Downloads - IIEE

Downloads - IIEE

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014 CONTENTS 12 A PRIMER ON ENERGY EFFICIENT LIGHTING PRODUCTS Testing by an accredited laboratory is a mandated require...

NAN Sizes 0 Downloads 6 Views

Recommend Documents

Downloads
INTRODUCING MODULAR PLATES ARCOS, WEGA AND RINGO – PAGE 03 TO 18. AUDIO WORLD – PAGE 1.9 TO 26. NEW DOORBELLS, G-SPA

Downloads
Entsprechend entwickelt u. genutzt wird dies u.a. im Neoismus, von der ... Der Neoismus etwa arbeitet mit kollektiven Ps

Al Sofouh Road - IIEE - UAE
GRAND MIDWEST. TOWER. Dubai Business Central. Twin Towers. BBC. BUILDING. Dubai. Holding. Internet City Metro station. A

Downloads | Soehnle
Hier finden Sie Dokumente, Bedienungsanleitungen, CE Konformitätserklärungen und Garantiebedingungen, Lebensmitteltabe

Introduction - Downloads
Running on Microsoft Windows 8.1 operating system, Intel Atom Quad-Core ..... Open the case from the groove of the backs

Downloads - Mehr! Entertainment
Der Kampf für Gleichheit nach dem Gesetz führte 1964 zur ... Bei den Golden Globes ist DIRTY DANCING in vier Kategorie

BD-A1060 - Yamaha Downloads
Enjoying DLNA server (PC or NAS) contents (p. 17) ... Region management information for. Blu-ray .... an unauthorized co

Downloads aks lab dadan
06.05.2016 - Spenden für den Gameserver mxkey setup 3.4.1.7 free download Barthezz-Infected-Promo_CDM-2002-POW Top-Notc

Betongold.pdf
Die Datei "robots.txt" auf dieser Website lässt nicht zu, dass eine Beschreibung für das Suchergebnis angezeigt wird.W

abbott downloads - Magic Capitol
Jan 26, 2013 - Instruction Blankety Blank Routine. Instruction Blendo. Instruction Blendo Flag & Rainbow. Instruction Bl

VOLUME XLIV

3RD QUARTER 2014

CONTENTS

12

A PRIMER ON ENERGY EFFICIENT LIGHTING PRODUCTS Testing by an accredited laboratory is a mandated requirement before these products are sold in the market. Testing ensures that consumers are getting products that are safe and efficient.

13

WHY THE HIGH ELECTRICITY RATES? Poor planning, faulty policymaking, and a dubious private sector practices have led to a perfect storm that is causing power shortages and unprecedented rate hikes. Fear not, for here is one expert’s analysis and call to action.

SWITCHING TO HIGH EFFICIENCY MOTORS There is a great lack of awareness on high efficiency motors among end users and financial institutions in the country. Now comes a project backed by IIEE that could pave the way for these motors’ adoption in Philippine industries.

WHAT’S THE PLAN, STAN? SETTING AND MEETING STANDARDS FOR HIGHER EFFICIENCY AIR CONDITIONERS Energy efficiency standards for air conditioners have to be harmonized in the region. ASEAN SHINE is a program that aims to increase the market share of higher efficiency air conditioners by harmonizing test methods and energy efficiency standards, promoting the adoption of those standards, and changing consumer attitudes.

2

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

21

IS RENEWABLE ENERGY THE BEST SOLUTION TO THE POWER CRISIS? With an energy crisis looming for the Philippines next year, government is now scrambling to find solutions. Is renewable energy really the answer to our power needs? International organization says yes, it is.

24

NATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS AND SCIENCE FOR THE YOUTH: THE SCIENCE CENTRUM AND ITS TRAVELING INTERACTIVE SCIENCE EXHIBITS The country must develop a critical mass of young people who can use science and technology as they participate in government, business, and industry.

27

THUNDERBOLT AND LIGHTNING VERY, VERY FRIGHT’NING? PART 2 OF 2: LIGHTNING PROTECTION OF TALL STRUCTURES The protection of tall structures against direct lightning strikes is usually provided by the installation of a lightning rod of the determined height on the top of the structure.

 ˙˙THE EBOLA VIRUS CAN BE KILLED BY HEAT AND COMMON DISINFECTANTS, SUCH AS BLEACH.˙˙ 11

THE PINOY BLUFFER’S GUIDE TO EBOLA Arm yourself with facts, not myths, about ebola.

32

14 AMAZING BEER FACTS Vitamin Beer, made by Pinoy inventor Billy Malang, won first place in the Genius-Europe competition in 2004. (newsinfo. inquirer.net)

05

09

07

09

FROM THE OFFICE OF THE NATIONAL PRESIDENT

FROM THE OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT FOR TECHNICAL AFFAIRS

08

IIEE PAYS COURTESY CALL TO GOVERNMENT AGENCIES

08

SAUDI CHAPTER HOLDS TECHNICAL SEMINAR

ILIGAN TWO-DAY EVENT CULMINATES WITH ELECTION OF OFFICERS

300 PARTICIPANTS GATHER FOR MIDDLE EAST CONVENTION

10

BUKIDNON CHAPTER BUILDING LIFE-SAVING, SOLAR-POWERED SIGN

10

IIEE’S PRIDE ATOY LEYNES CITED FOR ROLE IN POWER INDUSTRY

ABOUT THE COVER

INTEGRITY. INNOVATION. EMPOWERMENT. EXCELLENCE.

2014 THEME CONTINUOUSLY ENHANCING ELECTRICAL PRACTITIONERS’ COMPETITIVENESS TOWARDS GLOBAL EXCELLENCE

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER EDITORIAL BOARD CHAIRMAN EDITOR-IN-CHIEF ASSOCIATE EDITOR TECHNICAL CONSULTANT ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER

FLORIGO C. VARONA ROLITO C. GUALVEZ RONALD VINCENT M. SANTIAGO ALLAN C. NERVES RAMON P. AYATON

EDITORIAL STAFF CONSULTING TEAM LEADER EDITORIAL CONSULTANT LAYOUT ARTIST EDITORIAL ASSISTANT CONTRIBUTING WRITERS

ARIEL ROSELO KRIS LACABA JON DELOS REYES GELYN O. LEE ENGR. ROGELIO M. AVENIDO, ENGR. MARVIN RYAN BATHAN, FILEMON T. BERBA JR., DRABKIN M.M., MUI C.Y.A., AND ONG LAI MUN, FRANCEZCA KWE, ENGR. ARTHUR A. LOPEZ, KAYCEE B. VICTORIO, AND GREGG YAN

This is The Electrical Engineer’s energy efficiency issue. Given the warnings on climate change and the impending energy crisis, we’ll need to act fast. But first, we have to ask the hard questions.

PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN VICE CHAIRMAN MEMBERS

OVERSEER

ROLITO C. GUALVEZ RONALD VINCENT M. SANTIAGO ALLAN C. NERVES CYRUS V. CANTO ERLINDO C. TACNENG JR. KRISTIAN CARLO B. VICTORIO MARVIN H. CASEDA FLORIGO C. VARONA

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

ADVERTISING AND MARKETING MARKETING SUPPORT

APPLE JUNE P. UBAY-UBAY

2014 IIEE BOARD OF GOVERNORS NATIONAL PRESIDENT VP-INTERNAL AFFAIRS VP-EXTERNAL AFFAIRS VP-TECHNICAL AFFAIRS NATIONAL SECRETARY NATIONAL TREASURER NATIONAL AUDITOR GOVERNOR-NORTHERN LUZON GOVERNOR-CENTRAL LUZON GOVERNOR-METRO MANILA GOVERNOR-SOUTHERN LUZON GOVERNOR-BICOL GOVERNOR-WESTERN VISAYAS GOVERNOR-EASTERN/CENTRAL VISAYAS GOVERNOR-NORTHERN MINDANAO GOVERNOR-SOUTHERN MINDANAO GOVERNOR-WESTERN MINDANAO EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR

ALEX C. CABUGAO MA. SHEILA C. CABARABAN LARRY C. CRUZ FLORIGO C. VARONA JOEBE B. PANHILASON FLORENCIO D. BERENGUEL VIRGILIO S. LUZARES JUAN R. AGTARAP II YOLANDA S. POSADAS-JUDAN ARIEL P. DURAN ELMER O. CASAO AMANDO D. LANUZA ROGEN B. DELOS REYES WILFREDO P. CAÑIZARES RAMIL L. OMBINA GEORGE R. BALILI ALVIN P. MIGUEL RAMON P. AYATON

MISSION To deliver high-quality products and services in order to instill excellence in the Electrical Practitioner, and to enhance the technical profession to enable it to make positive contributions to national development. VISION To be the best and most prestigious professional technical organization in the Philippines.

