Download Solar System Fact Sheet

Download Solar System Fact Sheet

CLARK PLANETARIUM SOLAR SYSTEM FACT SHEET Data provided by NASA/JPL and other official sources. This handout ©July 2013 by Clark Planetarium (www.cla...

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CLARK PLANETARIUM SOLAR SYSTEM FACT SHEET

Data provided by NASA/JPL and other official sources. This handout ©July 2013 by Clark Planetarium (www.clarkplanetarium.org).

May be freely copied by professional educators for classroom use only. The known satellites of the Solar System shown here next to their planets with their sizes (mean diameter in km) in parenthesis. The planets and satellites (with diameters above 1,000 km) are depicted in relative size (with Earth = 0.500 inches) and are arranged in order by their distance from the planet, with the closest at the top. Distances from moon to planet are not listed.

Jupiter

Mercury (no natural satellites)

Venus

(no natural satellites)

Earth

Moon (3,475)

Mars • Phobos (22.2) • Deimos (12.4)

Ceres

(975 km, 2.77 AU) (Dwarf Planet)

• • • •

1- Metis (44) 2- Adrastea (16) 3- Amalthea (168) 4- Thebe (98)



5- Io (3,643.2)



6- Europa (3,121.6)



7- Ganymede (5,262)

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

8- Callisto (4,820.6) 9- Themisto (9) 10- Leda (18) 11- Himalia (160) 12- Lysithea (38) 13- Elara (78) 14- S/2000 J 11 (4) 15- Carpo (3) 16- S/2003 J 3 (2) 17- S/2003 J 12 (1) 18- Euporie (2) 19- S/2003 J 18 (2) 20- Orthosie (2) 21- Euanthe (3) 22- Thyone (4) 23- S/2003 J 16 (2) 24- Mneme (2) 25- Harpalyke (4)

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

26- Hermippe (4) 27- Praxidike (6.8) 28- Thelxinoe (2) 29- Helike (4) 30- Iocaste (5.2) 31- Ananke (28) 32- S/2003 J 15 (2) 33- Herse (2) 34- S/2003 J 9 (1) 35- S/2003 J 19 (2) 36- Eurydome (3) 37- Arche (3) 38- Autonoe (4) 39- Pasithee (2) 40- Chaldene (3.8) 41- Kale (2) 42- Isonoe (3.8) 43- Aitne (3) 44- S/2003 J 4 (2) 45- Erinome (3.2) 46- Taygete (5) 47- Carme (46) 48- Sponde (2) 49- Kalyke ( 5.2) 50- Pasiphae (58) 51- Eukelade (4) 52- Megaclite (6) 53- Sinope (38)

• • • • • • • • • •

Uranus

Saturn

54- Hegemone (3) 55- Aoede (4) 56- Kallichore (2) 57- S/2003 J 23 (2) 58- S/2003 J 5 (4) 59- Callirrhoe (7) 60- S/2003 J 10 (2) 61- Cyllene (2) 62- Kore (2) 63- S/2003 J 2 (2)

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

1- S/2009 S1 (1) 2- Pan (26) 3- Daphnis (7) 4- Atlas (32) 5- Prometheus (100.2) 6- Pandora (83.8) 7- Epimetheus (119) 8- Janus (177.6) 9- Aegaeon (1) 10- Mimas (397.2) 11- Methone (3) 12- Anthe (1) 13- Pallene (4) 14- Enceladus (498.8) 15- Telesto (24) 16- Tethys (1,059.8) 17- Calypso (19) 18- Dione (1,118) 19- Helene (32) 20- Polydeuces (4) 21- Rhea (1,528)

• • • • • • • • • • •

22- Titan (5,150) 23- Hyperion (266) 24- Iapetus (1,436) 25- Kiviuq (14) 26- Ijiraq (10) 27- Phoebe (220) 28- Paaliaq (19) 29- Skathi (6.4) 30- Albiorix (26) 31- S/2007 S 2 (6) 32- Bebhionn (6)

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

33- Erriapo (10) 34- Siarnaq (40) 35- Skoll (6) 36- Tarvos (15) 37- Tarqeq (7) 38- Greip (6) 39- Hyrrokkin (8) 40- S/2004 S 13 (6) 41- S/2004 S 17 (4) 42- Mundilfari (7) 43- Jarnsaxa (6) 44- S/2006 S 1 (6) 45- Narvi (7) 46- Bergelmir (6) 47- Suttungr (5.6) 48- S/2004 S 7 (6) 49- S/2004 S 12 (5) 50- Hati (6) 51- Bestla (7) 52- Farbauti (5) 53- Thrymr (7) 54- S/2007 S 3 (5) 55- Aegir (6) 56- S/2006 S 3 (6) 57- Kari (7) 58- Fenrir (4) 59- Surtur (6) 60- Ymir (18) 61- Loge (6) 62- Fornjot (6)

1- Cordelia (40.2) 2- Ophelia (42.8) 3- Bianca (51.4) 4- Cressida (79.6) 5- Desdemona (64) 6- Juliet (93.6) 7- Portia (135.2) 8- Rosalind (72) 9- Cupid (24) 10- Belinda (80.6) 11- Perdita (20) 12- Puck (162) 13- Mab (10) 14- Miranda (471.6) 15- Ariel (1,157.8) 16- Umbriel (1,169.4) 17- Titania (1,577.8) 18- Oberon (1,522.8) 19- Francisco (22) 20- Caliban (72) 21- Stephano (32) 22- Trinculo (18) 23- Sycorax (150) 24- Margaret (20) 25- Prospero (50) 26- Setebos (47) 27- Ferdinand (21)

Neptune

Pluto

(Dwarf Planet) • Charon (1186)

• • • • • • •

1- Naiad (58) 2- Thalassa (80) 3- Despina (148) 4- Galate (158) 5- Larissa (192) 6- S/2004 N1 (20?) 7- Proteus (416)

• • • • • • •

8- Triton (2,706.8) 9- Nereid (340) 10- Halimede (61) 11- Sao (40) 12- Laomedeia (40) 13- Psamathe (38) 14- Neso (60)

• • • •

Nix (60?) Hydra (50?) Kerberos (13-34?) Styx (??)

