NOTES INTRODUCTION. OUR NOSTALGIC NOVELTY CULTURE 1. Antiques and Collecting Magazine (Aug. 2000): 14; Chicago Tribune (Dec. 26, 2004): 1; Chicago Tr...

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INTRODUCTION. OUR NOSTALGIC NOVELTY CULTURE 1. Antiques and Collecting Magazine (Aug. 2000): 14; Chicago Tribune (Dec. 26, 2004): 1; Chicago Tribune (Oct. 23, 2005): 4; Antiques and Collecting Magazine (Nov. 2003): 6. 2.;; Doll Reader (May 2002): 28; Antiques and Collecting Magazine (July 1995): 45. 3. “That’s Not Junk. That’s Early Tech,” Business Week (Feb. 21, 2005): 82. 4. Knight Ridder Tribune Business News (March 4, 2007): 1; Knight Ridder Tribune Business News (Oct. 26, 2006): 1. 5. Los Angeles Times (Aug. 31, 2006): F7. 6. Los Angeles Times (Dec. 2, 2000): N3; Los Angeles Times (Jan. 22, 2003): F1; Carol and Richard Smyth, Beach Pails: Classic Toys of the Surf and Sand (Philadelphia: Running Press, 2002); Karen Horman and Polly Minick, Sand Pail Encyclopedia: A Comprehensive Value Guide for Tin-Litho Sand Toys (Philadelphia: Hobby House Press, 2002); Wall Street Journal (Nov. 8, 1996): B10. 7. Wall Street Journal (Aug. 27, 1999): W12; Wall Street Journal (July 9, 1999): W12. 8. Afro-American Red Star (April 8–April 14, 2006): B4. 9. Chicago Tribune (June 27, 1993): 1. 10. Daily Variety (April 29, 2005): 20. 11. 12. Svetlana Boym, The Future of Nostalgia (New York: Basic Books, 2001), 3, 6; Johannes Hofer, Dissertatio Media de Nostalgia (Basel, 1688), trans. Carolyn Anspach, Bulletin of the History of Medicine 2 (1934): 384–390; Jean Starobinski, “The Idea of Nostalgia,” Diogenes 54 (1966): 81–103; George Rosen, “Nostalgia: A Forgotten Psychological Disorder,” Clio Medica 10, no. 1 (1975): 28–51. 13. Starobinski, “The Idea of Nostalgia,” 81–103; Peter Fritzsche, “Specters of History: On Nostalgia, Exile, and Modernity,” American Historical Review 106 (Dec. 2001): 1587–1618. 14. Boym, Nostalgia, xiv–xv. Similar is David Lowenthal, Possessed by the Past (New York: Free Press, 1996), 8–11; Susan Matt, “You Can’t Go Home Again: Homesickness and Nostalgia in U.S. History,” Journal of American History 94, no. 2 (Sept. 2007): 469–498. 15. Kenneth Woodbridge, The Stourhead Landscape (London: The National Trust, 2002); Boym, Nostalgia, 11–15; Susan Stewart, On Longing: Narratives of the Miniature, the Gigantic, the Souvenir, the Collection (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1993), 141; David Lowenthal, The Past Is a Foreign Country (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985); Lowenthal, Possessed, xi–xii, 13; Joy Kenseth, “‘A World of Wonders in One Closet Shut,’” in The Age of the Marvelous, ed. Joy Kenseth (Hanover, N.H.: Hood Museum of Art, 1991), 101; Krystof Pomian, Collectors and Curiosities: Paris and Venice, 1500–1800 (1987; Cambridge: Polity, 1990), 53; Russell Belk, Collecting in a Consumer Culture (London: Routledge, 1995), 29–35. 16. Eric Hobsbawm, The Invention of Tradition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992); Brian Graham and Peter Howard, “Heritage and Identity,” in The Ashgate Research Companion to Heritage and Identity, ed. Brian Graham and Peter Howard (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008), 1– 18; B. Graham, G. J. Ashworth, and J. E. Tunbridge, Geography of Heritage: Power, Culture, and Economy (London: Arnold, 2000); Andre Huyssens, Twilight Memories: Marking Time in a Culture of Amnesia (London: Routledge, 1995), 14; Gaynor Kavanagh, Dream Spaces: Memory and the Museum (London: Leicester University Press, 2000), 1–9. 17. Boym, Nostalgia, 15. Recent writings on domestic-artifact collections include John Potvin and Alla Myzelev, eds., Material Cultures, 1740–1920 (Farnam: Ashgate, 2009), 37–52; Pierra Nora, “Between Memory and History: Les Lieux de Memoire,” Representations 26 (1989); Pierra Nora, Realms of Memory (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000); and Charles Scott, “The Appearance of Public Memory,” in Framing Public Memory, ed. Kendall Phillips (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2004), 147–156. 18. Michael Kammen, Mystic Chords of Memory (New York: Vintage, 1991), 42; Boym, Nostalgia, 16–18; Susan Matt, Homesickness: An American History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011). 19. Stewart, On Longing, 139; Boym, Nostalgia, 13, 42–45; Lowenthal, Possessed by the Past, 5, 17–19; Hobsbawm, The Invention of Tradition; Graham and Howard, “Heritage and Identity”; Graham, Ashworth, and Tunbridge, Geography of Heritage; Huyssens, Twilight Memories, 14; Kavanagh, Dream Spaces, 1–9. 20. Steven Lubar, “Exhibiting Memories,” in Museums and Their Communities, ed. Sheila Watson (London: Routledge, 2007), 398; James Weeks, Gettysburg: Memory, Market, and an American Shrine (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2001), chap. 7. 21. Lowenthal, Possessed, 60, 85, 193–194. 22. David Harvey, “The History of Heritage,” in The Ashgate Research Companion to Heritage and Identity, ed. Brian Graham and Peter Howard (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008), 32. 23. Gary Cross, The Cute and the Cool: Wondrous Innocence and Modern American Children’s Culture (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004). 24. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, “Why We Need Things,” in History from Things: Essays on Material Culture, ed. Steven Lubar and W. David Kingery (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993), 20–29. Readable and sensible defenses of this positive take on consumption and identity are in the English anthropologist Daniel Miller’s The Comfort of Things (Cambridge: Polity, 2008), 6, 287, 293; and his Stuff (Cambridge: Polity, 2010), 60–62.

1. GUYS TOYS AND “GIRLS” DOLLS 1. Werner Muensterberger, Collecting, An Unruly Passion (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994); Giuseppe Olmi, “ScienceHonour-Metaphor: Italian Cabinets of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries,” in The Origins of Museums: The Cabinet of Curiosities in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Europe, ed. Oliver Impey and Arthur MacGregor (Oxford: Clarendon, 1985), 5–16. 2. Pierre Bourdieu, Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1984); Gary Cross, The Cute and the Cool: Wondrous Innocence and Modern American Children’s Culture (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004), esp. chap. 3. 3. Dorothy and her daughters Elizabeth and Evelyn Coleman joined forces to publish the bible of doll references, the 697-page Collector’s Encyclopedia of Dolls (New York: Crown, 1968; updated ed., 1986). 4. From the collection of The Strong (library), Rochester, N.Y.: Stevens and Brown, Illustrated Price List of Tin, Mechanical, and Iron Toys (1872), 90–91, 98, 100–101; Ives, Iron Toys (1893), 56–58, 60–63; Erlich Brothers, Toy Price List (1882), 3–4; Brown and Stevens, Illustrated Price Catalogue (1872), 28–31. 5. See Gary Cross, Kids’ Stuff: Toys and the Changing World of American Childhood (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1997), chaps. 3, 7; and Men to Boys: The Making of Modern Immaturity (New York: Columbia University Press, 2008), 90–102, 192–193.

