History OUR HISTORY
“Why?” seems to be the question of the day with a three-year-old in the house. You
know what I mean. Questions such as “What’s this?” and “What does it do?” inevitably are followed by the predictable “why?” You offer thoughtful explanations, but even your best answers only lead to a seemingly endless succession of more whys. At a loss for words, you finally utter those memorable words you never thought you’d say, “Because that’s just the Jonathan K. Gerland Director/Archivist
way it is” or “Because I said so.” Each generation contemplates its world. We seek, and expect, answers from our parents and grandparents, from generations that have come before. We learn from experience—from our own as well as from shared experiences of others. Perhaps without realizing it, we connect ourselves to history and discover that there’s nothing really new except the history we don’t know. As we grow a little older it seems we soon forget our humble beginnings—our totally dependent existence. We become prideful and suddenly know it all, or think we do, and rely on our own understanding. Our personal experience challenges the wisdom of older generations, and we choose to ignore fundamental relations between the past, present, and future. Perhaps not until we become parents ourselves do we begin to appreciate the connectivity of time and experience. So, let us ask “why” again and earnestly seek answers from the past, which, after all, was someone else’s present and someone else’s future. If we don’t continue to learn about what happened before our own births, we might remain always as a child ourselves, leaving little guidance for future generations. As always, I look forward to many more exciting days of discovery ahead as we together collect, preserve, and explore our history. “Why?” Because I said so!
Jonathan K. Gerland Diboll, Texas
CONTENTS ARTICLES Down by the Station: The Railroad Depots of Diboll and Burke and
the Last Days of Passenger Train Travel ......................................................2 The Hurdle Family of Diboll, Texas: Early Black Educators ...................................................................................10
THE PINE BOUGH Volume 6, number 1
(ISSN: 1529-7039) published by T.L.L. Temple Memorial Archives, a division of T.L.L. Temple
Memorial Library & Archives, Diboll, Texas
Scrapbook Pages..........................................................................................14 Texas Southeastern Railroad ..............14, 16, 19, 27-28 Faces From the Past................15, 17-20, 22-23, 27, 29 Waco, Beaumont, Trinity & Sabine Railway.............21 Texas State Railroad..............................................24-25 Diboll smokestack.......................................................28 Pineland locomotives.............................................25-27 News clippings......................................................19, 30 News & Notices............................................................................................31
Jonathan K. Gerland, editor © Copyright 2001 by T.L.L. Temple Memorial Archives. All rights reserved. Reproduction of this issue or any portion of it is expressly prohibited without written permission of the publisher. The T.L.L. Temple Memorial Archives Collecting, preserving and exploring the historical development which has bound the Temple family, businesses and the East Texas community together for more than a century. T.L.L. Temple Memorial Archives 300 Park Diboll, TX 75941 phone: (936) 829-3543 fax: (936) 829-3556 e-mail: [email protected]
Staff: Jonathan K. Gerland, Director Patsy Colbert Louis Landers Committee on Archives: Ellen Temple, Chair Carolyn Elmore Kathy Sample Pete Smart
Kathy Sample, Chair, Board of Directors, T.L.L. Temple Memorial Library & Archives
Publication of the Pine Bough is made possible by a generous grant from the T.L.L. Temple Foundation.
Unless otherwise noted, all images herein are from the holdings of the T.L.L. Temple Memorial Archives. About the covers FRONT: All Aboard! Southern Pacific crewmen assist Diboll second graders aboard train number 26 to Lufkin on May 11, 1949. The train ride was part of a field trip to see a movie at the Pines Theater and visit Kurth Memorial Library. See the related article beginning on page 2.
BACK: Going, going, gone. A popular landmark since the early 1940s, the Diboll smokestack, not operational since about 1980, was carefully dismantled over a period of several months between late 2000 and early 2001 due to continuing environmental concerns. For more on the smokestack, see page 28. Full color photos by Jonathan Gerland, 2000-2001; black & white photo by Free Press staff in 1959 during a repainting. PAGE 22 Layout/Design by Jay Brittain
Down by the St
All Aboard! Diboll second graders entrain for a ride to Lufkin on May 11, 1949. The trip was part of a field day excursion to see a movie at the Pines Theater and visit Kurth Memorial Library.
The Railroad Depots of Diboll and Burke and the Last Days of Passenger Train Travel Article by Jonathan Gerland
he small town railroad depot, from its beginning, was a
hub of activity and the focal point of the community it served. At the depot trains brought news, mail, gossip, and merchandise, as well as strangers, relatives, new schoolteachers, and even the circus. People came from all over just to meet the train. No one arrived or departed, resident or stranger, without being noticed. 2
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tation: Train time was an exciting event. “In Burke all the people would come out of the bushes to see the train coming,” recalls Franklin Weeks, age 86, a Burke native and Diboll high school graduate. Weeks remembers from his childhood the human fascination with trains, especially the enthusiasm of I. D. Clark (18561928), a justice of the peace who frequented the barbershop near the Burke depot. “I’ve seen him in there with his face all lathered to get a shave,” says Weeks, “and a train would blow and he would jump up with lather still on his face, because he was going to meet the train!”
T.L.L. Temple Sr., fourth from left, poses with family and friends in about 1908 on the open observation deck of a private car, which may have belonged to friend William Grim of Texarkana. To Temple’s right are his sons, T.L.L. Jr. and Arthur, and his brother William. The only known woman is Mrs. William Temple, second from right.
This rail scene looking north, taken no earlier than 1908 and no later than 1911, shows a single line of track at the Diboll sign board in front of the Southern Pine Lumber Company commissary, offices, and library. The small ridge of land in the left middle ground would later be leveled and become the site of the town’s combination freight and passenger depot. SEPTEMBER 2001
Here is Diboll’s Southern Pacific depot in about 1915, not too long after its completion.
