producing Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District.

Using the data on area under agriculture, we constructed crop diversification index for each block of the district for a couple of years using Thompson's Index of Diversity which is shown as follows. Thomson's Index = 1-Σ Pi 2, where Pi = percentage share of each crop to gross cropped area.

32

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

The 29 blocks of the district experience differential scenario as regards cropping pattern index during the period from 1994-95 to 2006-07. Gopiballavpur I recorded the highest cropping index (0.415) followed by Jamboni ( 0.417) in 1994-95. Ghatal recorded the highest cropping pattern index ( 0.394) in 2005-06 followed by Garhbeta-III ( 0.379), the least being registered in Keshiary (0.147). In 2006-07, GopiballavpurI and Ghatal registered the highest cropping pattern index (0.385), though at reduced value during this period, followed by Garhbeta-III, Garhbeta-II and Garhbeta-I, Keshpur and Salboni, the lowest value being observed in again in Keshiary (0.154). The crop diversification index improved in 8 blocks, namely Chandrakona-II, Daspur-I, Ghatal, Sabong, Garhbeta-I, Garhbeta-II, Garhbeta-III, and Salboni (Table 2.7).

Table 2.7 Crop Diversification Index, 1994-95 to 2006-07 Block

1994-95 2005-06 2006-07

Change

Block

1994-95

2005-06

2006-07 Change

Chandrakona-I

0.368

0.313

0.296

-0.072

Debra

0.324

0.195

0.189

-0.135

Chandrakona-II

0.254

0.276

0.255

0.001

Keshiary

0.271

0.147

0.154

-0.117

Daspur-I

0.319

0.347

0.357

0.038

Kharagpur-I

0.256

0.149

0.163

-0.093

Daspur-II

0.316

0.244

0.263

-0.053

Kharagpur -II

0.242

0.163

0.165

-0.077

Ghatal

0.237

0.394

0.385

0.148

Mohanpur

0.222

0.172

0.197

-0.025

Binpur-I

0.399

0.177

0.338

-0.061

Narayangarh

0.264

0.169

0.178

-0.086

Binpur -II

0.351

0.347

0.200

-0.151

Pingla

0.384

0.290

0.284

-0.1

Gopi-I

0.419

0.359

0.385

-0.034

Sabang

0.310

0.368

0.357

0.047

Gopi-II

0.379

0.282

0.316

-0.063

Garhbeta-I

0.188

0.336

0.350

0.162

Jamboni

0.417

0.157

0.206

-0.211

Garhbeta-II

0.236

0.375

0.367

0.131

Jhargram

0.333

0.173

0.244

-0.089

Garhbeta-III

0.166

0.379

0.374

0.208

Nayagram

0.292

0.152

0.167

-0.125

Keshpur

0.399

0.369

0.349

-0.05

Sankrail

0.404

0.245

0.272

-0.132

Medinipur

0.242

0.183

0.201

-0.041

Dantan-I

0.295

0.159

0.167

-0.128

Salboni

0.210

0.364

0.349

0.139

Dantan-II

0.233

0.166

0.172

-0.061

Figure 2.1 Crop Diversification - Joint bar

33

Regional Profile of Paschim Medinipur District

2.3 Infrastructure at the Block Level 2.3.1

2.3.2

Presence of Financial Institution(Banks etc.) •

One notable feature during the economic reform period is that across the blocks of the district the number of commercials bank and gramin bank offices remained constant except in three blocks, namely Jhargarm, Kharagpur-I and Salboni during 1994-95 to 2005-06. Thus, population served per commercial and gramin bank office increased during this period for most of the blocks.



During 2005-06 Kharagpur-1 block recorded the highest number of commercial bank offices followed by Salboni and Jhargram, the lowest number of commercial bank offices (only 2) is located in Mohanpur block. During this period Chandrokona-2 block suffered most with 27000 populations served per commercial and gramin bank office during 200506 followed by Pingla block. The most advantageous situation is enjoyed by Midnapore and Keshiary block where only 9000 population is served by commercial and gramin bank office followed by Jhargram.



On the other hand, number of co-operative societies for most of the blocks increased and also their number of members and working capital during the period 1994-95 to 2005-06. Debra block recorded highest number of co-operative societies (143). The lowest number of co-operative societies was located in Mohanpur block (35).



Narayangarh block registered highest number (50277) of cooperative members followed by Ghatal during 2005-06.



Daspur-1 block recorded the highest amount of working capital (Rs.127 cr.) followed by Ghatal (Rs.56.2 cr.), Jamboni block experiencing lowest working capital (Rs.1.46 cr.).



Net collection from small savings registered significant increase in Paschim Medinipur district from Rs.248 cr. thousand in 2001-02 to Rs 420 cr. in 2005-06. Kharagpur-II block recorded in 2005-06 the highest small savings collection (Rs.60 cr.) followed by Daspur1 (Rs.18.62 cr.).

Health Institutions

The district has a total of 977 health-care institutions starting from the Health Sub-Centre level to the District Medical College & Hospital at Midnapore with 4858 beds (Table 4.2). To cater the population of 5619212 (estimated population for 2009) the existing health infrastructure is not sufficient. At present in the context of availability of health-care institutions, the district stands far below the national norms, especially in tribal areas of Jhargram and Medinipur Sadar sub-divisions.

34

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Map 2.5 Location of Health Infrastructure in Paschim Medinipur District.

To Adra

PASCHIM MEDINIPUR

NH-60

H

O

N T $ O T T $ G $T $ T W E $$ T T $ H T T T $ T$ $ T$ $ T $ T 0 $T $T $TGarhbeta-I T $ $ S L T # $ T $ T $ T $ $ T# $ T$ Y T $ T T $ T $ 0 T $ T $ T $ 0 # T $ T TÑ $ T $ T $ $ T$ T $ T T$ $ 0 $T$T # 0$T # T $ T $ T$ T$ $ T $ T $ T $ $ T T $ T T $ $ T T# $ I T $ 0$T$T $T$T $TChandrakonaT $ T $ T# $ T $ T $ T Garhbeta-II $ 0$T $T T $ T$ $ T $ T 0$T # T $ T $ T $ T $ T# $ T $ RA 0$T T $ T $ T $ 0 # T $ T Chandrakona$ U T $ T $ T $ T $ T $ T $ K II T $ T $ T$ 0$T T $ $ T $ T N T $ T# $ TT# T $ $ T T $ $ T $ $ A T# $ T $ T $ 0 0 # T $ T $ T $ 0$T(X TÑ $ T $ $ T $ B Ñ T $ ÑT $T $T $T $T$T$T T $ T $ T # T T$ $ T$ T $ $ T $ $ 0 Garhbeta-III T T $ T $ T $ Ñ T $ T $ T $ T $ T Ñ T $ T $ $ T $ T $ BinpurII Ghatal T$ $ T T$ $ T 0 # T $ T $ T $ $ T $ T $ T $ $ T $ T TT $ T $ T $ T $ T T$ $ T T $ $ T $ T $ T $ T$ $ T $ TT $ T $ T $ $ T $ T $ T # 0$T $T $T $T x{$T $T $T T T$ $ T$ T T $ $ T $ $ T T $ 0 # T $ T $ T $ 0$T # T $ T $ T $ 0 # T $ T $ T $ $ T $ T $ $ T Ñ $T T$ T$ $ T $ T $ $ T $ T $ Salboni T $ T $ 0 # T $ $ Ñ$T $T T $ T$ T T $ T $ T T $ T T $ T T T $ T # $ Binpur- I T $ $ T $ $ T 0$T $T T$ $ T T $ T $ $ T $ $ T$ T T T $ 0$T Salboni # T $ T $ $ T $ $ T T T $ T $ $ T T Ñ T T $ $ T $ $ T $ T $ T$ $ T $ $ T $ $ TT T $ 0$T T T $ T $ T 0 $T$T # T $ $ T $ $ T $ T # T $ $ T $ $ T $ T Keshpur T T $ T $ T $ T $ T $ 0 # T $ T $ T $ $ T $ $ T$ T$ $ T$ $ T 0 $T # Induatrial T 0 # T $ Ñ T Daspur-I TÑ T $ $ T $ $ T $ T $ T $ T T $ $ T $ T# $ 0 # T $ T $ T T $ 0 T $ T T $ T$ $ T T $ T $ T$ $ T $ T $ 0$T # T $ T $ $ 0$T $T$T $T$TÑ$T $T # Zone$T T # T 0$T T$ 0 T $ T $ T $ T $ T# 0 # T$ $ T $ $ T$ $ T$ 0 # T$ T $ $ T 0$T # T$ $ T T T $ T$ T $ $ TDaspur-II T T $ T $ 0$T $T $T $T T T# $ T $ T$ To T $ TT $ T # $ T $ T$ $ T$ $ T $ T $ $ T $ 0 T $ T T $ T $ T $ T $ T $ T $ T $ T $ T $ Tatanagar $ T $ TT $ $ T $ T T $ T$ $ T$ T $ T T$ $ T $ T $ $ T $ 0$T $T # T K $ T $ T $ $ T T T $ T $ T T $ T $ T $ T $ T $ T $ 0 # T $ a T $ T $ T $ T $ T $ T $ T $ $ T T $ T Jamboni $ T T $ s T $ Ñ T$ $ Ñ T $ 0$T Midnapore T $ x{ a $ T$ T $ $ 0$T $T T# T $ $ T $ $ T # T $ T $ T T $ T $ T T $ T x i T$ T$ $ T $ T $ T $ $ {oo $T Debra T R $ T$ T $ T $ NHAI (NH-6) 0 # T T$ $ Guptamoni T $ $ T$ T $ T T $ $ T$ 0 $T $T $T # T TJhargram $ T $ Ti v e $ $ T$ To Howrah T $ T T T $ T $ T $ $ T $ T Ñ Induatrial 0 $T$T $T $T $T$T T$ $ 0$T $T $T r $T $T# T 0T $T # # T $ T $ T $ $ T $ T $ T $ T $ T $ T $ T $ Zone T $ T $ T $ T $ T $ T $ $ T T $ T $ 0 # T $ T # $ T T $ T $ 0 # 0$T T $ T $ $ x{ 0$T # T $ T $ T Ñ $T $T $T $T $T $T $T $T $T $T #0$T $T$T 0$T $T$T $T $T Ñ # T $ $ Ñ $T$T $TKharagpur-II T $ T T $ $ T $ NHAI (NH-6) T T $ Kharagpur-I T $ T $ Pingla 0 # T $ T T $ $ T$ $ T T $ T $ T $ T $ T $ T $ T $ $ T$ 0$T T $ T Ñ$ $ T T $ T T$ T# $ T T $ $ T $ 0$T $T $T # T $ T $ $ T $ $ T $ T T $ T$ $ T $ 0 # T # T $ T $ T $ Ñ 0 # T $ T $ 0 # T $ T$ 0Gopiballavpur-II T $ $ T T $ T $ T $ T $ $ T # $ T $ T T $ T 0$T $T $T # 0$T T$ $ T $ 0$T$T# T $ T $ Sankrail T $ T $ T $ T $ T $ 0$T $T T $ 0 # TÑ $ T $ 0$T$T $T $T $T # T $ T # $ T$ $ T $ $ T # T $ T $ T $ T T $ T T $ T$ $ T $ T $ T $ T $ S u b T $ TÑ $ 0 nar T $ T T a r$ T T $ $ T $ T $ 0$T ekh T $ $ T $ T$ $ T Ñ$ T $ T $ T# T $ T$ $ T# T T$ T $ $ T$ $ T $ Sabong T T $ $ T $ a$ 0$T $T # T T $ T $ Gopiballavpur-I T T $ T $ 0 $T T Ri T $ T $ T $ $ T $ v T $ T $ T $ er T T $ $ Narayangarh T $ TNa d$ $ T T $ T $ T T $ T $ $ T $ $ T $ T 0$T$T $T 0$T # T $ Ti # $ TÑ $ $ T T $ T Keshiary $ T $ T $ $ T T T $ $ TT$ TT $ $ T K $ O T$ $ T h ai $ T al iag$ $ D 0$T $T # 0$T # T $ T T $ T $ Ñ T$ $ R iv er T E T $ T $ T $ R $ $ T T $ T $ T $ T 0$T T # Nayagram T $ T $ $ M T $ $ T $ T T $ T $ $ T $ T $ T I T $ A 0 $T $T # T $ $ T $ T $ T 0$T $T # Ñ$T $T $T $T $T $T $T TT $ 0$T $T $T # # 0$T $T T $ T $ $ T $ T $ T $ T $ Ñ T $ T $ $ T Ñ $ $ T Dantan-II T $ T $ T $ T $ T T $ T $ T $ $ T $ T $ $ T Dantan-I$ T$ T T T T$ $ T $ T $ T $ $ T $ $ 0$T $T T# $ T T T $ $ T $ T $ T $ T T $ T $ T $ T $ T T $ $ T $ 0$T $T T $ 9 0 9 18 Kilometers T # $ 0$T # T$ $ Ñ T$ T T $ T$ $ T $ $ T T Mohanpur T $ NRDMS G IS CENTRE T $ 0 # T $ To Paschim Medinipur Cuttack T $ NH-60

A

H

H

A

R

K

H

A N

U

R

D

p Ka

P

ale

B

I

N

i ar

I

sw

R

S

U

S

A

P

(X

J

SC TB Sanitorium NH-60 NHAI (NH-6) Railway State Highway District Boundary District Sub-Divisional Boundary Block-Gram Panchayat Boundary Disrict Block Boundary Midnapore Keshpur Salboni Garhbeta-I Garhbeta-II Garhbeta-III Kharagpur-I Kharagpur-II Debra Pingla Sabong Dantan-I Dantan-II Keshiary Narayangarh Mohanpur Jhargram Binpur-I Binpur-II Jamboni Nayagram Sankrail Gopiballavpur-I Gopiballavpur-II Ghatal Chandrakona-I Chandrakona-II Daspur-I Daspur-II T $

R

0 PHC #

2.3.3

PU

BPHC

W

Ñ

O

Medical College SDH

o

H

x{

RU LI A

District Map showing Block and Sub-Divisional Boundary (Distribution of Health Facilities)

Connectivity ¾

In terms of transportation and communication, NH 6 and 60 run through the heart of the district connecting it with several metropolitan cities of eastern India. State highways, district roads and village roads connect the villages with the towns and industrial centers.

¾

South Eastern Railways provides well spread railway connectivity.

¾

The survey conducted by Paschim Medinipur Zilla Parishad reveals that total road length (BT type) for the district was 1727.85 km. as in August 2007 and track / moorum road length amounted to 7101 km.

¾

BT type road length varied widely across blocks of the district, the highest being in GarbetaI followed by Jhargram and the lowest being in Daspur-II. The track / moorum road length was highest in Jhargram followed by Keshpur, the lowest being in Chandrakona-I.

¾

Road length per sq. km. of geographical area in Paschim Medinipur district in August 2007 was less than 1 km. (0.97 km.), the highest being recorded in Debra block followed by Daspur-I and Daspur-II and the lowest being registered in Nayagram block (Table 2.8).

35

Regional Profile of Paschim Medinipur District

Map 2.6 Road Networks in Paschim Medinipur District.

Road Map

To Adra

H

o Shyamnagar Agra

Garhbeta-II

Jorakeudi-Solidiha

ñ

_ Æ Lalgaria Bhimpore

Dharampore

Andharia

Satpati Baita

Radhanagar

Jamboni Lalbundh

Midnapore Sadar Jhargram _ (M) Bandhgora Æ

_ Æ

ñ

k

Jamboni

Ka nkabati

Chandra

Manidaha

Sapdhara

a

Nodabahar

n d

Arjuni Aguibani

Chichra NHAI (NH-6)

Topsia

Patasimul

_ñ Æ

Satma

Kuliara

Chorchita

Ama rda sasraa

ñ

Patina

Kendugari

O

Nayagram

Baghasty

Santrapur

ñ

Keshiary

Kashipur

r _ Æ

Nayagram

Kushbasan Narayangarh

_ Æ

i

Alikhosa

Chandrarekha

ñ

ñÆ _

Berajal

a

Angua

Talda

Chakismailpur

NH-60

To Cuttack

Dasa gram

Purulda

Turka Haripur

Jankapur Siyalsai

Anikola Sautia

20 Kilometers

Mohar

Bishnupur

Chaulkuri

Dantan-II

Salikotha

Dantan-I

Arrah

Sabong

Sartta

Sauri-Kotbar

Sabra

Monoharpur

Dantan-I Dantan-II

Bhemua

ñ

Bural Narayanbarh

ñ

Ranisarai

Jamirapal Tararui

Nawgaon

u

s

Baligeria

_ Æ

Dandra

Belda-II Mannya Hemchadra Tutra nga

Kharikamathani

ñ

Jalchak-II

Balpai Sabang

Bakhrabad

Lalua

Keshiary

Gaganeswarpur

Baranegui

Maligram Jalchak-I

Karkai

Debhog

_ Æ Narayangarh Khurshi

Belda-I

_ Æ Nac hhipur

Mala m

s

Larma

Kunarpur

Kusumpur

Barakhakra Laudaha Cha nda bila

ñ _ Æ

Gramraj

Mokrampur

Kultikri

ñ

Rohini

Pingla

Jamna

Dhaneswarpur

Pakurseni

Andhari

Gobardhanpur Pindrui

Khirai

Palsya

Khajra

Rogra

Alampur

Duan-I

Kusumda Sankua

Khelar

To Howrah

ñ

Jalimanda

Bhe tia

Ghritagram

_ Æ Sankrail

NHAI (NH-6)

Chakmakrampur

Gopali

Kharagpur-I

Khudmarai

Petbindha

Gopiballavpur-I Saria

Hariatara

Dhandhori

_ Æ

Gopiballavpur

Kharagpur-II

_ Æ Kharagpur-(M)

Chengual

Sankrail Chhatri

Gopiballavpur-II

Kaliara-II

ñ

ñ

_ Æ

Pathra

Kharbandhi

Shanrpur-Lawada

Khanamohan

Pathra

Radhamohanpur-I Kaliara-I Debra-II Debra-I Paparara-II Lachhmanpur _ Æ Duan-II Paparara-I Radhamohanpur-II

Barkola

Dudkundi

Lodhasuli

Beliaberah

Nota

Kalaikunda

sardiha

Salbani

Kenddangri Chandri

Panchkhuri-I Panchkhuri-II

Chubka

u

h

Jhargram

ñ

_Midnapore (M) Æ

Chilkigarh Manikpara

Daspur-II

h

Dubra

ñ

Debra

d

ñ Gidhni

Daspur-I

ñ

Keshpur

Garma l

Dherua

e

To Ta tanagar

M

Dahijuri

a

kapgari

a

Parihati

ñ

r

Kasijora Salboni

_ Æ

Belatikri

Binpur-I

Binpur

Monoharpur-I

Khanjapur Kamalpur Daspur-I _ Daspur-II Ranichak Æ Jagannathpur Dewanchak-II Sahachak Banai Rajnagar Basudevpur Chaipat Kalagram Nijnarajole Teghari Keshpur Panchberia Sarberia-I _ Anandapur Æ _ Æ Kheput Guchhati Nischintipur Sarishakhola Bhabanipur Sarberia-II Nandanpur-I Palaspai Dhalhara Dudkumra Goura Joteghanashyam Malighati Amrakuchi Bharatpur Nandanpur-II Korna garh Enayetepur Khukurdah Golegram Banpura Jhentla Salyapur Siromani

p

Lalgarh

ñ

Ergoda Dharsa

Monoharpur-II Dewanchak-I

Mugbasan

Bankibundh

b

_ Æ

Sondhapara

Ghatal

Golar

_ Æ

Monoharpur-II

r

Harda

Mansuka-II

Ghatal (M)

_ Æ ñ Ajobnagar-II Ajobnaga r-I

w

Kanko

Birsingha

Monoharpur-I Bandipur-II Mohanpur

Sirsa

Salboni

Bishnupur

Irpala

(M) ñKshirpai (M) Kharar Mansuka-I

Bandipur-I

o

Debagram Sijua

Silda

Kuapur

Amanpur

Nepura

Simulpal

Uriyasai Garhbeta-III

i

r u Belpahari

ñ

Manikkundu

_Chandrakona (M) Æ

Satbankura

Nayabasat

Ramgarh

Mangrul

ñ

ñ

Goaltore

_ñ Æ

Amsol

Mohanpur

ñ

P

P

k n a B Bhelaidiha

Chandrakona-I Jara Chandrakona-II Sultanpur

Basanchora

Sankarkata Nalbona

Pingboni

Bhagabantapur-II

H

Binpur-II

y

n

a

r u l u

Bhulaveda

r

10

Banspa hari

a

0

Patharpara

S

l

Lakshmipur Ramjibanpur (M) Bhaga bantapur-I

Karsa

Jirapara

h

10

Garanga Amkopa Amlagora

Gohaldanga

E

h

Sandhipur

Kharkushma

Raskundu

J

District-Police Station ñ District Block Head Quarter Railway NH-60 NHAI (NH-6) State Highway District Boundary Disrict Block Boundary District- Gram Panchayat Boundary Midnapore Midnapore (M) Keshpur Salboni Garhbeta-I Garhbeta-II Garhbeta-III Kharagpur-I Kharagpur (M) Kharagpur-II Debra Pingla Sabong Dantan-I Dantan-II Narayangarh Keshiary Mohanpur Jhargram Jhargram (M) Binpur-I Binpur-II Jamboni Nayagram Sankrail Gopiballavpur-I Gopiballavpur-II Ghatal Ghatal (M) Kharar (M) Chandrakona-I Kshirpai (M) Ramjibanpur (M) Chandrakona (M) Chandrakona-II Daspur-I Daspur-II

ñ _ Æ

Piasala

Sarbot

i a

Makli

Garbeta

Jogardanga

W

Garhbeta-I

Benachapra Amlasuli

g

Baramura Kadra Uttarbil

i

[District Map showing Block-wise Gram Panchayat Boundary for each Sub-Division] (& other features)

N

o

Dhadika

r

PASCHIM MEDINIPUR

_ Æ

NH-60

_ Æ

Mohanpur

Nilda

NR DMS GIS CENTRE Developme nt Section Office of th e D istric t Magistrate, Paschim Medinipur

Tanuya

Table 2.8 Length of Roads by Block in Paschim Medinipur District, August, 2007 (in Km) Block

BT

WBM

GRAVEL

TRACK/ MOORUM

TOTAL

Road length

Rank

Chandrakona-I

46.80

5.90

-

113.55

166.25

0.86

23

Chandrakona-II

49.25

-

-

127.00

176.25

1.17

12

Daspur - I

43.50

-

-

206.05

249.55

1.48

2

Daspur - II

17.25

-

-

227.85

245.10

1.48

3

Ghatal

52.50

1.00

-

211.00

264.50

1.22

10

Binpur - I

67.50

1.00

-

295.40

363.90

1.02

18

Binpur - II

74.00

-

-

381.60

455.60

0.78

25

Gopiballavpur - I

46.50

-

-

251.10

297.60

1.08

15

Gopiballavpur - II

45.00

-

-

165.00

210.00

1.09

14

Jamboni

53.15

-

-

219.95

273.10

0.86

24

36

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Block

BT

WBM

GRAVEL

TRACK/ MOORUM

TOTAL

Road length

Rank

Jhargram

92.00

-

-

555.30

647.30

1.26

8

Nayagram

44.00

-

-

304.15

348.15

0.69

29

Sankrail

65.70

-

-

198.70

264.40

0.96

20

Dantan - I

44.00

-

-

217.00

261.00

1.02

19

Dantan - II

58.75

-

-

201.55

260.30

1.40

4

Debra

65.50

-

-

447.90

513.40

1.50

1

Keshiary

61.00

-

-

267.65

328.65

1.13

13

Kharagpur - I

57.00

3.50

-

213.45

273.95

0.87

22

Kharagpur - II

58.50

-

-

217.70

276.2

1.04

16

Mohanpur

20.00

-

-

165.00

185.00

1.35

5

Narayangarh

91.80

-

-

499.50

591.30

1.18

11

Pingla

37.00

-

-

256.50

293.50

1.31

6

Sabong

46.00

-

-

342.05

388.05

1.27

7

Garhbeta - I

128.25

-

-

246.55

374.8

1.04

17

Garhbeta - II

77.80

-

-

200.20

278.00

0.71

28

Garhbeta - III

49.00

-

-

180.45

229.45

0.74

27

Keshpur

68.50

-

-

534.10

602.60

1.25

9

Medinipur

82.60

-

-

209.30

291.90

0.90

21

Salboni

85.00

-

-

345.750

430.75

0.78

26

1727.85

11.40

-

7801.30

9540.55

0.97

-

Total

Source: Office of the District Engineer, Paschim Medinipur Zilla Parishad.

2.3.4

Electricity

The supply of electricity in this district is through West Bengal State Electricity Board (WBSEB). From the super grid lines of 220 kv and 123 kv through substations (220 kv/132kv and 132 kv/33kv) power is supplied to 33 kv feeder lines and again through another set of substations (33 kv/11kv) power is supplied to 11 kv lines and subsequently through 11 kv/440v transformers the supply is effected in the rural areas. Percentage of mouzas electrified recorded significant increase during 2000 to 2007across the district but that varied widely among the blocks ( Table 2.9) The intensification works under RGGVY (11th Plan) are going on at a full pace on emergent basis through PGCIL Agency and Sub-Agencies L & T and MAYTAS and it is expected that all the mouzas will be electrified by 2011. Scope for intensification have been identified for 5658 mouzas ( Revised). Total 5742 mouzas have been electrified i.e. 76.79 %. Mouza electrification extended 100 % in Daspur-II, Daspur-I, Ghatal, Garhbeta-I and Midnapore Sadar block and mouza electrification covered more than 55 % in all other blocks except Nayagram, Gopiballavpur-I and Sankrail block (Table 2.10).

37

Regional Profile of Paschim Medinipur District

Table 2.9 Percentage of Mouza Electrified by Block in Paschim Medinipur District, 2000 to 2007 Block

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Chndrakona-I

88.64

88.64

88.64

88.64

91.67

91.67

92.42

92.42

Chaandrakona-II

87.02

87.02

87.02

87.79

88.55

88.55

91.60

91.60

Daspur-I

96.30

96.30

96.30

96.30

96.30

96.30

96.30

96.30

Daspur-II

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00 100.00

100.00

100.00

Ghatal

93.10

93.10

93.10

93.10

93.10

93.79

93.79

93.79

Binpur-I

24.77

25.32

25.50

25.50

42.68

44.12

44.67

44.67

Binpur-II

18.30

18.30

18.30

18.30

38.09

40.00

40.85

40.85

Gopiballavpur-I

6.94

6.94

6.94

6.94

26.39

26.85

26.85

27.78

Gopiballavpur-II

43.23

43.75

43.75

43.75

51.56

55.21

55.21

60.94

Jamboni

31.66

33.14

33.73

34.02

47.34

47.63

48.52

48.52

Jhargram

25.00

25.66

25.66

25.66

45.53

46.19

48.34

49.83

5.65

5.65

5.95

5.95

22.62

27.08

27.68

27.68

Sankrail

15.33

15.33

15.33

16.03

21.60

23.34

27.87

31.01

Dantan-I

39.70

39.70

39.70

39.70

48.74

49.75

51.76

60.30

Dantan-II

28.91

28.91

28.91

30.47

36.72

38.28

40.63

40.63

Debra

81.76

81.76

81.76

81.76

87.63

87.84

88.68

89.31

Keshiary

50.00

51.36

51.36

51.36

60.91

61.36

61.82

64.09

Kharagpur-I

25.28

25.65

25.65

25.65

33.83

34.57

36.06

48.70

Kharagpur-II

36.83

37.11

37.11

37.68

49.01

52.97

54.96

63.89

Mohanpur

59.22

59.22

59.22

59.22

67.96

71.84

73.79

73.79

Narayangarh

36.43

36.43

36.63

36.63

32.75

51.16

51.55

55.04

Pingla

82.97

82.97

82.97

82.97

86.26

86.26

86.26

87.91

Sabong

67.67

68.53

68.53

68.53

72.84

74.14

74.57

76.72

Garbeta-I

67.65

67.65

67.65

68.46

69.00

69.27

69.27

69.27

Garbeta-II

29.34

29.34

30.84

30.84

41.92

43.11

44.31

47.01

Garbeta-III

60.78

61.21

61.64

62.93

70.26

70.26

70.69

70.69

Keshpur

36.12

36.12

36.44

36.44

49.68

55.36

55.52

61.51

Medinipur

61.99

62.36

62.73

62.73

68.63

69.00

70.11

70.11

Salboni

50.19

50.19

50.19

50.19

56.06

57.01

57.58

58.71

Nayagram

Source: District Statistical handbook 2007 Paschim Medinipur District

38

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Map 2.7 Power Network in Paschim Medinipur District.

Table 2.10 Present status of Mouza Electrification and Intensification works under RGGVY Sl.

Block

No.

No. of

Inhabited

Mouza

Mouza

No. of De-

Mouza

Status of Intensification Work under RGGVY

populated Mouza

Electrified

Revised Scope

Job Started

Job Completed

Percentage of Mouza Electrification (2010)

1

Medinipur

268

227

41

227

228

228

228

100.00

2

Salboni

528

394

134

341

325

325

325

86.55

3

Keshpur

634

537

97

412

392

390

380

76.72

4

Garbeta-I

356

288

68

288

293

29

6

100.00

5

Garbeta-II

334

265

69

191

191

11

0

72.08

6

Garbeta-III

233

192

41

184

184

8

0

95.83

7

Kharagpur-I

268

226

42

125

125

100

92

55.31

8

Kharagpur-II

353

324

29

207

207

159

138

63.89

39

Regional Profile of Paschim Medinipur District

Sl.

Block

No.

No. of

Inhabited

Mouza

Mouza

No. of De-

Mouza

Status of Intensification Work under RGGVY

populated Mouza

Electrified

Revised Scope

Job Started

Job Completed

Percentage of Mouza Electrification (2010)

9

Debra

477

457

20

452

452

110

80

98.91

10

Pingla

182

171

11

170

170

96

70

99.42

11

Keshiary

220

199

21

144

144

70

28

72.36

12

Dantan-I

199

179

20

131

131

59

22

73.18

13

Dantan-II

128

116

12

115

59

9

0

99.14

14

Narayangarh

517

455

62

311

311

72

21

68.35

15

Mohanpur

103

101

2

90

93

21

5

89.11

16

Sabong

232

225

7

193

193

85

68

85.78

17

Jhargram

604

491

113

359

359

60

47

73.12

18

Binpur-I

553

417

136

305

305

2

2

73.14

19

Binpur-II

470

389

81

226

226

15

9

58.10

20

Jamboni

388

281

107

201

201

47

18

71.53

21

Nayagram

336

297

39

118

118

18

10

39.73

22

Sankrail

287

248

39

116

116

27

17

46.77

23

Gopiballavpur-I

216

196

20

86

86

19

11

43.88

24

Gopiballavpur-II

192

174

18

124

124

11

6

71.26

25

Chandrakona-I

132

127

5

125

123

123

104

98.43

26

Chandrakona-II

131

122

9

121

121

121

119

99.18

27

Ghatal

145

138

7

138

139

139

133

100.00

28

Daspur-I

162

156

6

156

155

155

153

100.00

29

Daspur-II

87

86

1

86

87

80

50

100.00

8735

7478

1257

5742

5658

2589

2142

76.79

Total :

Source: Project Manager, WBACDCL

40

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Map 2.8 Present status of Electrification in Paschim Medinipur District

2.3.5

Industries

Paschim Medinipur had 246600 number of enterprises (organized and unorganized) in 2005 and 91.64% of these are non-agricultural. Annual growth of these enterprises had been 2% over the period 1985 - 2005 and most of these happened to be located in rural areas. The main industrial area is Kharagpur and several small scale clusters are found in Midnapore, Chandrakona, Jhargram, and Garhbeta. In Salboni, a mint is functioning till date. Day by day, big investors and industrial houses are now showing their interest establishing large industries in this district. Already Jindal Group of Industries has initiated the construction of a giant steel plant.

Map 2.9 Industrial Growth Centre in Paschim Medinipur District.

41

Regional Profile of Paschim Medinipur District

2.3.6

Tourism

Tourism activities are concentrated in three main clusters, viz. Medinipur-Kharagpur town, Garhbeta - Chandrakona town and Jhargram characterized by temples, heritage areas, beautiful rivers, green forests and hillocks. But due to infrastructural underdevelopment neither flow of tourists nor employment in this sector is noteworthy. Indian Institute of Technology at Kharagpur and Vidyasagar University at Medinipur are prominent educational centres in this district. Paschim Medinipur is known as the land of freedom fighters, social reformers and martyrs like Khudiram, Matangini Hazra, Hemchondra Kanoongo and many more. It also has an enriched and diversified legacy of socio-cultural activities, especially the customs and traditions of different tribal groups like Lodhas, Mundas and Santhals.

Map 2.10 Tourist Spots in Paschim Medinipur District.

2.3.7

Panchayati Raj Institutions ¾

The highest institution for local governance in the district is the Zilla Parishad.

¾

All the 29 C.D. Blocks are governed by the respective Panchayat Samities.

¾

At the lowest level, 290 Gram Panchayats and 3058 Gram Sansads are actively taking part in rural self governance and development.

¾

There are in total 4 sub-divisions, viz. Medinipur Sadar, Kharagpur, Jharagram and Ghatal and 27 police stations in the district.

¾

For urban areas, 8 municipalities and Medinipur-Kharagpur Development Authority (MKDA) are working towards better urban governance.

42

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

¾

The distribution of administrative units in Paschim Medinipur district in 2008 by subdivision shows that Kharagpur sub-division has the largest number of Panchayat Samities, Gram Panchayats and Gram Sansads and households, while Ghatal sub-division has the largest number of municipalities and municipal wards, and Jhargram sub-division has the largest number of mouzas and inhabited mouzas.

¾

Across blocks of the district, it is observed that Narayangarh block has the largest number of Gram Panchayats followed by Keshpur.

¾

Keshpur block has the largest number of Gram Sansads followed by Debra and Narayangarh. Keshpur block has the largest number of mouzas and inhabited villages followed by Narayangarh.

Map 2.11 Administrative Units in Paschim Medinipur District

2.4 Basic Indicators at the Block Level ¾

Paschim Medinipur district registered increase in the percentage share of urban population from 10.93 in 1981 to 12. 66 in 1991. It showed decrease to 12.59 per cent in 2001. Jhargram has been the least urbanised sub-division, which shows increasing trend in the percentage share of urban population from 3.62 in 1981 to 5.26 in 2001. Ghatal subdivision also recorded increasing trend of urbanization; the percentage share of urban population increased from 11. 56 to 12.60 during 1991 to 2001. On the other hand, Kharagpur sub-division with its highest urban population ratio (16.05 per cent in 1981) showed a declining trend in this ratio to 15.60 per cent in 1991 and further to 14.41 per cent in 2001. Sadar sub-division was relatively low urbanised (8.19 per cent of urban population) in 1981, which increased sharply to 14.60 per cent in 1991 to decline, however,

43

Regional Profile of Paschim Medinipur District

to 12.59 per cent in 2001. The sudden increase in the urban population ratio of this subdivision may be explained by increase in the area of the Medinipur municipality during 1981 to 1991 (from 10.35 sq. km. in 1981 to 15.62 sq. km. in 1991). During 1981 to 1991 decadal growth of urban population was highest in Sadar sub-division (137.5 per cent) followed by Jhargram (55.55 per cent) and Ghatal (25.64 per cent). But during 1991-2001 Jhargram sub-division recorded the highest growth of urban population (28.19 per cent) followed by Ghatal (17.35 per cent) and Kharagpur (6.05 per cent) while Sadar sub-division registered the lowest decadal growth (2.63 per cent). Decadal growth of population declined perceptibly across different blocks of Paschim Medinipur district during 1991-2001 compared to the earlier decade. The growth rate was highest in Garhbeta-III Block followed by Chandrakona-I, the lowest being in Gopiballavpur II block during 1981-1991. During the next decade it was highest in GarbettaI followed by Medinipur block, the lowest being experienced by Daspur-II block. Urban population was highest in Kharagpur municipality followed by Medinipur, the lowest population being registered in Kharagpur municipality in 2001. Daspur-II block recorded in 2001 the highest population density followed by Daspur-I, the lowest being experienced by Nayagram. Of the municipal towns the highest population density was recorded by Medinipur municipality followed by Jhargram and Kharagpur. Of the blocks of the district the highest population density was registered in Ghatal followed by Garbeta-III and Sabang, the lowest being experienced by Nayagram. Daspur-II recorded the highest sex ratio followed by Daspur-I and Binpur II, the lowest sex ratio was registered by Ghatal municipality in 2001. The sex ratio in blocks of the district for 1991 and 2001 is shown in Figure 2.2.

¾

¾

Table 2.11 Population Density and Sex Ratio by Block , 1991 to 2001 Block

Population density 1991 2001

Sex ratio 1991 2001

Block

Population density 1991 2001

Sex ratio 1991 2001

Chandrakona-I

535

610

953

958

Debra

644

745

953

975

Chandrakona-II

582

710

950

955

Keshiary

395

452

950

959

Daspur-I

942

1044

977

1017

Kharagpur-II

515

609

958

965

Daspur-II

1188

1246

987

1043

Kharapur-I

432

757

953

949

Ghatal

789

883

970

973

Mohanpur

607

701

959

960

Binpur -II

223

250

970

983

Narayangarh

452

534

943

958

Binpur-I

148

389

954

957

Pingla

666

762

927

934

Gopiballavpur-I

290

344

936

942

Sabang

702

783

947

943

Gopiballavpur-II

428

486

931

947

Garhbeta-I

468

554

946

949

Jamboni

283

320

955

961

Garhbeta-II

283

334

953

959

Jhargram

260

298

947

957

Garhbeta-III

377

950

950

947

Nayagram

212

247

963

979

Keshpur

500

597

950

953

Sankrail

318

371

953

971

Medinipur

388

488

954

949

Dantan-I

496

589

943

961

Salboni

256

299

963

961

Dantan-II

290

724

939

952

Source: Census of India, West Bengal, Relevant Issues

44

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Figure 2.2 Sex Ratio in Blocks , 1991 and 2001

¾

Distribution of population by religion during 1981 to 2001 shows that Hindus formed the majority in all the blocks. The percentage of Muslim population was highest in Keshpur block followed by Medinipur, the lowest being experienced by Nayagram block. Christian population was highest in Keshiary block followed by Nayagram.

¾

Keshpur block recorded in 2001, the highest Scheduled Caste population followed by Ghatal the lowest being experienced by Mohanpur block.

¾

Binpur-II block registered the highest Scheduled Tribe population followed by Narayangarh, the lowest being experienced by Daspur-II block in 2001.

¾

Chandrakona-I block registered the highest percentage of SC population (35.04) in 2001 followed by Ghatal (31.86), Gopiballavpur II (29.31) and Chandrakona-II (25.44) and Binpur I (25.23) and Keshpur (25.14).

¾

Binpur-II recorded the highest percentage of ST population (42.11) followed by Nayagram (39.85), Gopiballavpur I (34.67), Keshiary ( 33.61) and Binpur I (29.33).

¾

Daspur-II block recorded the highest percentage of general caste population (87.12) in 2001 followed by Mohanpur (84.73), Dantan II (84.45), Pingla ( 82.22) and Sabong (80.34), DaspurI (72.80) and Garhbeta III (70.30), the lowest being registered in Nayagram (41.79).

¾

Keshpur block has the highest percentage of muslim population to total population (26.64) followed by Medinipur Sadar ( 23.66). (Table 2.12).

45

Regional Profile of Paschim Medinipur District

Table 2.12 Percentage of Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe and General Caste Population, 2001 Block

SC %

ST%

GC %

Muslim%

Total%

14.89

100

Chandrakona - I

35.04

4.37

60.59

Chandrakona - II

25.44

3.64

70.92

Daspur - I

24.20

3.00

72.80

Daspur - II

12.69

0.19

87.12

Ghatal

31.86

1.70

66.44

9.24

100

Binpur - I

25.23

29.33

45.44

2.16

100

Binpur - II

14.65

42.11

43.24

Gopiballavpur - I

22.06

34.67

43.27

Gopiballavpur - II

29.31

23.72

46.97

Jamboni

15.44

29.77

54.79

6.31

100

Jhargram

13.17

23.05

63.78

3.27

100

Nayagram

18.36

39.85

41.79

1.07

100

Sankrail

16.94

24.58

58.48

1.56

100

Dantan - I

16.15

16.11

67.74

7.56

100

Dantan - II

8.93

6.62

84.45

Debra

12.15

19.55

68.30

9.53

100

Keshiary

21.20

33.61

45.19

1.29

100

Kharagpur - I

16.80

15.74

67.46

9.07

100

Kharagpur - II

17.47

25.29

57.24

Mohanpur

10.28

4.99

84.73

Narayangarh

18.17

21.57

60.26

Pingla

8.22

9.55

82.23

12.38

100

Sabong

13.58

6.08

80.34

5.31

100

Garhbeta - I

22.05

8.12

69.83

Garhbeta - II

23.62

20.64

55.74

Garhbeta - III

15.56

14.14

70.30

Keshpur

25.14

5.90

68.96

26.64

100

Medinipur

18.76

18.77

62.47

23.66

100

Salboni

16.88

17.91

65.21

2.84

100

Total:

18.05

14.87

67.08

11.33

100

Note: Total percentage is excluding Muslim Population Source: Census of India 2001

46

100 6.22

100 100

100 0.69

100 100

100

100 9.24

100 100

100 16.96

100 100

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

The percentage of SC and ST population and that of minority to total population across the district has got relevance to human development level. ¾

Daspur-II registered the highest literacy rate followed by Pingla and Sabang, the lowest being experienced by Nayagram in 2001. Gender gap in literacy (i.e, the difference between male and female literacy rates) increased during 1981 to 1991 in most of the blocks, but during the next decade i.e, during 1991 to 2001 the gap diminished almost in all blocks.

¾

During 2001 the highest gender gap in Literacy was experienced by Nayagram (30 %) followed by Binpur-II (29.6 %), the lowest being recorded by Daspur-II (18.5 %).

¾

Of the municipal towns the highest literacy rate was recorded by Ghatal followed by Jhargram, the lowest being registered by Chandrakona and Khirpai in 2001.

¾

In 2001 Sabang block registered the highest literacy rate among the SC population and Jamboni recorded the highest literacy among ST population in 2001, the lowest being registered by Daspur-I.

A summing up To sum up, 29 blocks of the district present differential natural resources and demographic indicators. The infrastructural indicators and their growth also vary substantially across blocks. These factors explain largely the differential human development scenario of the district across its blocks. The percentage of predominant laterite soil and SC and ST population are seen to be negatively and significantly correlated while road length per sq. km. and percentage of villages electrified are positively and significantly associated with the level of human development. This suggests the development of infrastructures like road and electricity and also provision of full time employment to marginal workers for the improvement of the human development across the district.

47

Regional Profile of Paschim Medinipur District

48

Education

50

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Chapter - III Status of Education 3.1 Introduction Education plays a crucial role in human development. It helps the human beings achieving one of the most important aspects of human life. Achievement of much desired knowledge is important not only for its own sake; it also acts as an instrument for the attainment of a decent standard of living and an indirect instrument for the attainment of a long and healthy life. It is very difficult to capture the achievement of knowledge by a single variable. It can be reflected by a number of partial achievements or ends like enrolment ratio, drop out rate (inversely), literacy rate, adult literacy rate, female literacy rate, literacy rate of the weaker sections etc. and a number of instruments or means like availability and access to schools, teacher-student ratio, basic amenities available in the schools, etc. A large number of variables, means and ends, may be identified to explain the present status of achievement of knowledge of a society. However, it is very difficult to identify the relative importance of the variables and to arrive at a combined indicator reflecting the development in the present aspect of human life. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), in its Human Development Reports (HDR), considers the combined primary and secondary enrolment ratio as the simple indicator of educational achievement of the children in the school going age and the simple adult literacy rate as the indicator of educational achievement of the adults. It combines the indexes of these two indicators through a weighted average with weight to combined primary and secondary enrolment ratio and weight to adult literacy. In the National Human Development Report of India (2003) only the general literacy rate was used for the calculation of educational attainment index and in the Human Development Report of West Bengal (2004) two indicators, viz., the general literacy rate and the percentage of children in the age group 6 to 14 years attending school were used for the calculation of educational attainment index by attaching weight to literacy rate index and weight to attendance index. Thus, though status of education of the people in any region can be measured by a number of variables, only those variables which measure the attainment of knowledge are used in the construction of Human Development Index. 3.2 Indicators of Development in Education Development in Education of the people in any region can be viewed by a large number of variables and they can be classified as instruments and outcomes or achievements, and also as flows and stocks (assets). National University of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA), New Delhi, through its District Information System for Education (DISE) and the Government of India (MHRD, Department of School Education and Literacy) have identified as much as 23 indicators for the calculation of Educational Development Index (EDI) separately for Primary and Upper Primary levels of education and also a composite index for the entire Elementary education exclusively based on the DISE data.

51

Education

Variables used in computing Educational Development Index (EDI) are identified under four components as mentioned below. As mentioned earlier, some of these variables act as instruments and others are outcome, some are flows and some are stocks: I.

II.

III.

IV.

Variables used under the component ACCESS are O

Percentage of Habitations not Served

O

Availability of Schools per 1000 Child Population

O

Ratio of Primary to Upper Primary Schools/Sections (only at Upper Primary stage)

Variables used under the component INFRASTRUCTURE are O

Average Student-Classroom Ratio

O

Schools with Student Classroom Ratio 60

O

School with Drinking Water facility

O

School with Common Toilet

O

Schools with Girl's Toilet

Variables used under the component TEACHERS' SUPPORT are O

Percentage of Female Teachers

O

Pupil-Teacher Ratio

O

School with Pupil-Teacher Ratio 60

O

Single-Teacher Schools (in schools with more than 15 students)

O

Percentage of Schools with 3 teachers

O

Teachers without Professional Qualification

Variables used under the component OUTCOMES are O O

O

Gross Enrolment Ratio - Overall Participation of Scheduled Castes Children: Percentage SC Population (2001 Census) - Percentage SC Enrolment Participation of Scheduled Tribes Children: Percentage ST Population (2001 Census) - Percentage ST Enrolment.

O

Gender Parity Index in Enrolment

O

Repetition Rate

O

Drop-out Rate

O

Ratio of Exit Class over Class I Enrolment (only at Primary stage)

O

Percentage of Passed Children to Total Enrolment

O

Percentage of Appeared Children passing with 60 per cent and more marks

52

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

3.3 Status of Education General Literacy: Medinipur district is one of the developed districts of West Bengal in education,. According to the 2001 census the literacy rate in Medinipur district was 75.2% just after Kolkata, North 24 Parganas, Howrah and Hooghly. The said rate for Paschim Medinipur district was slightly low at 70.4%. Literacy rates for the district for rural and urban areas and for male and female population are given in Table 3.1. Table 3.1 Literacy Rates in Paschim Medinipur District, 2001 Subdivison

Literacy Rate Total

Male Literacy Rate

Female Literacy Rate

Ghatal

75.10

64.80

60.20

Jhargram

63.50

76.70

Kharagpur

73.50

Medinipur Sadar District

Gender Gap

Rural Literacy Rate

Urban Literacy Rate

Rural Male Literacy Rate

Rural Female Literacy Rate

Urban Male Literacy Rate

Urban Female Literacy Rate

24.60

74.00

81.90

84.10

64.00

89.60

73.80

49.70

27.00

62.20

84.80

75.80

48.10

90.90

78.40

83.90

62.60

21.30

72.10

81.30

83.10

60.60

87.90

74.20

67.50

78.10

56.30

21.80

64.90

84.10

64.90

52.80

89.00

79.00

70.40

81.30

59.10

22.20

68.70

82.40

68.70

56.80

88.70

75.70

Source : Census-2001, Paschim Medinipur

Though the overall literacy rate of the district is above 70% the picture is slightly gloomy in western part of the district i.e. Jhargram Sub-division and certain parts of Medinipur Sadar Sub-division. These areas are mainly dominated by scheduled tribes and primitive tribe groups who remain economically and educationally backward for over the years. Two blocks of Jhargram Sub-division viz. Nayagram and Gopiballavpur-I are considered as Educationally Backward Block (EBB) on the basis of its low female literacy percentage. It may be mentioned here that apart from these two declared EBBs there are some more blocks which are very close to these EBBs by character. Female education is enough linked with the human development and it is a strong predictor of socioeconomic, demographic and health status of a region. The simplest indicator to measure it is obviously the female literacy rate. Higher the value of female literacy rate better is the district, i.e. higher the Index value. Table 3.2 depicts the block wise literacy rate of total population as well as that of underprivileged sections (i.e. female, SC & ST population). Still there are six blocks with female literacy percentage below 50% and fourteen more blocks lie within the range of 51-60% in respect of female literacy rate. The figures are not at all satisfactory. Now the focus of the district administration is put on increasing the female literacy rate by 2011. Initiatives are being taken to promote adult literacy specially among women in combination with skill training and income generating activities. It is primarily aimed to eradicate illiteracy among women self help group members. The goal is to reach the target of female literacy to about 70% and the total literacy rate to be hiked by at least 10%. It demands the involvement of all privileged sections. Political will indeed will play a key role in this aspect.

53

Education

Districtwise survey on Literacy in West Bengal, 2008-09 by ADVANCED SURVEY RESEARCH CENTRE - A brief report The survey was done to examine how well the training is being imparted to the learners in the centres for 'Continuing Education Programme' (CEP) and 'Literacy Extension Programmes' (LEP). Four municipalities and four blocks were randomly selected in each district for survey. 100 learners in urban and 100 in rural centres were examined through a designed test questions on language (68 marks) and arithmetic (36 marks). Gradation was as follows:Excellent : total score in between 94-104; Good : total score in between 68-94 ; Just literate : total score in between 48-68; Rather illiterate : < 26 in language & < 20 in arithmetic Findings:Literacy rate in aggregate

NSSO (2004-05)

ASRC

CEP/CLP-wise (2008)

ASRC household-wise (only for 7-65 yrs.) (2008)

Female

58.13

33.72

79.78

Male

73.61

48.73

78.74

Total

65.98

43.04

79.13

Suggestions of ASRC:- To bring the local people to the centres continuous persuasion and encouragement is needed. Efforts should be made to improve the local lighting facilities to the extent possible.

54

55

Sabong

Garhbeta-I

Garhbeta-II Garhbeta-III

Keshpur

23

24

25 26

27

78.90

78.70 75.90

74.90

89.30

81.70 88.50

54.00 54.00

53.00

67.30

59.00 68.40

64.00

66.95

66.35 64.95

63.95

78.30

70.35 78.45

74.95

66.45 67.20

59.75 64.75

Narayangarh Pingla

21 22

85.90

55.20 54.70 55.50

73.40 73.00

66.25

65.65

64.30 55.60

66.75

56.45 63.30

62.05

61.50

79.95 73.40

28 Medinipur 71.70 47.80 29 Salboni 77.30 52.20 Source : Census-2001, Paschim Medinipur

Mohanpur

20

78.70

78.20 78.90

62.70 62.10

53.70

52.90

51.70 40.60

53.30

42.40 49.60

47.60

46.70

70.70 62.10

66.70

Khargrapur-I Khargrapur-II

84.10 83.90

78.80

78.40

76.90 70.60

80.20

70.50 77.00

76.50

76.30

89.20 84.70

74.80

54.50

Keshiary

Sankrail

13

18 19

Jhargram Nayagram

11 12

17

Jamboni

10

Dantan-II Debra

Gopiballavpur-I Gopiballavpur-II

8 9

15 16

Binpur-II

7

Dantan-I

Binpur-I

6

14

Daspur-II Ghatal

64.50

23.90 25.10

24.40

24.70 21.90

21.90

22.00

22.70 20.10

21.90

23.50 23.40

23.50

21.40 21.80

25.10

25.50

25.20 30.00

26.90

28.10 27.40

28.90

29.60

18.50 22.60

20.60

54.26 33.18

33.98

52.57 54.10

52.38

73.52

68.38 69.09

67.53

62.55 60.46

63.39

68.27 65.34

63.10

57.44

54.64 53.09

63.83

51.15 56.85

63.21

54.23

61.45 62.12

62.20

4 5

85.10

19.80 20.00

Daspur-I

70.40 66.30

3

60.50 56.30

GAP 55.16 52.05

80.30 76.30

TOTAL

Chandrakona-I Chandrakona-II

FEMALE

1 2

MALE MALE

BLOCK

SL NO

29.15 24.53

27.41

29.48 32.91

28.94

49.64

45.86 30.03

42.12

38.16 36.90

41.10

46.19 41.17

38.50

32.62

30.65 27.30

37.64

24.64 28.91

35.38

26.07

42.28 36.93

35.13

32.28 29.08

41.71 28.86

30.70

41.03 43.51

40.66

61.58

57.12 49.56

54.83

50.36 48.68

52.25

57.23 53.26

50.80

45.03

42.65 40.20

50.74

37.90 42.88

49.30

40.15

51.87 49.53

48.67

43.72 40.57

SC % FEMALETOTAL

25.11 24.53

27.41

23.09 21.19

23.44

23.88

22.52 39.06

25.41

24.39 23.56

22.29

22.08 24.17

24.60

24.82

23.99 25.79

26.19

26.51 27.94

27.83

28.16

19.17 25.19

27.07

22.88 22.97

GAP

44.50 54.65

46.36

57.54 49.65

48.17

54.02

49.52 57.94

41.37

51.83 50.59

55.77

68.41 53.07

42.04

56.38

52.77 44.46

59.51

47.31 54.99

58.58

59.71

41.88 44.17

38.19

44.05 44.92

MALE

20.87 26.50

17.64

30.42 22.25

21.48

26.13

23.78 29.09

14.47

25.99 23.72

29.31

19.40 25.45

16.63

29.52

25.93 21.10

30.72

19.44 25.99

31.57

31.06

23.41 19.85

16.40

21.04 19.70

32.69 40.58

32.00

43.98 35.95

34.83

40.08

36.65 43.52

27.92

38.91 37.16

42.54

43.91 39.26

29.34

42.95

39.35 32.78

45.12

33.38 40.49

45.08

45.39

32.65 32.01

27.30

32.55 32.31

ST % FEMALE TOTAL

Table 3.2 Block wise literacy percentage highlighting the literacy rate of underprivileged sections GAP

23.63 28.15

28.72

27.12 27.40

26.69

27.89

25.74 28.85

26.90

25.84 26.87

26.46

49.01 27.62

25.41

26.86

26.84 23.36

28.79

27.87 29.00

27.01

28.65

18.47 24.32

20.79

23.01 25.22

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Education

Learners, Neo-literates participating the district-level meeting on International Literacy Day, 2007

Rally on International Literacy Day, 2007

A Neo-literate addressing the audience on International Literacy Day, 2008

Rally on International Literacy Day, 2008

Dignitaries attending the Residential Workshop on CEP & PRI

Participants at the Residential Workshop on CEP & PRI

The right to education is a fundamental human right. States have an obligation to pursue the aim of education for all. The Indian Constitution also gives stress on the issue as "Any section of the citizens residing in the territory of India or any part thereof having a distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have the right to conserve the same."

56

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

In this backdrop Government of India has notified on 27th August, 2009 THE RIGHT OF CHILDREN TO FREE AND COMPULSORY EDUCATION ACT, 2009, an Act to provide for free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years. Salient points of Right to Education Act, 2009

9 9 9 9

Free and compulsory education for every child of 6-14 years.

9 9

Availability of a neighbourhood school.

9

Special training facility for children above 6 years who have not admitted in time or who have not completed elementary education even after 14 years.

9 9 9 9

Good quality education conforming to the standards.

9 9 9 9

Prohibition of holding back and expulsion.

No fee/ charges/ expenses for completing the elementary education. Compulsory admission, attendance and completion of education up to standard VIII. Child belonging to weaker section and disadvantaged groups not to be discriminated and prevented from pursuing and completing elementary education on any grounds. Sufficient infrastructure including school building, teaching staff, library and learning equipment including play materials, games and sports equipment.

Timely prescribing of curriculam and courses of study. Training facility for teachers. No capitation fee and screening procedure for admission. Prohibition of physical and mental harassment to child Appropriate Pupil-Teacher ratio to be maintained. Certificate to be awarded to every child after completion of elementary education. Sarva Siksha Avijan was launched in 2001(turned as Sarva Siksha Mission, since 2008-09) in view of similar objectives of universalisation of elementary education (UEE). Though SSA/SSM has no obligatory power as it remains embedded within an Act it works with an aim of: O

O

Universal Retention

O

Universal Achievement

O

57

Universal Enrolment (Primary schooling for 5+ to 8+ and upper primary schooling for 9+ to 13+ age group of children)

Bridging up all types of gender and social gaps in schools.

Education

After a lapse of nine years we may have a look on what SSA/SSM could do to achieve its goal in the district of Paschim Medinipur in terms of different variables counted for attaining Educational Development Index (EDI). Variable I : ACCESS Table 3.3 Different types of schools in the district (Govt. or Govt. aided) (Number)

Sl. No

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

Name of Block / Municipality

Binpur - I Binpur - II Chandrakona - I Chandrakona - II Dantan - I Dantan - II Daspur - I Daspur - II Debra Garhbeta - I Garhbeta - II Garhbeta -III Ghatal Gopiballavpur - I Gopiballavpur - II Jamboni Jhargram Keshiary Keshpur Kharagpur -I Kharagpur - II Medinipur Mohanpur Narayangarh Nayagram Pingla Sabong Salboni Sankrail Chandrakona MN Ghatal MN Jhargram MN Kharagpur MN Kharar MN Khirpai MN Midnapore MN Ramjibanpur MN TOTAL

Primary

Pry. with Up. Pry.

I - IV/V

I - VIII

Pry. with Up. Pry. And Secondary / H.S. I - X/XII

137 190 116 110 108 92 129 162 206 177 166 122 168 131 135 113 199 122 247 98 142 117 81 233 164 145 230 168 151 19 37 24 103 13 13 84 18 4670

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 12

0 6 0 2 2 3 2 1 3 4 0 0 3 1 2 0 1 3 3 0 4 1 0 2 3 0 3 1 1 0 0 3 4 0 0 2 0 60

Source DISE, 2008-2009, Paschim Medinipur

58

Up. Pry. Only VVIII 1 2 5 4 1 0 8 9 3 3 4 3 5 0 2 5 2 0 4 0 3 2 0 2 3 4 12 3 2 3 1 0 1 0 0 2 0 99

Up. Pry. With Secondary/ H.S. V - X/XII 15 14 19 9 16 16 20 25 30 15 14 14 25 11 13 10 18 14 34 10 18 11 14 32 14 25 33 18 11 2 4 5 23 2 2 20 2 578

Total Upper Primary

16 22 24 16 19 19 30 36 38 22 18 17 33 12 17 16 21 17 41 10 26 14 14 36 20 29 48 25 14 5 5 8 31 2 2 24 2 749

Total Schools

153 212 140 126 127 111 159 198 244 199 184 139 201 143 152 129 220 139 288 108 168 131 95 269 184 174 278 193 165 24 42 32 134 15 15 108 20 5419

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Table 3.4 Ratio of Primary to Upper Primary School (as on 31.10.09)

Sl. No. 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

Block/MN

Primary

2 3 Binpur - I 137 Binpur - II 190 Chandrakona - I 116 Chandrakona - II 110 Dantan - I 108 Dantan - II 92 Daspur - I 129 Daspur - II 162 Debra 206 Garhbeta - I 177 Garhbeta - II 166 Garhbeta -III 122 Ghatal 168 Gopiballavpur - I 131 Gopiballavpur - II 135 Jamboni 113 Jhargram 199 Keshiary 122 Keshpur 247 Kharagpur -I 98 Kharagpur - II 142 Medinipur 117 Mohanpur 81 Narayangarh 233 Nayagram 164 Pingla 145 Sabong 230 Salboni 168 Sankrail 151 Chandrakona MN 19 Ghatal MN 37 Jhargram MN 24 Kharagpur MN 103 Kharar MN 13 Khirpai MN 13 Midnapore MN 84 Ramjibanpur MN 18 TOTAL 4670 Source: DISE, 2008-09, Paschim Medinipur

Number of Schools New Upper Setup Primary Upper Primary 4 5 16 22 22 18 24 6 16 4 19 9 19 6 30 3 36 1 38 2 22 13 18 4 17 2 33 2 12 13 17 8 16 10 21 23 17 2 41 10 10 3 26 3 14 14 14 5 36 17 20 21 29 2 48 7 25 7 14 20 5 0 5 0 8 0 31 0 2 0 2 1 24 0 2 0 749 258

Total School 6 175 230 146 130 136 117 162 199 246 212 188 141 203 156 160 139 243 141 298 111 171 145 100 286 205 176 285 200 185 24 42 32 134 15 16 108 20 5677

Primary: Upper Primary 7 3.61 4.75 3.87 5.50 3.86 3.68 3.91 4.38 5.15 5.06 7.55 6.42 4.80 5.24 5.40 4.35 4.52 6.42 4.84 7.54 4.90 4.18 4.26 4.40 4.00 4.68 4.18 5.25 4.44 3.80 7.40 3.00 3.32 6.50 4.33 3.50 9.00 4.64

Additional New Up. Pry. Required 8 8 23 9 17 8 6 10 17 29 24 33 22 21 19 20 12 22 22 31 20 18 11 8 25 14 17 22 24 16 1 7 0 3 2 1 4 4 550

Table 3.4 describes the accessibility rate on the basis of presently available schools in the district. Figures in column 5 reflect the number of recently recognised Upper Primary Schools which have started or going to be started within 2009-10. To keep the optimum ratio of Upper Primary to Primary at 1:3 for this district further requirement of new Upper Primary Schools is calculated at column 8. It shows that

59

Education

keeping other variables constant 29 nos. schools are required in Debra Block. But the scenario may change if number of Primary schools be increased in future in other areas to keep conformity with the condition of availability of neighbourhood schools for every child according to the Right to Education Act, 2009. Variable II : INFRASTRUCTURE Table 3.5 Types of School Buildings in the district Primary Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

Name of Block/Municipality Binpur - I Binpur - II Chandrakona - I Chandrakona - II Dantan - I Dantan - II Daspur - I Daspur - II Debra Garhbeta - I Garhbeta - II Garhbeta -III Ghatal Gopiballavpur - I Gopiballavpur - II Jamboni Jhargram Keshiary Keshpur Kharagpur -I Kharagpur - II Medinipur Mohanpur Narayangarh Nayagram Pingla Sabong Salboni Sankrail Chandrakona MN Ghatal MN Jhargram MN Kharagpur MN Kharar MN Khirpai MN Midnapore MN Ramjibanpur MN TOTAL

Total School

Pucca

Upper Primary

Partially Kucha Multiple Total Pucca Type School

Pucca

Partially Kucha Multiple Pucca Type

137 190 116 110 108 92 129 162 206 177 166 122 168 131 135 113 199 122 247 98 142 117 81 233 164 145 230 168 151 19 37 24 103 13 13 84 18

67 68 37 38 52 17 48 59 76 102 69 21 100 106 114 89 149 51 87 58 34 68 39 50 74 22 44 82 113 13 27 22 84 9 7 64 6

15 32 21 21 26 49 45 70 54 10 21 49 21 3 5 3 8 28 66 6 38 12 10 82 28 64 119 11 12 3 7 0 13 1 0 12 2

1 14 0 1 10 3 0 1 6 3 2 0 2 0 2 4 5 3 1 0 11 1 1 16 6 16 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1

54 76 58 50 20 23 36 32 70 62 74 52 45 22 14 17 37 40 93 34 59 36 31 85 56 43 65 74 26 3 3 2 6 3 6 4 9

16 22 24 16 19 19 30 36 38 22 18 17 33 12 17 16 21 17 41 10 26 14 14 36 20 29 48 25 14 5 5 8 31 2 2 24 2

11 9 7 6 11 6 13 22 21 14 8 10 16 9 7 7 10 10 17 2 11 12 5 15 11 11 18 16 8 4 3 8 24 1 1 21 1

0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

5 13 17 10 7 12 15 14 17 8 10 7 17 3 10 9 11 7 24 8 15 2 9 20 9 16 28 9 6 1 2 0 7 1 1 3 1

4670

2166

967

117

1420

749

386

8

1

354

Source:DISE, 2008-2009, Paschim Medinipur

60

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

As good infrastructure is a factor for creating good environment of learning in the classroom, it attracts each year a large amount of SSM fund which are utilized with a greater care. Efforts are being taken to abolish all kutcha (mud built) classrooms in phases. Type of Upper Primary School Building

Type of Primary School Building

Pucca

Pucca 30.41% 46.38%

2.51%

Partially Pucca Kuncha

51.54%

Multiple Type

20.71%

Partially Pucca

47.26%

Multiple Type

0.13% 1.07%

Fig 3.1

Kuncha

Fig. 3.2

Upper Primary school buildings are more or less in good condition though number of classrooms are inadequate in respect to number of students. Table 3.6 & 3.7 will focus on other accessibilities which play a vital role in EDI ranking. In respect of SSR and SCR position of the district is more or less good. Student – Class room Ratio

Student – Class room Ratio

Less than 30%

Less than 55%

30% to 35%

50% to 55%

More than 35%

More than 55%

Fig.3.3. SCR for Primary Schools

Fig.3.4. SCR for Upper Primary Schools

Primary School building at Nayagram

High school building at Nayagram.