6. Pat Schoonmaker, A Collector’s History of the Teddy Bear (Cumberland, Md.: Hobby House, 1981), 227–241, 250–252, 280–282; and Linda Mullins, A Tribute to Teddy Bear Artists (Grantsville, Md.: Hobby House, 1994), 74–80. 7. “The Kewpies’ Christmas Frolic,” Ladies Home Journal (Dec. 1909): 28; G. Borgfeldt ad for Kewpies, Playthings Magazine (Jan. 1913): 20– 21. See also Miriam Formanek-Brunell, Made to Play House: Dolls and the Commercialization of American Girlhood, 1830–1930 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1993), chaps. 4–5; Ralph McCanse, Titans and Kewpies: The Life and Art of Rose O’Neill (New York: Vantage, 1968). 8. Cecil Munsey, Disneyana: Walt Disney Collectibles (New York: Abrams, 1974), 32, 39–48, 80–99, 109–100; Robert Heide and John Gilman, Cartoon Collectibles: Fifty Years of Dime Store Memorabilia (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1983), 101–102, 113–115; Cross, Kids’ Stuff, chap. 4. 9. The original story by Philip F. Nowland, “Armageddon—2419,” appears in Buck Rogers, The First Sixty Years in the Twenty-Fifth Century, ed. Lorraine Dille Williams (New York: TSR, 1988), 19–46; Crystal and Layland Payton, Space Toys (Sedalia, Mo.: Collectors Compass, 1982), 41–42. 10. Coleman, The Collector’s Encyclopedia of Dolls, 143, 152; Johana Anderton, Twentieth-Century Dolls: From Bisque to Vinyl (Des Moines, Iowa: Wallace-Homestead, 1971), 23–27, 225–238. Madeline Merrill, The Art of Dolls, 1799–1940 (Cumberland, Md.: Hobby House, 1985); Patricia Schoonmaker, The Effanbee Patsy Family and Related Types (North Hollywood, Calif.: Doll Research Project, 1971), 1–15, 20–35. 11. “Public Takes Shirley to Its Heart in April,” Toys and Novelties (April 1936): 83; “Cash in on April’s Double Header,” Playthings Magazine (March 1936): 64. See also Judith Izen, A Collector’s Guide to Ideal Dolls (Paducah, Ky.: Collector, 1992), 21. 12. The Ginny doll had its origins in Jennie Adler Graves Carlson’s Vogue Doll Shoppe of Sommerville, Massachusetts, that opened in 1922. By the time she introduced Ginny in 1948, her business had gone national, and by 1957 she employed eight hundred women as domestic craft workers. Traditional to the core, Jennie Carlson rejected TV advertising, and while popular with mothers, by the end of the 1950s Ginny was too childlike to be seen as “a liberated friend” to girls, notes the doll historian and collector A. Glenn Mandeville. A. Glenn Mandeville, Ginny: An American Toddler Doll (Cumberland, Md.: Hobby House, 1991), 85, 88, 95. 13. “Fact Sheet: Hasbro’s G.I. Joe, A Real American Hero,” Hasbro Press Kit (Feb. 1993), Toy Fair Collection, Box 3, Please Touch Museum, Philadelphia; Vincent Santelmo, The Official Thirtieth-Anniversary Salute to G.I. Joe (Iola, Wis.: Kreuse, 1994), 17–18, 66–72, 75–97, 325, 343, 412–413; Susan Manos and Paris Manos, Collectible Male Action Figures (Paducah, Ky.: Collector, 1990), 20–33, 38–43; Tom Engelhardt, The End of Victory Culture: Cold War America and the Disillusioning of a Generation (New York: Basic Books, 1995), 81–86, 300. 14. “Star Wars,” Toys and Hobby World (June 1983): 24, 26; Chris Taylor, How Star Wars Conquered the Universe: The Past, Present, and Future of a Multibillion-Dollar Franchise (New York: Basic Books, 2014). 15. The Toy Fair Collection at the Please Touch Museum include: Coleco Press Kit (June 1986), Box 5/2; Tyco Press Kit (Feb. 1988), Box 8; and Tyco Press Kit (Feb. 1989), Box 9. Note also Sydney Stern and Ted Schoenhaus, Toyland: The High-Stakes Game of the Toy Industry (Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1990), chaps. 5, 11, 14, 17. 16. Ruth Handler, Dream Doll (New York: Long Meadow, 1995); Robin Gerber, Barbie and Ruth: The Story of the World’s Most Famous Doll and the Woman Who Created Her (Collins Business, 2009); A. Glen Mandeville, Doll Fashion Anthology and Price Guide, 4th ed. (Cumberland, Md.: Hobby House, 1993), 1–33; M. G. Lord, Forever Barbie (New York: Avon, 1994); Tanya Stone, The Good, the Bad, and the Barbie: A Doll’s History and Her Impact on Us (New York: Viking: 2010); Kristin Noelle Weissman, Barbie: The Icon, the Image, the Ideal: An Analytical Interpretation of the Barbie Doll in Popular Culture (n.p., 1999), 19–43; Mary Rogers, Barbie Culture (London: Sage, 1999), 37–40, 61–66; Patricia Adler and Peter Adler, Peer Power: Preadolescent Culture and Identity (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1998), 39–56. 17. Pleasant Rowland’s American Girl collection (1986), a line of expensive full-size dolls in the “New Kid” style that were extensions of a series of historical storybooks, was bought by Mattel in 1998. Though originally considered “anti-Barbie” dolls with little of the emphasis on fashion and beauty, under Mattel’s direction, the dolls have adopted a strongly consumerist tone, as witnessed by any visit to the American Girl stores in Chicago, New York, and Los Angeles, even though the storybooks remain popular. 18. Mattel, Barbie, Teen-Age Fashion Model (Hawthorne, Calif.: Mattel, 1958); Mattel, Barbie, Teen-Age Fashion Model and Ken, Barbie’s Boy Friend (He’s a Doll) (Hawthorne, Calif.: Mattel, 1960); and Mattel, Exclusive Fashions by Mattel, Book 3 (Hawthorne, Calif.: Mattel, 1963). The Strong (library), Rochester, N.Y.; Cross, Kids’ Stuff, 171–175. 19. Cross, Kids’ Stuff, chap. 6. 20. A. F. Robertson, Life Like Dolls: The Collector Doll Phenomenon and the Lives of the Women Who Love Them (New York: Routledge, 2004), 5–10, 9. 21. “Sweethearts of the 1950s,” International Doll World (Feb. 1996): 20; “Hollywood Collecting,” International Doll World (Jan.–Feb. 1991): 74– 81; “Wax Dolls of Mexico,” International Doll World (Aug. 1993): 58–59. 22. Jan Foulke, Focusing on Dolls (a compilation of articles from Doll Reader, 1974–1986), (Cumberland, Md.: Hobby House, 1988), 6–12. 23. Doll museums took off after 1980. “Margaret Woodbury Strong Museum to Open October 1982,” Antique and Toy World (Sept. 1982): 7– 10; See the Strong’s website,; “Doll Museums,” Doll News (Aug. 1959): 2; United Federation of Doll Clubs (UFDC), Convention Journal (1959): 53; “Doll Museums,” International Doll World (Aug. 1986): 38–41. 24. Max von Boehn, Dolls and Puppets (London: Harrap, 1932); Edith Ackley, Paper Dolls, Their History, and How to Make Them (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1939); Winifred Mills, The Story of Old Dolls and How to Make New Ones (New York: Doubleday, 1940); Eleanor St. George, Dolls of Yesterday (New York: Scribner’s, 1948); Coleman, Collectors’ Encyclopedia of Dolls. 25. Mary Lewis, editorial, UFDC Convention Journal (Jan. 1951): 1; Janet Johl, editorial, Doll News (Jan. 1952): 1; Janet Johl, editorial, Doll News (March 1954): 2; Nita Loving, editorial, Doll News (Aug. 1962): 3; “Mary Lewis,” UFDC Convention Journal (1987): 20–22, all at the United Federation of Doll Clubs, Kansas City, Mo. 26. For example, club notes and interview with UFDC President Karen Rockwell, in Doll News (Spring 2010): 122–123, 20–21. 27. Hazel Snider, “What Is a Doll?” UFDC Convention Journal (1959). 28. Photos and captions, UFDC Convention Journal (1981), 64–65; UFDC, Victorian Scrapbook (1989 Convention), 23; United Federation of Doll Clubs, Wonder of Childhood (1986 Convention), 4, 28, all at the United Federation of Doll Clubs, Kansas City, Mo. 29. William Wordsworth, “Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood,” (1804; pub. 1807), in Complete Poetical Works of William Wordsworth, ed. Biss Perry (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1904), 354. 30. Note, for example, editorials, UFDC Convention Journal (1981): 3; UFDC Convention Journal (1985); 5; UFDC Convention Journal (1993): 1–2; and UFDC Convention Journal (1998): 2, all at the United Federation of Doll Clubs, Kansas City, Mo. Doll News, various issues on Victorian dolls: Summer 2009, 4; Spring 2007, 16, 30–33; Fall 2010; survey of doll preferences: Winter 1996, 51. 31. In 2012, a woman of sixty-five would have been born in 1947, too old for the first Barbies of 1959. The manager of the UFDC, in a November 20, 2011, interview, told me that when she first was hired in 2004, officials estimated that the average age of members was sixty-five. 32. First sold through mail order and by advertising in magazines, by 1995 these companies had switched to TV infomercials and shortly after that to the Internet. Audrey Dean, Dolls (New York: HarperCollins: 1997), 104–107; Robertson, Life Like Dolls, 25–29, 36, 54. 33. Robertson, Life Like Dolls, 76–87. Ellen Seiter wrote, “boys become their toys in play; girls take care of their toys.” Ellen Seiter, Sold Separately: Children and Parents in Consumer Culture (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1993), 131. 34. Hamilton Collection ad, International Doll World (Dec. 1992): 25; Ashton-Drake Galleries ad, International Doll World (Oct. 1992): 3; Danbury Mint ad, International Doll World (Dec. 1992): 18. 35. Seiter, Sold Separately, 74, 129; Robertson, Life Like Dolls, 101–102, 119, chaps. 4–5, esp. for discussion of “dollification.” Note G. Stanley Hall and A. Caswell Ellis, “A Study of Dolls,” Pedagogical Seminary 4, no. 2 (1896): 132–159, for an early psychological analysis of childhood and dolls. 36. Robertson, Life Like Dolls, 189, 207 (citing My Twinn catalog [Aug. 1998]), 215.

statements on Barbie, UFDC Convention Journal (1985): 99–101; UFDC Convention Journal (1988): 23; all at the United Federation of Doll Clubs, Kansas City, Mo. “Barbie,” Doll News (Spring 1996): 8; “Barbie,” Doll News (Spring 2011): 22–24. 38. Glenn Mandeville, “Trends in Modern Doll Collecting,” in Collecting Modern Dolls, Souvenir Journal of the Third Annual Modern Doll Convention, ed., John Axe (Cincinnati, Ohio: Modern Doll Convention: 1981), 24; John Axe, ed., Fiesta of Dolls: Souvenir Journal of the ThirtyFifth Convention (San Antonio, Tex.: United Federation of Doll Clubs, 1984). 39. Robertson, Life Like Dolls, 133, 148. 40. “2011 National Barbie® Doll Collectors Convention,” 41. 2014 National Barbie® Doll Collectors Convention, 42. Beth Summers, A Decade of Barbie Dolls and Collectibles, 1981–1991 (Paducah, Ky.: Collector, 1996), 1–5; Sybil Dewein and Joan Ashabraner, Collectors’ Encyclopedia of Barbie Dolls and Collectibles (Paducah, Ky.: Collector, 1992), 2–3. 43. Rhapsody Barbie ad, International Doll World (Dec. 1992): 3; A. Glenn Mandeville et al., Barbie Doll Collectors’ Handbook (Cumberland, Md.: Hobby House, 1997), 23–24. 44. Louis Hertz, The Toys Collector (New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1969), 1–3, 9–11, 21, 27, 45, 274. 45. Harry Rinker, Guide to Toy Collecting (New York: HarperCollins, 2008), 1–7; Harry Rinker website: 46. Cross, Kids’ Stuff, chaps. 2–3. 47. Washington Post (Aug. 6, 1989): W21. 48. Various issues of Antique Toy World: Jan.–Feb. 1982, 49; March 1982, 10–13, April 1982, 6, 16–18; May 1982, 1, 8, 13; June 1982, 2; Feb. 1984, 10; June 1983, 1, 97; Oct. 1993, 61. 49. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Nov. 15, 1996): 2. 50. Jeffrey Hammond, Little Big World: Collecting Louis Marx and the American Fifties (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2010); Marx Toy Museum, 51. Los Angeles Times (Dec. 18, 2003): A1. 52. Lexington Herald-Leader (Dec. 17, 2007); Chicago Tribune (April 20, 2009): 21; corporate websites of Jakks Pacific (, Mezco (, and NECA ( 53. “Robert Style,” Fortune Small Business 14, no. 2 (March 2004): 96. 54. Robert Kozinets, “Utopian Enterprise: Articulating the Meanings of Star Trek’s Culture of Consumption,” Journal of Consumer Research 28, no. 1 (June 2001): 67–89; Rebecca Lynne Morrison, “Bringing the Collection to Life: A Study in Object Relations,” Ph.D. diss., University of Alberta, 2010. 55. Daily News Sunday Now (August 2, 2009): 11; G.I. Joe Club, 56. USA Today (February 6, 2002): 6D; New York Times (December 23, 2003): W1; Ravi Chandiramani, “Are Retro Toys Stifling Innovation?” Marketing (July 31, 2003): 13. 57. Chicago Tribune (April 8, 2001): 1; Toronto Star (April 1, 2007): C7. 58. Christian Science Monitor (December 6, 2001): 19. 59. Margaret Talbot, “Little Hotties: Barbie’s New Rivals,” New Yorker (Dec. 5, 2006): 15. 60. “President’s Message,” Doll News (Winter 1986): 3; “UFDC, Annual Report,” Doll News (Fall 2011): 206–210; virtually all regional directors of the UFDC were retired professionals: Doll News (Spring 2010): 119; Doll News (Spring 2011): 181. 61. “President’s Message,” Doll News (Fall 2010): 205; reports on “Junior Clubs”: Doll News (Summer 2011): 146; Doll News (Spring 2010): 121–125; Doll News (Fall 2006): 23; Doll News (Fall 2011): 202.