PRINTING BY: LEX MEDIA DIGITAL

IIEE NATIONAL SECRETARIAT DEPARTMENT HEADS ADMINISTRATIVE-OIC TECHNICAL MARKETING MEMBERSHIP FINANCE-OIC

MARY ANN B. GUILLEN MA. ELENA U. LIONGSON ALLEN M. PIDO MARJORIE AGUINALDO-MUÑOZ EMEE F. SULIT

The Electrical Engineer is published quarterly by the Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. (IIEE), with editorial and business offices at #41 Monte de Piedad St., Cubao, Quezon City, Philippines. Tel Nos. (632) 722-7383, 727- 3552, 412-5772, 414-5626, Fax Nos. (632) 721-6442 & 410-1899. Website: www.iiee.org.ph; E-mail: [email protected] For an e-copy, you may visit our website, www.iiee.org.ph The present circulation of the magazine is 35,000 copies per issue to members and industry stakeholders.

4

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

The views and opinions expressed by the contributors of The Electrical Engineer magazine do not necessarily reflect the views the editors and publishers of the magazine or of Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. (IIEE). IIEE and the editorial board carry no responsibility for the opinions expressed in the magazine. Articles or visual materials may not be reproduced without written consent from the publisher. The publisher reserves the right to accept, edit, or refuse submitted materials for publication. Articles, reactions, and feedback from readers may be sent through email at [email protected]

FROM THE OFFICE OF THE NATIONAL PRESIDENT ALEX C. CABUGAO

W

armest greetings to my colleagues in the electrical engineering profession and avid readers of The Electrical Engineer Magazine!

The third quarter issue of this magazine focuses on our continuous endeavor to sustain our programs and advocacies for the success of Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers (IIEE). With the CHAPTER as our focal point, IIEE allows the officers and members to perceive its growth and success by way of devising programs and manuals based on need, and recognizing outstanding performance of both chapters and leaders.

Committee has finished the Guide for the Design and Installation of Services, which will be published before the 2014 annual convention and will be offered to the members at a discounted price. 2. FINANCIAL GROWTH AND SUSTAINABILITY. Optimizing resources and developing effective financial planning and control are the specific objectives that would guarantee IIEE’s growth and sustainability. IIEE shall sustain viable relevant programs and projects carried by responsible financial accountability and stewardship.

3. CORPORATE IMAGE. Being the only Accredited Professional Organization (APO) of electrical practitioners in the Philippines, IIEE aims to enhance regulatory influence, develop and sustain corporate branding, and develop a pool of experts/resource persons. By accomplishing these objectives, IIEE shall establish reputation and thought leadership, expand influence in the industry, and sustain advocacy on relevant national issues.

As we continue toward “Vision 2020,” let me share with you our accomplishments for the months of July to September this year. 1. CHAPTER AND MEMBERSHIP DEVELOPMENT. IIEE is committed to elevating membership engagement and satisfaction and to enhancing membership competitiveness. To harness chapter talents and continuously promote IIEE programs, we utilize technology as enabler. Membership growth, membership management system, ASEAN chartered membership, rate of board passers, and membership satisfaction index will guide us in this development area.

As of September, our membership has grown by 3.42 percent as compared to last year, with a total of 41,351 active members composed of professional electrical engineers, registered electrical engineers, registered master electricians, and auxiliary.



In addition to IIEE publications, the Standards

The Institute ensures that every initiative is justified by cost-benefit analysis.



The Council of National Presidents and the Executive Committee conducted courtesy visits to the government organizations involved in power management and regulation to discuss its plans and programs, and to encourage the participation of electrical practitioners in the Institute’s undertakings. a. Department of Energy with the secretary, Hon. Carlos Jericho L. Petilla on July 02. b. Philippine Electricity Market Corporation (PEMC/ WESM) with the president, Hon. Melinda L. Ocampo on July 11. c. Energy Regulation Commission (ERC) with the

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

5

chairperson and CEO, Hon. Zenaida Cruz-Ducut on July 15.

both officers and members, to prepare them as future leaders. •

ALIGNMENT OF STRATEGIC GOALS AND ADVOCACY. In all endeavors of the chapters, possible collaboration with other organizations or government agencies are being considered, especially during regional conferences.



In connection to the House Bill 4325, the Institute sent its opposition paper to Congress, which was acknowledged by the office of Rep. Carlos Padilla, author of the proposed bill, who asked for the Institute’s counter proposal.



The IIEE, represented by the National President, together with the Vice President for Internal Affairs, Engr. Ma. Sheila C. Cabaraban, members of LeLAC and PPC, Engr. Marli Acosta-De Fiesta and Engr. Noel T. Fernandez attended the meeting with the Lower House’s Committee on Civil Service and Professional Regulation on September 3.



PARTICIPATIVE LEADERSHIP. The Institute is giving equal opportunities to both the officers and members and prepares them for leadership succession.



TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT. Guided by the theme, IIEE seeks continuous improvement for its members by way of offering trainings and technical forums.

Furthermore, the LeLAC is currently working for the Institute’s counter proposal to the proposed House Bill 4325. They have formed a technical working group in collaboration with PPC whose primary responsibility is to represent the IIEE in the hearings/public consultations in Congress.





4. OPERATIONAL EXCELLENCE AND PROCESS INNOVATION. Professional quality membership services shall be guaranteed. The management will continue the enhancement of services to elevate membership experience and inspire members to participate more in IIEE activities. The objectives for this area are: to enhance operational effectiveness, to establish people program, and to institute continuous process improvement centered on cost, quality, and delivery. Its measures include turnaround time, work improvement projects, and employee satisfaction index.

The Professional Practice Committee addressed the issue of fast-processing in handling complaints by crafting new rules and procedures—“Rules in Handling Cases Lodge” based on rules set by the Professional Regulation Commission, which was patterned from the procedures in court’s proceedings.

5. PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND ADVOCACY. IIEE must be at the forefront in the electrical and energy industry, strengthening its network relations, and building strategic partnerships and alliances, in order to sustain an effective advocacy on relevant national issues. In establishing the institute as expert, an efficient internal collective opinion process is key. To socialize the program and advocacy, we have to ensure that the membership is involved in every consultation. In order to succeed with these strategic goals, we shall go back to the basic unit of the institute—our focal point is the CHAPTER. The members shall perceive the success and growth of IIEE, and everyone should be involved in its programs/advocacies. To encapsulate the plans for this year, we created the acronym, C.H.A.P.T.E.R. •



6

COMMUNICATION. IIEE is maximizing the emergence of new technologies to reach its members in addition to the continuous enhancement of its official website: www. iiee.org.ph. HARNESSING CHAPTER TALENTS. IIEE strives harder to instill competence and professional advancement in

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014









The Professional Training and Development Committee is currently looking after the needs of the members in all chapters and taking the initiative to present its programs during regional conferences, aiming to address their necessities as far as professional advancement is concerned. This will serve as basis for devising plans and programs for the committee. They are also developing training manuals and kits, which will be cascaded to the chapter levels. Moreover, IIEE expanded its scholarship program to members for their post graduate studies, with RME’s BSEE program as the priority. EMPLOYMENT, LIVELIHOOD AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP, AND SOCIO-CULTURAL SUPPORT. As the Institute aims to provide better opportunities and socio cultural support to its members, it welcomes job postings from valued partners in the industry. IIEE also launched the KAKA (Kabiyak Kalinga) on its 39th Founding Anniversary (September 15, 2014) for OFW members and subsequent activities in Nueva Ecija in partnership with Nueva Ecija and State of Qatar Chapters. REWARDS AND RECOGNITION PROGRAM motivates the membership to continuously improve performances by recognizing their efforts and reward them for their prominence. IIEE hopes to continuously improve the performance of officers and members. Plaques of recognition have always been given to the outstanding electrical practitioners.