Although much has changed during the last seven decades, many still share this fascination. Burke native Catherine Lee, 84, a collector of railroad clocks, continues to live less than a quarter mile from where the Burke depot once stood. Lee says she still loves to listen for the trains, but she misses hearing the whistles and distinctive chuffing sounds of steam locomotives, especially at night. Blaring air horns from sheet metal-clad dieselelectric locomotives just don’t evoke the same emotions. The Diboll Depot The railroad environment figures prominently in Diboll’s history. The earliest town planning placed the commissary, company offices, hotels, boarding houses, post office, library, doctor’s office, and managers’ houses facing the railroad within fifty feet of the tracks. First Street still parallels the tracks today, and for most of the town’s history, the comings and goings of the trains have been part of life’s daily rhythm.
Although Diboll was founded on the Houston East & West Texas (HE&WT) Railway in 1894, when HE&WT converted from narrow to standard gauge tracks, the town did not receive regular passenger service until sometime between 1900 and 1905. Prior to this time, trains only stopped at Diboll for freight service. The nearest passenger stations then were Emporia, a flag stop one mile to the south, and Burke, a regular stop three miles to the north. During much of the 1890’s, regular passenger trains ran through Diboll only at night. According to an 1899 timetable, Train 1 from Houston and Train 2 from Shreveport passed through town between 1:30 and 2:00 a.m. Two mixed trains, numbers 3 & 4, carrying both passengers and freight, passed through at about 7:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m., respectively, but both trains took two days to travel between Houston and Shreveport, laying over at Lufkin for a night’s stay. None of these trains, however, stopped at Diboll. At least they were not scheduled to stop. Diboll native O’Hara Chandler, 93, tells the story about how his grandmother, Granny Taylor, joined his grandfather J. W. at Diboll, THE PINE BOUGH
In November 1950 the Southern Pacific depot at Diboll was painted white with green trim, as shown here, to match the local buildings of Southern Pine Lumber Company. The “white depot,” as it was called, received notice in contemporary state travel guides.
bringing their children with her by train in 1895. Chandler’s mother, Annie, was quite ill at the time, and as the train approached Diboll from the north in the middle of the night, Granny Taylor, with tired children clinging to her sides and sick Annie in her arms, convinced the conductor to make an emergency stop at the new town of Diboll, instead of letting them off at Emporia. After Diboll eventually became a flag stop, it was a while before the railroad constructed a depot building. Prior to construction of the combination freight and passenger depot in about 1912, one or more converted boxcars served as the station. By the time the depot was built, HE&WT was part of the Southern Pacific Lines in Texas and Louisiana.
Although Southern Pacific may have tarried in providing Diboll with a regular depot during the town’s early days, Southern Pacific officials did something remarkable to the Diboll depot in November 1950. The Diboll newspaper Buzz Saw reported that Southern Pacific management repainted their standard yellow ochre and brown-trim railroad buildings in town “white with a green border” in response to an “expressed desire” of Diboll officials to have the railroad’s building colors “match-up” and “harmonize” with those of Southern Pine Lumber Company and “other nearby buildings in our town.” In addition to the depot, the railroad’s section houses north of town were also painted white with green trim.
Engine No. 155, a Hinkley 4-4-0 pulling HE&WT train 1, prepares to depart the Burke depot in about 1905. Train 1 left Houston then at 6:30 a.m., arrived at Burke at about 11:20 a.m., stopped for dinner at Garrison at 1:40 p.m., left Garrison at 2:00 p.m., and arrived at Shreveport at 5:00 p.m.
These two photographs show the Burke station in 1948 as photographed by railroad historian Fred Springer. The shelter was apparently not much of a structure, containing only a lock cabinet for mail and barely enough shade for a couple of waiting passengers.
The newspaper proudly pointed out the special significance of the event, saying it not only improved the appearance of the town, but “gives us something else to show visitors in Diboll that no other place of comparable size can boast of.” According to the Buzz Saw, the Diboll depot was “the only one on the Southern Pacific system in this particular color scheme.” The “white depot,” as it was called, was peculiar indeed, receiving special mention in contemporary state travel guides. The third edition of Howard’s Original Texas Guidebook, published during the early 1950’s, stated that the Diboll depot was “one of the most unusual in the country,” being “the only one in the country not the conventional color” of the Southern Pacific Lines. Just a few years later, Southern Pacific discontinued passenger service between Houston and Shreveport (day trains in 1954 and night trains in 1955), and the railroad sought discontinuance of both the Diboll depot and its agent. The railroad’s application to the Railroad Commission of Texas was accepted in late 1959. The depot was torn down in early 1960, and the site was simply paved over as part of First Street. Writing in Diboll’s Free Press newspaper in February 1960, Latane Temple, a grandson of the town’s founder, said it was “sad to see the old Diboll depot being torn down to make way for progress.” It had been a landmark and “a distinctive feature of the town” since the early 1910’s, he said, as well as “one of the few old structures which has any pretense to architectural manner.”