2. LOVIN’ THAT ’57 CHEVY (OR WHATEVER WAS YOUR FAVORITE CAR AT SEVENTEEN) 1. David Lucsko, The Business of Speed: The Hot Rod Industry in America, 1915–1990 (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008), chap. 5. 2. For insight into the racist implications of the term “rice burners,” see Amy Best, Fast Cars, Cool Rides: The Accelerating World of Youth and their Cars (New York: New York University Press, 2006), 103–106. 3. Lucsko, Business of Speed, 103. 4. Lucsko, Business of Speed, 241–243. 5. Harman Keith, Great American Hot Rods (Iola, Wis.: Krause, 2005), 7–9. 6. Antique Automobile Club of America, The National Hot Rod Association (NHRA) claims a membership of 80,000 with more than 35,000 licensed competitors in drag races. 7. Kathleen Franz, Tinkering: Consumers Reinvent the Early Automobile (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005), 5–23, 41, 45, 55, 108, 147. 8. Lucsko, Business of Speed, 16–18, 41–45, 64–68. For the story of the introduction of auto mechanics in public schools, see Kevin Borg, Auto Mechanics: Technology and Expertise in Twentieth-Century America (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007), chap. 4. 9. Edward Radlauer, Drag Racing, Quarter Mile Thunder (New York: Abelard-Schuman, 1966), 28; H. F. Moorehouse, Driving Ambitions: An Analysis of the American Hot Rod Enthusiasm (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1991), 27–32, 42–44; Michael K. Witzel and Kent Bash, Cruisin’: Car Culture in America (Osceola, Wis.: MBI, 1997), 72–89. 10. “Souped up Speed,” Colliers (April 5, 1947): 3; “California Gangway,” Time (Sept. 26, 1949): 24. 11. Moorehouse, Driving Ambitions, chap. 2. Most criminality related to hot rods was caused by teens, but not all. A motorcycle gang called the Boozefighters terrorized the small California town of Hollister in 1947, an event fictionalized in the movie The Wild One. These predecessors of the Hell’s Angels consisted of disgruntled veterans (led by Arvid Olsen, a member of the acclaimed World War II Fighting Tigers). Bill Hayes, The Original Wild Ones: Tales of the Boozefighters Motorcycle Club (Osceola, Wis.: Motorbooks, 2005); Lucsko, The Business of Speed, 71. 12. Moorehouse, Driving Ambitions, 50, 36–38, 45, 63, 78; Wally Parks (President of the National Hot Rod Association), Drag Racing: Yesterday and Today (New York: Trident Press, 1966), 2–3, 14–22, 26–27. 13. Moorehouse, Driving Ambitions, 50–53, 106, 119, 145, 151, 156, 201; Kevin Nelson, Wheels of Change: From Zero to 6,000 MPH—The Amazing Story of California and the Automobile (Berkeley: Heyday, 2009), chaps. 23–24; Lucsko, Business of Speed, 2, 4, 1, 76, 83–84; John De Witt, Cool Cars, High Art (Tuscaloosa: University of Mississippi Press, 2002); Robert Post, High Performance: The Culture and Technology of Drag Racing, 1950–2000 (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001), x. 14. Tom Wolfe, The Kandy-Kolored Tangerine-Flake Streamline Baby (New York: Noonday, 1963), 87–98. 15. Obituaries for Ed Roth: Baltimore City Paper (Dec. 12, 2001): 4; Los Angeles Times (April 6, 2001): B6; Washington Post (April 7, 2001): B7; New York Times (April 7, 2001): B6. 16. “The Kids Are All Right: The New Generation of Hot-Rodders,” AutoWeek (Nov. 9, 1998): 31. “Kids These Days,” AutoWeek (April 17, 2000): 8. 17. Antique Automobile Club of America,; The Bulletin of the Antique Automobile 1, nos. 1 and 2 (1937). 18. Model T Times (Nov.–Dec. 1990); Model T Times (July–Aug. 1991). 19. Richard Lentinello, It’s Only Original Once: Unrestored Classic Cars (Minneapolis, Minn.: MBI, 2008), 6–7, 108–110, 120–122, 8–9; J. Richardson, Classic Car Restorer’s Handbook (New York: HP, 1994), vi. 20. Classic Car Club of America, “What Is a Classic?”

21. “Classic Cars,” Crain’s Chicago Business (February 4, 2008): 35. 22. For information on the Old Car Festival at Greenfield Village in Dearborn, see 23. New York Times (June 14, 2002): F1. 24. Steven Gelber, Horse Trading in the Age of Cars: Men in the Marketplace (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008). 25. Cotten Seiler, Republic of Drivers: A Cultural History of Automobility in America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008), 60–68. 26. Gary Cross, Men to Boys: The Making of Modern Immaturity (New York: Columbia University Press, 2008), chap. 6. 27. Washington Times (August 11, 2005): M14; Michael Witzel and Kent Bash, Cruisin’, 141. 28. Various announcements of local car cruises,;;;; ClassicCarCruiseIns/tabid/5295/Default.aspx; Rod Reprogle, The Mother of All Car Books: How to Get More Fun and Profit Buying, Showing, and Selling Vintage and Classic Cars (Los Alamitos, Calif.: Duncliff’s International, 1995), 158–159. Witzel and Bash, Cruisin’, 141, 147–148. 29. Cruises in Reno, Nevada: 30. Detroit Free Press, Joy Ride: Ten Years of the Woodward Dream Cruise (Detroit, Mich.: Detroit Free Press, 2004), 13, 23, 42, 57–61, 67. 31. Best, Fast Cars, Cool Rides, 31–55. 32. Witzel and Bash, Cruisin’, chap. 1. 33. Robert Genat, Woodward Avenue: Cruising the Legendary Strip (North Branch, Minn.: Car Tech, 2010), 12–45; Witzel and Bash, Cruisin’, 28–28, 51–55. 34. By 1967, Drive In Restaurant Magazine carried “Ordinance Roundup,” a column informing tradespeople of laws passed around the country to restrict cruising. Genat, Woodward Avenue, 57–61, 77; Witzel and Bash, Cruisin’, 56–67. 35. An example of this is the discussion of cruisers from Watts (a black neighborhood) in a road fight in Pacoima (forty miles away from home) and five carloads of Pasadena cruisers into South Los Angeles (white kids in a black neighborhood tossing a gasoline-filled bottle into a car). The extent of race conflict in these accounts is obscured by the press. Los Angeles Times (July 5, 1961): B1; see also Los Angeles Times (July 3, 1966): A1; Mathew A. Ides, Cruising for Community: Youth Culture and Politics in Los Angeles, 1910–1970 (Ph.D. diss., 2009), 99–150. 36. Los Angeles Times (March 17, 1974): B2; Los Angeles Times (July 6, 1975): A1; Los Angeles Times (Aug. 5, 1976): SE1; Los Angeles Times (Aug. 8, 1979): E1; Los Angeles Times (Oct. 21, 1979): B11. 37. Los Angeles Times (Aug. 3, 1986): A1; Los Angeles Times (Oct. 16, 1986): 2; Los Angeles Times (July 17, 1988): OC 16; Los Angeles Times (July 24, 1988): OC10. 38. Los Angeles Times (Oct. 8, 1981): H1; Los Angeles Times (May 14, 1986): A6; Los Angeles Times (June 8, 1986): A1; Los Angeles Times (Jan. 12, 1989): HD1. 39. “Editorial” and “Letters,” Rod and Custom (Aug. 1969): 5, 9; “Roadster Roundup” and “40s Limited Scrapbook,” Rod and Custom (Dec. 1969): 12–13, 20–21. 40. “Car Clubs,” Rod and Custom (Sept. 1970): 20–22. 41. “Street Rod Nationals,” Rod and Custom (Nov. 1970): 5, 11, 18; “Bud Bryan,” Rod and Custom (Feb. 1997): 72–73; “Editorial,” Rod and Custom (May 1971): 5; “Nationals News,” Hot Rod Magazine (July 1971): 102–103; “The Fun’s in the Run,” Hot Rod Magazine (Oct. 1971): 102– 105; “Street Rod Nationals,” Hot Rod Magazine (Nov. 1971): 117. Henry Felsen, Hot Rod (New York: Dutton, 1950); Seiler, Republic of Drivers, 53. 42. Los Angeles Times (May 14, 1986): A6; Los Angeles Times (June 8, 1986): A1. 43. Boston Globe (August 14, 1999): C1; Baltimore Sun (August 17, 2005): 1G; Los Angeles Times (Jan. 12, 1980): HD1. 44. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (July 28, 2003): 1E. As we have seen, Hispanic car culture sometimes has been associated with gang and criminal activities. Like the hot rodders a half-century before, lowrider clubs have tried to combat this prejudice. “History of Low Rider Magazine,” For an example of a conflict between a local city council and a lowrider cruise group, see Yakima Herald-Republic (Aug. 3, 2010); Yakima Herald-Republic (Aug. 30, 2010). Low Rider Magazine since 1979 has reported on and promoted this culture from northern California. 45. Tad Tuleja, “Trick or Treat: Pre-Texts and Contexts,” in Halloween and Other Festivals of Death and Life, ed. Jack Santino (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1994), 88–90.