61

Education

Table 3.6

SSR & SCR of Primary and Upper Primary Schools

Section

No. of schools

Total enrolment

SchoolStudent ratio

Section

No. of classrooms

Total enrolment

StudentClassroom ratio

Primary

4670

395399

84,67

Primary

12797

395399

30,90

Upper Primary

749

388364

518,51

Upper Primary

8003

388364

48.53

Source:DISE, 2008-2009, Paschim Medinipur

Figures below show the availability of classrooms in Primary and Upper Primary schools. If separate classrooms are not provided for separate standards or units then quality education should not be expected. The position is to be improved for our district.

Fig.3.5

Fig.3.6

Classroom availability in rimary Schools

Classroom availability in Upper Primary Schools

Primary school at Salboni

High school at Salboni

62

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Table 3.7 Percentage of schools having Sanitation, Drinking Water and other Infrastructural facilities in Paschim Medinipur District Girls Toilet

Drinking Water

Blackboard

Library

Electricity

Boundary wall

Play ground

Kitchen Shed

Computer

Primary

87.79

13.10

92.08

100

43.60

8.46

52.70 20.73

30.99

68.89

3.10

Upper Primary

62.75

93.06

96.80

100

88.38

75.97

60.48 52.74

78.37

34.31

20.83

Ramp

Common Toilet

Section

Source: DISE, 2008-09, Paschim Medinipur

From the point of hygiene, security, mental growth of the student and providing other comforts there are many a thing left to do to create the good environment for quality education. Variable III : TEACHERS' SUPPORT Not only the environment, quality education depends mainly on quality teaching. Adequate and well trained teachers can percolate knowledge to students properly, can take care of their mental ability, nurture good habits in them. Teachers' support is very much essential to nourish their inherent talents as well to grow them up as a good human being. Let us have a look on the situation presently prevails in the district as per DISE 2008-09. Pupil – Teacher Ratio

Pupil – Teacher Ratio

Less than 30%

Less than 40%

30% to 33%

40% to 60%

More than 33%

More than 60%

Fig. 3.7

Fig. 3.8

PTR for Primary Schools (Avg.30.25%)

PTR for Upper Primary Schools (Avg.56.49%)

As the Right to Education Act, 2009 calls for ensuring PTR at 40 in case of Primary section and that at 35 in case of Upper Primary section there remains a huge gap at the moment which is to be covered up. For this reason Para Teachers have come in picture to meet up the gap temporarily.

63

Education

Sex wise Upper Primary Teacher Position

Sex wise Primary Teacher Position

23.82%

28.48% %of Male

%of Male %of Female

%of Female 71.52%

76.18%

Fig.3.9

Fig. 3.10

Weightage is given also on availability of female teachers in calculating EDI. It is quite natural to get more soft, sympathetic and motherly behaviour from female teachers which may help the students to express views freely without any fear, hesitation, trauma and anxiety. Hence engagement of more female teachers may do better for creating a good learning environment. Variable IV: OUTCOMES To reach the goal of universal elementary education SSM has taken initiatives for creating a student friendly teaching-learning environment in all government or government aided institutions up to standard VIII by way of giving support through increasing accessibility, infrastructure building and preparing human resources. No doubt the students are achieving better education than before. Table 3.8 Yearwise Enrolment Overview Enrolment

Total Enrolment

DISE - 2007

DISE - 2008

804104

800263

797887

783763

Pry. Enrolment

429882

425001

411838

394025

Up. Pry. Enrolment

374222

375262

386049

389738

Boys

414936

411377

408571

400232

51.60

51.41

51.21

51.07

389168

388886

389316

383531

48.40

48.59

48.79

48.93

460292

447895

440061

427075

57.24

55.97

55.15

54.49

233692

227016

221022

214665

% of Boys % of Girls General % of General Boys % of Boys Girls % of Girls SC

SC

DISE - 2006

Total Enrolment

Girls

General

DISE - 2005

29.06

28.37

27.70

27.39

226600

220879

219039

212410

28.18

27.60

27.45

27.10

173158

174268

172817

174777

% of SC

21.53

21.78

21.66

22.30

Boys

90281

90579

89829

90154

% of Boys

11.23

11.32

11.26

11.50

Girls

82877

83689

82988

84623

% of Girls

10.31

10.46

10.40

10.80

64

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Enrolment

DISE - 2005

ST

ST

113471

114514

112044

14.11

14.43

14.35

14.30

61298

60822

59074

OBC % of OBC Boys % of Boys Girls % of Girls

7.59

7.66

7.62

7.54

52437

54157

53692

52970

6.52

6.77

6.73

6.76

57183

62645

70495

69867

7.11

7.83

8.84

8.91

29929

32484

36898

36339

3.72

4.06

4.62

4.64

27254

30161

33597

33528

3.39

MINORITY % of MINORITY Boys

Data Not Not Available Available

% of Boys Girls % of Girls

PTR

115455

61034

% of Girls

Total Teacher

DISE - 2008

% of ST

Girls

MINORITY

DISE - 2007

Boys % of Boys

OBC

DISE - 2006

3.77

4.21

4.28

78412

71297

79945

9.80

8.94

10.20

37482

33777

38513

4.68

4.23

4.91

40930

37520

41432

5.11

4.70

5.29

Total Teacher

16596

18405

18844

19944

Pry. Teacher

11428

12597

12823

13069

Upper Pry. Teacher

5168

5808

6021

6875

Male

13357

14473

14536

14889

% of Male

80.48

78.64

77.14

74.65

Female

3239

3932

4308

5077

% of Female

19.52

21.36

22.86

25.46

Over All PTR

48.45

43.48

42.34

39.25

Primary PTR

37.62

33.74

32.12

30.15

Upper Primary PTR

72.41

64.61

64.12

56.69

Source: DISE - 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, Paschim Medinipur

Does the efforts so made give in any positive result in case of enrolment of children from all community? To have the answer we may analyze the DISE 2008-09 data from Table 3.8 and Fig.3.11 to 3.20. Graphical presentation on changed scenario in respect of total enrolment, enrolment of SC, ST,OBC and minority children, teacher's strength and pupil-teacher ratio in four consecutive years. Total Enrolment 810000 805000 800000 795000 790000 785000 780000 775000 770000

82000 80000 78000 76000 74000 72000 70000 68000 66000

Total Enrolment

1

2

3

4

Series2

1

Fig.3.11

2

3

Fig.3.12

65

Education

Fig.3.13

Fig.3.14

SC 175000 174500 174000 173500 173000 172500 172000 171500

SC

1

2

3

4

Fig.3.15

Fig.3.16

OBC

80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0

OBC

1

2

3

4

Fig 3.17

Fig 3.18

Fig 3.19

Fig 3.20

66

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

If we consider the total SC and ST population percentage of the district it corroborates with the enrolment ratio of SC and ST children in the normal schooling system. Fig.3.19 and 3.20 also supports the issue. The upward trend of the curves in Fig. 3.16, 3.17 & 3.18 reveals that recruitment of teachers has lowered down the PTR which is a positive sign of better environment of education. But it is a matter of anxiety when we look at the fig.3.11 which reflects the decreasing tendency of gross enrolment. The causes behind may be the decreasing growth Table 3.9 Total No. of Learners in SSK and MSK rate of population which has no doubt a (as on 13.11.09) positive impact on the society. Another reason may be establishment of non formal education Item No. of Learners centres lijke Sishu Siksha Kendra (SSK) and Madhyamik Siksha Kendra (MSK) in vicinity Institution SC ST Others Total of the child's residence where also SSK 2459 91754 96037 156303 344094 elementary education be provided following MSK 229 10935 8308 22798 42041 the same syllabus of the State Government. These SSKs and MSKs are very much attracting the rural child population in school going stage. Study suggests that quality of learning is better in SSKs and MSKs. Generally the enrolment figures of SSKs & MSKs were not being captured in DISE conducted by SSM. If that be taken into account the picture may slightly change. Table 3.10 Sl

Name of Block/

No

Municipality

Gender Parity Index (Primary & Upper Primary) Primary

Upper Primary

Boys

Girls

Total

GPI

Rank

Boys

Girls

Total

GPI

Rank

1

Binpur - I

6071

5910

11981

0.97

14

5273

4635

9908

0.88

26

2

Binpur - II

6328

6219

12547

0.98

11

5221

4696

9917

0.90

23

3

Chandrakona - I

4854

4557

9411

0.94

32

4911

5059

9970

1.03

7

4

Chandrakona - II

4604

4617

9221

1.00

6

4304

4218

8522

0.98

12

5

Dantan - I

4702

4517

9219

0.96

26

5849

5093

10942

0.87

29

6

Dantan - II

5151

4972

10123

0.97

19

5240

4824

10064

0.92

19

7

Daspur - I

6704

6644

13348

0.99

7

7519

7452

14971

0.99

9

8

Daspur - II

7641

7424

15065

0.97

16

8338

9837

18175

1.18

3

9

Debra

8171

7791

15962

0.95

28

8629

8527

17156

0.99

10

10

Garhbeta - I7949

7643

15592

0.96

24

7648

7457

15105

0.98

14

11

Garhbeta - II

5644

5551

11195

0.98

10

4694

4445

9139

0.95

15

12

Garhbeta -III

6078

5968

12046

0.98

12

5125

5006

10131

0.98

13

13

Ghatal

7857

7544

15401

0.96

27

6275

7147

13422

1.14

4

14

Gopiballavpur - I

3708

3472

7180

0.94

33

3617

3077

6694

0.85

34

15

Gopiballavpur - II

3936

3737

7673

0.95

30

4216

3697

7913

0.88

28

16

Jamboni

4387

3992

8379

0.91

37

3590

3109

6699

0.87

30

17

Jhargram

6340

5848

12188

0.92

36

5672

5176

10848

0.91

21

67

Education

Sl

Name of Block/

No

Municipality

Primary

Upper Primary

Boys

Girls

Total

GPI

Rank

Boys

Girls

Total

GPI

Rank

18

Keshiary

5138

4938

10076

0.96

25

5888

4926

10814

0.84

35

19

Keshpur

12556

11919

24475

0.95

31

11347 12183

23530

1.07

5

20

Kharagpur -I

5072

5132

10204

1.01

5

3690

3284

6974

0.89

24

21

Kharagpur - II

5562

5394

10956

0.97

17

6129

5622

11751

0.92

20

22

Medinipur

7120

6783

13903

0.95

29

5247

4070

9317

0.78

37

23

Mohanpur

3848

3811

7659

0.99

9

4262

3333

7595

0.78

36

24

Narayangarh

9032

8686

17718

0.96

23

11219

9580

20799

0.85

33

25

Nayagram

5369

4995

10364

0.93

34

4772

4085

8857

0.86

32

26

Pingla

7140

6988

14128

0.98

13

8549

7502

16051

0.88

27

27

Sabong

12544

12146

24690

0.97

18

10964 10186

21150

0.93

16

28

Salboni

6100

5872

11972

0.96

22

7287

6747

14034

0.93

17

29

Sankrail

4049

4012

8061

0.99

8

4408

3797

8205

0.86

31

30

Chandrakona MN

830

769

1599

0.93

35

1092

1008

2100

0.92

18

31

Ghatal MN

1526

1471

2997

0.96

20

1687

1491

3178

0.88

25

32

Jhargram MN

1717

1904

3621

1.11

2

2188

2303

4491

1.05

6

33

Kharagpur MN

6626

7026

13652

1.06

4

7733

7638

15371

0.99

11

34

Kharar MN363

385

748

1.06

3

426

533

959

1.25

1

35

Khirpai MN

641

624

1265

0.97

15

464

569

1033

1.23

2

36

Midnapore MN

4472

4981

9453

1.11

1

5465

5615

11080

1.03

8

37

Ramjibanpur MN

676

651

1327

0.96

21

788

711

1499

0.90

22

TOTAL

200506 194893 395399

0.97

199726 188638 388364

0.94

Source: DISE 2008-2009, Paschim Medinipur

Another point of consideration is the Gender Parity Index(GPI) in enrolment. In our district it shows consistent increase in the share of girls enrolment to total enrolment in both primary and upper primary section. In fact through community mobilization, gender sensitization of teachers, other community stakeholders and active involvement of Mother Teacher Association(MTA) members, girls are getting more access to education. According to DISE 2008-09 GPI has got a satisfactory positioning our district (Table 3.10). Examination Result (Primary & Upper Primary)

94.20

36.12

68

2290 1659

% Passed With More Than 60% Marks

921

% of Passed

2402

Number Passed

% Passed With More Than 60% Marks

2550

Number Appeared

% of Passed

Binpur - I

Pass with More Than 60% Marks

1

Number Passed

Sl Name of No Block/Municipality

Upper Primary

Number Appeared

Primary

Pass with More Than 60% Marks

Table 3.11

231

72.45

10.09

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

% of Passed

% Passed With More Than 60% Marks

Pass with More Than 60% Marks

% of Passed

% Passed With More Than 60% Marks

Binpur - II

2411

2267

1211

94.03

50.23

1506 1187

223

78.82

14.81

3

Chandrakona - I

2445

2385

1060

97.55

43.35

1946 1604

352

82.43

18.09

4

Chandrakona - II

2009

1974

997

98.26

49.63

1910 1633

362

85.50

18.95

5

Dantan - I

2478

2468

1325

99.60

53.47

2325 1947

337

83.74

14.49

6

Dantan - II

2898

2720

1729

93.86

59.66

2944 2560

687

86.96

23.34

7

Daspur - I

3336

3254

2021

97.54

60.58

2992 2651

890

88.60

29.75

8

Daspur - II

4281

4104

2066

95.87

48.26

3309 2948

898

89.09

27.14

9

Debra

4064

3953

2064

97.27

50.79

4472 3815

1044

85.31

23.35

10

Garhbeta-I

3871

3807

2253

98.35

58.20

3220 2760

1071

85.71

33.26

11

Garhbeta-II

2705

2630

1350

97.23

49.91

2133 1750

297

82.04

13.92

12

Garhbeta-III

3133

3120

1706

99.59

54.45

1706 1301

278

76.26

16.30

13

Ghatal

4302

4264

2530

99.12

58.81

3459 3036

730

87.77

21.10

14

Gopiballavpur-I

1660

1627

746

98.01

44.94

1302 1113

237

85.48

18.20

15

Gopiballavpur-II

1709

1679

875

98.24

51.20

2080 1662

468

79.90

22.50

16

Jamboni

1863

1792

806

96.19

43.26

1681 1351

300

80.37

17.85

17

Jhargram

2928

2815

1510

96.14

51.57

2294 1703

397

74.24

17.31

18

Keshiary

2544

2484

1292

97.64

50.79

1841 1502

315

81.59

17.11

19

Keshpur

6109

5988

3304

98.02

54.08

5144 4478

1288

87.05

25.04

20

Kharagpur-I

2740

2664

1559

97.23

56.90

2861 2283

299

79.80

10.45

21

Kharagpur-II

2670

2582

1495

96.70

55.99

2279 1976

470

86.70

20.62

22

Medinipur

3940

3902

2140

99.04

54.31

2470 2079

195

84.17

7.89

23

Mohanpur

2296

2236

1562

97.39

68.03

1419 1306

335

92.04

23.61

24

Narayangarh

4395

4334

2589

98.61

58.91

5248 4581

1390

87.29

26.49

25

Nayagram

2085

2027

937

97.22

44.94

1728 1280

415

74.07

24.02

26

Pingla

3478

3445

2108

99.05

60.61

4103 3539

1038

86.25

25.30

27

Sabong

5283

5152

3073

97.52

58.17

5738 5268

1609

91.81

28.04

28

Salboni

1803

1751

871

97.12

48.31

3156 2650

674

83.97

21.36

29

Sankrail

3033

2937

1545

96.83

50.94

4689 3470

599

74.00

12.77

30

Chandrakona MN

490

480

291

97.96

59.39

340

256

89

75.29

26.18

31

Ghatal MN

798

789

486

98.87

60.90

441

387

126

87.76

28.57

Number Passed

Pass with More Than 60% Marks

2

Sl Name of No Block/Municipality

Number Appeared

Number Passed

Upper Primary

Number Appeared

Primary

32

Jhargram MN

820

808

563

98.54

68.66

911

839

396

92.10

43.47

33

Kharagpur MN

2983

2924

1829

98.02

61.31

3203 2659

824

83.02

25.73

34

Kharar MN

162

162

125

100.00

77.16

170

136

81

80.00

47.65

35

Khirpai MN

279

279

172

100.00

61.65

222

208

40

93.69

18.02

36

Midnapore MN

2146

2119

1311

98.74

61.09

2364 2103

890

88.96

37.65

37

Ramjibanpur MN

326

322

165

98.77

50.61

300

71

89.00

23.67

97023

94646

52587

97.55

54.20

84.20

22.11

TOTAL

Source: DISE 2008-2009, Paschim Medinipur

69

267

90196 75947 19946

Education

Table 3.11 above depicts Block-wise overall outcome of the education provided to students through the result of examination. Here it clarifies that result of Upper Primary section is comparatively poorer in case of pass percentage as a whole. It gives rise to question of quality of education extended to the students if we look at the figures at last column. Students are still not attaining desired level of education and thus only 22.11% of pupil score more than 60% marks. Not only admission to schools but also retention Outcomes of COHORT study, 2007-08 in the school is another Children sustained for 4 years : 64.45% concern of UEE. In this reference we may go Children promoted to Class VIII at the beginning of 4th year : through the findings of 44.30% COHORT study in upper Children completing upper primary in 4 years : 37.63% primary schools conducted by District Sarva Siksha Repeater in 4 years Dropout in 4 years Mission office in 2008. The l In Class-V : 18.17% 6.29% study was done on l In Class-VI : 14.94% 6.84% students whose entry year to class V was 2004-05. l In Class-VII : 12.35% 6.07% Their success or failure over l In Class-VIII : 9.21% 2.78% the consecutive four years i.e. up to 2007-08 was taken into account. The summary report in a nutshell is highlighted in the attached box. Office buildings of cluster and circle level key persons who are responsible for monitoring the universal elementary education

Cluster Resource Centre

Circle Level Resource Centre

MID-DAY MEAL Programme in Pschim Medinipur With a view to retain children in schools Mid-Day Meal scheme was launched and it has become a very successful programme of the government. It must be agreed that enrolment of students as well as regular attendance in schools has remarkably increased after starting of it. Physical performance of Midday-meal scheme as on 31.10.09 is depicted below. A.

Mid-Day Meal covered Institutions (I-VIII)

70

:

8872 Schools

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

B.

No. of Students covered

:

905425 Nos.

C.

Fund sanctioned for Kitchen cum Store

:

6904 Schools

D.

Fund sanctioned for Kitchen Devices

:

2671 Schools

E.

Fund utilized for Cooking, Kitchen Shed, MME, Transportation cost

:

Rs. 3002.72 lakh

Food grain (Rice) utilized

:

65424.96 Qtl.

F.

Table 3.12 Sl. No.

Mid-Day Meal for Primary Stage (Classes I to V)

Item

No. of Institution & Students Allotment released covered under MDM by the School schemes Education Deptt.

1.

Total No. of Institution

8073

--

2.

Total No. of Institution covered under MDM

7945

7927

3.

Total No. of students

683082

4.

Total No. of students covered under MDM

662697

567437

Source: Mid-Day-Meal Section, Paschim Medinipur

Table 3.13 Mid-Day Meal for Upper Primary Stage (Classes VI to VIII) Sl. No.

Item

No. of Institution & Students Allotment released covered under MDM by the School schemes Education Deptt.

1.

Total No. of Institution

976

--

2.

Total No. of Institution covered under MDM

927

976

3.

Total No. of students in Upper Primary stage

302329

4.

Total No. of students covered under MDM in Upper Primary stage

242728

272788

Source: Mid-Day-Meal Section, Paschim Medinipur

Students are enjoying Mid-Day Meal

School at Ghanarampur, Nayagram Block

School in Chandrakona-II Block

71

Education

Further steps to be taken for widening its spread and fulfilling its aim in more effective way:O

Self Help Group (SHG) members who are cooking the meal for the children should get the full responsibility of supervision apart from cooking in terms of fund and food grains management and also supply of vegetables, eggs etc. which they can produce themselves using their own savings or cash credit. In that case teachers will be able to devote full time in teaching lessons without being engaged in mid-day meal management.

O

Where there is a problem of adequate space for constructing cooking sheds and/or sufficient provision of potable water to be used in cooking, construction of standardized cluster cooking sheds may be thought of at a central place wherefrom cooked food may be supplied to neighbouring schools.

O

Installation of fire extinguishers at each primary and upper primary schools where mid-day meal are cooked.

O

Other institutions which are not directly controlled by government but even a single penny goes to it in any form (e.g. Alternative Innovative Education centres, schools under National Child Labour Programme or schools run by NGOs otherwise deem fit) should bring under the purview of this scheme in view of not to deprive any child from a good and healthy food for at least once a day.

O

Cost per meal to be increased for ensuring supply of good quality and healthy food.

Girls Education Elementary education for all has been the target of the government since long. But it can not be demanded with a full level of confidence that all girl children could be brought to schools for attaining basic and elementary education. All of us believe that to educate a man is to educate a person and to educate a woman is to educate a family. But the concept does not bear any value to those parents of girl children who are compelled to struggle against poverty and social inequity. In these families girls are to be involved rather in domestic works and take care of their younger brothers or sisters. They get rare chances of normal schooling. Not only that factors like communication problem, absence or inadequacy of separate girls toilet often demotivate girls to get admitted or retain in school. These are the challenges to fight with in propagation of girl's education. Efforts are being taken to construct separate girls toilet units in both coeducation schools and girl's schools as well. In educationally backward blocks like Nayagram and Gopiballavpur-I special care are being taken to ensure elementary education for girls through NPEGEL and KGBV hostel schemes.

72

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

NPEGEL(National Programme of Education for Girls at Elementary Level) Table 3.14 Location of schools under NPEGEL scheme

Sl. No.

Name of the Block

Name of the circle

NPEGEL Activities :

No. of model cluster schools

No. of tagged school 93

1

Nayagram

Nayagram

14

2

Nayagram-I

13

89

Gopi-East

10

52

Gopi-west

12

79

3 4

Gopiballavpur

9

Maintenance of Schools

9

Part-time Instructor to "Model Cluster Schools".

9

Life Skill Training.

9

Vocational Training.

9

Transportation charges etc. (Model Cluster Schools).

9

Bi-cycles for coordinators

9

Award to Best Schools within the catchment area of "Model Cluster Schools"

9

Teachers Training for Model Cluster Schools

9

Learning through open schools (RMV).

9

Community Mobilisation & Management Training to Model Cluster Schools.

9

Student evaluation, Remedial teaching, Bridge Courses & Alternative Schools.

Source: Sarva Siksha Mission, Paschim Medinipur

cluster

This scheme is designed for taking special care on girl students of EBBs most of them being come from underprivileged community of the society. It is tried to build up awareness among the community, supplementary coaching to weak students, providing vocational training for growing up abilities in income generation and to create child friendly environment in the schools. To closely monitor each activity there are 43 cluster coordinators out of 50 attached to each cluster school. Through NPEGEL girls are nourished to achieve elementary education properly with an all round physical and mental growth. This in turn hopefully will minimise the illiteracy rate of these educationally backward blocks.

73

Education

KGBV (Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya

Table 3.15 Enrolment status in KGBV hostels A. Nayabasan J.K. Balika Vidyalaya, Gopiballavpur-I Social community

Class-V

Class-VI

Class-VII

Class-VIII

Total

SC

0

2

9

10

21

ST

4

8

9

5

26

OBC

0

1

0

0

1

MIO

1

1

0

0

2

BPL

0

0

0

0

0

TOTAL

5

12

18

15

50

B.Baligeria Balika Vidyapith, Nayagram Social community

Class-V

Class-VI

Class-VII

Class-VIII

Total

SC

16

16

0

2

34

ST

5

10

5

3

23

OBC

0

3

6

5

14

MIO

1

4

2

1

8

BPL

0

1

0

0

1

TOTAL

22

34

13

11

80

Source: Sarva Siksha Mission, Paschim Medinipur

74

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

These are the hostels for accommodating students from weaker sections of the society residing in economically backward blocks. All costs relating to their livelihood are borne by the government so that they are not to be deprived of availing elementary education for want of money or other social issues.

On completion of elementary education they do not want to leave the hostel or the school. And herein lies the success of the scheme. For giving them further opportunity of education another hostel building of 100 capacity will be constructed in the same school campus wherein the purpose of their accommodation will be fulfilled. Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) In the context of Universalisation of Secondary Education (USE), large-scale inputs in terms of additional schools, additional classrooms, teachers and other facilities need to be provided to meet the challenge of numbers, credibility and quality. It inter-alia requires assessment / provision of educational needs, physical infrastructure, human resource, academic inputs and effective monitoring of implementation of the programmes. The scheme will initially cover up to class X . Subsequently, the higher secondary stage will also be taken up preferably within two years of the implementation. The strategy for universalizing access to secondary education and improving its quality are as under. The district Paschim Medinipur is having 748 Secondary Schools of which 193 Junior High School and Jr. High Madrasha, 339 High Schools and High Madrasha, 3 Sr. Madrasha (Co-education) and 211 Higher Secondary Schools and 2 Government Institution namely Rani Binod Manjari High School for Girls at Jhargram Municipality and Belpahari Residential Girls High School at Binpur-II Block at present apart from a good many private schools. The Secondary Education in this district is serving the needs of beneficiary roles of 4672 primary schools, 2454 SSKs, and 231 MSKs. The total number of Secondary Schools coming within the purview of RMSA in 2007 was 644. As per survey, some schools are overburdened with students whereas some are enrolling poor number students. The result of Madhyamik Pariksha is above the average. Some of the schools of this district are deserving additional classroom, additional teachers, library and laboratory grant, toilet and sanitation facilities for catering service to the students up to their requirement. Some secondary schools deserve up-gradation to the Higher Secondary level in the need-based area.

75

Education

The significant feature regarding the general enrolment is that the enrolment of girls' student is high in comparison to that of boys, as a good number of boys student leave their schools for earning their livelihood elsewhere outside West Bengal. As a result the boys do not continue their education up to Higher Secondary level. Table 3.16 Secondary Education- present scenario as on 01-04-2009 Details

Paschim Medinipur

Number of schools (Govt.)

02

Number of Higher Secondary Schools

211

Number of High School & High Madrasha

339

Jr. High School and Jr. High Madrasha

193

Sr. Madrasha (Co-education)

03

Number of teachers in Secondary Level

5286

Population (14+ to 16 years age group)

217782

Total Enrolment (Govt. & Govt. Aided Schools)

121368

GER (overall) %

55.73

School-Student ratio

188.46

School-Teacher ratio

8.21

Pupil-Teacher ratio

22.96

GPI

0.89

Source: Sarva Siksha Mission, Paschim Medinipur

Table 3.17 Educational Units as on 01-04-2009 Details

Paschim Medinipur

Number of Circles

69

Government aided Primary School

4672

Special Schools for Child Labour

37

Schools with Upper Primary Section

746

PTTI

Govt. -03, / Pvt. - 02

College

26

Teachers training Institute

03

Medical College (Allopathic)

01

Medical College (Homeo)

01

Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)-Kharagpu

01

Industrial Training Institute (ITI)

02

Polytechnics

01

University

01

Source: Sarva Siksha Mission and District Statistical Handbook, Paschim Medinipur

76

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

There are some backward blocks out of 29 blocks and the number of SC/ST students is considerably notable and provision for SC/ST Hostel especially for girl student with adequate financial support from the Government is considered essential to ensure continuance of their studies after elementary primary education. GER in respect of Secondary Education is 55.73. It is pertinent to note that GER gradually increased during last two years, at present it is approx 60% something or like that. CHALLENGES, THRUST AREAS & STRATEGIES In the context of universalisation of Secondary Education large scale inputs in terms of schools, classrooms, teachers, TLM and other facilities and incentives to be provided to meet the challenge of numbers, credibility and quality. There is a wide disparity in schooling facilities like lack of classroom, toilet facilities, demographic difficulties, socio-economic-cultural dissimilarities in different blocks of the district. Normal Growth & Gross Enrolment Ration (GER): We have noticed that GER up to class VIII in the District of Paschim Medinipur is above 80%, whereas the said rate in respect of class IX & X is at 55% (average). Our aim is to increase the GER up to 75% during the 11th five year plan period, and it is a challenge before us to reach the target. Population growth is increasing by 1.75 in the age group of 14 - 16 per year. Naturally we shall have to increase the respective GER by more than 3.50% per year, it is undoubtedly Herculean task before us. To meet the above challenges: Development of Infrastructural facilities and learning resources is to be carried out in following ways

± ±

Expansion of existing Secondary and Higher Secondary Schools.

± ± ±

Opening of new Secondary/Higher Secondary Schools in unserved area through GIS mapping.

± ±

Construction of Girls Toilet specially in co-education Schools

± ± ± ± ±

Appointment of additional teacher with sufficient training

Upgradation of Upper Primary Schools to Secondary Schools and Secondary Schools to Higher Secondary Schools.

New and existing schools should be disabled friendly. Opening of Girls Hostel in hard to reach area and in blocks where girls enrolment is relatively low for SC, ST, OBC and Minority student.

Providing required infrastructure within the class like black board, furniture, library and laboratory facilities

Opening of alternative schools like RMV for Backward Student of class VIII. Cash incentives, Uniforms, Books etc. to SC, ST, OBC and Minority student. Incorporation of inclusive education to children with disabilities and necessary support to them. Special Training community members including PRI members, teachers, parents and other stake holders to ensure the betterment of RMSA.

77

Education

In order to meet the challenge of Universalisation of Secondary Education, there is a need for a paradigm shift in the conceptual design of secondary education. The guiding principles in this regard are; Universal Access, Equality and Social Justice, Relevance and Development and Curricular and Structural Aspects. Universalisation of Secondary Education gives opportunity, to move towards equity. The concept of 'common school' will be encouraged. If these values are to be established in the system, all types of schools, including unaided private schools will also contribute towards Universalisation of Secondary Education (USE) by ensuring adequate enrolments for the children from under privileged society and the children Below Poverty Line (BPL) families.

Nayagram Thana Balika Vidyapith

Jugisol Arjun Smriti Vidyapith

Strategies for ensured education for all upto elementary level and thereafter

±

All excluded children to enroll, retain them in schools and to provide all logistic supports for their effective learning - everything to be done with the involvement of the children themselves, their families and communities.

±

To develop child friendly system with the help of structured content and good quality materials and resources, healthy, hygienic, safe and gender-sensitive learning environment and involving children, parents, teachers and communities in school management, planning and implementation.

±

Initiation of convergence of services for safety and physical & psycho-social health of students by engaging school counselors, providing safe and clean drinking water, adequate sanitation facilities, teaching aids, well trained teachers, constructing standardized school kitchen sheds, streamlined supply of raw materials and quality meals.

±

Setting up of new schools preferably upper primary schools (current target is 553) to cater class IV passed students of neighbouring three primary schools.

±

Establishing central model schools initially in two educationally backward blocks and if permissible in each block of the district.

78

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

±

Constructing at least two Girls Hostel for scheduled tribes with 100 capacity near KGBV hostels to accommodate ST girls who have completed elementary education.

±

Opening of new Government Secondary School.

3.4 Education Indices for the Blocks of PASCHIM MEDINIPUR District The last section has provided a detailed scenario of the status of education in the district as a whole and also across the blocks of the district. Given the information we shall try in this section to construct education indices across the blocks of the district following the methodology mentioned below. Methodology: As has been observed in the last section, we have two very reliable sources for data on education across the blocks of any district in India - the Census data mainly for literacy and the DISE data mainly for enrolment and infrastructure. However, the DISE data is of recent origin and is concerned with secondary education only. We have the latest DISE data for 2008-09 on enrolment and infrastructure, though the latest Census data is for 2001 only. Absolute enrolment figures given in the DISE data are of no use unless we have the number of potential children for primary, upper primary and secondary education in different blocks in the relevant year. On the other hand, the Census data provide information on general literacy in the age group 6 years and above, and we have no reliable data on adult literacy rate. Thus, at the first instance, the UNDP methodology of using the enrolment rate and the adult literacy rate for the construction of the education index seems not possible. But to make full use of the DISE data and the Census data and to use the UNDP methodology we have used the following methodology. By using Census data of 1981, 1991 and 2001 for the blocks on rural population, literacy rates and age-wise distribution of the rural population we have calculated projected population in the age-group 5 to 14 years and in the age group 15 years and above, and projected literates for 2009. Enrolment ratio is then calculated as the ratio between the enrolment figures obtained from DISE and the projected population in the age-group 5 to 14 years. From the projected population in the age-group 5 to 14 years the number of children never attending school is subtracted and the subtracted value is subtracted from the projected literates for 2009 to arrive at an estimate of adult literates. The adult literacy rate is calculated as the ratio between this and projected population in the age-group 15 years and above. These two rates are combined for arriving at the education index by using the UNDP methodology. Before combining, they are normalized to the index values by using normative goalposts at 0 (0 %) and 1 (100 %), and not by using observed goalposts at observed minimum and observed maximum, to reflect the amount of actual achievement and the amount yet to be achieved. Thus, an enrolment index of 0.810 for a block implies that the block has achieved to the tune of 81% in enrolling their potential children and an amount of 19% has remained to be achieved. As is found in the UNDP methodology 1/3 weight is given to enrolment rate and 2/3 weight to adult literacy rate.

79

Education

Table 3.18 Indicators in the development in Education for the blocks of Paschim Medinipur District Sub-division

Block

Projected Population (2009)

DISE enrolment Enrolment Ratio Projected Literacy Projected Adult (2009)

(2009)

rate (2009)

Literacy rate (2009)

Chandrakona-I

133022

23491

80.75

75.61

70.66

Chandrakona-II

120344

21544

81.86

68.91

61.53

Daspur-I

198008

32421

80.43

78.87

75.32

Daspur-II

216155

35775

81.30

84.68

82.84

Ghatal

211865

32210

78.32

78.44

75.25

Binpur-I

156749

27373

79.85

67.33

59.76

Binpur-II

164442

30592

85.07

67.57

59.20

Gopiballavpur-I

106830

18352

79.93

62.51

53.47

Gopiballavpur-II

105109

18202

79.19

66.45

58.70

Jamboni

114585

18907

75.45

68.88

62.56

Jhargram

172726

31158

82.49

69.71

62.50

Nayagram

139614

28129

88.31

60.84

49.19

Sankrail

115616

22612

89.43

69.47

61.01

Dantan-I

170524

30409

81.54

69.38

62.21

Dantan-II

151356

29201

84.56

76.65

71.19

Debra

273752

45183

75.47

75.44

71.32

Keshiary

148766

31851

96.24

71.22

62.05

Kharagpur-I

172493

27899

73.96

72.05

67.04

Kharagpur-II

182298

31995

80.25

70.63

64.09

Mohanpur

108507

18962

77.89

78.70

75.18

Narayangarh

291206

55697

87.46

72.69

65.64

Pingla

192705

36183

85.86

84.35

81.47

Sabong

268878

55938

95.13

82.88

77.96

Garhbeta-I

225751

45044

91.24

69.32

60.51

Garhbeta-II

147687

25829

79.97

68.48

61.27

Garhbeta-III

157394

31601

91.81

68.48

59.29

Keshpur

352745

76191

96.68

70.95

61.57

Medinipur

177924

33117

88.96

65.99

56.86

Salboni

186151

35717

87.74

71.70

64.27

Ghatal Sub-division

879394

145441

80.42

78.44

74.59

Jhargram Sub-division

1075671

195325

82.71

65.67

58.45

Kharagpur Sub-division

1960485

363318

84.23

75.60

70.04

Ghatal

Jhargram

Kharagpur

Medinipur Sadar

Medinipur Sub-division

1247652

247499

90.71

69.26

60.78

Paschim Medinipur District

5163202

951583

84.87

72.49

66.17

Note: Projected population excluding municipality Source: DISE, 2009, Paschim Medinipur

80

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Table 3.19 Dimension Indices and the Education Index for the blocks of Paschim Medinipur District Sub-division

Block

Enrolment

Rank

Index

Adult Literacy

Rank

Index

Education

Rank (EI)

Index (EI)

Chandrakona-I

0.808

18

0.707

9

0.740

8

Chandrakona-II

0.819

15

0.615

19

0.683

21

Daspur-I

0.804

19

0.753

4

0.770

4

Daspur-II

0.813

17

0.828

1

0.823

3

Ghatal

0.783

25

0.753

5

0.763

5

Binpur-I

0.799

23

0.598

23

0.665

26

Binpur-II

0.851

12

0.592

25

0.678

22

Gopiballavpur-I

0.799

22

0.535

28

0.623

28

Gopiballavpur-II

0.792

24

0.587

26

0.655

27

Jamboni

0.755

28

0.626

14

0.669

25

Jhargram

0.825

14

0.625

15

0.692

19

Nayagram

0.883

8

0.492

29

0.622

29

Sankrail

0.894

6

0.610

21

0.705

15

Dantan-I

0.815

16

0.622

16

0.687

20

Dantan-II

0.846

13

0.712

8

0.756

7

Debra

0.755

27

0.713

7

0.727

12

Keshiary

0.962

2

0.621

17

0.734

9

Kharagpur-I

0.740

29

0.670

10

0.693

18

Kharagpur-II

0.803

20

0.641

13

0.695

17

Mohanpur

0.779

26

0.752

6

0.761

6

Narayangarh

0.875

10

0.656

11

0.729

11

Pingla

0.859

11

0.815

2

0.829

2

Sabong

0.951

3

0.780

3

0.837

1

Garhbeta-I

0.912

5

0.605

22

0.708

14

Garhbeta-II

0.800

21

0.613

20

0.675

24

Garhbeta-III

0.918

4

0.593

24

0.701

16

Keshpur

0.967

1

0.616

18

0.733

10

Medinipur

0.890

7

0.569

27

0.676

23

Salboni

0.877

9

0.643

12

0.721

13

Ghatal Sub-division

0.804

4

0.746

1

0.765

1

Jhargram Sub-division

0.827

3

0.584

4

0.665

4

Kharagpur Sub-division

0.842

2

0.700

2

0.748

2

Medinipur Sub-division

0.907

1

0.608

3

0.708

3

Paschim Medinipur District

0.849

Ghatal

Jhargram

Kharagpur

Medinipur Sadar

0.662

81

0.724

Education

Education Indices for the Blocks of PASCHIM MEDINIPUR District: Basic data for the construction of the Education Indices are presented in Table 3.18. It presents the data on enrolment in primary and upper primary education (as per DISE 2008-09 data), estimated literacy rate for 2008-09 and estimated adult literacy rate for the same year. It shows that the enrolment ratio is highest in Keshpur followed by Keshiary, Sabang and Garhbeta-III. High enrolment ratios in the otherwise less developed blocks like Keshpur, Keshiary and Garhbeta-III may be partly due to strong and extensive Sarba Siksha Abhijan (SSA) in these blocks. On the other hand, the enrolment ratios are relatively low in Jamboni, Binpur-I and Gopiballavpur-I & Gopiballavpur-II in Jhargram sub-division, in Chandrakona-II in Ghatal sub-division, in Kharagpur-I, Mohanpur and Debra in Kharagpur sub-division and in Garhbeta-II in Sadar sub-division. Given the literacy rates, the adult literacy rates are calculated for different blocks. It is found highest in Daspur-II followed by Pingla, Sabang and Daspur-I. It is lowest in Nayagram followed by Gopiballavpur-I, Medinipur and Gopiballavpur-II. Indices based on normative goalposts for these two indicators and the combined education indices are presented in Table 3.19. It shows that the education index is highest in Sabang (0.837) followed by Pingla (0.829) and lowest in Nayagram (0.622) followed by Gopiballavpur-I (0.623). It implies that Sabang has succeeded to attain a 83.70% development in education and the remaining 16.30% is yet to be achieved and the success is due to its achievement to the tune of 95.10% in enrolment and 78.00% in adult literacy. On the other hand, in the block Nayagram, the attainment in education is only 62.20% and though the enrolment ratio in this block is not very low (88.30%) the ultimate attainment remains low for its low adult literacy rate at 48.20% only. If we look at the sub-divisions, we find that the attainment in education is highest in Ghatal sub-division (76.50%) and lowest in Jhargram sub-division (66.50%). The said index for all the blocks of Paschim Medinipur district taken together is 0.724. This implies that the rural areas of Paschim Medinipur district have attained 72.40% success in education (a more than 2/3rd success) and the remaining 27.60% is yet to be achieved. In the construction of education index, we have used only indicators following the UNDP methodology. However, there are other indicators also as explained in this chapter. The main problem in accommodating all these indicators in the index is to attach proper weights to them. In the section below we present the scenario of the blocks in terms of the above two and some other important indicators through radars. The coloured area in the shown set indicates the proportion of development. Radar for different blocks of Paschim Medinipur District with different indicators of development in education In the radar presentation of development in education we have considered five other indicators along with enrolment index and adult literacy index. The indicators as shown in the radars are: (1) Enrol = Enrolment (2) AdLit = Adult Literacy Index (3) FeLit

= Female Literacy Index

(4) SCLit = SC Literacy Index (5) STLit

= ST Literacy Index

(6) SSR

= School Student Ratio Index

and (7) TSR

= Teacher Student Ratio Index

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Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Radar for Blocks of Ghatal Sub-division Fig 3.21

Fig 3.22

Chandrakona-I Enrol 1.000 TSR

AdLit 0.500 0.000

,.

SSR

FeLit

STLit

SCLit

Fig 3.23

Fig 3.24 Daspur-II

Daspur-I Enrol 1.000

Enrol 1.000

TSR

AdLit

TSR

0.500

AdLit 0.500

Chandrak ona-II Enrol 1.000 SSR

0.000

0.000 SSR

FeLit

TSR

FeLit

AdLit 0.500

STLit

STLit

SCLit

0.000 SSR

FeLit

Fig 3.25 STLit

SCLit

Ghatal Enrol 1.000 TSR

AdLit 0.500

0.000 SSR

FeLit

STLit

SCLit

83

SCLit

Education

Radar for Blocks of Jhargram Sub-division Fig 3.26

Fig 3.27

Binpur-I

Binpur-II

Enrol 1.000

Enrol 1.000

TSR

TSR

AdLit

AdLit 0.500

0.500

0.000

0.000

SSR

FeLit

STLit

SSR

FeLit

SCLit

STLit

Fig 3.28

Fig 3.29 Gopiballavpur-II

Gopiballavpur-I

Enr ol 1.000

Enr ol 1.000

TSR

TSR

AdLit

AdLit

0.500

0.500

0.000

0.000

SSR

FeLit

STLit

SSR

FeLit

SCLit

STLit

Fig 3.30

SCLit

Fig 3.31

Jamboni

Jhargram

Enrol 1.000

Enrol 1.000

TSR

AdLit

TSR

AdLit

0.500

0.500

0.000

0.000

SSR

FeLit

STLit

SCLit

SSR

SCLit

FeLit

STLit

84

SCLit

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Fig 3.32

Fig 3.33 Sankrail

Nayagram Enrol 1.000

Enr ol 1.000

TSR

AdLit

TSR

AdLit

0.500

0.500

0.000

0.000

SSR

SSR

FeLit

STLit

FeLit

SCLit

STLit

SCLit

Radar for Blocks of Kharagpur Sub-division Fig 3.34

Fig 3.35 Dantan-II

Dantan-I

Enr ol 1.000

Enr ol 1.000

TSR

AdLit

TSR

AdLit 0.500

0.500

0.000

0.000 SSR

SSR

FeLit

STLit

FeLit

STLit

SCLit

Fig 3.36

Fig 3.37

Debra

Keshiary

Enr ol 1.000

Enr ol 1.000

TSR

AdLit

TSR

AdLit

0.500

0.500

0.000

0.000

SSR

FeLit

STLit

SCLit

SSR

SCLit

FeLit

STLit

85

SCLit

Education

Fig 3.38

Fig 3.39

Kharagpur-I

Kharagpur-II

Enr ol 1.000

Enrol 1.000

TSR

AdLit

TSR

AdLit

0.500

0.500

0.000

0.000

SSR

FeLit

STLit

SSR

FeLit

SCLit

STLit

SCLit

Fig 3.40

Fig 3.41 Narayangarh

Mohanpur Enr ol

Enr ol

1.000

1.000

TSR

TSR

AdLi t

AdLit

0.500

0.500

0.000

0.000

SSR

SSR

FeLit

STLi t

FeLit

STLi t

SCLi t

Fig 3.42

Fig 3.43 Sabong

Pingla Enr ol 1.000

Enrol 1.000

TSR

AdLit

TSR

AdLit

0.500

0.500

0.000

0.000

SSR

SSR

FeLit

STLit

SCLit

FeLit

STLit

SCLit

86

SCLit

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Radar for Blocks of Medinipur Sub-division Fig 3.44

Fig 3.45

Garhbeta-I

Garhbeta-II

Enr ol 1.000

Enr ol 1.000

TSR

AdLit

TSR

AdLit

0.500

0.500

0.000

0.000

SSR

FeLit

STLit

SSR

FeLit

STLit

SCLit

Fig 3.46

Fig 3.47

Garhbeta-III

Keshpur

Enr ol 1.000

Enr ol 1.000

TSR

AdLit

TSR

AdLit

0.500

0.500

0.000

0.000

SSR

FeLit

STLit

SSR

FeLi t

SCLit

STLi t

Fig 3.48

SCLi t

Fig 3.49

Midnapore

Salboni

Enr ol 1.000

Enr ol 1.000

TSR

AdLit

TSR

AdLit

0.500

0.500

0.000

0.000

SSR

FeLit

STLit

SCLit

SSR

SCLit

FeLi t

STLi t

87

SCLi t

Education

88

Status of Helth

90

Human Development Report Paschim Medinipur

Chapter IV Status of Helth 4.1 Introduction Health as an aspect of human development is the most concerned one for developing countries like India because of the prevalence of an extensive (as well as intensive) malnutrition among the people in the rural areas and also in the slum areas of the towns. Out of eight broad objectives of Millennium Development Goals to be achieved by the year 2015 three directly point towards a long and healthy life. It is not very difficult to capture the achievement in health by a single variable - it is the life expectancy at birth. It reflects the attainment in health and captures all possible variables indicating development in health - its infrastructures or outcomes. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), in its Human Development Reports (HDR), considers the life expectancy at birth as the simple and single indicator of achievement in health. The National Human Development Report of India (2003) has also used the same indicator. In the Human Development Report of West Bengal (2004) this indicator could not be used because of the non-availability of data on life expectancy at the district level. It has rather used infant mortality rate (IMR) as a negative indicator of development in health. Infant mortality is an indicator of child health and indirectly an indicator of mother health, but is not a complete indicator of health in general.

4.2 Indicators of the Status of Health Status of Health of the people in any region can be viewed by a large number of variables and they can be classified as infrastructures and outcomes or achievements, and also as flows and stocks (assets). Health infrastructures include number of private and government health centres, number of doctors and number of beds available in the region. On the other hand, outcomes in health are given directly in terms of life expectancy at birth, and inversely in terms of infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate etc. These are again governed by the infrastructures or health facilities available and also by the health habits practiced by the people of the region. Thus proportion of institutional delivery out of total delivery, extent of mothers' health care programmes, immunization, public health care system to control diarrhea, leprocy, blindness, cholera, malaria, provision of drinking water, sanitation etc. affect the status of health of a region positively and malnutrition, drug addiction, etc. affect the same inversely.

4.3 Status of Health in PASCHIM MEDINIPUR District We can get an idea about the progress of the district in the health sector through a look at the key indicators as it came out from District Level Household Survey (DLHS)-3 conducted by the Indian Institute of Population Sciences (IIPS), Mumbai. It was designed to provide estimates on important indicators on maternal and child health, family planning and other reproductive health services along with information on the interventions of National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). The survey used two-stage stratified random sampling in rural and three-stage random sampling in urban areas using a sample size of 1061 households, 48 Sub-Health Centres, 27 Primary Health Centres, 29 Community Health Centres and one District Hospital.

91

Status of Helth

Table 4.1 District scenario as reflected in District Level Household Survey-3 Indicators

Total

Rural

Percentage of girls marrying before completing 18 years

46.9

47.6

Percentage of birth of order 3 and above

15.7

15.9

Percentage of birth to woman during age 15-19 years out of total births

25.9

26.2

Percentage of currently married woman in the age group 15-49 years using any family-planning method

74.8

74.6

Percentage of mothers who had at least 3 Ante-Natal Care visits during the last pregnancy

49.1

49.4

Mother who got at least one TT injection when they were pregnant with there last live birth/still birth

88.4

88.3

Institutional births

45.1

45.0

Children (12-23 months) fully immunized (BCG, 3 doses each of DPT, Polio & Measles)

80.5

80.5

Source:- Indian Institute of Population Science, Mumbai

From an analysis of the data generated by the DLHS-3 it is seen that a sizeable number of girls in the district (46.9 % of the sample) are getting married before attaining an age of 18 years leading to early pregnancy as revealed in the fact that in rural area 26.2 % of the women gave birth of their first children within the age of 19 years. Use of family-planning methods has substantially increased over the years, but still it is seen that in 15.7 % of cases women have 3 or above children and 58.3 % of women of 20-24 age group reported to have given birth of 2 and above children. On the other hand, amongst the new-born babies, 19.5 % of the 12-23 month age-group are yet to be fully immunized. In a society in which majority of the population is engaged in agricultural pursuits and other allied activities and a majority of the population are daily wage-earner with low income level, all these figures indicate towards malnutrition amongst children, high incidence of infant and maternal mortality. On the maternal health front it appears that 49.1 % of the mothers have received at least three ante-natal care visits during last pregnancy whereas the percentage of institutional births was only 45.1 %, which say that so far as the health infrastructure is concerned, the district will have to go a long way to achieve the desired goals.

Health Infrastructure in the district The success of health care in the District depends on the availability of health services and health infrastructure. The district has a total of 977 health-care institutions starting from the Health Sub-Centre level to the District Hospital at Medinipur, but when we look at the fact that these institutions with a total of 4858 beds are required to cater the district population of 5619212 (projected district population for 2009), it seems that we not only lack far behind the norms set by the World Health Organisation (WHO), but also by the average national standard. Also beneath the average figures there lies widespread regional variation within the district and in this respect the economically backward areas of Jhargram and Medinipur Sadar sub-division of the district lack behind the relatively advanced areas of Kharagpur, Ghatal and the remaining part of the Medinipur Sadar Sub-division.

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Human Development Report Paschim Medinipur

Table 4.2 Health infrastructure in the district Unit

Number

Mainstream Government Units Allopathic Medical College & Hospital

1

Homoeopathic Medical College

2

Tuberculosis Sanatorium (at Digri)

1

Sub-divisional Hospital

3

Rural Hospital

9

Block Primary Health Centre

20

Primary Health Centre

82

State Medical Unit (at Kharagpur)

1

Health Sub-Centre

858

Total bed strength of mainstream government units

4858

Other Government Hospitals EFR Hospital

1

Corectional Home Hospital

1

Police Hospital

1

South Eastern Railways Hospital

1

Air Force Hospital (at Kalaikunda)

1

Total bed strength of other government hospitals

446

Hospital run by private agencies and non-governmental organisations

119

Total bed strength of private institutions

1152

Source:- Chief Medical Officer of Health, Paschim Medinipur, 2010

At present in the context of availability of health-care institutions, the district stands far below the national norms, specially in tribal areas of Jhargram and Medinipur Sadar sub-divisions. With the coming up of more sub-centres, the district hopes to achieve the national norm with respect to sub-centre facility, but services of primary health centre with a regular and sound health set-up still elude the rural population of the district. As it is observed from the chart below the district is lagging well behind the national norms set for the numbers of different types of health centres in any region.

93

Status of Helth

Chart 4.1 Primary health Care facilities: Comparison of Paschim Medinipur with National Norm

Fig. 4.1 Population per bed- a comparison

Present position in the district

4500

Paschim Medinipur West Bengal

4000

P o p u latio n s e r v e d p e r b e d

National norm

3500

Health Sub- For every 5000 population in plain Centre area and for 3000 population in tribal area

6053

Primary Health Centre

63334

3000 2500

For every 30000 population in plain area and for 20000 population in tribal area

2000 1500 1000

Community For every 1.00-1.20 Lakh population Health serving as a referral institution for 5.77 Lakh Centre four primary health centres Source:- Bulletin on Rural Health Statistics in India & Health on the March, 2007-2008 published by the Government of West Bengal

500 0 Rural Urban Total

Source:- Health on the March, 2007-'08

Table 4.3 Block-wise availability of Doctor, Bed and Health Centre during 2004-05* Name of the Block

Average population served by Name of the Block One One One health doctor bed centre

Binpur-I

17923

2703

30125

Gopiballavpur-II

15844

2674

24617

Binpur-II

18193

5452

36587

Jambani

16885

3685

35025

8955

3516

25615

Jhargram

19105

5638

32785

Chandrakona-II 15676

1560

54246

Keshiary

16672

6170

34521

32114

9172

97857

Chandrakona-I

Average population served by One One One health doctor bed centre

Dantan-I

25315

10192

55213

Keshpur

Dantan-II

26784

7265

48356

Kharagpur-I

5975

590

84392

Daspur-I

20592

5129

55497

Kharagpur-II

33490

7527

52610

Daspur-II

35247

7936

52551

Mohanpur

19326

6122

33215

Debra

26890

5713

68029

Narayangarh

24819

2956

69125

Garhbeta-I

19504

2926

68475

Nayagram

21132

4012

32154

Garhbeta-II

34181

6784

45125

Pingla

28546

5695

40359

Garhbeta-III

7940

485

52068

Sabong

26744

4792

78653

25726

7138

48667

Salbani

19332

4835

56005

Gopiballavpur-I 11964

3644

25300

Sankrail

15510

3524

32506

Ghatal

*Medinipur Sadar Block has not been taken into account because of proximity to Medinipur town. Source:- Chief Medical Officer of Health, Paschim Medinipur

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Human Development Report Paschim Medinipur

Another important area of concern is the availability of bed in health institutions. Whereas in the rural area of the district, 3651 people are catered by one bed which is quite fair compared to the state scenario (4105 persons per bed), but it is well below the national norm of 1000 persons per bed. Also there are widespread inequalities amongst the Blocks so far as availability of doctor, bed and health centre is concerned as is evident from the table.

Chart 4.2 Gram-Panchayat based Mobile Health Camp One important intervention in the health-care sector is the organization of Gram-Panchayat based mobile health camps in which health camps are organized at Gram-Panchayat Headquarters Subcentre once a week. The district has a total number of 179 Gram-Panchayats not having a Rural Hospital, BPHC or a PHC. For those Gram-Pachayats one Sub-Centre has been attached and is situated near the Gram-Panchayat office for providing better health service to the people of the entire GramPanchayat area. The health camps in those sub-centres are being organized regularly and the entire project is getting overwhelming response from the rural people.

People in the queue for treatment Some statistics Year

Health camps

Number of patients treated

2007-2008

5607

326278

2008-2009

5255

308813

2009-2010 (upto June, 2009)

1364

68111

Source:- Chief Medical Officer of Health, Paschim Medinipur

National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) has come as a boon in providing unique and wider opportunity and a real scope for this district for preparation of yearly perspective plan till 2012 which will be a continuous exercise & there exists enough scope for improvements & modifications each time, outlining the year-wise availability of resources and activity-needs of the district. Under NRHM, the district has been able to face the problems of shortcomings in the health infrastructures and is implementing the national health programmes successfully with special emphasis in nineteen ITDP Blocks with the help of the representatives of three-tier Panchayat system and other government departments like Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) etc. Out of these Blocks, twelve backward Blocks with tribal population on the higher side have been chosen as focused Block for intensive coverage.

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Table 4.4 Block-wise Present Status of Construction of Sub-centre Buildings Number of Sub-centre Block

Number of Sub-centre

Existing Building to Construc-tion Sub-centre be works constructed completed or running

Block

Existing Sub-centre

Building to be constructed

Construc-tion works completed or running

Garhbeta-I

37

33

9

Kharagpur-II

25

22

10

Garhbeta-II

28

25

7

Keshiray

26

22

6

Garhbeta-III

24

21

12

Narayangarh

45

41

12

Salboni

35

31

10

Dantan-I

27

24

6

Keshpur

49

45

18

Dantan-II

23

20

4

Medinipur

25

22

8

Mohanpur

18

15

3

Binpur-I

33

27

11

Debra

44

39

12

Binpur-II

36

32

15

Pingla

29

25

10

Jamboni

25

22

9

Sabang

36

32

12

Jhargram

32

27

10

Daspur-I

31

27

6

Gopiballavpur-I

21

17

9

Daspur-II

34

30

6

Gopiballavpur-II

22

18

9

Ghatal

32

29

8

Sankrail

22

19

9

Chandrakona-I

23

17

4

Nayagaram

28

24

12

Chandrakona-II

23

20

5

Kharagpur-I

25

21

10

District total:

858

747

262

Source:- Chief Medical Officer of Health, Paschim Medinipur, 2010

The district administration has concentrated on the strengthening of infrastructure at the Subcentre level and has taken up the work of construction of buildings for all the Sub-centres of the district. Whereas out of 858 Sub-centres, construction of buildings for 262 is either complete or started, for other 86 Sub-centres, land for the construction has been finalised. Additional manpower in the form of Link Person, ASHA and Second ANM has also been provided at the Subcentre level to improve the quality of service.

Kankabati Gram-Panchayat Headquarters Sub-centre in Medinipur Sadar Block

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As the present set-up in the focussed Blocks are not sufficient to meet the demand of the people of those areas, with a view to reach the masses in a more effective manner, the district administration has proposed for creation of new Subcentres in twelve focussed Blocks Table 4.5 Sub-centre level additional manpower following the norms of 3000 provided population per Sub-centre in tribal Number of persons Intervention area and 5000 population in other Allotted Engaged Working areas, which calls for more 170 Link Person 5992 5992 5992 numbers of Sub-centres in those Blocks. ASHA 3783 1562 898

Block

Second ANM 858 757 266 Apart from, with the available infrastructural facilities at hand, the Source:- Office of the Chief Medical Officer of Health, Paschim Medinipur district administration has started some intervention to improve the health status of the people, specially in the focused Blocks, which are mentioned below:

Table 4.6 Health Institution Profile of Twelve Focused Blocks Name of the Block

Number of GramPanchayats

Rural Hospital

Binpur-I

10

1

Binpur-II

10

-

Jamboni

10

Jhargram Gopiballavpur-I

Block Primary Health Centre

Primary Health Centre*

Subhealth Centre

5

33

1(Upgraded to 60-bedded)

3

36

-

1

2

25

13

-

1

4

32

7

-

1

3

21

Gopiballavpur-II

7

-

1(Upgraded)

3

22

Nayagram

12

-

1 (Upgraded to 30-bedded)

3

28

Sankrail

10

-

1(Upgraded

2

22

Garhbeta-II

10

-

1(Upgraded to 30-bedded)

2

28

Salboni

10

1

-

1

35

Keshiary

9

-

1(Upgraded)

1

26

Narayangarh

16

-

1(Upgraded to 60-bedded)

1

45

-

* Some of the Sub-Health centres are either upgraded or the work of upgradation is going on Source:- Chief Medical Officer of Health, Paschim Medinipur



Cash incentive to pregnant mother belonging to BPL and SC/ST category under Janani Suraksha Yojana for maintenance of maternal nutrition, institutional delivery and to & fro referral transport.



BCC through village-level meeting by Sub-centre staff



Arrangement for supply of MCR for leprosy-affected persons and reconstructive surgery operation for patient with leprosy-related deformity



Supply of bed-net & community bed-net impregnation, mass drug administration, use of rapid diagnostic kit, etc. for prevention of malaria



Holding of daily medical camp by one medical officer at Kantapahari under Sijua Gram-Panchayat of Binpur-I Block

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Provision of District Illness Assistance Fund for indoor treatment for BPL patients



Organization of Gram-Panchayat based mobile health camp once a week at headquarters Subcentre having no rural hospital, BPHC or PHC.



Organization of disability certification camp at Block level to identify & certify disabled persons.



Preliminary health screening camp & distribution of Jiban Jyoti Health Card to tribal people.

Table 4.7 Block-wise requirement of Sub-centres as per National Norm for Twelve Focused Blocks Sl. No.

Name of the Block

Population as per 2001 census

Total Sub-centre required as per national norms

Existing number of Sub-centre

Number of additional Subcentres required

1

Garhbeta - II

2

Salboni

131103

43

28

15

165248

50

35

15

3

Binpur - I

139148

46

33

13

4

Binpur - II

145977

48

36

12

5

Jamboni

101718

33

25

8

6

Jhargram

153331

51

32

19

7

Gopiballavpur- I

94834

31

21

10

8

Gopiballavpur- II

93306

31

22

9

9

Sankrail

102634

34

22

12

10

Nayagram

123937

41

28

13

11

Keshiary

132061

40

26

14

12

Narayangarh

266675

75

45

30

1649972

523

353

170

Total

Source:- Chief Medical Officer of Health, Paschim Medinipur

Chart 4.3 Tribal Health Plan Starting from the year 2007-2008, composite medical camps are being organized in the tribal areas of identified Blocks. For this purpose eleven Blocks were selected, out of which camps are being organized presently in five Blocks, viz., Sankrail, Gopiballavpur-I, Keshiary, Salboni and Garhbeta-II. All these Blocks have a good number of tribal population and in these camps health check-up and routine immunization take place.

People in a tribal health camp Year Camps held Patients treated

2007-'08

2008-'09

2009-'10 (upto June, '09)

8

95

25

768

5488

1325

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Human Development Report Paschim Medinipur

Jiban Jyoti Scheme The scheme has presently been introduced in Binpur-II Block of which 42 % of the 145977 people are tribal. The objective is to provide health care services absolutely free of cost to the tribal people, particularly those of Lodha and Sabar communities. Under the scheme initially Jiban Jyoti Cards are distributed to the target beneficiaries through special camps, which facilitate them to avail free treatment and investigation from any government health machinery including medical college. Though presently it is being run at Binpur-II Block, the district administration wants to introduce the scheme in all the twelve focused Blocks in a phased manner. Source:- Chief Medical Officer of Health, Paschim Medinipur

Chart 4.4 Health awareness campaign & Health Camps - Involvement of NGO In this connection it may be mentioned that some non-governmental organisations have come forward for organizing special camps for RCH & immunisation and improvement of health awareness, specially amongst the tribal people as a result of which it has become possible to reach the unreached mass in a bigger way and achieving success on the health sector amongst the target group in those areas.

?

Kasba Shed Foundation is engaged in tribal area development through IEC/BCC & health check-up in four Blocks of Garhbeta-II, Salboni, Keshiary & Nayagram, covering a total of 41 Gram-Panchayats. They are organising monthly camps to examine patients, distribute medicines, take up the works of immunization activities and awareness generation.

?

Manbhum Ananda Ashram Nityananda Trust (MANT) is taking up the work of routine immunization, ANC & institutional delivery, prevention of communicable diseases through IEC, BCC, regular health camps in fourteen selected Blocks spread over Jhargram, Medinipur Sadar & Kharagpur Subdivisions.

?

Some FNGOs have taken up special immunization service in relatively inaccessible areas of four Blocks. The Blocks and selected places are:- (1) Gopiballavpur-I (Dhansole & Telant) (2) Nayagaram (Bonisole & Baradanga) (3) Binpur-II (Kankrajhore & Chhurimara ) & (4) BinpurI (Sijua & Bahadurpur)

Source:- Chief Medical Officer of Health, Paschim Medinipur

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Status of Helth

Reproductive & Child Health Table 4.8 Reproductive & Child Health - Key indicators of Paschim Medinipur District Percentage of girl marrying before 18 years

46.9

Percentage of births of order 3 and above

15.7

Sex ratio at birth

906

Currently married (15-49 age-group) women using any family welfare method (%)

63.4

Total unmet need for family planning (%)

10.1

Mothers who had at least three ante-natal care visits during pregnancy (%)

49.1

Institutional births (%)

45.1

Children (12-23 months) fully immunized (%)

80.5

Children breast fed within one hour of birth (%)

39.3

Women heard of HIV/AIDS (%)

48.7

Source:- District Level Household & Facility Survey-3 , 2007-08

Coming back to the Millennium Development Goals pronounced in the year 2000, two important objectives mentioned there are to reduce child mortality and improve maternal health. The global picture is not very bright and India has also failed to achieve at the desired level on these two fronts. Proper attention on the improvement of child and maternal health is a pre-requisite for removal of poverty and hunger and in broader sense, improvement of the physical quality of life of a society. Also there are other indicators which require appropriate attention for betterment of the quality of life in the

district. Here we will discuss the district scenario with reference to some important indictors to get an overall picture of rural society of Paschim Medinipur.