Relative to Vision 2020 and CHAPTER this year, IIEE likewise commences and upholds the following activities: 1. FOREIGN CHAPTER VISITATION a. Attended the 2nd IIEE Middle East Regional Convention held from August 1 to 2, at Jumeirah Creekside Hotel, Dubai, in which 300 delegates participated. The national president had an opportunity to discuss matters related to socio-cultural support for IIEE members to the Philippine Ambassador to the UAE and the labor

attaché. Highlight was the possible collaboration with financial literacy program of PINOY WISE (Worldwide Initiative for Savings, Investment and Entrepreneurship). With a total of 545 delegates across the country, officers and members of the 2014 Board of Governors have attended three (3) regional conferences: 1. 15TH CENTRAL LUZON REGIONAL CONFERENCE, hosted by Nueva Ecija Chapter at Plaza Leticia Restaurant, Cabanatuan City Nueva Ecija on July 25 to 26, 2014, with 120 delegates.

2. 15TH BICOL REGIONAL CONFERENCE, hosted by Sorsogon Chapter from August 22 to 23 at Sorsogon City Hall, Sorsogon City, which was attended by 125 delegates. 3. 18TH SOUTHERN MINDANAO REGIONAL CONFERENCE, hosted by Socsargen Chapter held at KCC Convention Center from September 19 to 20 with 300 delegates. Finally, I wish you would have an enjoyable and productive four-day experience at the 39th Annual National Convention and 3E XPO on November 26 to 29.

FROM THE OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT FOR TECHNICAL AFFAIRS FLORIGO C. VARONA

IS IT TOO LATE TO BE EFFICIENT? Most of us are aware of the varying consequences that the energy crisis may bring us next year. Should we sit and do nothing ? No! I call on you to act. To contribute to our discussion on the issues at hand, I present you this issue of The Electrical Engineer magazine In accordance with the theme of energy efficiency for the third quarter issue, we discuss in these pages the benefits of

adopting high efficiency motors (HEMs) and drive systems. We also have here a primer on the ASEAN SHINE project— or the ASEAN Standards Harmonization Initiative for Energy Efficiency—for airconditoners. This year, the Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers (IIEE) is collaborating with partners to support campaigns that attempt to offer solutions to the impending power crisis. Through the deployment of high efficiency motors and drive systems, as well as standardization of air conditioners, energy efficiency of electric-intensive industries will increase. This should result in reduction in electricity consumption and we hope the emission of greenhouse gasses by industries will be reduced. IIEE recognizes and salutes all companies and concerned individuals who are coming up with innovative and practical ways to use our energy resources in the best way they can. Indeed, our future will depend on how responsible and how serious we are in the use of energy. It involves us all so we should do our part. WELCOME TO AN ENERGY EFFICIENT 3RD QUARTER ISSUE, IIEE! VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

7

NEWS

IIEE PAYS COURTESY CALL TO GOVERNMENT AGENCIES

IIEE at the Department of Energy With Secretary Carlos Jericho Petilla on July 2.

At the Philippine Electricity Market Corporation, with Hon. Melinda Ocampo on July 11.

At the Energy Regulatory Commission, with Hon. Zenaida Cruz-Ducut on July 15.

THE COUNCIL OF NATIONAL PRESIDENTS and the Executive Committee of the Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines visited the various energy regulatory agencies to establish closer ties and discuss partnership opportunities for IIEE initiatives. Visits were made to Secretary Carlos Jericho Petilla of the Department of Energy on July 2, Melinda Ocampo of the Philippine Electricity Market Corporation on July 11, and Zenaida Cruz-Ducut of the Energy Regulatory Commission on July 15.

SAUDI CHAPTER HOLDS TECHNICAL SEMINAR, GIVES FREE HEALTH CHECK-UPS

INSTITUTE OF INTEGRATED ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS CENTRAL REGION CHAPTER, Saudi Arabia, held its second general membership meeting and fifth technical seminar on August 8. As many as 99 participants attended the seminar entitled “Optimized Protection Scheme for HV Substation Automation System Application, Part 2,” presented by Engr. Eutequio M. Guantero Jr., a protection consultant for Saudi Arabia’s National Grid Company. Medical teams were deployed for the occasion to give free health check-ups as part of the chapters’ social responsibility to its members.

8

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

Seminar participants. Participants of the second general membership meeting and fifth technical seminar entitled “Optimized Protection Scheme for HV Substation Automation System Application Part 2.”

NEWS

300 PARTICIPANTS GATHER FOR MIDDLE EAST CONVENTION

INSTITUTE OF INTEGRATED ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS-United Arab of Emirates Chapter hosted the second Middle East convention, gathering over 300 Filipino electrical practitioners for the event. The convention was held at the Jumeirah Creekside Hotel, Dubai, on August 1 and 2.

KABIYAK KALINGA (KAKA) SA IIEE

THE KABIYAK KALINGA (KAKA) is an initiative of the National President, Alex C. Cabugao which promotes to develop strong ties and sound values among spouses and families of IIEE members in overseas assignment through partnership of an IIEE foreign chapter with an IIEE local chapter serving as project sponsors and implementor, respectively. KAKA shall focus on the three strong areas of married and family life namely- sanctity of marriage, parenting as a vocation and joys of family life. The initiative shall be assisted by volunteer mentors who have backgrounds and experience in these areas. The activities of KAKA shall cater mainly to the spouses and immediate families of IIEE members overseas. In June this year, Engr. Chris Cadiente, Preseident of State of Qatar Chapter Chapter has accepted the proposal as the pilot project sponsor and Engr. Frank Wy, President of Nueva Ecija Chapter has responded as the pilot project implementor.

After a walk through on the project’s activities, a group of volunteer mentors organized a core group in the local chapter and presented the vision, mission, core values and programs of KAKA; and KAKA was formally launched during the 39th Founding Anniversary of the IIEE on September 15, 2014. The KAKA volunteers of the Nueva Ecija Chapter led by Engr. Frank Wy participated in a one day seminar that focused on marital dialogue and mutual empathy at Cabanatuan City on October 26, 2014. The KAKA logo represents the distance, generosity, joy, selfless values of caring, giving and sharing which are all locked by joined hands of the Institute. We welcome requests to conduct KAKA activities in the chapters. For more details, please get in touch with our program sponsors, Engr. Chris Cadiente (foreign chapters) and Engr. Alex Cabugao (local chapters) at the IIEE National Office.

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

9

NEWS

BUKIDNON CHAPTER BUILDING LIFE-SAVING, SOLAR-POWERED SIGN PHOTO BY ENGR. DANA MARIE Y. EDUAVE FOR IIEE BUKIDNON

IN FRONT OF MAIN GATE OF CENTRAL MINDANAO UNIVERSITY IS AN AREA WHERE ACCIDENTS ARE PRONE TO HAPPEN. As a way of giving to the community, Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers-Bukidnon Chapter decided to build a solar-powered LED sign that would warn motorists passing the area. The project is in line with the chapter’s advocacy to promote renewable energy. Qualitron and Maron Industrial Supplies and Engineering Services donated the materials through the chapter’s immediate former president Engr. Abregana. Bukidnon Chapter treasurer Engr. Dudas of the local government unit of Maramag facilitated the needed coordination with the Department of Public Works and Highways. The project is currently under construction and is expected to be finished within the year. For a video on the project, log on to Facebook and go to the account of “iieebukidnon.”

IIEE’S PRIDE ATOY LEYNES CITED FOR ROLE IN POWER INDUSTRY ENGR. FORTUNATO “ATOY” C. LEYNES, a former chairperson of IIEE’s Board of Electrical Engineering, received on June 20 an award for outstanding professional of the year. Every year, the Professional Regulatory Commission awards professionals who have demonstrated excellence in their respective fields. Leynes was cited for his leadership and technical skills and for playing a vital role in the development of the electrical power industry. He is currently the managing director and chief executive officer of Ibadan Electricity Distribution Company in Nigeria. He was vice president of Manila Electric Company.