3. (RE-)LIVING THAT GOLDEN DECADE 1. The result is a “Potemkin village of a historical kind.” Fredric Jameson, Postmodernism, or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1991), 279–282. 2. Mary Burnside, “Centre Hall Fair Attendees ‘Stake’ Claim to Tradition,” Amusement Business 115, no. 33 (Aug. 18, 2003): 9. 3. Stephanie Coontz, The Way We Never Were: American Families and the Nostalgia Trap (New York: Basic Books, 1992). 4. Tom Hine, Populuxe (New York: Knopf, 1986). 5. “Sha Na Na, ‘The Unreal Fifties,’” Vogue (Nov. 1969): 126; New York Times (Nov. 1, 1970): C12; Daniel Marcus, Happy Days and Wonder Years: The Fifties and the Sixties in Contemporary Cultural Politics (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2004), 12. Fred Davis, Yearning for Yesterday: The Sociology of Nostalgia (New York: Free Press, 1979), 49. 6. Marcus, Happy Days, 16–17; “Back to the ‘50s,” Newsweek (Oct. 16, 1972): 78–82; “The Nifty Fifties,” Life (June 16, 1972): 38–42; Barbara Ribakove and Sy Ribakove, The Happy Years (New York: Award, 1974). 7. Marcus, Happy Days, 25–30; Lynn Spigel, “From the Dark Ages to the Golden Age: Women’s Memories and Television Reruns,” Screen 36, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 317–335. 8. Stephen Fenichell, Plastic: The Making of a Synthetic Century (New York: HarperCollins, 1996), chap. 3. Kenneth R. Berger, A Brief History of Packaging (New York: Morris, 1958), 56–58; Packaging Today website, 9. Fenichell, Plastic, chap. 5; Georg Borgstrom, “Food Processing and Packaging,” in Technology in Western Civilization, ed. M. Kranzberg and C. W. Pursell (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967), 2:386–402; Hyla Clark, Tin Can Book: The Can as Collectible Art, Advertising Art, High Art (New York: New American Library, 1977); Morris, “Management and Preservation of Food,” in A History of Technology, ed. C. Singer et al. (Oxford: Clarendon, 1958), 5:26–52; Robert Opie, Art of the Label (New York: New American Library, 1977), chap. 3. 10. Sylvia Katz, Plastics: Common Objects, Classic Designs (New York: Abrams, 1984), 11–15, 70–71, 77–78. 11. Leslie A. Piña, Fifties Furniture (Atglen, Penn.: Schiffer, 2005), 7, 13, 31. 12. Amy Ortega, Designing the Creative Child: Playthings and Places in Mid-century America (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2013), chap. 3; Elaine Tyler May, Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era (New York: Basic, 1988). 13. Hine, Populuxe, 3; for quotation, 8. 14. Typical are “A Designer’s Home of His Own,” Life (September 11, 1950): 148, featuring Charles Eames; and “Four Rooms: $1,800,” Life (May 14, 1951): 89. 15. Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique (New York: Norton, 1963), chaps. 1–3. 16. Brian Alexander, Atomic Kitchen: Gadgets and Inventions for Yesterday’s Cook (Portland: Collectors Press, 2004), 8–9. 17. Cynthia Lee Henthorn, From Submarines to Suburbs: Selling a Better America, 1939–1959 (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2006); Kathleen Parkin, Food Is Love: Food Advertising and Gender Roles in Modern America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006); quotation from Jan Lindenberger, The ’50s and ’60s Kitchen (Atglen, Penn.: Schiffer: 2003), 6–7.

18. Alexander, Atomic Kitchen, 17, 32–34, 69, 88, 97, 120, 175; Whitney Matheson, Atomic Home: A Tour of the American Dream (Portland: Collectors Press, 2004), 13, 27, 48–49; Lindenberger, ’50s and ’60s Kitchens, 23–56. 19. Will Brooker, Batman Unmasked: Analyzing a Cultural Icon (London: Continuum, 2000), 171–248. Madeleine Marsh, Miller’s Collecting the 1950s (London: Mitchell Beazley, 1997). 20. “Appeal of the Camp,” Knight Ridder Tribune Business News (Oct. 26, 2006): 1. William L. Bird Jr., Paint by Number: The How-to Craze That Swept the Nation (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of American History, in association with Princeton Architectural Press, 2001). 21. Chicago Tribune (June 21, 1998): 10; Betty and Bill Newbound, Collector’s Encyclopedia of Figural Planters and Vases (Paducah, Ky.: Collector, 1996); Kathy Deel, Figural Planters: A Pictorial Guide with Values (Altglen, Penn.: Schiffer, 1996). 22. Travis Smith, Kitschmasland (Altglen, Penn.: Schiffer, 2008), 6, 7, 10, 14–15, 90–91, 160. 23. Los Angeles Times (Aug. 8, 1998): 4S; Mark Young, Steve Duin, and Mike Richardson, Blast Off: Rockets, Robots, Ray Guns, and Rarities from the Golden Age of Space Toys (Milwaukee: Dark Horse Comics, 2001); James H. Gillam, Space Toys of the 60s: An Illustrated Collector’s Guide to Major Matt Mason, Zeroid Robots and Star Team, and Colorforms Outer Space Men (London: CG, 1999). 24. Chicago Tribune (Sept. 23, 1988): 3. 25. Baby Boomer Memories, 26. Marcus, Happy Days, 104–105. 27. Rae Corelli, Larry Black, and Jane O’Hara, “Nostalgia Trips,” Maclean’s (March 21, 1988): 44; New York Times (Feb. 17, 1991): C2. 28. Wall Street Journal (April 18, 1985): 1; Timothy Taylor, The Sounds of Capitalism: Advertising, Music, and the Conquest of Culture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013), chaps. 6–8. 29. Marcus, Happy Days, 112. 30. Francine Prose, “Trying On the 60’s,” New York Times Magazine (Aug. 11, 1991): 618; Nina Darton, “Feelin’ Groovy on 7th Avenue,” Newsweek (July 9, 1990): 618. 31. Madeleine Marsh, Miller’s Collecting the 1960s (London: Octopus: 1999), 42–44, 78, 88, 102. 32. Cleveland Plain Dealer (Aug. 30, 1993): C1; Hamilton Spectator (Nov. 11, 2003): G16. 33. Antony Slide, Collector’s Guide to TV Memorabilia (Des Moines, Iowa: Wallace-Homestead, 1985); Jan Lindenberger, Fun Collectibles of the 1950s, 60s, and 70s (Altglen, Penn.: Schiffer, 1999), 116–121; Times Union (Albany) (April 10, 1995): 1. 34. Atlanta Journal-Constitution (Aug. 14, 2011): 1. 35. Daily Breeze (Torrance, Calif.) (Sept. 28, 1986): 1. 36. “The Magic of a Rearview Mirror,” Maclean’s (March 21, 1988): 42. 37. Chicago Tribune (Feb. 11, 1990): 1; Chicago Tribune (July 31, 1994): 3; Chicago Tribune (March 4, 2007): 10, 9; New York Times (April 15, 1990): 2, 28; Michael Goldberg, The Collectible 70s (Iola, Wis.: Krause, 2001), 11, 13, 25, 40. 38. Pagan Kennedy, Platforms: A Microwaved Cultural Chronicle of the 1970s (New York: St. Martin’s, 1994), 1, 5, 22, 3. 39. Kennedy, Platforms, 14–15. 40. Chicago Tribune (Sept. 23, 1993). 41. Wall Street Journal (Dec. 12, 2001): A1. 42. An accessible website on “decade nostalgia” is 43. James Twitchell, Where Men Hide (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006). 44. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Sept. 9, 2003): B1. 45. Columbus Dispatch (Ohio) (Dec. 24, 2001): 1D. 46. F. F. Schwarz, “The Patriarch of Pong,” American Heritage of Invention and Technology 6, no. 2 (1990): 64; Barry Atkins, More Than a Game: The Computer Game as Fictional Form (Manchester: Manchester University Press: 2003), chap. 1; Henry Lowood, “A Brief Biography of Computer Games,” in Playing Video Games: Motives, Response, and Consequences, ed. Peter Vorderer and Jennings Bryant (Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2006), 28–32; Stephen Kline, Nick Dyer-Witheford, and Grieg De Peuter, Digital Play: The Interaction of Technology, Culture, and Marketing (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2003), 84–108. 47. Lowood, “A Brief Biography,” 35–36; “Computer Games,” Boston Globe Magazine (December 10, 2000): 16; Herman Leonard, Phoenix: The Fall and Rise of Videogames (Springfield, N.J.: Rolenta, 2001), 89–99; Steven Malliet and Gust de Meyer, “The History of the Video Game,” in Handbook of Computer Games Studies, ed. Joost Raessens and Jeffrey Goldstein (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2005), 26–28. 48. Barry Smith, “The (Computer) Games People Play: An Overview of Popular Game Content” and G. Christopher Klug and Jesse Schell, “Why People Play Games: An Industry Perspective,” both in Playing Video Games, ed. Vorderer and Bryant, 43–56, 91–100. 49. Kline, Digital Play, 128–150. 50. Entertainment Software Association (2011), 51. Will Wright, “Foreword,” in David Freeman, Creating Emotion in Games (Indianapolis, Ind.: New Riders, 2004), xxxii. 52. Certainly, the digital generation has developed new ways of communicating, learning, and displaying self. One manifestation of this is certainly a decrease in viewing TV, listening to pop radio, and interest in cars as compared to previous generations, for whom television, music radio, and car culture were defining experiences of youth. Cell phones and laptops have opened up new and far more diverse ways of accessing video and audio culture and new ways of socializing, ways that TV, radio, and cars (through cruising, for example) once provided. Don Tapscott, Growing Up Digital: The Rise of the Net Generation (New York: McGraw Hill, 1998); Jack Neff, “Is the Digital Revolution Driving a Decline in America’s Car Culture?” Advertising Age 81, no. 22 (May 31, 2010): 1–22. 53. Susan Stewart, On Longing: Narratives of the Miniature, the Gigantic, the Souvenir, the Collection (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1993), 168.

4. LEAVING IT TO BEAVER AND RETRO TV 1. Buffalo News (Oct. 21, 2011): 1. 2. See, for radio series collected by nostalgiacs, “Old Time Radio,” 3. Analysis of the role of reruns in meeting the emotional need for predictability include Percy H. Tannenbaum, “Play It Again Sam: Repeated Exposure to Television Programs,” in Selective Exposure to Communication, ed. D. Zillman and J. Brants (Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1985), 225– 241;Todd Gitlin, Inside Prime-Time (New York: Pantheon, 1985), chap. 1. 4. Samantha Barbas, Movie Crazy: Fans, Stars, and the Cult of Celebrity (New York: Palgrave, 2002), 15–28, 35–57; Richard DeCordova, Picture Personalities: The Emergence of the Star System in America (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990), 85–90. 5. David Zinman, Saturday Afternoon at the Bijou (New Rochelle, N.Y.: Arlington House, 1973), 288–300; Jim Harmon, Great Movie Serials: Their Sound and Fury (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1972), 2–5; Kalton Lahue, Continued Next Week: A History of the Moving Picture Serial (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964), 5–6, chaps. 4–10. 6. Susan Douglas, Listening In: Radio and the American Imagination (New York: Times, 1999); Bruce Lenthall, Radio’s America: The Great Depression and the Rise of Modern Mass Culture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007), especially chap. 3. 7. Cobbett Steinberg, TV Facts (New York: Facts on File, 1985), 86–87. 8. Note especially Derek Kompare, Rerun Nation: How Repeats Invented American TV (New York: Routledge, 2005). 9. Gary Edgerton, The Columbia History of American Television (New York: Columbia University Press, 2007), 113–130, 139, 144–155, 163;