The Burke Depots Burke, although not commonly known by that name until the middle 1880’s, a few years after the HE&WT arrived from Houston, was one of the earliest rail stations in Angelina County. The railroad reached the Burke area, located about eight miles south of what would become Lufkin, in late 1881. The Burke station was probably named for surveyor Ed Burke, who reportedly surveyed part of the railroad’s route. Just when Burke ceased to be a regular train stop is uncertain, but the standard depot was certainly gone by 1948. Railroad historian Fred Springer took a photo that year of a crude structure that apparently served as a flag stop shelter and post office. The open-sided building was probably no more than six-by-nine feet in size. After the railroad discontinued all passenger service in 1955, the small building was apparently moved or razed shortly thereafter. Not much remains trackside today where the Burke depots once stood, except a few scattered rails and piles of spikes. Occasionally Union Pacific maintenance-of-way vehicles use the former depot pad as a parking area. THE PINE BOUGH
School Excursions Diboll school field trips in the late 1940’s and early 1950’s meant train rides. Taking immediate advantage of changes in Southern Pacific’s schedules that provided a later afternoon southbound train, fifty-four second graders finished their 1949 school year with rides to and from Lufkin on May 11. Departing the Diboll station on the 12:09 train, the group arrived at Lufkin at 12:30. The children were then treated to a movie at the Pines Theater, refreshments at a drug store, and a visit to Kurth Memorial Library’s children’s room. Then everyone boarded the 4:00 southbound train and arrived back at Diboll at 4:17. Prior to the schedule changes, the southbound train departed Lufkin at the same time the northbound train arrived, making such trips impossible.
But the schools were not the only ones enjoying the new train schedules. Young James Simms, now a banker and Diboll’s mayor, used to travel by bus to Lufkin to shine shoes on the street corners as a boy. The bus fare was fifteen cents, but the train fare was fourteen cents. With the new schedules, Simms was allowed more than three hours to shine shoes, and he saved two cents on the round trip! Boosterism in Diboll was alive and well in May 1950, when seventyseven second and third graders traveled by train to Shreveport, distributing Diboll souvenirs along the way. Accompanied by six teachers and about thirty parents, the students rode two special railroad coaches as part of an educational and promotional excursion to the neighboring state of Louisiana. Months before the much anticipated and celebrated trip, the children studied Texas facts and then prepared booklets that included what they had learned along with photographs and a history of Diboll. They distributed these booklets and 300 Southern Pine Lumber Company walking canes, furnished by the Temple-White handle factory, to people along the way. A northbound freight train labors upgrade at the Southern Pacific depot at Diboll in the late 1940’s. Today not only are steam locomotives, depots, and passenger trains gone in Diboll, but so is most northbound rail traffic. Having redundant rail lines after the recent Southern Pacific merger, Union Pacific implemented “one-way” southbound freight operation on the former SP tracks through Diboll in early 1998. Except for occasional locals, northbound trains from Houston now travel through Conroe, Trinity, Crockett, and Palestine.
Only twenty-five minutes south of Diboll, northbound Southern Pacific passenger train 26, right, pulled by Pacific-type Engine No. 602, waits briefly at the Moscow station in the early 1950’s. A Moscow, Camden & San Augustine Railroad mixed train pulled by Consolidation-type Engine No. 6, left, stands by ready for its return run to Camden. Photo believed to have been made by Roger Dudley, mail carrier between Moscow and Camden. SEPTEMBER 2001
1951 These two aerial photos show the Southern Pine Lumber Company commissary in 1951 and 2001. The depot can be seen in left foreground of the 1951 photo. 2001 photo by Jay Brittain.
Dressed in colorful western attire, each child wore a white ribbon with “Diboll, Texas” printed on it. Reporting on the trip in the Buzz Saw, Bea Burkhalter said the Shreveport welcoming party, which included hosting teachers and students and a member of the Shreveport Chamber of Commerce, expressed that “it was the prettiest and most colorful sight they had ever seen when the children came off the train wearing their cowboy outfits.” The Diboll students left town on Friday morning, May 19. As parents saw them off at the station, the children sang songs of Texas. R. V. Honea (1908-1964), the Southern Pacific agent at Diboll, arranged the trip, and Earle Demint, a Southern Pacific traveling agent, accompanied the group to Shreveport. At Shreveport, the Diboll children met students and teachers of Barrett School, who hosted a bus trip through the city and a visit of a museum at the fair grounds. The party then enjoyed a picnic lunch at Princess Park, where Diboll played host, providing lunches prepared by homeroom mothers. Marcus Swann, manager of Brookshire Brothers store number 10 in Diboll, furnished enough apples for everyone at the picnic as well as for the rail trip. After lunch all the students enjoyed an afternoon in the park. The Diboll children then returned to their two coaches at 9 P.M. and went to sleep on pillows. The train left Shreveport at 11:30 P.M and arrived back at Diboll at 4:10 A.M. on Saturday morning to waiting mothers and fathers, just as a drenching thunderstorm came through town. The children financed the special excursion themselves and reportedly saved money for six months to make the school-year-ending trip. School officials said that in addition to having a fun time, the children learned the area's geography and how to locate and spell the names of towns along the route—peculiar names such as Hoshall, Climax, Nacogdoches, Appleby, Mayo, Bobo, Teneha, and Joaquin.
Twilight of Passenger Travel In 1954, the same year that American Airlines replaced the Pennsylvania Railroad as the nation’s largest passenger common carrier, Southern Pacific canceled its day trains (Nos. 25 & 26) between Houston and Shreveport. Effective in early August, the news received only slight notice in the Lufkin press and just a little more in the Nacogdoches papers. The reason for the discontinuance, said railroad officials, was that passenger business had decreased well below the profit mark. Southern Pacific, like other railroads all across America, found it difficult to compete with automobiles, buses, and airplanes for passenger traffic. In the aftermath of World War II, Americans had resumed their pre-war love affair with the internal combustion engine, as federal and state governments poured billions of dollars into new roads, highways, “interstates,” and airports. Meanwhile, the railroads remained regulated, unsubsidized, and heavily taxed. In fact, many railroads often paid the lion’s share of taxes that supported these newer forms of transportation, and unlike the earlier federal aid to railroads, which was mostly in the form of grants that were paid back through reduced rates for government business or loans payable at five or six percent interest, much of the aid to highways and airports was practically free to the user. Exactly one year after canceling the day trains, Southern Pacific held a public hearing in Lufkin concerning its application to discontinue its two night trains between Houston and Shreveport, the last two passenger trains on the line. Citing increased competition from automobiles, buses, and airplanes as a reason for losses in revenue, railroad officials estimated that running the two trains cost the company $60,000 a year. The Lufkin News reported that representatives from the Angelina County Chamber of Commerce, the Negro Chamber of Commerce, railroad unions, and cities all along the Houston-Shreveport line were in attendance at the hearing. The Nacogdoches Daily Sentinel added that Congressman Martin Dies Jr. and Diboll’s Clyde Thompson were also in attendance.