10

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

THE PINOY BLUFFER'S GUIDE TO

EBOLA BY FRANCEZCA KWE

To date, ebola hemorraghic fever, caused by the ebola virus, has infected almost 15,000 people, mostly in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea, with a few ongoing cases in Mali. (Senegal, Nigeria, and the US are now ebola-free after successfully containing and resolving minor outbreaks). The World Health Organization considers the 2014 ebola outbreak to be the most serious of its kind, largely because of the number of infected and the disease’s high fatality rate (averaging 50%).

ONE

The Philippines is still free of ebola. Nevertheless, the government and many public and private hospitals are currently preparing facilities, equipment, and protocol, and training medical workers to correctly diagnose and respond to any suspected cases. So you won’t get ebola by walking into a local hospital, taking public transport, or traveling anywhere in the Philippines.

THREE

Ebola is transmitted primarily through contact with an infected person’s bodily fluids: blood, feces, vomit, semen, saliva, sweat. It’s not airborne like the flu or SARS. In addition, even if you did get near an infected person, he or she can only transmit ebola to you when already showing symptoms—not before.

Ebola has a long incubation period: two to 21 days. In the period before a person shows the first symptoms, he or she is not contagious, even if in close contact with others.

FIVE

SIX

If you’ve had direct exposure to someone with ebola, you may quarantine yourself for a month, and vigilantly observe yourself for symptoms, the emergence of which will require prompt medical intervention.

If you start showing symptoms, get medical attention promptly by calling your doctor or hospital.

NINE

FOUR

Watch out for these symptoms. The most common symptom—and often first to emerge—is fever (low-grade fever that steadily worsens). Other initial signs are similar to that the flu: sore throat, muscle pain and weakness, headaches, fatigue. Other patients may experience vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, or bleeding. The best chance for recovery/survival is if the disease is caught early, at the first sign of infection. This will also lessen chances of spreading it to others.

 What, no drugs? There are no vaccines, drugs, or treatments yet for ebola. What is being developed is experimental or under trial. The patient is treated for the secondary symptoms, such as dehydration or hemorrhage.

SEVEN

TWO

EIGHT

The ebola virus can be killed by heat and common disinfectants, such as bleach. In the disease’s epicenters in West Africa, spread is prevented by washing hands well and often with soap and water, or disinfecting surfaces and homes with bleach, particularly if an ebola case has been confirmed in the vicinity. As with any disease, the mantra for prevention is: wash, wash, wash your hands. VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

11

References: Department of Health of the Philippines website. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. World Health Organization website.

WHEN YOU HEAR THE WORD “EBOLA,” DON’T RUN AWAY IN PANIC. IT’S A SERIOUS DISEASE, THAT’S TRUE, BUT ONE THAT YOU CAN PROTECT YOURSELF FROM. HERE’S WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW:

OPINION

A ON ENERGY EFFICIENT LIGHTING PRODUCTS BY THE IIEE FOUNDATION

WHY DO LIGHTING PRODUCTS—SUCH AS CFLS AND LFLS (COMPACT FLUORESCENT LAMPS AND LINEAR FLUORESCENT LAMPS)—NEED TO BE TESTED BY AN ACCREDITED LABORATORY?

CURRENTLY, THE IIEE FOUNDATION TESTING LABORATORY IS ACCREDITED BY PNS IEC/ISO 17025:2005 TO CONDUCT THE FOLLOWING TESTS: Accreditation No. LA-2012-220A CFL Safety Testing (PNS IEC 60968:2006)

Testing by an accredited laboratory is a mandated requirement before these products are sold in the market. Testing ensures that consumers are getting products that are safe and efficient.

Accreditation No. LA-2012-221A CFL Performance Testing (PNS IEC 60969:2006) CFL Energy Labelling (PNS 2050-2:2007) LFL Performance Testing (PNS IEC 60081:2006) LFL Energy Labelling (PNS 2050-1-1:2007)

WHAT TESTS ARE CONDUCTED FOR LIGHTING PRODUCTS? There are two types of tests done to check the quality of lighting products. Performance testing – This test determines if photometric requirements, electrical requirements, and average life requirements were met in accordance with the corresponding Philippine National Standards (PNS). Safety testing – This test determines if safety requirements were met in accordance with the corresponding (PNS. HOW WILL CONSUMERS KNOW WHETHER LIGHTING PRODUCTS, SUCH AS CFLS AND LFLS, HAVE PASSED PERFORMANCE AND SAFETY TESTS? Manufacturers shall be allowed to mark their products once their these have passed testing. An ICC mark (for products made outside the Philippines) or PS mark (for products made in the Philippines) and the Energy Label (or the Yellow Label) shall be attached to the packaging of the lighting products as proof of compliance to performance and safety standards.

12

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

TYPE

BRAND

MODEL

CFL CFL CFL CFL CFL CFL CFL LFL LFL CFL CFL CFL CFL CFL CFL CFL CFL CFL CFL CFL CFL CFL CFL

Focus Focus Focus Focus Focus Focus Focus Focus Focus Focus Focus Focus Focus Focus Focus Focus Focus Focus Focus Focus Focus Flolight Flolight

T4-2U-5W T4-2U-8W T4-2U-11W T4-2U-15W T3-3U-11W T3-3U-15W T4-2U-7W T12 40W Tri-phospor DL T12 20W Tri-phospor DL Mini T3-3U-15W Spiral T4-18W Spiral T3-13W T4-2U-9W Spiral T4-23W T4-2U-9W T4-3U-25W T4-3U-18W T4-3U-23W T4-3U-20W T3-3U-9W T3-3U-11W 15W Daylight 20W Daylight

WATTS

5W 8W 11W 15W 11W 15W 7W 40W 20W 15W 18W 13W 9W 23W 9W 25W 18W 23W 20W 9W 11W 15W 20W

TEST PASSED

Safety Testing Safety Testing Safety Testing Safety Testing Safety Testing Safety Testing Safety Testing Performance Testing Performance Testing Performance Testing Performance Testing Performance Testing Performance Testing Safety Testing Safety Testing Safety Testing Safety Testing Safety Testing Safety Testing Performance Testing Performance Testing Performance Testing Performance Testing

PARTIAL LIST OF LAMPS FROM JUNE TO SEPTEMBER THAT PASSED THE MANDATORY TESTING SET BY DTI-BPS

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

OPINION The tenet was “expensive power is better than no power.” The remedial action ended the brownouts but created the first stage in the rise of electric rates.

WHY THE HIGH ELECTRICITY RATES? BY ENGR. ROGELIO M. AVENIDO, PEE, PHD DEAN, MLQU SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING 1986 IIEE NATIONAL PRESIDENT

LET ME START BY GIVING SOME HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE. STAGE 1 – THE MOTHBALLING OF THE 620-MEGAWATT, USD 2.2 BILLION NUCLEAR PLANT. The nuclear plant was mothballed in 1986 even though it was 98 percent complete. The Sucat and Bataan thermal plants, which were due for retirement, had to be kept on line. When these to plants bogged down because of their deteriorated state, Luzon suffered from four to 12-hour brownouts. To mitigate the power shortage, power was purchased from independent power producers (IPPs) using diesel, bunker oil, and naphtha power ship/barges, the only types that could provide power in the shortest possible time but at higher cost.

STAGE 2 – UNREGULATED DEVELOPMENT OF GENERATING PLANTS Subsequently, coal-fired power plants were constructed in the 90s supplanting the power barges followed by natural gas plants. However, while the decision of using a natural gas was laudable, their construction was ill-timed—resulting in a large surplus in generating capacity and correspondingly large unused energy. It is a standard requirement by banks in funding power projects for a “minimum off-take” provision representing 70 to 85 percent of the forecasted revenue to assure payment of the project loan. The power supply agreements (PSAs) of the power plants embody a standard purchased power adjustment (PPA) or “take or pay” provision. Payments for the unused energy were passed on to consumers. It reached a point where payments for unused energy almost equaled those for used energy. To cushion the effect of the PPA on consumers, the National Power Corporation was directed to limit how much PPA could be passed on to consumers. The PPA to be passed on to consumers was limited to PHP 0.40/kilowatt-hour. The NPC was asked to absorb the balance of PHP 0.85/ kwh of the PHP 1.25/ kilowatt-hour PPA. This resulted in losses to the NPC of about PHP 29 billion/year starting 2002.