Infant mortality Infant mortality is always a painful event for a family and as such in interior parts of the district, it goes beyond the look of health administration as parents do not want to get it registered. This has always come on the way of getting authentic picture of infant mortality in the district. In India, malnutrition accounts for half of the child deaths, the rate of which has come down in gradual manner from 1993, though it is still high. As to West Bengal, as per the latest data available through National family Health Survey (NFHS-2), the infant mortality rate is forty-nine per thousand live-birth. In the district the major causes of infant mortality are pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria, which cause death even after the first month of life. From the data available with the office of the Chief Medical Officer of Health, Paschim Medinipur it is seen that during the first six months of 2008-09, a total of 1026 numbers of infant death was reported whereas during the corresponding period of 2009-10, the number of deaths was 768. This shows a downward trend which makes us optimistic, but this trend has to be continued over the years. Also two other factors must be kept in mind that a good number of infant deaths are not reported and secondly there is widespread regional variation in number of infant deaths across the district. So far as the causes of death are concerned, analysis reveals that 21.9 % of the death occurred during April-September, 2009 were by respiratory diseases, 24.2 % by LBWs and 12.4 % by birth asphyxia. The district has stressed on the reduction of death rate in early months of childhood through effective management of ongoing programmes as it is seen that the first few months are vital so far as infant mortality is concerned.

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Human Development Report Paschim Medinipur

Maternal mortality Maternal mortality is a major aspect of health status. In India maternal mortality is 301 (2001 - 03 Special Survey of Deaths using RHIME) and in West Bengal it was 194. But intensive drives taken by the health system are bringing good results over the last few years. NRHM report of the district for 2008-09 reveals that in this district it was 140 in 2004-05 and further came down to 104 in 2008-09. If we look at the comparative analysis, 49 cases of maternal mortality was reported during the first half of 2008-09, whereas during the corresponding period of 2009-10, the number of such death was 25, which shows that there was a reduction of about fifty per cent. Lack of care during child birth is held primarily responsible for maternal death whereas there are other causes of anemia. There are provisions of antenatal care under the pre sent public health system, which are contributing in reducing the maternal mortality in the district. Important factors in this regard are:- (i) care before delivery, (ii) place of delivery and presence of personnel at the time of delivery and (iii) post delivery care, out of which factor (ii) is most important towards reducing maternal mortality. Also all these point towards the poor socio-economic condition in which the majority of the children of rural society of the district come to the world, which need to be improved.

Institutional delivery Institutional delivery is a measure that arrests maternal mortality to a large extent Institutional deliveries are rated as single largest factor to the well-being of mother and neonatal.

Table 4.9 Delivery status in the district Item

2008-09

2009-10 (April-June)

Total delivery

91011

21066

Institutional

56491 (62%)

13943 (66%)

Home

34520 (38%)

7123 (34%)

Source:- Chief Medical Officer of Health, Paschim Medinipur

Thus, a gradual improvement is occurring in the percentage of institutional deliveries over the last 8 years. But it still varies around 65 percent of the total deliveries. Percentage of deliveries by non-medical untrained persons, though reducing, is still more then ten per cent.

Table 4.10 Coverage under Ayushmati Scheme in Paschim Medinipur* 2007-08

2008-09

2009-10 (April-June)

Total Delivery

397

1847

470

Caesarian Section

212

616

112

* Number of accredited private health facility:- 9 Source:- Chief Medical Officer of Health, Paschim Medinipur

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Status of Helth

Table 4.11 Incentive to pregnant mothers of SC & ST families belonging to BPL under Janani Surakshya Yojana (JSY) Item

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10 (April-June)

For maintenance of maternal nutrition in

23924

60479

8125

For institutional delivery

15979

19699

5283

Referral transport scheme

14382

21446

5603

Source:- Chief Medical Officer of Health, Paschim Medinipur

Performances of individual Blocks during 2005-06 and 2008-09 reveal that there exist wide variations in this respect among the Blocks. Consideration of places of birth and types of assistance during delivery in the Blocks shows that percentage of institutional birth varies from 11.7 per cent in Kharagpur-II Block to 87.4 per cent in Medinipur Sadar Block. Percentage of institutional delivery is less that 50 per cent in 13 out of 29 blocks. This figure is higher then the district average of 62.24 per cent only in ten Blocks. Percentage of institutional delivery has increased in all the Blocks except in three Blocks, viz., Chandrakona-I, Debra and Pingla Blocks.

Age of marriage and fertility Age of marriage and the age at which a woman gives birth to her first child is an important health indicator of a society so far as attainment of goals in health sector is concerned. The minimum age of marriage as stipulated by the government is 18 years for girls and it is expected that she will give birth at 19 years of age. But still in the district like other parts of the State and the country as a whole, there are substantial numbers of early marriages leading to early pregnancy and consequentially to maternal mortality, infant mortality or even sick babies. As per DLHS-3 conducted during 2007-08 in the district, 47.6 percent of the girls still get married before attaining the age of 18 years in rural areas inspite of various steps taken for awareness. This is corroborated by other information that 26.2 per cent of the rural women get their first child within 19 years of age. Numerous cases are also there of becoming mother at the age of 15-16 years.

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Human Development Report Paschim Medinipur

Table 4.12 Block-wise estimated birth rate and female literacy rate Block

Estimated birth rate

Female literacy rate

Garhbeta-I

23.95

53.00

Garhbeta-II

22.51

Garhbeta-III

Block

Estimated birth rate

Female literacy rate

Kharagpur - II

22.51

55.50

54.00

Keshiray

22.57

55.20

25.25

55.30

Narayangarh

21.90

59.30

Salboni

22.65

52.20

Dantan - I

23.60

53.70

Keshpur

25.25

54.50

Dantan- II

22.84

62.70

Medinipur

23.96

47.80

Mohanpur

21.97

64.00

Binpur-I

22.67

47.60

Debra

20.47

62.50

Binpur-II

21.37

46.70

Pingla

20.98

68.40

Jamboni

21.87

53.30

Sabang

21.02

67.30

Jhargram

21.80

51.70

Daspur-I

20.17

64.50

Gopiballavpur-I

23.56

42.40

Daspur -II

19.57

70.70

Gopiballavpur-II

22.58

49.60

Ghatal

21.37

62.10

Sankrail

23.03

52.90

Chandrakona-I

21.57

60.50

Nayagaram

25.29

40.60

Chandrakona-II

24.21

56.30

Kharagpur - I

19.78

61.10

Source:- Health on the March, 2007-'08

Also still in the district 15.7 per cent of the women give birth of the order of three and above, while 58.3 per cent of the women of 20-24 age-group report birth of two and above. All these information indicate that we still have to go a long way in coming out of the second stage of demographic transition in the district. Factors like lack of awareness, dowry system, age-old desire of the society to have male-child contribute largely to early marriage, early pregnancy and higher birth order. Efforts are on to address the evils, but it is still along journey for the district.

Conclusion To improve its position in reproductive & child health sector, the district has stressed on antenatal care, institutional births, immunization coverage of mothers & new-borns, increase the use of family planning methods. As per DLHS-3, presently 49.1 per cent of the pregnant women are getting three ante-natal care visits during last pregnancy. It has improved significantly, but the gap between the target and achievement points towards lack of proper health infrastructure in remote areas of the district. For more institutional births, expansion of PHCs are taking place in a big way in the district and more number of trained birthattendants have also been pressed into service, which will definitely improve the situation. Post-natal care is also being looked into with greater emphasis as most of the rural women in Paschim Medinipur suffer

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Status of Helth

from anemia and other diseases. The district also intends to achieve total success in child immunization, in which the present percentage is 80.5 per cent. In all, we want to achieve our goals through proper addressing of the areas of backwardness in health sector.

Public Health Public health is 'the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of District Illness Assistance Fund society, organizations, public In a district like Paschim Medinipur, where 44.53 % of the and private, communities and population lives below the poverty line, the District Illness Assistance individuals.' (C.E.A. Winslow, Fund comes as of much help at the time of treatment. The district The Untitled Field of Public health administration has so far succeeded to help a number of 4060 Health, Science). The focus of people under the fund till July, 2009, but still there are 974 pending public health intervention is, cases by that time. therefore, to prevent rather than The picture is as follows:treat a disease through ? Number of persons assisted:- 4060 (Out of which 723 are of surveillance of cases and dog-bite cases and 3337 are others) promotion of healthy ? Fund received since inception up to July, 2009:- Rs.50 lakhs behaviour. In a developing country like India, public health ? Expenditure up to July, 2009:- Rs.49.52 Lakh infrastructures are still forming Source:- Chief Medical Officer of Health, Paschim Medinipur and as a result, a large majority of disease and mortality in the developing world results from and contributes to extreme poverty. The district, with agrarian base, still suffers from a number of conventional diseases to a large extent. Here we will discuss some of these major public health problems of the district.

MALARIA In this district incidence of malaria is high, especially in some selected zones of Jhargram and Medinipur Sadar Sub-division. Specially six Blocks of the district, viz., Binpur-I, Binpur-II, Jamboni, Jhargram, GarhbetaI, Garhbeta-II are endemic. The fact that the vector (Anoph. Culicifacis) has become resistant to DDT and malaria parasites becoming resistant to choloroquine also have become detrimental in arresting the incidence of malaria in those areas. On the other hand, lack of health awareness and inaccessibility of the malaria-prone areas by the service providers of health department are also responsible for the high incidence of malaria in the district. Table 4.13 Incidence of Malaria in Paschim Medinipur district Type

2007

2008

2009 (Januray-June)

Attack

Death

Attack

Death

Attack

Death

Benign Malaria(PV)

2678

0

2213

0

849

0

Plasmodium falciparum (malignant)

2336

4

1243

17

606

6

Source:- Chief Medical Officer of Health, Paschim Medinipur

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Human Development Report Paschim Medinipur

Binpur-II Block is a highly malaria-prone area where all the four casualties took place in 2007, but in 2008 there was no death in that Block. Another important point to be noted that the number of deaths was higher in 2008, even lesser number of people were attacked compared to 2007. The following interventions are taking place in the district to prevent incidence of malaria:?

Indoor Residual Spray has started from May, 2009 in Blocks like Binpur-I, Binpur-II, Jamboni, Nayagram, Jhargram, Gopiballavpur-I, Gopiballavpur-II, Keshpur and Garhbeta-II.

?

Distribution of bed-nets have been done as follows:o

Garhbeta-II - 1500 nos.

o

Binpur-II - 25000 nos.

o

Jamboni - 1000 nos.

o

Jhargram - 1500nos.

?

Community bed-net impregnation - 278520 nos.

?

Mass Drug Administration

?

Use of Rapid Diagnostic Kit at Sub-centre level

?

Active & passive slide collection for fever cases

?

Gram-Panchayat level IPC workshop with community members

TUBERCULOSIS Like other backward districts of the State, tuberculosis has still remained a major killer disease in the district. Under Revised National Tuberculosis Programme (RNTCP), two-pronged targets have been taken which are to reduce the mortality rate on one hand and on the other hand also to abolish the transmission process of the said infection.

Fig. 4.2 Percentage of detection of Tuberculosis

Source:- Health on the March, 2007-'08

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Status of Helth

Table 4.14 Tuberculosis - district fact sheet

In the district new smear Year 2007 2008 2009 positive case detection rate was 54 per lakh of Total TB case detection 6612 6636 3430 population in 2006-07, 3 Cure rate of new smear positive case 86.25% 84.75% 86.56% - month conversion rate Sputum conversation (3 months) rate 89.50% 89.75% 90.50% was 90 % and the cure TB Death 208 233 127 rate was 86 %. The Source:- Chief Medical Officer of Health, Paschim Medinipur district is continuously making progress in the area, but still number of deaths has not reduced over the years. The following interventions have been taken in the district to get rid of the ailment:?

Intensive training & sensitization of the staff at all tiers, rural medical practitioners, private practitioners, non-governmental organizations etc.

?

Engagement of 586 of Community DOT Providers

?

Collection of sputum through 26 centres

?

Massive IEC through cable network, television, local newspapers, street hoardings etc.

?

Involvement of non-governmental organizations for urban DOT-providers & treatment adherence.

LEPROSY Leprosy is another dreaded disease in the rural society of this district. It has a high prevalence rate like other adjacent districts of the State. With the introduction of Multi Drug therapy (MDT) in 1988, the prevalence rate has reduced and the district has made much progress, but still the percentage of deformity amongst the newly detected cases is laying around one percent over the years, which is an area of concern.

Table 4.15 Progress under National Leprosy Programme (NLEP) in Paschim Medinipur Year

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

PB

673

688

181

MB

859

890

237

Released from

PB

512

601

139

Treatment

MB

659

658

191

Percentage of child

8.95 (137)

9.32 (147)

9.1 (39)

Percentage of female

35.21 (539)

33.52 (529)

32.2 (134)

1.76 (27)

1.08 (17)

0.69 (9)

New Case Detected

Incidence amongst child and female out of New case detected

Deformity rate (as percentage of new case detected)

Source:- Chief Medical Officer of Health, Paschim Medinipur

In terms of prevalence rate (PR), which is an important indicator in leprosy detection, the district had a PR of 1.89 (per 10,000) in 2007-08 compared to the state figure of 1.04.

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Human Development Report Paschim Medinipur

Major interventions adopted in the field are: ?

Special campaign & case detection with POID camps at Gram-Panchayat level

?

Re-constructive surgery for leprosy related deformity care at Jhargram Sub divisional hospital

?

Care of persons with deformity through self-care groups in association with non-governmental organizations

BLINDNESS Blindness also affects a substantial percentage of rural population in the district and the district is trying to combat the situation under the National Programme for Control of Blindness. In the year 2007-2008, the district reached 82 % of the target of cataract operation with the involvement of the non-governmental organizations (NGO). Participation of NGOs has improved the performance substantially, but still the district is yet to reach its year-wise target for which more involvement of NGOs and private organizations are required as the governmental infrastructure is not at all sufficient to cater the need. So far as performance of school eye screening programme, there is scope of improvement in the achievement.

Participation in cataract operation during 2007-2008 1% 6%

Government NGO Private

93%

Source:- CMOH, Paschim Medinipur

DIARRHOEA Attacks and deaths due to diarrhea also need special mention for this district as poverty coupled with low level of hygienic awareness amongst the rural people, cases of diarrhea come out almost every year specially during summer and early rainy season. Except the cause of lack of awareness, other important reason is the non-availability of pure drinking water during summer when the water level goes down substantially in various parts of the district, especially in the laterite regions of Jhargram and Medinipur Sadar sub-division. Another reason is the use of drinking water from dug wells which receive rain-water carrying the night soil of catchments area in early rainy season. The district is yet to achieve the target of providing safe drinking water to each family, but we are very close to the target. Table 4.16 Incidence of diarrhoea in Paschim Medinipur However, due to the Year Attack rate (AR) Case fatality rate (CFR) No. of seasonal variation of (no. of cases reported ( no. of deaths per deaths water-level, the safe per thousand population) hundred case) drinking water does not 2006 33 0.02 32 become available in dry 2007 29 0.02 31 seasons, which is a Source:- Health on the March, 2007-'08 problem needs to be addressed. On the other hand, the district administration is trying to make provision of sanitary latrine to each household of the district and remarkable progress has also been achieved in the area. These two interventions will reduce the incidence of diarrhea in the district to a large extent.

107

Status of Helth

AIDS The district has a sizeable number of HIV+ cases and moreover it is facing an upward trend in the HIV-related problem, which needs strong intervention. Out of the total number of seropositive cases detected in West Bengal till March, 2008, the district ranked fourth amongst the districts so far as total numbers of cases were concerned. Three Blocks in Ghatal Table 4.17 Number of cases detected positive sub-division of this district have already reported for HIV till March, 2008 some incidences, which may be specially due Paschim Medinipur 606 to the fact that young male members from a good West Bengal 15142 number of families of these areas go to the Source:- Health on the March, 2007-'08 western part of the country for earning their livelihoods for a substantial period of each year and carry back HIV in those areas. Steps are being taken to spread awareness amongst the people of the district in general and especially those in the affected Blocks with the twin objective of treatment of the HIV+ cases and to see that incidence rate of cases fall in the district as a whole.

Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) The National Policy for Children, 1974, is founded on the conviction that child development programmes are necessary to ensure equality of opportunity to the children. It provides the framework for assigning priorities to different needs of children (before and after birth), and for responding to them in an integrated manner. Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) is India's response to the challenge of meeting the holistic needs of the child and today ICDS is a powerful outreach programme to help achieve major national nutrition & health goals and also the national goal of universal primary education. For development of women and children the district proposes:- (1) to cover the whole district under ICDS and to improve the infrastructure of the ICDS, (2) to give special emphasis on women & children while implementing various general development schemes, and (3) to increase the active participation of women in all the decision-making units of development programmes. While the second and third objectives demand a sound and healthy rural society, the first one can address the malnutrition and other healthrelated backwardness of rural women & children in an effective way and contribute towards the formation of a healthy rural society which can take part in developmental activities of the district through proper decision-making.

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Human Development Report Paschim Medinipur

ICDS in Paschim Medinipur - at a glance Infrastructure Number of ICDS projects operating since 2007

31 (tribal projects:- 8, rural project:- 21, urban project:- 2)

Number of Anganwadi Centres (AWC) operating since 2007

6771 (out of the 6996 AWCs sanctioned, 40 nos. of AWCs in Kharagpur Urban project and 185 nos. of AWCs in Kharagpur-II project have not been operationalised due to court case. Out of the total operationalcentres, 481 are situated in backward villages.) Coverage (as on December, 2008)

Pregnant and lactating mother

77665

Children in the 6 months-3 years age-group

214261

Children in the 3 years-6 years age-group

227240

Coverage under other interventions (since inception up to December, 2008) Balika Samriddhi Yojana

12820

Kishori Shakti Yojana

4689

Anganwadi Karjyakartri Bima Yojana

3358

Source:- District Programme Officer, ICDS, Paschim Medinipur

The ICDS set-up in the district is providing coverage to a large number of rural children and pregnant and lactating mothers of poor families of the district to improve their nutrition level as is evident from the figure that as on September, 2009, a total of 446840 children and 80991 numbers of pregnant and lactating mothers are getting the support of Supplementary Nutrition Programme (SNP).

Table 4.18 Project-wise coverage and infrastructural facilities available under ICDS (as on September, 2009) Number of SNP beneficiaries No. of the Project

No. of AWCs running

Children between 6 months -3 years

Number of children in Grade III &IV

No. of AWCs having own building

Midnapore Sadar

184

9005

10410

Midnapur Urban

85

3476

2536

3554

156

26

45

29

83

999

56

0

85

85

15

Keshpur

350

15341

Salboni

330

9036

15372

5415

104

25

318

168

92

8806

3368

167

237

81

120

25

Garhbeta-I

237

Garhbeta-II

262

9535

8394

3201

58

153

74

115

73

6402

6044

2312

77

74

248

81

25

Garhbeta-III Kharagpur-I

155

6500

6769

2302

20

40

119

25

77

172

6294

6295

2353

252

60

33

20

220

Kharagpur-II

Children Pregnant between 3 and years-6 lactating years mother

No. of AWCs having tubewell

No. of AWCs having toilet facility

None of the 185 AWCs are running due to court case

No. of new AWCs sanctioned

104

Debra

288

9296

9245

3618

135

39

288

25

134

Pingla

182

7252

7392

2749

106

30

151

25

68

109

Status of Helth

Number of SNP beneficiaries No. of the Project

No. of AWCs running

Children between 6 months -3 years

Children Pregnant between 3 and years-6 lactating years mother

Number of children in Grade III &IV

No. of AWCs having own building

No. of AWCs having tubewell

No. of AWCs having toilet facility

No. of new AWCs sanctioned

Sabong

254

11165

10203

3940

59

15

203

107

92

Mohanpur

102

4201

Kharagpur Urban*

190

4940

4325

1950

118

5

70

66

34

4397

1544

72

0

190

190

10

Dantan-I

151

Dantan-II

140

7145

8324

2645

56

18

110

33

96

6205

5945

2552

78

20

81

57

51

Keshiary

377

Narayangarh

301

6743

7300

2426

125

105

211

25

25

13032

14270

4589

137

80

198

104

161

Jhargram

240

7314

6708

2912

157

85

200

26

66

Jamboni Binpur-I

204

4795

4771

1836

98

13

154

50

25

398

7911

8032

2803

72

45

365

67

25

Binpur-II

417

8520

9658

2892

41

134

276

22

25

Sankrail

134

4113

4093

1617

159

20

81

40

48

Gopiballavpur-I

190

5295

6042

1650

36

15

163

81

25

Gopiballavpur-II

185

4814

4641

1679

75

15

135

52

25

Nayagram

354

7551

77730

2732

439

60

6

25

25

Ghatal

256

9535

8394

3201

58

172

161

56

76

Daspur-I

175

7412

6998

2513

37

144

141

104

85

Daspur-II

206

7777

7327

2896

14

127

163

128

72

Chandrakona-I

135

6068

6437

2177

19

56

123

30

74

Chandrakona-II

117

5531

5122

2002

35

41

17

16

57

Total

6771

223288

223552

80991

3033

1854

4490

1972

2013

* In Kharagpur Urban project 40 AWCs are not running due to court case Source:- District Programme Officer, ICDS, Paschim Medinipur

Out of the special interventions taken up in the district under ICDS, three are mentioned here: A.

Positive Deviance Programme

The Positive Deviance Programme was launched in the district on 1st October, 2007. The emphasis of the programme is to aware all sections of community, especially mothers, so that they can be wellequipped for combating the malnourishment of themselves as well as their children without receiving any support from outside. The programme has been named as 'KENO PARBO NA' (why we will not be able to do?). Introduction of social map, community growth chart, mother & child protection card and cohortregister are used for capacity buildings of the community people. Eight blocks (Binpur-I, Binpur-II, Jhargram, Jamboni, Salboni, Kharagpur-I, Keshiary and Narayangarh) have been brought under the programme with the help of 165 numbers of specially trained persons from Panchayat Raj Institutions, Anganwadi Centres and health set-up. B.

Kishori Shakti Yojana

In order to better address concerns for the women and girl child it was necessary to design interventions for adolescent girls. Kishori Shakti Yojana (KSY) is aimed at breaking the intergenerational life-cycle of nutritional disadvantage and providing a supportive environment for self-development through income generation programme.

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Human Development Report Paschim Medinipur

Intervention focuses on school drop-out girls in the age group of 11-18 years with the objectives to meet their needs of self-development, nutrition, education, literacy, recreation and skill formation. The programme, aimed to mobilize and enhance the potential of adolescent girls as social animators, has so far covered 5407 girls in the district.

C.

Organisation of Village Health and Nutrition Day in Anganwadi Centres

In all the Anganwadi Centres of the district in rural area Village Health and Nutrition Day is observed on fourth Tuesday from 11.00 AM to 1.00 PM with the objective of awareness generation and behaviourchange by dissemination of messages related to mother & child health care, personal health & hygiene, public health issues, communicable diseases etc. The target group includes pregnant women, nursing mothers and adolescent girls of the area concerned. The programme is receiving good response from the target groups and is expected to create a positive impact in a bigger way in future.

Drinking water A major part of the district is lateritic and drought-prone and in summer, water level goes down to a large extent. As a result good numbers of the shallow wells become dry from mid-summer. Even there are places, specially in Jhargram, Medinipur Sadar & parts of Kharagpur Table 4.19 Number of schemes under Sub-division where situation starts to various water supply programmes worsen from the onset of summer (upto September, 2009)* season and people are compelled to Piped drink water from dug-wells and other Programme water Tubewell sources. Habitation-wise, most of the supply habitations of the district are covered Swajaldhara 35 Nil by tube well, either hand-bored or rigRWS (MNP) 151 187 bored, but there are places where even ARWSP (in 2007-2008) 220 89 rig-bore fails due to existence of hard ARWSP (in 2008-2009) 109 35 rocks in the sub-soil. The district still lacks in achieving the norm of one tube ARWSP (in 2009-2010) 194 Nil well per 250 population and as stated * Schemes are either operational or installation work is going earlier, there is season-wise variation on or sanction is awaited. in the availability of potable water in Source:- Executive Engineer, Public Health Engineering Department (Civil), the rural areas with the advancement Paschim Medinipur of summer as number of functioning tube wells reduces. Only 8.83 per cent of the population of this District is covered under piped schemes for safe drinking water supply. However, other areas are mostly covered by tube well and even dug wells. But proper information on percentage of population actually getting the benefits of functional tube wells at Block or GP or Village level are lacking. This information gap needs to be solved so that the district can take proper steps to improve its coverage under safe drinking water schemes. Coverage of population by piped water supply schemes is only 11.59 % up to July, 2009, which the district wants to take up to 75 % by the end of the year 2014. Except Swajaldhara schemes, in which the

111

Status of Helth

stakeholders contribute to the scheme financially for better involvement, piped water supply schemes and setting up of tube wells are running presently under the Rural Water Supply (Minimum Needs Programme) [RWS (MNP)] and Augmented Rural Water Supply Programmes [ARWSP]. Other funds received by the three-tier Panchayat bodies are also used for installation and repair of tube wells.

Table 4.20 Status of piped water supply schemes in Paschim Medinipur (as on September, 2009) Number of sanctioned schemes

63

Number of commissioned schemes

47

Number of ongoing schemes

16

Rural population (in thousand) benefited by commissioned schemes

502.55

(10.98 % of rural population) Rural population (in thousand) to be benefited by sanctioned schemes (to be operational by March, 2010) Villages covered by sanctioned schemes

549 (12.70 % of rural population) 382 (total village in the district:- 8701)

Source:- Executive Engineer, Public Health Engineering Department (Civil), Paschim Medinipur

Figure 4.4 Spot sources of water in Paschim Medinipur District as on September, 2009 Spot sources of water in Paschim Medinipur (as on September, 2009)

7517

22209

5295

Ordinary tubewell Deep well pump Rig-bore tubewell

Source:- Executive Engineer, Public Health Engineering Department (Civil), Paschim Medinipur

112

So far as qualitative aspect is concerned, iron-content in drinking water is high in major part of the district, specially in laterite zones. Though iron-contamination does not affect instantly, but long-term measures need to be taken to prevent any future disease in areas of high ironcontent. Fortunately, presence of fluoride in drinking water, which has direct negative impact on the body, has not been found in most part of the district. Only Jambani and Narayangarh have some positive cases with very low percentage.

Human Development Report Paschim Medinipur

Sanitation An important area of intervention in the district is to provide sanitary facility at each household and at each corner of the district. This obviously reduces health hazards and at the same time ensures better standard of living of the people. More than a decade ago the district took a leading role in launching Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) in the State, Table 4.21 School Sanitation (up to July, 2009) but the district has not yet achieved to Primary Schools bring all the households under the coverage of sanitary facility. Awareness Number of primary schools 4360 has obviously increased and a good to be covered number of Gram-Panchayats have been Number of primary schools 4360 declared 'Nirmal Gram' as a certification provided with first unit of full coverage, but all the latrines set up Number of primary schools 499 are not being used by the owners. provided with first unit Considering the revised number of households as per Rural Household Junior High, Secondary, Higher Secondary Schools Survey as modified in 2009, the district Number of schools to 735 has achieved 63.9 % progress in covering be covered the entire household. The fact that a good Toilet block for girls student 638 number of people construct latrine on their own which has not been accounted Toilet block for boys student 485 in the above statistics, a fact which will Madrashas enhance the percentage of coverage, still Number of Madrashas 12 it can be said that we have a long way to to be covered go to reach total success. Toilet block for girls student 12 Scarcity of water in the district, specially in laterite zones during summer, Toilet block for boys student 12 is a major cause for not using the latrines SSK by the people. Another reason is that Target 2459 most of the villages in the backward Blocks of the district have adjacent forest Achievement 2031 area, which is another reason for this. ICDS Through awareness generation through Target 6477 the three-tier Panchayat system, self-help groups and other community based Achievement 2012 organizations, the district wants to achieve MSK total success in the area. Target 230 So far as school sanitation is Achievement 213 concerned, all the primary schools have Source:- Executive Engineer, Public Health Engineering Department been provided with one unit and some of these schools have received the second (Civil), Paschim Medinipur unit. Emphasis is now on setting up of separate units for boys and girls in primary schools, progress of which is quite satisfactory. At the same time, coverage of all the Sishu Siksha Kendras (SSK), Madhyamik Siksha Kendras (MSK) & Anganwadi Centres (AWC) is another target. However, land-related problem has become a hindrance in some of these cases and most of the AWCs still do not have their own building. Also presently the district is taking up the work of construction of sanitary latrines at the time of construction of new building in these cases.

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Status of Helth

Table 4.22 Block-wise progress under Total Sanitation campaign (up to October, 2009) Block

No. of househo

Latrines constructed

Progress (in %)

Block

No. of household*

Latrines constructed

Progress (in %)

ld* Garhbeta - I

50564

33556

66.4

Kharagpur - II

42804

24794

57.93

Garhbeta-II

28560

24213

84.8

Keshiray

38807

24406

62.9

Garhbeta - III

39567

25335

64.0

Narayangarh

76137

41225

54.1

Salboni

34833

31401

90.1

Dantan - I

35017

24486

69.9

Keshpur

62465

43549

69.7

Dantan - II

32841

19930

60.7

Midnapur Sadar

41420

25795

62.3

Mohanpur

31452

12236

38.9

Binpur-I

39855

28173

70.7

Debra

69673

33885

48.6

Binpur-II

37682

29685

78.8

Pingla

44622

25123

56.3

Jamboni

25526

19758

77.4

Sabang

65248

36556

56.0

Jhargram

36875

29056

78.8

Daspur-I

46637

21146

45.3

Gopiballavpur-I

19978

16090

80.5

Daspur -II

55410

23568

42.5

Gopiballavpur-II

21364

16314

76.4

Ghatal

48393

30821

63.7

Sankrail

24434

20259

82.9

Chandrakona-I

27072

18302

67.6

Nayagaram

32998

24186

73.3

Chandrakona-II

23635

16227

68.7

Kharagpur - I

34648

26137

75.4

District total

1168517

746212

63.9

*Number of households has been taken from Rural Household Survey as revised in 2009 Source:- Paschim Medinipur Zilla Parishad

4.4 Health Indices for blocks of PASCHIM MEDINIPUR District The last section has provided a detailed scenario of the status of health in the district as a whole and also across the blocks of the district. Given the information we shall try in this section to construct health indices across the blocks of the district following the methodology mentioned below. Methodology: As has been observed in the last section, we have no data on life expectancy at birth across the blocks, nor we have any reliable data on infant mortality rate. We have some (and probably not complete) data on institutional delivery, but no reliable data on total delivery and so the proportion of institutional delivery in total delivery can not also be used with complete reliability. But within the data of total delivery the number of birth of babies with low birth weight (LBW) being reliable, the proportion of the LBW babies in total live births can be used as a negative indicator of child health. A more reliable inverse indicator of child health is the proportion of malnourished children in the age group 0 to 6 years covered by the ICDS project and we shall use it for the construction of child health indices of the blocks. Another indicator of child health is the percentage of babies who has undergone complete immunization process. It is not only the indicator of child health; it is also the indicator of health of the future generation. These two rates are combined for arriving at the child health index for the blocks in Paschim Medinipur.

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Human Development Report Paschim Medinipur

Table 4.23 Indicators in the development in Health for the blocks of Paschim Medinipur District Sub-division

Ghatal

Jhargram

Kharagpur

Medinipur

Block

% of Malnouri100-% of shed Children Malnutrition

% of Full % of Persons 100 - % of Immunisation having 2 and Adult sometimes Malnutrition < 2 meals per day

Chandrakona-I

29.75

70.25

81.85

46.93

53.07

Chandrakona-II

32.65

67.35

84.60

40.69

59.31

Daspur-I

32.52

67.48

79.81

26.11

73.89

Daspur-II

20.34

79.66

83.44

21.04

78.96

Ghatal

38.35

61.65

80.44

37.30

62.70

Binpur-I

38.80

61.20

81.59

58.66

41.34

Binpur-II

42.62

57.38

62.75

65.78

34.22

Gopiballavpur-I

35.97

64.03

84.58

63.76

36.24

Gopiballavpur-II

40.53

59.47

75.19

56.71

43.29

Jamboni

44.94

55.06

76.99

73.10

26.90

Jhargram

37.55

62.45

71.73

57.61

42.39

Nayagram

51.92

48.08

67.33

80.30

19.70

Sankrail

40.67

59.33

75.24

58.23

41.7

Dantan-I

40.33

59.67

75.12

56.84

43.16

Dantan-II

41.75

58.25

92.68

60.70

39.30

Debra

31.21

68.79

81.62

36.58

63.42

Keshiary

41.80

58.20

73.72

64.75

35.25

Kharagpur-I

40.28

59.72

79.76

59.40

40.60

Kharagpur-II

40.33

59.67

69.31

52.75

47.25

Mohanpur

38.88

61.12

87.03

61.29

38.71

Narayangarh

34.98

65.02

86.68

53.64

46.36

Pingla

37.87

62.13

86.53

56.03

43.97

Sabong

38.02

61.98

74.62

56.44

43.56

Garhbeta-I

37.73

62.27

73.69

43.50

56.50

Garhbeta-II

36.80

63.20

74.53

44.60

55.40

Garhbeta-III

30.08

69.92

64.67

37.51

62.49

Keshpur

35.78

64.22

77.34

50.89

49.11

Medinipur

38.36

61.64

56.91

56.35

43.65

Salboni

36.17

63.83

87.76

47.00

53.00

Ghatal Sub-division

31.32

68.68

81.83

32.51

67.49

Jhargram Sub-division

41.68

58.32

73.73

64.20

35.8

Kharagpur Sub-division

38.10

61.90

80.54

54.39

45.61

Medinipur Sub-division

36.41

63.59

71.24

47.25

52.75

Paschim Medinipur District

37.53

62.47

77.02

50.93

49.07

Sadar

Source:- Chief Medical Officer of Health, Paschim Medinipur

115

Status of Helth

Before combining, they are normalized to the index values by using normative goalposts at 0 (0 %) and 1 (100 %), and not by using observed goalposts at observed minimum and observed maximum, to reflect the amount of actual achievement and the amount yet to be achieved. Equal weights are given in the combination. Status of adult health can be negatively measured by occurrence of different types of diseases and directly by the facilities available for their treatment or by the extent of actual treatment. In developing countries like India malnutrition is more severe a disease that requires hospital treatment and thus Malnutrition can be used as a very good negative indicator of adult health. Extent of malnutrition as per the findings of the Rural Household Survey 2005 is used as the relevant indicator of adult health and the percentage of persons having two and sometimes less than two meals per day in the whole year in total estimated persons in 2005 is used as the actual indicator. After normalizing in the same way, this index is combined with the index of child health with equal weights to arrive at the final health index for the blocks.

Health Indices for the Blocks of PASCHIM MEDINIPUR District: Basic data for the construction of the Health Indices are presented in Table 4.24. It presents the data on percentage of malnourished children in the age group 0-6 years, percentage of children in the age group 0-1 year who has undergone the full immunization programme and the percentage of persons having sometimes less than two meals per day. Data on malnourishment is available under moderate and severe categories. To have a representative figure, severe malnourishment has been given 100% weight and moderate malnourishment has been given 50% weight. Percentage of malnourished children is a negative indicator of development and we have considered 100 minus this percentage as the indicator of development. The table shows that the percentage of malnourished children is highest in Nayagram (51.92%) followed by Jamboni and Binpur-II. It is lowest in Daspur-II (20.34%) followed by Chandrakona-I, Garhbeta-III and Debra. The average figure for the district is 37.53%. Low malnourishment in the otherwise less developed blocks like Garhbeta-III and Chandrakona-I may be partly due to natural physical health of the people and their babies in these areas and partly due to the consciousness of the people in this aspect. Percentage of immunized babies is highest in Dantan-I (92.68%) followed by Salboni, Mohanpur, Narayangarh and Pingla and is lowest in Midnapore (56.91%) followed by Binpur-II, Garhbeta-III and Nayagram. These figures are partly due to differential initiatives on the part of the government and nongovernment organizations in this field and partly due to the consciousness of the people in this aspect.

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Human Development Report Paschim Medinipur

Table 4.24 Dimension Indices and the Health Index for the blocks of Paschim Medinipur District Subdivision

Rank

Adult NonMalnutrition Index or Adult Health Index

Rank

0.761

2

0.531

9

0.646

7

0.760

3

0.593

6

0.676

4

13

0.736

11

0.739

2

0.738

2

0.834

8

0.815

1

0.790

1

0.803

1

16

0.804

12

0.710

13

0.627

4

0.669

5

0.612

18

0.816

11

0.714

12

0.413

21

0.564

16

0.574

27

0.628

28

0.601

27

0.342

27

0.471

27

0.640

9

0.846

7

0.743

9

0.362

25

0.553

21

Jhargram Gopiballavpur-II 0.595

23

0.752

18

0.673

20

0.433

17

0.553

19

Ghatal

Block

Child NonMalnutrition Index

Rank

Full Immunization Index

Rank

Chandrakona-I

0.703

2

0.819

9

Chandrakona-II

0.673

6

0.846

6

Daspur-I

0.675

5

0.798

Daspur-II

0.797

1

Ghatal

0.617

Binpur-I Binpur-II Gopiballavpur-I

Child Health Index

Health Rank Index (HI) (HI)

Jamboni

0.551

28

0.770

16

0.660

24

0.269

28

0.465

28

Jhargram

0.625

12

0.717

24

0.671

23

0.424

19

0.547

23

Nayagram

0.481

29

0.673

26

0.577

29

0.197

29

0.387

29

Sankrail

0.593

24

0.752

17

0.673

22

0.418

20

0.545

24

Dantan-I

0.597

21

0.751

19

0.674

19

0.432

18

0.553

20

Dantan-II

0.582

25

0.927

1

0.755

6

0.393

23

0.574

14

Debra

0.688

4

0.816

10

0.752

7

0.634

3

0.693

3

Keshiary

0.582

26

0.737

22

0.660

25

0.353

26

0.506

26

Kharagpur Kharagpur-I

0.597

20

0.798

14

0.697

15

0.406

22

0.552

22

Kharagpur-II

0.597

21

0.693

25

0.645

26

0.473

12

0.559

18

Mohanpur

0.611

19

0.870

3

0.741

10

0.387

24

0.564

15

Narayangarh

0.650

7

0.867

4

0.759

4

0.464

13

0.611

11

Pingla

0.621

14

0.865

5

0.743

8

0.440

14

0.591

13

Sabong

0.620

15

0.746

20

0.683

17

0.436

16

0.559

17

Garhbeta-I

0.623

13

0.737

23

0.680

18

0.565

7

0.622

9

Garhbeta-II

0.632

11

0.745

21

0.689

16

0.554

8

0.621

10

Medinipur Garhbeta-III

0.699

3

0.647

27

0.673

21

0.625

5

0.649

6

Keshpur

0.642

8

0.773

15

0.708

14

0.491

11

0.599

12

Medinipur

0.616

17

0.569

29

0.593

28

0.437

15

0.515

25

Salboni

0.638

10

0.878

2

0.758

5

0.530

10

0.644

8

Ghatal Sub-division

0.687

1

0.818

1

0.753

1

0.675

1

0.714

1

Jhargram Sub-division

0.583

4

0.737

3

0.660

4

0.358

4

0.509

4

Kharagpur Sub-division

0.619

3

0.805

2

0.712

2

0.456

3

0.584

3

Medinipur Sub-division

0.636

2

0.712

4

0.674

3

0.528

2

0.601

2

Paschim Medinipur District

0.625

-

0.770

-

0.697

-

0.491

-

0.594

-

Sadar

117

Status of Helth

Percentage of persons not always having 2 meals per day is lowest in Daspur-II (21.04%) followed by Daspur-I, Debra and Ghatal and it is highest in Nayagram (80.30%) followed by Jamboni, Binpur-II, Keshiary and Gopiballavpur-I. Indices based on normative goalposts for these three indicators along with child health index, adult health index and combined health index are presented in Table 4.25. It shows that the health index is highest in Daspur-II (0.803) followed by Daspur-I (0.738) and Debra (0.693), and is lowest in Nayagram (0.387) followed by Jamboni (0.465) and Binpur-II (0.471). The implications of the results are straight forward. They imply that Daspur-II has been succeeded to attain a 80.30% development in health and the remaining 19.70% is yet to be achieved and the success is due to its achievement to the tune of 79.66% in child non-malnutrition, 83.44% in immunisation and 78.96% in adult non-malnutrition. On the other hand, in the block Nayagram, the attainment in health is only 38.70% and though the immunization rate and the percentage of non-malnourished children in this block are not very low (they are at 67.33% and 48.08% respectively) the ultimate attainment remains low for its low percentage of adult non-malnourishment which is at 19.70% only. If we look at the subdivisions, we find that the attainment in health is highest in Ghatal sub-division (71.40%) and lowest in Jhargram subdivision (50.90%). The said index for all the blocks of Paschim Medinipur district taken together is 0.594. This implies that the rural areas of Paschim Medinipur district have attained 59.40% success in health (a less than 2/3rd success) and the remaining 40.60% is yet to be achieved. Radar for different blocks of Paschim Medinipur District with different indicators of development in health In the radar presentation of development in health we have considered three other indicators along with Child Non-Malnutrition Index, Full Immunisation Index and Adult Non-Malnutrition Index. The indicators as shown in the radars are: (1)

ChNonMal = Child Non-Malnutrition Index

(2)

FuImmun

(3)

AdNonMal = Adult Non-Malnutrition Index

(4)

NonLBW

= Non- Low Birth Weight Index

(5)

InsDel

= Institutional Delivery Index

Sanit

= Sanitation Index

and (6)

= Full Immunisation Index

118

Human Development Report Paschim Medinipur

Radar for Blocks of Ghatal Sub-division Figure 4.5

Figure 4.6 Chandrakona-II

Chandrakona-I

ChNonMal 1.000

ChNonMal 1.000 Sanit

0.000

Sanit

FuImmun

0.500

AdNonMal

InsDel

NonLBW

Figure 4.8 Daspur-II ChNonMal 1.000

Daspur-I ChNonMal 1.000 0.500

Sanit

FuImmun

0.500

FuImmun

0.000

0.000

InsDel

AdNonMal

NonLBW

Figure 4.7

Sanit

FuImmun

0.000

,.

InsDel

0.500

InsDel

AdNonMal

AdNonMal

NonLBW

NonLBW

Figure 4.9 Ghatal ChNonMal 1.000

Sanit

0.500

FuImmun

0.000

InsDel

AdNonMal

NonLBW

119

Status of Helth

Radar for Blocks of Jhargram Sub-division

Figure 4.10

Figure 4.11

Binpur-I

Binpur-II ChNonMal 1.000

ChNonMal 1.000 Sanit

0.500

Sanit

FuImmun

0.000

InsDel

AdNonMal

InsDel

Figure 4.13 Gopiballavpur-II

Gopiballavpur-I

ChNonMal 1.000

ChNonMal 1.000

Sanit

FuImmun

AdNonMal

InsDel

Figure 4.14

Jhargram ChNonMal 1.000

ChNonMal 1.000

Sanit

FuImmun

0.500

FuImmun

0.000

0.000

InsDel

AdNonMal

Figure 4.15

Jamboni

0.500

FuImmun

NonLBW

NonLBW

Sanit

0.500

0.000

0.000

InsDel

AdNonMal

NonLBW

Figure 4.12

0.500

FuImmun

0.000

NonLBW

Sanit

0.500

InsDel

AdNonMal

NonLBW

AdNonMal

NonLBW

120

Human Development Report Paschim Medinipur

Figure 4.16

Figure 4.17

Nayagram

Sankrail ChNonMal 1.000

ChNonMal 1.000

Sanit

0.500

Sanit

FuImmun

FuImmun

0.000

0.000

InsDel

0.500

AdNonMal

InsDel

AdNonMal

NonLBW

NonLBW

Radar for Blocks of Kharagpur Sub-division Figure 4.18

Figure 4.19 Dantan-II

Dantan-I

ChNonMal 1.000

ChNonMal 1.000

Sanit

0.500

Sanit

FuImmun

InsDel

AdNonMal

NonLBW

Figure 4.21

Debra

Keshiary

ChNonMal 1.000

0.500

ChNonMal 1.000

FuImmun

Sanit

0.000

InsDel

AdNonMal

NonLBW

Figure 4.20

Sanit

FuImmun

0.000

0.000

InsDel

0.500

0.500

FuImmun

0.000

AdNonMal

InsDel

NonLBW

AdNonMal

NonLBW

121

Status of Helth

Figure 4.22

Figure 4.23 Kharagpur-II

Kharagpur-I

ChNonMal 1.000

ChNonMal 1.000

Sanit

0.500

Sanit

FuImmun

InsDel

AdNonMal

Figure 4.24

Figure 4.25 Narayangarh

Mohanpur ChNonMal 1.000

0.500

ChNonMal 1.000

FuImmun

Sanit

0.000

InsDel

InsDel

AdNonMal

AdNonMal

Figure 4.27 Sabong

Pingla

ChNonMal 1.000

ChNonMal 1.000

Sanit

FuImmun

0.500

FuImmun

0.000

0.000

InsDel

FuImmun

NonLBW

Figure 4.26

0.500

0.500

0.000

NonLBW

Sanit

AdNonMal

NonLBW

NonLBW

Sanit

FuImmun

0.000

0.000

InsDel

0.500

InsDel

AdNonMal

AdNonMal

NonLBW

NonLBW

122

Human Development Report Paschim Medinipur

Radar for Blocks of Ghatal Sub-division

Figure 4.28

Figure 4.29

Garhbeta-I

Garhbeta-II ChNonMal 1.000

ChNonMal 1.000

Sanit

0.500

Sanit

FuImmun

0.000

InsDel

AdNonMal

InsDel

Figure 4.31

Garhbeta-III

Keshpur

ChNonMal 1.000

ChNonMal 1.000

FuImmun

Sanit

0.000

InsDel

AdNonMal

InsDel

AdNonMal

Figure 4.33

Midnapore

Salboni

ChNonMal 1.000

ChNonMal 1.000

FuImmun

Sanit

0.000

InsDel

FuImmun

NonLBW

Figure 4.32

0.500

0.500

0.000

NonLBW

Sanit

AdNonMal

NonLBW

Figure 4.30

0.500

FuImmun

0.000

NonLBW

Sanit

0.500

0.500

FuImmun

0.000

AdNonMal

InsDel

NonLBW

AdNonMal

NonLBW

123

Status of Helth

124

Economic Livelihoods

126

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Chapter - V Economic Livelihoods 5. 1 Introduction : In recent years, while major accent is made on economic growth for socio-economic development of a country or a region based on the assumption that benefits of economic growth would percolate to the lowest ranks of the society (Smith 1776). It is experienced in developing countries including India that the benefits of economic growth hardly percolate to the ecologically disadvantaged region and to the common masses who constitute the bottom in the development ladder (Haq 1976; Dandekar and Rath 1971; Dantewala1973; Lehman 1974). Hence, along with economic growth, creation of livelihood / employment opportunities is essential and in this context, the issues concerning economic livelihoods with equitable growth have gained much importance. According to The Random House Dictionary livelihood implies means of subsistence. It refers to the capabilities, assets and strategies that people use to make a living; that is, to earn enough money to support themselves and their families through a variety of economic activities. Economic livelihoods are closely associated with economic activities. The goal of any livelihoods strategy is to develop self-reliance. Ellis (2000) defines a livelihood as comprising the assets, the activities and the access to these that together determine the living gained by an individual or household. Household assets are defined broadly to include nature, physical, human, financial, public, and social stocks, which may depreciate over time or be expanded through investment. A Statistical Account of Bengal Medinipur written by Hunter (1921) reveals that Medinipur district during the early 1920s was predominantly rural and agricultural with small percentage of persons engaged in government and local authorities, professions and personal services, industries and trade and commerce. Occupations of males were classified into seven categories, namely (i) services under government, municipal or other local authorities, (ii) professional services, (iii) personal services, (iv) agriculture and livestock, (v) commerce and trade, (vi) mechanical arts, manufactures and engineering operations and sale of goods manufactured or prepared for consumption and miscellaneous workers. Females were not engaged in (ii) and (ii). During the post-Independence period, particularly during the last thirty years substantial transformation of the economy and society of the district has taken place and economic livelihood pattern has undergone significant change in Paschim Medinipur. There is wide variation in employment / work opportunities among the blocks of the district, which is explained by historical, environmental, demographic, cultural, economic and institutional factors. Objectives of the chapter: Against this brief backdrop the present chapter on economic livelihoods analyses various issues concerning economic livelihoods of the people of the district. Broad three-fold objectives of the chapter are: a)

To examine economic livelihood pattern of people and its dynamics in the district,

b)

To construct economic livelihood index for the district,

c)

To analyse the variation in economic livelihood index across the district.

Approach to economic livelihoods: We adopt production / activity approach to economic livelihoods in which economic activity/ production generates employment and income and thus livelihood opportunities.

127

Economic Livelihoods

We study resources available, particularly natural and infrastructural and their distribution, economic activities/ production and income in economic sectors, workforce, government intervention in the form of rural development programmes including Swaranajayanti Gram Sarojgar Yojana (SGSY) and National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) on living conditions of people, and the questions of food, shelter and poverty, livelihood strategies adopted by the households, economic livelihood indicators and finally construct economic livelihood index along with ranking of blocks. Database and Methodology: Both, secondary data and primary data have been used to analyse economic livelihoods of the people of the district. Census of India provides the major database of the study. It gives a time series data on human resources for regions of the country. Data on the level and structure of the workforce are available from this source at the district level and below, which the National Sample Survey data do not provide. The basic limitation of the Census data is that there are frequent changes in the definitions and concepts, which make the data non-comparable over fairly long time (Unni 1991). The 1961 Census used the 1958 Indian Standard Industrial Classification, while 1971, 1981 and 1991Censuses used National Industrial Classification (NIC), 1971. Since these classifications are not directly comparable (Basant and Kumar 1990), 1861 data are not comparable with 1971, 1981 and 1991 data. However, 1971, 1981 and 1991 data are comparable within themselves (Krishnaraj and Deshmukh 1990). Census 2001 has published data on industrial classification of workers with break up of main and marginal workers, which are comparable with 1991 data on industrial classification of main workers and marginal workers separately. Though Census of India gives time series data on economic livelihoods of people, it suffers from several limitations, particularly in respect of coverage, timeliness and reliability. From this source we have data on workers - main and marginal - which are summed up to yield total workers, which is important from the population perspective. But, this classification of workers into main and marginal workers needs economic interpretation, particularly from the working days and earning or income standpoint. Census of India defines main workers as those who have worked for the major part of the year preceding the date of enumeration, i.e., those who have been engaged in any economically productive activity for 183 days (or six months). Marginal workers are those who have worked any time at all in the year preceding the date of enumeration but did not work for the major part of the year, i.e., those who worked for less than 183 days (or six months). Since livelihood is concerned with level and quality of living of people, main and marginal workers data from Census of India cannot be summed up to yield total workers since these two categories as regards working days and earnings are different. Hence, some transformation of marginal workers into full workers is essential from the economic livelihood perspective to make the data equivalent and uniform and to reflect level of living of people. Main workers work for 6 months to 12 months or on the average 9 months in a year while marginal workers work from one day to six months, i.e., on the average 3 months in a year under the assumption of a uniform frequency distribution. But the actual distribution is uni-modal like Normal distribution with the peak at or around 6 months. Under this condition the said average for main workers can be taken at 8 months while that of marginal workers at 4 months in the reference year. In other words, marginal workers are taken to work for 50 per cent of mandays worked by main workers. On this basis we estimate total number of main workers adjusted in the following way. Total main workers adjusted = main workers + marginal workers multiplied by 0.5.

128

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Besides using Census of India we have also used District Statistical Handbook, Paschim Medinipur that provides useful data on economic activities like agriculture, manufacturing and services. Offices dealing with sectoral development of the economy district have also provided us with some useful current data but those are also not adequate. Different research works and projects conducted on impact of different rural development programmes in Paschim Medinipur district have been relevant to our study on economic livelihoods. Department of Economics with Rural Development, Vidyasagar University conducted a research project sponsored by Land Use Board, Planning and Development Department, Government of West Bengal where a large survey of 1020 households in three villages - one each from Jhargram, Jamboni and Nayagram blocks that are laterite soil and relatively backward blocks - was made. The Report of the project is also useful for our study. We have also conducted a field survey of 300 households in 15 villages of 15 blocks of the district - that gives us some current data though those are collected on small sample basis (20 households from each village). The recent research project on Access to Rural Credit in Paschim Medinipur district with Particular Reference to Self Help Groups as sponsored by the District Rural Development Agency, Paschim Medinipur District has also generated data which are useful in respect of economic livelihoods of people. These primary data help us supplement the secondary data and make conclusions based on updated data analysis. Organisation of the chapter: The rest of this chapter is organized as follows. Section 5.2 examines growth and structural changes in the economy of Paschim Medinipur district and Section 5.3 does so at the block level. Section 5.4 analyses the impact of different rural development programmes on employment, income, shelter and poverty. Section 5.5 presents livelihood strategies at the household level based on field survey. Section 5.6 deals with different economic livelihood indicators, constructs economic livelihood index and analyses its variation across the district. 5.7 summarises the earlier discussion and makes concluding observations.

5.2. Growth and Structural Changes in the Economy of Paschim Medinipur District 5.2.1 Growth of agriculture and agri-allied sector: In the district gross cropped area recorded 2.94 per cent growth during 2001 to 2007-08 and net cropped area and foodgrains area recoreded growth around 1 per cent. Foodgrains production experienced above 3 per cent growth, and oilseeds area and production recorded above 10 per cent growth per annum and fruits area about 40 per cent. Per capita foodgrains production growth in the district has been above 3 per cent. Potato area and production has recorded a growth of 7.13 per cent and 5.77 respectively during this period. The growth rate of agricultural area and production has been calculated based on time series data constructed by the moving average method (Table 5.1). Table 5.1 Agricultural Development in Paschim Medinipur District (Area in '000 ha., production in '000 tonne and productivity in kg. per ha.) Item

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

Annual growth rate (%)

Gross cropped Area

778.64

900.80

914.20

922.60

931.90

966.70

938.60

2.94

Net cropped area

486.40

545.30

565.28

552.10

551.70

555.60

558.70

2.12

Cropping Intensity

160.00

1650

162.00

167.00

169.00

174.00

168.00

0.71

Foodgrains Area

591.10

663.60

673.10

675.30

674.10

706.30

662.80

1.73

129

Economic Livelihoods

Item

2001-02

Foodgrains Production

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

Annual growth rate (%)

1481.70

1576.20

1538.90

1767.30

1652.70

1819.30

1820.80

3.27

Oilseeds area

55.20

65.50

77.80

86.00

84.60

96.40

107.50

13.54

Oilseeds production

49.50

56.80

76.50

78.40

79.60

99.40

128.30

22.74

Potato area

47.10

67.00

61.10

56.70

71.30

79.40

70.60

7.13

1335.40

1841.8

1547.50

1268.70

1519.60

843.70

1874.40

5.77

Potato production Fruits area

2.84

3.30

3.80

3.90

4.10

11.30

11.40

43.06

50.29

52.20

43.90

45.30

43.80

43.90

46.90

-0.96

285.30

303.50

296.32

340.30

318.23

350.31

350.60

3.27

2506.68

2375.23

2286.29

2617.06

2458.00

2576.00

2747.00

1.37

896.74

867.18

983.29

911.63

940.90

1031.12

1194

4.74

22375.66 21312.76

10625.94

26529

-0.92

Vegetables area Per capita foodgrains Production (kg) Foodgrains Productivity Oilseeds Productivity Potato productivity

28352.44

27489.55 25327.33

Sources: Government of West Bengal, Statistical Abstract and District Statistical Handbook Paschim Medinipur

Figure 5.1 presents line diagram on area under oilseeds, potato, fruits and vegetables, Figure 5.2 presents on net cropped area and foodgrains area, and Figure 5.3 also presents productivity of foodgrains and oilseeds. Figure 5.1 Area under Oliseeds, Potato, Fruits and Vegetables

Figure 5.2 Net Cropped Area and Foodgrains Area

Area under Oilseeds, Potato, Fruits and Vegetables

Net Cropped Area and Foodgrains Area

120

700

100

600 Area ( in 000' ha.)

80 60 40 20

Foodgrains Area

300

0 2001-02

Fruits area

2002-03

2003-04

Productivity ProductivityofofFoodgraings Foodgrains and andOilseeds Oilseeds 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500

Year Foodgrains Productivity

130

Oilseeds Productivity

2007-08

2006-07

2005-06

2004-05

2003-04

2002-03

0 2001-02

2004-05

Year

Ve getable s area

Figure 5.3 Productivity of Foodgrains and Oilseeds

Productivity (in Kg. per Hectare)

Potato area

Net Area

400

100

Year Oilsee ds are a

500

200

2007-08

2006-07

2005-06

2004-05

2003-04

2002-03

0 2001-02

Area (in thousand Hectares)

800

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Sources of Agricultural Growth Growth of agricultural production and productivity in the district is attributed to institutional and technological factors. Land ownership is expected to be closely linked to agricultural production, including both crop and livestock production. Land reforms measures undertaken since the late 1970s and extension of irrigation, particularly minor irrigation have led to significant rise in gross cropped area and area under foodgrains, oilseeds and fruits, and agricultural productivity has substantially increased, which are also attributed to greater use of fertilizers and other modern agricultural techniques. All these have significant impact on the living conditions of the rural mass in the district. The detail is given in Table 5.2. Table 5.2 Estimated Number and Area of Operational Holdings according to Size Class in Paschim Medinipur District , 2005-06 (Area in Hectare) Marginal

Small

Semi-medium

Medium

(below 1.0)

(1.0-2.0)

(2.0-4.0)

(4.0-10.0)

District Number

Area

Number

Area

Number

Area

Number

Area

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Paschim Medinipur

596913 (84.89)

307916 (60.14)

83787 (11.92)

137067 (26.77)

21025 (2.99)

59329 (11.59)

1386 (0.20)

6505 (1.27)

(Table 5.2 continued) District

Paschim Medinipur

10

11

12

Large (10.0-Above)

All Size

Average size of holding area

Number

Area

Number

Area

18 (0.003)

1164 (0.23)

703129 100.00)

511981 (100.00)

0.73

Source: Agricultural Census, 2000-01, Government of West Bengal

Area of vested agricultural land distributed recorded increase by 16 per cent during 2002 to 2006 and number of beneficiaries belonging to SCs and STs accounted for about 56 per cent during this period in this district (Table 5.3). Table 5.3 Area of Vested Agricultural Land Distributed and Number of Beneficiaries in Paschim Medinipur District, 2002 to 2006 Upto

Area under land distributed (hectare)

Scheduled Castes

Number of beneficiaries Scheduled Tribes

Others

Total

30.09.2002

80695 (100)

178826 (30.04)

157996 (26.54)

258435 (43.42)

595257 (100.00)

30.09.2003

91425 (113)

183569 (29.54)

159940 (25.74)

277941 (44.72)

621450 (100)

30.11.2004

91936 (114)

177864 (28.12)

161405 (25.52)

283306 (44.79)

632575 (100.00)

131

Economic Livelihoods

Upto

30.11.2005

Area under land distributed (hectare) 93051 (115) 93634 (116)

30.11.2006

Scheduled Castes 191266 (29.74)

Number of beneficiaries Scheduled Tribes 165266 (25.70)

Others

Total

286568 (44.56)

643100 (10.00)

202989 (30.76)

167867 (25.43)

289133 (46.81)

659989 (100.00)

Note: Figures within parentheses indicate percentage share to total. Source : Land & Land Reforms Department, Government of West Bengal

Irrigation is the most important basis for reliable production in agriculture. Area irrigated by government canals in Paschim Medinipur district registered fluctuations during 2001-02 to 2006-07 - a declining trend from 142.15 thousand hectares in 2001-02 to 66.11 thousand hectares and then a sudden jump to 153.87 thousand hectares in 2005-06 and then small increase to 160.70 thousand hectares in 2006-07.This is primarily due to the erratic rainfall and leaving lesser storage in reservoirs. Area irrigated by MDTW recorded appreciable increase during the whole period while that by other sources recorded marginal change. Total irrigated area in the district under the influence of canal irrigation also showed fluctuations registering decline from 381.47 thousand hectares in 2001-02 to 299.19 thousand hectares in 2004-05 to register a quantum jump to 391.78 thousand hectares in 2005-06 and then a small increase to 428 thousand hectares in 2006-07. The detail is given below in Table 5.4. Year

Govt. canal

Tank

HDTW

MDTW

LDTW

STW

RLI

ODW

Others

Total Percentage of Irrigated Irrigated Area to Gross cropped Area

2001-02 142.15

26.38

8.26

20.71

*

114.6

14

8.35

47.02

381.47

48.99

2002-03 108.28

22.09

8.11

18.52

0.52

132.39

16.52

9.64

29.24

345.31

39.06

2003-04

90.71

24.7

8.59

22.97

0.59

112.93

15.69

9.91

37.7

323.79

37.21

2004-05

66.11

24.7

8.59

22.97

0.59

112.93

15.69

9.91

37.7

299.19

32.43

2005-06 153.87

24.7

8.59

22.97

0.59

113.07

15.69

9.85

42.45

391.78

42.04

2006-07 160.70

25.31

8.18

31.76

0.54

133.37

15.94

10.57

41.75

428.12

44.29

Notes: *= included with MDTW, HDTW = High Capacity Deep Tubewell, MDTW = Middle Capacity Deep Tubewell, LDTW = Low Capacity Deep Tubewell, STW = Shallow Tubewell, RLI = River Lift Irrigation, and ODW = Open Dug Well. Source: District Statistical Handbook, Paschim Medinipur

Table 5.5 Number of Sources of Irrigation in Paschim Medinipur District, 2002-03 to 2006-07 Year

Tank

HDTW

MDTW

LDTW

STW

RLI

ODW

Others

2002-03

39797

313

2819

34

52713

388

11411

960

2003-04

40245

311

2988

29

47629

393

13279

1249

2004-05

40245

311

2988

29

47629

393

13279

1252

2005-06

40245

311

2989

29

47664

393

13279

1697

2006-07

40401

344

3738

36

46861

384

14226

1650

Source: District Statistical Handbook, Paschim Medinipur

132

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

The importance of fertilizer in modern agriculture can not be over- emphasized. Total fertilizer consumption in the district registered marginal decline from 86.2 thousand tonnes in 2001-02 to 84.5 thousand tonnes during 2005-06. Total fertiliser consumption in the district registered marginal decline from 86.2 thousand tonnes to 84.5 thousand tonnes during 2001-02 to 2005-06 while fertilizer consumption per hectare dropped from 110.71 kg to 85.09 kg (Table 5.6). Table 5.6 Fertilizer Consumption in Paschim Medinipur District, 2001-02 to 2006-07 (’000 Tonnes) Year

N

P

K

Total (N+P+K)

Gross cropped area (GCA) (thousand hectares )

Fertiliser consumption per hectare of GCA (Kg)

2001-02

47.50

22.50

16.20

86.20

778.64

110.71

2002-03

43.30

23.00

15.00

81.30

900.80

91.97

2003-04

43.10

21.10

14.00

78.20

914.20

89.87

2004-05

45.70

22.50

18.20

86.40

922.60

93.65

2005-06

44.00

24.60

15.90

84.50

931.90

85.09

2006-07

55.60

36.20

27.70

119.50

966.70

123.62

Notes: N=Nitrogen, P= Phosphate, K = Potash Source: District Statistical Handbook, Paschim Medinipur

Small farmers, especially in poor countries, use sub- optimal amounts of fertilizer for a number of reasons. First, they are often not fully aware of the importance of fertilizers in raising output. Secondly, even if they are, they often do not have access to the necessary credits to buy them. Thirdly, they tend to operate on the margins of subsistence, so they are often not willing to take the risk of spending money for fertilizers - they are not sure that they will eventually earn enough money to recoup the costs, especially when the lack of irrigation makes output dependent on the vagaries of the weather. Fourthly, they often do not take into account the long-term implications of adequate fertilizer use in maintaining soil fertility, at least partly out of the short time horizon that poverty brings.

Credit Due to the seasonal nature of agricultural activities, farmers have highly variable flows of incomes and expenditures. For small farmers with little capital, therefore, the availability of credit is crucial in smoothly managing the production and indeed the consumption process. If they are to raise productivity, credits are even more necessary, as that often requires buying more marketed inputs (e.g., fertilizers, machinery) and possibly investing in infrastructure (e.g., digging wells). However, small farmers have huge difficulties in getting access to credits. They are exposed to high risks due to things like their dependence on rainfall, exposure to crop and animal diseases (and low availability of preventive measures and cures for them), and poor health (themselves and their family members). Moreover, it is expensive to provide financial services in the rural areas because of poor transportation and communications. Consequently, the private sector financial institutions (if they are there) often refuse to serve the rural areas.

133

Economic Livelihoods

All this means that local moneylenders are able to exploit their monopolistic positions and charge the small farmers usurious interest rates. Moreover, these moneylenders often have monopoly and monopsony positions in other markets - they are often local landlords, the grain merchants, and oligopolistic suppliers of marketed inputs, all at the same time. This enables them to maximize their profits by manipulating the terms of market. Institutional Credit There is a great dearth of institutional credit mechanisms to reach the people across the district. Amount of outstanding credit advanced by scheduled commercial banks to agriculture sector in per capita basis in Paschim Medinipur District in 2007 was Rs.16.46 - direct finance being Rs.14.72 and indirect finance Rs.1.74. Percentage of agricultural credit to total bank credit in this year was 36 (Table 5.7).