James Baughman, Same Time, Same Station: Creating American Television, 1948–1961 (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007), 17–19, 82–83, 101. 10. Timothy Day, A Century of Recorded Music (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2000), 19; Mark Coleman, Playback: From the Victrola to MP3, One Hundred Years of Music, Machines, and Money (New York: Da Capo, 2003), 39, 59–68, 76–85; Tom Anderson, Making Easy Listening: Material Culture and Postwar American Recording (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006), 7–12, 24, 34–37, 44, 111. 11. Kompare, Rerun Nation, introduction, 43, 45, 55; William Boddy, Fifties Television: The Industry and Its Critics (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990), 169–180; Baughman, Same Time, Same Station, 131–135, 140–145. 12. Kompare, Rerun Nation, 72–84. 13. Occasionally, somebody will try to sell DVDs of Dean Martin’s celebrity roast shows—featuring Lucille Ball, Phyllis Diller, George Burns, Johnny Carson, and others familiar to the middle aged in the 1970s when they were aired. See, for example, “The Best of the Dean Martin Celebrity Roasts,” 14. Horace Newcomb, TV: The Most Popular Art (New York: Anchor, 1974), 31–33, 41. 15. David Marc, Demographic Vistas: Television in American Culture, rev. ed. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1984), 65. 16. Father Knows Best TV episodes: “Big Sister,” 1958, UCLA Film and Television Archive (FTA), VA5815T; “The Big Test,” 1955, FTA, VA5815T; “Betty Goes Steady,” 1956, FTA, VA729T; “The Homing Pigeon,” 1956, FTA, VA5811T; Nina Liebman, Living Room Lectures: The Fifties Family in Film and Television (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1997), 124; Gerald Jones, Honey, I’m Home! Sitcoms: Selling the American Dream (New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1992), 98–101. 17. Susan Cheever, “Father Knows Best,” in Prime Times: Writers on their Favorite TV Shows, ed. Douglas Bauer (New York: Crown, 2004), 45–51. 18. Rick Mitz, The Great TV Sitcom Book, exp. ed. (New York: Perigee, 1988), 134–136; 199–220; My Three Sons episodes: “Birds and the Bees,” 1962, FTA, VA1741T; “Almost the Sound of Music,” 1963, FTA, VA 214T; “Adjust or Bust,” 1960, FTA, VA1752T. 19. Jones, Honey, I’m Home, 105–106. 20. A late example is the successful movie series “Ma and Pa Kettle” from the late forties, where a simple farm couple and their large family prevail over city sharpies and the modern world in general. See Anthony Harkins, Hillbilly: A Cultural History of an American Icon (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004). 21. Marc, Demographic Vistas, 39–63. Don Rodney Vaughan, “Why The Andy Griffith Show Is Important to Popular Cultural Studies,” Journal of Popular Culture 38, no. 2 (Nov. 2004): 397–423. 22. David Marc, Comic Visions: Television Comedy and American Culture (Boston: Allen Unwin, 1989), 129–139; Edgerton, American Television, 242–248, 326–327. 23. Edgerton, American Television, 274–278; Marc, Comic Visions, 63, 166–187. 24. Marc, Comic Visions, 187–199. 25. Jill McCorkle, “The Andy Griffith Show,” in Bauer, Prime Times, 61–63. 26. The 1980s also reproduced pseudofamily comedies like Taxi (1978–1983), which offered a burlesque of a goofy family of characters; Three’s Company (1977–1984), the relatively mild sexual innuendo of a man and two women sharing an apartment; and Cheers (1982–1993), a more sophisticated collection of dysfunctional but mostly loveable barflies. Alex McNeil, Total Television, 4th ed. (New York: Penguin, 1996), 181–182; Vincent Terrace, Television Sitcoms (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2000), 145–148; Kompare, Rerun Nation, 201. 27. James Baker, Teaching TV Sitcom (London: British Film Institute, 2003), 48–49. 28. Sitcoms like Modern Family (from 2009) find humor in the diversity of modern family units and relationships (including a gay couple with an adopted daughter). Marc, Comic Visions, 100–118, 166–174; Jones, Honey, I’m Home, 193–202, 235–236; Thomas Hibbs, Shows About Nothing: Nihilism in Popular Culture from The Exorcist to Seinfeld (Dallas: Spence, 1999), chap. 6. 29. Lee Siegel, Not Remotely Controlled: Notes on Television (New York: Basic Books, 2007), 96. 30. Christine Bold, Selling the Wild West: Popular Western Fiction (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987), 3–5, 10–15, 33, and chap. 3; Jeffrey Wallmann, The Western: Parables of the American Dream (Lubbock: Texas Tech University, 1999), 69–71, 95, 125, 128, 137; Jane Tompkins, West of Everything (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 23–45; McNeil, Total Television, 159. 31. Gary Yoggy, “James Arness: Television’s Quintessential Western Hero,” in Back in the Saddle: Essays on Western Film and Television Actors, ed. Gary Yoggy (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1998), 177–199. 32. Gary Yoggy, “When Television Wore Six-Guns: Cowboy Heroes on TV,” in Shooting Stars: Heroes and Heroines of Western Films, ed. Archie McDonald (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987), 123–156. 33. Newcomb, Popular Art, 96–97. 34. Newcomb, Popular Art, 84, 92; Thomas Leitch, Perry Mason (Detroit, Mich.: Wayne State University Press, 2005); Marc, Demographic Vistas, 67; Siegel, Not Remotely Controlled, 33. 35. The 1970s brought a number of picture books about the early years of TV with heavy doses of sentimental remembrances of favorite shows seen while growing up. Kompare, Rerun Nation, 117. Irving Settel and William Laas, Pictorial History of Television (New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1969); Arthur Shulman and Roger Youman, The Television Years (New York: Popular Library, 1973); Vincent Terrace, The Complete Encyclopedia of Television Programs, 1947–1976 (New York: Barnes, 1976); and Donald Glut and Jim Harmon, The Great Television Heroes (New York: Doubleday, 1975), are full of nostalgia and references to childhood. 36. NBC: The First 50 Years, 1976, FTA, DVD 10894-10898 T. 37. ABC Silver Anniversary Celebration, 1978, FTA, VA10483. 38. CBS of the Air, 1978, FTA, VA1806–10 T. Note also the Father Knows Best Reunion, 1977, FTA, VA14261 T, which brought back the cast of the 1950s show with the Anderson parents wistfully reflecting on their empty nest but still managing to “help out” their grown-up children at a Thanksgiving reunion: Bud is a race-car driver with a marriage on the rocks, Betty is a clothing buyer still unmarried but with a prospect back home in an old boyfriend, and Kathy is marrying a doctor. This touching story was a perfect nostalgic fit for “greatest generation” couples and their adult boomer children in 1977. 39. So successful was the Museum of Broadcasting’s nostalgic displays and public viewings of archived TV shows that a sister museum was opened in 1996 in Hollywood. Kompare, Rerun Nation, 101, 106, 120–122. 40. Edgerton, American Television, 300–304, 314, 320–322, 332; Christopher Sterling, Stay Tuned: A History of American Broadcasting (Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erbaum, 2002), 871; Mavis Scanlon, 2006 Industry Overview (Washington, D.C.: National Cable and Telecommunications Association, 2006), 14. 41. Megan Mullen, The Rise of Cable Programming in the United States (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2003), 155–162. 42. Edgerton, American Television, 340–345. 43. By 2014, Disney-ABC owned ESPN, A&E, Lifetime, the Disney channels, ABC Family, and the History channels. Viacom held Nickelodeon, TV Land, Spike, Comedy Central, MTV, VH1, and the BET networks. Time Warner ran HBO, Turner Classic Movies, TNT, TBS, CNN, the Cartoon Network, and Adult Swim; NBCUniversal (acquired partially by Comcast in 2009) owned USA, CNBC, MSNBC, Oxygen, E!, and the Weather Channel. Kompare, Rerun Nation, 189; Edgerton, American Television, 350–351; Scanlon, 2006 Industry Overview, 14. “Comcast $16.7bn Buyout of NBCUniversal,” Financial Times (Feb. 12, 2013). 44. Kompare, Rerun Nation, 171, 175–177; Joseph Turow, Breaking Up America: Advertisers and the New Media World (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997). 45. Mullen, Cable Programming, 163; Turow, Breaking Up America, 104–106. 46. Sarah Banet-Weiser, “The Nickelodeon Brand: Buying and Selling the Audience,” in Cable Visions: Television Beyond Broadcasting, ed.,