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Voicing complaints that were typical at such hearings across the country then, Herman Brown of the Angelina Chamber stated that the railroad company had not tried to run a profitable passenger service, it was obligated to do so, and complete discontinuance of passenger service would be detrimental to the entire East Texas area. Representatives of the railroad unions voiced their concerns for jobs and said that the trains ought to run, “if for no other reason than that employees of the railroad should be provided free transportation.” The Lufkin News reported that E. C. Johnson of the Negro Angelina Chamber of Commerce, representing 28 percent of the Lufkin population, “agreed that many automobiles were registered to Negroes, but doubted that most of them would make it to Shreveport.” Johnson stated that blacks preferred trains to buses, but the railroad’s “inconvenient” night-only schedules made rail travel impractical. With these facts before him, Johnson believed the railroad should not discontinue passenger service, because the entire Lufkin economy, in addition to the black community, would suffer as a result, the paper said. The arguments fell on deaf ears. By the end of September, Lufkin, Diboll, Burke, and all the other towns along the HoustonShreveport line lost trains 27 and 28, the last passenger trains on the line.
All-Star Train Trip One interesting footnote to Diboll losing passenger train service is the story of the 1959 Diboll All-Stars Little League train trip to St. Louis. Upon hearing news that the Pineland allstar team was going to St. Louis to see a major league ballgame, the Diboll community raised money to send their own all-star team. Arthur Temple suggested the trip at a Diboll Booster Club meeting, and tickets to see the Dodgers play the Cardinals in mid August were furnished by Fleishel Lumber Company of St. Louis, one of Temple’s longtime friends and business partners. Fourteen boys and three adult escorts traveled by automobile to Jacksonville, where they rode the Missouri Pacific “Eagle” to St. Louis. At Jacksonville railroader R. V. Honea, formerly the station agent at Diboll, put a deadhead sleeper on the train for the boys to ride in. The train trip lasted more than twelve hours, from 8:40 p.m. to 9:10 a.m.. In St. Louis the boys saw the Dodgers beat the Cardinals 4-3 at Busch Stadium, visited the St. Louis Zoo, and saw a movie at the Fox Theatre. Ironically, the movie they saw was “Last Train from Gun Hill,” the John Sturges picture starring Kirk Douglass and Anthony Quinn. The boys and their escorts then returned to Jacksonville on the “Eagle,” and the trip was for many of them undoubtedly their last train ride.
The other Diboll depot. This is the Texas South-Eastern Railroad depot and office in early 1949, view looking south, just before it was torn down and replaced with a more modern office. TS-E discontinued regular passenger service in 1942. For more on TS-E offices, see the scrapbook pages in this issue and pages 17, 30, and 33 in the September 2000 issue of Pine Bough.
James Monroe Hurdle and wife Adeline pose at Prairie View State Normal College in about 1930. Hurdle served as teacher and principal of the Diboll black schools from 1918 through the middle 1930’s, studying at Prairie View during the summers and earning a bachelor’s degree in 1930. His wife and their son Clarence and daughter Florine became schoolteachers as well.
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The Hurdle Family of Diboll, Early Black Educators by Jonathan Gerland
James Monroe Hurdle (1885-1964) served as teacher and principal of Diboll’s black schools from 1918 through the middle 1930’s, instilling an appreciation for learning in many. His wife Adeline, daughter Florine, and son Clarence followed him in the teaching profession, becoming public school teachers and administrators themselves. Adeline and Florine both taught at Diboll during the 1930’s. Students Odessa Watkins and Inez Smith taught at Diboll also. One student, Wilk Peters, left Diboll in 1924 and became a collegetrained librarian, working at the Cleveland Public Library in Ohio, the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, and Morgan State College in Maryland. The accomplishments of Peters are remarkable, considering that more than 75 percent of the black schools in Texas had no librarian at all in 1924. (For more on the extraordinary life of Wilk Peters and his relationship with the Hurdle family, see the July 2000 issue of Pine Bough and the February 8, 2001 issue of The Free Press). James Monroe Hurdle was born at Greenville, county seat of Hunt County, Texas, on March 28, 1885, the seventh son of Andrew and Viney Hurdle. He attended the public schools at Center Point, a rural community just outside Greenville. As a young man, Hurdle went to work for one of the many railroads that ran through Greenville, a bustling junction city of 7,000 people northeast of Dallas that resembled a nine-legged spider on contemporary railroad maps. Family tradition says that he worked for the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway and that he became a mail clerk. As a young man James Monroe Hurdle worked as a railway mail clerk at Greenville, Texas, probably as an employee of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway, whose advertisement shown here circulated in 1901.
J. M. and Adeline Hurdle, identified with numbers 1 and 2 on the back row, pose with their Diboll pupils in about 1929. Their children, Florine (3) and Clarence (4), were students at the time. Odessa Watkins, who later taught school at Diboll with Florine, stands to Florine’s left. For more identification of individuals in the photo see the July 26, 2001 issue of the Free Press, p.7.