Table 5.7 Amount of Outstanding Credit Advanced by Scheduled Commercial Banks to Agriculture by Type in Paschim Medinipur District, 2007 Type

Advances (Rs. lakh)

Direct finance

94.07

6.39

14.72

288.21

32.64

Indirect finance

11.13

6.39

1.74

288.21

3.86

105.19

6.39

16.46

288.21

36.5

Total

Number of Cultivators

Advance per cultivator

Total bank credit (Rs. lakh)

Percenage of agricultural credit to total bank credit

Source: Reserve Bank of India, Basic Statistical Returns

Farmers' access to institutional (particularly nationalized banks) credit is largely detrmined by proportion of credit actually advanced by commercial banks to their targets as shown in their annual credit plans. Commercial bank credit actually advanced to agriculture across the district is low in relation to target. An overview of credit flow by agency in Paschim Medinipur district shows that banking institutions as a whole in their crop loan achieved, 35.44 per cent of the target they fixed in 2006-07, which however increased to 46.09 per cent in 2007-08 and 79.75 per cent in 2008-09. In term loan for agriculture also achievements of the banking institutions in relation to targets improved during this period.

Warehousing One tool of price stabilization is the provision of warehousing facilities. Most poor farmers need to sell their products soon after the harvest, thus flooding the market and causing the price to crash. This is largely because they have little financial reserves to allow them to wait until they can get better prices. However, even the ones that have some financial reserves may have to sell soon after the harvest, if they do not have places to store their produce. If the farmers can store their products and sell them more gradually, not only will their incomes be more stable, but their average incomes may become higher. In Paschim Medinipur district number of warehouses increased from 8 in 2001-02 to 12 in 2006-07 thereby increasing their capacity from 12310 mt to 14705 mt during this period. Number of cold storage facilities increased from 52 to 57 leading to the increase in their capacity from 851975 mt to 938850 mt. during this period. Number of cultivators benefitted recorded increase from 7.36 lakh to 9.00 lakh during the same period (Table 5.8).

134

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Table 5.8 Warehousing and Cold Storage Facilities Available to Cultivators in Paschim Medinipur District, 2001-02 to 2006-07. Year

Warehouse

Cold storage

Number of cultivators benefited

Index

Number

Capacity (MT)

Number

Capacity (MT)

2001-02

8

12310

52

851975

735500

100

2002-03

15

15124

53

884691

100000

136

2003-04

10

14505

51

851975

786400

107

2004-05

12

14705

54

885548

805920

110

2005-06

12

14705

54

885540

805922

110

2006-07

12

14705

57

938850

900000

122

Source: District Statistical Handbook, Paschim Medinipur

Agri-allied sector has recorded impressive development in terms of increase in forest area, milk and egg production and livestock population. Total number of poultry recorded an increase of 3.08 per cent per annum while cattle 1.36 per cent and buffaloes '- '2.66 (Table 5.9). Table 5.9 Forest area, Milk and Egg Production, Cattle, Buffaloes and Poultry, 2001-02 to 2005-06 Category

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

Annual growth rate (%)

Forest area (in Hectare) Milk production (thousand tonnes) Egg production (‘000) Total cattle Total buffaloes Total poultry

171740.70

176822.60

175296.50

174762.20

174507.30

0.40

189

197

197

201

205

2.12

163964

170262

173130

175596

178447

2.21

3084869a

376184b

3546807

-

-

1.36

112055a

112111b

79280

-

-

-2.66

4530676a

4933081b

6064881

-

-

3.08

Notes :' a' refers to 1994 and ‘b’ refers to 1997. Source: District Statistical Handbook, Paschim Medinipur

Rural Transports Roads, canals, and railways across the district have been crucial in incorporating the agricultural and agriallied sectors into the broader economy. Electricity has helped agriculture by providing it with the power source to run small machinery needed for cultivation (e.g., water pumps) but also by promoting the development of rural industries (e.g., power source for machinery, refrigeration facilities) that increase the value-added components and create rural non-farm employment.

135

Economic Livelihoods

5.2.2 Manufacturing Industry: Number of factories, capital invested, number of employees, net value added in manufacturing industries in the factory sector of the district and also the number of registered small scale industrial units and employment therein is also commendable. During 2004-05, Paschim Medinipur district recorded 137 factories out of which the largest number (53) are engaged in manufacture of food products and beverages followed by supporting and auxiliary transport (40), manufacture of machinery and equipments registering the lowest (3). Capital invested was largest in manufacture of basic metals while largest number of employees was engaged in supporting auxiliary transport. Net value added was highest in non-metallic mineral products (Table 5.10). Total number of employees in the registered manufacturing was 9034 that constituted 0.62 per cent of the total main workers of the district. Table 5.10 Selected Characteristics of Factories by Industry Group in Paschim Medinipur District, 2004-05 (P) (Values in lakh rupees, mandays in thousand & others in number) Items

No. of factories

Fixed Capital

Invested Capital

No. of epmloees

Man days

Emoluments

Value of input

Values of output

Net value added

Net income

Manufacture of Food products & beverages

53

3211

6253

1651

484

388

24255

25789

1182

719

Manufacture of Tobacco products

6

2

2

14

3

-

3

5

2

2

Manufacture of Paper & paper products

4

1150

1560

525

185

199

2245

2465

59

-5

and chemical products

7

145

379

175

51

59

1430

1453

1

-30

Manufacture of nonMetallic mineral products

8

8832 12554

1012

348

449

12848

30460

16728

14937

Manufacture of Basic metals

7

15592 26475

974

330

1033

27621

40429

11904

11349

Manufacture of machinery and equipments

3

5491 10781

1082

363

2058

16561

23288

6037

5783

Supporting and auxiliary transport activities ; activities of travel agencies

40

3953

3987

2524

770

944

3116

5924

2355

1810

Others

9

3416

6647

1077

374

771

41825

42919

900

605

41792 68638

9034

2908

5901 129904 172732

39168

35170

Manufacture of Chemicals

Total

137

Notes: P= Provisional. 'Others' include manufacture of textiles, manufacture of coke, refined petroleum products and nuclear fuel, manufacture of rubber and plastics products, manufacture of fabricated metal products except machinery and equipment, manufacture of electrical machinery and apparatus, manufacture of other transport equipment, sale maintenance & repair of motor vehicles & motor cycles ; retail sale of automobile fuel. Source: District Statistical Handbook, Paschim Medinipur

136

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

5.2.3 Growth of District Domestic Product and Structural Change: As a result of perceptible growth of agriculture, agri-allied sector and industry and progress in the tertiary activities net district domestic product (DDP) recorded annual growth rate of 4.61 per cent during 2002-03 to 2005-06. The annual growth of net DDP from mining and quarrying was highest (63.77 per cent) followed by communications ( 27.71 per cent), transport, storage & communication- railways (19.30 per cent), construction ( 18.50 per cent) and registered manufacturing (17.43 per cent), the negative growth being registered by fishery (-3.60 per cent per annum). The structure of net DDP changed in favour of forestry, registered manufacturing, transport, construction and public administration and against agriculture and fishery. Though, the share of agriculture declined from 37.29 per cent in 2002-03 to 33.53 per cent in 2005-06, it remained the dominant sector of the economy having the largest percentage share in net DDP followed by trade, hotels and restaurants (14.96 per cent) and 'other services'(10.29 per cent) (Table 5.11). Table 5.11 Growth and Sructural Change in Net District Domestic Product, 2002-03 to 2005-06 Indicator

2002-03

Percent

2003-04

Percent

2004-05

percent

2005-06

District domestic product (DDP)

780751

100

798653

100

864467

100

888634

100

4.61

Agriculture

291161

37.29

284299

35.60

303938

35.16

297985

33.53

0.78

Forestry

10292

1.32

11538

1.44

12215

1.41

12685

1.43

7.75

Fishery

14216

1.82

13322

1.67

13355

1.54

12680

1.43

-3.60

23

0.003

50

0.01

59

0.01

67

0.01

63.77

Manufacturing Registered

11179

1.43

11037

1.38

21532

2.49

17026

1.92

17.43

Manufacturing unregistered

42039

5.38

44801

5.61

46018

5.32

47596

5.36

4.41

Construction

34000

4.35

40934

5.13

44759

5.18

52865

5.95

18.50

6631

0.85

6188

0.77

6340

0.73

7887

0.89

6.31

Transport, storage & communicationrailways

12204

1.56

15981

2.00

17771

2.06

19269

2.17

19.30

Transport by other means & storage

15762

2.02

16025

2.01

19503

2.26

21612

2.43

12.37

5676

0.73

7315

0.92

8779

1.02

10395

1.17

27.71

117970

15.11

121436

15.21

129384

14.97

13298

14.96

4.22

Banking & insurance

62046

7.95

62329

7.80

66284

7.67

73752

8.30

6.29

Real estate, ownership of dwellings & business services

40655

5.21

42742

5.35

45659

5.28

48912

5.50

6.77

Public administration

35442

4.54

35213

4.41

39754

4.60

41527

4.67

5.72

Other services

81455

10.43

85443

10.70

89117

10.31

91458

10.29

4.09

14689.02

-

14807.69

-

15794.83

-

16000.47

-

2.98

Mining & quarrying

Electricity, gas, water supply

Communications Trade, hotels & restaurants

Per capita income (Rs)

Source: Government of West Bengal (2009).

137

Percentshare

Annual growth rate

Economic Livelihoods

Percentage contributions of the different sectors of the economy including agriculture are shown for 2005-06 in Figure 5.4. Figure 5.4 Percentage Shares of Economic Sectors in Net District Domestic Product, 2005-06

Per capita outstanding credit advanced by scheduled commercial banks to non-agricultural sector in Paschim Medinipur district in 2007 was Rs 24.60. Percentage of non-agricultural credit to total bank credit was 63.50 while percentage of non-agricultural workers to total workers was 34.90 (Table 5.12). Table 5.12 Per capita Outstanding Credit Advanced by Scheduled Commercial Banks to Non- Agricultural Sector in Paschim Medinipur District, 2007 Credit

Number of non-agricultural workers (lakh)

Per non agricultural worker (Rs.)

Percentage of non-agricultural workers to total workers

Total bank credit (Rs. lakh)

Percentage of non agricultural credit to total bank credit

183.02

7.44

24.60

34.90

288.21

63.50

Source: Reserve Bank of India, Basic Statistical Returns

In non-farm credit achievements of the banking institutions in relation to targets are much less than that in agricultural credits though they improved during the period from 2006-07 to 2008-09. In 2006-07, non-farm credit to the tune of only 10.38 per cent of target was advanced by the banking institutions, which improved in later years. But in 2008-09, the same even amounted to 44.38 per cent. In respect of priority sector, credit and total credit ( agricultural, non-agricultural and priority sector credits taken together) credit advanced by the banking institutions in relation to target were, however, higher than that in non-farm sector and it improved also during this period. 5.2.4 Growth and Structural Change in Workforce: Since main workers and marginal workers can not be added in the working days and earning or income perspective we make an analysis of growth of workforce separately for main workers and marginal workers. Annual growth rate of total main workers was 9.45 per cent during 1991 to 2001. Urban main workers

138

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

recorded higher annual growth rate than rural. The very high rate of growth of marginal workers relative to that of main workers in both urban and rural areas across sexes indicates increasing marginalization of workforce of the district. Structure of main workforce changed during this period in favour of household industry workers, and 'other' workers and against cultivators and agricultural labourers. Percentage of main household industry workers to total main workers increased from 4.20 to 5.82 during 1991 to 2001 while that of 'other workers' (non-agricultural) witnessed sharp increase from 16.84 to 39.60 (Table 5.13). Table 5.13 Growth of Workers in Paschim Medinipur District, 1991 to 2001 Indicators

1991

Percent

2001

Percent

to total

Annual

Indicators

1991

Percent

2001

Percent

growth rate (%) 1991-01

Annual growth rate (%) 1991-01

Main workers

1367217

100.0

2530112 100.00

9.45

Main total household in dustry workers

57434

4.20

147306

5.82

17.39

Rural main Workers

1335633

97.69

2263811 89.47

7.72

Main total other workers

230288

16.84

1001798

39.60

37.22

Urban main workers

31584

2.31

266301

10.53

82.57

1220945 100.00

63.31

Main total

628083

45.94

764520

30.22

2.41

Cultivators Main total Agricultural labourers

Marginal workers 182290

Rural marginal

100

181525

99.58

1182105

96.82

61.25

4719

0.42

38840

3.18

553.01

workers 451412

33.02

616488

24.37

4.06

Urban marginal workers

Source: Census of India 1991 and 2001

5.3 Economic Growth and Structural Changes in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District As agriculture as an economic activity remains the major livelihood of most of the rural people across the district, we start with discussing some issues relating to agricultural growth in blocks. 5.3.1 Agricultural Growth: Along with growth of production and yield agriculture has undergone substantial structural change. While Aus paddy covers small percentage of gross cropped area the proportion of Aman paddy has registered, substantial increase in 24 blocks out of 29 blocks of the district during 1994-95 to 2006-07. Boro paddy area has also recorded substantial increase in 16 blocks of the district, namely Chandrakona-I, ChandrakonaII, Daspur-I, Daspur-II, Ghatal, Sankrail, Dantan-I, Debra, Kharagpur-I, Mohanpur, Pingla, Percentage of foodgrains area to gross cropped area recorded a decline in 19 out of 29 blocks of the district, the blocks for which the percentage share of foodgrains area increased in 2005-06 being DaspurI, Binpur-II, Jamboni, Nayagram, Debra, Keshiary, Kharagpur-I, Narayangarh, Garhbeta-III and Medinipur (Table 5.14). Cropping pattern has changed in most of the blocks in favour of commercial crops such as potato, oilseeds and vegetables etc.

139

Economic Livelihoods

Table 5.14 Percentage of Foodgrains Area to Gross Cropped Area in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District, 1994-95 to 2006-07 Block

1994-95 2005-06

2006-07

Change in percentage point

Block

1994-95 2005-06 2006-07

Change in percentage point

Chandrakona-I

71.68

59.47

55.57

-16.11

Debra

82.39

44.23

90.35

7.96

Chandrakona-II

93.62

53.19

49.00

-44.62

Keshiary

87.36

35.09

89.91

2.55

Daspur-I

66.1

38.4

78.09

11.99

Kharagpur-I

67.35

54.9

89.21

21.86

Daspur-II

87.36

41.12

80.57

-6.79

Kharagpur-II

93.07

64.37

81.01

-12.06

Ghatal

96.8

42.76

76.48

-20.32

Mohanpur

95.5

22.33

87.89

-7.61

Binpur-I

81.27

76.19

65.75

-15.52

Narayangarh

77.08

55.59

85.49

8.41

Binpur-II

64.85

69.87

77.27

12.42

Pingla

97.56

48.35

86.80

-10.86

Gopiballavpur- I

76.88

59.78

66.02

-10.86

Sabang

88.72

56.12

87.10

-1.62

Gopiballavpur -II 78.78

52.57

75.93

-2.85

Garhbeta-I

53.89

59.71

40.83

-13.06

Jamboni

73.7

54.14

84.05

10.35

Garhbeta-II

67.21

64.28

56.20

-11.01

Jhargram

86.77

45.39

80.24

-6.53

Garhbeta-III

39.48

53.94

50.63

11.15

Nayagram

66.42

48.66

85.47

19.05

Keshpur

81.26

66.34

62.88

-18.38

Sankrail

74.46

51.19

73.04

-1.42

Medinipur

73.56

59.64

76.67

3.11

Dantan-I

92.81

60.45

90.02

-2.79

Salboni

77.71

78.9

60.14

-17.57

Dantan-II

100

55.48

91.24

-8.76

Source: District Statistical Handbook, Paschim Medinipur District, Govt. of West Bengal

In 2005-06, production of Aus rice was highest in Garbeta-I while that of Aman rice was highest in Narayangarh and of boro rice in Sabang. Wheat production was highest in Keshpur while that of potato was highest in Keshpur followed Chandrakonma-II. Production of til was highest in Garbeta I followed by Chandrakona-II and that of mustard was highest in Keshpur followed by Narayangarh. Yield of aus, aman and boro rice, wheat, potato and other crops varied widely in blocks of the district. Yield of aus was highest in Chandrakona-II (3486 kg) followed by Ghatal (3041 kg) while that of aman was highest in Jhargram (3127 kg) followed by Kharagpu--I (3100 kg). Yield of Boro rice was highest in Pingla (3402 kg) followed by Kharagpur-I (3252 kg). The yield rate of til was highest in Chandrakona-II (1337 kg) followed by Ghatal (1288 kg) while that of mustard was highest in Ghatal (1520 kg) followed by Sankrail (1277 kg). Foodrains productivity also varied widely across district, the highest being recorded by Daspur-I block (5.17 tonnes) followed by Daspur-II (4.79 tonnes), the lowest being registered by Narayangarh (2.06 tonnes). During 2006-07, foodgrains yield improved for most of the blocks compared to that during 1994-95 while all the 29 blocks registered foodgrains yield below 3 tonnes per hectare. During 2006-07, two (2) blocks only recorded foodgrains yield 3 tonnes and above. Chandrakona-II block registered the highest foodgrains yield of 3.58 tonnes per hectare followed by Daspur I block (3.13 tonnes per hectare). Rest of blocks witnessed foodgrains yield varying between 2.00 tonnes and 2.99 tonnes (Table 5.15).

140

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Table 5.15 Foodgrains Yield in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District, 1994-95 to 2006-07 Block

1994-95 2004-05

2006-07

Change 19942007

Block

1994-95 2004-05 2006-07

Change 19942007)

Chandrakona-I

2.39

2.36

2.53

0.14

Debra

2.54

2.53

2.91

0.37

Chandrakona-II

1.98

2.96

3.58

1.60

Keshiary

1.85

2.39

2.01

0.16

Daspur-I

1.96

2.50

3.13

1.17

Kharagpur-I

1.73

2.44

2.97

1.24

Daspur-II

2.00

2.54

2.90

0.9

Kharagpur-II

2.34

2.34

2.70

0.36

Ghatal

2.64

3.01

2.70

0.06

Mohanpur

2.70

2.24

2.98

0.28

Binpur-II

1.74

2.33

2.68

0.94

Narayangarh

2.47

2.47

2.50

0.03

Binpur-I

2.01

1.82

2.81

0.80

Pingla

2.17

2.01

2.51

0.34

Gopiballavpur-I

1.97

1.75

2.28

0.31

Sabang

2.45

2.14

2.02

-0.43

Gopiballavpur-II

1.84

2.09

2.96

1.12

Garhbeta-I

2.74

2.59

2.41

-0.33

Jamboni

1.78

2.06

2.35

0.57

Garhbeta-II

2.15

1.95

2.59

0.44

Jhargram

1.91

1.72

2.92

1.01

Garhbeta-III

1.76

2.18

2.82

1.06

Nayagram

1.69

1.60

1.82

0.13

Keshpur

1.88

2.26

2.78

0.9

Sankrail

2.03

2.79

2.19

0.16

Medinipur

2.26

2.25

2.75

0.49

Dantan-I

2.40

2.48

2.43

Salboni

1.85

2.53

2.45

0.60

Dantan-II

2.66

2.79

2.49

-

-

-

-

-0.17

-

Source: District Statistical Handbook, Paschim Medinipur District, Government of West Bengal

The improvement in foodgrains yield during the period from 1994-95 to 2006-07 is shown in terms of the frequency distribution of blocks by foodgrains yield in the district. In 1994-95, 13 blocks registered foodgrains yield below 2.0 tonnes, which declined sharply to only 1 (Nayagram block) in 2006-07. On the other hand, the number of blocks recording foodgrains yield varying between 2.00 tonnes and 2.99 tonnes increased from 16 in 1994-95 to 26 in 2006-07. While in 1994-97 no block could achieve foodgrains yield 3.00 tonnes and above in 2006-07 two blocks performed this yield (Table 5.16). Table 5.16 Frequency Distribution of Blocks by Foodgrains Yield (Tonnes) in Paschim Medinipur District, 1994-95 to 2006-07 Foodgrains

Number of blocks

%

Number of blocks

%

Yield (tonnes)

1994-95

Below 2.0

13

2006-07

Nayagram, Kharagpur I, Binpur-II, Garhbeta-III, Jamboni, Gopiballavpur II,

44.83

Keshiary, Salboni, Keshpur,Jhargram, Daspur-I, Gopiballavpur-I, Chandrakona-II

1 Nayagram

141

3.45

Economic Livelihoods

Foodgrains

Number of blocks

%

Number of blocks

%

Yield (tonnes)

1994-95

2006-07

2.00 -2.99

16

26

Daspur-II, Binpur I, Sankrial, Garhbeta-II, Pingla, Midnapore, Kharagpur-II, Chandrakona-I, Dantan I, Sabang, Narayangarh, Debra, Ghatal, Dantan-II, Mohanpur, Garhbeta-I

37.93

Keshiary, Sabang, Sankrail, Gopiballavpur-I, Jamboni, Garhbeta-I, Dantan-I, Salboni, Dantan II, Narayangarh, Pingla, Chandrakona-I, Garhbeta-II, Binpur-II, Ghatal, Kharagpur-II, Midnapore, Keshpur, Binpur-I, Garhbeta-III, Daspur-II, Debra, Jhargram, Gopiballavpur-II, Kharagpur-I, Mohanpur

3.00-4.99

0

17.24

2 Daspur-I, Chandrakona-II

Total

29

100.00

29

89.65

6.90 100.00

Source: District Statistical Handbook, Paschim Medinipur District, Government of West Bengal

Map 5.1 Yields of Foodgrains (in MT per Ha.) in Paschim Medinipur during 1994-95

Map showing Yield of Foodgrain-('94-'95)-Tonne per Ha.

N

Paschim Medinipur District

W

E S

Garhbeta-I Chandrakona-II Chandrakona-I

Garhbeta-II Garhbeta-III

Ghatal Binpur-II Binpur-I

Salboni

Keshpur

Daspur-I Daspur-II

Jamboni Midnapore

Debra

Jhargram Kharagpur-I

Kharagpur-II Pingla

Gopiballavpur-II Sankrail Gopiballavpur-I

Keshiary

Narayangarh

Sabong

Nayagram Dantan-I

Mid(W) Boundary Yield of Foodgrain-('94-'95)-Tonne per Ha. Below Average (< 2.0 ) Average (2.0 0- 2.99)

Dantan-II

Mohanpur

142

7

0

7

14 Kilometers

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Map 5.2 Yields of Foodgrains (in MT per ha.) in Paschim Medinipur during 2006-07

Map showing Yield of Foodgrain-('06-'07)Tone per Ha.

N

Paschim Medinipur District

W

E S

Garhbeta-I Chandrakona-II Garhbeta-II Garhbeta-III

Chandrakona-I Ghatal

Binpur-II Binpur-I

Salboni

Keshpur

Daspur-I

Daspur-II

Jamboni Midnapore Jhargram

Debra

Kharagpur-II

Kharagpur-I

Pingla Gopiballavpur-II Gopiballavpur-I

Sankrail Keshiary

Narayangarh

Sabong

Nayagram

Mid(W) Boundary Yield of Foodgrain-('06-'07)-Tonne per Ha. Below Average (< 2.0 ) Average (2.0 0- 2.99) Above Agerage (3.00- 4.99)

Dantan-I

Dantan-II

Mohanpur

7

0

7

14 Kilometers

Block

1994-95

2002-03

2005-06

2006-07

Chandrakona I

433

439

491

466

Chandrakona II

411

337

351

447

Daspur I

189

307

294

301

Daspur II

185

282

240

320

Ghatal

400

300

323

309

Binpur I

314

384

503

454

Binpur -II

310

355

522

532

Gopiballavpur I

414

306

349

383

Gopiballavpur II

415

320

424

438

Jamboni

335

316

421

390

Jhargram

445

264

380

274

Nayagram

375

212

331

279

143

Economic Livelihoods

Block

1994-95

2002-03

2005-06

2006-07

Sankrail

483

638

449

429

Dantan I

473

374

385

377

Dantan II

505

403

407

357

Debra

470

422

417

536

Keshiary

376

412

187

267

Kharagpur I

244

145

230

227

Kharagpur -II

452

389

453

425

Mohanpur

492

323

235

348

Narayangarh

452

450

285

413

Pingla

407

425

483

493

Sabang

459

365

372

452

Garhbeta-I

298

215

274

286

Garhbeta-II

409

287

319

439

Garhbeta-III

142

220

242

345

Keshpur

365

269

384

469

Medinipur

338

184

235

353

Salboni

368

277

375

392

Source: District Statistical Handbook, Paschim Medinipur

Substantial improvement in agricultural productivity across Paschim Medinipur district is attributed to institutional factors like land reforms and technological factors like expansion of irrigation, particularly small irrigation and use of fertilizers. During the period from 1994-95 to 2006-07, number small farmers, marginal farmers, bargadars and pattaholders increased in almost all blocks. In 2006-07, the highest number of bargadars was in Salboni block followed by Keshpur, Narayangarh,, Debra, Keshiary, Jhargra, Ghatal, Sabong, Medinipur and Chandrakona-I. Keshpur registered the highest number of pattaholders in the same year followed by Garhbeta-III, Narayangarh, Salboni, Sankrail, Keshiary, Jhargram, Garhbeta-II, Debra, Medinipur, Nayagram and Sabong. In case of small farmers, the number was highest in Debra during the year 2000-01 followed by Keshiary, Narayangarh, Kharagpur-II, Kharagpur-I, Dantan-I, Binpur-I, Jhargram, Binpur-II, Pingla and Nayagram, while that of marginal farmers was highest in Chandrakona-II followed by Garhbeta-II, Keshpur, Narayangarh, Garhbeta-I, Salboni, Daspur-II, Pingla, Keshiary, Dantan-I, GarhbetaIII, Binpur-II and Binpur-I in the sane year (Table 5.18).

144

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Table 5.18 Classifications of Farmers in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District, 1994-95 & 2006-07 Blocks

Bargadars

Pattaholders

Small Farmers

Marginal Farmers

1994-95

2006-07

1994-95

2006-07

1994-95

2000-01

1994-95

2000-01

Chandrakona-I

5080

5244

9113

12879

2725

2725

6498

6498

Chandrakona-II

4847

4937

13123

16585

3185

4122

8076

65093

Daspur-I

4377

4479

4868

5603

2260

2113

13537

12270

Daspur-II

2398

2422

1227

1437

1220

1076

5092

22628

Ghatal

6541

6951

6383

8627

356

1320

3026

6524

Binpur-II

1916

1983

20075

23588

5775

6575

13513

14513

Binpur-I

3214

3354

15525

17623

3589

6817

12504

14190

Gopiballavpur-I

1652

1677

19080

20617

1338

1338

12255

12255

Gopiballavpur-II

3115

3122

14172

16046

4299

3870

8415

8415

Jamboni

3162

3302

19341

20511

4892

4892

8625

8625

Jhargram

7139

7166

14405

27268

6670

6679

12875

12886

Nayagram

2043

2117

18901

25809

903

5529

1583

12267

Sankrial

3898

4001

17796

31649

4708

522

5913

5952

Dantan-I

4413

2155

15068

21063

4118

7124

12687

17493

Dantan-II

2338

2619

8538

12138

4297

4297

7775

7775

Debra

9100

9218

9083

26097

20865

33316

17123

8067

Keshiary

7046

7500

21230

28602

14315

15107

4476

19982

Kharagpur-I

2946

3346

17749

23347

7542

7215

12562

12385

Kharagpur-II

5579

2296

12544

18454

6320

7562

10010

12618

Mohanpur

1738

1756

6181

7512

3433

2125

7740

9080

Narayangarh

9764

9927

22249

35490

13620

11174

7543

29316

Pingla

3640

3766

15129

22693

5174

6174

18272

22450

Sabang

6275

6510

17557

25745

6784

1692

12932

3253

Garhbeta-I

5597

4231

15441

23762

2315

2430

23573

27620

Garhbeta-II

3103

3610

19163

26892

8608

1047

3690

47852

Garhbeta-III

3524

3554

23519

38634

2780

4000

14080

15035

Keshpur

13494

12607

37584

44066

21460

2717

15345

38074

Medinipur

5307

5339

25188

25827

3064

3805

9324

12940

Salboni

7027

12700

21718

32879

4966

3225

14357

22935

Sources: I) B.D.O; ii) Agricultural Census 2000 - 01; iii) Censes of India 1991, 2001

145

Economic Livelihoods

During 1994-95 four blocks, namely Mohanpur, Garhbeta-I, Binpur-I and Jamboni, had the distinction of having above 50 per cent of irrigated area. But during 2006-07, only Binpur-I could maintain this distinction while other three blocks slipped into lower class of percentage of irrigated area. Gopiballvapur-I , however, could elevate to this distinction in 2005-06 and 2006-07 while as many as 14 blocks, namely ChandrakonaI, Dantan-I, Mohanpur, Pingla, Keshiary, Daspur-II, Jhargram, Gopiballavpur-II, Daspur-I, Garbeta-II, Ghatal, Sabang, Kharagpur-II and Garbeta-I had percentage of irrigated area varying between 31 and 50. During 2005-06, Garhbeta-I and Garhbeta-III, recorded the largest fertilizer consumption of 251 kg and above per hectare of gross cropped area while as many as 10 blocks, namely Chandrakona-I, Dantan-I, Sabong, Salboni, Kespur, Garbeta-I, Chandrakona-, Daspur-II, Ghatal, Gopiballavpur-II had per hectare fertliser consumption varying between 150 kgs and 250 kgs for 8 blocks, this consumption varied between 100 kgs and 149 kgs and the remaining 9 blocks had consumption less than 100 kgs (Table 5.19). Table 5.19 Percentage Share of Irrigated Area to Gross Cropped Area and Fertilizer Consumption per hectare in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District Block

Percentage Share of Irrigated Area

Fertilizer consumption per hect. (kg.)

2002-03

2005-06

2006-07

2005-06

2006-07

Chandrakona-I

35.92

31.95

24.47

203.34

145

Chandrakona-II

29.79

24.97

20.63

160.08

172

Daspur-I

42.81

37.96

44.53

57.44

440

Daspur-II

39.70

35.26

41.27

218.89

250

Ghatal

34.12

39.65

43.59

235.49

207

Binpur-II

21.57

20.30

30.36

85.64

49

Binpur-I

70.32

62.87

57.68

98.45

80

Gopiballavpur-I

24.96

54.33

62.59

90.82

48

Gopiballavpur-II

41.47

37.90

44.21

237.87

106

Jamboni

88.40

23.20

28.45

72.54

36

Jhargram

41.89

37.29

44.39

94.91

103

Nayagram

17.78

1864

21.76

90.11

42

Sankrail

23.97

20.98

26.18

110.37

49

Dantan-I

31.57

32.64

35.04

121.09

123

Dantan-II

21.85

25.87

21.75

171.26

199

Debra

29.18

28.19

47.60

123.67

114

Keshiary

22.70

34.69

26.63

80.35

105

Kharagpur-I

19.03

19.58

29.09

130.59

172

Kharagpur-II

41.24

40.69

43.57

102.24

91

146

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Block

Percentage Share of Irrigated Area

Fertilizer consumption per hect. (kg.)

2002-03

2005-06

2006-07

2005-06

2006-07

Mohanpur

53.33

33.43

48.88

140.20

185

Narayangarh

18.39

15.27

18.48

71.93

72

Pingla

36.58

34.28

42.75

147.93

127

Sabang

43.62

40.14

31.25

179.77

113

Garhbeta-I

61.66

46.35

32.09

361.10

155

Garhbeta-II

28.60

38.60

26.35

201.25

134

Garhbeta-III

25.40

21.37

18.10

323.66

182

Keshpur

20.86

14.84

14.38

189.32

129

Medinipur

24.76

25.63

27.37

117.28

80

Salboni

13.05

18.10

12.98

184.67

157

Sources: P.A.O, Paschim Medinipur

5.3.2 Credit To finance economic activities, role of institutional credit is very important and hence, we have examined the trend of financing through commercial and gramin banks as well as cooperative societies. It is observed that population served per bank and post offices, both registered an increase trend while number of members of cooperative societies witnessed a declining trend during 1999-2000 to 2006-07 across the district. Working capital of the cooperative societies, however, recorded increase during this period. All this indicates that expansion of branches of commercial and gramin banks has not kept pace with increase in the population. In fact, there are around 60 unbanked gram panchayats in the district. 5.3.3 Development of Agri-allied Sector as Livelihood: Water area under effective pisciculture increased significantly across different blocks during 1994-95 to 2006-07. Water area under pisciculture was highest in Sabang followed by Narayangarh in 2006-07 and number of persons engaged in this profession was highest in Sabang followed by Keshpur. Estimated number of cattle was highest in Keshpur block followed by Sabang and that of buffalo was highest in Binpur I block and Salboni. The number of goats was highest in Keshpur block followed by Garbeta I and that of poultry birds was highest in Keshpur and Garbeta I. Progress of the blocks of the district in respect of artificial insemination (AI) is remarkable. While Debra block led other blocks in this respect in 2006-07 and 2007-08 Pingla block overtook Debra in 200809. Percentage change in AI was highest (51.72) in Binpur II followed by Chandrakona I (48.00) and Ghatal (46.23). 5.3.4 Industry: Number of units that got registered as small scale industrial units in different blocks of the district has fluctuated over years. However, employment in these units showed a rising trend.

147

Economic Livelihoods

Although the total rural economy of the district depends mainly on agriculture, the handloom industry plays a crucial role in strengthening the economy. This is because the handloom weavers of the district, who are mostly seasonal, take to the profession of weaving at the lean season of agriculture to supplement their income. However, there are also full time weavers in Dantan II Block and Ramjibanpur municipality. As per the Handloom Census, total member of the Handlooms in the district is 10120. Though scattered almost all over the district, the handlooms activities are present in 9 blocks and one Municipality. 5.3.5 Livelihood Pattern in Blocks: From economic livelihood standpoint, we calculate work participation rate based on the adjusted number of total workers after converting marginal workers into full workers. The worker-population ratio, i.e., work participation rate (WPR) of the district thus calculated is seen to have registered increase from 36.91 to 40.19 per cent during 1991 to 2001. The adjusted WPR is seen to be relatively low (varying between below 30 per cent and 35 per cent) for the relatively developed blocks like Kharagpur-I, Daspur-II, Ghatal, Chandrakona-I, Chandrakona-II and Dantan-II and relatively high (above 35 per cent) for relatively backward blocks like Binpur-II, GopiballavpurII, Jhargram, Jamboni, Gopiballavpur-I, Sankrail and Nayagram. Similarly, we calculated adjusted number of cultivators, agricultural labourers, household industry workers and other workers by converting corresponding number of marginal workers into full time workers. Thus, proportion of cultivators to total workers registered decline during 1991 to 2001 while that of agricultural labourers, household industry workers and total non-agricultural workers recorded increase. In 1991, Nayagram block that is relatively backward registered the highest percentage share of marginal workers to total population (above 10 per cent). In 2001 also, the relatively backward blocks like Nayagram, Binpur-II, Jamboi, Jhargram and Sankrail, had in most cases the relatively high percentage of marginal workers (15 per cent and above). On the other hand, relatively developed blocks like Daspur-II, Daspur-I, Ghatal, Kharagpur-I had the relatively low percentage of marginal workers (varying between 5 per cent and 10 per cent). Although a fall in agriculture-based workforce is considered a positive change from development point of view, not all blocks of Paschim Medinipur district have experienced such positive change to a significant extent. For example, there are as many as 20 blocks, where there percentage of workers dependent on agriculture is 70 per cent or more. It is also observed that those blocks, where a high percentage of workers are engaged in agriculture, it is mostly due to higher share of agricultural labourers and not higher shares of cultivators. There are eight blocks, where the percentage share of agricultural labourers is 40 or more. These blocks are Binpur-II, Binpur-I, Jamboni, Gopiballavpur-I, Gopiballavpur- II, Kharagpur-II, Keshiary nd Jhargram which belong to the low ranks in the human development ladder. This is because high dependence of workers on agriculture implies that they are subject to seasonal fluctuations in income. It is obvious that in those blocks, where the percentage of marginal workers or agricultural labourers is higher, the household's incomes are subject to seasonal fluctuations that make them vulnerable. To facilitate a comparative study on change in pattern of economic livelihood during 1991 to 2001, we have used the data on total workers as available from the Census. We observe here that for five blocks, namely Binpur-II, Gopiballavpur-II, Sankrail, Dantan-I and Mohanpur, the relatively backward blocks, the work participation rate registered decline while change in percentage of marginal workers to population recorded increase for all the blocks, which indicates the increasing marginalization of the workers during the period from 1991 to 2001 (Table 5.20).

148

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Table 5.20 Work Participation Rate WPR in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District, 1991 and 2001 Block

WRR (Percent)

Change in Percentage Point of WPR

Percentage of Marginal Worker (MW) to population

Change Percentage point

1991

2001

1991-2001

1991

2001

1991-2001

Chandrakona-I

30

37

7

1

10

9

Chandrakona-II

34

35

1

3

5

2

Daspur-I

35

41

6

5

9

4

Daspur-II

32

32

0

4

5

1

Ghatal

33

35

2

3

8

5

Binpur-I

46

48

2

6

18

12

Binpur-II

50

49

-1

8

25

17

Gopiballavpur-I

41

43

2

4

13

9

Gopiballavpur-II

41

41

0

4

11

7

Jamboni

46

47

1

7

22

15

Jhargram

43

47

4

6

21

15

Nayagram

53

59

6

10

24

14

Sankrail

48

48

0

8

20

12

Dantan-I

38

35

-3

4

9

5

Dantan-II

31

35

4

2

11

9

Debra

41

45

4

3

15

12

Keshiary

42

45

3

3

15

12

Kharagpur-I

31

33

2

2

8

6

Kharagpur- II

38

42

4

3

16

13

Mohanpur

33

31

-2

4

8

4

Narayangarh

38

40

2

5

15

10

Pingla

36

53

17

5

18

13

Sabang

41

57

16

9

20

11

Garhbeta-I

34

47

13

2

16

14

Garhbeta-II

41

41

0

4

13

9

Garhbeta-III

40

44

4

6

16

10

Keshpur

33

35

2

3

9

6

Medinipur

38

39

1

3

12

9

Salbani

43

44

1

7

16

11

Source: Census, 1991 and 2001 Note: WPR = Total workers to total population

149

Economic Livelihoods

It is to be noted that a fall in agriculture-based workforce is considered a positive change from development point of view, not all blocks of Paschim Medinipur have experienced such positive changes to a significant level. For example, there are still 12 blocks, namely Chandrakona-II, Gopiballavpur-II, Sankrail, Dantan-I , Dantan-II, Keshiary, Mohanpur, Narayangarh, Garhbeta-I, Garhbeta II, Keshpur and Salboni where the percentage of workers dependent on agriculture is 80 per cent or more. It is also observed that in those blocks, where a high percentage of people are engaged in agriculture, it is mostly due to higher share of agricultural labourers and not for the higher shares of cultivators. There are six blocks, where the percentage of agricultural labourers is above 35. These blocks are Chandrakona-II, Gopiballavpur-I, Gopiballavpur-II, Jamboni, Debra and Keshiary. High dependence of workers on agriculture implies that they are subject to seasonal variations in income. It is obvious that in those blocks where the percentage of marginal workers or agricultural labourers is higher, the income of the households is subject to seasonal fluctuations and these makes them vulnerable. Table 5.21 Economic Livelihood Pattern in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District, 1991 and 2001 Block

Percentage of Cultivators (CL)

Percentage of Agriculture Labourers (AL)

Percentage of Household Industry workers (HHI)

Percentage of other workers

1991

2001

1991

2001

1991

2001

1991

2001

Chandrakona-I

53.53

50.04

32.09

29.24

2.29

2.10

12.09

18.62

Chandrakona-II

54.49

46.07

33.34

35.40

1.25

2.14

10.92

16.39

Daspur-I

53.98

40.02

18.78

19.69

3.18

6.15

24.07

34.14

Daspur-II

44.63

30.03

17.17

18.83

4.12

6.18

34.08

44.96

Ghatal

49.14

36.68

24.40

24.73

7.34

9.55

19.12

29.03

Binpur-I

47.30

37.64

39.27

38.37

3.17

3.80

10.26

20.20

Binpur-II

52.30

37.87

33.08

28.73

4.57

8.00

10.05

25.41

Gopiballavpur-I

41.10

36.14

42.71

40.61

4.15

5.36

12.05

17.89

Gopiballavpur-II

43.53

39.08

43.43

42.05

2.24

3.03

10.80

15.84

Jamboni

36.84

27.95

41.77

35.95

4.57

7.06

16.81

29.03

Jhargram

44.91

33.96

38.09

30.06

2.02

3.64

14.98

32.33

Nayagram

40.51

33.59

33.63

25.46

16.93

21.18

8.92

19.77

Sankrail

50.83

42.51

37.10

34.58

3.49

5.11

8.58

17.80

Dantan-I

55.27

42.44

26.62

31.78

3.18

3.67

14.93

22.11

Dantan-II

54.48

42.39

30.18

29.79

2.03

3.10

13.31

24.72

Debra

36.97

30.50

43.35

35.49

1.54

2.94

18.14

31.06

Keshiary

43.57

37.35

46.38

39.59

1.63

3.39

8.41

19.66

150

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Block

Percentage of Cultivators (CL)

Percentage of Agriculture Labourers (AL)

Percentage of Household Industry workers (HHI)

Percentage of other workers

1991

2001

1991

2001

1991

2001

1991

2001

Kharagpur-I

27.99

11.76

26.52

14.74

1.23

1.21

45.00

72.29

Kharagpur-II

32.47

29.35

48.13

34.93

1.67

2.38

17.73

33.34

Mohanpur

60.30

51.82

22.65

25.55

2.01

2.65

15.12

19.99

Narayangarh

47.51

36.74

33.50

32.85

4.35

5.37

14.64

25.04

Pingla

49.68

42.34

29.01

29.24

6.57

4.06

14.75

24.36

Sabang

51.03

41.74

19.59

22.19

17.54

21.16

11.85

14.91

Garhbeta-I

48.36

42.84

31.70

34.50

1.54

3.84

18.40

18.83

Garhbeta-II

51.27

38.00

35.81

32.50

2.18

3.32

10.74

26.18

Garhbeta-III

44.16

32.97

28.56

24.79

4.48

6.15

22.80

36.10

Keshpur

55.93

48.06

31.67

28.11

1.87

2.87

10.53

20.96

Medinipur

34.00

26.07

41.41

34.11

3.20

5.39

21.39

34.44

Salbani

51.03

40.15

32.63

32.50

2.40

5.03

13.94

22.32

Source: Census 1991 and 2001

Table 5.22 Change in Percentage Point in Respect of Economic Livelihoods in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District, 1991 to 2001 Block

Change in Percentage Point of Cultivators (CL)

Change in Percentage Point of Agriculture Labourers (AL)

Change in Percentage Point of Household Industry workers (HHI)

Change in percentage Point of Other workers

1991-2001

1991-2001

1991-2011 1991-2011

Chandrakona-I

-3.49

-2.85

-0.19

Chandrakona-II

-8.42

2.06

Daspur-I

-13.96

Daspur-II

Percentage of non agriculture workers

Change in Percentage Point of Nonagriculture workers

1991

2001

1991-2001

6.53

14.38

20.72

6.34

0.89

5.46

12.17

18.53

6.36

0.91

2.97

10.07

27.24

40.30

13.06

-14.60

1.66

2.06

10.88

38.20

51.14

12.94

Ghatal

-12.45

0.33

2.21

9.92

26.46

38.58

12.12

Binpur-I

-9.66

-0.90

0.63

9.94

13.43

23.99

10.56

Binpur-II

-14.44

-4.36

3.43

15.37

14.62

33.41

18.79

151

Economic Livelihoods

Block

Change in Percentage Point of Cultivators (CL)

Change in Percentage Point of Agriculture Labourers (AL)

Change in Percentage Point of Household Industry workers (HHI)

Change in percentage Point of Other workers

1991-2001

1991-2001

1991-2011 1991-2011

Gopiballavpur-I

-4.96

-2.09

1.21

Gopiballavpur-II

-4.45

-1.38

Jamboni

-8.89

Jhargram

Percentage of non agriculture workers

Change in Percentage Point of Nonagriculture workers

1991

2001

1991-2001

5.84

16.19

23.25

7.06

0.79

5.04

13.04

18.87

5.83

-5.82

2.49

12.22

21.39

36.10

14.71

-10.95

-8.03

1.62

17.35

17.00

35.98

18.98

Nayagram

-6.92

-8.17

4.25

10.85

25.86

34.03

8.17

Sankrail

-8.32

-2.52

1.62

9.23

12.07

14.59

2.52

Dantan-I

-12.83

5.16

0.49

7.17

18.11

12.95

-5.16

Dantan-II

-12.09

-0.39

1.07

11.41

15.34

15.73

0.39

Debra

-6.47

-7.86

1.40

12.92

19.68

27.54

7.86

Keshiary

-6.22

-6.79

1.76

11.25

10.05

16.84

6.79

Kharagpur-I

-16.23

-11.78

-0.02

27.29

32.67

57.27

24.60

Kharagpur-II

-3.12

-13.20

0.71

15.61

19.40

32.60

13.20

Mohanpur

-8.48

2.90

0.64

4.87

17.02

14.15

-2.87

Narayangarh

-10.77

-0.65

1.02

10.40

18.99

19.64

0.65

Pingla

-7.34

0.23

-2.51

9.61

21.31

21.08

-0.23

Sabang

-9.29

2.61

3.62

3.06

29.38

26.78

-2.60

Garhbeta-I

-5.52

2.80

2.30

0.43

19.94

17.14

-2.80

Garhbeta-II

-13.27

-3.31

1.14

15.44

12.92

16.23

3.31

Garhbeta-III

-11.19

-3.77

1.67

13.29

27.28

31.05

3.77

Keshpur

-7.87

-3.56

1.00

10.43

12.40

15.96

3.56

Medinipur

-7.93

-7.30

2.19

13.04

24.59

31.89

7.30

Salbani

-10.88

-0.14

2.63

8.39

16.34

16.47

0.13

Source: Census, 1991 and 2001

Percentage of main workers to total workers is relatively high for the relatively developed blocks having relatively high human development. In 2001, only five blocks viz Chandrakona-II, Ghatal, DaspurI, Daspur-II and Kharagpur-I, were having above 75 per cent main workers to total workers ratio. These blocks have strong development impetus as provided by cold storage industry, urbanization, high agricultural productivity, well developed transport system and high literacy. Nayagram and Sabong are the two blocks which are well known for babui rope making and mat industry respectively in the household sector and

152

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

they have above 10 per cent main and marginal workers, in the household industry. On the other hand, there are five blocks, namely Binpur-II, Jhargram, Jamboni, Nayagram and Sankrail having above 40 per cent marginal workers to total workers. These blocks are less developed economically and also in respect of human development. Binpur-II, Binpur-I, Jhargram, jamboni, Sankrail, Kharagpur II and Keshiary blocks have above 25 per cent marginal agricultural labourers with relatively low human development (Table 5.23) Table 5.23 Percentage of Main and Marginal Workers to Total Workers in Blocks of PaschimMedinipur District, 2001 Block

Percentage of main workers to total workers Total

Cultivators

Agl. Lab.

HHI Other workers workers

Binpur-II

48.6

18.6

14.3

4.3

Binpur-I

51.5

22.7

22.7

Garhbeta-II

67.2

29.5

Garhbeta-I

69.5

Garhbeta-III

Percentage of marginal workers to total workers Total

Cultivators

Agl. Lab.

HHI workers

Other workers

11.4

52.9

7.1

35.7

5.7

2.9

3.0

12.1

39.4

7.6

27.3

3.0

3.0

23.0

3.3

13.1

34.4

11.5

14.8

6.6

3.3

25.6

23.2

2.4

18.3

30.5

9.8

13.4

4.9

4.9

63.1

21.5

15.4

4.6

23.1

35.4

3.1

10.8

15.4

7.7

Chandrakona-I

74.4

37.2

20.9

4.7

14.0

27.9

9.3

9.3

4.7

4.7

Chandrakona-II

83.8

40.5

29.7

5.4

13.5

16.2

5.4

8.1

5.4

5.4

Ghatal

77.6

29.9

19.4

7.5

22.4

22.4

4.5

10.5

4.5

3.0

Daspur-I

77.8

30.6

15.3

5.6

26.4

22.2

9.7

5.6

2.8

4.2

Daspur-II

84.9

25.8

16.7

6.1

37.9

15.2

6.1

6.1

3.0

3.0

Keshpur

74.8

36.4

21.2

2.0

16.2

26.3

6.1

14.1

5.1

3.0

Salboni

64.4

26.0

20.6

2.7

13.7

32.9

5.5

21.9

6.9

2.7

Medinipur

71.0

17.7

24.2

3.2

24.2

30.7

3.2

21.0

3.2

4.8

Jhargram

54.9

19.7

16.9

2.8

16.9

45.1

8.5

31.0

2.8

2.8

Jamboni

54.2

14.6

18.8

4.2

16.7

45.8

8.3

33.3

4.2

4.2

Gopiballavpur-II

73.7

29.0

29.0

5.3

13.2

26.3

5.3

18.4

5.3

5.3

Gopiballavpur-I

72.5

25.0

30.0

5.0

12.5

30.0

5.0

20.0

5.0

5.0

Nayagram

58.9

20.6

13.7

11.0

11.0

42.5

4.1

8.2

20.6

6.9

Sankrail

59.2

24.5

20.4

4.1

10.2

42.9

8.2

28.6

4.1

4.1

Kharagpur-I

77.6

9.2

11.8

2.6

56.6

26.3

4.0

15.8

2.6

5.3

Kharagpur-II

60.9

18.8

21.7

2.9

20.3

37.7

5.8

27.5

2.9

2.9

153

Economic Livelihoods

Block

Percentage of main workers to total workers Total

Cultivators

Agl. Lab.

Debra

66.1

20.0

23.5

2.6

Pingla

64.8

27.5

18.7

Sabong

64.7

27.2

Narayangarh

63.8

Keshiary

Percentage of marginal workers to total workers

HHI Other workers workers

Total

Cultivators

Agl. Lab.

HHI workers

Other workers

20.0

33.9

7.8

20.0

1.7

7.0

2.2

16.5

34.1

16.5

11.0

2.2

4.4

14.7

14.0

9.6

35.3

10.3

11.0

11.8

2.9

22.9

21.0

3.8

16.2

38.1

6.7

22.9

4.8

2.9

66.1

25.4

27.1

3.4

13.6

33.9

5.1

25.4

3.4

3.4

Dantan-I

74.1

31.5

24.1

3.7

16.7

25.9

5.6

16.7

3.7

3.7

Dantan-II

68.1

29.8

21.3

4.3

17.0

31.9

8.5

17.0

4.3

4.3

Mohanpur

73.3

40.0

20.0

6.7

16.7

23.3

10.0

13.3

6.7

6.7

District Total:

66.86

25.10

20.11

4.06

17.59

33.14

7.37

17.80

4.09

3.89

Source: Primary Census Abstract, West Bengal, 2001 Figure 5.5 Percentage of Main worker

Figure 5.6 Percentage of Main worker Persentage of Marginal Worker to Total Worker

Percentage of Main worker to Total Worker 4.06%

4.09%

17.59%

3.89%

20.11% 17.80%

33.14%

66.86%

7.37%

25.10% Total Main Wokre

Main Cultivator

Main HH Industry

Main Other Worker

Main Agril. Labour

Total Marginal Worker

Marginal Cultivator

Marginal HH Industy

Marginal Oth. Worker

Marginal Agril. Labour

Rural Household Survey conducted by the Department of Panchayats and Rural Development in 2005 classifies rural households into five categories, namely (i) agricultural labourer, (ii) cultivators, (iii) artisans, hawkers etc., (iv) unorganized sector wage labourer, and (v) organanised sector labourer and selfemployed. The percentage of agricultural labourers to total workers of the rural households across blocks of the district shows that it was highest in Jamboni block (59.65 per cent) followed by Kharagpur I (56.69 per cent), Nayagram (55.47 per cent) and Keshiary (50.77 per cent). These blocks ranked low in respect of values of human development index (Table 1.1 is referred back). As many as 17 out of 29 blocks have percentage to agriculture labourers "between" 40.00 to 49.99. Daspur-II, recorded the highest percentage of non-agricultural labourers (54.27) followed by Daspur-I, Ghatal and Debra (Table 5.24). These three blocks have been among the top rankers in respect of values of human development index across the district.

154

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Table 5.24 Percentage distribution of workers by economic livelihood classes, 2005 Block

Percentage of agriculture labourers

Percentage of cultivation

Percentage of non agriculture

Percentage of artisans vendore etc.

Percentage Percentage of of unorganized unorganized wage workers workers

Chandrakona-I

42.91

40.34

16.75

5.37

4.82

6.56

Chandrakona-II

49.33

33.48

17.19

4.04

4.71

8.43

Daspur-I

30.04

34.66

35.30

10.49

12.02

12.79

Daspur-II

26.50

19.23

54.27

14.65

27.87

11.76

Ghatal

37.11

29.48

33.41

8.39

9.82

15.20

Binpur-II

46.73

33.76

19.51

6.58

5.09

7.84

Binpur-I

48.81

33.24

17.95

5.96

3.98

8.00

Gopiballavpur-I

41.82

35.21

22.97

7.59

7.25

8.13

Gopiballavpur-II

42.28

39.19

18.53

4.85

4.17

9.51

Jamboni

59.65

25.63

14.72

4.17

3.63

6.92

Jhargram

40.40

30.25

29.35

7.26

8.59

13.50

Nayagram

55.47

32.11

12.42

4.86

2.55

5.01

Sankrial

39.27

41.43

19.3

6.28

5.51

7.51

Dantan-I

44.97

39.54

15.49

3.42

3.98

8.20

Dantan-II

40.62

40.91

18.47

5.46

5.03

7.98

Debra

36.46

30.65

32.89

7.28

8.38

17.33

Keshiary

50.77

33.81

15.42

3.64

3.10

8.68

Kharagpur-I

56.69

18.19

25.12

4.25

6.24

14.63

Kharagpur-II

48.70

31.30

20.00

4.81

5.37

9.82

Mohanpur

43.27

39.55

17.18

5.44

5.14

6.60

Narayangarh

42.34

36.10

21.56

5.73

4.53

11.30

Pingla

42.00

36.29

21.71

6.62

5.18

9.91

Sabang

39.19

40.96

19.85

5.86

4.04

9.94

Garhbeta-I

40.06

38.13

21.81

5.37

4.97

11.48

Garhbeta-II

41.32

37.77

20.91

5.58

4.50

10.81

Garhbeta-III

42.06

29.03

28.91

6.62

7.70

14.59

Keshpur

35.85

42.19

21.96

7.91

5.79

8.27

Medinipur

49.36

25.59

25.05

7.73

6.64

10.68

Salboni

39.24

35.31

25.45

6.49

5.31

13.65

District Total:

42.14

33.76

24.10

6.60

6.85

10.66

Source: Primary Census Abstract, West Bengal, 2001.

155

Economic Livelihoods

Figure 5.7 Distribution of Workers by Economic Livlihood Classes (In %), 2005

Figure 5.8 Distribution of Workers by Economic Livlihood Classes (In %), 2005

Distribution of Workers by Economic Livlihood Classes ( in %) 2005 Nonagricultural Workers 24.10% Agriculture Labour 42.14%

Distribution of Non Agricultural Workers by Econom ic Livlihood Classes ( in %) 2005 Organised Artisans, Wage Vendors, etc. Workers & 27.36% Self-employed 44.21%

Unorganised Wage Workers 28.43%

Cultivator 33.76%

5.4 Impact of Different Rural Development Programmes: Rural development programmes adopted in India as centrally sponsored programmes are broadly divided into two categories: one, self employment programmes and second, wage employment programmes. The former being implemented currently in the form of Swarna Jayanti Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) and the massive wage employment programme in operation, is Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS). 5.4.1 Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY): It was launched from April 1999. This is a holistic programme covering all aspects of self-employment such as organization of the poor into Self Help Groups (SHGs) and providing them training, credit, technology, infrastructure and marketing opportunities. SHGs are voluntary associations of people formed to achieve social and economic goals and they are in the nature of community based organizations. The groups are being formed for augmenting income of their members by taking up micro-enterprises as well as ensuring benefits to their families under various development programmes. Formation of SHGs by members, particularly the women and those from the poorest section of the society has been given priority. The SGSY aims at alleviating rural poverty by facilitating creation of self employment opportunities for the poor. The primary objective of the groups is to mobilize saving of individual members, to ensure availability of need-based financial services to them and increase their capacity to take up income generating activities. When the groups seek to undertake economic activities, SGSY assistance is provided to them in the form of bank credit and subsidy. The SHGs are also encouraged to participate in various development activities. Individuals living below the poverty line can be assisted under SGSY, but the major thrust of the scheme is on development

156

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

of the groups. The scheme is implemented in the District Rural Development Cells (DRDC) of the Zilla Parishads. Like other centrally sponsored programmes, SGSY is funded by both the Central and the State Governments in the ratio of 75:25. In West Bengal, self help groups are of late emerging as the building blocks of poverty-focused development. It forms the social capital which facilitates financial linkage of poor households with banks and financial institutions. Paschim Medinipur district recorded up toDecember 2009, the highest number of SHGs formed (26205) among the districts. Number of SHGs passed Grade-I was 20754, i.e., 79.20 per cent of the SHGs formed. The number of SHGs formed up to this month varied widely across blocks. It was highest in Sabong block (1612) followed by Jhargram (1457), Keshpur (1415), Narayangarh (1299), Debra (1298), Garhbeta-I (1215), Binpur-II (1123) and Salboni (1102) whereas number of women SHGs formed was highest in Sabong block (1597) followed by Debra (1275), Narayangarh (1267), Salboni (1060) and Binpur-II (1012) respectively. Number of SHGs passed Grade-I was highest in Keshpur (1361)) followed by Sabong (11247), Narayangarh (1214) and Debra (1067) whereas SHGs passed Grade-II was highest in Debra (449) followed by Narayangarh (442) and Sabong (385). The number of SHGs credit linked was highest in Garhbeta-III (241) followed by Debra (175), Keshpur (165), Keshiary (143), KharagpurII (137), Gopiballavpur-II (133), Daspur-II (133) and Daspur-I (131) respectively. The detail is given below in Table 5.25.

Amount of CC disbursed (Rs. in Lakh)

Passed Grade II (in Number)

Per cent2

Proposed for credit linkage (in Number)

549

98.74

458

118.05

276

50.27

142

37 13.41

Chandrakona-II

462

436

39.766

360

77.92

274

67.50

134

37.22

106

69 51.49

Daspur-I

929

871 138.926

752

80.95

633 207.375

176

23.40

176

105 59.66

Daspur-II

763

737

114.78

637

83.49

602

154.73

296

46.47

215

131 44.26

Ghatal

518

384

41.082

367

70.85

312

47.40

115

31.34

103

82 71.30

Binpur-II

1123

1012

170.00

851

75.78

652

153.54

234

27.50

160

46 19.66

Binpur-I

706

139

19.285

492

69.69

295

34.956

28

5.69

24

6 21.43

Gopiballavpur-I

755

663

22.10

509

67.42

279

68.5

39

7.66

9

2 50.13

Gopiballavpur-II

539

303 102.618

453

84.04

289

64.31

186

41.06

144

133 71.51

157

Per cent3

CC a/c Opened (in Number)

52.559

Credit linked (in Number)

Passed Grade I (in Number)

556

Per cent1

Total Savings (Rs. in Lakh)

556

No. of SHGs formed

Chandrakona-I

Block

No. of Women SHGs ormed

Table 5.25 Performance under SGSY up to December 2009 since Inception

Credit linked (in Number)

Proposed for credit linkage (in Number)

Passed Grade II (in Number)

313

32.218

388

66.55

289

38.11

41

10.57

25

Jhargram

1457

994

170.02 1114

76.46

952

185.50

155

13.91

123

88 56.77

3

Per cent3

583

Per cent2

Total Savings (Rs. in Lakh)

Amount of CC disbursed (Rs. in Lakh)

No. of Women SHGs ormed

CC a/c Opened (in Number)

No of SHGs formed

Jamboni

Per cent1

Block

Passed Grade I (in Number)

Economic Livelihoods

7.32

Nayagram

949

706 101.207

565

59.54

333

83.49

67

11.86

44

13 19.40

Sankrial

866

846

51.691

548

63.28

325

62.05

113

20.62

113

7 60.19

Dantan-I

828

796

101.52

630

76.09

533

109.51

104

16.51

102

34 32.69

Dantan-II

733

689 131.219

662

90.31

558

168.17

184

27.79

137

39 21.20

451.93 1076

82.90

969

240.17

489

45.45

369

175 35.79

Debra

1298

1275

Keshiary

935

931

97.60

785

83.96

639

112.60

224

28.54

223

143 63.84

Kharagpur-I

822

822 112.053

632

76.89

461 102.632

108

17.09

88

38 35.19

Kharagpur-II

777

751 101.016

687

88.42

604 148.348

221

32.17

219

137 61.99

Mohanpur

479

479

446

93.11

323

77.00

74

16.59

25

13 17.57

1299

1267

187.68 1214

93.46

918

176.76

442

36.41

116

71 16.06

937

911

142.83

710

75.77

603

155

132

18.59

132

65 49.24

Sabang

1612

1597

194.95 1247

77.36

979

141.38

385

30.87

182

73 18.96

Garhbeta-I

1215

550

84.702

864

71.11

688 171.192

135

15.63

135

32 23.70

Garhbeta-II

835

504

67.82

680

81.44

510

69.35

143

21.03

135

57 39.86

Garhbeta-III

841

775 115.573

696

82.76

664

169.6

270

38.79

268

241 89.26

136.82 1361

96.18

998

174.15

247

18.15

237

165 66.80

Narayangarh Pingla

Keshpur

70.898

1415

920

871

456

41.95

620

71.18

477

65.62

101

16.29

44

14 13.86

Salboni

1102

1060

100.51

859

77.95

562

50.35

162

18.86

151

27 16.67

Total

26205 21743 3195.323 20754

79.20

16179 3417.343

5281

25.45

3947

Medinipur

Source : Project Director, DRDC, Paschim Medinipur Notes: 1 in relation to SHGs formed, 2 in relation to SHGs passed Grade-I, 3 in relation to SHGs passed Grade-II

158

2046

38.74

Debra

0

159

Credit Link

Name of the Block

200

150

100

50 Jamboni

Binpur I

Dantan II

Gopiballavpur I

Daspur II

Kharagpur -II

Kharagpur I

Dantan I

Garhbeta-II

Garhbeta-III

Sankrial

Midnapore

Daspur I

Keshiary

Pingla

Nayagram

Salboni

Binpur –II

Garhbeta-I

Debra

Narayangarh

Keshpur

Jhargram

Mohanpur Chandrakona II

Jamboni

Gopiballavpur I

Ghatal

250 Gopiballavpur II

300

Sankrial

Figure 5.10 Credit Linked relating to SHG, Paschim Medinipur

Binpur I

SHG Formed Chandrakona I

Name of the Block

Mohanpur

Nayagram

Midnapore

Salboni

Garhbeta-I

Dantan I

Chandrakona I

Kharagpur I

Dantan II

Binpur –II

Garhbeta-II

Pingla

Chandrakona II

Narayangarh

Sabang

Ghatal

Jhargram

Daspur I

Daspur II

Gopiballavpur II

Kharagpur -II

Keshiary

Keshpur

Sabang

0

Garhbeta-III

Number Number

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Figure 5.9 SHG formed in Paschim Medinipur up to March 2010

1800

1600

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

Economic Livelihoods

Progress of SHGs in districts of West Bengal has been remarkable in terms of number of groups formed, passed grade-I, grade-II and credit linked. There has been diversification of occupation across SHG member households and women SHG members receiving training of different income generating activities. During 2002-03 to 2005-06, the number of deposit-linked SHGs increased significantly while that of credit-linked SHGs recorded increase at a higher rate. Amount of credit per SHG increased appreciably during this period. But all this does not carry much to the SHGs because this amount of credit, even if fully utilized for investment, appears to be too small to generate sufficient income for the members of the SHG.