S. Banet-Weiser, C. Chris, and A. Freitas (New York: New York University, 2007), 234–255; Sarah Banet-Weiser, Kids Rule! Nickelodeon and Consumer Citizenship (Durham, N.C.: 2007). 47. Disneyland’s anniversary show of 1985 was scarcely more than an opportunity to hype the Disney brand. And the Happy Days Reunion of 1992 was a love fest, with the whole TV family boasting of their enduring friendships. The Honeymooner’s reunion (1985) was even sillier, with lots of clips of the familiar “Pow, right in kisser!” and “To the Moon, Alice!” along with “beloved” spats between Ralph and his wife. Disneyland Thirtieth Anniversary, 1985, FTA, VA 21707T; Happy Days Reunion, March 3, 1992, Paley Media Center (Los Angeles), T25713; Jackie Gleason Presents: Honeymooner’s Reunion, May 13, 1985, Paley Media Center, Los Angeles, T85.902. 48. Still the Beaver, March 19, 1983, Paley Media Center, B12393. 49. Daily Breeze (Torrance, Calif.) (Feb. 19, 1988): 1; Post-Tribune (Indiana) (February 2, 1988): 2; Baltimore Sun (January 20, 1991): C1. 50. In March 2004 there was still another spate of movie remakes of vintage TV, including the 1970s cop show Starsky & Hutch, the 1960s sitcoms Bewitched (with Nicole Kidman in the lead), and I Dream of Jeanie, the Saturday-morning cartoon Scooby-Doo, and the adventure series Mission Impossible. New York Post (November 11, 1999); Charleston Daily Mail (W.V.) (May 7, 2002); Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (May 25, 2002); Miami Herald (September 29, 2002); USA Today (March 4, 2004). 51. The PBS Pioneers of Television (2008) has produced programs built around entertaining genres, for example, “Acting Funny,” “Doctors and Nurses,” “Superheroes,” and “Sitcoms,” with a lot of nostalgic footage. 52. San Francisco Chronicle (July 8, 1990): 12. 53. Los Angeles Times (Jan. 13, 1991): 80; New York Times (Oct. 21, 1992): H2; New York Times (Dec. 4, 1988): H33. 54. San Francisco Chronicle (July 8, 1990): C1; New York Times Magazine (May 6, 2007): 76. 55. Kompare, Rerun Nation, 181–182; PR Newswire (May 11, 2000): 1. 56. Kompare, Rerun Nation, 18. 57. TV Land Schedule Archive, 1996–2004, 58. Kevin Downey, “Boomer Hit Parade,” Broadcast and Cable 136, no. 12 (March 20, 2006): 22. 59. PR Newswire (New York: Sept. 17, 2008): 1. 60. “TV Land Renews Hit Original Reality Series High School Reunion for a Second Season,” Culvert Chronicles 3, no. 12 (April 3–April 9, 2008): 16; “TV Land Unveils New Look, Original Television Series,” SNL Kagan Media & Communications Report (May 10, 2012): 1. 61. Nielsen Corporation, “Introducing Boomers: Marketing’s Most Valuable Generation,”; see also Market ing Charts, 62. Through the 1990s, the Nostalgia Channel struggled, and between 2001 and 2009, it was owned by the Unification Church, after which it was purchased by Robert A. Schuller, the son of Crystal Cathedral founder Robert H. Schuller. By late 2011 it was called Youtoo TV, shifting to a “social media” format and offering viewers the opportunity to air their own videos with limited retro programming: 63. Weakened by the loss of its contract with NBCUniversal Television Distribution in June 2011, RTV had to scramble to get access to programming from smaller distributors. As of May 2012, RTV was carried as a digital “subchannel” by roughly seventy-one local American TV stations, down from ninety-five the year before. “ValCom, Inc. Announces Joint Venture with Luken Communications,” Marketwire (March 22, 2011); Retro Television Network,; “Heim to Leave Nostalgia,” Broadcasting & Cable (March 11, 1996): 64. 64. Chicago Tribune (November 22, 2010): 34; Me-TV,;; “MGM to Handle National Distribution of Weigel’s Me-TV Classic TV,” Digital Network Marketing Weekly News (Jan. 22, 2011): 663, for quotation from Sabin. 65. “Tribune Set to Launch Antenna TV,” Radio & Television Business Report (December 1, 2010): 1; “Antenna TV Launch Schedule Starting January 2011,” Sitcoms Online (October 21, 2010): 2; Antenna TV, 66. An interesting effort to reach the emerging class of retirees is Retirement Living TV (from 2006), none-too-subtly rechristened in 2012 as Redefining Living, to avoid sounding too old. It features informational programming about health, exercise, and relationships for the boomer generation who are “redefining” the life course as they enter their “golden years,” with programming partially coproduced by AARP. New York Times (Dec. 9, 1996): D9; “Centric Finds a Niche,” Multichannel News (Oct. 3, 2011): 26. 67. Fred Davis, Yearning for Yesterday (New York: Free Press, 1979), 12, 44. 68. Fredric Jameson, Postmodernism, or the Logic of Late Capitalism (London: Verso, 1991), 18. 69. Paul Grainge, “Nostalgia and Style in Retro America, Moods, Modes, and Media Recycling,” Journal of American and Comparative Cultures 20, no. 2 (Spring 2000): 27–34; Paul Grainge, Monochrome Memories: Nostalgia and Style in Retro America (Westport, Conn: Praeger, 2002), chaps. 1–2; Megan Mullen, “Surfing Through ‘TVLand’: Notes Toward a Theory of ‘Video Bites’ and Their Function on Cable TV,” The Velvet Light Trap 36 (1995): 60–68. 70. Christian Science Monitor (July 9, 1999): 13. 71. Cristel Antonia Russell and Sidney J. Levy, “The Temporal and Focal Dynamics of Volitional Reconsumption: A Phenomenological Investigation of Repeated Hedonic Experiences,” Journal of Consumer Research 39, no. 2 (August 2012): 341–359.

5. GIVE ME THAT OLD-TIME RADIO 1. John Runowicz, Forever Doo-Wop: Race, Nostalgia, and Vocal Harmony (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2010), chap. 1. 2. “PBS Extends Partnership with ‘MY MUSIC’ Producer T. J. Lubinsky,” PR Newswire (July 23, 1999),; New York Times (March 13, 2011): 3. 3. “Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum Timeline: 1995–2010,” 4. Matthew Schulkind, Laura Kate Hennis, and David C. Rubin, “Music, Emotion, and Autobiographical Memory: They’re Playing Your Song,” Memory and Cognition 27, no. 6 (1999): 948–955; Amee Baird and Séverine Samson, “Memory for Music in Alzheimer’s Disease: Unforgettable?” Neuropsychology Review 19 (2009): 85–101; Matthew D. Schulkind, Patrik N. Juslin, and Daniel Västfjäll, “Emotion in Music: The Need to Consider Underlying Mechanisms,” Behavioral and Brain Science 31 (2008): 559–621; Patrik Juslin, “Music and Emotion,” in Music and the Mind, ed. Irène Deliège and Jane Davidson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 113–138. 5. David Hertz, “Memory in Musical Form,” and Barbara Tillmann, Isabelle Peretz, and S. Samson, “Neurocognitive Approaches to Memory in Music,” both in The Memory Process: Neuroscientific and Humanistic Perspectives, ed. Suzanne Nalbantian, Paul Matthews, and James McClelland (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2011), 359–376, 377–394; quotation at 382. 6. Tim Taylor, The Sounds of Capitalism: Advertising, Music, and the Conquest of Culture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012). 7. David Allan, “Effects of Popular Music in Advertising on Attention and Memory,” Journal of Advertising Research 46, no. 4 (Dec. 2006): 434–444. 8. Morris B. Holbrook and Robert M. Schindler, “Men Relate to Cars of Teens and Women to Songs,” Journal of Consumer Behaviour 3, no. 2 (Dec. 2003): 107. 9. Edison’s competitor Victor embraced the same strategy: “Watch the shadows of emotion flit over the faces of your family,” a 1913 ad declared, when you play recordings of sentimental favorites like “Silver Threads Among the Gold.” National Phonograph Co. Catalogue (1899), 41; National Phonographic Co. Catalogue (1904), 12 (both in Hagley Museum Archives); Edison ad, Colliers (March 28, 1908): back. Victor ad, Ladies Home Journal (Dec. 1913): back for quotation.

10. Michael Chanan, Repeated Takes: A Short History of Recording and Its Effects on Music (London: Verso, 1995), 12–13, 19–20; Mark Katz, Captured Sound: How Technology Has Changed Music (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010), 29, 66–70. 11. David Jansen, Tin Pan Alley: The Composers, the Songs, the Performers, and Their Times (New York: Donald Fine, 1988), xv, xvi. 12. John Shepherd, Tin Pan Alley (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982), 4–7; Jansen, Tin Pan Alley, 40–42. 13. Shepherd, Tin Pan Alley, 24; Sheldon Patinkin, “No Legs, No Jokes, No Chance”: A History of the American Musical Theater (Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 2008); Arthur Wertheim, Vaudeville Wars: How the Keith-Albee and Orpheum Circuits Controlled the Big-Time and Its Performers (London: Palgrave, 2006); Robert Lewis, From Traveling Show to Vaudeville: Theatrical Spectacle in America, 1830–1910 (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003). 14. Jansen, Tin Pan Alley, xx, 3. 15. Ethnic European and African American music was often modified to adapt to Tin Pan Alley imperatives—easy to play and sing and “acceptable” (in the view of publishers) to a mass audience. Thus, the Alley whitened African American innovations like the cakewalk, rag, blues, and jazz. Irving Berlin’s “Alexander’s Ragtime Band” (a song of 1911 about rag rather than a ragtime song) was promoted instead of Scott Joplin’s authentic “Maple Leaf Rag” (1899). Jansen, Tin Pan Alley, 45, 36–37; Shepherd, Tin Pan Alley, chap. 3. 16. Victor’s 1903 catalog offered those “dear old Southern melodies” of the old-time minstrel show that promised to “bring back the old-time thrill.” Victor also presented a vast array of dance music and instrumental solos for middlebrow taste. Victor Catalogue (1903), Hagley Museum Archives; Victor ad, Ladies’ Home Journal (Oct. 1906): 79; Voice of the Victor (May–June 1911): 1–4; Voice of the Victor (May 1908): 7; Victor Victrola Catalogue (1910); Victor Catalogue (1918) (All in the Hagley Museum Archives). 17. Though first conceived as a business machine for recording office correspondence (like a Dictaphone) when invented by Thomas Edison in 1877, subsequent improvements (like Emile Berlin’s phonograph) abandoned Edison’s cylinder records for discs that were easier to reproduce and store, which in turn led to factory-recorded music for entertainment. Though first adapted to coin-operated arcade phonographs (1890 to around 1908), personally owned machines played in the home emerged around 1895 and quickly dominated. See Gary Cross and Robert Proctor, Packaged Pleasures (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014), chap. 5. 18. A. J. Millard, America on Record (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 136–157; Roland Gelatt, The Fabulous Phonograph, 1877–1977 (New York: Macmillan, 1977), 218, 245–267; Michael Chanan, Repeated Takes: A Short History of Recording and Its Effects on Music (London, Verso, 1995), 38–39. 19. Shepherd, Tin Pan Alley, 72; Sungook Hong, Wireless: From Marconi’s Black Box to the Audion (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2001); Steven Wurtzler, Electric Sounds: Technological Change and the Rise of Corporate Mass Media (New York: Columbia University Press, 2007); Christopher Sterling, The Rise of American Radio, vol. 1 (New York: Routledge, 2007). 20. Mark Coleman, Playback: From the Victrola to MP3, One Hundred Years of Music, Machines, and Money (New York: Da Capo, 2003), 39, 59–68, 76–85; Greg Milner, Perfecting Sound Forever: An Aural History of Recorded Music (London: Faber and Faber, 2009), 109–112. 21. Erik Barnouw, A Tower in Babel: A History of Broadcasting in the United States to 1933 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1966), 217. 22. Shepherd, Tin Pan Alley, chaps. 8 and 10; Tom Anderson, Making Easy Listening: Material Culture and Postwar American Recording (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006), 7–12, 24, 34–37, 44, 111; Jacques Attali, Noise: The Political Economy of Music (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985), 87, 128; David Suisman, Selling Sound: The Commercial Revolution in American Music (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2012), 282. 23. Susan Douglas, Listening In: Radio and the American Imagination (New York: Times, 1999), chap. 9. 24. This nostalgia continues with reruns of the Lawrence Welk Show, featuring stock performers like Norma Zimmer, Bob Ralston, and the Lennon Sisters singing standards. Jansen, Tin Pan Alley, 213–215; Arnold Shaw, “Sinatrauma: The Proclamation of a New Era,” in The Frank Sinatra Reader, ed. Steven Petkov and Leonard Mustazza (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), 15. 25. Glen Jeansonne, David Luhrssen, and Dan Sokolovic, Elvis Presley, Reluctant Rebel (Santa Barbara, Calif.: Praeger, 2011), 122–126. Kerry Segrave, Anti-Rock: The Opposition to Rock ’n’ Roll (Hamden, Conn.: Shoe String, 1988). 26. Jansen, Tin Pan Alley, 280–288. 27. Marc Fisher, Something in the Air: Radio, Rock, and the Revolution That Shaped a Generation (New York: Random House, 2007), 69. 28. Fisher, Something in the Air, 5–15. 29. Bill Brewster and Frank Broughton, Last Night a DJ Saved my Life: The History of the Disc Jockey (New York: Grove, 2000), 25–30. 30. Fisher, Something in the Air, chap. 2; Brewster and Broughton, DJ, 31–41; New York Times (Sept. 24, 1972); Arnold Passman, The Deejays (New York: Macmillan, 1971); John Jackson, Big Beat Heat: Alan Freed and the Early Years of Rock & Roll (New York: Schirmer, 2000). 31. PBS, “Conversation with Wolfman Jack, June 21, 1995,” videotape, Paley Media Center, Beverly Hills, Calif., T39073; Wolfman Jack and Byron Laursen, Have Mercy: Confessions of the Original Rock-and-Roll Animal (New York: Warner Books, 1995). 32. Fisher, Something in the Air, 60, 88; Orlando Sentinel (April 22, 1988): C1. 33. Ad for Schafer Electronics computer programmer, Broadcasting (Aug. 24, 1970): 2. 34. Bruce Morrow felt even more out of place when sent by WABC to the Woodstock music festival in the summer of 1969. “I was not a hippie, but I want to be accepted,” he recalled. Fisher, Something in the Air, chap. 8; Bruce Morrow, Cousin Brucie: My Life in Rock ’n’ Roll (New York: Beech Tree, 1987), 88 for quotation; Orlando Sentinel (April 22, 1988): C1. 35. Richard Goldstein, “Sha Na Na, ‘The Unreal Fifties,’” Vogue (Nov. 1969): 126; Daniel Marcus, Happy Days and Wonder Years: The Fifties and the Sixties in Contemporary Cultural Politics (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2004), 12; Simon Reynolds, Retromania: Pop Culture’s Addiction to Its Own Past (London: Faber and Faber, 2011), 283–285; Fred Davis, Yearning for Yesterday: The Sociology of Nostalgia (New York: Free Press, 1979), 49. 36. Various articles on retro rock concerts: New York Times (Dec. 3, 1972): 45; New York Times (June 16, 1974): 43; New York Times (July 15, 1973): 46; New York Times (Sept. 2, 1977): 19; New York Times (Nov. 19, 1978): 87; New York Times (July 17, 1982): 43; New York Times (Sept. 11, 1981): C23. 37. New York Times (Dec. 9, 2009): A41. 38. Note the letter written by the leader of the Sex Pistols, John Lydon, calling the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame “piss” in 1996. 39. Reynolds, Retromania, chaps. 8–9. Legs McNeil and Gillian McCain, Please Kill Me: The Uncensored Oral History of Punk (New York: Penguin, 1997). 40. New York Times (July 5, 2009): A4. 41. New York Times (Sept. 24, 1972): D15. 42. Wolfman Jack and Laursen, Have Mercy; Wolfman Jack, Let’s Cruise, vol. 1 [CD of radio shows] (Big Ear Music, 1998),; 43. Runowicz, Forever Doo-Wop, 3–4, 1, 11–14; Robert Pruter, Doowop: The Chicago Scene (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997), 250– 252; Anthony Bribin and Matthew Schiff, The Complete Book of Doo-Wop (Iola, Wis.: Krause, 2000), 13–15. 44. Runowicz, Forever Doo-Wop, 26, 30–39, 56; Bruce Morrow, Doo Wop: The Music, the Times, the Era (New York: Sterling, 2010); Paul Friedlander, Rock & Roll: A Social History (Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 2006), chap. 5; Mitch Rosalsky, Encyclopedia of Rhythm & Blues and Doo-Wop Vocal Groups (Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow, 2000); Anthony Gribin, Doo-Wop: The Forgotten Third of Rock ’n’ Roll (New York: Krause, 1992). 45. Runowicz, Forever Doo-Wop, 69, 76–77. 46. Runowicz, Forever Doo-Wop, 97.