STAGE 3 – THE PASSAGE OF THE EPIRA EPIRA was tasked to lower power rates and promote efficiency. The opposite occurred—power rates increased, now the highest in Asia, and deformed the electric power supply industry. The commercial rate for industries, which were at par then with neighboring countries, is now higher by PHP 3/kilowatthour. Colgate-Palmolive, Close-Up, and Kimberly-Clark transferred their operations to neighboring countries. Our power rates have discouraged foreign capital investments. Our export industries are reeling from the high rates, losing their global competitiveness. The PHP 4.15/ kilowatt-hour increase, which Meralco is poised to impose, will increase individual industries’ operating expense reportedly by about PHP 1 million a month. Firm measures are needed to lower rates in support of the export industry.

THE PRIMARY CAUSES OF HIGH RATES UNDER EPIRA In the pre-EPIRA days, load dispatching of plants was very simple with only two parties involved- THE NPC and IPPs. More importantly, generating prices were fixed, leaving no room for price manipulation. Power rates were low as PSAs of IPPs were based on actual operating costs thus generating prices are fixed, not variable. NPC does not earn profit in performing load dispatching.

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

13

OPINION There are two primary causes of the high rates under EPIRA: 1. “Generators” are not constrained from quoting any price at whim to Wholesale Electricity Spot Market (WESM). A classic example is the PHP 62/ kilowatt-hour charge now being challenged in the Supreme Court considering that diesel power is about PHP 15 to PHP 17/ kilowatt-hour. 2. The methodology of WESM pays to all generators who traded during the trading hour the highest quoted generating price, termed Market Ceiling Price (MCP). To elaborate, generators are dispatched sequentially in the order of increasing quoted generating price, example: a hydro plant quoting P5/ kwh, a coal-fired plant quoting PHP 7/ kilowatt-hour, a thermal plant quoting PHP 9/ kilowatt-hour and a minihydro at PHP 25/kwh (actual MCP in 2013). All are paid at PHP25/ kilowatt-hour.

Complementing the cited causes, the increasing cross-ownership in “distribution” and “generation” has all but removed the distinction between “distributors” and “generators” making room for price manipulation. While WESM is useless, its staff is highly competent, experienced engineers who could be absorbed in the reorganization of the electric supply industry.

EXPLAINING POWER RATE SHORTAGES Power shortages, aka “brownouts,” were experienced in Luzon in the late 80s, and in the Panay Grid in the late 90s and in Mindanao Grid from the late 90s.

Mindanao was the most affected with a prolonged shortage. A developing country needs a steel mill and Mindanao’s very cheap power, mainly from hydro, made it the ideal place to install the steel mills. Alas, the shortage of power has all but stopped production in the steel mills.



These plants were utterly deteriorated. When they bogged down, Luzon experienced four to 12 hours brownouts in the Panay and Mindanao Grids, simply because no power plants were constructed. Why? In the pre-EPIRA days, a project proponent simply signs a single contract with NPC: a Power Supply Agreement (PSA) or Energy Conversion Agreement (NPC supplies the fuel and the IPP converts it to electricity). The project proponent easily could obtain financing. But this function of NPC was removed by EPIRA. As a result, potential investors have to scout for power utilities, electric cooperatives, economic zones, individual industries that draw individually around 3-5 MW. Putting up say a 200-MW plant would require negotiating around 3-5 MW. Putting up THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

The DOE has no power to construct power plants or order the private sector to construct the plants. With no reserve power, the Panay Grid and Mindanao Grid were hit with power shortage.

Putting up larger plants to avail of the economy of scale will mean more contracts to negotiate. But banks shy from funding projects under such a scenario.

The Sucat and Bataan thermal plants were due for retirement but were kept online when the Bataan nuclear power plant was mothballed in 1986.

14

Putting up larger plants to avail of the economy of scale will mean more contracts to negotiate. But banks shy from funding projects under such a scenario. So, potential investors could not obtain financing to construct the “identified” power plants in the Power Development Program (PDP) of the Department of Energy (DOE).



WESM cannot do anything about the above yet it gets paid PHP P300 to PHP 700 million in the process.

to say a 200-MW plant would require negotiating around fifty small power supply contracts.

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

But are there major power plants constructed? Yes, in Luzon and Central Visayas and lately in Mindanao, but all fuel-fried, no hydro or geothermal. With power proponents finding it difficult to construct power plants, the big “distributors” having the bulk load (Metro Manila, Subic Freeport, Cebu Grid and the like) and not saddled by the afore-cited obstacle in securing loans became “generators” as well. Not so in Mindanao. Without bulk loads, it suffered from severe power shortage for years.

California in 2001 realized that deregulation, which is a success in other fields – airlines, railroad, telecommunication, etc., does not apply to electric supply. The customers’ power bill in 1999 of USD 7 billion quadrupled to USD 28 billion in 2000. In a developing country, management of the electric supply industry must be regulated by the government. The question is, why hasn’t DOE acted to avert all these? We say candidly that many appointed secretaries of DOE have educational backgrounds, training and experience NOT allied to the electric power supply and oil supply industries required to address the problems at hand.

EPIRA, A FAILURE RATIONALE FOR THE EPIRA The Electric Power Industry Reform Act (EPIRA)was meant to will lower power rates and improve efficiency. We realize now, albeit painfully, that the results are diametrically opposite to its professed motives.

OPINION by a profit-oriented private entity. The more logical actual reason for its being railroaded in Congress was the pressure from banks with which NPC has obtained projects loans, e.g. World Bank, ADB, et al, to assure payment of the loans of NPC from proceeds from privatization and from corporations allied to Malacañang. A. WEAKNESSES OF POWER SECTOR ASSETS AND LIABILITIES MANAGEMENT CORPORATION (PSALM) 1. Not a single major hydro or geothermal plant has been constructed. 2. Management and control of the electric power supply industry relinquished by the government to a profitoriented corporation, NGCP. In the early 90s, Pakistan requested the Philippines to lend some NPC power engineers to serve as electric power consultants. Four NPC engineers (Politan, Abinoja, Abesamis and Perlado) were lent. Their most significant recommendation was, “A developing country must retain management and control over its high voltage transmission system and not privatize it.” The EPIRA did the opposite. Reliability projects, which do not earn revenue, are on back burners. The plan of NPC to construct the Alaminos (Laguna) Extra High Voltage 500-KV Switching Station so that if one EHV kine “trips” out its load is automatically transferred to the other line maintaining stability oof the system has remained on the drawing board for two decades now. Economic projects like NPC’s plan to interconnect Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao has likewise remained the drawing board. This could have allowed for surplus power in one grid that could be availed of by other grids and thus minimize construction of power plans and improve system of economics. No government calamity response. When Mount Pinatubo erupted, on appeal of then Governor Deloso of Zambales for assistance, NPC dispatched teams from all provinces of Luzon restoring power in a matter of days. NGCP, which took over TRANSCO’s functions, could not be expected to replicate this kind of calamity response.