Credit linked (in Number)

24.56

257

185

44.0

19.25

13

10.92

2

2

15.4

Bank of India(8)

552

424

37.48

338

61.23

245

48.6

54

15.98

45

37

68.5

Canara Bank(3)

307

100

12.92

129

42.02

105

8.23

14

10.85

3

3

21.4

Central Bank of India (6)

471

231

38.93

272

57.75

257

47.7

38

13.97

26

8

21.0

Indian Bank (5)

445

306

61.03

317

71.24

299

51.55

43

13.56

17

15

34.9

Indian Overseas Bank(3)

280

257

24.49

260

92.86

206

26.93

65

25.00

38

15

23.08

Bangiya Gramin Vikash Bank(37)

3063

2375

319.33

2215

72.31

2063 449.573

478

21.58

172

116

24.3

Oriental Bank of Commerce(1)

51

51

6.29

49

96.08

3.75

1

2.04

0

0

0.00

Punjab National Bank (44)

3197

2747

291.10

2403

75.16

2063 391.816

761

31.67

253

232

30.5

State Bank of India(46)

3850

2994

416.60

2821

73.27

2452

648

22.97

235

188

29.0

United Bank of 4431India(63)

3460

419.08

609 20.40

226

197

32.3

United Commercial Bank(14)

876

Union Bank of India(1) Vidyasagar Central Co-Op Bank(22) Total

45

Per cent

Sanctioned by Bank (in Number)

420

117

Per cent

No. of Passed Grade- II

1575 283.802

76.28

Revolving Fund released (in Number)

73.64

119

Per cent1

1710

24.931

No. of SHGs Passed Grade- I

227.02

156

Total Savings (Rs. in Lakh)

1761

156

No. of Women SHG ormed

2322

Bank of Baroda (2)

No. of SHG formed

Allahabad Bank(32)

Name of the Bank (No of branches)

Amount of Casch Credit Disbursed (Rs. in Lakhs)

Table 5.26 Number of Self Help Groups (SHGs) Formed, Passed Grade I and Grade II and Credit Linked by Bank under SGSY since Inception in Paschim Medinipur District (up to March 2008)

488.88

2985 67.37

2521 478.485

646

74.65

695

79.34

637

122.25

200

28.78

68

53

26.5

33

33

1.69

29

87.88

28

2.25

17

58.62

0

0

0.00

1681

1461

178.24

1167

69.42

1078 140.856

323

27.68

66

58

18.0

21715

17002

2133.77 15509

71.42

13691 2563.92

3684

23.75

1408

1109

30.1

Source : Project Director, DRDC, Paschim Medinipur

Further, general economic conditions as reflected in per capita income also determine how the SHGs would continue with their productive economic activities. Low level of per capita income in the economically backward regions does not offer favourable environment for SHGs to grow and develop.

160

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

CASE STUDIES ON SHG Struggle and Win Manikkundu Uttar 3 Self Helf Group in Chandrokana-I block has been continuing their group activity for 8 years. Their main economic activity is ‘Dhup ( incense)-Making’. Total 9 group members jointly have been carrying on their single group activity, i.e., incense making. They collect raw materials from Ghatal town and sell their product at local market and outside directly. Their per day work time is 3 pm to 5 pm. This group regularly maintain their account book and place it in the group meeting. They make timely deposit of saving and take loan money from their bank account. Total loan money from UCO Bank is Rs. 200000. But due to their regular repayment of loan money for last 5 years, they have at present loan money of Rs. 36000. The remarkable aspect of this group is the solidarity of group members. They observe some rule which is fixed by unanimously in the meeting and if anyone violates the rule she has to pay Rs 5 as penalty money. Due to flood in 2008 they had faced a loss of Rs 25000, which was a big challenge for their survival. But they took up the challenge and presently they are in a good position. This group demands compensation of Rs 25000 and a work shed for storing raw materials to avoid damage.

Small Enterprise but Outsourcing Satbankura Soft Toys is a small manufacturing SHG enterprise of Garbeta III block, which has been linked up with Kolkata based export based company ‘Shockely Hall Electronics (P) Ltd. Salt Lake City, Sector V’. Total number of women workers engaged in this manufacturing enterprise is 30. Kolkata based private company has been supplied all types of raw materials. Workers of Soft Toy enterprise have been weaving different part of Toys for making a format of Toys through electric weaving machine. Per day work hour for each women varies between 6hr to 8 hr. Income of these workers depends on the manufacturing order of that particular private companies and on work efficiency of workers. Per month minimum and maximum monthly income of a worker are Rs 100 and Rs 2500 respectively. Total payment for 30 women workers in November 2009 and December 2009 are Rs 4575 and Rs 13278 respectively.

Success but Marketing Problem Baikanthapur Ma Sitala Self Help Group of Daspur I block has been working for last 6 years. Their main economic activity is making of Door-Mat. They have to collect raw materials from Kolkata and also sale in Kolkata. Per capita income of each group members is Rs 1000. But due to increase in cost of raw materials they stopped their production. Their cost price is increasing but sale price is not increasing. They have to face loss Rs 3-4 for sale of per piece Door-Mat. Total loan money for their group is Rs 2, 25,000.

Failure for lack of institutional marketing support Sneha is a brand name of the baby food product produced by a Women Self Help Group under Keshpur block of Paschim Medinipur distict. It could produce the product with locally available inputs like flour, sugar and others and was flourishing during the late 1990s and early 2010s while it enjoyed the support from the ICDS of the district. The institutional support was gradually withdrawn and the SHG is now in critical condition producing only very low volume of the product having the order for the same from a local physician and shop located at the Jhargram Sub-division. Much of the deposits with the banks on their accounts has been withdrawn resulting into a dormant / non-functioning SHG for most of the time in a year.

161

Economic Livelihoods

5.4.2

A brief note on MGNREGA

More than one-third of the population of this district is below poverty line. Low level of income continues to be the barrier for the poor to escape poverty trap. The poor people lack opportunities to have access to public infrastructure and income earning. A majority of them earn their livelihood through unskilled, casual manual labour and harnessing the natural resource base. This dependence make them more vulnerable to crises like climate shock, natural disaster, ill health, all of which adversely affect their employment opportunity and reduce their ability to move out of poverty trap. In the spirit of welfare state concept of the Constitution of India, the Govt. of India enacted National Rural Employment Guarantee Act – 2005 which was passed in the Parliament on 23rd August, 2005 and was enforced in Paschim Medinipur district on 2nd February, 2006. NREGA or commonly known as 100days work is the biggest employment guarantee programme ever launched in this country. NREGA with its right based frame work is a paradigm shift from all other government sponsored development programmes which were supply driven. NREGA is an Act to strengthen livelihood security through time bound guaranteed wage employment. Each rural household is entitled to get 100 days wage employment in a financial year. In the history of India, for the first time, right to employment has been acknowledged by the State. The main objectives of this Act are as follows: a)

To provide a legal guarantee of 100 days of wage employment in a financial year to every rural household.

b)

To create durable assets and thereby to strengthen the rural livelihood resource base.

c)

To ensure minimum wage to both male and female workers.

Other potential benefits of MGNREGA are, i)

Focusing on Inclusive growth:- Gender equity, social inclusion of weaker section, financial inclusion.

ii)

Regeneration of natural resources:- Impact on agriculture productivity, ground water recharge, aforestation, fishery.

iii)

Livelihood Security & Human development Indent: - arresting migration, ensuring food security, universalisation of primary education, health awareness.

iv)

Good governance: - More power to Local Self Government, people’s participation in monitor ing and transparency, IT enabled e-governance.

Background NREGA was launched in this district on 2nd February, 2006. In the initial year emphasis was given on IEC, training, holding meetings at village level, wall writing, distribution of leaflets, orientation of Panchayat functionaries and staff. In the second year, i.e., in 2007-08, there were devastating floods in this district in three consecutive months and then NREGA acted pivotal role in reconstruction work. Schemes under this Act got momentum from the 3rd year onwards and there has been continuous rise in terms of financial progress, persondays generation, average number of personday provided per HH and number of HH to which 100 days employment was provided. The table below shows the increasing trend.

162

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Sl. No.

2006-07

Expenditure (Rs.in lakh) Average Expenditure per month (Rs. In lakh) Persondays generated ( in lakh) Avg persondays generated ( in lakh) Average persondays per HH ( in days) No. of HH provided 100 days (No.)

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

2010-11 (up to 30.09.10)

5037.72

8474.15

10600.00

23397.73

13650.50

419.81

706.18

883.33

1949.81

2275.08

58.03

76.10

86.69

178.12

105.50

4.84

6.34

7.22

14.84

17.58

16

24

27

52

30

158

1210

2027

10315

1406

Sourrce: MGNREGA Cell, Paschim Medinipur

Average Expenditure per month 2500

Anount (Rs. In lakh)

2275.08

2000 1949.81

1500 1000

883.33 706.18

500 419.81

0 2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

Year

2009-10

2010-11 (up to 30.09.10)

Ave rage Expenditure per month (Rs. In lakh)

Average persondays generated per month Am ount ( in lakh)

20 17.58

15

14.84

10 5

4.84

7.22

6.34

0 2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

2010-11

Year (up to 30.09.10) Average persondays generated per month ( in lakh)

163

Economic Livelihoods

Creation of assets Paschim Medinipur district has two distinct characteristics in its western part and eastern part. Land in the western part is undulating, lateritic, water holding capacity is less. Agriculture in this part is mostly rainfed as a result most of the lands are monocrop. Per capita income of people living in this part is much lower in comparison to the district average. As a result, other indicators of human development like literacy rate, women literacy rate are poor and IMR, MMR are also high.

164

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

On the other hand, land in the eastern part of this district is alluvial and water retention capacity is high. This part is gifted with many major rivers and drainage channels. Most of the land is double or triple crop. But flood is a major problem in this area. Considering the diversity in soil type, cropping pattern, provision of irrigation facility; a 5- year Perspective Plan has been prepared for the district. It has been decided that in the western part, emphasis would be given on schemes like excavation/re-excavation of ponds, aforestation and horticulture development, reclamation of waste land, developments of property belonging to SC/ST/BPL / Small & Marginal farmers. In the eastern part emphasis is given on renovation of traditional water bodies, flood protection, rural connectivity, and desiltation of irrigation canals, drainage channels. A well devised planning considering felt needs and seasonality has enabled to invest more and more on natural resources. The table below shows the trend. Year-wise and Sector-wise expenditure (Rs. in lakh) : Year

Water

Drought

Micro

Conservation

proofing

irrigation

and water harvesting

Renovation of

Renovation

Land

Flood

Rural

irrigation

of traditional

Develo-

control &

connec-

facility to SC /

water bodies

pment

protection

tion

ST/ IAY

2006-07

2041

307.68

194.39

49.19

578.18

126.69

320.63

1407.21

2007-08

735

279

295

75

747

274

737.70

5211.40

2008-09

1010

695

563

659

898

780

975

4851.97

2009-10

3665.00

919.00

770.00

2257.00

3104.00

1262.00

1316.42

9371.43

2010-11

2040

451

526

2205

2153

992

541

4393.72

(up to sept 10)

Graphical representation of Year-wise and Sector-wise expenditure (Rs. in lakh)

165

Economic Livelihoods

Participation of Women: Paschim Medinipur district has a rich heritage of SHG movement. There are 26205 SGSY groups in the district till December 2009. It was thought to harness this huge workforce for MGNREGA. At least one SHG was selected in each Gram Sansad. Criterion was Grade-I passed and at least one member of the group had passed class X. Thus, 3086 groups were selected. Instruction was given to Blocks and GPs that 1st April, 2009 onwards each and every scheme in the district should be supervised by SHG members. Management of schemes under MGNREGA by SHG members - was an experiment which was made for the first time in the State. The empowerment of women of these SHGs becomes possible by their strong contact and association with different institutions and Govt. units like Block, Gram Panchayat, Bank and Post Office. Generally women SHGs are working as job supervisor under MGNREGA in this District. These groups are showing tremendous interest for linkage with other organizations and institutions. For their roles and responsibilities as Job supervisor under MGNREGA, they are taking field level decisions regarding scheme execution at Gram Sansad level. This is one remarkable achievement for the society. As economic improvement is happened through MGNREGA, so their basic needs for livelihood is being fulfilled and they are becoming confident enough to do work after improvement of their standard of living. In addition to this, SHG members are doing Muster Roll verification and Social Audit.

Participation of SHG members in MGNREGS has made sea change in many aspects like - awareness of people, women participation, transparency and accountability. These positive changes are reflected in terms of expenditures, average persondays generated per HH, implementation of IBS. Apart from this, impact on women empowerment can be assessed after few years. During 2009-10, SHG members across the district earned Rs. 9.25 crore as remuneration for supervising schemes. Such a big amount is going in the hands of women belonging to SC / ST / BPL / Small & Marginal families which are used for basic minimum needs like child education, nutrition, and livelihood development. Women from backward section of the society are now regularly visiting Block & Panchayat offices, Banks, Post offices and interacting with Govt. officials, PRI members which gives them self confidence and self reliance.

166

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Empowering the weaker section Almost half of total population of this district either belongs to scheduled caste or scheduled tribe and majority of them are below poverty line. The primary cause of poverty of this section is that little amount of land or no land is owned by each family. Moreover classification of land owned by them is mostly 'Danga' (in the upper ridge) resulting in low crop yield or no crop. It was perceived that if lands belonging to SC/ST/ BPL/LR beneficiaries/ Small & marginal farmers could be made cultivable by means land development or by providing irrigation facility, that would fetch additional income to those households besides earning wage employment.

Hence, special drive was given on identification of such schemes and its implementation. In 200910, one lakh blank application forms were printed centrally and were distributed among the target groups through SHG groups. Members of SHG groups visited each and every household and made them aware of the opportunity that MGNREGA brought to them and helped them to fill up forms. As such 65,000 applications were submitted in the district. SHG members were specially trained for implementation of these schemes including recording measurement. Impasses were removed to simplify the process of implementation and that showed good result. Schemes like land development, excavation/re-excavation of ponds, field bonding, removing sand were taken up. The long term benefit of this endeavor will be reflected in coming years. Increase of agricultural production, decrease of cost of cultivation is the visible results. But the more important and more intruding benefit is upliftment of weaker section in the social strata.

Reclamation of Natural resources Year 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 (up to sept’10)

No. of scheme 4048 7814 8915 19773 12173

Sourrce: MGNREGA Cell, Paschim Medinipur

167

Expenditure (Rs. in lakh) 5037.72 8474.15 10600.00 23397.73 13650.50

Economic Livelihoods

The problem of fast depletion of underground water table is going to be a major threat to human civilization. Growing demand for installation of deep or mini deep tube-wells has increased the problem manifold. During summer, tube wells in many parts of this district become defunct because of decrease in water level. Even water becomes unavailable for household chores, bathing or feeding cattle.

A substantial portion of the population of this district is dependent on forest for their livelihood. Collection of Sal leaves, Kendu leaves, collection of firewood, getting share of Forest Protection Committee (FPC) are the main activities from which they earn their livelihood. Secondly, it is conceived that development of horticulture will also open new arena of earning livelihood to the people living in the periphery of forest. Hence more emphasis has been given on schemes like excavation/re-excavation of ponds, canals, digging of 'Hapa' (small farm ponds), horticulture development and aforestation. Year

Exp. in excavation/re-excavation of ponds (Rs. in Lakh)

Exp. in Aforestation & horticulture (Rs. in Lakh)

2006-07

2619.18

307.68

2007-08

1482.00

279.00

2008-09

1908.00

695.00

2009-10

6769.00

919.00

4193.00

451.00

2010-11 (up to Sept’10) Sourrce: MGNREGA Cell, Paschim Medinipur

168

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Transparency & Accountability All the programme functionaries are accountable through continuous and concurrent evaluation and audit of the programme by internal as well as external evaluators. Beneficiary committee has been constituted in each and every village to supervise the quality of work. No payment is released without recommendation of this committee. In addition to this self help groups have been engaged for muster roll verification. They collect photocopies of MR from Gram Panchayat and visit households to verify whether labourers were provided employment as mentioned in MR. Also, regular inspection of schemes by district, sub-division, block level officials are done to ensure quality of schemes.

A grievance Redressal Mechanism has been set up at each GP, Block, Sub-division and district level to redress complaints. Moreover, any contravention of the Act shall be liable to fine, which may extend to Rs. 1000/-. Regular audit by Accountant General Audit and Chartered Accountant Firm audit is conducted to maintain checks on accounts and procedure. Apart from the above, the following steps also help to maintain transparency in the implementation

x x

Wages are paid through accounts of labourersonly. Muster Rolls are kept at worksite for public scrutiny.

x

Regular Social Audits are conducted by GP.

x

Visit of National Level Monitors and State Level Monitors. Display of proactive disclosure at GP/ Block office.

x x

Coverage of media.

169

Economic Livelihoods

Implementation of ICT & E-governance: Implementation of Management Information System (MIS) is one of the most important tool to ensure transparency in MGNREGA. No person has to ask for any information on MGNREGA. As a step to proactive disclosure all informations are made available in the website for public scrutiny. All the block offices of the district and half of Gram Panchayat offices are concerted through internet for faster communication and exchange of informations. This district has made commendable progress in uploading expenditure in website. In addition to this, GP-wise reports on expenditure, persondays generation, and other details are regularly uploaded in district MGNREGA website (www.nregapaschimmedinipur.com ) for dissemination of information to political parties, media and citizens. Year

Actual Expenditure

Expenditure uploaded in

Percentage of

(RS. in lakh)

MIS (RS. in lakh)

MIS uploading

2008-09

10600

2468.66

23%

2009-10

23397.73

17223.31

74%

13650.5

11100.1

81%

2010-11 (up to 30.9.10)

Sourrce: MGNREGA Cell, Paschim Medinipur

170

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Problems faced because of Left Wing Extremism (LWE)

There are 104 Gram Panchayats in 11 LWE blocks of this district. Out of those GPs, 13 Gram Panchayats are defunct and 21 Gram Panchayats functions irregularly. 69 Gram Panchayat and Panchayat Samity members including Pradhans have either submitted resignation or have been murdered or kidnapped or are not traceable. Pradhans, Sabhapatis of Panchayat Samities, Members of G.P. and P.S. can not attend office regularly. As a result, PRI bodies can not discharge their responsibilities in implementation of MGNREGA like preparation of plan, monitoring & supervision, payment to labourers etc. Gram Unnayan Samities (GUS), which function as beneficiary committees at village level are defunct at many places. Many members of GUS have left their villages. Frequent strikes, road blockades, terrorist activities disrupt normal life. In last one year and four months normal life was suspended for 272 days out of 485 days. Staff can not attend office regularly. Normal functioning of BDO Offices and Gram Panchayat offices is hampered. Banks do not open regularly. If opens, usually goes dry. Though fund is transferred to GPs account through RTGS, but banks express inability to deliver cash to GPs. As Banks, Post offices, PACs remain closed frequently, Blocks & GPs face problem in depositing wages to accounts of labourers. These create severe problems in wage payment. As a result, blocks & Gram Panchayats become apprehensive to start new schemes. In some pockets Maoists threat PRI members, Gram Panchayat and block staff to release payment against Muster Rolls submitted by them. Technical staff fears to go to sites for measurement. Apprehension of signing fudged Muster Rolls makes them reluctant to take proactive role. Conclusion The benefit of MGNREGA is not limited to supplementing wage income of the rural poor but it extends to other socio-economic factors. The most important of which is that MGNREGA has imbibed sense of security and self-reliance in the hitherto vulnerable section of the society. Now, people are confident that if they are in need of employment, they can demand job to the Gram Panchayats and exercise the right given to them by Legislature. Human resource development and development of natural resources go side by side for a better and signing society.

171

Economic Livelihoods

Wage Employment Programme through MGNREGA With the guarantee of demand driven fund allocation, this scheme opens up tremendous possibilities of creating a livelihood resource base of the rural poor. Works for water and soil conservation, drought proofing, flood protection, afforestation and rural roads have been taken up under the programme. For the district as a whole road connectivity is the highest priority to work upon in terms of percentage of expenditure under MGNREGA. For Salboni, Binpur I and Binpur-II blocks, however, renovation of traditional water bodies got the highest priority over other sectors followed by rural connectivity which remains, of course, to be the sector accounting for percentage of expenditure under MGNREGA. By the end of the financial year 2008-09, total number of 739875 job cards was issued. Among them, 3.20 lakh demanded and were provided employment during this financial year. 86.69 lakh persondays of employment were generated. In terms of the average person-days created per household the performance of the district does not look so good. The number of persondays of work provided per household (by those households who demanded work) was 27 days on an average in 2008-09. There is a considerable variation across blocks in terms of average person-days per household. Garhbeta-III recorded during 2008-09 the highest number of personsdays of employment (43) followed closely by Garhbeta-I (42), Garhbeta-II, Daspur-II and Narayangarh (35 each), Gopiballavpur-I and Nayagram (31 each) and Ghatal (30). The performance of Mohanpur block was very poor, where, on an average, only 11 persondays of employment were provided to households. Participation of women in NREGA works has been low in most of the blocks of the district. Person-days generated for the women accounted for 25 per cent of total person-days generated in the district as a whole during the financial year 2008-09, when the desired norm is that at least one third of the beneficiaries will be women. Percentage of women participation in MGNREGAs was highest in Narayangarh followed by Garhbeta-I, Daspur-II and Nayagram. The share of the scheduled caste and scheduled tribe population in getting employment under MGNREGA was 53.59 per cent. Out of 29 blocks in Paschim Medinipur district only 8 blocks, namely Daspur-I, Daspur-II, Ghatal, Debra, Chandrakona-I, Chandrakona-II, Sabong and Pingla which perform well in respect of values of human development index (Table 1. 21 of Chapter I is referred back) could provide 30 or more days of work on an average. Performance of MGNREGS in terms of person-days per household is very poor with average person-days less than 20 in 8 blocks of the district, namely Binpur-II, Jhargram, Debra, Keshiary, Kharagpur-I, Mohanpur and Salboni most of which (excepting Debra) also performed low in terms of human development index (the same table of Chapter I is referred back). The blocks which performed better also showed considerable intra-block differences.

Table 5.27 Performance of MGNREGA in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District, 2008-09 Cumulative No. of HH issued Job Cards

Cumulative No. of HH demanded employment

Medinipur

27102

14943

Total 3.84

Women 1.09

3777

498

26

Salboni

31380

17851

2.84

0.84

986

132

16

Garhbeta I

23170

13068

5.53

1.66

1794

38

42

Garhbeta II

20943

9983

3.48

1.31

7225

128

35

Block

Cumulative persondays generated (in lakhs)

172

No. of HH which are beneficiary of land reform / IAY

No. of disabled beneficiary individuals

Persondays per household (in Number)

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Block

Cumulative

Cumulative No.

Cumulative

No. of HH

No. of

Persondays

No. of HH

of HH demanded

persondays

which are

disabled

per

issued Job

employment

generated

beneficiary of

beneficiary

household

(in lakhs)

land reform /

individuals

(in Number)

Cards

IAY

Garhbeta III

17084

5120

Total 2.2

Keshpur

37672

16919

4.62

0.45

5313

168

27

Kharagpur I

23034

4567

0.74

0.33

691

28

16

Kharagpur II

26542

9698

2.48

0.82

1071

207

26

Dantan I

26948

13575

3.74

1

3464

479

28

Dantan II

22085

4047

1.15

0.13

540

18

28

Narayangrah

36562

20657

7.14

2.19

8252

214

35

Pingla

25649

9359

2.49

0.55

3152

14

27

Mohonpur

15906

4582

0.64

0.07

479

13

14

Keshiary

23895

8590

1.59

0.58

0

2332

19

Sabang

45028

18964

5.43

0.99

877

246

29

Debra

33931

16170

3.14

1.02

3369

43

19

Jhargram

31763

10958

2.06

0.58

1369

28

19

Binpur I

30486

10367

2.33

0.61

151

13

22

Binpur II

35502

14598

2.42

0.75

36

8

17

Gopiballavpur I

18911

3986

1.22

0.48

25

49

31

Gopiballavpur II

15543

5156

1.08

0.3

470

15

21

Jamboni

21554

9155

2.06

0.64

905

119

23

Nayagram

26122

12678

3.96

1.24

3652

60

31

Sankrail

19084

8896

1.56

0.52

422

4

18

Ghatal

26174

15717

4.73

0.51

601

9

30

Chandrakona I

16157

7230

1.67

0.29

428

46

23

Chandrakona II

13558

6770

1.58

0.18

218

23

23

Daspur I

23927

12594

3.7

0.85

882

144

29

Daspur II

24163

13555

4.71

1.47

959

79

35

739875

319753

86.7

22.12

53742

5156

27

Grand Total

Women 0.6

1265

1

43

Sourrce: MGNREGA Cell, Paschim Medinipur District

Table 5.28 shows block wise figures on average persondays created per household and percentage of utilization of MGNREGS funds. Most of the blocks performed well in terms of utilization of MGNREGA funds, even though inter-block differences are observed. According to the figures for 2007-08 MGNREGA fund utilization across the district varied from 98 per cent in Narayangarh block and 67 per cent in BinpurI block. During the next financial year it varied between 96 per cent (in Narayangarh and Kharagpur II) and 76 per cent (Jamboni). There is positive relationship between mandays of employment generated under MGNREGA and the rate of fund utilization but the correlation coefficient is not satistically significant.

173

Economic Livelihoods

The main reason for low average person-days at the block / GP level, according to some, is that GPs are not able to develop adequate number of schemes to absorb the labour who demand work under MGNREGS. Since MGNREGS is supported to be a demand-driven programme (demand for funds should come from the Gram panchayat), it is apparent that the GPs can hardly develop enough number of schemes to provide employment to all who demand employment. MGNREGS is expected to be better implemented in places with large number of agricultural labourers or poor households, since working opportunities of the agricultural labourers or poor people are subject to seasonal variations. However, there is no significant correlation between number of persondays created under MGNREGA and proportion of agricultural labourers across the district. MGNREGS is also expected to create more number of days of work in places with higher concentration of poor people. Again, there is no significant correlation between the average number of persondays per household and percentage of BPL households in blocks of the district. If distribution of funds across PRIs is not strictly related to the number of households demanding employment under MGNREGA, areas with higher demand for work due to poverty are likely to end up with fewer days of work. Furthermore, poor people in poverty stricken areas may not be able to take advantage of MGNREGS because of the lack of physical capacity to work or urgency to take works other than under MGNREGA to get immediate payment of wages which is not possible under MGNREGA which takes at least 10 days for payment of wages to the MGNREGA workers.

Table 5.28 Average Persondays per Household and percentage utilization of funds in the Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District in MGNREGA, 2007-08 and 2008-09 Block

Average Persondays per household 2007-08

Percent of utilization 2007-08

AveragePersondays per household 2008-09

Percent of utilization 2008-09

Chandrakona-I

14

84

23

91

Chandrakona-II

24

91

23

89

Daspur-I

29

93

34

84

Daspur-II

25

92

35

95

Ghatal

21

93

30

90

Binpur-I

15

67

22

85

Binpur-II

13

95

17

89

Gopiballavpur-I

13

90

31

83

Gopiballavpur-II

18

90

21

92

Jambani

17

90

23

76

Jhargram

13

93

19

87

Nayagram

21

85

31

88

Sankrail

21

86

18

78

Datan-I

21

87

28

92

Datan-II

19

86

28

93

Debra

18

92

19

94

Keshiary

19

88

19

86

Kharagpur-I

12

76

16

88

Kharagpur-II

18

86

26

96

174

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Average Persondays per household 2007-08

Block

Percent of utilization 2007-08

AveragePersondays per household 2008-09

Percent of utilization 2008-09

Mohanpur

11

78

14

82

Narayangarh

20

98

35

96

Pingla

16

76

27

84

Sabang

17

81

29

89

Garhbeta-I

35

90

42

89

Garhbeta-II

86

86

35

86

Garhbeta III

15

83

43

95

Keshpur

47

85

27

81

Medinipur

19

92

26

91

Salbani

12

88

16

85

Source: NREGA Cell, Paschim Medinipur District

Figure 5.11 Average Persondays per household 2007-08 and 2008-09

100 90 80 60 50 40 30 20 10

Average Persondays per household 2007-08

175

Average Persondays per household 2008-09

Daspur-I

Daspur-II

Chandrakona-II

G hatal

Name of the Block

Chandrakona-I

G opiballavpur-I

G opiballavpur-II

Sankrail

Nayagram

Jambani

Binpur-I

Binpur-II

Jhargram

M ohanpur

Keshiary

N arayangarh

Datan-I

Datan-II

Sabang

Pingla

D ebra

Kharagpur-I

Kharagpur-II

Garhbeta-II

G arhbeta-III

Garhbeta-I

Salbani

Keshpur

0 M edinipur

Num ber

70

Economic Livelihoods

CASE STUDIES ON WATERSHED Watershed project under NREGA at Narayanpur village under Rasakundu Gram Panchayat of Garhbeta-III block 3

For management of Naranpur Adibasi Bandh i.e., watershed there is a 12 member committee. In this committee there are 6 SHG members and 6 user's group members.

3

Number of total families benefited from watershed is 150 including 70 ST and 25 SC families.

3

This committee provides following services- irrigation support, land leveling, nursery maintenance, plantation programme, fertilizer sale at government fixed price rate, pond excavation, providing loan for purchase of goat, pig to the beneficiaries, promote for saving practice of Adibasi peoples.

3

Stored water in watershed available only for 6 months.

3

Before watershed there is no practice of groundnut cultivation only practice of Til cultivation. But presently there have been groundnut cultivation in 100 acre land. Due to watershed farmers are diversifying in crop cultivation.

3

Crop cultivated area is increased.

3

To irrigate potato land for last 2-3 times there is scarcity of water and farmers face problem.

3

Water level of watershed is rapidly decreased due to water lifting by surrounding mini and heavy deep tube well.

3

The depth of watershed is low; there is possibility to excavate more.

3

Before watershed development local people were forced to migrate to other places for work but now it is very low.

176

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

5.4.3 Poverty Alleviation Poverty among people is a complex and comprehensive phenomenon, not only related to income but also to social, political and environmental factors (Joseph 2007). The Rural Household Survey conducted by the Department of Panchayats and Rural Development, Government of West Bengal in 2005 provides information on total number of families and families below the poverty line at a highly disaggregated level (viz. the Sansad level). The percentage of BPL families across blocks is presented in Table 5.29 which shows that percentage of BPL households in Paschim Medinipur district was 44%. The rural poverty ratio in the district varies widely across 29 blocks, the highest being registered for Nayagram block (69.26 per cent) followed by Binpur-II (68.59 per cent) and Jamboni (67.11 per cent), the lowest being recorded for Daspur II block (20.29 per cent). There are eighteen blocks such as Jhargram, Mid. Sadar, Dantan-I, Gopiballavpur-II, Binpur-I, Dantan-II, Keshiary, Chandrakona-I, Gopiballavpur-I, Chandrakona-II, Narayangarh, Keshpur, Ghatal, Sabang, Garhbeta-I, Salboni, Debra, Garhbeta-III where the percentage of BPL households belong in the moderate class (>=25 % to < 50 %) where as only six blocks such as Khargpur-I, Khargpur-II, Sankrail, Garhbeta-II, Pingla, Mohonpur belong in the higher class (>= 50 % to < 60 %).

Table 5.29 Percentages of BPL Families after 1st revision by Blocks in Paschim Medinipu District, 2005

Sub-division

Block

BPL % with respect to total Rank Sub-division households 2005 69.26 1 Kharagpur

Block

Keshiary

BPL % with respect to total Rank households 2005 46.89 16

Jhargram

Nayagram

Jhargram

Binpur-II

68.59

2

Ghatal

Chandrakona-I

44.21

17

Jhargram

Jamboni

67.11

3

Jhargram

Gopiballavpur-I

42.45

18

Kharagpur

Kharagpur-I

58.56

4

Ghatal

Chandrakona-II

41.84

19

Kharagpur

Kharagpur-II

53.57

5

Kharagpur

Narayangarh

41.60

20

Jhargram

Sankrail

51.33

6

Mid. Sadar

Keshpur

39.90

21

Mid Sadar

Garhbeta-II

50.76

7

Ghatal

Ghatal

38.86

22

Kharagpur

Pingla

50.51

8

Kharagpur

Sabong

37.37

23

Kharagpur

Mohanpur

50.16

9

Mid Sadar

Garhbeta-I

36.87

24

Jhargram Medinipur Sadar Kharagpur Jhargram Jhargram Kharagpur

Jhargram Medinipur Datan-I Gopiballavpur-II Binpur-I Dantan-II

49.02 48.90 48.81 47.72 47.46 46.97

10 11 12 13 14 15

Medinipur Sadar Jharagpur Medinipur Sadar Ghatal Ghatal -

Salboni Debra Garhbeta-III Daspur-I Daspur-II -

36.11 33.76 31.95 22.86 20.29 -

25 26 27 28 29 -

Source: Rural Household Survey, 2005 1

The survey was conducted on 12-point score basis using the questionnaire devised for rural households on (i) nature of land they hold, (ii) types of houses they live in, (iii) number of cloths the members per capita wear, (iv) nature of food security, (v) ownership of consumer goods, (vi) level of education, (vii) the type of labour in the hoiusehold, (viii) means of livelihood, (ix) status of 9-14 year children on education, (x) nature of loan taken, (xi) reasons for out migration of the principal earner of the household, and (xii) types of distress of the household, following mainly the methodology adopted by the NSSO. Each of the 12 points carrying a maximum score of 5 each aggregating 60. If the score of a household is equal to or below 33, the household is deemed to be living below poverty line (BPL).

177

Economic Livelihoods

Figure 5.12 BPL % age with respect of total households of Paschim Medinipur, 2005 80.00

70.00

60.00

50.00

40.00

30.00

20.00

Daspur-I

Daspur-II

Debra

Garbeta-III

Salboni

Garbeta-I

Ghatal

Sabong

Keshpur

Narayangarh

Gopiballavpur-I

Chandrakona-II

Keshiary

Chandrakona-I

Binpur-I

Dantan-II

Dantan-I

Gopiballavpur-II

Jhargram

Medinipur Sadar

Pingla

Mohanpur

Sankrail

Garbeta-II

Kharagpur-I

Kharagpur-II

Binpur-II

Jamboni

0.00

Nayagram

10.00

The 29 blocks of the district are classified into four categories based on the poverty ratio, namely low (below 25 percent of rural population below poverty line), moderate (25 to 50 per cent poor), high (50 to 60 per cent poor) and very high (above 60 per cent poor). Only two blocks, namely Daspur I and Daspur II belong to the low category, 18 blocks out of 29 belong to the moderate category, 6 blocks to the high category and 3 blocks, namely Binpur II, Nayagram and Jamboni belong to the very high category (Table 5.29). The first three high poverty blocks belong to the drought prone area of Paschim Medinipur district.

Table 5.30 Frequency Distribution of Blocks by Percentage of Rural Poverty, 2005 Low ( > Less than 25 per cent) 2 Daspur II, Daspur I

Moderate (25 to 50 per cent)

High (50 to 60 per cent)

Very High (Above 60 per cent)

18 Jhargram, Mid. Sadar, Dantan-I,

6 Khargpur-I, Khargpur-II, Sankrail, Garhbeta-II, Pingla, Mohonpur

3 Nayagram, Binpur-II, Jamboni

Gopiballavpur-II, Binpur-I, Dantan-II,

Keshiary, Chandrakona-I, Gopiballavpur-I, Chandrakona-II, Narayangarh, Keshpur, Ghatal, Sabang, Garhbeta-I, Salboni, Debra, Garhbeta-III

Total

29

Source: Rural Household Survey, 2005

The incidence of poverty is higher among the disadvantaged population, who are also generally overrepresented in the class of agricultural labourers.

178

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Map - 5.3 Distriburion of BPL Families in Paschim Medinipur District

5.5 Livelihood Strategies at the Household Level One of the limitations of the Census data is that it classifies workers into two exclusive categoriesmain workers and marginal workers. But the experience in the developing world as revealed by Alice Thorner and also by the National Sample Survey is that the same person is engaged in a principal activity while doing a secondary work at the same time. This is one of the livelihood strategies of the workers in the developing countries. Based on access to a set of assets, households allocate labour to different activities to produce outcome such as income, food security, and investment spending. The allocation of labor to a particular activity may be a short run response to make up income deficits due to an economic shock or to obtain liquidly for investment, may be an active attempt to manage risk through diversification of activities, or may be part of a long-term strategy to improve household well-being. For these reasons, at a given point of time households may have a diverse portfolio of economic activities. Seasonal migration is relatively more common among male labourers as compared to female labourers. A significant number of sample households from 15 sample villages of Pascim Medinipur district are found to be involved in 'tied labour' or 'tied harvest' arrangements. These arrangements emerge from the debt traps that many smallholders enter into during the dry seasons when they borrow money / paddy from landlords to whom they pledged their labour and/ or produce at well below the money / paddy from landlords to whom they pledged their labour and / or produce at well below the market rates (Bharadwaj 1985). It is also a method by which landlords secure cheaper workers and traders secure a reliable supply of produce (see Harriss 1992, Brass 1993, 1995). These arrangements in effect tie labourers down to their lenders and limit their ability to commoditize their labour power freely; hence the name 'unfree' or 'tied'.

179

Economic Livelihoods

Seasonal migration has been a significant livelihood strategy in Paschim Medinipur district. Drought of course is the main reason for such migration, but under-investment in irrigation further amplifies the problem (also see Breman 1996, Rao). Recent evidence suggests that although the 'permanent attachment' or 'bondage' is on the decline, the 'non-permanent attachment' is on the rise, especially in dry regions of the country (see also Jodhka 1994, Subramaniam and Reddy 1994) In our field survey of 300 households in 15 sample villages in ecologically diverse regions some of which are relatively developed and some relatively backward, we observe that in the relatively developed three villages of Daspur I, Daspur II and Sabong blocks household workers pursue agriculture as main activity in most cases while doing household industry activities or transport services or personal services as marginal activities. In relatively backward villages of Keshiary, Jamboni and Nayagram blocks, workers, while doing agriculture related work as principal activity, are engaged in babui rope making; kendu and sal leave and wood collections. Large extent of population also migrate to relatively developed area for agriculture and construction works. Table 5.31 Principal and Subsidiary Activities of Workers in Sample Villages Villages

Principal Activity

Secondary Activity

Kashinatpur

Cultivation

Agl. Labour, Goldsmith

Nijampur

Cultivation including horticulture

Jari work, loading and unloading of brick, sand materials by by-cycle, agricultural labour and goldsmith work in other states

Singdhui

Agricultural labour

Cultivation

Talda

Cultivation

Mat making

Murakata

Cultivation

Basket making & Bamboo crafts

Parihati

Agricultural labour

Cultivation

Naranpur

Agricultural labour

Salpata Making

Muradanga

Casual labour work, construction work (Masson work and Road work), loading and unloading work in F.C.I., work in rice mill, and business.

Agricultural labour

Tangur

Shell collection, agricultural labor

Lease cultivation.

Uttar Simulia

Casual labour in Bali Khadan

Agricultural labour

Chandanpur

Cultivation

Agricultural labour, transport work, business.

Jhakra

Cultivation

Agricultural labour

Bilasbar

Cultivation

Agricultural labour

Balijuri

Agricultural labour

Construction work (helper of masonry work), Salpata Making

Radhanagar

Agricultural labour

Construction work

Source: Sample survey during the study period, 2009

180

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

While Census of India records both main workers and marginal workers and National Sample Survey registers workers on principal and subsidiary status basis the livelihood strategies of most of the households include doing double or multiple economic activities or pursuing multiple economic livelihoods. Our analysis of secondary and primary data, confirms the importance of rural non-agriculture activities in the livelihood strategies of rural households. The analysis also shows clear links between key assets and the activity choice and level of income from different economic activities. In particular, we find that land access is linked to greater agricultural production and less participation in agricultural wage and nonagriculture wage. Higher levels of education appear to be most closely linked to non-agricultural wage employment. This relationship is found to strengthen as the areas develop, presumably with the expanding importance of the rural non-agricultural economy. Like education, infrastructure is closely linked to nonagricultural self-employment, since this provides access to markets and input for production. Our analysis of secondary and primary data, confirms the importance of rural non-agriculture activities in the livelihood strategies of rural households. The analysis also shows clear links between key assets and the activity choice and level of income from different economic activities. In particular, we find that land access is linked to greater agricultural production and less participation in agricultural wage and non-agriculture wage. Higher levels of education appear to be most closely linked to nonagricultural wage employment. This relationship is found to strengthen as the areas develop, presumably with the expanding importance of the rural non-agricultural economy. Like education, infrastructure is closely linked to non-agricultural self-employment, since this provides access to markets and input for production. 5.6 Economic livelihood Indicators and Construction of Economic Livelihood index (ELI)

y

We have examined different economic livelihood indicators to help us to construct economic livelihood index.

y

Foodgrains productivity is a good indicator which influences level of living by providing food security.

y

Work participation rate is also an important indicator. But we find that it is significantly influenced by marginal workers, the correlation between work participation rate and percentage of marginal workers to total workers being 0.737 which is statistically significant at 1 per cent level. Percentage of non-margrinal workers (NMW) to total workers is an important indicator.

y

Percentage of above poverty line (APL) families indicates not only the living standard but also the asset possession of the households. It is a useful indicator.

y

Thus, we adopted foodgrains productivity, percentage of non-marginal workers and percentage of households above poverty line as useful and significant indicators for the construction of economic livelihood index.

y

Economic livelihood index based on equal weightage of foodgrains productivity index, percentage of non-marginal workers index and APL index has been prepared.

y

Daspur II ranked first in terms of economic livelihood index followed by Daspur I, Chandrakona II, Ghatal and Debra. Binpur-II registered the lowest 29th rank led by Jamboni, Nayagram and Binpur-I which belong to agriculturally lagging and ecologically adverse region of the district.

181

Economic Livelihoods

Table 5.32 Economic Livelihood (EL) Indicators Block

Food grains Percentage of Productivity Non-Marginal (FGP) Workers (NMW)

Percentage of Above Poverty Line Families (APL) 1-bpl

FGP Index

APL Index

ELI (FGP+NMW +APL Indices)

Rank

Chandrakona-I

3.27

89.90

55.79

0.25

0.36

0.50

6

Chandrakona-II

3.14

94.70

58.16

0.24

0.40

0.52

3

Daspur-I

5.17

90.90

77.14

0.46

0.67

0.68

2

Daspur-II

4.79

94.90

79.71

0.42

0.71

0.69

1

Ghatal

4.22

77.40

61.14

0.36

0.44

0.51

4

Binpur-I

2.72

61.69

52.54

0.21

0.31

0.27

26

Binpur-II

2.92

48.18

31.41

0.19

0.01

0.21

29

Gopiballavpur-I

2.14

70.36

57.55

0.13

0.39

0.39

17

Gopiballavpur-II

2.59

73.37

52.28

0.18

0.31

0.40

15

Jamboni

2.53

53.30

32.89

0.17

0.03

0.23

28

Jhargram

3.15

54.82

50.98

0.14

0.29

0.31

25

Nayagram

2.22

58.61

30.74

0.24

0.00

0.26

27

Sankrail

2.78

58.49

48.67

0.20

0.26

0.33

24

Dantan-I

2.97

74.94

51.19

0.16

0.30

0.39

16

Dantan-II

3.69

68.84

53.03

0.30

0.32

0.42

14

Debra

4.40

65.76

66.24

0.38

0.51

0.50

5

Keshiary

2.16

65.44

53.11

0.13

0.32

0.36

21

Kharagpur-I

3.33

75.24

41.44

0.26

0.15

0.38

18

Kharagpur-II

3.21

62.21

46.43

0.25

0.23

0.35

23

Mohanpur

4.75

75.32

49.84

0.42

0.28

0.47

7

Narayangarh

2.06

62.86

58.40

0.12

0.40

0.37

20

Pingla

4.62

65.48

49.49

0.40

0.27

0.43

12

Sabang

3.81

64.72

62.63

0.31

0.46

0.46

8

Garhbeta-I

2.54

68.97

63.13

0.17

0.47

0.43

11

Garhbeta-II

2.35

66.65

49.24

0.15

0.27

0.35

22

Garhbeta-III

2.43

64.37

68.05

0.16

0.54

0.43

10

Keshpur

2.75

74.07

60.10

0.19

0.42

0.44

9

Medinipur

2.36

70.24

51.10

0.15

0.29

0.37

19

Salbani

2.62

64.55

63.89

0.18

0.48

0.42

13

Source: Rural Household Survey, 2005, Paschim Medinipur Census-2001. Paschim Medinipur PAO, Deptt. of Agriculture, Paschim Medinipur

182

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Figure 5.13 Economic Livelihood Index (FGP+NMW+APL ) of Paschim Medinipur ELI 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2

Jamboni

Binpur-II

Binpur-I

Nayagram

Sankrail

Jhargram

Garhbeta-II

Keshiary

Kharagpur-II

Medinipur

Narayangarh

Dantan-I

Kharagpur-I

Gopiballavpur-I

Salbani

Gopiballavpur-II

Dantan-II

Garhbeta-III

Pingla

Garhbeta-I

Sabang

Debra

Mohanpur

Ghatal

Chandrakona-I

Daspur-I

Chandrakona-II

Daspur-II

0

Keshpur

0.1

ELI

Frequency distribution of blocks by value of economic livelihood index in Paschim Medinipur District shows that two blocks, namely Daspur-I and Daspur-II belong to the highest economic livelihood index class of 0.60 and above while fourteen blocks, namely Binpur-II, Nayagram, Binpur-I, Jamboni, Jhargram, Sankrail, Kharagpur-II, Garhbeta-II, Keshiary, Narayangarh, Medinipur, Kharagpur-I, GopiballavpurI & Dantan-I belong to the lowest economic livelihood class of below 0.40. Nine blocks, namely Gopiballavpur-II, Dantan-II, Mohonpur, Salboni, Garhbeta-I, Garhbeta-III, Keshpur, Sabang & Pingla belong to the economic livelihood class of 0.40 to 0.49 while four blocks, namely Chandrakona-I, Chandrakona-II, Ghatal & Debra belong to the economic livelihood class of 0.50 to 0.59 (Table 5.32). Table 5.33 Frequency distribution of Blocks by Value of Economic Livelihood Index in Paschim Medinipur District, 2001 Class

Number of Blocks

Number of Blocks

%

Below 0.40

14

Binpur-II, Nayagram, Binpur-I, Jamboni, Jhargram, Sankrail, Kharagpur-II, Garhbeta-II, Keshiary, Narayangarh, Midnapore, Kharagpur-I, Gopiballavpur-I & Dantan-I

48.28

0.40-0.49

0.50-0.59

9

4

0.60 and above

2

Total

29

Gopiballavpur-II, Dantan-II, Mohonpur, Salboni, Garhbeta-I, Garhbeta-III, Keshpur, Sabang & Pingla

31.03

Chandrakona-I, Chandrakona-II, Ghatal & Debra

13.79

Daspur-I & Daspur I

6.90 100.00

5.7 Summary and Conclusions We see a substantial variation of ELI across different blocks of the district and closer look reveals that this related to the development of agriculture, literacy and physical infrastructure. Provision of economic opportunity for all has always been important aspect of any attempt towards Human Development and this can be only achieved by developing the agriculture, increasing literacy and investing in the development of infrastructure.

183

Economic Livelihoods

184

Gender Development

186

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Chapter – VI Gender Development “Women bear the brunt of human deprivation; poverty has a female face, women are 70 per cent of the world’s absolute poor.” (Human Development in South East Asia, 1999)

6.1 Introduction: Advancement of women is an important economic and societal issue with a significant impact on the growth of nations. Gender equality is recognized as a key human development issue because of its intellectual proximity to the goals of universal human rights and social justice. According to United Nations (UN), women are not just the target of special measures to promote development. They are also the driving force to overcome poverty, reduce hunger, fight illiteracy, heal the sick, prevent the spread of disease and promote stability (UN, 2008). Gender equality and women's empowerment are considered to be a desirable byproduct of human development. Therefore, to achieve these goals, it is essential to close the gender equality and empowerment gaps in education, employment, and political participation (Kabeer, 2005). Various development indicators substantiate that women lag behind men in most of the yardsticks that measure gender justice and human development, such as gender situation, pattern of literacy and education, health situation, work participation by females, participation in political process in the name of political empowerment, in the field of economic empowerment, status of women, Self Help Group formation etc. The present chapter discusses gender development including gender gap in literacy and work participation.

6.2 Gender Literacy Differential in Paschim Medinipur Literacy rate of women has always been identified as one of the most valuable economic as well social indicators for any society and community. During the period from 1981 to 2001 it has improved perceptibly across the district. There is, however, a persistent gender gap in literacy rate in Paschim Medinipur district. Among 4 sub-divisions of the district, the highest gender gap in literacy rate is found in Jhargram Sub-Division. High concentration of ST households and lack of proper socio-economic opportunities explain the phenomenon (Table 6.1).

Table 6.1 Gender Gap in Literacy Rate by Sub-Division in Paschim Medinipur District, 2001 Sub-Division

Male Female Gender Rural Urban RuralLiteracy Literacy Gap Literacy Literacy urban Rate Rate Rate Rate gap

Rural Rural male female literacy literacy Rate Rate

Rural gender gap

Ghatal

84.8

60.2

24.6

74.0

81.9

7.9

84.1

64.0

20.1

Jhargram

76.7

49.7

27.0

62.2

84.8

22.6

75.8

48.1

27.7

Kharagpur

83.9

62.6

21.3

72.1

81.3

9.2

83.1

60.6

22.5

Medinipur Sadar

78.1

56.3

21.8

64.9

84.1

19.2

64.9

52.8

12.1

District

81.3

59.1

22.2

68.7

82.4

13.7

68.7

56.8

11.9

Source: District Statistical Hand Book, 2004

187

Gender Development

In Jhargram sub-division, Nayagram block registers the highest gender gap in literacy rate. Daspur-II has the lowest gender gap in literacy rate followed by Chandrakona-I and Chandrakona-II. There are 15 blocks, namely Binpur I, Gopiballavpur I, Gopiballavpur II, Jhargram, Nayagram, Dantan-I, Kharagpur-I, Kharagpur-II, Narayagarh, Garhbeta I, Garhbeta II, Garhbeta III, Keshpur, Medinipur and Salboni where gender gap in literacy increased during 1981 to 2001. In Nayagram block the gap increased most by 4.72 percentage point, followed by Gopiballavpur-I and Medinipur Sadar block. Daspur-II is found to lessen the gender gap in literacy rate the most (Table 6.2).

Table 6.2 Gender Gap in Literacy in Blocks of Paschim Midnapore District, 1981 to 2001 Sub-division

Ghatal

Jhargram

Kharagpur

Medinipur Sadar

Block Chandrakona-I Chandrakona-II Daspur-I Daspur-II Ghatal Binpur-II Binpur-I Gopiballavpur-I Gopiballavpur-II Jamboni Jhargram Nayagram Sankrial Dantan-I Dantan-II Debra Keshiary Kharagpur-I Kharagpur-II Mohanpur Narayangarh Pingla Sabang Garhbeta-I Garhbeta-II Garhbeta-III Keshpur Medinipur Salboni

1981 20.45 20.45 27.84 28.20 26.77 30.58 27.83 24.00 26.89 28.68 24.41 25.28 25.98 24.67 24.31 24.39 23.96 22.50 22.2 28.31 21.00 28.33 30.49 19.75 22.89 19.94 23.99 21.10 22.37

Source: Census of India 1981, 1991 and 2001

188

1991 23.97 20.61 27.81 25.13 27.04 34.34 31.6 29.43 30.25 8.83 28.46 33.10 28.38 27.68 24.27 21.88 29.28 26.26 25.65 26.03 25.22 27.31 28.12 23.41 27.65 23.44 27.02 29.52 28.37

2001 19.8 20.00 20.60 18.50 22.60 29.60 28.90 28.10 27.40 26.90 25.20 30.00 25.50 25.10 21.40 21.80 23.50 23.50 23.40 21.90 22.70 20.10 22.00 21.90 24.70 21.90 24.40 23.90 25.10

Change (1981-2001) -0.65 -0.45 -7.24 -9.70 -4.17 -0.98 1.07 4.10 0.51 -1.78 0.79 4.72 -0.48 0.43 -2.91 -2.59 -0.46 1.00 1.20 -6.41 1.70 -8.23 -8.49 2.15 1.81 1.96 0.41 2.80 2.73

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Map 6.1 Gender Gap in Literacy (1981 - 2001) in Paschim Medinipur District Gender Gap in Literacy (1981-2001)

N

Paschim Medinipur District

W

E S

Garhbeta-I Chandrakona-II

Garhbeta-II

Chandrakona-I

Garhbeta-III

Ghatal

Binpur-II Binpur-I

Salboni

Keshpur

Daspur-I Daspur-II

Jamboni

Midnapore Jhargram

Debra

Kharagpur-II

Kharagpur-I

Pingla Gopiballavpur-II Sankrail

Gopiballavpur-I

Sabong

Narayangarh

Keshiary

Nayagram

Mid(W) Boundary Gender Gap in Literacy (1981-2001) Highest Gender Gap Average Gender Gap Moderate Gender Gap Lowest Gender Gap

Dantan-II Dantan-I Mohanpur

7

0

7

14 Kilometers

Figure 6.1 Gender Gap in Literacy across Paschim Medinipur District, 1981, 1991 and 2001

Gender Gap in Literacy 40 35

25 20 15 10

189

Salboni

Medinipur

Keshpur

Garhbeta-III

Garhbeta-I

Garhbeta-II

Pingla

Sabang

Mohanpur

Narayangarh

Kharagpur-I

2001

Kharagpur-II

Debra

1991

Keshiary

Dantan-I

1981

Dantan-II

Sankrial

Nayagram

Jamboni

Gopiballavpur-II

Binpur-I

Gopiballavpur-I

Binpur-II

Ghatal

Daspur-II

Daspur-I

Chandrakona-I

0

Jhargram

5 Chandrakona-II

Per cent

30

Gender Development

During the period from 1991 to 2001 literacy rate among both SC and ST males and females improved significantly. Though both the communities lag far behind vis a vis general caste. In 2001, Sabong block had the highest percentage of SC male literate population (73.52) followed by Pingla (69.09) and Narayangarh (68.38), the lowest being registered in Gopiballavpur-I block (51.15). Sabong block had also the highest female literacy rate among SC female (49.64 per cent) followed by Dantan-II (46.19 per cent) and Narayangarh block (45.86 per cent), the lowest being registered in Gopiballvpur-I block (24.64 per cent). In the same year, Dantan-II block had the highest percentage of ST male literate population (68.41) followed by BinpurI (59.71) and Jamboni (59.51), the lowest being registered in Daspur-I block (38.19). Binpur-II block had the highest female literacy rate (31.57 per cent) followed by Binpur-I (31.06 per cent), the lowest being registered in Mohanpur block (14.47 per cent). All this shows wide disparity in literacy rate among SCs and STs males and females (Table 6.3).

Table 6. 3 Literacy Rate among Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe by Block , 1991 & 2001 (Per cent) 1991 Block Chandrakona-I Chandrakona-II Daspur-I Daspur-II Ghatal Binpur-II Binpur-I Gopiballavpur-I Gopiballavpur-II Jamboni Jhargram Nayagram Sankrial Dantan-I Dantan-II Debra Keshiary Kharagpur-I Kharagpur-II Mohanpur Narayangarh Pingla Sabang Garhbeta-I Garhbeta-II Garhbeta-III Keshpur Medinipur Salboni

Male 43.58 46.94 37.64 47.65 49.81 52.62 43.78 46.52 49.29 75.72 41.32 46.11 50.67 58.27 64.30 59.65 57.92 76.52 54.94 58.92 66.16 58.26 62.88 41.21 42.50 51.19 52.25 41.50 41.02

SC Female 62.21 24.62 24.31 23.38 23.58 27.26 17.49 23.02 23.26 70.84 18.56 19.90 23.69 32.05 39.92 38.20 31.16 39.59 30.09 31.45 42.11 32.01 40.98 18.40 21.84 29.46 25.76 17.65 18.73

Total 31.47 36.05 31.65 35.72 36.95 39.63 30.95 35.11 36.07 72.66 30.16 33.29 37.44 45.47 52.62 49.43 44.58 58.27 42.65 45.64 54.80 44.91 52.32 30.08 32.40 40.46 39.11 29.35 30.03

Male 31.15 36.67 22.11 24.39 36.02 47.73 49.75 38.28 52.54 75.57 41.01 40.16 49.71 36.17 41.60 47.18 46.37 43.58 43.22 34.84 47.21 39.26 43.52 31.66 49.22 38.69 39.58 33.10 38.97

2001 ST Female 9.28 20.11 8.78 12.30 14.58 19.92 21.28 11.30 20.30 66.13 16.60 14.17 23.38 14.02 22.22 26.48 21.52 19.71 16.54 9.86 20.67 13.94 17.28 9.05 20.80 13.20 14.43 11.59 12.76

Source: Census of India 1991 and 2001

190

Total 20.44 28.77 15.42 12.35 25.36 33.92 35.58 25.44 36.19 70.98 29.07 27.16 36.31 25.23 32.23 37.28 34.23 31.82 29.98 22.29 34.21 27.00 30.92 20.36 34.60 26.69 27.13 22.48 26.01

Male 55.16 52.05 62.20 61.45 62.12 63.21 54.23 51.15 56.85 63.83 54.64 53.09 57.44 63.10 68.27 65.34 63.39 62.55 60.46 67.53 68.38 69.09 73.52 52.38 52.57 54.10 61.39 54.26 57.71

SC Female 32.28 29.08 35.13 42.28 36.93 35.38 26.07 24.64 28.91 37.64 30.65 27.30 32.62 38.50 46.19 41.17 41.10 38.16 36.90 42.12 45.86 30.03 49.64 28.94 29.48 32.91 33.98 29.15 33.18

Total 43.88 40.74 49.50 51.63 49.65 49.48 40.46 38.20 43.18 51.02 42.70 40.15 45.15 51.00 57.68 53.28 52.46 50.46 48.79 55.19 57.37 57.30 61.98 40.86 41.14 43.61 47.96 41.87 45.65

Male 44.05 44.92 38.19 41.88 44.17 58.58 59.71 47.31 54.99 59.51 52.77 44.41 56.38 42.04 68.41 53.07 55.77 51.83 50.59 41.37 49.52 57.94 54.02 48.17 57.54 49.65 46.36 44.50 54.27

ST Female 21.04 19.70 16.40 23.41 19.85 31.57 31.06 19.44 25.99 30.72 25.93 21.10 29.52 16.63 19.40 25.45 29.31 25.99 23.72 14.47 23.78 29.09 26.13 21.48 30.42 22.25 17.64 20.87 26.50

Total 32.85 32.65 27.23 32.32 32.11 45.06 45.38 33.63 40.70 45.31 39.61 25.27 43.09 29.47 32.82 39.37 42.73 44.57 37.22 28.19 36.85 44.05 40.55 34.83 43.93 36.13 32.04 32.75 40.60

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

There is also a substantial gender gap in literacy rate among SC and STs. In 1991, this gap was highest among SCs in Kharagpur I (36.93 percentage point), followed by Sankrail ( 26.98 percentage point), the lowest being registered in Jamboni ( 4.88 percentage point) led by Daspur-I ( 13.33 percentage point). In 2001, this gap was highest among SCs in Pingla (39.06 percentage point), followed by Binpur-I ( 28.16 percentage point) and Gopiballavpur-II ( 27.94 percentage point), the lowest being registered in Daspur-II ( 19.17 percentage point). The gender gap in literacy among SCs increased in 17 blocks including Jamboni (by 21.31 percentage point), Daspur-I (by 13.74 percentage point) and Pingla (by 12.91 percentage point). The literacy gap among STs in 1991 was highest in Gopiballavpur-II (32.24 percentage point), followed by Binpur-I (28.47 percentage point), Garhbeta-II ( 28.42 percentage point), the lowest being registered in Jamboni (9.44 percentage point) led by Daspur-I ( 13.33 percentage point). In 2001, this gap was highest among STs in Dantan-II (49.01 percentage point) followed by Pingla (28.85 percentage point), Jamboni ( 28.79 percentage point) Keshpur (28.72 percentage point) and Binpur-I (28.65 percentage point), the lowest being registered in Daspur-II (18.47 percentage point). The gender gap in literacy among STs has increased in 23 out of 29 blocks including Dantan-II (by 29.63 percentage point) and Jamboni (by 19.35 percentage point) (Table 6.4).

Table 6.4 Gender Gap in Literacy among SCs and STs, 1991 to 2001 and Its Change Block

SC

ST

1991

2001

Change

1991

2001

Change

Chandrakona-I

18.63

22.88

4.25

21.87

23.01

1.14

Chandrakona-II

22.32

22.97

0.65

16.56

25.22

8.66

Daspur-I

13.33

27.07

13.74

13.33

21.79

8.46

Daspur-II

24.27

19.17

-5.10

24.39

18.47

-5.92

Ghatal

26.23

25.19

-1.04

21.44

24.32

2.88

Binpur -II

25.36

27.83

2.47

27.81

27.01

-0.80

Binpur-I

26.29

28.16

1.87

28.47

28.65

0.18

Gopiballavpur-I

23.50

26.51

3.01

26.98

27.87

0.89

Gopiballavpur-II

26.03

27.94

1.91

32.24

29.00

-3.24

Jamboni

4.88

26.19

21.31

9.44

28.79

19.35

Jhargram

22.76

23.99

1.23

24.41

26.84

2.43

Nayagram

26.21

25.79

-0.42

25.99

23.36

-2.63

Sankrial

26.98

24.82

-2.16

26.33

26.86

0.53

Dantan-I

26.22

24.60

-1.62

22.15

25.41

3.26

Dantan-II

24.38

22.08

-2.30

19.38

49.01

29.63

Debra

21.45

24.17

2.72

20.70

27.62

6.92

Keshiary

26.76

22.29

-4.47

24.85

26.46

1.61

Kharagpur-I

36.93

24.39

-12.54

23.87

25.84

1.97

Kharagpur-II

24.85

23.56

-1.29

26.68

26.87

0.19

Mohanpur

27.47

25.41

-2.06

24.98

26.90

1.92

Narayangarh

24.05

22.52

-1.53

26.54

25.74

-0.80

Pingla

26.25

39.06

12.81

25.32

28.85

3.53

191

Gender Development

Block

SC

ST

1991

2001

Change

1991

2001

Change

Sabang

21.90

23.88

1.98

26.24

27.89

1.65

Garhbeta-I

22.81

23.44

0.63

22.61

26.69

4.08

Garhbeta-II

20.66

23.09

2.43

28.42

27.12

-1.30

Garhbeta-III

21.73

21.19

-0.54

25.49

27.4

1.91

Keshpur

26.49

27.41

0.92

25.15

28.72

3.57

Medinipur

23.85

25.11

1.26

21.51

23.63

2.12

Salboni

22.29

24.53

2.24

26.21

27.77

1.56

Source: Census of India 1991 and 2001

Figure 6.2 Gender Gap in Literacy for SC

Percentage

Gender Gap in Literacy for SC 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Salboni

Midnapore

Keshpur

Garhbeta-III

Garhbeta-II

Garhbeta-I

Sabang

Pingla

Narayangarh

Mohanpur

Kharagpur II

Kharagpur I

Keshiary

Debra

Dantan-II

Dantan-I

Sankrial

Nayagram

Jhargram

Jamboni

Goip-II

Gopi -I

Binpur-I

Binpur –II

Ghatal

Daspur-II

Daspur-I

Chandra-2

Chandra-1

Block % of Literacy of SC (1991)

% of Literacy of SC (2001)

Figure 6.3 Gender Gap in Literacy for ST Gender Gap in Literacy for ST 60

Percentage

50 40 30 20 10 0 Salboni

Midnapore

Keshpur

Garhbeta-III

Garhbeta-II

Garhbeta-I

192

% of Literacy of ST (2001)

Sabang

% of Literacy of ST (1991)

Pingla

Narayangarh

Mohanpur

Kharagpur II

Kharagpur I

Keshiary

Debra

Dantan-II

Dantan-I

Sankrial

Nayagram

Jhargram

Jamboni

Goip-II

Gopi -I

Binpur-I

Binpur –II

Ghatal

Daspur-II

Daspur-I

Chandra-2

Chandra-1

Block

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

6.3 Gender Differential in Participation in Work Force Engagement of women in workforce is recognized as a positive indicator of development as well as women's empowerment. In Paschim Medinipur district the wok participation rate for women is very low compared to men. While the share of male workers in total male population is 55 per cent, that of female workers is only 26 per cent as per 2001 Census. In the district there is a substantial gap among men and women in respect of main workforce. The proportion of women is more in marginal workforce and in the household industry. The percentage of female non-workers to female population in 2001 was 73.67, which was much higher than the male counterpart, The percentage of female workers engaged in household industry was higher than that of males in 2001 while that of other female workers was lower (Table 6.5).