47. George Lee, Beale Street: Where the Blues Began (New York: Robert Ballou, 1934); Jeansonne et al., Elvis Presley, 17–43; Karal Ann Marling, Graceland: Going Home with Elvis (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996), 52; Charles Wolfe, “Presley and the Gospel Tradition,” in The Elvis Reader: Texts and Sources on the King of Rock ’n’ Roll, ed. Kevin Quain (New York: St. Martin’s, 1992), 15–18. 48. Peter Guralnick, Last Train to Memphis: The Rise of Elvis Presley (New York: Little, Brown, 1994), 64–65. Jeansonne et al., Elvis Presley, 72–73, 109–136; Marling, Graceland, 133–148, 184–197. 49. Marling, Graceland, 80–86, 63–67. 50. Peter Guralnick, Careless Love: The Unmaking of Elvis Presley (New York: Little, Brown, 1999). 51. George Lipsitz, Time Passages: Collective Memory and American Popular Culture (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1990), xiv; Erika Doss, Elvis Culture: Fans, Faith, and Image (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1999), 116–161. 52. Doss, Elvis Culture, 4, 16,17, 22, 48–54, 167, 188, 214–215, quotation on 13; Bill DeNight, Sharon Fox, and Girs Rijff, eds., Elvis: The Commemorative Edition (New York: Beekman House, 1991), 78–79. 53. Doss, Elvis Culture, 42–44, 61, 63, 77, quotation on 81. 54. In addition to this shrine to Elvis, there are Elvis “churches”—for example, the First Presleyterian Church of Elvis the Divine. They are online, mostly tongue in cheek, but their founders are really fans (appealing to a Gen-X sensibility of camp). Doss, Elvis Culture, 89, 97, 104; Gregory Reece, Elvis Religion: The Cult of the King (London: I. B. Tauris, 2006), 10–21. 55. Reece, Elvis Religion, chap. 2; R. Serge Denisoff and George Plasketes, True Disbeliever: The Elvis Contagion (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1995). 56. Wall Street Journal (April 13, 1982): 1; Chicago Tribune (June 27, 1983): B1; Globe and Mail (Canada) (June 14, 1986): D3; Dallas Morning News (June 3, 1990): H22; New York Times (May 20, 1990): F10. 57. Globe and Mail (Canada) (June 14, 1986): D3. 58. Washington Post (Nov. 23, 1988): D7; Wall Street Journal (April 18, 1985):1. 59. Sean Ross, “Music Radio—the Fickleness of Fragmentation,” in Radio: The Forgotten Medium, ed. Edward Pease and Everette Dennis (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1995), 95–105. 60. Washington Post (May 15, 2001): C1. 61. “Rock and Roll Forever,” Newsweek (July 5, 1993): 48. 62. Fred Setterberg, “Cruising with Donny on the San Leandro Strip,” in The Automobile and American Culture, ed. David Lewis and Laurence Goldstein (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1980), 320. 63. Reynolds, Retromania, 198, 200. 64. Tamara Livingston, “Music Revivals: Toward a General Theory,” Ethnomusicology 43, no. 1 (Winter 1999): 66–85. 65. Coleman, Playback, 159–63. 66. Runowicz, Forever Doo-Wop, 142; Jon Coleman, “Oldies Insights; Fisher, Something in the Air, 277, 279, chap. 11.

Winter 2003: Is

Newer Music

Helping or Hurting?”

67. Reynolds, Retromania, 196–197, for quotation, 409. 68. Reynolds, Retromania, xv, for quotation, vi–xix, 386–389, chap. 2.

6. DILEMMAS OF HERITAGE IN AN ERA OF CONSUMED NOSTALGIA 1. Richard Perrin, Historic Wisconsin Buildings: A Survey in Pioneer Architecture, 1835–1870 (Milwaukee, Wis.: Milwaukee Public Museum, 1981); Richard Perrin, The Architecture of Wisconsin (Madison, Wis.: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1967); John Krugler, Creating Old World Wisconsin: The Struggle to Build an Outdoor History Museum of Ethnic Architecture (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2013). 2. The site has long struggled with costs and limited audience appeal. Perhaps more than at other heritage sites, the expense of maintaining mostly wooden (and very old) structures through years of Wisconsin winters has been a burden on the site’s limited budget. Hundreds of period objects (from a long wooden bread trough to simple kitchen bowls) have to be cleaned and stored every winter (as the site is closed mostly from November to May), and the heirloom vegetables have to be planted with special seeds annually (using a greenhouse for early germination). And, with the critical help of volunteers, period garments have to be handmade regularly for interpreters. “Wisconsin Historical Site Captures OldFashioned Rural Life,” McClatchy—Tribune Business News (May 22, 2010). 3. American Association of State and Local History,; Association for Living History, Farm, and Agricultural Museums, 4. Jay Anderson, Time Machines: The World of Living History (Nashville, Tenn.: American Association for State and Local History, 1984), 17– 30. 5. Anders Greenspan, Creating Colonial Williamsburg: The Restoration of Virginia’s Eighteenth-Century Capital, 2nd ed. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002), 35, 40–41, 47, 49; Michael Kammen, Mystic Chords of Memory (New York: Knopf, 1991), 358–370; Thomas Taylor, “The Williamsburg Restoration and Its Reception by the American Public: 1926–1942,” dissertation, George Washington University, 1989, chap. 2; Warren Leon and Margaret Piatt, “Living-History Museums,” in History Museums in the United States, ed., W. Leon and R. Rosenzweig (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989), 64–97; John D. Rockefeller Jr., “The Genesis of the Williamsburg Restoration,” National Geographic 71 (April 1937): 401. 6. Richard Handler and Eric Gable, The New History in an Old Museum: Creating the Past at Colonial Williamsburg (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1997), 5. 7. Daniel Boorstin, “Past and Present in America: A Historian Visits Colonial Williamsburg,” Commentary 25 (Jan. 1958): 1–7; Ada Louise Huxtable, The Unreal America: Architecture and Illusion (New York, 1997), chap. 1, quotation on 35; Greenspan, Creating Colonial Williamsburg, 128, 143; David Lowenthal, “The American Way of History,” Columbia University Forum 9 (Summer 1966): 31. 8. Colonial Williamsburg: Official Guidebook and Map (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1972), v–vi. 9. Greenspan, Creating Colonial Williamsburg, 133, 151; Eric Gable and Richard Handler, “The Authority of Documents at Some American History Museums,” Journal of American History 8 (June 1994): 119, 121. 10. Colin Campbell, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation: Seventy-Five Years of Historic Preservation and Education, A Newcomen Address (New York: Newcomen Society of the United States, 2001), 10, 24. 11. Alicia Griswold, “Colonial Williamsburg in Review,” Adweek (June 18, 2001): 4. 12. David Kiley, “Shaking off the Dust,” Brandweek (June 1, 1998): 20–21; “Williamsburg Is Getting Top-to-Bottom Makeover to the Tune of $100M,” Meeting News 25, no. 12 (Aug. 6, 2001): 54. 13. Eric Gable and Richard Handler, “Notes from the Ethnography of Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia, U.S.A.,” in Defining Memory: Local Museums and the Construction of History in America’s Changing Communities, ed. Amy Levin (Lanham, Md.: AltaMira: 2007), 47–48, 53. 14. William Greenleaf, From These Beginnings: The Early Philanthropies of Henry and Edsel Ford, 1911–1936 (Detroit, Mich.: Wayne State University Press, 1964), 96; Kammen, Mystic Chords, 352–358; Anderson, Time Machines,17–30; The Henry Ford, 15. Henry Ford Museum Staff, Greenfield Village and the Henry Ford Museum (New York: Crown, 1972), 15, 21, 57; A Guide Book for the Henry Ford Museum(Dearborn, Mich., 1956). Tony Bennett, “Museums and the People,” in The Museum Time-Machine, ed. Robert Lumley (London: Comedia, 1988), 63–86; C. B. Hosmer, Presence of the Past: A History of the Preservation Movement in the United States Before Williamsburg (New York: Putnam, 1965), 6–10. 16. Kerstin Brandt, “Fordist Nostalgia: History and Experience at the Henry Ford,” Rethinking History 11, no. 3 (Sept. 2007): 385; David Lowenthal, The Past Is a Foreign Country (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985).