POWER PLANNING Management and control of the electric systems depend for its backbone three functions—load forecasting, generation programming and transmission programming. Load forecasting is a process using elaborate mathematical methods (inputting, economic projections, oil supply projections, population growth, etc. etc.) and come up with a long-term 20-year and 10-year load forecasts and a detailed 5-year forecast. The load forecast is translated to a generation “Power Development Program (PDP)” programming the size of power plants to go on-stream in a specific year (planned reserve capacity, no unused energy to be paid by customers) and the expansion of the transmission system planned in coordination with the PDP. This was a well-functioning engine until “EPIRA put water in the gas tank.” To reform the electric supply industry, these functions must be performed by a single government agency – not

B. CONCERNS ON ERC (ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION) 1. ERC cannot regulate the rates awarded by WESM. 2. The “Unbinding of Rates” needs a critical review. 3. Is the “Universal Charge-Missionary Energy” charge its purpose? Analysis of the Unbundled Rates (using Meralco’s bill as examples) • Generation charge It is a facat with no renewable energy plant (hydro, geothermal and natural gas) constructed from 2001 the year EPIRA was passed, the “generation mix” will show a higher contribution from coal-fired and fuel oil-fired power plants and thus an increase in generating costs. Also, it is a fact that fuel prices have raised in varying degrees for the various fuels. The question is- is the rise in electric rates proportionate to the changes in the generation mix and fuel prices? Can ERC show how the generation charge is calculated from the hourly changes in the WESM prices? • Transmission and Distribution Charges Similarly with the Generation charge, can ERC show how these charges are calculated? • Fixed Metering Charge (PHP 5/meter for residential customers) Customers have been paying for this for years. If it is for payment for the meter, it has been paid many many times over. If it is for rental, why would a customer pay rental? • Metering Charge This charge is ~PHP 0.40/kwh. What exactly is the nature of this charge? For reading of the meters? For computation of the power bills? What is the methodology of its computation? • Supply Charge What is the rationale of the Fixed Supply Charge and Supply Charge per kwh when there are already generation, transmission and distribution charges which are, in essence, supply charges? • System Loss Charge The electric bills simply state the percentage and amount to be paid and leaving customers with no choice. Unmetered (pilfered) electricity could be hidden in the bill with paying consumers footing the bill for the pilfered energy. ERC can simplify billing by calculating the system losses in a given year and incorporate it in the following year’s “generation and transmission charges.” More important, pilfered electricity could not be hidden and passed on to paying consumers. Calculation of system loss is a specialized discipline beyond the expertise of most electrical engineers, even in NPC and Meralco. It is doubtful that ERC has the technical know-how and therefore would just accept the quoted system losses by “distributors” and “generators.” VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

15

And, the icing to the cake – ERC imposes a tax on the consumer’s payment for system loss separate from the System Lost Charge. What is ERC’s rationale on imposing a tax on payments for losses?





Universal Charges Is the UC-ME (Universal Charge-Missionary Energy) charge being used for the purpose it was created? Can ERC furnish the list of missionary and SPUG (Small Power Utilities Group) areas that benefited from the UC-ME?

AMENDING THE EPIRA The problems in the electric supply industry are complex. A task force (think tank) of experienced engineers and lawyers in the power and fuel disciplines must be created by the government to draft the amendment of the EPIRA. RECOMMENDATIONS: 1. Restore NPC’s authority to construct major hydro and geothermal plants. 2. Revert system operations to the government- revive the System Operations Department (SOD) under TRANSCO. 3. Abolish WESM. To prevent price manipulation, IPPs to be required to submit to SOD their fixed generating prices with Fuel Cost Adjustment. WESM staff to be absorbed by SOD. 4. Revert Power Planning to NPC with authority that if the private sector does not offer to construct the power plants needed to be on line per the PDP, it can construct the plant and avert a power shortage. 5. PSALM or the Department of Finance to assume resolution of NPC’s stranded debts (not from its own undoing). 6. Government to retain ownership of Angat Dam, and Agus and Pulangi compleses. 7. NGCP to retain ownership of Angat Dam, and Agus and Pulangi compleses. 8. NGCP to retain management of the transmission systems but expansion to be vested with TRANSCO. 9. Government to give more support to Renewable Energy. Amend legal obstacles.

A STUDENT We admit we at ELECTRICAL ENGINEER magazine can’t always predict the future. But we know that bright things are ahead for this electrical engineering student who just also happens to be the co-chairperson of the Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers (IIEE) Council of Student Chapters (National) and is chairperson of the IIEE Council of Student Chapters, Southern Luzon Region. NAME: Blair Bondoc COURSE: B.S. in Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, Laguna State Polytechnic University INTERESTS: Power generation, transmission, conversion, energy conservation, wiring

A CALL TO ACTION We retired power engineers and lawyers of NPC say, “Enough is enough.” We come out of retirement, as we could not afford to just sit down and see the people oppressed by unconscionable corporations by their high electricity rates. The task to reform (un-deform might be the proper term) the electric supply industry is daunting but it must be done now. We must not fail. This may be our last hurrah.

SPORTS: Taekwondo (she’s won gold medals competing for Pedro Guevara Memorial National High School), badminton, volleyball, basketball, boxing WHY YOU MIGHT SEE HER AGAIN IN THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER MAGAZINE: She is a writer and was features editor for the Lagunian. That means you might be seeing her writing for THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER one of these days. CONQUERING THE FASHION WORLD: Blair was a runway model at the 1st Pila Fashion Expeience. She was also named Binibining Pagsanjan Ambassador of Tourism for 2014.

16

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

HCTIWSSWITCH OTTO YCNEICIFFEEFFICIENCY BY KAYCEE B. VICTORIO

FOR THE ORDINARY CONSUMER, it is enough to understand that energy is a commodity. Energy (and electricity for the matter) is necessary to energize laptops, iPods, tablets, smartphones, TVs, and cars. And let’s not forget the fact that energy is needed to run a nation. And yet one may take for granted that energy may run in excess, run short, or not be supplied at all. Climate change, global warming, and energy security are posing challenges to our society. Many energy stakeholders who are up to face those challenges are focusing on two keywords: efficiency and conservation.

EVERYONE IS GAGA OVER ENERGY SAVINGS.

Machines are being designed or retrofitted to become as efficient as possible. Lighting systems are being transformed to make use of CFL and LED bulbs. Households are being taught to conserve electricity. Power distributors and advocates are providing opportunities to manage energy consumption—through prepaid electricity and energy efficient appliances, for example. It seems everyone is gaga over energy savings. So let us look deeper at some ways we could save energy with motors and air conditioners that drive businesses and bring comfort to people in tropical countries, respectively. These are two of the biggest energy spenders in the industry. Yet they also present great prospects when it comes to energy savings. Now, join the bandwagon. Switch to efficiency and save the world with energy.

COVE R ST O RY • •

SWITCHING TO EFFICIENCY BY ENGR. MARVIN RYAN G. BATHAN

T

he Switch to High Efficiency Motors (HEMs) Project is one of the components of the Switch-Asia program funded by the European Union and is implemented by the Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. (IIEE).

The projects aims to increase the energy efficiency of the electric-intensive industries, achieve reduction in electricity consumption, and reduce contribution of industries in greenhouse gas emissions through deployment of high efficiency motors and drives systems. According to the results of “Scoping Study on Opportunities for High Efficiency Motors in Philippine Industries,” funded by the International Finance Corporation in 2010-2011, the efficiency of motors currently used by the Philippine industries can strongly be increased. Improvements do not consist only in motors replacement. Half of the existing motors are rewound periodically with a corresponding drop in efficiency of 5 to 10 percent at each rewinding. A significant share of motors in place is also either undersized or oversized to compensate foreseen losses due to the low efficiency motors. The lack of proper sizing of motors leads to even lower efficiency and negatively impacts the life duration of the motors. Similar problems are met due to misalignments producing vibration problems. The project will allow to address all these issues. From the same scoping study, it was found out that high efficiency motors are not widely used in Philippine industries despite its financial and operational benefits because of the following reasons:



18

Lack of awareness of end-users—companies see replacement with high efficiency motors as an expensive capital expense. The industries are not aware of the value of life cycle cost versus initial investment cost.

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

• •

Lack of available financing mechanism for end-users— lack of familiarization and experience of private financial institutions in providing project finance packages that matches the needs of the industries. Lack of technical capacity of energy service companies a equipment and service providers to increase the efficiency of electric motor and drive systems and the absence of a contractual framework for high efficiency motors limiting the possibilities to develop energy performance contracts. Lack of specific policy mechanism in support of high efficiency motors and drive systems. Lack of industry alliance and forum for developing partnerships—limited ability of all stakeholders to access transparent and unbiased information on the opportunities and means for successfully conducting efficient motors and drives systems programs.