Table 6.5 Work Participation Rate by Sex in Paschim Medinipur District, 2001 Male

Female

Gender Gap

Participation in work (%)

55.18

26.33

28.85

Main Work force (%)

82.34

39.40

42.94

Marginal work force (%)

17.66

60.60

-42.94

Non-worker (%)

44.82

73.67

-28.85

Participation in Non-Agricultural Works (%) (a) Household Industry (b) Other workers

3.48 32.09

16.88 16.53

-13.4 15.56

Source: Census of India 2001

The female work participation rate increased from 20.91 per cent in 1991 to 26.33 per cent in 2001. From the perceptibly increasing trend in work participation by women it is not clear whether the women view their engagement in income earning activities as a liberating opportunity or something that had to be undertaken on being forced by economic circumstances. Therefore we need to examine closely which factors have had influence on women's participation in the workforce. One way to go about it is to further analyse the composition of the workforce and try to understand the changes from different angles. What is to be noted is that in Paschim Medinipur increasing work participation by women between 1991 and 2001 was associated with increasing share of marginal workers to total workforce. As noted in Chapter 5 earlier, by census definition marginal workers are those who do not work for major part of the year, which could either be due to lack of opportunity or other reasons. Higher work participation by women indicates that more women are engaged to income earning activities inside or outside the household, which is likely to have positive impact on their families' well-being. Although the decennial growth rate of the main female workers between two census years is 3.87 per cent per annum, the number of marginal female workers increased by a hopping 38.65 per cent per annum. As a result, the share of female marginal workers in total female workers increased from 34.13 per cent in 1991 to 60.60 per cent in 2001. There is a rural-urban gap in female work participation. While in rural areas work participation rate in 2001 was 42.42 per cent, in urban areas it was 30.76 per cent. What is to be noted is that while the percentage of female main workers in total female population increased in urban areas it actually decreased in rural areas. If we further look into the distribution of workers into broad occupational categories, we find that between 1991 and 2001, the number of main female cultivators decreased from 74670 to 61404 (decrease by - 1.97 per cent per annum) and the number of main female agricultural labourers decreased

193

Gender Development

from 149064 to 127236 (decrease by -1.63 per cent per annum). This is enough to establish that a large number of women who are joining the workforce are not doing it out of choice. They are rather compelled by economic circumstances to accept the hardship. Proportion of main male workers to total main workers increased from 79.05 per cent in 1991 to 82.00 per cent in 2001 while that of females registered decline from 20.95 per cent to 18.00 per cent. Percentage of main male and female cultivators, and agricultural labourers to total main male and female workers recorded decline during this period while that of household industry and other workers registered increase. Structure of main workforce changed during this period in favour of household industry workers, and 'other' workers and against cultivators and agricultural labourers for both males and females. Proportion of male marginal workers to total marginal workers recorded increase from 16.07 per cent in 1991 to 38.85 per cent in 2001. Though the proportion of female marginal workers declined from 83.93 per cent to 61.15 per cent during this period it remained quite high in 2001 and it indicates that over 61 per cent of total marginal workers are females. Main female cultivators and agricultural labourers registered negative growth rate (less than 1 per cent) during this period while 'other' female main workers registered annual growth rate of 3.50 per cent, which was less than 4.25 per cent, the annual growth rate of 'other' male main workers (Table 6.6). Annual growth rate of total main workers was 6.82 per cent during 1991 to 2001 while that of main male workers (1.21 per cent) which was higher than that of main female workers (0.43 per cent). Main female cultivators and agricultural labourers registered negative growth rate (less than 1 per cent) during this period while other female main workers registered lower annual growth rate (3.50 per cent) than other male main workers (4.25 per cent). The very high rate of growth of marginal workers relative to that of main workers in both urban and rural areas across sexes indicates increasing marginalization of work force of the district. Agriculture still continues to be the main stay of rural female workers. Females have to compete with their male counterpart in the rural areas in gaining access to jobs in construction and other rural non-farm jobs.

Table 6.6 Proportion and Annual Growth Rate of Main and Marginal Male and Female Workers in Paschim Medinipur District, 1991 to 2001 Indicators

1991 total

Per cent

2001 total

Per cent

Annual growth rate (%)1991-2001

Main Male workers

1080754

79.05

2143813

84.73

9.84

Main female workers

286463

20.95

386299

15.27

3.49

Main male cultivators

553413

79.05

703116

84.73

2.71

Main female Cultivators

74670

20.95

61404

15.27

-1.78

Main male agricultural labourers

302348

40.48

489252

27.79

6.18

Main female Agricultural labourers

149064

5.46

127236

2.43

-1.46

Main male household industry workers

28647

22.11

79689

19.34

17.82

Main other male workers

196346

10.90

871756

5.03

34.40

Main other female workers

33942

2.10

130042

3.15

28.31

194

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Indicators

1991 total

Per cent

2001 total

Per Cent

Annual growth rate (%)1991-2001

Marginal male workers

29303

14.36

535758

34.46

172.83

Marginal female workers

152987

2.48

685187

5.14

34.79

Marginal male cultivators

41000

43.88

Marginal female cultivators

48000

56.12

Marginal male agricultural labourers

83000

46.07

Marginal female agricultural labourers

129000

53.93

Marginal male household industry workers

17000

39.15

Marginal female household industry workers

45000

60.85

Marginal male other workers

21000

27.42

Marginal female other workers

27000

72.58

Source: Census of India, 1991 and 2001

The percentage of female workers to total workers was highest in Nayagram (48.00 per cent) with one of the lowest human development index followed by Sabong (45.60 per cent), Pingla (41.80 per cent) Jamboni (41.70 per cent) and Binpur-II ( 41.40 per cent) - the blocks with high percentage of SC and ST population and relatively low human development. Four blocks had percentage share of female workers in total workers below 20 per cent. These blocks are Mohanpur (13.30 per cent), Chandrakona-II (16 .20 per cent), Ghatal (17.90 per cent) and Daspur-II (18.20 per cent) - all of which are general caste dominated and having relatively high value of human development index. The percentages of female main workers to total workers as cultivators, agricultural labourers and 'other' workers were all higher than those of males while the percentage share of female main household workers was higher than that of males in most of the blocks. On the other hand, the percentage share of female marginal workers to total workers was higher that of that of males and that is much more so for agricultural labourers and household industry workers (Table 6.7).

Table 6.7 Percentage share of Total Workers by Categories and Sex in Blocks, 2001 Blocks

Percentage to Total Workers M

F

Percentage of Main workers to Total Workers Cultivators Agricultural HHI Other Labourer workers workers

Total M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

Binpur-I

60.6 39.4

40.9

10.6 19.7

3.0

15.2

7.6

1.5

1.5

10.6

1.5

Binpur-II

58.6 41.4

38.6

10.0 15.7

2.9

10.0

4.3

2.9

1.4

10.0

1.4

Garhbeta-I

70.7 29.3

59.8

9.8

24.4

1.2

17.1

6.1

1.2

1.2

15.9

2.4

Garhbeta-II

62.3 37.7

52.5

14.8 26.2

3.3

14.8

8.2

1.6

1.6

11.5

1.6

Garhbeta-III

64.6 35.4

52.3

10.8 20.0

1.5

10.8

4.6

1.5

3.1

21.5

1.5

Chandrakona-I

79.1 20.9

67.4

7.0

2.3

18.6

2.3

2.3

2.3

11.6

2.3

34.9

195

Gender Development

Blocks

Percentage to Total Workers M

Percentage of Main workers to Total Workers Total Cultivators Agricultural HHI Other Labourer workers workers

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

Chandrakona-II

83.8 16.2

75.7

8.1

37.8

2.7

24.3

5.4

2.7

2.7

10.8

2.7

Ghatal

82.1 17.9

71.6

6.0

28.4

1.5

17.9

1.5

6.0

1.5

20.9

1.5

Daspur-I

69.4 30.6

63.9

13.9 25.0

5.6

12.5

2.8

4.2

1.4

22.2

4.2

Daspur-II

81.8 18.2

75.8

9.1

22.7

3.0

13.6

3.0

4.6

1.5

34.9

3.0

Keshpur

79.8 20.2

67.7

7.1

34.3

2.0

18.2

3.0

1.0

1.0

14.1

2.0

Salboni

63.0 37.0

50.7

13.7 23.3

2.7

13.7

6.9

1.4

1.4

12.3

1.4

Medinipur

69.4 30.7

58.1

12.9 16.1

1.6

17.7

6.5

1.6

1.6

21.0

3.2

Jhargram

60.6 39.4

45.1

9.9

16.9

2.8

11.3

5.6

1.4

1.4

15.5

1.4

Jamboni

58.3 41.7

41.7

12.5 12.5

2.1

12.5

6.3

2.1

2.1

14.6

2.1

Gopiballavpur-II

68.4 31.6

57.9

15.8 26.3

2.6

18.4 10.5

2.6

2.6

10.5

2.6

Gopiballavpur-I

65.0 35.0

55.0

17.5 22.5

2.5

17.5 12.5

2.5

2.5

10.0

2.5

Nayagram

52.1 48.0

41.1

17.8 17.8

2.7

9.6

4.1

4.1

6.9

8.2

2.7

Sankrail

61.2 38.8

46.9

12.2 22.5

2.0

14.3

6.1

2.0

2.0

8.2

2.0

Kharagpur-I

79.0 21.1

65.8

11.8

7.9

1.3

7.9

4.0

1.3

1.3

50.0

6.6

Kharagpur-II

66.7 33.3

49.3

11.6 17.4

1.5

14.5

7.3

1.5

1.5

17.4

2.9

Debra

63.5 36.5

50.4

15.7 17.4

2.6

13.9

9.6

1.7

0.9

17.4

2.6

Pingla

58.2 41.8

47.3

17.6 22.0

5.5

12.1

6.6

1.1

1.1

12.1

4.4

Sabong

54.4 45.6

44.1

20.6 24.3

2.9

11.0

3.7

1.5

12.5

7.4

2.2

Narayangarh

70.5 29.5

53.3

10.5 21.9

1.0

15.2

5.7

1.0

2.9

14.3

1.9

Keshiary

64.4 35.6

52.5

13.6 23.7

1.7

17.0 10.2

1.7

1.7

11.9

1.7

Dantan-I

77.8 22.2

64.8

9.3

29.6

1.9

18.5

5.6

1.9

1.9

14.8

1.9

Dantan-II

78.7 21.3

61.7

6.4

27.7

2.1

19.2

2.1

2.1

2.1

12.8

4.3

Mohanpur

86.7 13.3

70.0

3.3

36.7

3.3

16.7

3.3

3.3

3.3

13.3

3.3

Table 6.7 Continued Percentage of Marginal workers to total workers Blocks

Total

Cultivators

Agricultural Labourer

HHI workers

Other workers

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

Binpur-I

13.64

25.76

3.03

4.55

9.09

18.18

1.52

1.52

1.52

1.52

Binpur-II

21.43

31.43

4.29

2.86

14.29 21.43

1.43

4.29

1.43

1.43

196

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Percentage of Marginal workers to total workers Blocks

Total

Cultivators

Agricultural Labourer

HHI workers

Other workers

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

Garhbeta-I

10.98

19.51

3.66

6.10

4.88

8.54

3.66

1.22

2.44

2.44

Garhbeta-II

11.48

22.95

4.92

6.56

4.92

9.84

1.64

4.92

1.64

1.64

Garhbeta-III

10.77

24.62

1.54

1.54

4.62

6.15

13.85

1.54

3.08

4.62

Chandrakona-I

11.63

16.28

2.33

6.98

4.65

4.65

2.33

2.33

2.33

2.33

Chandrakona-II

8.11

8.11

2.70

2.70

5.41

2.70

2.70

2.70

2.70

2.70

Ghatal

10.45

11.94

1.49

2.99

5.97

4.48

1.49

2.99

1.49

1.49

Daspur-I

5.56

16.67

1.39

8.33

1.39

4.17

1.39

1.39

1.39

2.78

Daspur-II

6.06

9.09

1.52

4.55

3.03

3.03

1.52

1.52

1.52

1.52

Keshpur

13.13

13.13

3.03

3.03

7.07

7.07

1.01

4.04

1.01

2.02

Salboni

9.59

23.29

2.74

2.74

8.22

13.70

1.37

5.48

1.37

1.37

Medinipur

12.90

17.74

1.61

1.61

8.06

12.90

1.61

1.61

3.23

1.61

Jhargram

15.49

29.58

2.82

5.63

9.86

21.13

1.41

1.41

1.41

1.41

Jamboni

16.67

29.17

4.17

4.17

12.50 20.83

2.08

2.08

2.08

2.08

Gopiballavpur-II

10.53

15.79

2.63

2.63

5.26

13.16

2.63

2.63

2.63

2.63

Gopiballavpur-I

12.50

17.50

2.50

2.50

7.50

12.50

2.50

2.50

2.50

2.50

Nayagram

12.33

30.14

1.37

2.74

2.74

5.48

4.11

16.44

1.37

5.48

Sankrail

14.29

28.57

4.08

4.08

8.16

20.41

2.04

2.04

2.04

2.04

Kharagpur-I

13.16

13.16

2.63

1.32

6.58

9.21

1.32

1.32

3.95

1.32

Kharagpur-II

17.39

20.29

4.35

1.45

11.59 15.94

1.45

1.45

1.45

1.45

Debra

13.04

20.87

3.48

4.35

7.83

12.17

0.87

0.87

2.61

4.35

Pingla

9.89

24.18

4.40

12.09

3.30

7.69

1.10

1.10

1.10

3.30

Sabong

10.29

25.00

4.41

5.88

4.41

6.62

0.74

11.03

0.74

2.21

Narayangarh

18.10

20.00

4.76

1.90

10.48 12.38

0.00

4.76

1.90

0.95

Keshiary

11.86

22.03

3.39

1.69

8.47

16.95

1.69

1.69

1.69

1.69

Dantan-I

12.96

12.96

3.70

1.85

7.41

9.26

1.85

1.85

1.85

1.85

Dantan-II

17.02

14.89

4.26

4.26

10.64

6.38

2.13

2.13

2.13

2.13

Mohanpur

16.67

6.67

6.67

3.33

10.00

3.33

3.33

3.33

3.33

3.33

Source: Census of India 2001

Similar and even sharper is the scenario in case of female main and marginal workers in industrial classification of workers across the district. The percentage of SC female workers to total SC workers was highest in Nayagram and Pingla (50.00 per cent). Other ten blocks for which the percentage share of SC female workers was 40 and above are Binpur-II (40 per cent), Pingla (47.37 per cent), Jamboni ( 41.67 per

197

Gender Development

cent), Binpur-I ( 44.44 per cent), Garhbeta-II (43.75 per cent), Garhbeta-III ( 40.00 per cent), Salboni (41.67 per cent), Jhargram ( 43.40 per cent), Jamboni ( 44.16 per cent), Gopiballavpur-II ( 41.67 per cent), Sankrail ( 44.44 per cent) and Sabong ( 47.37 per cent) - the blocks with high percentage of SC and ST population and relatively low human development. Two blocks had percentage share of SC female workers in total SC workers below 20 per cent. These blocks are Mohanpur (16.67 per cent) and Ghatal ( 19.05 per cent) which are having relatively high value of human development index. The percentage of SC female main workers to SC total workers and those as cultivators, agricultural labourers and 'other' workers were all lower than those of males and even the percentage share of SC female main household workers was lower than that of SC males in most of the blocks. On the other hand, the percentage share of SC female marginal workers to total workers was higher that of that of males and that is much more so for agricultural labourers and household industry workers (Table 6.8).

Table 6.8 Percentage share of Scheduled Caste Workers by Categories and Sex in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District, 2001 Blocks

Percentage of Total SC Workers M

Binpur-I Binpur-II

F

Percentage of SC Main workers to SC Total workers Total Cultivators Agricultural HHI Other Labourer workers workers M

F

M

55.56 44.44 44.44 16.67 9.44 60

40

40

10

9

F

M

F

M

1.67 27.78 11.11 1.67 2

12

8

4

F 0.56 2

M

F

8.33 1.67 14

3

Garhbeta-I

63.16 36.84 52.63 15.79 11.05 1.05 26.32 10.53 1.05

0.53 16.32 3.16

Garhbeta-II

56.25 43.75 43.75 18.75 10.63 1.88 25.00 12.50 1.25

1.88

Garhbeta-III

60.00 40.00 50.00 10.00 12.00 1.00 21.00 8.00 1.00

1.00 20.00 3.00

Chandrakona-I

75.00 25.00 56.25 6.25 21.25 0.63 31.25 2.50 1.25

0.63

5.63 1.88

Chandrakona-II

80.00 20.00 70.00 10.00 18.00 1.00 42.00 7.00 2.00

2.00

6.00 3.00

Ghatal

80.95 19.05 68.10 5.71 20.48 0.48 30.00 1.43 3.81

1.43 14.29 1.90

Daspur-I

67.63 32.37 57.80 17.34 19.65 3.47 20.81 4.62 3.47

1.73 16.76 4.05

Daspur-II

77.38 22.62 71.43 11.90 14.29 1.19 25.00 5.95 2.38

2.38 28.57 3.57

Keshpur

77.17 22.83 63.78 7.87 31.10 1.18 25.20 3.94 1.18

0.79

Salboni

58.33 41.67 50.00 16.67 13.33 1.67 25.00 8.33 2.50

2.50 12.50 1.67

Medinipur

61.54 38.46 46.15 15.38 10.00 0.77 23.08 7.69 0.38

0.38 14.62 3.08

Jhargram

56.70 43.30 41.24 10.31 8.25

1.03 15.46 7.22 3.09

2.06 14.43 2.06

Jamboni

55.84 44.16 38.96 10.39 7.79

0.00 15.58 6.49 2.60

2.60 12.99 15.58

Gopiballavpur-II

58.33 41.67 50.00 16.67 14.17 0.83 25.00 16.67 1.67

1.67

7.50 0.83

Gopiballavpur-I

60.64 39.36 42.55 10.64 10.64 1.06 21.28 10.64 4.26

2.13

7.45 1.06

Nayagram

50.00 50.00 35.71 21.43 9.29

Sankrail

55.56 44.44 44.44 11.11 12.22 2.22 22.22 11.11 3.33

2.22

Kharagpur-I

71.43 28.57 57.14 14.29 5.71

0.71 14.29 7.14 0.71

0.71 35.71 7.14

Kharagpur-II

66.67 33.33 50.00 16.67 10.83 1.67 16.67 8.33 1.67

0.83 15.83 3.33

198

6.88 1.88

5.91 2.36

1.43 14.29 7.14 7.14 14.29 7.14 7.14 6.67 1.11

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Percentage of Total SC Workers

Blocks

M

Percentage of SC Main workers to SC Total workers Total Cultivators Agricultural HHI Other Labourer workers workers

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

Debra

64.29 35.71 50.00 14.29 8.57

1.43 21.43 14.29 2.14

0.71 14.29 7.14

Pingla

50.00 50.00 37.50 25.00 12.50 5.00 12.50 12.50 1.25

1.25 10.00 2.50

Sabong

52.63 47.37 42.11 15.79 15.79 5.26 10.53 5.26 5.26

5.26

Narayangarh

68.42 31.58 47.37 10.53 19.47 1.05 15.79 5.26 1.58

1.58 10.53 5.26

Keshiary

61.54 38.46 46.15 15.38 15.38 0.77 23.08 7.69 2.31

1.54 11.54 2.31

Dantan-I

77.78 22.22 66.67 11.11 22.22 11.11 22.22 11.11 2.22

1.11 13.33 2.22

Dantan-II

75.00 25.00 50.00 7.50 20.00 0.00 27.50 2.50 2.50

0.00 12.50 5.00

Mohanpur

83.33 16.67 66.67 10.00 23.33 3.33 26.67 0.00 3.33

3.33 13.33 3.33

5.26 5.26

Table 6.8 Continued Percentage of SC Marginal workers to total SC workers Blocks

Total M

Binpur-I Binpur-II

F

11.11 27.78 20

30

Cultivators

Agricultural Labourer

HHI workers

Other workers

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

1.67

2.78

11.11

22.22

0.00

0.56

1.11

0.56

3

1

20

20

2

4

2

2

Garhbeta-I

10.53 21.05

2.11

3.68

6.84

12.11

0.00

1.05

2.63

2.11

Garhbeta-II

12.50 25.00

1.88

2.50

6.25

18.75

0.00

3.75

1.25

1.25

Garhbeta-III

10.00 30.00

1.00

2.00

7.00

16.00

0.00

4.00

2.00

6.00

Chandrakona-I

12.50 18.75

1.88

6.25

12.50

6.25

0.63

1.25

1.25

3.13

Chandrakona-II

8.00

10.00

1.00

1.00

6.00

6.00

0.50

0.50

1.00

2.00

Ghatal

12.38 13.81

1.43

1.90

9.52

4.76

0.48

3.33

1.90

2.86

Daspur-I

7.51

17.34

2.31

7.51

3.47

5.20

0.58

1.16

1.73

3.47

Daspur-II

7.14

9.52

1.19

2.38

3.57

4.76

1.19

1.19

2.38

1.19

Keshpur

11.81 15.75

2.36

3.15

7.87

7.87

0.39

1.18

1.57

2.36

Salboni

16.67 25.00

1.67

1.67

8.33

16.67

0.83

4.17

1.67

1.67

Medinipur

15.38 23.08

0.77

1.54

7.69

15.38

0.77

1.54

3.08

3.08

Jhargram

15.46 30.93

1.03

3.09

10.31

20.62

1.03

2.06

3.09

1.03

Jamboni

12.99 38.96

1.30

2.60

12.99

25.97

0.00

1.30

1.30

1.30

Gopiballavpur-II

10.83 19.17

1.67

1.67

7.50

1.67

0.00

0.83

0.83

0.83

Gopiballavpur-I

14.89 25.53

0.74

0.74

10.64

21.28

0.00

2.13

1.06

1.06

199

Gender Development

Percentage of SC Marginal workers to total SC workers Blocks

Total M

F

Cultivators

Agricultural Labourer

HHI workers

Other workers

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

Nayagram

14.29 28.57

0.71

1.43

7.14

7.14

7.14

14.29

2.14

5.71

Sankrail

11.11 22.22

1.11

2.22

7.78

18.89

1.11

2.22

1.11

2.22

Kharagpur-I

14.29 14.29

1.43

0.71

7.14

14.29

0.00

0.71

3.57

1.43

Kharagpur-II

16.67 25.00

2.50

2.50

16.67

16.67

0.83

8.33

1.67

0.83

Debra

14.29 21.43

2.14

2.86

7.14

14.29

0.71

0.71

2.14

2.86

Pingla

12.50 12.50

3.75

7.50

3.75

8.75

0.00

1.25

1.25

3.75

Sabong

10.53 26.32

5.26

10.53

5.26

5.26

5.26

5.26

1.05

3.68

Narayangarh

21.05 21.05

5.26

5.26

10.53

15.79

0.53

2.63

2.11

1.58

Keshiary

7.69

23.08

1.54

1.54

7.69

15.38

0.00

2.31

1.54

0.77

Dantan-I

11.11 11.11

3.33

2.22

11.11

11.11

0.00

1.11

1.11

1.11

Dantan-II

17.50 12.50

5.00

2.50

10.00

5.00

0.00

2.50

2.50

2.50

Mohanpur

16.67

3.33

3.33

13.33

3.33

0.00

0.00

3.33

0.00

6.67

Source: Census of India 2001

Similar and even sharper also is the scenario in case of ST female main and marginal workers in industrial classification of workers across the district. All the 29 blocks of the district had the percentage share of ST female workers 40 and above. Two blocks had percentage share of SC female workers in total SC workers below 20 per cent. These blocks are Mohanpur (16.67 per cent) and Ghatal (19.05 per cent) which are having relatively high value of human development index. The percentage of ST female main workers to ST total workers and those as cultivators, agricultural labourers and 'other' workers were all lower than those of males. On the other hand, the percentage share of ST female marginal workers to total workers was higher that of that of males and that is much more so for agricultural labourers and household industry workers (Table 6.9).

Table 6.9 Percentage share of Scheduled Tribe Total Workers by Categories and Sex in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District, 2001 Blocks

Total ST Workers M

F

Percentage of ST Main workers o total workers Total M

Cultivators F

M

F

Labourer Agricultural M

F

HHI workers

Other workers

M

M

F

F

Binpur-I

50.00 50.00 40.91 18.18 18.18 4.55 13.64 9.09

0.91 1.36 4.55 4.55

Binpur-II

51.52 48.48 30.30 12.12 12.12 3.03 12.12 3.03

1.82 2.12 4.85 1.52

Garhbeta-I

55.56 44.44 44.44 22.22 14.44 3.33 22.22 22.22 0.00 1.11 3.33 1.11

Garhbeta-II

53.33 46.67 40.00 26.67 20.00 6.67 20.00 13.33 0.67 2.00 3.33 1.33

200

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Blocks

Total ST Workers M

F

Percentage of ST Main workers o total workers Total M

Cultivators F

M

F

Labourer Agricultural M

F

HHI workers

Other workers

M

M

F

F

Garhbeta-III

54.55 45.45 45.45 18.18 14.55 2.73 18.18 18.18 0.91 3.64 5.45 0.91

Chandrakona-I

58.33 41.67 41.67 20.83 8.33

Chandrakona-II

55.56 44.44 50.00 22.22 11.11 5.56 33.33 16.67 0.00 5.56 5.56 0.00

Ghatal

50.00 50.00 37.50 31.25 0.00

0.00 31.25 31.25 0.00 0.00 6.25 0.00

Daspur-I

53.57 46.43 46.43 35.71 3.57

0.00 35.71 28.57 0.00 0.00 10.71 3.57

Daspur-II

50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 0.00

0.00 0.00 50.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Keshpur

54.76 45.24 35.71 23.81 14.29 3.57 20.24 13.10 1.19 1.19 2.38 1.19

Salboni

53.33 46.67 40.00 20.00 16.67 2.67 20.00 13.33 0.67 2.67 4.67 1.33

Medinipur

53.33 46.67 40.00 20.00 10.67 2.67 21.33 14.67 0.67 0.67 7.33 2.00

Jhargram

55.56 44.44 38.89 11.11 12.22 2.22 16.67 11.11 0.56 0.56 8.89 2.22

Jamboni

50.00 50.00 31.25 18.75 10.63 3.13 16.88 10.63 0.63 1.25 6.25 1.88

Gopiballavpur-I

52.94 47.06 41.18 29.41 17.65 3.53 17.65 17.65 1.18 1.76 2.94 0.59

Gopiballavpur-II

54.55 45.45 45.45 27.27 18.18 2.73 27.27 18.18 0.45 0.45 3.64 0.91

Nayagram

50.00 50.00 36.67 20.00 16.67 3.33 13.33 6.67

Sankrail

53.85 46.15 38.46 15.38 15.38 3.08 15.38 15.38 1.54 0.77 4.62 0.77

Kharagpur-I

62.50 37.50 43.75 18.75 5.00

1.25 12.50 6.25

Kharagpur-II

52.38 47.62 38.10 19.05 6.67

1.43 20.48 15.71 0.48 0.48 8.10 1.90

Debra

50.00 50.00 35.71 25.00 4.64

1.43 25.00 21.43 0.36 0.36 4.64 0.36

Pingla

55.56 44.44 44.44 33.33 10.00 3.33 33.33 22.22 0.00 1.11 3.33 0.00

Sabong

50.00 50.00 40.00 28.75 11.25 3.75 25.00 25.00 0.00 1.25 2.50 1.25

Narayangarh

55.17 44.83 36.90 15.86 7.59

Keshiary

52.17 47.83 39.13 17.39 15.22 1.74 21.74 13.04 0.43 0.43 0.22 0.22

Dantan-I

58.33 41.67 41.67 25.00 10.83 1.67 25.00 16.67 2.50 2.50 5.00 2.50

Dantan-II

50.00 50.00 40.00 20.00 5.00

Mohanpur

60.00 40.00 50.00 20.00 10.00 5.00 30.00 25.00 0.00 0.00 5.00 0.00

201

0.00 33.33 16.67 0.00 0.00 4.17 0.00

3.33 6.67 3.33 3.33 0.00 0.63 25.00 6.25

1.38 24.14 13.79 0.69 0.34 4.48 0.69

2.50 30.00 17.50 0.00 0.00 5.00 0.00

Gender Development

Table 6.9 Continued Percentage of ST Marginal workers to total ST workers Blocks

Total M

Cultivators F

Agricultural Labourer

HHI workers

Other workers

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

Binpur-I

13.64 31.82

4.55

4.55

9.09

22.73

0.45

1.82

0.45

0.91

Binpur-II

21.21 36.36

3.03

3.03

15.15 24.24

1.21

6.97

1.52

1.21

Garhbeta-I

11.11 22.22

1.11

3.33

7.78

16.67

0.00

2.22

0.00

1.11

Garhbeta-II

11.33 26.67

3.33

3.33

6.67

13.33

0.67

7.33

0.67

1.33

Garhbeta-III

9.09

27.27

0.91

1.82

9.09

9.09

0.91

10.91

0.91

2.73

Chandrakona-I

12.50 20.83

0.00

4.17

12.50 16.67

0.00

0.00

0.00

4.17

Chandrakona-II

11.11 16.67

0.00

5.56

11.11 11.11

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Ghatal

12.50 18.75

0.00

0.00

12.50 18.75

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Daspur-I

7.14

14.29

0.00

0.00

3.57

14.29

0.00

0.00

0.00

3.57

Daspur-II

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Keshpur

15.48 26.19

1.19

1.19

11.90 23.81

0.00

1.19

1.19

1.19

Salboni

13.33 26.67

1.33

1.33

6.67

20.00

0.00

7.33

0.67

2.67

Medinipur

12.67 24.00

0.67

1.33

13.33 20.00

0.67

0.67

1.33

1.33

Jhargram

16.67 33.33

1.67

2.78

11.11 27.78

0.00

1.67

1.11

1.67

Jamboni

18.75 31.25

2.50

3.75

12.50 25.00

0.63

2.50

1.25

0.63

Gopiballavpur-I

11.76 17.65

1.18

1.76

5.88

17.65

0.59

1.76

0.59

0.59

Gopiballavpur-II

9.09

18.18

1.82

1.82

9.09

18.18

0.00

0.00

0.91

0.91

Nayagram

13.33 30.00

1.33

2.00

3.33

6.67

6.67

16.67

1.67

5.00

Sankrail

15.38 30.77

2.31

3.08

7.69

30.77

0.00

1.54

0.77

0.77

Kharagpur-I

18.75 25.00

1.25

1.25

12.50 18.75

0.00

0.63

4.38

1.88

Kharagpur-II

19.05 28.57

1.90

1.43

14.29 23.81

0.00

0.48

0.95

0.48

Debra

14.29 25.00

0.71

1.07

14.29 21.43

0.00

0.36

0.71

0.71

Pingla

7.78

15.56

1.11

4.44

5.56

12.22

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.11

Sabong

12.50 25.00

1.25

2.50

10.00 16.25

0.00

1.25

0.63

0.63

Narayangarh

17.24 27.59

1.72

1.03

13.79 24.14

0.34

1.72

0.34

0.34

Keshiary

12.17 28.26

2.17

0.87

8.70

26.09

0.00

1.74

0.22

0.22

Dantan-I

8.33

25.00

0.83

1.67

8.33

16.67

0.83

0.83

0.83

0.83

Dantan-II

17.50 27.50

2.50

2.50

17.50

2.50

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Mohanpur

10.00 20.00

0.00

0.00

10.00 15.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Source: Census of India, 2001

202

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Empowerment of Women through SGSY In Paschim Medinipur till October 31, 2009, 21,015 SHGs have been formed, which are exclusively women groups. Out of these 2, 10,150 members 70% are BPl. 1, 34,726 women have received micro credit and started small businesses. 1692 SHGs have received project loan for implementing bigger projects each amounting to Rs.1.50 lakh to Rs 2 lakh. Reccovery of loan was achieved to the tune of 75 per cent during 2008-09.

Ornamental Fish Cultivation by SHG Apart from this 1720 SHGs have been formed in 637 backward villages of this district. Women SHGs are being imparted skill upgradation training on mat, floriculture, soft toy, book binding , catering, ornamental fish, mushroom, jute diversified items, tailoring, zori, batik, tie & dye, goatery, piggery, dairy, poultry, fishery, bamboo crafts, mechanized Sal leaf plate making, wool knitting etc. to augment their income.

203

Gender Development

Networking of SHG - Sub-cluster, Cluster & Federation Present thrust in this district is on networking of women SHGs so that they can collect information of all SHGs, prepare plan of action, contact with the bank, Panchayat, Government & non-Government offices to utilize their services. Out of 3086 Gram Sansads (Village Constituencies), 1316 sub-clusters have been formed in many Gram Sansads. Leaders of these sub-clusters are exclusively women and mostly BPL. Again, 70 clusters of SHGs have been formed out of 290 GPs. Good clusters are getting a building of their own, managerial support of Rs.25000/-, infrastructure support of Rs.250 lakh and seed capital of Rs.1.50 lakh to start business. Already 10,699 SHGs have been networked. Four Federations are functioning in 4 blocks, where most of the SHGs under a block have come under the federation. Each Federation has their own building. Trainings, meetings and micro enterprises are conducted in these Federation buildings. Federations are registered under Society Registration Act, 1961. They hold annual general meetings, get their accounts audited and monitor the performance of the SHGs under them.

Jhargram Block Mahila Aranya Sundari Mahasangha, a Federation of SHGs, is functioning as a Micro Finance Institution. SHGs are getting loan for their children's education, repair of house, health treatment, marriage of daughter & emergency needs at 12% per annum service charge. Loan disposal, disbursement, maintaining accounts are being done by women SHG members.

204

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Special Initiatives: A.

161 SHGs are functioning as agents for meter reading & sending electric bills to households.

B.

5037 SHGs are cooking and serving mid day meals in schools & Shishu Shiksha Kendras.

C.

420 women tribal SHGs have received SCA to TSP loan for implementing different projects in backward areas.

D. 5 Activity clusters are functioning in 4 blocks. They are producing, marketing and getting support from the DRD Cell. E.

210 Tribal women SHGs have received sal leaf plate making machines which have helped them increase their income level.

F.

6736 women SHGs have been given vegetable seeds so that they can put up kitchen garden and contribute to the mid-day meal program as well as increase their monthly income.

G. Under a special project on SGSY, 162 SHGs from Debra Block have been extensively trained on modern floriculture techniques. Production of cut flowers, extraction of colours, essence, preparation of vermicompost are different components of this project. H. In another initiative under special project, 400 SHGs from Sabang Block are being extensively trained on production & marketing of mat diversified items which has huge export market. I.

In 9 blocks, women SHGs are setting up poultry projects on pilot basis with chicks, feed and medicine inputs. Each member is expected to earn Rs.1200/- per month.

J.

2470 Women SHGs are acting as job supervisors under NREGS.

K.

As per records of the DRD Cell, during 2008-09, 36 SHG members have participated in various district, state and national level fairs for sale and exhibition of their products and generated a sale of Rs.5,99,000/-. This initiative by the DRD Cell has encouraged poor rural women to have an exposure with their products like mat & diversified items, handloom, imitation jewellery, soft toy, patachitra, door mat & other items.

205

Gender Development

Study on Impact Assessment of Credit-linked SHGs A study organized by DRD Cell in 2007 and conducted by the Sociology Department of Vidyasagar University, revealed that: a.

Overall 82.25% of the SHG women are participating in development/ social programmes like sanitation, pulse polio, family welfare, child immunization, legal awareness campaigns, gram sansad meetings, environmental conservation, ICDS and children's education, campaign against domestic violence & liquor and school drop-outs. Women SHG members are entering as members in mother-teacher committee, Gram Unnayan Samity,.

b.

Spending ability has increased for 88.48% of SHG women.

Main findings of the study on credit linked SHGs under SGSY

Figure 6.4 Social Awareness among the Members C h a rt 5 .1 7 : S o c ial A w a re n e s s A m o n g th e M em b e rs 2500 2 04 5

2000

2 16 2

16 2 4

O n G o ve rn m e nt P ro g ra m m e

1500

O n Laws 1000

68 6

500

O n O p p re s s io n o n W o m e n 26 5

14 8

0 Know

D o not K now

Figure 6.5 Division of Labour in the Family C h a r t 5 .1 5 : D iv is io n o f L a b o u r in t h e F a m ily

103 7

1200 1000 800

S e lf 644

629 O n ly F e m a le M e m b e rs

600 400

M a le a n d F e m a l e M e m b e r s T o g e th e r

200 0 N o . o f p e rs o n s

206

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Figure 6.6 Change in Income of SHG Members after linked with Credit Personal Income

Family Income

37

165

Increased

Increased

Not Increased

Not Increased

2145

2273

Political Participation of Women Gender equality and gender equity have emerged as major challenges in the global development discourse. There can be no real progress if women of a country are not made partners in this process of development. Women's participation in political processes is important for strengthening democracy and for their struggle against marginalization, trivialization and oppression. Emergence of women as a strong group would change the prevailing political practices too. The constitutional provision (73rd Amendment) has created a scope for accomplishing development with social justice. This constitutional amendment providing one-third representation to women in elected bodies as well as reserving one-third of the offices of chairpersons for them have far-reaching consequences in Indian political and social life. Though women representatives have some individual weakness like illiteracy and low level of education, family responsibilities, social perception etc., this affirmative action has paved the way for emergence of an alternative leadership. In Paschim Medinipur district there are 1562 women representatives, representing at various levels of rural local government. Table 6.10 gives details accounts of women participation in PRIs. In the Gram Panchayat there are altogether 3309 seats where the women representatives are 1309. In the case of Panchayat Samitis, of total 750 representatives 229 are women and at Zilla Parishad level out of 62 representatives 24 are women.

Table 6.10 Participation of Women in PRI. Tier

Total Seat

Women representative

Male representative

Gram Panchayat

3309

1309

2000

Panchayat Samiti

750

229

521

62

24

38

4121

1562

2559

Zilla Parishad Total

Gender Violence and Offences against Women Socially as well as economically, women are more vulnerable group and often victims of harassment, abuse, ill treatment and other discrimination against men. Table 6.11 depicts numbers of cases of ill treatment towards women.

207

Gender Development

Table 6.11 Gender Violence & Offences against Women Year

Dowry related death/murder

Dowry related Torture

Rape

Teasing

Total

1996

68

458

77

96

699

1998

55

387

86

80

608

1999

79

441

69

72

661

2000

68

505

72

56

701

2001

84

470

85

53

692

2006

25

283

79

3

390

2007

31

407

60

1

499

Total

410

2951

528

361

4250

Source: Government of West Bengal, Statistical Abstract.

As per the police information, the data represent only 10 to 25% of crimes actually perpetrated on women. Even these are often affected by inadequate investigation, indifferent presentation in the courts, unnecessary delays, and insensibility towards the problems and emotions of women victims. To ensure better utilization of the empowerment system the women grievance cell of police is not the end.

Summing up Status of females in the society is one of the indicators of the development in past, present and future. Discussion of status of female literacy, better health care and economic & political empowerment needs to continue for ensuring better access to women for social development issues.

208

Community Development and Diversity

210

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Chapter - VII Community Development and Diversity 7.1 Introduction Paschim Medinipur has always remained a centre of different religio-cultural and socio-economic activities. The autochthones with their cultural identities weathered many ravages of time and manifested radical changes in the ecological system and convolutions in the social structure. In this region several antiBrahminical movements took place in the past and southern part is the confluence non-Brahminical and Brahminical cultural streams (Bhowmik 1976). The various religious communities include tribal and nontribals living together with their different cultural as well as historical background with significant diversities. In the formalized caste system, four distinct classes (varna) appear and beneath that is the fifth group, the Scheduled Castes. Often, the term dalit is used as they are deprived of many social rights and opportunities. Traditionally they were to perform several menial and degrading jobs. Mostly the tribal communities linguistically belong to Austro-Asiatic sub-section of Austric language family. They became fragmented on the basis of economic pursuits in the form of so-called occupation during the bygone historical phases. Though they originated from the Austric speaking stock they have different myths or tales, with varied measures of affinity. Among them, the Santhals, the Mundas, and the Mahalis show their closeness in respect of myths of origin contrary to those of Koras and the Lodhas. These patrilineal, patrilocal and patriarchal tribal groups have well-knit social organization with totemistic clan systems, which regulates the marriage alliances by following exogamous nature. Almost identical clan names reveal their genesis from the common stock. The traditional political system for maintaining racial or ritual purity for the settlements of the disputes in the village is still working with some communities. But the statutory panchayat body has been introduced in the villages since last few decades and naturally the traditional social order is almost replaced by the new constitutional order. It envisages decentralized planning and governance through democratic processes in the local government of the tribal areas also. Against this backdrop this chapter presents distribution of population by religion to be followed by discussion of different community groups like scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in Paschim Medinipur district.

7.2 Distribution of Population by Religion Paschim Medinipur has been inhabited by almost all the religious groups of India. Hindus dominate with 84.77 % of population, followed by Minority community 15.23 % including Muslims with 9.59 %. Other communities like Christians, Sikhs, Budhists, Jains etc. together contribute less than 5.64 % of the total population. Growth of population during 1991-2001 shows that while the total population increased by 15.35%, the Hindu population grew by 13.71% and Muslim population grew by 21.16%. The share of Hindu population dropped by 1.4% over 1991 to 2001, the share of Muslim population grew by 5.1% within this period. The growth of other communities remains insignificant. Block wise concentration of population of major religious groups are shown in Table 7.1 and Table 7.2 . It is evident that relatively high shares of Hindu population are in Salbani, Narayangarh, Kharagpur-I, Daspur-I, Daspur-II, Ghatal, Kharar blocks. Concentration more than 15% Muslim population is shown in Keshpur block while that between 5% and 10% are seen in Medinipur, Garhbeta-I, and Garhbeta-III. Among all the municipal towns, only Kharagpur has Muslim population more than 5%. Rest of all the blocks show percentage of Muslim population below 5% with 8 blocks as low as less than 1%.

211

Community Development and Diversity

Percentage share of Muslim population in all the 29 blocks recorded increase during the period from 1981 to 2001 while that of Hindu population registered marginal decline.

Table 7.1 Population by Religion in the Blocks in Paschim Medinipur District, 1981to 2001

Ghatal

SubDivision

Name of blocks

Year

Hindus population

Hindus P.C. to total

Chandrakona-

1981

139736

88.03

18293

11.53

138

0.09

158737

100

I & II

1991

163428

84.56

25503

13.19

4

-

193351

100

2001

189951

84.45

33499

14.89

39

0.02

224927

100

1981

280644

95.21

13866

4.7

250

0.09

294763

100

1991

334645

94.26

19368

5.45

7

-

355376

100

2001

357870

93.72

23765

6.22

2

-

381850

100

1981

132249

92.09

11150

7.76

173

0.12

143608

100

1991

155895

91.41

14252

8.36

68

0.04

170478

100

2001

173020

90.71

17618

9.24

2

-

190740

100

1981

160760

73.75

3500

1.6

14

0.01

217980

100

1991

188412

74.69

5841

2.32

322

0.13

251767

100

2001

184928

64.86

6159

2.16

326

0.11

285119

100

Gopiballavpur- 1981

135996

86.77

608

0.43

399

0.28

156732

100

I & II

1991

153728

94.73

1222

0.75

650

0.40

162933

100

2001

176678

93.91

1295

0.69

806

0.43

188135

100

1981

62363

82.87

3431

4.56

-

-

75254

100

1991

73930

82.01

4909

5.45

19

0.02

90073

100

2001

68716

67.56

6422

6.31

20

0.02

101711

100

1981

137995

96.93

3196

2.25

437

0.31

142366

100

1991

126657

94.67

3756

2.81

2 02

0.08

133665

100

2001

129479

84.44

5013

3.27

170

0.11

153338

100

1981

85314

92.869

644

0.7

546

0.59

91865

100

1991

96746

90.87

773

0.72

970

0.91

107361

100

2001

99881

80.59

1327

1.07

2138

1.73

123937

100

1981

75671

98.13

911

1.18

443

0.57

77113

100

1991

84818

96.73

1043

1.19

604

0.69

87647

100

2001

91033

88.70

1602

1.56

904

0.88

102630

100

Daspur-I & II

Ghatal

Binpur- I & II

Jhargram

Jamboni

Jhargram

Nayagram

Sankrail

Muslims Muslims Christians Christians Total populaP.C. populaP.C. population to total tion to total tion

212

% to total

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

SubDivision

Name of blocks

Year

Hindus population

Hindus P.C. to total

Dantan- I & II 1981

359320

93.88

21277

5.56

1440

0.38

382744

100

& Narayangarh 1991

429322

91.49

37619

8.03

1665

0.35

468481

100

2001

505677

91.54

41748

7.56

1996

0.36

552411

100

1981

165538

91.86

14265

7.92

209

0.12

180207

100

1991

199418

90.49

19650

8.92

280

0.13

220291

100

2001

224113

87.81

24318

9.53

300

0.12

255225

100

1981

88493

96.14

763

0.83

1469

1.60

92046

100

1991

108338

96.82

959

0.86

2567

2.29

111512

100

2001

113457

85.91

1705

1.29

4406

3.34

132065

100

Kharagpur-

1981

188482

90.97

17252

8.33

615

0.30

207191

100

I & II

1991

232641

89.99

24387

9.43

654

0.25

258611

100

2001

353428

88.57

36204

9.07

4112

1.03

399038

100

1981

61432

92.8

4753

7.18

11

0.02

66198

100

1991

76982

91.87

6804

8.12

5

0.01

83793

100

2001

87283

90.61

8903

9.24

113

0.12

96328

100

1981

102951

84.01

19409

15.84

142

0.12

122546

100

1991

132560

88.68

16741

11.2

31

0.02

149473

100

2001

149171

87.2

21184

12.38

73

0.04

171068

100

1981

161150

95.75

6438

3.83

121

0.07

168303

100

1991

197995

95.26

9828

4.73

12

0.01

207780

100

2001

225464

94.46

12663

5.31

0

0.00

238687

100

Garbeta-

1981

269979

81.41

40625

12.67

819

0.26

331629

100

I, II & III

1991

304224

76.39

59799

15.02

60

0.02

398129

100

2001

361182

75.66

80977

16.96

79

0.02

477375

100

1981

151160

76.97

44888

22.86

38

0.02

196388

100

1991

180183

74.55

60770

25.15

1

0.00

241630

100

2001

209221

72.52

76866

26.64

18

0.01

288501

100

1981

93195

86.9

12611

11.76

256

0.24

107244

100

1991

89831

72.26

29755

23.94

62

0.05

124290

100

2001

115218

72.95

37371

23.66

87

0.06

157941

100

1981

108328

94.64

2515

2.2

356

0.31

114463

100

1991

134863

95.29

3195

2.26

490

0.34

141372

100

2001

145666

88.15

4686

2.84

573

0.35

165248

100

Debra

Kharagpur

Keshiary

Mohanpur

Pingla

Medinipur

Sabong

Keshpur

Medinipur

Salboni

Muslims Muslims Christians Christians Total populaP.C. populaP.C. population to total tion to total tion

Source: Census of India1981, 1991 and 2001

213

% to total

Community Development and Diversity

Table 7.2 Population by Religion in the Blocks in Paschim Medinipur District, 2001 Minorities Sl. Block / Total No. Municipality Population

Hindu

% of Hindu Mushlim

% of % of Other Other Mushlim Minorities Communities

P.C. to Total

1

Medinipur

157945

115218

72.95

37371

23.66

5356

3.39

100

2

Keshpur

288489

209221

72.52

76866

26.64

2402

0.83

100

3

Salbani

165248

145666

88.15

4686

2.84

14896

9.01

100

4

Garhbeta-I

200402

156632

78.16

40443

20.18

3327

1.66

100

5

Garhbeta-II

131103

101250

77.23

4399

3.36

25454

19.42

100

6

Garhbeta-III

145854

103300

70.82

36135

24.77

6419

4.40

100

7

Kharagpur-I

237228

212940

89.76

15261

6.43

9027

3.81

100

8

Kharagpur-II

161828

140488

86.81

20943

12.94

397

0.25

100

9

Debra

255220

224113

87.81

24318

9.53

6789

2.66

100

10 Pingla

171066

149171

87.20

21184

12.38

711

0.42

100

11 Sabang

238686

225464

94.46

12663

5.31

559

0.23

100

12 Narayangarh

266675

252087

94.53

13031

4.89

1557

0.58

100

13 Keshiary

132061

113457

85.91

1705

1.29

16899

12.80

100

14 Dantan-I

151376

140818

93.03

7548

4.99

3010

1.99

100

15 Dantan-II

134360

112772

83.93

21169

15.76

419

0.31

100

16 Mohanpur

96323

87283

90.61

8903

9.24

137

0.14

100

17 Jhargram

153331

129479

84.44

5013

3.27

18839

12.29

100

18 Jambani

101718

68716

67.56

6422

6.31

26580

26.13

100

19 Gopiballavpur-I

94834

85177

89.82

705

0.74

8952

9.44

100

20 Gopiballavpur-II

93306

91501

98.07

590

0.63

1215

1.30

100

21 Nayagram

123937

99881

80.59

1327

1.07

22729

18.34

100

22 Sankrail

102634

91033

88.70

1602

1.56

9999

9.74

100

23 Binpur-I

139148

96925

69.66

5299

3.81

36924

26.54

100

24 Binpur-II

145977

88003

60.29

860

0.59

57114

39.13

100

25 Ghatal

190738

173020

90.71

17618

9.24

100

0.05

100

26 Daspur-I

175774

165250

94.01

10386

5.91

138

0.08

100

214

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Minorities Sl. Block / Total No. Municipality Population

Hindu

27 Daspur-II

206087

192620

93.47

13379

6.49

88

0.04

100

28 Chandrakona-I

118085

104510

88.50

13192

11.17

383

0.32

100

29 Chandrakona-II

106831

85441

79.98

20307

19.01

1083

1.01

100

1

Medinipur (M)

149769

125210

83.60

22974

15.34

1585

1.06

100

2

Kharagpur (M)

188761

157002

83.18

25325

13.42

6434

3.41

100

3

Jhargram (M)

53145

49033

92.26

898

1.69

3214

6.05

100

4

Ghatal (M)

51582

49825

96.59

1709

3.31

48

0.09

100

5

Kharar (M)

11580

11243

97.09

329

2.84

8

0.07

100

6

Kshirpai (M)

14548

13723

94.33

811

5.57

14

0.10

100

7

Chandrakona (M)

20398

18992

93.11

1358

6.66

48

0.24

100

8

Ramjibanpur (M)

17364

16139

92.95

1217

7.01

8

0.05

100

5193411 4402603

84.77

497946

9.59

292862

5.64

100

Total :

% of Hindu Mushlim

% of % of Other Other Mushlim Minorities Communities

Source: Census of India 2001

Figure 7.1 Population by Religion in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District,2001 120.0 Hindu

Population by Religion 2001

Mushlim

Other Minorities

100.0 80.0 60.0 40.0

215

Chandrakona - II

Daspur - II

Chandrakona - I

Ghatal

Daspur - I

Binpur - II

Sankrail

Binpur - I

Nayagram

Gopiballavpur - II

Jambani

Gopiballavpur - I

Jhargram

Mohanpur

Dantan - II

Keshiary

Dantan - I

Narayangarh

Pingla

Sabang

Debra

Kharagpur - II

Kharagpur - I

Garbeta - II

Salbani

Garbeta - I

Keshpur

Midnapore

0.0

Garbeta - III

20.0

P.C. to Total

Community Development and Diversity

Data on other demographic details by religion are not available from the Census of India. To supplement the data available we conducted a sample survey in 15 villages and 300 households of which are Muslims, SC, ST and General Caste households. We may use the primary data for understanding some demographic features / indicators by community.

Table 7.3 Some Demographic Features / Indicators by Community in Sample Villages Indicators

Muslim

SC

ST

General

Total

Number of households

32

81

66

121

300

Number of male members

78

208

143

277

706

Number of female members

67

170

147

280

664

Total Number of members

145

378

290

557

1370

Number of members per household

4.5

4.7

4.4

4.6

4.6

Sex ratio

859

817

1028

1011

941

Total literacy

26.90

36.24

37.24

70.92

49.56

Gender gap

11.16

7.07

17.58

12.61

10.84

32

48

50

46

46

% of cultivators

13.04

24.18

11.64

32.65

29.09

% of agrl. labourers

13.04

48.35

54.79

11.55

34.18

% of non-agricultural workers

73.91

27.47

33.56

38.43

36.72

468.64

548.57

527.84

851.2

658.76

87.5

71.6

72.73

58.68

68.33

Food security not sufficient

71.88

48.15

62.12

30.58

46.67

Housing

65.63

51.85

66.67

39.67

51

0

16.05

6.08

23.97

15.33

% of households Received bank loan

15.63

12.35

25.76

14.05

16.33

% of households on temporary migration

84.38

14.81

3.03

39.67

27.33

WPR :

Per capita income BPL %

% of households having electric connection

Source : Household Survey during the Study Period, 2009

7.3 Community Groups in the District Schedule Caste Community Keshpur block recorded in 2001 the highest scheduled caste population followed by Ghatal the lowest being experienced by Mohanpur block. Binpur II block registered the highest scheduled tribe population followed by Narayangarh, the lowest being experienced by Daspur II block in 2001. The dominant SC gropus in the district are Bagdi Dule, Dom, Jelia Kaibartya, Mal, Rajbanshi, Rajoyar, Keora, Bhimali, Bauri, and Tiyar. The presence of other miscellaneous SC communities is more marginal in individual terms. Ghatal sub-division has highest concentration of 24.95% SC population where as Kharagpur sub-division has the lowest concentration of SC population with 14.03%. Among the blocks, Garbeta-I, Garbeta-II, Keshpur, Keshiary, Binpur-I, Gopiballavpur-I, Gopiballavpur-II, Ghatal, Daspur-I, ChandrakopnaI and Chandrakona-II have more than 20% of SC population. The highest concentration of 35.04% is seen in Chandrakona I block while the lowest concentration of 8.22% is found in Pingla block.

216

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Schedule Tribe Community The pattern of distribution of ST communities across district follows an unequal pattern. The western part of the district shows more dense ST population. The Jhargram sub division has the highest concentration, i.e. 30.02% of total ST population. In eastern part of district, Ghatal sub-division has the lowest concentration of tribal population with 2.18%. The blocks, those with more than 30% tribal concentration, situated in the western part. The blocks are Keshiary, Binpur II, Jhargram, Sankrail and Gopiballavpur I. Binpur II has the highest concentration of ST population i.e. 42% of total ST population of the district. Daspur-II has the lowest density of ST population, i.e. 02.19%. The other blocks which have less concentration of ST population are blocks from eastern and middle part of the district. Blocks with less than 5% concentration of ST population are Mohanpur, Ghatal, Chandrakona I, Chandrakona II, Daspur I and Daspur II. Among the blocks, those with more than 30% tribal concentration are Keshiary, Binpur II, Jhargram, Sankrail and Gopiballavpur I and those with less than 5% concentration are Mohanpur, Ghatal, Chandrakona I, Chandrakona II, Daspur I and Daspur II. It is interesting to note that Binpur II has the highest concentration of 42% while Daspur II has as low as 0.19% concentration of tribal population. Based on the concentration of tribal population, the blocks of Paschim Medinipur may be classified as very high, high, medium and low degree of concentration of scheduled tribe population as below:

Table 7.4 Distribution of Scheduled Tribe Population across Paschim Medinipur District, 2001 Degree of Concentration Very High (above 30 per cent) High (20-30 Per cent) Medium (10 - 19 per cent) Low (Below 10 per cent)

No. of Blocks 4 8

Names of Blocks Nayagram, Binpur-II, Gopiballavpur-I, Keshiary Gopiballavpur-II, Jamboni, Jhargram, Sankrail, Kharagpur-II, Narayangarh, Garhbeta-II, Binpur-I Dantan-I, Debra, Kharagpur I, Garhbeta III, Medinipur Sadar, Salboni Keshpur, Garhbeta-I, Ghatal, Daspur-I, Daspur II, Mohanpur, Chandrakona-I, Chandrakona II, Dantan II, Pingla, Sabong

6 11

Source: Census of India2001

Figure 7.2 Degree of concentration of tribal population 45 Nayagram , Binpur-II, Gopiballavpur-I, Keshiary

Above 30 % Very High

40 35

20 - 30 % High

Gopiballavpur-II, Jamboni, Jhargram, Sankrail, Kharagpur-II, Narayangarh, Garhbeta-II, Binpur-I

30 25 10 - 20 % Medium

Dantan-I, Debra, Kharagpur I, Garhbeta III, Medinipur Sadar, Salboni

20 15 Below 10 % Low

10

Keshpur, Garhbeta-I, Ghatal, Das purI, Daspur II, Mohanpur, ChandrakonaI, Chandrakona II, Dantan II, Pingla, Sabong

5 0

217

Community Development and Diversity

The major tribal communities of the district are Santhal, Bhumij, Munda, Lodha, Kora and Mahali. Among them, Lodha only belong to the primitive tribal group (PTG). Among the tribal groups Santhals constitute the highest share of 55.93% of total tribal population. Lodhas are only 3.85% while the Mahalis are 1.57% of the tribal population of the district (Table 7.6). Figure 7.2 shows population of major tribal communities.

Table 7.5 Major Tribal Communities in Paschim Midnapore Tribe

Population

Sex Ratio

Percentage to total ST Population

Percentage of Literates

Santhal

431907

973

55.93

27.57

Bhumij

86197

932

11.16

31.34

Munda

47079

961

6.10

24.08

Lodha

29747

1034

3.85

26.60

Kora

22351

984

2.86

27.75

Mahali

12117

942

1.57

25.10

Figure 7.3 Major Tribal Communities in Paschim Midnapore Lodha 3.85 %

Kora 2.86 %

Mahali 1.57 %

Munda 6.1%

Bhumij 11.16%

Santhal 55.93 %

Literacy among Different Community Groups In Paschim Medinipur, literacy among Schedule caste and schedule tribe is low. During the period from 1991 to 2001 it has improved perceptibly across the district. There is also a substantial gap in literacy rate among SC and STs. Though both of the communities lag far behind in the total literacy rate, the Block wise figure shows that in literacy rate SC community is ahead of ST community. In 1991, Jamboni block had the highest percentage of SC literate population (72.66) followed by Kharagpur I (58.27), the lowest being registered in Medinipur block (29.35). In 2001, Sabong block had the highest percentage of SC literate population (61.98) followed by Dantan-II (57.23), the lowest being registered in Salboli block (28.86). In case of decadal change (1991-2001) in SC literacy, Binpur-I recorded the highest value of 18.35 percentage point followed by Daspur-I (17.02 percentage point ) and Daspur-II (16.15 percentage point). In 1991, Jamboni block had the highest percentage of ST literate population (70.98) followed by Debra (37.28), the lowest being registered in Daspur-II block (12.35). In 2001, Binpur-I block had the

218

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

highest percentage of ST literate population (45.39) followed by Jamboni ( 45.12 ), the lowest being registered in Daspur-I block (27.30). In case of decadal change (1991-2001) in ST literacy, Daspur-II recorded the highest value of 20.30 percentage point followed by Pingla (16.52 percentage point) and Salboni (14.57 percentage point) (Table 7.7). Jamboni block registered decline in literacy rate among both SCs and STs in the census year 1991 and 2001respectively, which is unusual and can be explained by wrong recording of literates.

Table 7.6 Literacy Rate among SCs and STs in Blocks, 1991 and 2001 and Its Change, 1991-2001 Block Chandrakona-I Chandrakona-II Daspur-I Daspur-II Ghatal Binpur-II Binpur-I Gopiballavpur-I Gopiballavpur-II Jamboni Jhargram Nayagram Sankrial Dantan-I Dantan-II Debra Keshiary Kharagpur-I Kharagpur-II Mohanpur Narayangarh Pingla Sabang Garhbeta-I Garhbeta-II Garhbeta-III Keshpur Medinipur Salboni

1991 31.47 36.05 31.65 35.72 36.95 39.63 30.95 35.11 36.07 72.66 30.16 33.29 37.44 45.47 52.62 49.43 44.58 58.27 42.65 45.64 54.80 44.91 52.32 30.08 32.40 40.46 39.11 29.35 30.03

SC 2001 43.72 40.57 48.67 51.87 49.53 40.15 49.30 37.90 42.88 50.74 42.65 40.20 45.03 50.80 57.23 53.26 52.25 50.36 48.68 54.83 57.12 49.56 61.58 40.66 41.03 43.51 30.70 41.71 28.86

Change 12.25 4.52 17.02 16.15 12.58 0.52 18.35 2.79 6.81 -21.92 12.49 6.91 7.59 5.33 4.61 3.83 7.67 -7.91 6.03 9.19 2.32 4.65 9.26 10.58 8.63 3.05 -8.41 12.36 -1.17

Source: Census of India, 1991 and 2001

219

1991 20.44 28.77 15.42 12.35 25.36 33.92 35.58 25.44 36.19 70.98 29.07 27.16 36.31 25.23 32.23 37.28 34.23 31.82 29.98 22.29 34.21 27.00 30.92 20.36 34.60 26.69 27.13 22.48 26.01

ST 2001 32.55 32.31 27.30 32.65 32.01 45.39 45.08 33.38 40.49 45.12 39.35 32.78 42.95 29.34 43.91 39.26 42.54 38.91 37.16 27.92 36.65 43.52 40.08 34.83 43.98 35.95 32.00 32.69 40.58

Change 12.11 3.54 11.88 20.3 6.65 11.47 9.5 7.94 4.3 -25.86 10.28 5.62 6.64 4.11 11.68 1.98 8.31 7.09 7.18 5.63 2.44 16.52 9.16 14.47 9.38 9.26 4.87 10.21 14.57

Community Development and Diversity

Education Status: Evidence form Field A sample study of sample 300 households from sample 15 villages scattered around 15 blocks of the district found in 2009 quite similar results. In terms of male literacy rate in the sample villages, ST males are found a bit ahead of their SC counterpart, but both the communities lag far behind their general caste counterparts. Whereas 77.26% general caste males of the sample villages are found literate, the male literacy for SC community is 39.42% and for ST community it is 46.15%. Among the ethnic community groups, ST women are found most backward in terms of literacy. Whereas 64.64% of general women and 32.35% of SC women are found literate, the incidence of women literacy across the ST community is 28.57%. Garhbeta-III is one of the relatively backward blocks in terms of literacy rate among ethnic communities especially the ST women. Only 22.25% of ST women are literate in this block. Raymani Tudu and other 6 women of Narayanpur village of Raskundu Gram Panchayat under Garhbeta-III block are members of a Self Help Group formed under a watershed project. All of the women in the self help group are illiterate. Among them, 4 are from landless households and others are from marginal farmers with land holding less than 40 decimals. There is a negative impact of low literacy level on ST women on their children as children of all the respondent ST women are dropped out of school

Work Participation During the period from 1991 to 2001 all the 29 blocks of the district registered perceptible increase in the proportion of SC marginal workers to SC total workers, which got its influence felt on the sizeable increase in the proportion of SC marginal workers to SC total population in the blocks. Despite this substantial increase in the proportion of SC marginal workers to SC total population SC work participation rate, i.e., proportion of SC total workers to SC total population did not register increase in all the blocks. Rather, there are 7 blocks that witness decline in the SC work participation rate. These blocks are Chandrakona-II, Daspur-II, Gopiballavpur-II, Sankrail, Dantan I, Khargapur-I and Mohanpur.

Table 7.7 Broad Classifications of Scheduled Caste Workers by Block and Municipality , 1991 & 2001 Block/ Municipality Chandrakona - I Chandrakona - II Daspur - I

Year

% of MRW to TW

1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001

4.29 34.24 11.27 18.18 14.38 24.93

220

% of MRW to total Work Participation Population Rate ( %) 1.37 31.97 13.22 38.61 4.37 38.79 6.65 36.59 5.28 36.72 10.13 40.65

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Block/ Municipality Daspur - II Ghatal Binpur - I Binpur - II Gopiballavpur - I Gopiballavpur - II Jamboni Jhargram Nayagram Sankrail Dantan - I Dantan - II Debra Keshiary Kharagpur - I Kharagpur - II Mohanpur Narayangarh Pingla Sabang Garbeta - I

Year

% of MRW to TW

1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001

12.05 17.08 11.76 26.01 13.16 38.45 14.83 47.81 8.97 40.32 11.04 29.81 12.61 50.32 13.58 46.77 18.84 39.41 17.32 38.61 15.05 25.54 10.47 30.44 7.65 34.88 7.70 33.54 6.32 30.40 9.65 39.60 10.03 25.46 13.45 41.76 11.32 32.56 23.85 39.19 7.29 30.72

221

% of MRW to total Work Participation Population Rate ( %) 3.98 33.05 5.51 32.29 3.95 33.57 8.98 34.54 6.69 50.83 19.70 51.25 7.05 47.57 23.09 48.29 3.94 43.93 18.05 44.77 5.04 45.61 13.12 44.00 6.17 48.88 24.79 49.26 6.43 47.34 22.43 47.96 10.10 53.62 24.08 61.10 9.02 52.07 19.37 50.17 8.53 56.68 9.21 36.07 3.42 32.71 10.25 33.68 3.31 43.28 16.04 45.98 3.17 41.24 15.15 45.16 3.41 54.04 10.97 36.08 3.91 40.54 17.50 44.18 3.25 32.42 7.77 30.50 4.93 36.65 16.17 38.73 4.29 37.87 17.76 54.56 8.99 37.71 22.52 57.45 2.83 38.82 13.27 43.19

Community Development and Diversity

Block/ Municipality Garbeta - II Garbeta - III Keshpur Medinipur Salbani

Year

% of MRW to TW

1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001

7.07 35.98 14.47 36.16 6.30 28.28 9.19 34.90 13.01 37.21

% of MRW to total Work Participation Population Rate ( %) 3.23 45.65 18.34 50.96 6.32 43.64 16.75 46.32 2.07 32.91 9.89 34.97 3.93 42.80 15.33 43.91 5.74 44.11 16.57 44.52

Source: Census of India 1991 and 2001

During the period from 1991 to 2001 all the blocks of the district except Gopiballavpur-I recorded decrease in the proportion of SC cultivators to SC total workers and only six blocks out of 29 registered increase in the proportion of SC agricultural labourers to SC total workers. These six blocks are Sabong, Darpur-I, Dantan-I, Dantan-II, Sankrail, Daspur-II. During this period all the blocks except five (ChandrakonaI, Binpur-I, Sankrail, Kharagpur-I, and Pingla) recorded increase in proportion of SC household industry workers. All the 29 blocks registered sizeable increase in the proportion of SC non-agricultural workers during this period. Despite these only nine blocks recorded above 50 percent increase in SC non-agricultural workers and these blocks are Binpur-II, Jhargram, Dantan-II, Keshiary, Mohanpur, Narayangarh, GarhbetaII, Keshpur and Salboni which are having relatively low values of human development index. Therefore, the case of distress diversification of economic livelihoods of SCs in these blocks can not be ruled out.