17. Alexander Cook, “The Use and Abuse of Historical Reenactment: Thoughts on Recent Trends in Public History,” Criticism 46, no. 3 (2004): 487–496, esp. 491; Vanessa Agnew, “Introduction: What Is Reenactment?” Criticism 46, no. 3 (2004): 334; Andreas Huyssen, Present Pasts: Urban Palimpsests and the Politics of Memory (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2003), 2; James Weeks, Gettysburg: Memory, Market, and an American Shrine (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003), chap. 8, for a discussion of Civil War reenactors. 18. Larry Lankton, “Something Old, Something New: The Reexhibition of the Henry Ford Museum’s Hall of Technology,” Technology and Culture 21, no. 4 (Oct. 1980): 594–613. 19. Geoffrey C. Upward, A Home for Our Heritage: The Building and Growth of Greenfield Village and the Henry Ford Museum, 1929–1979 (Dearborn, Mich.: Henry Ford Museum, 1979); William Simonds, Henry Ford and Greenfield Village (New York: Frederick A. Stokes, 1938); Brandt, “Fordist Nostalgia,” 385–386. 20. More money and programs have been added to The Henry Ford since the 1980s (including a new tour of the revamped River Rouge factory, famed for its historic role at Ford and its display of the Wright Brothers’ first airplane);L. Lankton, “Made in America,” Technology and Culture 35, no. 2 (April 1994): 389–395; “Descendants of Wright Brothers and Henry Ford to Unveil Historic Plane at Henry Ford Museum, Today,” PR Newswire (March 19, 2004): 1. 21. Brandt, “Fordist Nostalgia,” 394–395, 400–401; Scott Mallwitz, “Experience Design,” Presentation at the Museum Studies Proseminar, University of Michigan (2004), 9, cited in Brandt, “Fordist Nostalgia,” 400; Joseph Pine and James Gilroy, The Experience Economy: Work Is Theatre and Every Business a Stage (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1999). 22. Sherri Begin, “The Henry Ford Plans ‘Digestible’ Exhibits,” Crain’s Detroit Business23, no. 52 (Dec. 24, 2007): 10. 23. Catherine Kennelly, Life in an Old New England Country Village: An Old Sturbridge Village Book (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1969), 2– 3, 6–12, 22–23; Charles Van Ravenswaay, The Story of Old Sturbridge Village (New York: Newcomen Society in North America, 1965), 2–9; Samuel Chamberlain, A Tour of Old Sturbridge Village (New York: Hastings House, 1972); Kent McCallum, Old Sturbridge Village (New York: Abrams, 1996); Laura Abing, “Old Sturbridge Village: An Institutional History of a Cultural Artifact,” dissertation, Marquette University, 1997. 24. Telegram and Gazette (Worcester, Mass.) (July 27, 1989): A2; Telegram and Gazette (Worcester, Mass.) (Jan. 2, 1990): A2; Telegram and Gazette (Worcester, Mass.) (July 2, 1999): C3. 25. Kennelly, Old Sturbridge Village Book, 2–3; Ravenswaay, The Story of Old Sturbridge Village, 8. 26. Kevin Walsh, The Representation of the Past (London: Routledge, 1992), 96–97; Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, Destination Culture: Tourism, Museums, and Heritage (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), 194–195; and especially Weeks, Gettysburg: Memory. 27. Nicholas Zook, Museum Villages USA (Barre, Mass.: Barre Publishers, 1971); Walter Knott, “The Enterprises of Walter Knott, Oral History Transcript” (interviewed by Donald J. Schippers in 1963), Oral History Program, University of California, Los Angeles (1965), UCLA Library, Special Collections, 13. 28. “Colonial Williamsburg Site in Virginia Reports Increase in Revenue,” Knight Ridder Tribune Business News (Feb. 9, 2002); “Colonial Williamsburg, Va., Reports 10 Percent Decline in Visitors in 2002,” Knight Ridder Tribune Business News (March 26, 2003); “Summer Tourism in Williamsburg, Va., Less Than Expected,” Knight Ridder Tribune Business News (July 31, 2003); “Colonial Williamsburg, Va., to Cut 95 Jobs in Historic Area,” Knight Ridder Tribune Business News (Sept. 3, 2003); “Colonial Williamsburg Is Eliminating 95 Jobs in the Historic Area,” Knight Ridder Tribune Business News (March 13, 2004); “Colonial Williamsburg in Virginia Sees 3 Percent Decline in Visitors,” Knight Ridder Tribune Business News (Jan. 20, 2005). 29. “Attendance Sinks to a 47-Year Low,” McClatchy—Tribune Business News (Nov. 6, 2008); “Cutting Costs Was Harsh but Effective,” McClatchy—Tribune Business News (Feb. 13, 2010); Richmond Times Dispatch (Dec. 12, 2013): 1. 30. Telegram and Gazette (Worcester, Mass.) (Feb. 1, 2006): A8; Wall Street Journal (Aug. 22, 1997): B1, 3. 31. “Old World Wisconsin Looks for New Life After Tornado,” McClatchy—Tribune Business News (July 7, 2010); Milwaukee Journal (May 1, 2011): C1. 32. “Some Fear Colonial Williamsburg Will Have to ‘Disnify’ to Attract Tourists,” Knight Ridder Tribune Business News (Sept. 5, 2004). 33. Telegram and Gazette (Worcester, Mass.) (Feb. 1, 2006): A8. 34. Wall Street Journal (April 15, 1998): NE1. 35. “Keeping Them Coming Back to the Past,” Knight Ridder Tribune Business News (Feb. 13, 2005). 36. Gazette (Montreal) (Sept. 9, 2009): E3. 37. The Sturbridge museum not only expanded its program of school children’s field trips (more than 60,000 in 2008, up 8 percent for the year) but also sent interpreters to classrooms in the “History on the Road” program. “Old Sturbridge Village Attendance up 8 Percent in 2008,” Business Wire (Jan. 19, 2009); “Old Sturbridge Village Museum on Track for Best Year in Decade,” Education Letter (Sept. 9, 2009): 69. 38. Keith Miller, “Williamsburg Flex Co-Op Brings Positive Tourism Results to Area,” Amusement Business (March 25, 2002): 6; “Interactive History: British Actors Skilled at Improvisation Are Consultants for a New Dramatic Program at Colonial Williamsburg,” Knight Ridder Tribune Business News (April 19, 2006); “Colonial Williamsburg Adding New Programs to Draw Visitors,” McClatchy—Tribune Business News (Oct. 16, 2011). 39. Wall Street Journal (Aug. 22, 1997): B1: “Old Sturbridge Village Museum on Track for Best Year in Decade,” Education Letter (Sept. 9, 2009): 69. 40. Miller, “Williamsburg Flex,” 6; Wall Street Journal (Aug. 22, 1997): B1. 41. “CW Store Opens Near D.C.,” McClatchy—Tribune Business News (April 16, 2008). 42. “Henry Ford Museum Catches Boogie Fever With ‘Disco: A Decade of Saturday Nights,’” PR Newswire (Nov. 18, 2003); “Lego-Lovers Marvel at the Henry Ford Museum’s New Lego Castle Adventure Exhibit,” PR Newswire (Oct. 19, 2009). 43. Telegram and Gazette (Worcester, Mass.) (Jan. 23, 2009): D1. 44. “Wisconsin Tourist Attraction Returns to Full Schedule Despite Cuts,” Knight Ridder Tribune Business News (April 15, 2003); “Old World Wisconsin Trying New Approach,” Knight Ridder Tribune Business News (May 7, 2006); Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (July 16, 2009): 3. 45. Christina Goulding, “Romancing the Past: Heritage Visiting and the Nostalgic Consumer,” Psychology and Marketing 18, no. 6 (June 2001): 565–592. 46. Barbara Franco, “The Communication Conundrum: What Is the Message? Who Is Listening?” Journal of American History 8, no. 11 (June 1994): 151–164; Gary Kulik, “Designing the Past: History-Museum Exhibitions from Peale to the Present,” in History Museums in the United States: A Critical Assessment, ed. Warren Leon and Roy Rosenzweig (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989), 6. 47. Stuart Hannabuss, “Postmodernism and the Heritage Experience,” Library Management 20, no. 5 (1999): 295–302.

7. PILGRIMAGES, SOUVENIRS, AND MEMORY AT DISNEY 1. Walter Knott, “The Enterprises of Walter Knott: Oral History Transcript” (interviewed by Donald J. Schippers in 1963), Oral History Program, University of California, Los Angeles (1965), UCLA Library, Special Collections; “Calico Ghost Town, Southern California’s Greatest Silver Camp,” Orange County Archives, Smart Family Collection; Various clippings, Orange County Archives, Knott’s Berry Farm Papers, Clippings Box; Knott’s Berry Farm and related websites:;;; Roger Holmes and Paul Bailey, Fabulous Farmer: The Story of Walter Knott and His Berry Farm (Los Angeles, 1956), 1–14, 145–149; Gary Cross, “Knott’s Berry Farm: The Improbable Amusement Park in the Shadow of Disney,” in The Amusement Park: History, Culture, and the Heritage of Pleasure, ed. Jason Woods (Aldershot: Ashgate, forthcoming). 2. Gary Cross and John Walton, The Playful Crowd: Pleasure Places in the Twentieth Century (New York: Columbia University Press, 2005). 3. According to Susan Stewart: “Whereas the miniature represents closure, interiority, the domestic, and the overly cultural, the gigantic represents infinity, exteriority, the public, and the overly natural. Miniatures focus on detail, on the individual in control, on timelessness. We find