But the railroad was not to be his life's work. He saved his railway wages and attended Prairie View State Normal College, receiving a teaching diploma in 1911. His first teaching job was at Africa, a rural community just outside Center, in Shelby County. Here he met Adeline Goodwin (1893-1980) and the two married in 1912. After the birth of a son, Clarence, the Hurdles left Africa for a teaching position at Appleby, in Nacogdoches County, where daughter Florine was born in 1915. Soon thereafter, the young Hurdle family left Appleby for a teaching position at Pineland, in Sabine County. But the Hurdles did not remain long in Pineland, either. By 1918, before the end of World War I, the Hurdle family was in Diboll, where Hurdle became schoolteacher and principal. In Diboll, it seems they found a home for a while. Hurdle opened a shoe repair shop to supplement his teaching income and attended Prairie View College during the summers, working on a bachelor’s degree that 12
“I, of course, wanted to see California, and so I left, and he convinced me to stay and be his wife.” he received in 1930. Under Hurdle’s administration, Diboll’s black community received a three-room schoolhouse in about 1929. The new, brightly painted white building was a great improvement over the two-room schoolhouse it replaced, and at about the time of the THE PINE BOUGH
Florine, now 85 years old, lives in Sacramento, California. She says she enjoyed growing up in Diboll and taught there for four years after graduating from high school. She remembers being “instrumental in having drinking water piped in on the school grounds.” Before that, she says, children brought their water to school in fruit jars. Like her father, Florine attended Prairie View during the summers. One summer a boy friend of hers from Diboll, Columbus Washington, called from California, inviting her to visit him. He had been an edger man at one of the Diboll sawmills, but he had recently taken a job at Weed, California, with the Long-Bell Lumber Company. “I, of course, wanted to see California,” Florine says, “and so I left, and he convinced me to stay and be his wife.” Mrs. Washington continued to teach in California, serving seventeen years in the classroom and another eight in administration. Her father and mother remained in Pittsburgh for thirteen years, before accepting teaching positions in Mauriceville, in Orange County, Texas. They both retired back to Pittsburgh in the late 1950’s, after serving more than four decades in the public schools of Texas. Both parents died in Sacramento, California—James Monroe in 1964 and Adeline in 1980.
building’s completion, Hurdle’s wife Adeline joined the Diboll teaching staff. Sometime during the middle 1930’s, Hurdle left Diboll to be principal of Douglass High School at Pittsburgh, in Camp County, Texas, a town with a population of about 2,800, about twice as large as Diboll then. His family remained in Diboll for one year before his wife joined him. After Hurdle’s daughter Florine graduated from the Diboll schools in 1933, she soon became a teacher in the school building that her father built, along with W. E. Davis, who replaced her father as principal, and Odessa Watkins, Florine’s Diboll classmate and friend. Florine’s teacher’s contract for 1937 was signed by Diboll school trustees B. F. Hines, K. A. Drew, and E. M. Hamner. According to the document, she was to receive only $450 for a nine-month-term, and even this was subject to possible “changes to meet expenses.” SEPTEMBER 2001
W. E. Davis, middle, succeeded J. M. Hurdle as Diboll principal, and Diboll graduates Odessa Watkins, left, and Florine Hurdle, right, served as teachers during the late 1930’s.
a a Scrapbook Pages
2. A Texas Southeastern Railroad brass switch key.
1. Texas Southeastern Railroad and Emporia & Gulf Railroad timetables from page 891 of The Official Guide of the Railways, July 1901. These two short lines, with operating offices and shops less than a mile apart in southern Angelina County, stretched eastward from connections with the Houston East & West Texas Railway. TSE trains reached Lufkin then by connecting with the Texas & Louisiana Railway at Frostville (also known as Diboll Junction), just west of Homer. TSE moved its mainline route into Trinity County to the west in 1907 and transferred the tracks shown here to Southern Pine Lumber Company in 1908. By 1902 the E&G was reclassified as a logging road and dissolved after the Emporia Lumber Company’s sawmill at Emporia burned in March 1906. For a map of these two railroads in 1904, see page 20 in this issue of the Pine Bough. Image courtesy of the Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania.
3. Ann Harrott and Carolyn Connor, Diboll, November 1942. The house in the background is the O.H. Weise home.
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aa Scrapbook Pages 6
4. Gladys Holder at Holder’s Grocery in 1968. Holder’s Gocery was on the east side of Hwy. 59 about where Sonic is now.
5. Horace Stubblefield at his Sabine Investment desk in 1968.
6. Nita Hurley at Diboll State Bank in 1968.
8. Frankie Glass at Tatum’s Five and Dime in 1968.
9. Carl Pavlic at Pavlic’s Supermarket in 1968.
7. Maynard Schinke at Diboll Nursery & Florist in 1968, just north of where First Bank & Trust is now. SEPTEMBER 2001
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10: This detail from McCarthy’s Map of Angelina County, Texas, November 1904 shows the railroads of Texas Southeastern (TSE) and Emporia Lumber Company (formerly Emporia & Gulf). See the timetables of these two roads on page 18. Note that TSE connected with the Cotton Belt line between Lufkin and Huntington (formerly Texas & Louisiana Ry.) during this time and that logging spurs extended several miles from the mainline into timberlands south of Huntington. For more on these early railways, see the September 2000 issue of the Pine Bough (pp. 2-3) and the Diboll Free Press issues of 5 August 1999, 2 September 1999, 27 April 2000, 4 May 2000, and 25 May 2000.