Table 7.8 Percentage Distributions of Scheduled Caste Workers in Block and Municipality in Paschim Medinipur District, 1991 & 2001 Block/ Municipality

Year

Chandrakona-I

1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001

Chandrakona-II Daspur-I Daspur-II Ghatal Binpur-I

% of %of % of % of Cultivators Agricultural Household Other workers Labourers Manufacturing and Processing 34.37 33.78 29.75 23.93 46.17 31.16 29.65 18.59 37.50 28.42 23.06 17.86

56.39 51.75 62.13 60.41 33.49 34.04 36.31 36.90 44.14 42.21 65.25 62.38

3.41 3.14 3.21 4.88 2.92 7.16 4.75 5.36 4.24 7.35 4.76 3.59

222

5.84 11.33 4.91 10.78 17.42 27.64 29.29 39.15 14.13 22.01 6.93 16.17

Nonagricultural Workers % 9.25 14.47 8.12 15.65 20.33 34.80 34.04 44.50 18.36 29.37 11.69 19.76

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Block/ Municipality

Binpur-II

Year

1991 2001 Gopiballavpur-I 1991 2001 Gopiballavpur-II 1991 2001 Jamboni 1991 2001 Jhargram 1991 2001 Nayagram 1991 2001 Sankrail 1991 2001 Dantan-I 1991 2001 Dantan-II 1991 2001 Debra 1991 2001 Keshiary 1991 2001 Kharagpur-I 1991 2001 Kharagpur-II 1991 2001 Mohanpur 1991 2001 Narayangarh 1991 2001 Pingla 1991 2001 Sabang 1991 2001 Garhbeta-I 1991 2001

% of %of % of % of Cultivators Agricultural Household Other workers Labourers Manufacturing and Processing 32.66 20.59 19.65 20.23 23.76 21.72 22.27 15.40 28.97 17.54 22.87 17.18 33.12 23.41 48.64 33.76 46.62 29.60 24.43 15.22 37.05 25.46 12.68 9.10 24.68 19.64 47.73 34.78 47.30 35.50 34.38 28.27 51.66 36.82 26.31 17.12

45.35 36.33 63.67 54.88 65.97 61.36 54.60 44.26 55.79 41.92 48.21 32.88 52.92 54.59 31.39 40.20 38.75 41.16 58.09 52.36 51.82 48.21 42.06 25.37 55.37 44.80 37.91 35.63 38.09 35.57 43.21 45.95 20.32 27.75 57.04 52.20

8.82 12.02 6.33 10.02 3.70 4.67 8.20 10.15 4.88 9.74 21.42 31.13 8.65 8.46 3.85 4.62 4.44 4.66 3.02 4.68 2.37 5.46 3.15 2.58 3.32 3.66 5.09 8.80 3.71 5.94 5.83 4.70 14.23 16.79 1.94 2.40

223

13.18 31.06 10.35 14.87 6.57 12.26 14.93 30.18 10.35 30.81 7.50 18.81 5.31 13.54 16.12 21.42 10.19 24.58 14.45 27.74 8.77 20.86 42.11 62.96 16.63 31.89 9.27 20.79 10.90 22.99 16.57 21.08 13.79 18.64 14.72 28.28

Nonagricultural Workers % 21.99 43.08 16.68 24.88 10.27 16.92 23.13 40.33 15.23 40.54 28.92 49.95 13.96 21.99 19.97 26.04 14.64 29.24 17.48 32.42 11.14 26.33 45.26 65.54 19.95 35.55 14.36 29.59 14.60 28.93 22.40 25.78 28.02 35.43 16.65 30.68

Community Development and Diversity

Block/ Municipality

Garhbeta-II Garhbeta-III Keshpur Medinipur Salbani

Year

1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001

% of %of % of % of Cultivators Agricultural Household Other workers Labourers Manufacturing and Processing 28.63 19.33 29.22 18.81 51.43 45.26 21.11 16.93 34.92 22.74

62.17 61.74 50.53 42.99 41.37 40.52 50.58 43.69 50.56 47.92

2.53 4.60 1.91 3.20 2.09 2.75 5.11 12.17 3.75 7.12

Nonagricultural Workers %

6.67 14.33 18.34 35.00 5.11 11.47 23.20 27.21 10.77 22.23

9.20 18.93 20.26 38.20 7.20 14.23 28.30 39.38 14.52 29.34

Source: Census of India 1991 and 2001

Breakdown of total workers into main workers and marginal workers reveals some interesting findings for the SC community from the analysis of census data. Agriculture remains the main stay of economic livelihoods for the SC people as their main or marginal occupations. Jamboni is the block where 50.6 per cent of SC total workers are SC marginal workers of which 39 per cent are SC marginal agricultural labourers, about 4 per cent SC cultivators and only about 4 per cent are SC non-agricultural workers. There are six blocks where above 30 per cent SC agricultural labourers are SC marginal workers. These blocks are Binpur-II, Binpur-I, Jhargram, Jamboni, Gopiballavpur-I and Kharagpur-II which are having low value of human development index.

Table 7.9 Percentage of SC Main workers and SC marginal workers to SC total workers in Blocks of Pahim Medinipur District, 2001 Block

Binpur-II Binpur-I Garhbeta-II Garhbeta-I Garhbeta-III Chandra I Chandrakona-II Ghatal Daspur-I Daspur-II Keshpur

Percentage of SC Main workers to total workers Total

Cultivators

52.20 61.10 62.50 68.40 60.00 62.50 80.00 73.80 75.10 83.30 71.70

10.80 11.10 12.50 12.10 13.00 21.90 19.00 21.00 23.10 15.50 32.30

Percentage of SC Marginal workers to total workers

Agl. HHI Other Total CultivaLab. workers workers tors 19.00 38.90 37.50 36.80 29.00 33.80 49.00 31.40 25.40 31.00 29.10

6.30 2.20 3.10 1.60 2.00 1.90 4.00 5.20 5.20 4.80 2.00

15.20 10.00 8.80 19.50 23.00 7.50 9.00 16.20 20.80 32.10 8.30

224

47.80 38.90 37.50 31.60 40.00 31.30 18.00 26.20 24.90 16.70 27.60

4.20 4.40 4.40 5.80 3.00 8.10 2.00 3.30 9.80 3.60 5.50

Agl. HHI Other Lab. workers workers 34.60 33.30 25.00 19.00 23.00 18.80 12.00 14.30 8.70 8.30 15.80

5.70 0.60 3.80 1.10 4.00 1.90 10.00 3.80 1.70 2.40 1.60

3.40 1.70 2.50 4.70 8.00 4.40 3.00 4.80 5.20 3.60 3.90

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Block Salboni Medinipur Jhargram Jamboni Gopiballavpur-II Gopiballavpur-I Nayagram Sankrail Kharagpur-I Kharagpur-II Debra Pingla Sabong Narayangarh Keshiary Dantan-I Dantan-II Mohanpur

Percentage of SC Main workers to total workers 66.70 61.50 51.60 49.40 66.70 53.20 57.10 55.60 71.40 66.70 64.30 62.50 57.90 57.90 61.50 77.80 57.50 76.70

15.00 10.80 9.30 7.80 15.00 11.70 10.70 14.40 6.40 12.50 10.00 17.50 21.10 20.50 16.20 33.30 20.00 26.70

33.30 30.80 22.70 22.10 41.70 31.90 21.40 33.30 21.40 25.00 35.70 25.00 15.80 21.10 30.80 33.30 30.00 26.70

5.00 7.70 5.20 5.20 3.30 6.40 21.40 5.60 2.10 2.50 2.90 2.50 10.50 3.20 3.90 3.30 2.50 6.70

14.20 17.70 16.50 15.60 8.30 8.50 14.30 7.80 42.90 20.00 21.40 12.50 10.50 15.80 13.90 15.60 17.50 16.70

Percentage of SC Marginal workers to total workers 41.70 38.50 46.40 50.60 30.00 40.40 42.90 33.30 28.60 41.70 35.70 25.00 36.80 42.10 30.80 22.20 30.00 26.70

3.30 2.30 4.10 3.90 3.30 1.50 2.10 3.30 2.10 5.00 5.00 11.30 15.80 10.50 3.10 5.60 7.50 6.70

25.00 5.00 23.10 2.30 30.90 3.10 39.00 1.30 24.20 0.80 31.90 2.10 14.30 21.40 27.80 3.30 21.40 0.70 33.30 1.70 21.40 1.40 12.50 1.30 10.50 10.50 26.30 3.20 23.10 2.30 22.20 1.10 15.00 2.50 16.70 3.30

3.30 6.20 4.10 2.60 1.70 2.10 7.90 3.30 5.00 2.50 5.00 5.00 4.70 3.70 2.30 2.20 5.00 3.30

During the period from 1991 to 2001 all the 29 blocks of the district registered very high increase in the proportion of ST marginal workers to ST total workers, which got its influence felt on the sizeable increase in the proportion of ST marginal workers to ST total population in the blocks. Despite this substantial increase in the proportion of ST marginal workers to ST total population ST work participation rate, i.e., proportion of SC total workers to SC total population, did not register increase in all the blocks. Rather, there are 7 blocks that witnessed decline in the SC work participation rate during 1991-2001. These blocks are Dantan-I, Dantan-II, Keshiary, Kharagpur-I, Mohanpur, Narayangarh, Medinipur.

Table 7.10 Broad Classifications of Scheduled Tribe Workers in Blocks and Municipality in Paschi Medinipur District, 1991 & 2001 Name of Block/ Municipality Chandrakona - I Chandrakona - II Daspur - I Daspur - II

1991

% of MRW to TW 3.75

% of MRW to total Population 1.70

% of TW to Total Population (WPR) 45.38

2001

34.65

16.27

46.95

1991

3.25

1.66

51.21

2001

27.97

13.08

46.79

1991

3.13

1.72

54.90

2001

20.15

10.92

54.19

1991

-

-

48.15

2001

9.09

4.29

47.22

Year

225

Community Development and Diversity

Name of Block/ Municipality

Ghatal Binpur - I Binpur - II Gopiballavpur - I Gopiballavpur - II Jamboni Jhargram Nayagram Sankrail Dantan - I Dantan - II Debra Keshiary Kharagpur - I Kharagpur - II Mohanpur Narayangarh

Year

% of MRW to TW

1991

2.12

1.09

51.30

2001

30.86

14.95

48.45

1991

13.22

7.05

53.30

2001

43.63

23.98

54.97

1991

14.81

8.26

55.79

2001

56.44

30.23

53.55

1991

8.88

4.66

52.52

2001

30.16

15.35

50.89

1991

10.60

5.57

52.54

2001

30.52

15.32

50.20

1991

15.34

8.28

54.00

2001

49.23

26.21

53.24

1991

12.01

5.89

49.04

2001

48.05

24.82

51.65

1991

20.03

11.14

55.59

2001

42.42

25.97

61.22

1991

10.61

5.90

55.59

2001

45.57

23.72

52.06

1991

11.34

7.63

67.28

2001

33.34

16.08

48.22

1991

3.56

1.77

49.78

2001

43.95

20.78

47.28

1991

4.14

2.27

54.71

2001

39.71

22.12

55.71

1991

6.79

3.55

52.36

2001

40.87

20.94

51.25

1991

8.80

3.85

43.78

2001

40.11

17.34

43.24

1991

8.40

4.26

50.77

2001

45.19

23.55

52.11

1991

4.22

1.98

46.90

2001

29.14

12.38

42.48

1991

13.99

7.07

50.56

2001

45.94

22.81

49.65

226

% of MRW to total Population

% of TW to Total Population (WPR)

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Name of Block/ Municipality

Pingla Sabang Garhbeta - I Garhbeta - II Garhbeta - III Keshpur Medinipur Salbani

Year

% of MRW to TW

% of MRW to total Population

% of TW to Total Population (WPR)

1991

6.82

3.39

49.67

2001

23.93

13.15

54.94

1991

9.70

4.59

47.27

2001

3.53

1.96

55.68

1991

6.73

3.20

47.62

2001

34.57

18.19

52.61

1991

10.28

5.50

53.54

2001

36.38

20.69

56.87

1991

13.32

7.11

53.39

2001

37.72

20.53

54.42

1991

5.86

2.86

48.71

2001

42.29

20.81

49.22

1991

10.58

5.37

50.74

2001

37.73

18.48

48.97

1991

16.56

8.03

48.48

2001

40.37

20.50

50.78

Source: Census of India 1991 and 2001

During the period from 1991 to 2001 eight blocks of the district , namely Chandrakona-I, Daspur-II, Dantan-II, Debra, Kharagpur-II, Pingla, Sabong and Keshpur recorded increase in the proportion of ST cultivators to ST total workers. 12 blocks out of 29 blocks registered increase in the proportion of ST agricultural labourers to ST total workers. These blocks are Dantan-I, Ghatal, Binpur-II, Gopiballavpur-I, Gopiballavpur-II, Kharagpur-II, Mohanpur, Narayangarh, Garhbeta-I, Garhbeta-II, Garhbeta-III and Salboni. During this period all the blocks excepting three (Mohanpur, Narayangarh and Pingla) recorded increase in proportion of ST household industry workers. 27 blocks registered sizeable increase in the proportion of ST non-agricultural workers during this period, the exceptions being Ghatal and Kharagpur-II. Despite these only two blocks, namely Kharagpur-I and Kharagpur-II recorded above 50 percent ST non-agricultural workers which are having relatively low values of human development index. Therefore, the case of distress diversification of economic livelihoods of STs in these blocks can not be ruled out.

Table 7.11 Percentage Distribution of Scheduled Tribe Workers in Blocks and Municipality in Paschim Medinipur District, 1991 and 2001 Block/ Municipality

Year

% of %of Cultivators Agricultural Labourers

% of Household Manufacturing and Processing

% of Other workers

Nonagricultural Workers %

Chandrakona - I 1991

13.88

82.84

0.36

2.91

3.28

2001

18.04

73.69

1.64

6.56

8.26

Chandrakona - II 1991

29.55

68.13

0.32

2.00

2.32

2001

23.42

65.37

4.58

6.64

11.21

227

Community Development and Diversity

Block/ Municipality Daspur - I

Year

1991 2001 Daspur - II 1991 2001 Ghatal 1991 2001 Binpur - I 1991 2001 Binpur - II 1991 2001 Gopiballavpur - I 1991 2001 Gopiballavpur - II 1991 2001 Jamboni 1991 2001 Jhargram 1991 2001 Nayagram 1991 2001 Sankrail 1991 2001 Dantan - I 1991 2001 Dantan - II 1991 2001 Debra 1991 2001 Keshiary 1991 2001 Kharagpur - I 1991 2001 Kharagpur - II 1991 2001 Mohanpur 1991 2001 Narayangarh 1991 2001

% of %of Cultivators Agricultural Labourers 9.20 3.16 8.13 20.35 4.08 49.79 41.59 58.10 40.13 36.17 32.01 35.25 29.87 35.26 26.71 38.75 27.10 43.90 34.15 42.21 34.07 27.73 18.88 12.34 12.81 9.15 10.33 29.67 28.79 16.89 10.17 12.21 14.26 19.68 17.35 25.42 17.02

% of Household Manufacturing and Processing

% of Other workers

Nonagricultural Workers %

0.96 1.88 0.00 0.97 2.48 3.73 3.61 9.18 1.97 3.87 0.60 1.48 1.42 3.48 0.92 1.92 16.78 19.64 2.66 4.55 6.27 7.44 0.84 1.10 0.66 0.88 1.17 1.84 0.72 0.73 1.04 2.33 3.80 1.94 2.54 2.14

5.72 18.05 6.41 25.00 1.52 5.54 3.99 11.90 4.39 14.7 4.23 5.47 2.93 6.39 6.76 15.93 6.42 21.55 3.25 13.42 2.65 9.73 3.71 11.07 2.35 7.59 4.06 8.6 2.17 7.51 23.26 49.28 78.84 18.22 4.52 7.95 3.79 9.77

5.72 19.02 6.41 26.88 1.52 0.68 6.47 15.63 8.00 23.88 6.20 9.34 3.53 7.86 8.17 19.41 7.34 23.47 20.04 33.07 5.32 14.28 9.98 18.51 3.19 8.70 4.72 9.48 3.34 9.34 23.98 50.02 79.88 63.33 8.32 9.88 6.34 11.91

85.09 77.83 93.59 65.00 78.14 95.24 43.75 42.78 33.91 35.99 57.63 58.65 61.22 62.26 56.57 53.88 53.91 49.43 36.06 32.78 52.47 51.65 62.29 62.61 84.48 78.49 86.13 80.19 66.99 61.87 59.14 39.81 7.92 22.42 72.00 72.77 68.24 71.07

228

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Block/ Municipality Pingla Sabang Garhbeta - I Garhbeta - II Garhbeta - III Keshpur Medinipur Salbani

Year

1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001 1991 2001

% of %of Cultivators Agricultural Labourers 17.50 18.28 19.24 21.76 46.63 28.45 54.44 41.66 40.09 27.52 22.73 32.41 24.94 22.50 46.22 32.71

% of Household Manufacturing and Processing

% of Other workers

Nonagricultural Workers %

0.86 0.76 0.83 1.28 0.88 2.18 0.79 4.48 1.50 7.12 0.23 3.08 0.57 2.19 1.15 5.23

2.09 4.87 3.36 47.28 3.56 6.82 2.55 7.40 3.65 10.04 1.26 6.50 10.40 15.88 4.40 10.19

2.95 5.64 4.19 7.22 4.45 9.00 3.34 11.88 5.15 17.16 1.49 9.58 10.96 18.07 5.55 15.42

79.56 76.08 76.57 71.03 48.92 62.55 42.22 46.46 54.76 55.32 75.77 58.01 64.09 59.43 48.23 51.87

Source: Census of India 1991 and 2001

Breakdown of ST total workers into ST main workers and ST marginal workers reveals some interesting findings for the ST community from the analysis of census data. Agriculture remains the main stay of economic livelihoods of the ST people as their main or marginal occupations much more than of the SC community. Most of the STs live on agricultural labour which is much more important than cultivation as cultivator. There are 14 blocks out of 29 blocks of the district where more than 40 per cent of the ST total workers are ST main agricultural labourers. These blocks are Garhbeta-II, Chandrakona-I, Chandrakona-II, Ghatal, Daspur-I, Daspur-II, Gopiballavpur-I, Gopiballavpur-II, Debra, Pingla, Sabong, Dantan-I, DantanII, and Mohanpur. Binpur-II is the block where above 57 workers are marginal workers of which above 39 per cent are marginal agricultural labourers. Jhargram and Jamboni are two blocks where above 48 per cent of ST total workers are ST marginal workers of which 39 per cent and 38 per cent respectively are ST marginal agricultural labourers. These three blocks constitute the very low ranks in the list of human development index. There are 13 blocks where above 30 per cent ST agricultural labourers are ST marginal workers. These blocks are Binpur-II, Binpur-I, Ghatal, Keshpur, Mohanpur, Jhargram, Jamboni, Sankrail, Kharagpur-I, Kharagpur-II, Debra, Narayangarh and Keshiary most of which are having low value of human development index. There are four blocks where at least 10 per cent of ST non-agricultural workers are marginal workers. These blocks are Binpur-II, Garhbeta-III, Salboni and Nayagram.

229

Community Development and Diversity

Table 7.12 Percentage of ST Main workers and ST marginal workers to ST total workers in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District, 2001 Block

Percentage of ST main workers to toal workers Total

Cultivator

Agl. Lab.

Binpur-II

42.42

18.18

15.15

3.94

Binpur-I

59.09

20.73

22.73

Garhbeta-II

66.67

26.67

Garhbeta-I

66.67

Garhbeta-III

Percentage of ST marginal workers to toal workers

HHI Other worker workers

Total

cultivators

Agl. Lab.

5.36

57.58

6.06

39.39

7.18

2.73

2.27

9.09

40.91

9.1

27.82

2.27

1.36

33.33

2.67

4.67

33.33

6.66

16.00

8.00

2.00

17.78

43.44

1.11

4.44

33.33

4.44

23.45

2.22

1.11

63.64

17.27

35.36

4.55

6.36

36.36

2.73

18.18

11.82

3.64

Chandrakona I

62.50

8.33

45.83

4.00

4.17

37.5

4.17

29.17

-

4.17

Chandrakona-II

72.22

16.67

45.00

4.56

5.56

27.78

5.56

22.22

-

-

Ghatal

68.75

-

62.50

-

6.25

31.25

-

31.25

-

-

Daspur-I

82.14

3.57

64.29

-

14.29

17.86

-

14.86

-

3.57

Daspur-II

85.60

7.00

55.60

1.60

21.4

14.4

0.5

10.7

-

3.2

Keshpur

59.52

17.86

31.33

2.38

3.57

40.48

2.38

34.71

1.19

2.38

Salboni

60.00

19.33

32.33

2.33

6.00

40.00

2.66

26.67

7.33

3.34

Medinipur

60.00

13.33

36.00

1.33

9.33

40.00

2.00

33.33

1.34

2.66

Jhargram

51.45

14.08

25.68

1.00

11.20

48.55

4.33

39.17

1.76

2.79

Jamboni

50.77

13.56

27.36

1.77

8.09

49.23

6.23

37.89

3.01

2.10

Gopiballavpur-II

72.73

20.91

45.45

0.91

4.55

27.27

3.64

22.27

-

1.82

Gopiballavpur-I

70.59

21.76

40.18

2.94

3.53

29.41

2.94

23.53

2.35

1.18

Nayagram

56.67

20.00

20.00

10.00

6.67

43.33

3.33

10.00

23.34

6.67

Sankrail

53.85

18.46

28.77

2.31

4.38

46.15

5.39

38.46

1.54

1.54

Kharagpur-I

62.50

6.25

25.00

0.63

31.25

37.5

2.50

27.25

0.63

6.26

Kharagpur-II

57.14

8.10

35.19

1.43

10.00

42.86

3.33

38.1

0.48

1.43

Debra

60.71

6.07

43.43

0.71

5.00

39.29

1.78

35.72

0.36

1.42

Pingla

77.78

13.33

51.56

1.11

3.33

22.22

5.55

16.78

-

1.11

Sabong

68.75

14.00

50.00

1.25

3.75

31.25

3.75

25.25

1.25

1.26

Narayangarh

53.10

8.97

37.93

1.03

5.17

46.90

2.75

37.93

2.06

3.68

Keshiary

56.52

16.96

34.78

0.87

4.35

43.48

3.04

34.79

1.74

3.44

Dantan-I

66.67

12.50

41.67

5.00

7.50

33.33

2.50

25.00

1.66

3.66

Dantan-II

56.05

7.50

42.50

1.00

5.05

43.95

4.42

39.43

0.33

0.50

Mohanpur

70.86

15.00

49.00

1.86

5.00

29.14

2.40

25.76

0.64

0.34

Source: Census of India 2001

230

HHI Other workers workers

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Tribal Economy of the district Traditionally tribals had their specific activity by community. Santhals are known to be settled agriculturalists and hence cultivation has been their principal activity. Similarly Mundas are livestock rearer, Bhumijs are craftsmen of stoneware and stone works, Mahalis are basket makers etc. The primitive tribesmen Lodhas remained dependant on forests with different extraction activities and later became agricultural labourer when forests were denuded and degraded. Each tribal community of Paschim Medinipur thus depended on specific principal activity, though with one or two secondary activities to support for better livelihood. Table 7.14 enlists the primary and secondary activities adopted by different tribal communities of Paschim Medinipur.

Table 7.13 Principal and Secondary Activities of Tribal Communities in Paschim Medinipur Tribe

Principal Activity

Secondary Activity

Santhal

Cultivation

Agriculture Labour

Bhumij

Agriculture Labour

Stoneware & Stone work

Munda

Live stock rearing & cultivation

Agriculture Labour

Lodha

Agriculture Labour

Extractive activity

Kora

Agriculture Labour

Earth work

Basket making & Bamboo crafts

Agriculture Labour

Mahali

Forest relationship of the Tribal Most of the Tribals here were basically forest dependent people and they were relying on forest for centuries as their principal source of food, fodder and fuel. In fact, they remained as the custodian of the forest till the British Government intervened in their rights and claims with the enforcement of the Forest Act, 1896. They are also the worshippers of forest trees and still today they maintain many sacred grooves in this District. Many festivals are aimed at generating prosperity in the forest sector. With the introduction of Forest Policy, 1986 followed by GO in 1990 for constituting FPCs to protect forest in their earmarked forest village areas, the tribals had to suffer a lot. JFM with the noble idea of protection and distribution of usufruct benefits could change the forest health and wealth to a significant extent. But with the increasing village (FPC) population and animal stock the pressure of biotic intervention increased and the benefit accrued directly to the members of 3000 FPCs of the District remained meager for their sustenance. This has caused erosion to the initial impulse of FPC activities and many forest tracts are now subjected again to the process of deforestation. It is now the turn of the Govt., Panchayat and concerned NGOs to create income generating activities for their minimum livelihood sustenance without which the cordial relation between the forests and tribal will be difficult to be maintained.

Lodha Community - The Largest Primitive Tribe The Lodhas are considered as one of the largest primitive tribes in West Bengal. They are distributed over and the Western part of West Bengal, a contiguous territory of Chhoto Nagpur Plateau, which spreads along the western border of Medinipur. The Lodhas are significantly different in tenns of physical and cultural affinities from their neighbouring communities like the Santal, the Munda, the Kora, the Kharia, the Mahato and the Bhumij. But the Census of India clubbed the Lodhas with the Kharias. They are primarily a food -gathering people, who mainly subsist by collecting wild roots, tubers and edible leaves from the jungles as well as

231

Community Development and Diversity

hunting wild animals, birds and reptiles, which they use as food and sell the skin. They also collect Tosser, cocoons, 'which are sold to a specialized group of people of the weaver community who prepare cloth out of these. Some of the Lodha families live on the collection of Kend leaves, which they sell to outside traders for manufacturing Bidi (country-cigars) 'with pounded tobacco mixed with these. Some of them also catch fish and collect firewood from forest and sell those in the local market to earn their living. The following ethnographic note is based on published materials as well as the present study's field observation. The term 'Lodha' is possibly derived from the Sanskrit word Lubdhaka, meaning a trapper of fowl. There is a land holding group in Madhaya Pradesh named 'Lodha'. They have immigrated from Uttar Pradesh but originally belong to Ludhiana District in Punjab. They are named as Lodha, after the place of their origin. According to Nesfield, the name Lodha or Ludhi has two different derivatives. One is Lad, which means Clod, according to which Ludhi means a clodhopper. The other is that the Lodha have adopted their name from the Lodh tree, which grows in abundance in the northern India, the bark of which is collected and sold as dyeing agent. The Lodha feel pride in asserting themselves as the Savara, a generic genn used in ancient literature for the forest-dwelling communities. Actually, they are a gathering-hunting community. Once they depend on the bounty of forests. Collection of jungle produce, edible roots and tubers, small games etc. was their main occupation, but after the enactment of the 'Permanent Settlement Act' (1793) by the then British administration, the entire region of forests was given to the landlords and in this way their right over the forest produce was set at naught; ultimately, they became paupers from the level of poverty. Helpless as they are, they were flooded with all sorts of criminal activities, true or imaginary. Goaded by the pangs of hunger and tyranny of the rich receivers belonging to varied political parties, the Lodha practically had no other alternative than to fall back upon for a living. Territorial and economic displacement made them real pagans. The economically displaced Lodha could not adopt them to the changing situation and ultimately they were further driven to a precarious existence. The growing needs of their expanding family fixed them in a frame of narrow territory in which they could not meet their dire needs with small and irregular income. Unending frustration and lack of self-confidence brought in its train a perpetual stagnation in their collection life, which subsequently turned them into inveterate criminals with every thrust of waves of the changing circumstances. Thus, criminality cut a deep gorge and these helpless people had to role down helplessly in it. But, now-a -days, we find some distinctiveness in the group. Some of those who live mainly on the southern bank of the river Subamarekha, including the areas in Jhargram and Jamboni Police Stations have categorized themselves as Jungle Lodha, whereas the other section who possibly migrated to the eastern tract (less forested region), where they have come in contact with the agrarian communities from whom they have gradually learnt the art of agriculture. Thus being accustomed to the techniques of agriculture, they now work as agricultural works. Their access into the forest due to forest laws became very limited. Extensive work has been done by P.K. Bhowmick (1963, 1972, 1975, 1980, 1990) on the life and culture of the Lodhas on whom he is considered as the authority. Some other important works on this tribe were done by Sarkar (1974), Ray (1967), Gupta (1976), Das and Banerjee (1964). The Lodha, as a whole, has very distinctive Characteristics - they are stout and strong, ever disbelieving the alien group as they are being cheated and exploited by the latter all the time; they are basically lazy and take to sharp practices, speak in distorted local Bengali dialect with on admixture of Austric words.

Life Style of Lodha Hunting and gathering is regarded as their main economy. They collect honey and faggots, Tosser cocoons or gouty, from the jungles and also edible roots and tubers and small games from the same place.

232

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

They sell their collections to the local people at ~ throwaway price and purchase some of their essential food articles in exchange. The bows and arrows, digging sticks or axes are their main items or equipment. They also hunt various poisonous and non-poisonous snakes, lizards, the skins of which are sold to local people at a high price. Regarding their economic activities, as stated earlier those who live near to the jungles, collect firewood, put them in bundles and sell them to the nearest market or locality. They spend their sale proceeds on food and other essential articles. Sometimes they are found to work as wage earners, working in the field of others or in road construction work of some such activities. After the rainy season, they get some employment opportunities as well as they collect various fruits, water lily, molusca to maintain their daily life. But in the summer season, due to insufficient employment opportunities, they face a famine like condition. Most of the Lodhas' huts are thatched; mud built and looks rectangular without having any window. The Lodha people do not have cultivable land of their own, though they use Khas or government lands for doing rudimentary agriculture. A few among them have been given some land by the government for cultivation. They use earthenware vessels as cooking utensils. For cutting and felling trees, they use axe and for digging roots and tubers they use a type of digging spade with a sharp iron-blade, hafted into a wooden shaft. For hunting purpose they use bows and arrows. They also use fish traps, mortar and pestles. Most of the male and female Lodha wear a single piece of lawn cloth. Some of the male members use pant and shirts available in the local market. The female of them use bangles and a few pieces of cheap ornaments. The Lodha are patriarchal as well as patrilineal people. The whole community is divided into a few exogamous clans, which have their respective totems. Each member of the clans pays respect to the totemic object and never kills or injures the totem animal / bird / object. After marriage, girls leave their father's clan and become members of their respective husband's clan. Members of the Kotal clan declare their used earthenware on the occasion of every new moon. For women of this clan sporting conch -shell bangles is a taboo. Most of the Lodha families are nuclear in nature, though joint or extended families are not rare. There is case of polygamous unions too. Marriage by payment or bride price is the general rule. The bridegroom has to pay a bride price along with some clothes as presentation to the members of the brides' family. When a girl is married at a tender age, a second marriage ceremony is performed after she has attained puberty. In case of offering bride price, the money is placed on a brass plate by the Sambar, or chief. In some places especially in the remote areas, on the day of marriage an alter of clay is raised under a Sidha tree - where all the village functionaries are invited to bless the couple. Widow remarriage is in vogue among the Lodha. Sometimes the deceased elder brother's wife is married to the younger brother, for whom no bride price is required to be paid or formal rituals have to be performed. This type of marriage is known as Sanga. The Lodha have their own tribal council, known as Panchayat which is headed by a Mukhia. The messenger is called Dakua or Atgharia. His responsibility is to inform the villagers the decisions and directives of the Panchayat on village affairs. In a traditional council, personal disputes of the villagers and general problems of village administration are discussed. This council is also responsible to organise the annual worships and other celebrations. If a person is found guilty, then traditional council impose fine or ostracise him or her as per the nature of offence. Their sacred head is known as Dehari, who is assisted by Talias while sacrificing goats. A number of sorcerers and magicians are available in different villages. The tutelary village deity of the Lodha is Baram or Garam. This worship is necessary for the welfare of the villagers as a whole. Beside Baram, they worship goddess Sita, who is considered to be the controlling deity of epidemic diseases like Cholera and Pox. Goddess Chandi is also worshipped for cure of chronic

233

Community Development and Diversity

diseases. Manasa is supposed to be the controlling deity of the snakes and the snake charmers of the Lodha community arrange her worship. During marriage and some other celebration, they also propitiate Basumata or Mother Bard and Dharma Devata or the God of Righteousness. But they do not make any sacrifice for their appeasement. They are benevolent deities. The Lodha also believe in various malevolent spirits who control their destiny. Naturally many rituals are performed and animals are sacrificed for appeasing them. After the annual worship of Baram or Sita, festivals are held in villages. Their traditional drum is called Changu, which is played on untiring zest by expert drummers, and songs composed in distorted Bengali and are sung in chorus, accompanied with dance by their female members. A few songs are devotional in nature in which popular Hindu Gods and Goddesses are incorporated through the process of acculturation. There are few Baramasi songs depicting the episodes of twelve months connected with some heroes of the epics. They also participate in Tusu festival, which is very common in the western of West Bengal. After the repeating of Criminal Tribes Act in 1952 the Lodha got a new nomenclature, the denotified tribe. Still they had to face many problems, as they were basically dependent on forest produce and hunting. Since they were not in a position to change their mode of life with the rapidly changing circumstances, the realities appeared harsh to them.

Health Problems So far health status and persisted health problem is concerned, the Lodha community suffer trom the disease like influenza, typhoid, malaria, cough, blood dysentery, hopping cough, diarrhoea, skin disease, arthritids. Due to the alcoholic habits, the Lodha are found to be suffered from Jaundice.

Main Occupations It is true that a society without a stable economy usually disintegrates in no time, particularly in the case of a backward community like the Lodha. It is a fact that for their exclusiveness and isolated way of life for ages in the past, and the stigma or criminality hurled at them; they are looked down upon and suspected by others. The neighbouring communities treat them 'with an unsympathetic bias and, as a result, they do not get proper guidance and stimulus from others. They have neither any idea about the means of countering or shaping the economic forces to their advantages, nor can they keep pace with the march of time and change. Consequently, they have remained petulant in their primitive economy of food - gathering and hunting, and have very little knowledge about the agricultural practices as yet, while their neighbours have marched ahead and achieved prosperity. Before the attainment of independence, no attempt was made for the socio-economic development of these communities. Some years later, when the criminal Tribes Act was repealed in 1952, the Central and State Governments gave some thought to the matter of amelioration of the wretched condition of these people and resolved to rehabilitate a few selected Lodha families in the district of Medinipur The humble beginning of the rehabilitation work was made in a very modest way without sufficient financial assistance, and without even making any scientific assessment of the problems and needs of the Lodha. In order to help the Criminal Tribes in this respect, Home (police) Department attempted to form a co-operative society and through this society some land were purchased. This initiative was taken at Auligerias, Jhargram, when the Lodha were declared as a de-notified tribe. Another rehabilitation programme at Pukuria, near Jhargram is still going on. After that, the Government came forward to do welfare work in the form of house construction, goat-rearing etc. But all these efforts ended in a fiasco and became the butt of criticism. Then, these groups of people were treated as Primitive Tribal Groups (1979) when special assistance was given and a Lodha call under the I. T. D. P. was constituted for utilising funds profitably through the Blocks, headed by a project officer located at Jhargram.

234

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Both male and female of the Lodha community depends mainly on food gatherings & hunting. Some of them are engaged in agricultural operation as hired labourer. The Lodha, as they have little land of their own, are in great demand for agricultural labourer. Besides this they are having some income from livestock, forestry, mining & quarrying, household industries, trade & commerce, constructions, carpentry etc. In spite of all these attempts, their obdurate behaviour is related to their habit of gathering hunting economy and these in course of time became their habits and angularities, which persist, in their cultural and social life.

Map 7.1 Lodha Populated Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District Lodha Populated Blocks

N

Paschim Medinipur

W

Garhbeta-I

E S

Chandrakona-II Garhbeta-II Garhbeta-III

Chandrakona-I Ghatal

Binpur-II Binpur-I

Salboni

Jamboni

Keshpur

Midnapore Jhargram Kharagpur-I

Daspur-I Daspur-II

Debra

Kharagpur-II Pingla

Gopiballavpur-II Gopiballavpur-I

Sankrail Keshiary

Narayangarh

Sabong

Nayagram Dantan-I Dantan-II

Mid(W) Boundary Lodha Populated Blocks Lodha Populated Blocks Other Blocks

Mohanpur

5

0

5

10 Kilometers

Table 7.14 Lodha Families in different Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District S.L. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Name of the Block

No. of Mouza

Kharagpur-I Kharagpur-II Dantan-I Dantan-II Keshiary Debra

45 28 5 3 15 18

235

No. of Total No. Lodha of Lodha Families People 1696 7019 722 2821 196 750 66 273 1035 4312 935 4714

Male

Female

3615 1421 343 138 2173 2427

3404 1400 407 135 2139 2287

Community Development and Diversity

S.L. No.

Name of the Block

No. of Mouza

7 Sabong 8 Narayangarh 9 Pingla Total of Kharagpur Sub-division 10 Keshpur 11 Medinipur 12 Salboni Total of Medinipur Sub-division 13 Daspur-I Total of Ghatal Sub-division 14 Binpur-I 15 Binpur-II 16 Nayagram 17 Gopiballavpur-I 18 Gopiballavpur-II 19 Jamboni 20 Sankrail 21 Jhargram Total of Jhargram Sub-division Total of Paschim Medinipur

No. of Total No. Male Lodha of Lodha Families People 679 2555 1298 3125 12099 6099 376 1230 570 8830 35773 18084 183 644 314 780 3060 1585 213 873 487 1176 4577 2386 50 167 88 50 167 88 359 1509 712 770 3095 1565 1090 4072 2054 85 274 141 20 70 42 679 2585 1315 235 948 500 1988 7136 3636 5226 19689 9965 15282 60206 30523

11 55 7 187 7 28 12 47 4 4 8 60 27 2 1 37 6 91 232 470

Source: Project Officer, BCW, Paschim Medinipur

Figure 7.4 Lodha Families in different Blocks

Distribution of Lodha Families 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0

No. of Lodha Families Kharagpur-I

Kharagpur-II

Dantan-I

Dantan-II

Keshiary

Debra

Sabong

Narayangarh

Pingla

Keshpur

Medinipur

Salboni

Daspur-I

Binpur-I

Binpur-II

Nayagram

Gopiballavpur-I

Gopiballavpur-II

Jamboni

Sankrail

Jhargram

236

Female

1257 6000 660 17689 330 1475 386 2191 79 79 797 1530 2018 133 28 1270 448 3500 9724 29683

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Field Studies On Migration 1. Narayanpur village under Raskundu-1 Gram Panchayat of Garhbeta III block •

Total numbers of surveyed households are 20 which comprise 8 numbers of ST families, 5 numbers of SC families and 7 numbers of general caste families.



Economic condition of ST families is poor compared to that SC and General Caste families.



Own land holding of ST families is near zero, for SC families it is 20 decimals to 100 decimals and for general caste families it is 80 decimals to 360 decimals. Number of working days per month varies between 15 and 20. Per day wage rate is Rs 55 and 1.5 kg rice. Source of income of general caste families is cultivation in own land and business along with cultivation. SC families derives livelihood from cultivation in own limited land and as agricultural labourer.



Some ST families migrate to the neighbouring developed areas and districts for work in agriculture.



Major of the sample households have livestock but no insurance done. Piglets were given to five ST families at subsidized rates under SGSY to the SHGs. After six months of rearing and starting piggery these pigs died of diseases. No animal developments services were available to these ST families.

2. Bilasbar village under Jhetla Gram Panchayat of Keshpur Block •

Sample households are mainly SC and others are from other minority communities.



Main economic activities of sample households of this village comprise agricultural labour and cultivation.



Over 50 per cent of the sample 20 SC and other minority households on temporary migration to neighboring districts and areas in search of job, especially in rice and potato plantation and harvesting time.

3. Muradanga village of Kankabati Gram Panchayat. •

Sample households are mainly ST families.



Main economic activities of ST families for both male and female members are agricultural labor work /casual labour work, construction work (Masson work and Road work), loading and unloading work in F.C.I., work in rice mill, and business.



Some family members migrate to neghbouring districts and areas in search of jobs in road construction.



Most of the families have no electric connection.



Most of the male members are addicted by local alcohol (heria) while their female counterparts are struggling to abolish alcohol shops from their local area.

COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF COMMUNITIES Housing Condition Most of the sample 300 households ( 51 per cent) have Type 2 housing, i.e., one room for living. Above 65 per cent of the sample ST and Muslim families have got this type of housing while less than 40 per cent of

237

Community Development and Diversity

sample general caste families have this Type 2 housing. Type 3 housing is available for the highest percentage of SC families (48.15 per cent) followed by the general caste families (43.80 per cent). Social

Type 1

Type 2

Type 3

Type 4

Type 5

Total no.

Category

%

%

%

%

%

HH

General

0.00

39.67

43.80

5.79

11.57

121

Minority

0.00

65.63

21.88

12.50

0.00

32

SC

0.00

51.85

48.15

0.00

0.00

81

ST

1.52

65.15

27.27

0.00

6.06

66

Total

0.33

51.00

39.00

3.67

6.00

300

Classification of Workers Of the total agricultural workers in 300 sample families 45.58 per cent are farmers and the rest, i.e., agricultural labourers. Only 17.53 per cent of ST agricultural workers are farmers while among the general castes 73.89 per cent are farmers. On the other hand, 82.47 per cent of the agricultural workers are agricultural labourers followed by SCs. Percentage of non-agricultural workers is highest among Minorities (73.91) the lowest being registered among SCs (27.47 per cent). Category

Farmers

Agricultural labourers

Total agricultural workers

Total Non-agricultural workers

No. of farmers

%

No. of workers

%

No. of workers

%

No. of workers

%

General

116

73.89

41

26.11

157

61.57

98

38.43

Minority

6

50.00

6

50.00

12

26.09

34

73.91

SC

44

33.33

88

66.67

132

72.53

50

27.47

ST

17

17.53

80

82.47

97

66.44

49

33.56

Total

183

45.98

215

54.02

398

63.28

231

36.72

Summing up To sum up, differential and diversity across caste and religious community in respect of literacy and work participation across the blocks explain substantially the differential in human development index across the district.

238

Urbanization and Industrialization

240

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Chapter - VIII Urbanization and Industrialization 8.1 Trends of urbanization in Paschim Medinipur district This section focuses on the urbanization levels in the Paschim Medinipur district along with the relevant issues at the municipal level. The percentage of urban population in the district was established as 11.9 per cent as per the '2001 Census' data. In addition to the eight municipalities in Paschim Medinipur, the Urban Development Department, Govt. of West Bengal has constituted the Midnapore - Kharagpur Development Authority (MKDA). The MKDA planning area comprises of two municipalities (Medinipur and Kharagpur) and 13 gram panchayats which encompasses 464 mouzas covering an area of 596.76 sq. km with a population of 719686 (2001 Census). It is observed in Table 8.1 that the overall percentage of urban population has kept increasing since 1901 but for 1991-2001. The urban population in the district is spread mostly over eight municipalities and their details are presented in Tables 8.2(a) and 8.2(b). While, these municipalities include 9.74 % of the total population in the district, the rest of the urban population is spread over 'Census towns' like Durllabhganj, Balichak, Deuli etc. The present report focuses on the eight municipalities mentioned above. Five of these municipalities fall under the jurisdiction of the Ghatal Sub-division, with Jhargram, Sadar and Kharagpur sub-divisions having one municipality each. The population densities of these municipalities were also found to vary from 10133 persons/Sq. Km in Medinipur to 1118 persons/Sq. Km. in the Kharar municipality indicating significant differences in the levels of urbanization. It is observed that the total percent of urban population has reduced from 10.07% in 1991 to 9.74% in 2001. Though all municipalities have shown an increase in urban population over 1991, Kharagpur municipality has shown a decline in urban population from 4.04% in 1991 to 3.63% in 2001 and its share of district's urban population declined from 40.12% in 1991 to 37.27% in 2001.

Table 8.1 Growth of Population by Sex in different Census Years in Paschim Medinipur District Year

Total Index Population with 1901 (Number) as base

Male

Female

No. of females per 100 males

Urban

Rural

% of urban population to total population

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(1)

(2)

(3)

1901

2789114

100

1390233 1398881

101

89876

2699238

3.22

1911

2821201

101

1410714 1410487

100

101855

2719346

3.61

1921

2666660

96

1339652 1327008

99

96869

2569791

3.63

1931

2799093

100

1417025 1382068

98

138584

2660509

4.95

1941

3190647

114

1631673 1558974

96

188047

3002600

5.89

1951

3359022

120

1718459 1640563

95

252880

3106142

7.53

1961

4341855

156

2224073 2117782

95

334286

4007569

7.70

1971

5509247

198

2831863 2677384

95

420156

5089091

7.63

1981

6742796

242

3455375 3287421

95

572757

6170039

8.49

241

Urbanization and Industrialization

Year

Total Index Population with 1901 (Number) as base

Male

Female

No. of females per 100 males

Urban

Rural

% of urban population to total population

1991*

4486279

100

2301869 2184410

95

567567

3918712

12.65

2001*

5193411

116

2648048 2545363

96

617760

4575651

11.90

Note: 1901 to 1981 for Undivided Medinipur district * = Index with 1991 as base for Paschim Medinipur Source: Census of India

Table 8.2(a) Area, Population and Population Density in Urban Areas of Paschim Medinipur District, 1991 Sub-Division / Municipality

Area in Sq.km.

Population (Number)

Density per Sq. km.

% of population to district population

Share of District’s Urban population

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

3045.13

874745

288

19.87

17.04

42094

2470

0.96

Sadar Sub-Div.

2424.23

1031279

422

23.43

Medinipur (M)

14.78

125498

8491

2.85

2729.01

1679164

576

38.15

90.65

177989

1963

4.04

Ghatal Sub. Div.

915.13

816839

857

18.56

Chandrakona-(M)

16.58

16804

1014

0.38

3.77%

Khirpai(M)

11.65

12199

1047

0.28

2.78%

Ramjibanpur(M)

10.36

14904

1439

0.34

3.38%

Kharar (M)

10.36

10314

996

0.23

2.28%

Ghatal(M)

10.36

43770

4225

0.99

9.83%

9295.28

484559

450

100.00

Jhargram Sub-Div . Jhargram (M)

KharagpurSub Div. Kharagpur(M)

District Total 1991

Total Urban Population as Per cent of District Population Source: Census of India, 1991

242

10.07

9.53% 28.30% 40.12%

100%

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Table 8.2(b) Area, Population and Population Density in Urban Areas of Paschim Medinipur District, 2001 Sub-Division / Municipality

Area in Sq. km.

Population (Number)

(1) (2) (3) Jhargram Sub-Div . 3045.13 1008030 Jhargram (M) 17.04 53145 Sadar Sub-Div. 2424.23 1238810 Medinipur (M) 14.78 149769 KharagpurSub Div. 2729.01 2033584 Kharagpur(M) 90.65 188761 Ghatal Sub. Div. 915.13 912987 Chandrakona-(M) 16.58 20398 Khirpai(M) 11.65 14548 Ramjibanpur(M) 10.36 17364 Kharar (M) 10.36 11580 Ghatal(M) 10.36 51582 District Total 2001 9295.28 5193411 Total Urban Population as Per cent of District Population

Density per Sq. km. (4) 332 3119 507 10133 698 2082 958 1230 1249 1676 1118 4979 531

% of population to district population (5) 19.41 1.02 23.85 2.88 39.16 3.63 17.58 0.39 0.28 0.33 0.22 0.99 100.00 9.74

Share of District’s Urban population (6) 10.47% 29.57% 37.27% 4.00% 2.87% 3.39% 2.26% 10.16% 100.00%

Source: Census of India 2001

Table 8.3 shows the percentage of male population during the year 1991 and 2001 in the different municipalities and 'Census Towns' in Paschim Medinipur. While most of the urban areas showed improvement of sex ratio in 2001 from 1991 levels, percentage of male population in Chandrakona and Kharar municipalities increased during 1991-2001.

Table 8.3 Population distribution by sex in municipalities and 'Census Towns' in Paschim Medinipur District. Municipality(M) / Census Town Jhargram (M) Medinipur (M) Debra Kharagpur I Kharagpur(M) Chandrakona (M) Khirpai(M) Ramjibanpur(M) Kharar (M) Ghatal(M)

% male population 1991 52.37 52.06 51.63 51.67 52.66 51.08 51.58 51.6 50.82 52.09

Source : Census of India , 1991,2001

243

% male population 2001 51.06 51.08 49.99 51.14 51.77 51.3 51.13 51.39 50.9 52.06

Percentage Change -2.5 -1.88 -3.18 -1.03 -1.69 0.43 -0.87 -0.41 0.16 -0.06

Urbanization and Industrialization

8.2 Urban Workforce Table 8.4 shows the change in the share of the urban 'main' and 'marginal' workers along with the share of non workers during the period 1991-2001. It is observed that only Medinipur and Kharagpur have shown an increase in the share of main workers with Chandrakona showing a steep fall of 13.36%. This increase is mainly in the household industry sector and other workers category, as observed in Table 8.5. This is generally observed in all urban areas, including those where there has been a decrease in the percentage of main workers. Though there has been a reduction in main work force in most of the urban areas, there is also a reduction in the percentage of non-workers, leading to increase in percentage of marginal work force (Table 8.4). Chandrakona as an exception has shown an increase in the percentage of non-workers by 1.37%. Table 8.5 shows that the percentage of cultivators has increased in all urban areas except Jhargram, Medinipur and Kharagpur. In terms of agricultural workforce all urban areas show an increase in percentage except Medinipur.

Table 8.4 Change in the share of urban workforce during 1991-2001. Municipality

Percentage of main workers

Percentage of marginal workers

Percentage of nonworkers

% change

1991

2001

% change

1991

2001

% change

30.06

-3.47

0.97

2.60

168.04

67.88

67.35

-0.78

28.27

29.46

4.21

0.44

2.62

495.45

71.29

67.92

-4.73

Kharagpur

23.75

25.16

5.94

0.32

2.96

825.00

75.93

71.88

-5.33

Chandrakona

31.06

26.91

-13.36

2.44

5.68

132.79

66.50

67.41

1.37

Khirpai

31.94

29.93

-6.29

1.43

4.63

223.78

66.63

65.45

-1.77

Ramjibanpur

31.44

30.90

-1.72

2.66

6.19

132.71

65.90

62.92

-4.52

Kharar

29.37

27.88

-5.07

1.07

5.72

434.58

69.57

66.40

-4.56

Ghatal

31.55

32.43

2.79

3.03

3.75

23.76

65.42

63.82

-2.45

1991

2001

Jhargram

31.14

Medinipur

Table 8.5 Change in the share of workers employed in different sectors during 1991-2001 Percentage of cultivators

Municipality

Percentage of agricultural workers

Percentage of household industry workers

1991

2001

% change

Jhargram

0.96

0.93

-3.12

1.35

2.69

99.26

0.56

3.05

444.64 28.27 93.33 230.14

Medinipur

0.45

0.33 -26.67

0.92

0.65 -29.35

0.48

2.86

495.83 26.42 96.16 263.97

Kharagpur

0.58

0.53

-8.62

0.77

1.25

62.34

0.14

1.57 1021.43 22.27 96.65 333.99

Chandrakona

4.62

8.74

89.18

9.27

22.69 144.77

0.9

2.92

224.44 16.26 65.65 303.75

Khirpai

6.80

15.54 128.53 12.67

34.95 175.85

0.70

3.62

417.14 11.77 45.89 289.89

Ramjibanpur

9.14

19.60 114.44

9.52

31.31 228.89

2.03 10.36

410.34 10.76 38.73 259.94

Kharar

5.10

8.87

73.92

7.10

21.69 205.49

0.75

3.98

430.67 16.42 65.46 298.66

Ghatal

6.57

11.59

76.41

3.75

8.98 139.47

0.93

4.87

423.66 20.30 74.56 267.29

1991

% change 1991

Percentage of other workers

2001

244

2001

% change 1991

2001

% change

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

8.3 Receipt and expenditure in Municipalities Figures 8.1 and 8.2 shows the receipt and expenditure in thousands of rupees for the eight municipalities in the Paschim Medinipur district during the period from 2002-03 to 2006-07. During this period, receipts of the Midnapore municipality increased from 6.1 crore rupees to 16.2 crore rupees (Figure 8.1). While both, Midnapore and Ghatal municipality showed about 2.5 times increase of their receipt amount during the period 2002-03 to 2006-07, Kharagpur and Jhargram municipality has shown relatively moderate increase in both their receipt and expenditure during the same period.

Figure 8.1 Receipt and expenditure for Midnapore, Kharagpur, Jhargram and Ghatal Municipalities during the period 2002-07 180000

160000

Rupees(Thousand)

140000

120000

100000 80000

60000

40000 20000

0 2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

Year Midnapore Receipt Kharagpur Receipt Jhargram Receipt Ghatal Receipt

Midnapore Expenditure Kharagpur Expenditure Jhargram Expenditure Ghatal Expenditure

245

Urbanization and Industrialization

Figure 8.2 Receipt and Expenditure for Kharar, Khirpai, Ramjibanpur and Chandrakona Municipalities during the period 2002-07

Figure 8.2 shows significant variation in the receipt amount for Chandrakona municipality during the period 2002-03 to 2006-07. In case of Ramjibanpur municipality, Figure 8.2 shows significant variation between receipt and expenditure with expenditure consistently falling far below receipt during 2005-06 and 2006-07.

8.4 Urban services and infrastructure The following section explains the status of urban services and infrastructure in the eight municipalities in the Paschim Medinipur district along with future proposals and schemes related to roads and transport infrastructure, lighting, drainage and water supply & sanitation.

8.4.1

Roads and Transport

Table 8.6 shows the length of metalled and un-metalled roads in Kms. maintained by the different municipalities in Paschim Medinipur district. Out of all the municipalities, Medinipur has the maximum amount of metalled roads and Kharagpur has the maximum amount of roads considering both metalled and un-metalled surfaces. In Jhargram municipality, a scheme is in place to convert 58 kms. of un-metalled roads to concrete roads within the present 5 year planning period (2007-12). In addition, an over-bridge and a new 2.5 km road have also been taken up by the municipality. Ramjibanpur municipality also

246

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

envisages converting existing 'morrum' roads to 'black top' roads within the present 5 year planning period. Khirpai municipality also has proposals for construction of 'black top' and 'concrete' road of 15 km. and 5 km. length respectively in addition to improvement and repair of 10 km. of existing 'morrum' roads.

Table 8.6 Roads maintained by municipalities in Paschim Medinipur district (in Km.) Municipality

Black top

Concrete

Medinipur

181

275

Kharagpur

60

200

Jhargram

52

Ghatal

3

6

Kharar

5.2

Khirpai

Brick

Unmetalled Morrum

Kutccha

Tota Un-metalled 90

30

180

97

307

75

45

120

1

36

96

133

2.5

0.3

49.5

3

52.8

11

1.5

1.6

28

5

34.6

Ramjibanpur

5

3.5

17.5

6

23.5

Chandrakona

20

142

12

154

Source: District Annual Plan 2009-10

8.4.2

Lighting

Table 8.7 shows the number of different types of street lights maintained by the different municipalities in Paschim Medinipur district.

Table 8.7 Street lights maintained by municipalities in Paschim Medinipur district (in Number) Municipality

Ordinary Bulbs

Tube lights

Halogen

Total street lights

Midnapore

2908

720

1043

4671

Kharagpur

4340

138

1266

5744

Jhargram

100

1200

55

1355

Ghatal

1100

350

35

1485

Kharar

287

501

18

305

Khirpai

550

212

15

565

Ramjibanpur

300

325

50

350

Chandrakona

899

1200

20

919

Source: District Annual Plan 2009-10

8.4.3

Drainage and sanitation

Table 8.8 shows the total length of 'Pucca' and 'Kutcha' drains along with the total number of public toilets and number of households without sanitary latrine in the different municipalities in Paschim Medinipur district.

247

Urbanization and Industrialization

Table 8.8 Drainage and sanitation by municipalities in Paschim Medinipur district Drainage (km.) Municipality

Sanitation (number)

Pucca

Kutcha

No. of Public toilets

Households without sanitary latrine

Midnapore

168

358

-

-

Kharagpur

85

120

6

473

Jhargram

5

-

-

2479

Ghatal

31

18

25

3000

Kharar

5

45

0

547

Khirpai

2.5

5.5

2

550

Ramjibanpur

3

45

8

850

Chandrakona

3

320

6

1100

Source: District Annual Plan 2009-10

In Medinipur municipality the major drainage system consists of the Dwaribandh Khal, the Cossey River and some agricultural land. The existing 'pucca' and 'kutcha' drains cater to both sewerage and storm water. However, in Kharagpur municipality in addition to the drains, sewerage system is also present for 30 kms and has been proposed to be increased to 135 kms. In Jhargram municipality due to lack of public toilets, the municipality has planned to construct 8 Community Toilets and 4 Pay & Use Toilets. In Ghatal municipality complete drainage system of the town along with a master plan for flood protection is being proposed to be taken up to prevent regular flooding every year. In Chandrakona municipality, the municipality has applied for funding construction of 309 Pour Flush Latrines. Khirpai municipality also has proposals for converting all drains to 'pucca' structure along with improvement of dumping ground for solid waste. Finally, Kharar municipality envisages setting up two new deep tube-wells for irrigation purposes along with extension of 'pucca' drains by 40 km.

8.4.4

Water Supply

Table 8.9 shows the different types of water supply systems present in the different municipalities in the Paschim Medinipur district. In Medinipur municipality, the distribution system for piped water supply is divided into five separate zones covering about 90% of the town area. Supplementary drinking water is supplied through hand pump wells. Local institutions like hospitals, housing complexes, railways etc. have their own supply systems. In Kharagpur municipality, the present demand for water supply is going to increase during the coming years due to proposed industrial growth in the area as well as new housing demand. The quality of water available is also hard due to dissolved solids and this causes damages to the crops and the piping system. In Ramjibanpur municipality, installation of a new tube well and extension of the existing pipelines has been taken up. Similarly, Khirpai and Kharar municipality has plans to extend their piped water supply systems and installation of deep tube wells the reason being the existing tube wells getting defunct due to gradual lowering of the water table.

248

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Table 8.9 Water supply systems in municipalities in Paschim Medinipur district Municipality

Over Head Reservoirs

Deep Tube well

Hand Tube well

Medinipur

6 nos.

23 nos.

3 nos.

Kharagpur

NA

14 nos.

200 nos.

172 km.

2 nos.

NA

NA

70 km.

Ghatal

NA

8 nos.

595 nos.

46 km.

Kharar

NA

NA

1200 gallons

75000 gallons

Khirpai

NA

NA

1200 gallons

100000 gallons

Ramjibanpur

3 nos.

3600 liters

NA

454000 liters

Chandrakona

NA

4 nos.

36 nos.

42 km.

Jhargram

Piped surface water supply

NA: Not available Source: District Annual Plan, 2009-10

8.5 Industrial status and employment generation in the district The location of the Paschim Medinipur district is very favorable for establishing large and medium scale industries. Both Midnapore & Kharagpur Sub-division are well connected to the different parts of the country by the South Eastern Railway, N.H. 6 and N.H. 60. The district's close proximity to the mineral rich areas of Jharkhand and Orissa, availability of skilled labour at comparatively low rates, abundance of power and business environment are conducive for industrial growth. Table 8.10 lists the total number of factories grouped by their type along with the total number of employees, invested capital, etc. for the period 2004-05 for the Paschim Medinipur district. MKDA is also playing a key role for the development of industries in the district. Investors and Industrial Houses are also showing their interest in establishing large industries.

Table 8.10 Factories by industry type in Paschim Medinipur District, 2004-05 Industry type

Manufacture of food products & beverages Manufacture of tobacco products Manufacture of paper and paper products Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products Manufacture of other nonmetallic mineral products Manufacture of basic metals

No. off factories

No. of Employees

53

1651

Invested capital (Rs. in lakh) 6253

6

14

2

2

2

4

525

1560

-5

131

7

175

379

-30

25

8

1012

12554

14937

127

7

974

26475

11349

139

249

Net income Average (Rs. in lakh) employment per factory 719 31

Urbanization and Industrialization

Industry type

No. off factories

No. of Employees

Invested capital (Rs. in lakh)

3

1082

10781

5783

361

40

2524

3987

1810

63

9 137

1077 9034

6647 68638

605 35170

120

Manufacture of machinery and equipment Supporting and auxiliary transport activities etc Others ** Total :

Net income Average (Rs. in lakh) employment per factory

Note: ** includes Manufacture of textiles, coke, refined petroleum products and nuclear fuel, rubber and plastics, fabricated metal products except for machinery and equipment, electrical machinery and apparatus, other transport equipment, sale, maintenance & repair of motor vehicles & motor cycles; retail sale of automotive fuel Source: Statistical Hand Book, Paschim Medinipur, Government of West Bengal

There are several large and medium industries in Kharagpur belt in the area of Metallurgical, Engineering, Cement, Asbestos and Chemicals. There is also one Industrial Estate with all necessary infrastructures including railway siding and airport facilities at Nimpura, Kharagpur under WBSIDC and WBIIDC. There are also concentration of industries at Gopali and Gokulpur. Another area coming up is the Rupnarayanpur - Jakpur area. Other prospective areas for industrial use are at Guptamani, Mankpara, Jhargram and Sankrail. Salboni is also an area of great potential for industries where JSW Bengal Steel has decided to set up Integrated Steel Plant and Power Plant.

Map 8.1 Existing Medium and Large Scale Industries in Paschim Medinipur District NH-60

To Adra

PASCHIM MEDINIPUR

District Map showing Block and Sub-Divisional Boundary (Potential Induatrial Growth Centre)

H

O

W

A

W

H

O

Garhbeta-III

Ghatal

O

A UR NK BA

H

Chandrakona-II Binpur-II

E S

Chandrakona-I

Garhbeta-II

PU RU LIA

N

R

Garhbeta-I

G

R

a

K

s

H

Guptamoni Jhargram Induatrial Zone

a

i

Daspur-II

Midnapore R

Debra

i v e r

NHAI (NH-6) To Howrah

A

N

Kharagpur-II Kharagpur-I

Kalia g h ai

Nayagram

I

O

R U

a ri

N ad i

Narayangarh Keshiary

R

Sabong

sw

Riv er

Kharagpur Induatrial Growth Unit - I

P

ale

ha

p Ka

Subarn are k

Gopiballavpur-I

Pingla

Sankrail

I

Gopiballavpur-II

N

NHAI (NH-6)

R i ve r

E

D

M

I

B

A

S

Dantan-II

U

S

Dantan-I A

P

Kharagpur Industrial Growth Unit - II

Daspur-I

R

A

Jamboni

Keshpur

Y

H

K

L

Salboni Induatrial Zone

J

To Tatanagar

H

Salboni

Binpur-I

NH-60

250

To Cuttack

Mohanpur

9

0

9

NRDMS GIS CENTRE Paschim Medinipur

18 Kilometers

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

A host of engineering industries have already come up in and around Kharagpur such as TATA Bearings, TATA Metaliks, Flender & Mclean Gears, Humbolt Wedag, Immeco, Jaffa, Ramco industries, ASO cement, Telecom Factory, etc. Tata Metaliks and Telcon Ltd. are acquiring lands for setting up integrated steel plant and heavy earthmovers, etc. in addition to the existing set up of TATA Metaliks. M/S. Ramswarup Lohh Udyog Ltd. has acquired land at Kharagpur to set up integrated steel plant. Table 8.11 lists the fifty biggest factories in terms of the number of people employed in the Paschim Medinipur district and Table 8.12 lists the new industries under construction along with their location and item of manufacture. In addition to the traditional industries like Steel and Iron, Textiles, Chemical and Engineering, there is also ample scope in the emerging sectors like fruit processing, floriculture, Advanced Engineering, Bio-Technology, Computer software, Filament yean, etc. Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, a premier science and technology institution is also located in the district which regularly provides consultancy to the industries along with help to the entrepreneurs.

Table 8.11 List of the big Industries above 50 employees Sl. No.

Name of The Factory

No. of total Employees

1

Loco Shops S E Railway Workshop

3983

2

Carriage Shops South Eastern Rly. Workshops

2189

3

Wagon Repair Shops South Eastern Rly. Workshops

1700

4

Tata Iron & Steel Co. Ltd.

730

5

Tata Metaliks Ltd.

675

6

Electrical Carriage Lighting Shop No.51

612

7

Electrical Shops, 50, 52, 53, 54, S.E.Rly.

513

8

Bharatiya Note Mudran

477

9

Midnapore Cotton Mill

410

10

Kanoi Agro-Tech Ltd.

400

11

Century Extrustion Ltd, Plot-7a, Sector-B, Wbiidc Igc

398

12

Universal Paper Mills Ltd.

356

13

Ual-Bengal (Prop. Utkal Asbestos)

340

14

Signal Workshop South Eastern Rly.

319

15

South Eastern Railway Printing Press

299

16

Biswanath Cashew Co

273

17

Telecom Factory, Nimpura Industrial Growth Centre

250

18

Flender Macneill Gears Ltd.

240

19

Bhagwati Foods (P) Ltd.

189

20

Brahmanand Himghar Ltd.