One of the initiatives of the project to address these barriers is to implement pilot projects for the sugar mills. The pilot projects will demonstrate the technical and financial feasibility and benefits of adopting high efficiency motors and drive systems. There are currently four sugar mills participating in the pilot project: Lopez Sugar Corporation Central Azucarera de Tarlac Central Azucarera de La Carlota Central Azucarera de Don Pedro The project will finance the technical assistance, energy audits, and trainings for these pilot projects. The sugar mills will acquire the high efficiency motors and drive systems either through their own funds or through financing schemes offered by financial institutions. Once all or any of these pilot projects have successfully demonstrated that high efficiency motors and drives systems makes business sense, other industries would follow. The project was launched on April 3 at the Dusit Thani Hotel Manila and will run until 2017. The grant from the European Union to fund the activities amounts to EUR 1,970,469 (about PHP 108 million). IIEE will be collaborating with various organizations, companies, and agencies all throughout the project duration. They are classified as either partners or associates. Partners: • European Chamber of Commerce of the Philippines (ECCP) • Asia Society for Social Improvement and Sustainable Transformation, Inc. (ASSIST) • Association of Development Financing Institutions in Asia and the Pacific (ADFIAP) • Association Action for Sustainable Development (ASD) • International Copper Association Southeast Asia (ICASEA) Associates: • Philippine Sugar Millers Association, Inc (PSMA) • Bank of the Philippine Islands (BPI) • Department of Energy (DOE)

? COVE R ST O RY

W H AT ’ S THE P L A N, S TA N ? Setting and meeting standards for higher efficiency air conditioners BY ENGR. ARTHUR A. LOPEZ

T

he Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is one of the world’s fastest developing regions. As such, the region’s energy demand is expected to increase by 80 percent. However, development tends to bring with it a host of environmental problems, such as high greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global climate change.

Inefficient air conditioners contribute to a high level of greenhouse gas emissions, exacerbating the world’s environmental problems. Carbon dioxide emissions in the ASEAN could reach 5 percent of global output by 2030.

The use of high efficiency air conditioners and refrigerators could help save energy, slow down climate change, and result in savings for consumers, the business sector, and government agencies. According to an independent market study, potential savings for harmonizing both air conditioners and refrigerators energy efficiency performance standards could reach 13.9 terrawatt-hours per annum in Southeast Asia. The approximate technical energy savings could reach 5,373 gigawatt-hours if the region adopted room air conditioners that have an energy efficiency ratio of 3.2. But achieving this might be difficult given the existence of non-tariff barriers to trade. These barriers need to be removed to enhance regional market integration for higher efficiency air conditioners. There is a need for energy efficiency to ensure security, growth and sustainability. Energy efficiency standards for air conditioners have to be harmonized in the region. This is where ASEAN SHINE comes in.

ASEAN SHINE—or ASEAN Standards Harmonization Initiative for Energy Efficiency, is a program financed by the European Union through the Switch-Asia program. It is under the steering of the ASEAN Energy Efficiency and Conservation Sub-sector Network and led by European Copper Institute Belgium, with overall management and coordination is being done by International Copper Association Southeast Asia. ASEAN SHINE aims to increase the market share of higher efficiency air conditioners by harmonizing test methods and energy efficiency standards, promoting the adoption of common Minimum Energy Performance Standards, and changing consumer purchasing attitudes. Target groups include policy makers, standards-making bodies, testing laboratories, manufacturers, and consumer organizations. A four-year program action plan was made in order to meet those goals: WORK PROGRAM 1: ESTABLISHMENT OF ASEAN SHINE (2013-2016) Work Program 1 aims to create the proper institutional framework for the satisfactory completion of project activities. It should bring together strategic stakeholders and target groups, consult with them, and secure their active involvement in implementing activities. The work program should maximize synergies with other initiatives, avoid duplications, and maximize outreach to beneficiaries. WORK PROGRAM 2: HARMONIZE STANDARDS FOR TESTING METHODS (2013-2014) Work Program 2 aims to develop (for some countries) and harmonize energy performance standards for air conditioners in ASEAN (Work Program 3 and 4).

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

19

The use of high efficiency air conditioners and refrigerators could help save energy, slow down climate change, and result in savings for consumers, the business sector, and government agencies. ASEAN countries are currently using different standards. According to this work package, these countries, as a first step, need to adopt the same standards for methods in testing energy performance of air conditioners.

Local air conditioners manufacturers (about 20 small and medium-sized enterprises in the ASEAN) find it difficult to compete with international (mostly Japanese) manufacturers of high efficiency air conditioners.

The work does not anticipate major challenges as all existing national standards in ASEAN use ISO 5151 as a basis with some minor modifications.

Once the new policies on energy performance are adopted, the situation will become more critical.

WORK PROGRAM 3: DEVELOP A REGIONAL POLICY ROAD MAP FOR MEPS (2014-2014) Working package 3 will develop the harmonized energy performance standards for ASEAN countries and adopt a regional policy road map that will provide ASEAN countries with: a. a benchmark in terms of long-term objectives; b. common goals; c. means for coordinated actions; and d. guiding principles for the development of national policy roadmaps (Work program 4). WORK PROGRAM 4: DEVELOP A NATIONAL POLICY ROAD MAP FOR MEPS (2014-2015) The national policies will enforce the Minimum Energy Performance Standard (MEPS), mobilize air conditioner manufacturers in support of the national policy, create awareness among end-users (households) about the advantages of higher efficiency air conditioner, create an enabling environment for conformity assessment and market compliance, and have a time-bound plan for the progressive increase of air conditioners over time. Each ASEAN country will need to adopt proactive policies to promote higher efficiency air conditioners. WORK PROGRAM 5: CAPACITY BUILDING FOR TESTING LABORATORIES (2014-2015) Testing laboratories are essential elements of the design and conformity assessment of air conditioners, while also playing a central role in ensuring market compliance with regards to the energy performance standards. They are the ones who determine, by testing, the Energy Efficiency Ratio of air conditioners against the energy performance standards. Stakeholders’ consultations and preparatory studies that were conducted prior to this project have demonstrated that the current capacity of testing laboratories is limited in this area, which prevents them from supporting ASEAN efforts towards increasing the energy performance of air conditioners. Testing laboratories need to build their capacity on testing energy performance, especially with new harmonized standards to be adopted as a result of the previous work packages. WORK PROGRAM 6: CAPACITY BUILDING FOR AC MANUFACTURERS (2015-2015)

20

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

Not all local manufacturers know how to design air conditioners that meet the highest energy performance standards. They need to build their capacity to meet the highest energy performance standards using the technology solutions that are publicly available. WORK PROGRAM 7: CONSUMER AWARENESS (2015-2016) As ASEAN governments have not envisioned a mandatory scheme for marketing air conditioners, the consumers will have to make the final decision when making their purchase. Consumers need to be educated through public campaigns on the economic benefits of higher efficiency air conditioners. The experience in Thailand demonstrates that creating consumer awareness in favor of higher efficiency air conditioners can be successful. The ASEAN SHINE project was officially started last November 2013 in Bangkok, Thailand. This project will run from 2013-2016.

PARTNERS AND ASSOCIATES OF THE PROJECT •

Electrical and Electronics Institute (Thailand) • SIRIM QAS International (Malaysia) • Research Center for Energy and Environment (Vietnam) • Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers (Philippines) • United Nations Environment Program Division of Technology, Industry, and Economics, Energy Branch (Thailand) • 10 ASEAN ministries in charge of energy (EE&C SSN Focal Points and ACE) • Underwriters Laboratories • CLASP

IS RENEWABLE ENERGY THE TO THE POWER CRISIS?

W

BY GREGG YAN FOR THE WWF

With the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) warning that an impending power shortage will befall the Luzon grid next year, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) reiterated its call for the Philippine government to more actively mainstream renewable energy (RE) solutions to meet the growing demand for electricity. Especially if we aim for enhanced national competitiveness through increased control over the supply and cost of power, RE must be integrated as the primary solution to the power development plan of the Philippines.

options like solar correspond precisely with these periods of high demand. Relatively speaking, the installation of solar arrays takes much less time than large fossil-fuel dependent systems. They can certainly help augment power during intermediate and peak demand periods. Incidentally, this period is also called the “sunshine period” for solar energy, when solar panels absorb and generate the most energy. Other indigenous RE options like hydro and biomass can be used to complement existing baseload and intermediate power plants. This will help promote energy security, because the Philippines’ primary source of electricity is fossil fuel, which the country has very little of. Over 70 percent of the electricity generated in the country comes from fossil fuels, with 90 percent of fossil fuels imported at varying prices from other nations.