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aa Scrapbook Pages
11: Bennie Capps’ Mobil Station on the east side of US Hwy. 59, February 1972. Left to right are Bill Tucker, Bennie Capps, Jackie Helton, Wayne Barlow, and Carlos Carcia.
12: Monk Warner’s Arco Station at the corner of Hines and US Hwy. 59, February 1972. Left to right are Nat Foster, Monk Warner, Richard Warner, Ernest Camp, and Phil Garrett. SEPTEMBER 2001
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13 & 14: Richie Wells (13) poses in 1947 with what was even then “the old” double or split trunk pine tree which stood a couple miles east of Diboll. The Free Press issue of October 26, 1967 stated that the forest oddity on Temple Industries lands had died and was cut down with the intention of preserving it for display in the new city park. The paper says Kenneth Nelson, Vice President of Land & Timber, believed the tree was “between 160 and 175 years old.” In photo 14, Louis Landers poses with the preserved trunks at Old Orchard Park in May 2001
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15: This depression era clipping from the October 25, 1930 issue of the Lufkin News, page 1, tells of the destruction by fire of a Diboll box factory, which was then reportedly operating “six days per week.” By all indications the plant was indeed rebuilt, as suggested in the article, and continued to operate until again destroyed by fire on October 17, 1946, almost sixteen years, to the day, after the 1930 fire. For more on Diboll’s box factories, see the Pine Bough issue of July 2000 (pp. 20-23). 16
16: A postal mark from the Fastrill post office, April 17, 1926. Fastrill, a company town of Southern Pine Lumber Company, located on the Neches River west of Alto in Cherokee County, had a post office from December 11, 1922 to September 30, 1941.
17: This is a Texas & New Orleans Railroad logo from the early 1900s. T&NO, which became a part of the Southern Pacific Lines in 1881, was one of the first railroads in America to successfully burn oil as fuel in their locomotives, hence the advertisement in the logo. In 1927 T&NO added to its system the Houston East & West Texas Railway, upon which Diboll was founded in 1894.
18: Vernon “Red” Oaks in 1958.
19: A Texas Southeastern Railroad model engine pulls two log cars, a pulpwood car, and a caboose in the late 1940’s, a boom time for model railroad popularity. At the time, toy train manufacturer Lionel was producing nearly 600,000 locomotives and two million freight and passenger cars a year. For more on TSE’s model railroad displays, see the September 14, 2000 issue of the Diboll Free Press (p. 3A). SEPTEMBER 2001
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20: E.H. “Buddy” Bush at “Buddy's Cash Grocery” in 1968.
21: Bobbie Friday at Diboll State Bank in 1968.
22: Atmar Lester at KSPL Radio in 1968. Louis Landers remembers that Lester dedicated to him a broadcast of “The Ballad of the Green Berets” before he left for Vietnam in early 1970.
23: Oleta Craft at The Dresscraft in 1968.
24: Mr. and Mrs. Carl Halsell at Deep Rock Gas & Grocery in 1968.
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25-27: The Waco, Beaumont, Trinity & Sabine Railway Company (WBT&S) operated a line of railroad between Colmesneil (in Tyler County) and Weldon (in Houston County) at various times between the early 1920’s and late 1950’s. Image 25 is a WBT&S logo from a 1924 letterhead of road president R. C. Duff. The image is a flanged wheel containing four icons of industry and commerce on a T-rail base. The icons are a cotton bale, pine tree, ocean-going ship, and an oil derrick. Although the slogan says, “The Waco-Beaumont Route,” and considerable effort was made to tap directly those commercial centers, the WBT&S never reached either city. Image courtesy of Texas State Archives. No. 26 is a 1931 WBT&S pass that belonged to Arthur Temple Sr. No. 27 shows a 4-inch piece of coal (probably lignite) that Jonathan Gerland found in the abandoned WBT&S roadbed near Mobile, Tyler County, in May 2001. 28: A United States Geological Survey geodetic marker at Diboll, Texas, placed in 1926 at the flagpole base in front of the Southern Pine Lumber Company commissary. Photo by Jonathan Gerland, December 2000.
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29: Arthur Temple speaks in September 1986 at the dedication of the new Wilson McKewen Rehabilitation Center in Lufkin as his wife Lottie looks on.
30: Miles and miles of cinders and board feet. Locomotive engineer R. F. “Bob” Cook and lumberman Clyde 32 Thompson share a moment during Pineland Day festivities in the late 1950’s. Cook (1890-1967) and Thompson (18991987) worked for Temple companies nearly all of their lives.
31: A young Fannie Farrington (1876-1967) in 1913. For more on Farrington, see the Pine Bough issue of December 1999 (pp. 10-13). 32: Ruben “Jellie” Samuel poses in his Diboll Dragons baseball uniform with his son Curtis in this photo taken in 1941. For a recent photo of “Mr. Jellie,” see the News & Notices section in this issue. 31
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33: “Old as Yesterday, Modern as Today.” An interior view of Diboll’s Antlers Hotel, an East Texas showplace from 1939 to 1954. For more on the Antlers and other Diboll hotels, see the Pine Bough issue of July 2000 (pp. 14-19). Post card image courtesy of Tyrrell Historical Library, Beaumont, Texas. 34. Left to right are Louis and Julia Ashford and Franklin Farrington at Diboll on June 7, 1913.
35: Here are, left to right, Highway Patrolman Pete Rogers, Southern Pine Lumber Company Special Ranger Jay Boren, Angelina County Deputy Sheriff Henry Kelton, and Highway Patrolman Bob Smith in about 1950 at the Diboll athletic fields during a company picnic or some other community celebration.