164

21

Raj Cold Storage, A Unit Of Steeel City, Procession Technology Pvt. Ltd.

164

22

Visaka Industries Ltd.

150

251

Urbanization and Industrialization

Sl. No.

Name of The Factory

No. of total Employees

23

Rashmi Cement Ltd.

148

24

Monglapota Cold Storage Industries Pvt. Ltd.

140

25

Harimati Rice Mill

129

26

Ramco Industries Ltd.

125

27

Line Engineering Workshop

124

28

Wellman Incandescent India Ltd.

120

29

Davyasmore India

101

30

Maha Laxmi Cold Storage Pvt. Ltd.

100

31

Mondol Cold Storage

99

32

Uma Iron & Steel Co

96

33

Jay Mahaprovu Cold Storage (P) Ltd.

90

34

Purnima Cold Storage Prop. Bindu Food Processors (P) Ltd.

90

35

Chowdhury Cold Storage (P) Ltd.

90

36

Ganga Rice Mill.

86

37

Swambhunath Cold Storage (P) Ltd.

81

38

Mahakali Rice Mill

80

39

Neelachal Natural Resource Pvt. Ltd.

77

40

Asapcs (India) Pvt. Ltd.

75

41

Unsavo Paper Mills Pvt. Ltd.

73

42

Bhagwati Cold Storage

72

43

Baba Bhutnath Cold Storage Pvt. Ltd.

70

44

Kanchan Oil Industries

68

45

Associatod Pigmonts Ltd.

65

46

Bajaj Fabrics Pvt. Ltd.

64

47

Ma Moni Cold Storage Pvt. Ltd.

60

48

Jagatmata Cold Storage (P) Ltd.

60

49

Harihar Rice Mill

59

50

Aryavarta Trading (P)

57

252

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

To Adra

Map 8.2 Existing Medium and Large Scale Industries in Paschim Medinipur District

NH60

H

Existing Medium and Large Scale Industries

N

O

Paschim Medinipur District

H G O

#

#

#

#

#

#

Chandrakona-II

RA

PU RU LI A

Garhbeta-II BA N K

U

Chandrakona-I

#

# #

#

#

#

Garhbeta-III

#

Ghatal

Binpur-II

HO

#

#

#

#

#

Daspur-I

Binpur-I #

#

#

Jamboni #

#

ð ð ## Jhargram # # # ð ð # #

JH

# #

#

AN KH AR

#

#

D #

# #

# # # # #

Gopiballavpur-II

#

#

Gopiballavpur-I

Keshpur #

#

#

Midnapore ð ð# # # #

#

#

#

#

#

#

#

Debra #

#

#

ð

Sankrail

#

#

# #

#

#

#

Daspur-II

#

#

# # ð # # # # # ð # # ð # ð# ð # # # # ð # # # # # ð # # # # # # # # # # ð # ð # # # # # # Kharagpur-II # # ð # # # # ðð # # # # # # # ð # ð Pingla # # ð # # # Kharagpur-I # #

#

NH6 To H owrah

#

#

#

Keshiary

Narayangarh

#

#

#

#

#

#

#

#

Medium and Large Scale Industries # Cluster of Industries ð Existring Industrial Site Proposed Industrial Site National Hoghway - 60 National Highway - 6 Rail Network Block Boundary Sub-Divisional Boundary Jhargram Midnapore Ghatal 10 Khjaragpur

#

#

#

# #

# # #

#

NH6

#

#

#

#

H RA

Salboni

W

#

To Tatana gar

E S

Garhbeta-I

#

#

W

LY

# #

#

#

#

Sabong

#

#

# #

A

Dantan-I

PU R

SS RI O

Nayagram

#

Dantan-II

ME D

# #

IN I

#

#

RB A

#

PU

#

Mohanpur ck

20 Kilometers NH60

Cutta

10

NRDMS, Paschim Medinipur

To

0

Table 8.12 New industries under construction Name of industry

Location

Item Of Manufacture

JSW Bengal Steel Project

Godapiasal, Salboni,

Integrated Steel And Captive Power Plant

Telco Construction Equipment Company Ltd (Telcom)

Rupnarayanpur, Kharagpur

Heavy Earth Movers And Ancillary Manufacturing Unit

Sai Fertilizers

Kalaikunda

Chemical

Tractor India Ltd (Til)

Changual, Kharagpur

Manufacturing Of Port Equipments, Coal Handling Equipments, Mining Equipments.

Bengal Energy Ltd

Rampura And Ors, Narayangarh And Kharagpur-II

Coke Oven Plant And Steel Plant

Source: District Annual Plan, 2009-10

253

Urbanization and Industrialization

The district also have an extensive area under forestry which could be used for development of paper and pulp industry and other industries based on forest produces like sal leaf plate, babui rope, oil from neem, mahua etc. Along with rice, potato, cashew nut, mustard, betel leaves, flowers, fruits are some of the important agricultural produce which could be processed for value addition. SSI industries are also growing in Kharagpur, Medinipur and Jhargram area in the field of Engineering, Automobile Servicing, Chemicals, Rice mill, Edible oil refining, packed Atta, Bakery, noodles etc. An industrial Growth Centre has been developed recently at Khasjungle near Midnapore town. Table 8.13 lists the total number of Small Scale Industrial (SSI) units and the total number of employment in these units along with the percentage change in their number during the period 2002-2006 for the Medinipur district. However, total number of registered SSI (PMT) units and their employment in Paschim Medinipur district was established as 7672 and 41240 respectively. (Source: http://paschimmedinipur.gov.in/profiles/district_prof.htm, Accessed 1st December, 2008 )

Table 8.13 Number of SSI units and their employment in Medinipur District. Year

No. of Units

% change

No. of Employment

% change

2002

31288

-

154249

-

2003

32668

4.41

161382

4.62

2004

34181

4.63

170528

5.67

2005

35652

4.3

178137

4.46

2006

37440

5.02

187843

5.45

Currently, agro-processing units and other manufacturing units are being promoted and developed in the district. To cope with the market demands, there is need for development of entrepreneurship, skills and better utilization of existing natural resources. Khasjungle Industrial Growth Centre "Khasjungle Industrial Growth Centre" is located 3 km. away from Medinipur town. The objective for starting this SSI industrial centre was to encourage the educated unemployed youth of the locality for setting small industrial and allied units for self employment and subsequent further employment generation. Total area is 13.59 acres [ Cluster - I : 8.54 acres & Cluster - II : 5.05 acres ] in Khasjungal mouza, Siromoni Gram Panchayat under Medinipur Sadar Block, J.L. No.- 167, Plot No. - 70. Total 52 sub-plots measuring. 10 decm. to 20 decm. for setting production units. Land provided to 51 entrepreneurs and at present 22 SSI units are in operation with employment opportunities of about 800 persons for production and marketing purposes. The units of food processing and other SSI units like Packed Atta, Chou, Noodles, Snack & Chanachur manufacturing, Fiber glass, Electrode, Cycle spare parts, Tyre Retreading, Coke Briquette, Polythene pipe, Nail, Chilling plant, Glass silvering, wire nail, Mosquito net, Logence, Bearing, Automobile Servicing etc are running. Other units like polythene pipe, polythene sheet, automobile servicing etc. are also coming up. Sericulture is an important source of income for many small and marginal farmers in the district. This industry has provided an earning source for the rural people through activities like mulberry cultivation,

254

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

silk-worm rearing, cocoon production, silk reeling and weaving. Tasar is mainly cultivated by the tribal people. Presently, more attention is given for increasing the area under tasar host plantation like Arjun and Asan by utilizing the degraded forest land and through supply of good quality seeds. Table 8.14 shows the Mulberry and Tasar production and earnings for Paschim Medinipur district along with their % change during the period 2002-2006.

Table 8.14 Mulberry and Tasar production and earnings for Paschim Medinipur district Cocoons production

Value of production (thousand rupees)

Year

Mulberry (Qntls)

Mulberry (% change)

Tasar (000 Kahans)

Tasar (% change)

Mulberry

Mulberry (% change)

Tasar

Tasar (% change)

2002-03

2928

-

4546

-

14640

-

3637

-

2003-04

895

-69.43

3021

-33.55

5370

-63.32

2417

-33.54

2004-05

824

-7.93

4742

56.97

5358

-0.22

3794

56.97

2005-06

761.23

-7.62

5174

9.11

6089.8

13.66

4656.6

22.74

Source: Deputy Director, Sericulture, Paschim Medinipur

At present, area under Mulberry and Tasar cultivation are 1033.73 acres and 1826.83 acres respectively with 1853 farmers engaged in mulberry production and 2249 farmers engaged in 'Tasar' cultivation. Total Mulberry cocoon production was 36.77 metric tons and silk production .33 metric tons, whereas Tasar production in kahans was 4542 and silk production .484 metric ton. (Source: http://paschimmedinipur.gov.in/profiles/district_prof.htm, Accessed 1st December, 2008 ) Handloom also plays an important role in the industry sector. The weavers are mainly concentrated in the blocks like Pingla, Sabang, Narayangah, Dantan-II, Keshpur, Garhbeta-II, Ghatal and Ramjibanpur Municipality. Total number of handlooms were estimated to be 10120 which included 117 handloom cooperatives, 8059 looms under co-operatives and 623 S.C. weavers' co-operative. (Source: http://paschimmedinipur.gov.in/profiles/district_prof.htm, Accessed 1st December, 2008) The skill development training for weavers on handloom with jacquard facilities and dyeing and assistance to run the units in the different blocks have achieved good results.

8.6 Industrial potentials in the district The district has immense potential for industrialization. It has a number of natural advantages for industrial and allied development. It is very close to the mineral rich areas of Jharkhand and Orissa. It has an excellent transport and communication network of National Highways and railways and an existing industrial base. Medinipur and Kharagpur are both nearly 130 kms from Kolkata and 140 kms from Jamshedpur. Haldia port is at a distance of 110 kms and Netaji Subhas International Air Port at a distance of 160 kms. River Subarnarekha flowing at a distance of 25 kms towards south and river Kansabati are perennial water sources for the district. Nearest border of Jharkhand and Orissa state are about 35 to 40 kms away towards west along the NH6. At a short distance towards the west, Jhargram area has a vast track of lands, which are barren and unsuitable for cultivation, and has very little habitation. Some of the industries in this area are Universal Paper Mills, Reshmi Cement, Utkal Asbestos, Uni-Tech. Paper Mills Kanoi Agro-Tech. Industries etc. Table 8.15 shows some of the proposed industries in the Paschim Medinipur district along with their location and item of manufacture.

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Table 8.15 Proposed industries in Paschim Medinipur district Name of company

Location

Item Of Manufacture

Bio Tech Park

Rupnarayanpur, Kharagpur

Joint Venture Project (Govt. of W.Bengal and IIT, Kgp)

Shyam Steel

Dewanmaro Ayma And Ors, Kharagpur

Integrated Steel Project

Emami Ltd

Junglekurchi and ors, Sankril

Wood Based Paper Mill

Orissa Cement (Ocl)

Godapiasal, Salboni

Cement Manufacturing

Bengal Integrated Auto Industrial Park

Guptabani , Jhargram.(WBIIDC & SREI)

Auto Industrial Park

Korp (Onkar Ispat)

Khemasuli- Kharagpur/ Guptabani-Jhargram

Integrated Steel Plant And Power Plant

Tata Metaliks Extension Project

Mathurakismat and ors At Sahachak, Kharagpur

Steel Project

Source: MKDA Plan, 2009-10

Some of the West Bengal Industrial Development Corporation (WBIDC) sponsored projects in the district and particularly within the MKDA planning area is listed below. Industrial Estate at Kharagpur near Saha Chak (1800 acres): Ramswarup Lohh Udyog, TATA Metaliks, Kali Mati Iron Industries, Choudhury Udyog Steel, Rashmi Ispat Ltd., Wellman Carbo Metaliks, etc. have been allotted lands for setting up factories within this proposed area. Industrial Estate at Kharagpur near NH-6 and NH-60 crossings (1400 acres): TELCON Ltd. will set up a heavy earth mover manufacturing unit and ancillary manufacturing units for spare parts within this proposed area. Other projects include a Bio- Technology Park, which is a joint sector project of WBIDC Ltd. and IIT, Kharagpur and a modern mini township project by WBIDC to sustain Industrial and allied activities in and around Kharagpur will also be set up in this area. Reliance Ltd. is also likely to set up an Agro-based wholesale market complex within this area. Mini Township in the fringes of Kharagpur (200-250 acres): This project is conceived considering ancillary requirements to sustain the new industrial activities and projects which are coming in and around Kharagpur. SEZ Project at Guptabani, Jhargram(2500 acres): The location of this project is about 25 km away from the Industrial Estate of Kharagpur towards west along the NH-6. Mega Industrial Project at Salboni(5500 acres): Barren land, except the social plantation near Godapiasal Rly. Stn. has been identified by the JSW Steel Ltd. (Jindal Group) for setting up an integrated steel and power plant.

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8.7 Midnapore - Kharagpur Development Authority (MKDA). The following section lists some of the ongoing and proposed projects for the Midnapore - Kharagpur Development Authority

To Adra

Map 8.3 Existing and Proposed Industries in Paschim Medinipur NH60

N

O H ah

S

ow r

PU RU LI A

# Y

Garhbeta-I

oH

Garhbeta-II

# Y

RA

T

Chandrakona-II

BA N K U

Chandrakona-I # Y

Garhbeta-III

# Y

Ghatal HO

Binpur-II

# Y

Daspur-I

H RA

# Y

Keshpur

Jamboni

# Y

Daspur-II

Debra

# Y

# Y

D AN KH AR

ð ð Jhargram ð ð

Midnapore ð ð # Y

# Y

ð Gopiballavpur-II

Sankrail

Keshiary

Gopiballavpur-I

NH6

# Y

ð ð ðð ð ð ð ð Kharagpur-II ðð #ð ð Y # Y ð ð Pingla ð Kharagpur-I # Y

To H owrah

Narayangarh # Y

# Y

Sabong

# Y

Dantan-I Dantan-II PU

RB A

# Y

10

0

10

20 Kilometers

tack

Mohanpur NH60

C ut

A SS RI O

M ED IN IP UR

# Y

Nayagram

NR DMS GIS CEN TRE, Office of the District Magist ra te Paschim Medinipur

To

JH

Cluster of Industries ð Existring Industrial Site Proposed Industrial Site National Hoghway - 60 National Highway - 6 Rail Network Sub-Divisional Boundary Jhargram Midnapore Sadar Ghatal Kharagpur Block Boundary Sub-Divisional Boundary Jhargram Medinipur Ghatal Kharagpur

Salboni

# Y

NH6

# Y

W

# Y

Binpur-I To Tatana gar

E

LY H G O

# Y

W

On going Projects: i)

Development of link road from Saha Chak to Tata Metalinks (4.5 km.)

ii)

Extension of road from TATA METALIKS to Kansaboti Railway Bridge. (1.8 km.)

iii)

Construction of community latrine for SC & ST habituated and slum are of Medinipur and Kharagpur Town.

iv)

Widening and strengthening of Duk Bunglow road from Gate Bazar to Kansaboti river.

v)

Construction of connecting road from Kankaboti to Kansaboti river (2.5 km.)

Projects to be undertaken immediately: i)

Construction of Diesel/ Gas operated crematorium near sadar Ghat, Medinipur.

ii)

Truck Terminus at Saha Chak.

iii)

Construction of connecting road from Tora Para, Medinipur to NH-60 (3.5 km.).

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Urbanization and Industrialization

iv)

Construction of housing project at Medinipur.

v)

Construction of Multi Shopping and commercial complex at Kharagpur.

vi)

Beautification of the Kansaboti river front area (partly). From Rly. Bridge to the Link Road.

Future Projects within 5 years: i)

Sanitation and drainage system of Medinipur and Kharagpur Town.

ii)

Development of City Centre at Kharagpur and Medinipur Town.

iii)

Construction of Central Bus Stand at Kuikota, Medinipur.

iv)

Construction of Bridge over Kansaboti river for connection of the link road with NH-6 at Saha chak from Duk Bunglow road, Medinipur.

v)

Integrated Water supply project to cater the industrial and human requirements around Medinipur and Kharagpur.

vi)

Solid waster management project.

vii)

Widening and strengthening of the road from Medinipur to Mandirmoy Pathra.

viii)

Construction of Multimodel transportation systems and roads networks including.

ix)

Construction of composite Institutional hub at Midnapore/ Kharagpur - (Engineering college, Health city, Commercial complex, etc.)

x)

Eco-tourism part at Karnagarh.

258

Human Vulnerability

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Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Chapter -IX Human Vulnerability The poor rarely speak of income, but focus instead on managing assets—physical, human, social and environmental—as a way to cope with their vulnerability. The poor live at the whim and mercy of nature — Narayan and others, 2000

9.1. Introduction: Humanbeings are more vulnerable in many ways than any other beings in existence. We have no shell, scales, stinging, stunning, strangling, poison, or any other physical protective features as animals do. We have no natural lethal ability. The only way we the humanbeings have to protect ourselves is by our constructive and strategic capabilities. However, these far exceed any other abilities that exist. Our vulnerability has quite a simple three-fold explanation. Generally, nature gives evidence that vulnerability equals complexity. A turtle has a shell but no ability to build a home and, therefore, cannot build a cathedral, stadium, or space station either. A road runner can run fast and maneuver around objects very quickly, but it does not have the capability to design wheels and ball bearings or to travel thousands of miles in a relatively short period of time. Birds have wings to fly very high and fast, but they are not capable of soaring at jet speed or rocketing out of earth’s atmosphere and orbit to reach another celestial body. Many animals have capabilities of natural resistance to sickness and disease far beyond human capabilities. Although, animals do not have capabilities to develop healing compounds, surgical procedures, or developmental and re-creative procedures used to not only correct physical problems but also enhance physical abilities beyond our natural means. So, the ultimate source has intended for humanity to succeed far beyond all other capabilities in the universe. How are we suppose to exceed beyond suffering, mental inadequacy, disabilities, the poor and hunger ridden, and all of the limits and hurdles in ways of escalating beyond our current state of existence? Isn’t there even any way to avoid growing old, decrepit, and dying? Those things, which exist within this life, such as sickness, disease, the poor and hunger-ridden, suffering, inadequacy, and seclusion within our limits, are all surplussables. There is no reason, other than greed and selfishness that restricts humanity from correcting these things. It is within collective human means to produce the antidotes of these issues. People’s choices to embrace selfishness and greed are the culprits of human degradation and every person will answer to eternity for it. With this in mind, it is a good idea and self-realizing to vocalize requests for forgiveness of our rejections of Uni-diversal purposes often. But realize that if people were not created to be capable of correcting all current human deficiencies, then we would not be capable of escalating far beyond all of these things either. Every Uni-diversal Faith gravitates towards higher levels of existence and we must learn to realize that they are ours to have as we learn to overcome our selfishness and greed. So then, what’s the deal about aging, decrepitating and death? How could these things possibly promote any sort of higher cause? The basis of “discarding all selfishness and greed” exists, and the foundation that “all love, caring, and generosity is established”, and the concept on which “all personal and social willingness and progress hangs” is the most difficult and unlikely to prove. For anyone who

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does not recognize intangible existence, it is impossible to prove that they are capable of escalating beyond the tangible. For this reason, the Christian Bible states that it is easier for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle than for a rich person to enter into heaven.

9.2

Vulnerability is a function of people’s exposure to risk. By risk, we understand events or trends

that create a measure of instability which may have a negative impact on people’s welfare. Vulnerable groups comprise people with common characteristics, who are likely to fall or remain below a certain welfare threshold in the near future. The risk is perceived by an individual or population of the referred groups in a very reluctant manner and this attitude makes them more vulnerable. Households and societies manage a diverse portfolio of assets: physical, human, social, intellectual, and natural. Although Paschim Medinipur benefits from and depends on extensive natural assets, they are at enormous risk. The reason is that natural assets such as forests, fisheries, and water tend to be common property goods for which markets cannot provide basic coordinating functions—revealing true values, balancing interests over time, and providing efficient outcomes. As a result natural assets are difficult to manage sustainably, leading to the loss of forests, degradation of soils, overexploitation of agriculture and deterioration of surface water and groundwater. Two functions of natural assets are especially crucial to the health and livelihoods of poor people of Paschim Medinipur—particularly in rural areas, where 90% of the region’s people live. The first is a timely and even rainfall and the second is access to health and proper education. These two functions are interlinked and decide the fate of the rural folk.

9.3

Risks are two types in nature: Natural hazards like draught, flood, crop failure soil erosion, etc. Social hazards like displacement, health, terrorism and indebtedness.

9.4

Key points to HAZARD ANALYSIS Poverty in Paschim Medinipur is exacerbated by precarious livelihoods with the rural poor suffering the most.

·

Paschim Medinipur has a higher disease burden than any other region, with 30% of the burden due to environment-related diseases such as malaria, diarrhea, and respiratory infections.

·

Land degradation is a major source of household food insecurity, income risk and vulnerability.

·

More than half of Paschim Medinipur’s soils are lateritic and low in nutrients.

·

It is highly susceptible to the effects of climate change like droughts, cyclones, floods.

·

It has two distinct characters across the district. The eastern and southern part of district is fertile with higher agricultural yield. Flood and inundation of vast area of this part is regular phenomena. On the contrary, the western and northern part is lateritic with undulation of land. Agricultural production is highly dependent on monsoon which results in low yield and sometime crop failure. As irrigation facility is poor most of these parts is single crop. Migration of rural work force is common in the western and northern part of this district which leads to poor index in terms of education, health and socio-economic parameters. A large section of the population in the Ghatal, Daspur region migrate to Maharastra and Gujarat for earning livelihood. Contamination of HIV virus and other STDs are often observed.

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Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Human trafficking and related issues posses threat to social balance here. Nearly 80% of Paschim Medinipur’s population is dependent on agricultural activities which are mostly dependent on downpour during mansoon. Insurgencies in the western part, adjoining the State of Jharkhand and Orissa have disrupted normal life.

9.5

Human Vulnerability due to Natural Hazards

Human vulnerability is defined as the lack of key assets, exposing societies to increased risk of poverty. The fewer assets a society has, the more vulnerable it is. Thus degradation of natural assets can exacerbate poverty and increase vulnerability. In rural Paschim Medinipur seasonal fluctuations in food and water supplies are one of the main causes of vulnerability. In addition, many poor people live in environmentally fragile areas such as lateritic or forest lands with low soil fertility. Lacking other options, growing numbers of poor people have also moved to places in search of livelihood. These fragile sites are increasingly caught in a downward spiral of poverty and resource degradation.

9.5.1

Crop Failure Leads to Food Insecurity:

“Agroclimatic conditions are highly correlated with poverty

Shocks to natural assets speed transitions into poverty

Vulnerability occurs when people or societies lack key assets and are exposed to greater risk of poverty. Poor people tend to have not only low incomes, but also low and unstable natural resource bases. As a result poor people’s livelihoods are more likely to be disrupted by prolonged drought, major crop failures, or devastating livestock diseases. Thus agroclimatic conditions and geographic factors, such as rainfall and soil type, are critical in determining vulnerability and poverty. Large differences in living standards between areas in the same district are correlated with unequal distributions of natural assets, differences in agro-climatic conditions, or differences in geographic conditions, such as remoteness from markets and transport routes. These findings are intuitive because households in remote areas, living on fragile lands, would be expected to have fewer opportunities and face greater risks and vulnerability than households in better-endowed areas. The findings are also consistent with the fact that poverty is more severe in rural than in urban Paschim Medinipur. Analytical underpinnings make it possible to develop a strategy for sustainable development based on sustaining natural assets and reducing human vulnerability. The following examples show the clear relationship between poverty and agro-climatic conditions in various Paschim Medinipur areas.

Income fluctuations are a significant cause of transitory and persistent poverty. In western part of Paschim Medinipur harvest failure—largely due to drought,—has been a major shock for most rural households. The rural poor tend to be more vulnerable because of their limited ability to substitute assets to mitigate shocks. Some farmers may understate crop production in an effort to secure food aid or other benefits. But it is more likely that most rural farmers are malnourished and suffer from illnesses, resulting in insufficient crop production and persistent food insecurity and poverty. The crop failure caused extensive income losses and so increased poverty. But the crop failure was not the only reason the income distribution changed: Other changes resulted from individual and household characteristics. Western Paschim Medinipur is facing a regional food security crisis due to adverse climate conditions. Erratic rainfall in the year 200910 slashed the agricultural production in the blocks like Binpur I, Binpur II, Jamboni, Nayagram and Jhargram. Thus significant shortfalls in agricultural production of Paschim Medinipur are affecting food security amoung rural households of the western part of the district.

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Human Vulnerability

9.6

History of natural disaster in undivided Medinipore / Paschim Medinipur since 1942

1.

A devastating super cyclone & flood occurred in the year 1942 October, in the Contai SubDivision. The number of persons died 6, 00,000 (approx.). After the said natural calamity the worst famine also broke out.

2.

In the year 1967 August, Contai Sub-division had to face a severe flood due to heavy rain. A huge number of people were homeless. The Government and N.G.O had provided adequate supplies of food and shelter.

3.

A devastating flood occurred in the year 1978 September. A huge number of persons and cattle died. A large number of persons had to stay in the flood relief shelter, many of them had to take shelter in big trees. Govt. NGO’s and many Philanthropic organizations rushed and rescued the unfortunate flood victims.

4.

A severe cyclone with a tornado-like effect hit 3 blocks of the district of Medinipur on 24.03.1998 at around 2.00 to 3.00 P.M. The number of people affected by that tornado was around 26400. The number of affected mouzas was 18 with the total area affected being 3854 hectares.

Blocks and Mouzas affected (within Paschim Medinipur): Block

Mouza

Dantan-I :

Baipatna, Sijua, Garberia, Haripura, Dobadiha, Pantunia, Chak Ismailpur & Sarta.

Mohanpur : Rampura, Rajnagar, Barruipara, Poraxia, Singarui and Nayagaon. Death / Injury due to cyclone: The total number of persons died was 29 while the total number of people injured stood at 804. Name of the Block

No. of Deaths

No. of injured persons

Dantan-I

29

563

Mohanpur

Nil

241

All sorts of restorative measures and rehabilitation were taken by the Government. 5.

The district had to face a drought in 1998 where crop damage had been more than fifty per cent.

6.

The district had to face a flood in 1999. Total 56131 houses were damaged and 45 lakhs (approx.) popula tion was affected.

In Paschim Medinipur District (From 01.01.2002) a)

The district had to face a severe drought in 2002 and it affected 24 blocks out of 29 blocks.

b)

The District had to face severe flood in the year 2005 in which more than 5 lakh people in 17 blocks were affected.

c)

In the year 2007 severe flood occurred in four successive rounds causing large scale devastation, damage of dwelling houses, standing crops and public properties. The death toll reached 97. Army and Air Force authority had to be deployed for rescue and relief of the marooned people. Out of 29 total blocks of this district, 25 blocks were affected in that flood.

d)

In the year 2008, due to sudden rainfall of more than 800 mm in a span of two days (16th and 17th June) and sudden release of water in all the rivers, district suffered the worst floods. 19 blocks were severely affected and important roads, bridges and culverts were washed away.

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Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

9.6.1

Identification of Flood Prone Areas

The topography of the district is such that eastern part of the district is affected more than the western part of the district. The lists of affected blocks and municipality and about their vulnerability are as follows: Name of the sub-division

Vulnerable blocks / municipality 1. Ghatal 2. Daspur-I 3. Daspur-II 4. Chandrakona-I 5. Chandrakona-II 6. Sabong 7. Pingla 8. Narayangarh

Ghatal

Kharagpur

Medinipur Sadar

9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Medinipur Sadar Keshpur Ghahbeta-I Garhbeta-II Garhbeta-III

Jhargram

14. Ghatal (M) Municipality

Partly affected blocks / municipality 1. Chandrakona-I

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Dantan-I Dantan-II Debra Mohanpur Garhbeta-I

Water logging blocks / municipality 1. Chandrakona-II

2. 3. 4. 5.

Gopiballavpur-I Gopiballavpur-II Nayagram Binpur-I Sankrail Kharar (M) Ramjibanpur (M) Midnapore (M)

Kharagpur-I Kharagpur-II Keshiary Midnapur (M)

6. Khirpai (M) 7. Chandrakona (M) 8. Ghatal (M)

Rivers of Paschim Medinipur District Name of river

Originating from

1. Chhotonagpur Subarnarekha near Ranchi in Jharkhand

Flows in this district

Through GopiballavpurI & II Sankrail, Keshiary, Dantan-I (Sonakania)

Tributaries

Dolong in Paschim. Medinipur.

265

Catchments area

How affects

The flow of this river added with the At the discharge of water Bhasraghat from the Chandil Barrage site Reservoir causes 17498 Sq. Km. flood, creates erosion problem and damages crops property and public utilities.

Human Vulnerability

Name of river

2. Keleghai

Originating from

Dudhkundi in Jhargram P.S.

In Chhotonagpur 3. Kangsabati about 48 Km. N/E of Purulia Town

4. Silabati

Chhotonagpur plateau of Jharkhand.

Flows in this district

Sankrail, Keshiary, Narayangarh & Sabong

Paschim Medinipur (viaPurulia, Bankura) and joints Keleghai at Dhewbhanga to form Haldi river.

Paschim Medinipur (via Purulia & Bankura) through Garhbeta-I & II and Daspur-II Block.

Tributaries Kapaleswari meets Keleghai at Langalkata in Sabong P.S.. Then at down stream in the name of New Cossye meets at Dhewbhanga and after the confluence in the name of Haldi, finally joints Hooghly.

Catchments area

About 2145 Sq. Km.

The catchments area of the River Kumari in river at Bankura Kangsabati Cossye from Dam located Kapastikri in Paschim on the Kumari Medinipur. & Kangsabati river at Mukutmanipur at Bankura.

How affects

Keshiary, Narayangarh etc. large areas are affected by this river.

The catchments area below the Dam, during heavy rainfall in Bankura & Paschim Medinipur become worsened when it is synchronized with release of water from the Kangsabati Dam.

The tributaries have been silted and Part of excessive downpour Tamal, Parang, Kubai, Garhbeta-I & causes flood in the Birai etc. and joints at II, Daspur-II & catchment area and Bandar with Keshpur the situation Block. deteriorates when discharge of water from Durgapur Barrage through Damodar & Mundeswari synchronized with the river Rupnarayan.

In fine, it is to state that the main cause of flood of this district is the silting of rivers and congestion of drainage system. Arrangements of proper drainage system and making the river side embankments wide, strong and of durable height may solve the problem to a greater extent. And we shall have to leave no stone unturned to prepare D.R.M.P. Action Plans to get rid of the situations.

Causes of flood The main reasons for flood in the district are as follows. 1.

A dam at the confluence of river Kangsabati and river Kumari at Ambikanagar in the district of Bankura was constructed for providing irrigation as well as insurance against drought and moderate floods in the area. Before construction of dam, there was free flow through the river and the river was capable to carry adequate floodwater. After construction of dam water carrying capacity of the river has been

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Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur reduced gradually due to siltation of the river bed and non-release of flushing dose from the dam time to time. 2.

The downstream of the river gets silted up constantly due to tidal effect.

3.

Besides, this lower part of the river has been jacketed by putting up and rising of ex-zamindary bundhs.

4.

Due to the gentle longitudinal slope of the river bed it has lost drainage efficiency.

5.

Construction of boro-bundhs across the river for Rabi and Boro irrigation are also causing siltation of the river-bed.

6.

Other rivers of the district such as Keleghai, Subarnarekha, Silabati, Rupnarayan are also causing floods due to the same reasons [i.e. reasons 1 to 5].

7.

The major cause of flood in Kangsabati basin is not the local rainfall, but the spill way discharge of water from Kangsabati Dam. If the release of water from Kangsabati Dam can be regulated in a proper way, intensity of flood can be reduced.

9.6.2 Drought makes people more destitute Drought has been described as a “creeping disaster” in the United Nations Publications. Thus, emphasizing that a situation of Drought Develop gradually given sufficient warning of its coverage extents and intensity unlike a flood, cyclone or earthquake which offers little or no time and little opportunity for immediate planning and preparedness. One of the essential preparatory measures is to keep a close watch on the behaviors of Monsoon and to initiate advance action to remove or minimize the unfavourable impact of weather conditions. Action Plan for Drought: A large portion of Paschim Medinipur District is a drought-prone area. This is due to undulating topography, laterite and porous soil having a little water holding capacity. Almost the western side of the district faces drought every year. The district had to face a severe drought in 2002 and it affected 24 blocks out of 29. As a result, cultivation of Aman paddy hampered tremendously and cattle lives were also affected. People of those 24 blocks suffered a lot due to prevailing drought situation. An action plan for combating the situation was prepared. Objectives: 1.

Focus on employment generation;

2.

Speed up the pace of development creating employment and productive assets which would trigger the overall development;

3.

Provide income generation activities to the affected population through SHGs for creating productive assets in affected areas e.g. water tanks, desilting of drainage canals, etc.

4.

To create at least 1.5 lakh additional mandays per month per 1 lakh population during next 4 months.

Suggestive areas of intervention: 1.

Excavation / re-excavation of ponds and tanks for harvesting rain water;

2.

Construction of field channels of RLI / DTW,

3.

Construction of water harvesting structures and cross-bundhs on the rivulets / perennial water sources for cultivation of Rabi crops;

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Human Vulnerability

4.

Development of waste lands;

5.

Intensification of development activities in aforestation;

6.

Repair / reconstruction of village roads;

7.

Special wage employment programme for women/SC/ST population;

8.

Regular monitoring of foodgrains supplies – prioritization on availability of food grains for wage employment programmes;

9.

Activating self-help groups for income generation.

Action points for the Block / Gram Panchayat: 1.

Changes in annual action plan already prepared under NREGS, if necessary, to combat the prevailing situation;

2.

Utilize the cash component and foodgrains (rice) already available with them immediately in the affected areas;

3.

Fill up the ponds with water by connecting this with canals in advance;

4.

Pool the various schemes towards drought management in close coordination with all departments functioning at the district level;

5.

Enhance the water harvesting structures;

6.

Identify lands for eligible works;

7.

Employment generation in suitable schemes in consultation with the Agriculture, I &W, Fishery, Forestry, Animal Resource and PW Department.

8.

Activate SHGs for income generating activities;

9.

Labour-intensive works should be given top priority;

10. Awareness generation among the people for water harvesting and water recharging / preventing moisture evaporation. Names of the drought prone blocks: Sl.

Sub-division

1.

Midnapore

Block Midnapore Keshpur Salboni Garbeta-I Garbeta-II Garbeta-III

2.

Jhargram

Jhargram Jamboni Binpur-I Binpur-II Sankrail Gopiballavpur-I Gopiballavpur-II

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Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Sl.

Sub-division

3.

Kharagpur

Block Nayagram Kharagpur-I Kharagpur-II Keshiary Narayangarh

4.

Ghatal

Chandrakona-II

9.6.3 Soil erosion erodes people of their fortune Many blocks like Binpur I, Binpur II, Jamboni, Nayagram and Jhargram in Paschim Medinipur are moderately or severely degraded. Land degradation is linked to poverty and population pressures, people’s attitudes and values, weak land management, and drought—which result in Land degradation is overgrazing, unsustainable agricultural activities, overexploitation of land (such as trees used for fuel wood), and deforestation. About 50% of land degradation accelerating, with is caused by erosion of top soil, 24% by crop production, 14% by clearance of dire vegetation for agriculture, and 13% by overexploitation. Degradation has Consequences for decreased land productivity, and caused losses of arable land. Degraded land food security produces less food, reduces the availability of biomass fuel, makes ecosystems less resilient, and increases malnourishment and susceptibility to disease in local populations. Nearly 30% of Paschim Medinipur’s live on fragile lands. Where land is abundant, rapid population growth does not lead to degradation because farmers shift their cultivation patterns, leaving cropped land fallow to replenish lost nutrients. But land is scarce in many areas, and rapid population growth without intensive cultivation results in degradation. Population pressures are also reducing arable land per capita. Poor farmers cannot undertake intensive agriculture requiring significant inputs or investments in soil improvements. Their only alternative is to mine soils until they become completely degraded. Poverty also makes rural people dependent on fuel wood for energy. Rainwater harvesting has attracted considerable attention in recent years. A wide range of Techniques — tanks, farm ponds, gully detentions—are used, with some systems based on updates of technologies where needed, public spending on rainwater harvesting Rainwater harvesting: can be justified by the fact that, in scattered settlements, such schemes are the to augment irrigation only alternative for providing irrigation facilities to far flung areas. Macrofacilities catchment systems concentrate water from large areas, storing it in small reservoirs for agriculture is an example of macro-catchments. At the other extreme is micro-catchment, which follows the same principles as macro catchments. Contour bundhs are created on slopes to concentrate water where it is needed, often to improve shrubs and grasses for livestock. Satellite and other aerial photography and geographic information systems are increasingly used to help determine suitable sites for water harvesting. Once a site has been identified, field work assesses factors such as run-off to project the amount of water that can be expected. Rainwater harvesting generally does not involve “best practice.” Instead of searching for the best technology, efforts should focus on finding technology that can be adapted to local conditions. Across Paschim Medinipur, rainfall averages 1600 millimeters a year. It is an alarming fact that only 0.13% of the annual rainfall is stored in tanks, ponds, irrigation channels. Improving the status of

269

Human Vulnerability

water harvesting is the greatest challenge to us. For this we need to focus on excavation of new ponds and water harvesting structures. Due to high population density in the district there is scarcity of land for excavation of new water bodies.

9.7

Human Vulnerability due to Social Hazards

Apart from risk due to natural calamities, every society has some of its chronic and intrinsic problem, such as, low level of education, health and nutritional characteristics, poor quality of house, less number of livestock, very limited access to money etc always are posing threat to human life of that society. In rural and urban societies of Paschim Medinipur district, three such social factors are being observed grossly and mostly. a)

Indebtedness that leads to poverty, starvation and even death sometimes.

b)

Internal displacement causing due to indebtedness, landlessness etc.

c)

Health related a hazard that is also making life more miserable.

There is an inter-linkage between all these three factors and these factors or internal dimensions of vulnerability coexist with natural factors or external dimensions such as food, draught or soil erosion etc. The linkage between these three factors has formed a conspicuous circle surrounding the common man totally. Now, let us discuss, those three factors to identify the nature of this linkage so that it can be addressed with a proper manner which would have a people centered approach. 9.7.1 Indebtedness Very limited access to money is the major and most serious risk throughout the district especially towards the people of jungle mahal. Per capita income as well as purchasing power is very low. People are more willing to stay in their traditional occupations like, collection of Kendu leaves, making of rope from babui grass or traditional mode of cultivation. This practice pushes them towards continuous economic crisis. Furthermore, traditional ceremonies, local crop failure, also compel to borrow loan from moneylender with high rate of interest. Thus the poor household falls prey to continuous debt. Even local polities in their territories sometimes create a barrier to appropriate distribution of money and resources. So, most of the time, it even becomes difficult to manage meager livelihood causing starvation and poverty. So, it is highly required to provide relief to the poor man from the vicious cycle of interest imposed by the money lenders. Microfinance of different sorts is the only remedy to the recurring problem of indebtedness. 9.7.2 Internal displacement Internal displacement is nothing but forced migration. It happens due to political conflict in an area and thus makes the people especially poor tribal dying alive. Most of the internally displaced people (IDP) live in animal like condition with very low per capita income. Many of them survive by begging, or collecting firewood, whereas most of the womenfolk sale country liqueur or do odd jobs to generate additional income. The recent situation in the district has pushed many lives under threat of such displacement and even has displaced. Displacement also occurs through trafficking. Children and women are being trafficked to the bordering states generally for domestic workers or sexual worker or child marriage. The social economic situation of the family adds to vulnerability while both boys and girls are victim of trafficking, girls become vulnerable more. Indebtedness is again major cause of such trafficking. Relatives even parents’

270

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

sale their children to overcome the huge load of debt or to avoid starvation. Sometimes, they are being trafficked by luring them. However, poverty, joblessness, acute shortage of money are the driving factor of such displacement or trafficking. Government is trying continuously to provide employment to the people at their own place through NREGA or to provide food through MMS at the schools. 9.7.3 Health related problem Joblessness, landlessness, homelessness, marginalization, food insecurity, increased morbidity enhance the chance of vulnerability directly and indirectly by affecting the health of the people. Malnutrition enhances the risk of prenatal or postnatal mortality. The rate of death at the time of child birth is high especially in tribal areas. Lack of education and some social customs compel the society to experience female feticide or less acceptances of immunization programme or improper contraception method causing population burst. Alcoholism is another social threat. It has always been an acute problem especially in the tribal community. Alcoholism leads to indebtedness or joblessness as well. People addicted to such practice usually posses the apathy for struggle in day to day life and to accumulate livelihood, they often depend or borrowing and thus fall into the trap of moneylenders. Such addiction diminishes the quality of life and makes life vulnerable. 9.7.4 LWE Violence Left Wing Extremism (LWE) in last few years has brought Medinipur in national radar. Other than Dantewada and Bijapur in Chattisgarh, Paschim Midinipur has seen one of the worst instances of LWE violence in the last couple of years, leaving more than five hundred dead and a similar number missing. Out of the 29 blocks of the district, 11 blocks in the western part of the district have remained in the grip of LWE violence.

Map 9.1 Areas affected with Maoist Violence PASCHIM MEDINIPUR District Map showing LWE affected Blocks

N

PHASE-III December, 2009

Garhbeta-I

W

Chandrakona-II Chandrakona-I Garhbeta-III

Binpur-II

E S

Garhbeta-II

Salboni

Ghatal

Keshpur

Binpur-I

Daspur-I Daspur-II

Debra

Jamboni

Midnapore Jhargram Kharagpur-II Pingla

Kharagpur-I

Gopiballavpur-II Sankrail

Narayangarh

Gopiballavpur-I Keshiary

Nayagram

Sabong

Dantan-I

Railway NH-60 NHAI (NH-6) District Boundary Lwe affected blocks-phase-III Un affected .shp LWE Un-affected Blocks

Dantan-II

Mohanpur

271

10

0

10

20 Kilometers

Human Vulnerability

Due to continued Bandhs and Abrodhs (Blockade), the regular life of the common man and administrative functioning has been very badly affected. In the last one year, there has been more than 150 days of bandh calls by CPI(Maoist) and their frontal organizations. As a result, most of the energy of the administration is lost in maintenance of law and order and development works do suffer. As a result of continuous bandhs, economic opportunities have reduced in these areas, leading of high migration and extremely distressed life for the common man.

Loss of Human Life and Property Incident

Nov. 2008 – Oct. 2009 (12 months)

Nov. 2009 – Aug. 2010 (10 months)

No. of person killed

62

313 (including victims of Gyneswary Exp.)

No. of person injured

42

156

No. of trucks burnt

4

59

Destruction of private vehicles

2

52

No. of Govt. property destroyed

1

20

In our calculation of Human Vulnerability index, we have assigned a weightage to LWE violence. This value is one for the blocks fully affected by the maoist violence, 0.5 for the partially affected blocks and 0 for unaffected blocks.

9.8

Human Vulnerability Index

We have made an attempt in this section to prepare human vulnerability index based on seven indicators, namely (i) percentage of mal nutrition including moderate and severe (ii) percentage of immunization (iii) percentage of BPL (iv) percentage of female literacy (v) landless households, (vi) percentage of landless labourers, and (vii) percentage of households as having less than 1 meal a day. In calculating the Vulnerability Index (V I), we have attempted to follow the methodology suggested by UNDP as far as possible. Each of these indicators is defined as a dimension with value between 0 and 1 with reference to minimum and maximum value. The general formula for calculating each dimension index is :

Index =

Actual Value – Minimum Value Maximum Value – Minimum Value

The Vulnerability Index is then calculated as a simple average of the seven dimension values and it is presented in Table 9.1

272

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Table 9.1 Some Vulnerability indicators and Indices in Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District Sl. No.

Block

Mal ImmuniNutrition sation Index Index

BPL Index

Female LandLandHH less LWE Literacy less HH less Lab. one meal a VioIndex Index Index day Index lence

VI

Rank

1

Chandrakona-I

0.441

0.362

0.488

0.339

0.168

0.433

0.24

0

0.31

25

2

Chandrakona-II

0.519

0.27

0.44

0.778

0.124

0.623

0.135

0

0.36

22

3

Daspur-I

0.531

0.43

0.052

0.206

0.163

0

0.099

0

0.19

28

4

Daspur-II

0

0.309

0

0

0.037

0.011

0.055

0

0.05

29

5

Ghatal

0.718

0.409

0.379

0.286

0.142

0.269

0.231

0

0.30

27

6

Binpur-I

0.719

0.371

0.555

0.797

0.229

0.971

0.499

1.0

0.64

4

7

Binpur-II

0.868

1.000

0.986

0.767

0.482

0.860

0.000

1.0

0.75

2

8

Gopiballavpur-I

0.619

0.271

0.453

0.940

0.096

0.960

0.306

0.5

0.52

9

9

Gopiballavpur-II

0.8

0.584

0.56

0.701

0.173

0.981

0.281

0.5

0.57

5

10

Jamboni

0.934

0.524

0.956

0.578

1

0.98

1

0.5

0.81

1

11

Jhargram

0.697

0.7

0.587

0.631

0.108

0.806

0.262

0.5

0.54

6

12

Nayagram

1

0.847

1

1

0.26

0.145

0.485

0.5

0.65

3

13

Sankrial

0.824

0.583

0.634

0.591

0.151

0.889

0.219

0

0.49

13

14

Dantan-I

0.781

0.587

0.582

0.565

0.443

0.594

0.511

0

0.51

10

15

Dantan-II

0.864

0

0.545

0.266

0.31

0.497

0.443

0

0.37

20

16

Debra

0.441

0.37

0.275

0.286

0.272

0.737

0.279

0

0.33

23

17

Keshiary

0.823

0.633

0.543

0.515

0.326

1

0.319

0

0.52

8

18

Kharagpur-I

0.499

0.432

0.781

0.532

0.737

0.039

0.432

0

0.43

14

19

Kharagpur-II

0.483

0.781

0.68

0.505

0.338

0.881

0.347

0

0.50

12

20

Mohanpur

0.683

0.189

0.61

0.223

0.392

0.315

0.542

0

0.37

18

21

Narayangarh

0.598

0.2

0.435

0.389

0.192

0.72

0.373

0

0.36

21

22

Pingla

0.672

0.205

0.617

0.076

0.315

0.358

0.379

0

0.33

24

23

Sabang

0.707

0.603

0.349

0.113

0.278

0.135

0.264

0

0.31

26

24

Garhbeta-I

0.735

0.634

0.339

0.588

0

0.542

0.098

0

0.37

19

25

Garhbeta-II

0.65

0.606

0.622

0.555

0.223

0.624

0.236

0.5

0.50

11

26

Garhbeta-III

0.416

0.936

0.238

0.555

0.156

0.221

0.454

0

0.37

17

27

Keshpur

0.632

0.513

0.4

0.538

0.197

0.447

0.258

0

0.37

16

28

Medinipur

0.665

0.527

0.584

0.761

0.22

0.748

0.225

0.5

0.53

7

29

Salboni

0.663

0.164

0.323

0.615

0.156

0.689

0.214

0.5

0.42

15

273

Human Vulnerability

Figure 9.1 Vulnerability Index in the Blocks of Paschim Medinipur 0.90 0.81

0.80

0.75

0.70

0.65

0.64

0.60

0.52

0.50

0.57

0.54

0.52

0.490.51

0.5

0.53

0.5

0.43

0.40 0.31

0.30

0.37

0.36 0.3

0.20

0.42 0.370.36

0.33

0.37 0.330.31

0.370.37

0.19

0.10 Salboni

Keshpur

Midnapore

Garhbeta-III

Garhbeta-II

Sabang

Garhbeta-I

Pingla

Mohanpur

Narayangarh

Kharagpur –II

Kharagpur I

Debra

Keshiary

Dantan II

Sankrial

Dantan I

Nayagram

Jamboni

Jhargram

Gopi- II

Gopi- I

Binpur –II

Binpur I

Ghatal

Daspur I

Chandrakona

Chandrakona

Daspur II

0.05

0.00

The main message of this chapter is that achieving sustainable development in Paschim Medinipur will require maintaining natural assets and reducing human vulnerability.

Map 9.2 Vulnerability Index in Paschim Medinipur District

N

Vulnerability Index

W

Paschim Medinipur

E S

Garhbeta-I Chandrakona-II

Garhbeta-II

Chandrakona-I Garhbeta-III Ghatal

Binpur-II Binpur-I

Salboni

Keshpur

Daspur-II Midnapore

Jamboni Jhargram

Gopiballavpur-II

Daspur-I

Kharagpur-I

Debra Kharagpur-II Pingla

Sankrail Narayangarh

Gopiballavpur-I

Sabong

Keshiary

Nayagram

Mid(W) Boundary Human Vulnerability Low Vulneravle (0.059 - 0.258) Semi-Medium Vulnerable (0.258 - 0.456) Medium Vulnerable (0.456 - 0.655) High Vulnerable (0.655 - 0.853)

Dantan-I

Dantan-II 7

Mohanpur

274

0

7

14 Kilometers

The Way Forward

276

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

Chapter X THE WAY FORWARD Paschim Medinipur is a vast district with variety of challenges and issues. The district has two distinct divisions, undulating arid zone and low relief alluvial zone. Around 33% of population belongs to vulnerable SC-ST categories. With 90% of population living in rural areas, economy continues to be dependent on agriculture. In the western part, more than 54 % population belongs to SC-ST categories of which 29% population belongs to tribal community. Around 18% of the district is covered with forests with some blocks having 30 to 40% of area under forest. Many areas of the district are remote and not so well connected. The overall position of literacy is relatively better but there is huge gender gap in literacy. The literacy among the STs is especially low with it being very low in ST females. Human Development Index is one of the key indicators for pointing out the difference between developed and underdeveloped zone in the concerned area. The indicators presented in Chapter-I show human development scenario of Paschim Medinipur district vis-à-vis West Bengal. A composite index is also formed in that chapter for evaluating the variation in the Human development across the blocks of the district. The HDI of Paschim Medinipur has been calculated on the basis of three basic indices, viz., education index, health index and economic livelihood index by using the methodology developed by the UNDP - the construction of the individual indices are elaborated in chapters 3, 4 and 5 respectively.

Educational Index Calculation of educational index has been done on the basis of two very reliable sources of data available on education across the blocks of any district in India - the Census data for literacy and the DISE data for enrolment and infrastructure. These indicators have been used to evaluate adult literacy index and enrolment index and have been combined to formulate the education index by using the UNDP methodology. However, some other indicators are also given and explained in the chapter. The main problem in accommodating all these indicators in the index is to attach proper weights to them. The implication of these indicators (Enrolment, Adult Literacy Index, Female Literacy Index, SC Literacy Index, ST Literacy Index, School Student Ratio Index and Teacher Student Ratio Index) with respect to the scenario of the blocks has been delineated through radars. The coloured area in the shown set of radars indicates the proportion of development. Indices based on normative goalposts for the above two indicators and the combined education indices are presented in Table 3.19 (Chapter-III). It shows that the education index is highest in Sabang (0.837) followed by Pingla (0.829) and lowest in Nayagram (0.622) preceded by Gopiballavpur-I (0.623). It implies that Sabang has succeeded to attain 83.70% development in education and the remaining 16.30% is yet to be achieved and the success is due to its achievement to the tune of 95.10% in enrolment and 78.00% in adult literacy. On the other hand, in the block Nayagram, the attainment in education is only 62.20% and though the enrolment ratio in this block is not very low (88.30%) the ultimate attainment remains low for its low adult literacy rate at 48.20% only. If attention is given at the sub-divisions, it is found that the attainment in education is highest in Ghatal sub-division (76.50%) and lowest in Jhargram sub-division (66.50%). The said index for all blocks of Paschim Medinipur district taken together is 0.724. This implies that the rural areas of Paschim Medinipur district have attained 72.40% success in education (more than 2/3rd success) and the remaining 27.60% is yet to be achieved.

277

The Way Forward

Health Index Basic data for the construction of the Health Indices are presented in Table 4.24 (Chapter-IV). The methodology of calculating health index has been elaborated in the chapter. Three basic indicators have been used in this respect, viz., child malnutrition, immunisation and adult malnutrition. Indices based on normative goalposts for these three indicators along with child health index, adult health index and combined health index are presented in Table 4.25. It shows that the health index is highest in Daspur-II (0.803) followed by Daspur-I (0.738) and Debra (0.693), and is lowest in Nayagram (0.387) preceded by Jamboni (0.465) and Binpur-II (0.471). The implications of the results are straight forward and reveal that Daspur-II block has been succeeded to attain a 80.30% development in health and the remaining 19.70% is yet to be achieved. The success is due to its achievement to the tune of 79.66% in child non-malnutrition, 83.44% in immunisation and 78.96% in adult non-malnutrition respectively. On the other hand, Nayagram block scores only 38.70% though the immunization rate and the percentage of non-malnourished children in this block are not very low (67.33% and 48.08% respectively) as compared to percentage of adult non-malnourishment (19.70%) which is very low. In respect of subdivisions, Ghatal scores highest i.e 71.40% and Jhargram scores lowest i.e. 50.90%. The said index for all the blocks of Paschim Medinipur district taken together is 0.594. It implies that the rural areas of Paschim Medinipur district have attained 59.40% success in health (a less than 2/3rd success) and the remaining 40.60% is yet to be achieved. Three indicators used in evaluating the health index, i.e., Child Non-Malnutrition Index, Full Immunisation Index, Adult Non-Malnutrition Index, along with some other indicators, viz., Non-Low Birth Weight Index, Institutional Delivery Index and Sanitation Index are used to present the scenario of the blocks through radars.

Economic livelihood Index Economic livelihood is one of the major aspects which vividly indicate the progress of development of the concerned area. Economic livelihood index (ELI) is calculated based on equal weightage of foodgrains productivity index, percentage of non-marginal workers index and APL index. Daspur II is ranked first in terms of economic livelihood index followed by Daspur I, Chandrakona II, Ghatal and Debra. Binpur-II registered the lowest 29th rank led by Jamboni, Nayagram and Binpur-I which belong to agriculturally lagging and ecologically adverse region of the district (Table 5.32, Chapter-V). The substantial variation of ELI across different blocks in the district is closely related to the development of agriculture, literacy and physical infrastructure. Agricultural scenario is one of the important aspects, which indicates livelihood pattern of the area. This is quite obvious for agriculture based district like Paschim Medinipur.

278

Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur

MAP 10.1 Spatial comparison of dimensions of Human Development in Paschim Medinipur District

N W

N

E

W

S

Garhbeta-II

Garhbeta-I

Chandrakona-II Chandrakona-I

Garhbeta-II

Garhbeta-III

Garhbeta-III

Chandrakona-II Chandrakona-I

Ghatal Binpur-II

Ghatal

Binpur-II

Binpur-I Jamboni

Salboni

Keshpur

Kharagpur-I

Binpur-I

Daspur-I Daspur-II

Midnapore

Debra Jhargram

Kharagpur-II

Kharagpur-I

Daspur-I

Debra Kharagpur-II Pingla

Pingla

Gopiballavpur-II

Gopiballavpur-II

Sankrail Gopiballavpur-I

Keshiary Narayangarh

Sankrail

Sabong

Narayangarh Keshiary

Educational Index District Boundary Low (0.60 - 0.70) Medium (0.70 - 0.80) High (> 0.80)

Keshpur

Daspur-II

Gopiballavpur-I

Paschim Medinipur

Salboni

Jamboni

Midnapore Jhargram

E S

Garhbeta-I

Health Index

Nayagram

Paschim Medinipur

Nayagram

District Boundary Low ( < 0.50) Medium (0.50 - 0.70) Good ( > 0.60)

Dantan-I Dantan-II 7

0

7

14 Kilometers

Mohanpur

Sabong

Dantan-I Dantan-II 7

0

7

14 Kilometers

Mohanpur

N W

E S

Garhbeta-I Chan dra kon a-II Chandrakona-I

Garhb eta-II Garhbeta-III

Ghatal

Binpur-II Salboni

Binpur-I

Keshpur

Daspur-I Daspur-II

Jamboni

Midnapore Jha rgram Kharagpur-I

Debra Kharagpur-II Ping la

Gopiballavpur-II Gopiba llavpur-I

Sankrail

Narayangarh

Sabong

Keshiary

Economic Livelihood Index Paschim Medinipur

District Boundary Low (0.208 - 0.309) Medium (0.309 - 0.473) Normal (0.473 - 0.525) High (0.525 - 0.690)

Nayagram Da ntan-I

Da ntan-II

Mohanpur

7

0

7

14 Kilometers

These three indices have been combined together to formulate the Human Development Index (HDI) of different blocks in the district. Human development index has been prepared by giving equal weightage to education index, health index and economic livelihood index. Daspur II ranks first in terms of human development index (0.772) followed by Daspur I (0.728) and Ghatal (0.649). Nayagram has the lowest value of Human Development Index (0.423) precede by Jamboni (0.454) and Binpur II (0.479) [Table 10.1]. Graphical presentation (page 16 Figure 1.1) as well as geographical delineation of the blocks as per HDI value (page 17 Map 1.3) give a complete perception about human development of different blocks in the district.

279

The Way Forward

Table 10.1 Human Development Indices of the Blocks of Paschim Medinipur District Block

Education index

Health index

Economic Livelihood Index

HDI

Rank

Daspur-II

0.823

0.803

0.690

0.772

1

Daspur-I

0.770

0.738

0.677

0.728

2

Ghatal

0.763

0.669

0.515

0.649

3

Debra

0.727

0.693

0.503

0.641

4

Chandrakona-I

0.740

0.646

0.501

0.629

5

Chandrakona-II

0.683

0.676

0.525

0.628

6

Sabang

0.837

0.559

0.460

0.619

7

Pingla

0.829

0.591

0.430

0.617

8

Mohanpur

0.761

0.564

0.473

0.599

9

Salboni

0.721

0.644

0.422

0.596

10

Garhbeta-III

0.701

0.649

0.434

0.595

11

Keshpur

0.733

0.599

0.443

0.592

12

Garhbeta-I

0.708

0.622

0.431

0.587

13

Dantan-II

0.756

0.574

0.425

0.585

14

Narayangarh

0.729

0.611

0.368

0.569

15

Garhbeta-II

0.675

0.621

0.349

0.548

16

Dantan-I

0.687

0.553

0.391

0.544

17

Kharagpur-I

0.693

0.552

0.379

0.541

18

Gopiballavpur-II

0.655

0.553

0.397

0.535

19

Kharagpur -II

0.695

0.559

0.351

0.535

20

Keshiary

0.734

0.506

0.356

0.532

21

Sankrial

0.705

0.545

0.332

0.527

22

Gopiballavpur-I

0.623

0.553

0.395

0.524

23

Medinipur

0.676

0.515

0.371

0.521

24

Jhargram

0.692

0.547

0.309

0.516

25

Binpur-I

0.678

0.471

0.367

0.505

26

Binpur-II

0.665

0.564

0.208

0.479

27

Jamboni

0.669

0.465

0.227

0.454

28

Nayagram

0.622

0.387

0.260

0.423

29

If we look closely into the dimension indices along with the human development index given in Table 10.1, we find that the dimension indices are closely and directly related with each other and also to the final human development index. The ranks of different blocks in dimension indices and also in human

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development index are shown in Table 10.2. It is observed that in blocks like Daspur-II, Daspur-I, Ghatal, Debra and Chandrakona-I, the indices for all three dimensions are more than district average and these blocks fall mainly in the Ghatal sub-division. On the other hand, in blocks like Nayagram, Jamboni, Binpur-II, Binpur-I, Jhargram, Medinipur, Gopiballavpur-I, Sankarail, Kharagpur-II, Gopiballavpur-II, Kharagpur-I and Dantan-I, the indices for all three dimensions are less than district average and these blocks fall mainly in the Jhargram sub-division. It can be also noted that all eight blocks in Jhargram subdivision fall in this category. Relatively worse position of Medinipur Sadar block and Kharagpur-I block is partly due to the fact that the indices does not include the municipal areas and partly due to the fact that the panchayats of these two blocks are populated mainly with SCs, STs and Minorities in the slum outskirts of the municipalities. Position of different municipalities with respect to human development is discussed in the urbanisation chapter. Majority of the blocks in Kharagpur and Medinipur Sadar subdivisions exhibit unbalanced situation with respect to different indicators of human development. For example, the Keshiary block, though has succeeded to attain a respectable position with respect to education, has failed to attain any significant level of development in health and economic livelihood and the rank of the block in HDI is 21 in 29 blocks. More acute is the situation for blocks like Sabang and Pingla. These two blocks secure rank 1 and 2 respectively in education but has failed to translate this into the development in health and economic livelihood. In the opposite side, Chandrakona-II block is well developed with respect to economic livelihood and health but due to its extreme worse position in education fails to attain a commendable position in HDI. In the blocks of these two subdivisions policies should be mainly on translations, whereas in the blocks of Jhargram sub-division policies should be formed for an overall development.

Table 10.2 Ranks of Blocks for Human Development Indicators in Paschim Medinipur District Block

Education index Rank

Health index Rank

Economic Livelihood Index

Human Development Index Rank

Daspur-II

0.823

0.803

0.690

0.772

Daspur-II

3

1

1

1

Daspur-I

4

2

2

2

Ghatal

5

5

4

3

Debra

12

3

5

4

Chandrakona-I

8

7

6

5

Chandrakona-II

21

4

3

6

Sabang

1

17

8

7

Pingla

2

13

12

8

Mohanpur

6

15

7

9

Salboni

13

8

14

10

Garhbeta-III

16

6

10

11

Keshpur

10

12

9

12

Garhbeta-I

14

9

11

13

Dantan-II

7

14

13

14

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The Way Forward

Block

Education index Rank

Health index Rank

Human Development Index Rank

11

Economic Livelihood Index 20

Narayangarh

11

Garhbeta-II

24

10

24

16

Dantan-I

20

20

17

17

Kharagpur-I

18

22

18

18

Gopiballavpur-II

27

19

15

19

Kharagpur -II

17

18

23

20

Keshiary

9

26

22

21

Sankrial

15

24

25

22

Gopiballavpur-I

28

21

16

23

Medinipur

23

25

19

24

Jhargram

19

23

26

25

Binpur-I

22

16

21

26

Binpur -II

26

27

29

27

Jamboni

25

28

28

28

Nayagram

29

29

27

29

15

Overall Development Agenda for the District Livelihood opportunities are less in the western blocks because of poor irrigation facilities and low productivity of different crops. 11 blocks out of 29 blocks are badly affected with LWE violence and thereby posing serious challenges for protection of individual life and property, as well as carrying out the development agenda. Considering these multifarious challenges, it is imperative to adopt a time bound strategy to carry out development agenda with special emphasis of development in the western parts of the district •

As agriculture continues to be major economic activity in the rural areas, special efforts must be made to increase the irrigation potential with emphasis on rain water harvesting and watershed development. Special efforts should be made in promotion of horticulture and other cash crops such as oil seeds, pulses etc. The district produces surplus paddy, potato and vegetables but there are very few facilities for subsequent processing. Special efforts should be made for development of these facilities.



There is ample scope for promotion of Animal Husbandry activities. Special efforts must be given for promoting goatery and poultry through involvement of SHGs. There is also ample scope for increasing the milk production with induction of new cattle and promoting artificial insemination.



Availability of credit in the rural areas continues to be a major issue. Hence, it is needed to have more and more SHGs in the rural areas. Special efforts should also be made for promotion of agricultural credit with achieving universal Kisan Credit Cards. This will help in the promotion and adoption of better agriculture inputs.

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Human Development Repor t Paschim Medinipur



Bottlenecks in the rural infrastructure continue to be the major impediment. Hence, it is essential that road network and Rural Electrification should be improved immediately.



Promotion of literacy and development of school education specially in the remote tribal blocks continue to be a major challenge. The district is already included in the Sakshar Bharat Programme for promotion of adult literacy. Sarva Siksha Mission and Rashtriya Madhyamik Mission are also running in the district for promoting school education but there is need to have more residential schools in the tribal areas and arrangement of supplementary coaching in the higher classes. Absenteeism continues to be major problem hence; option of engagement of teachers from the local areas should also be looked into.



Special efforts should be made for promoting skill development specially in the tribal areas. In this regard, government efforts should be supplemented with participation of NGOs.



Self Help Groups can be the agent of change because they empower the female folk. Hence, special effort must be made for promoting SHGs, their skill development and credit linkage.



Malnutrition continues to be a major challenge. Hence, it is essential to ensure proper running of ICDS centres and creating awareness for proper feeding.



Efforts should be also made for promotion of safe drinking water availability and proper sanitation facility. This will help in reducing the incidences of water borne diseases.



There is a reduced availability of health sector man-power in the western tribal dominated blocks of the district. At the same time more and more number of people are dependent on government sector for the proper treatment. Hence, special efforts should be given for engagement of doctors and other health staff for these blocks. If required, special incentives should be paid for working in the remote areas. Involvement of NGOs should be encouraged.

Ensuring human development in the difficult circumstances is always a challenge. However, challenges will have to be taken, if it is needed to have promote growth with equity and thereby, ensuring over all well being for all. However, it must be realised that this deprivation has taken place over centuries and hence, it is difficult to have an overnight solution. However, the process must start and proficient personalities must be patient and persistent in these efforts.

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