Haumea

(1150 km, 51 AU) (Dwarf Planet) • Namaka (114) • Hi’iaka (310)

Makemake

(1500 km, 59 AU) (Dwarf Planet)

Eris

(2800 km, 97 AU) (Dwarf Planet) • Dysnomia (150)

All four Jovian planets, or “gas giants” have rings.

Average Distance from Sun Length of Year Length of Day Average Orbital Velocity

Mercury

Venus

Earth

57.91

108.21

149.60

3m13s

6m1s

8m19s

0.3871

0.7233

1.0000

Period of Orbit

87.969d

224.701d

365.256d

Period of Rotation

58 15 31

243 0 26 R

23 56 04

Millions of Kilometers Light Travel Time Astronomical Units

d

h

m

d h

m

h

m

Moon

Mars

Jupiter

Saturn

Uranus

Neptune

.3844

227.94

778.30

1,429.39

2,875.04

1.3s

12m40s

43m16s

1h19m28s

0.0026

1.5237

5.203

27.32d

1.8809y

27 7 43

24 37 23

from Earth from Earth from Earth

s

to orbit Earth d h

m

h

m

s

Pluto

Sun

4,504.45

5,915.80

39.95 trillion km

2h39m50s

4h10m25s

5h28m53s

9.555

19.218

30.110

39.545

11.862y

29.458y

84.022y

164.774y

248.0y

226 million y

9 55 30 †

10 47 06 †

17 14 24 R†

16 6 36 †

6 9 18 R

25-35d†

h

m

s

h

m

s

h

m

s

h m

s

(included here for historical reasons)

d h

m

to nearest star

4.22y

to nearest star

267,032

to nearest star to orbit galaxy

y=years d=days h=hours m=minutes s=seconds R=retrograde †=Depending on latitude ?=Exact value not known Kilometers per second Kilometers per hour

47.87

35.02

29.79

1.023

24.13

13.06

9.66

6.81

5.44

4.75

217.35 around center of galaxy

172,339

126,074

107,225

3,683

86,865

47,029

34,781

24,527

19,595

17,096

782,460 around

Kilometers

4,879.4

12,103.6

12,756.28

3,474.8

6,792

142,984**

120,536**

51,118**

49,528**

2,390

1,392,000

Sun = 1

0.0035

0.0087

0.0092

0.0025

0.0049

0.1027**

0.0866**

0.0367**

0.0356**

0.0017

1.0

Earth = 1

0.383

0.949

1.0

0.2724

0.532

11.209**

9.449**

4.007**

3.883**

0.187

109

Mass

Earth = 1

0.0553

0.8150

1.0

0.0123

0.1074

317.83

95.163

14.536

17.149

0.0022

332,946

Volume

Earth = 1

0.0562

0.857

1.0

0.0203

0.151

1,404.70

763.59

63.09

57.72

0.0066

1,300,000

Mean Density

Grams per cubic centimeter Water = 1

5.43

5.24

5.515

3.35

3.94

1.33

0.69

1.27

1.64

2.0

1.41

Earth = 1

0.378

0.905

1.0

0.166

0.379

2.53

1.07

0.905

1.14

0.062

27.96

Escape Velocity

Kilometers per hour

15,300

37,303

40,249

8,553

18,080

214,300

127,700

76,700

84,600

4,300

2,223,000

Temperature Extremes

High °C/K

425 / 698

462 / 735

58 / 331

127 / 400

17 / 290

20,000*

12,000*

6,000*

6,000*

-210 / 63

15,000,000*

Low °C/K

-173 / 100

462 / 735

-88 / 185

-173 / 100

-143 / 130

438 / 711**

407 / 680**

346 / 619**

347 / 620**

-235 / 38

4,000**

Atmosphere

Principal Gases

H2, He, CH4

CH4, N2,CO

H2, He

Equatorial Diameter

Surface Gravity

# of Known Satellites

*Core **At 1 atmosphere (altitude where barometric pressure equals Earth’s barometric pressure at sea level—1013 mb)

Eccentricity of Orbit

Circular Orbit = 0

Inclination of Equator

To Planet’s Orbital Plane

Inclination of Orbit to Ecliptic

center of galaxy

O2, Na, H2,He

CO2, N2

N2, O2

none

CO2, N2, Ar

0

0

1

-

2

0.2056

0.0068

0.0167

0.0549

0.01°

177.36°

23.44°

7.0°

3.39°

0 (by definition)

H2, He

H2, He

H2, He, CH4

plus rings

plus rings

plus rings

plus rings

13

5

8 planets 5 dwarf planets

0.0934

0.0485

0.0555

0.0464

0.0095

0.2491



6.68°

25.19°

3.13°

26.73°

97.77°

28.32°

119.6°

5.2°

1.85°

1.31°

2.49°

00.77°

1.77°

17.15°

63

62

27

7.25°

Sun’s equator to ecliptic