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36-39: Temple's involvement with the Texas State Railroad has been long-standing. Completed between Rusk and Palestine in 1909, the State Railroad came under the management of a threemember state-appointed Board of Managers in 1921. One of these board members was Diboll's E.C. Durham, general manager of Texas Southeastern Railroad. During the 1960’s, TSE leased the State Railroad, and Temple companies have donated three locomotives to the State Railroad since it became a State Historical Park in the early 1970’s. Pictured are a passenger ticket from 1918 (no. 36) that belonged to TSE railroader R. A. "Boots" Jackson (1903-1977); a 1922 map showing the State Railroad's route (no. 37); a Southern Pacific timetable from 1926, when SP leased the State Railroad (no. 38); and a TSE timetable from 1967, when TSE leased the road (no. 39). Incidentally, the 1926 SP timetable was donated to the Archives recently by TSE railroader George Honea.
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40-42: Southern Pine Lumber Company's Engine No. 28 saw service at Pineland from 1955 to 1962. Prior to that the 83-ton General Pershing Class, Consolidation-type Baldwin locomotive served on railroads in Louisiana. Temple donated No. 28 to the newly organized Texas State Railroad State Historical Park in 1973. The state renumbered the engine 300, overhauled it (including the installation of a new boiler made by Dixon Boiler Works of California), painted it deep red, and placed it in regular service pulling passengers in 1996. Image 40 shows No. 28 letting off steam at Pineland in the late 1950s; images 41 and 42 show, respectively, No. 28’s old boiler and the restored No. 300 steaming up at the State Railroad’s Rusk shops in April 2001. Image 40 photographer unknown; photos 41 and 42 by Jonathan Gerland.
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43-46. Temple Lumber Company ordered Engine No. 20 from Baldwin Locomotive Works on October 25, 1929. Built in January 1930, at the beginning of the Great Depression, as Baldwin construction number 61193, No. 20 was probably the last new steam locomotive purchased by a Texas lumber company. E.C. Durham, manager of the Temple railroads at Diboll and Hemphill, received bids from Baldwin, ALCO, and Lima locomotive companies, going with Baldwin's low bid of $39,000. In a letter to lumber company manager H.G. Temple, Durham stressed that the new engine was “badly needed” and said that he had instructed Baldwin to “make every effort to deliver this locomotive in the shortest possible time.” Number 20 left Baldwin Locomotive Works on January 28, 1930, via the Baltimore & Ohio to East St. Louis, the Missouri Pacific to Texarkana, the Texas & Pacific to Longview, the Santa Fe to Bronson, and the Lufkin, Hemphill & Gulf to Hemphill. Terms of payment were 25% cash and the balance in 36 equal monthly notes at 6% interest. According to specifications, No. 20, a 96-ton Mikado Baldwin Class 12-34-1/4 E 93 Model 30 D 23 with 56 inch drivers, was painted Olive Green with all lettering and striping in aluminum leaf. Image 43 is the Baldwin builder's photo of Engine 20, showing the boiler cover as apparently olive green; images 44 and 45, taken by Carolyn Elmore, show No. 20 enroute to static display at Katherine Sage Temple Park in Pineland in August 1985; and image 46 shows No. 20 in July 2000 at the park, fading in bright sunlight beside Pineland's relocated Santa Fe depot, photo by Jonathan Gerland. 26
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47: Here is Temple Lumber Company’s Engine No. 1140, a high-wheeled 2-6-2 built by Baldwin in 1903, taking on water at Kirbyville in about 1955. Acquired from Santa Fe in 1952, No. 1140, with a tender full of oil, burned during a locomotive shop fire at Pineland in August 1958. The engine, now stored at a warehouse at a former Army ammunition plant outside of Minden, Louisiana is being restored for static display in Shreveport by the Red River Valley Historical Society. 48: “Workin’ on the railroad.” Diboll football stars Mack Mitchell (class of 1970) and Alton Jackson (class of 1972) pose for the camera in June 1972. Mitchell and Jackson were then working for TSE Railroad to condition themselves for the fall football season at the University of Houston, according to the Free Press issue of June 15, 1972. SEPTEMBER 2001
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49: Texas Southeastern Railroad built a new home for itself in 1949. The new structure, shown during construction in May 1949, was described at the time as “a brand new, modern, air-conditioned office building.” It replaced the two-story building in the background, believed to have been built in 1909 and remodeled with additions in 1927. The 1949 building served TSE until 1971, when the railroad offices moved to their present location on Pine Valley Road. 50: Here is the 1949 former TSE office building in July 2000. In the left background is the Diboll smokestack, a longtime landmark that was demolished for environmental reasons in late 2000-early 2001. Photo by Jonathan Gerland. 51 51: Here is the Diboll smokestack in about 1948, less than a decade after its construction. Gary Mike Smith laments the stack's demolition, saying he learned how to spell Diboll in elementary school by gazing at the boldly painted stack through schoolroom windows.
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52: Harold Maxwell, Vice President of Marketing, Henry H. Holubec, Vice President of Operations, and C.H. Shepherd Jr., Fiberboard Division Manager, discuss a $21 million expansion of the company's exterior siding operations at the Diboll fiberboard plant in September 1977.
53: A young Buddy Temple in about 1949 at the South Boggy Slough Clubhouse.
54: John Hannah, Claude Welch, and Buddy Temple, from the left, at Diboll Day 1978.
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55: In 1908 many sawmill companies in the South announced they would be increasing the workday from ten to eleven hours, provoking several labor strikes. At Lufkin Land & Lumber Company in Lufkin a strike lasted a full month, before workers returned to their jobs at the elevenhour workday. According to the article here, from the June 1908 issue of Southern Industrial & Lumber Review, 700 Southern Pine Lumber Company workers at Diboll refused the longer workday and struck for eight days, apparently returning to work under satisfactory arrangements with management.
56: The summer of 1909 was extremely dry in East Texas. Water shortages caused many sawmill companies to haul in water by tank loads on railroads, sometimes from as far away as forty miles. Some mills even shut down due to the drought. These two articles in the October 1909 issue of Southern Industrial & Lumber Review tell the origin of Diboll’s pipeline and the story of the City of Lufkin coming to the aid of Lufkin Land & Lumber Company, the city’s biggest employer at the time.
57: The Neches River must have been high in spring 1906, for according to this news item in the July issue of Southern Industrial & Lumber Review, a hardwood log raft of 2,500 feet in length was towed to the Gulf from forests in Angelina, Jasper, and Tyler counties.
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NEWS & NOTICES NEWS & NOTICES
New History Center The future of our history is now! Mark Friday, October 5 on your calendars as the longawaited date of the groundbreaking ceremony for the T. L. L. Temple Memorial History Center. Groundbreaking will begin at 11:15 a.m., followed by a related program at the Angelina Chamber of Commerce’s First Friday Luncheon at the Lottie and Arthur Temple Civic Center at noon. The new 12,000 square feet History Center (about 15 times larger than the current Archives building) will be located on a prime 4-acre tract of land on U.S. Highway 59, between Diboll Jr. High School and First Bank & Trust. Plans include moving to the site the train now displayed by the old commissary on First Street (consisting of engine, tender, business car, and caboose) as well as a logging car at the TSE Railroad shops, so the History Center definitely will be noticed by anyone passing through town. Designated donations and pledges to the new History Center now total more than $2.1 million, with major support from the T. L. L. Temple Foundation. In addition, TempleInland is providing building materials, the land, and assistance in moving the train and in providing landscaping.
History Center An artist’s rendering of the new T. L. L. Temple Memorial History Center, to be located on U.S. Highway 59, between Diboll Middle School and First Bank & Trust. Goodwin-Lasiter, Inc., architects
Statistics There were 973 visitors to the Archives during the twelve-month period ending July 31, 2001. During the same period Archives staff made the following number of contacts: by telephone 3,890, by letter 421, by e-mail 382, by fax 71, and by off-site contact 4,525. There were more than 80 separate accessions during the year, including various publications from area schools, railroad records and timetables from 1905 through the 1960s, maps, taped oral history interviews, hundreds of vintage and copy photographic images, and even a few artifacts, including the first and last sheets of plywood to be made at Pineland. A subject index database project, begun last year by Patsy Colbert, now has more than 18,000 entries and includes the Oral History and Buzz Saw Newspaper collections. The director made presentations to The Forest History Society, Diboll Garden Club, and Diboll Rotary Club, in addition to programs presented at Temple Elementary School, Hudson Middle School, Kurth Memorial Library, and Angelina College. (news & notices continued on following pages
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1. Herschel Payne and Jack Hollingsworth (from left) visited the Archives in January 2001 and shared memories of working in the Temple sales department during the 1960s. 2. Patsy Colbert and Ruben “Jellie” Samuel in February 2001. Patsy interviewed “Mr. Jellie” about his baseball memories of the late 1940s and early ‘50s, writing an article on Diboll in the Negro leagues, which appeared in the February 22, 2001 issue of the Diboll Free Press. 3. The Archives joins the White family in mourning the loss of patron, volunteer, and donor Charles White (1934-2001), left, who passed away on July 2. Always supportive of the Archives, Charles unofficially kicked off the fundraising drive for the 3. new History Center on the morning of the last Diboll Day, giving a crisp $100 bill, saying he wanted to be the project’s first donor. Here, he explains to his brother John at the library in April 2000 a memorable ride he made aboard Texas South-Eastern Railroad's locomotive No. 504 during the early 1950s. 4-5. Pictured in the cabs of Texas South-Eastern engine No. 13 at Diboll and Texas State Railroad No. 300 (former Temple Lumber Company No. 28) at Rusk is retired locomotive engineer William J. “Mr. Jay” Morrison. Mr. Jay explained the finer points of running a steam locomotive to Jonathan Gerland, who took the photos in October and December 2000, respectively. Born in 1912, Mr. Jay is the dean of East Texas steam locomotive engineers. After working many years for the Moscow, Camden & San Augustine Railroad and the Angelina & Neches River Railroad, he retired (kind of) in 1976, and ran locomotives for the Texas State Railroad tourist line for a few years.
6. Walter Stern of New York, a longtime friend of Arthur Temple's and Temple-Inland, retired from Temple's Board of Directors in May 2001. He poses here on May 4, 2001 in Diboll, following an interview with Jonathan Gerland.
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NOTICES NEWS & NOTICES 8.
7. Betty Connor Mullis, right, shares with Jonathan Gerland photographs collected by two of Diboll’s founding families, Ashford and Weise. The photos were loaned to the Archives in July 2000, and photo reproductions were made and added to the Archives’ holdings. 8. Louis Landers pulls a file from the crowded Archives stacks in July 2001. After beginning part-time employment in January 2000, Louis became a full-time employee in August 2001. Among other duties, he assists visiting researchers, answers reference queries, and arranges photographs in the extensive Free Press Newspaper Collection. 9-13. These records at Pineland were rescued in August 2000 and transferred to storage in Diboll, where they await completion of the new History Center. The Archives now has three separate off-site storage facilities. The Pineland records date from as early as 1909, when T.L.L. Temple was part owner of the Garrison-Norton Lumber Company. Photos August 2000 by Jonathan Gerland. 9.
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