Based on the current power situation, there is already an adequate supply of gridconnected base-load power plants. The predicted shortfall that the DOE has stated will mostly affect intermediate and peak loads. Thus, intermediate or peak power plants are required to address coming needs.

“Our imbalanced reliance on foreign fossil fuels makes doing business in the Philippines The conventional solution would very risky. The cost and pace be to inject more bunker or of national development is at diesel power plants into the the mercy of foreign interests. mix to meet demand. However, Energy security is going to be the average cost of power very important for the future of THE GIANTS OF ILOCOS NORTE. generated by such power plants our country. Fossil fuels are a The Philippines has immense RE potential. The famed windmills of Bangui in Ilocos Norte provide clean power to 40 percent of starts at PHP 12 per kilowattfinite and dwindling resource. the province. Renewable energy sources are perfect for hour, making the cost of this Their emissions also exacerbate developing nations. electricity extremely expensive. climate change, a needless aggravation. Do we really want Peak demand periods for highly to compete with larger countries industrialized grids such as the Luzon grid usually cover the like China and India for fossil-fuel resources on the world period from 10 a.m. to 2 a.m., when demand for electricity market? No, especially when we have abundant and readily is at its highest. The optimal operating hours for certain RE available RE sources whose costs will remain stable, and well

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

21

F E AT U R E specific type of electricity demand. They offer a quick solution that can still be viewed as long term. In fact, solar power plants can take just six months to be constructed and go on-stream. These types of power plants will produce electricity at a constant rate that the Philippines can trust shall not fluctuate, unlike fossil fuels, which are affected by foreign exchange. In most cases, the cost of fossil fuels is directly passed onto the consumer,” adds WWF-Philippines Climate Change and Energy Programme Director Atty. Angela Ibay. Based on the provisions of the RE Law of 2008, RE plants will only receive payment for actual electricity generated. This will eliminate the costly provisions of the past take-or-pay contracts that add stranded costs to the consumer’s electricity bill, regardless of whether that electricity was used or not. The Philippines can actually learn from its own past experiences in RE to prove that it is the best solution to the country’s power needs. The Philippines invested heavily in hydro and geothermal energy in the 1970s and today, these produce 13.67 percent and 14.4 percent of our electricity, respectively. Many RE systems can be installed quickly. They produce electricity at a stable rate. They are de-coupled from foreign supply. They are also insulated from price increases dictated by international markets.

IT’S MORE SUN IN THE PHILIPPINES. As the world’s second-largest archipelagic country, the Philippines is composed of 7107 isles. This makes it difficult to connect all islands to the grid through power transmission and distribution lines. Installing solar panels will make many small islands energy self-sufficient. (Gregg Yan / WWF)

within our control,” says WWF-Philippines vice-chair and chief executive officer Jose Ma. Lorenzo Tan. Renewable energy can provide a stable source of electricity at a constant price for years to come, especially with the implementation of the government’s Feed-in Tariff (FiT) system. Under this system, RE projects are guaranteed a rate for the electricity they produce per kilowatt-hour that will be held constant for the next 20 years, with the Energy Regulatory Commission doing periodic reviews to adjust the rate for foreign exchange and inflation. In contrast, not a single fossil-fuel dependent power project is ready to hold their prices for 10 years, not to mention that the cost of bunker and diesel-fired plants are even higher than solar and wind power FiT rates. Even DOE Secretary Jericho Petilla stated in an interview that, “The FiT is a testament that while RE seems to be more expensive than traditional energy sources, admittedly it is needed because it is essential to the country’s energy security.” This means that the price for electricity from RE will not increase in the future. Prices can only go down. Add the fact that some RE plants can be directly embedded in certain key areas, or economic zones, which will further reduce the cost of electricity because it will eliminate the need for transmission and possibly even distribution lines to deliver electricity from power plants to households. RE has also been given a 0 percent value-added-tax rate unlike fossil fuels, where value added tax is applied to add to existing cost. In contrast, the International Energy Agency forecasts a steady increase in the cost of coal and other fossil fuels over the next decade. This will increase the cost of living, plus the cost of doing business. “If we are to address a power crisis within the timeframe of less than a year, then RE must really be viewed as the primary long-term solution. Solar and wind energy are the fastest power plants that can be deployed to meet this

22

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

WWF is currently working with the DOE to conduct bottomup, localized energy planning for the different provinces of the Philippines, starting with Palawan, as part of its Seize Your Power campaign. The experience has so far shown that optimal integration of RE into the power mix of a grid simply requires proper planning so that the variable nature of RE sources is well accounted for. “We need to stop focusing on RE as simply a generation issue. It is actually a system operation issue. If the sun doesn’t shine or the wind doesn’t blow, you can plan ahead and take that into account. We know more or less when that happens based on proper RE feasibility studies, and this is when you might run other technologies to compensate. When the sun shines or the wind blows, there is no need for diesel energy. Thus, we end up saving a lot of money. We shouldn’t be limited by such constraints. A proper energy plan just needs to be in place,” says WWF-Philippines Climate Change and Energy Programme Communicator Christopher Ng, who is working on the Seize Your Power campaign in Palawan. If emergency powers are granted to address the power crisis, RE must be seen as part of the solution. Adding RE to the grid under a proper, comprehensive long-term energy plan based on sound energy demand forecasting by the DOE must be the primary driver for the long-term energy security of the Philippines. Says Petilla, “in the long-term, we hope to develop systems in order for RE to compete toe-to-toe with traditional energy resources and eventually lower the cost of electricity.” (30)

F E AT U R E

NATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS AND SCIENCE FOR THE

The Science Centrum and its Traveling Interactive Science Exhibits BY FILEMON T. BERBA, JR.

T

The Association of Southeast Asian (ASEAN) economic integration in 2015 is just around the corner. It cannot be denied that the Philippines has been lagging behind most of our neighbors, and a major reason for that is that we have failed to focus on science and technology early in our educational system. While individual Filipino students can excel in science competitions anywhere in the world, we do not have a critical mass of young people preparing themselves for science-anchored careers. Yet even the professions, particularly engineering, have to stand up to the global requirements for accreditations to participate in the ASEAN business and technical environments. So what must we do? Firstly we must create that serious awareness that we are lagging behind. Then we must get the government and the education sector to face reality and do something about it. Finally, the private sector, as a matter of survival and competitiveness, must take the initiative to help infuse science into the mainstream of critical thinking and forward planning beyond today’s generation. Today we need to get the young people to prepare for tomorrow’s challenges. The role of Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers (IIEE)? Get into the mainstream of advocacy for science among the youth. After all, these science-exposed youth are the ones who take up electrical engineering. With a potent membership of over 35,000, IIEE has the credibility and nationwide influence that are valued by young people and their teachers.

THE NATIONAL COMPETITIVE COUNCIL INITIATIVES The National Competitiveness Council (NCC), jointly chaired by the government (through Department of Trade and Industry Secretary Gregory Domingo) and the private sector (through Guillermo Luz), has taken initiatives throughout the country to create the appropriate environment for enterprises to operate efficiently and compete effectively. The success of these programs will help make the country move up in the global ranking for competitiveness and thereby attract more local and foreign investments. It is important that adequate infrastructure such as power, ports and harbors, airports, and transportation systems be

24

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

matched by government policies that are attractive and consistent over time. Both the government and the private sector should recognize that technology must be an integral part of the strategic planning for the NCC. But national competitiveness is not something that is static resulting from short-term and medium-term programs. Competitiveness requires dynamic programs that must keep up with the constantly improving position of other countries in their programs and policies. Global competition is very much anchored on the use of technology by both the government and the private sector. ASEAN 2015 is a challenge to be faced by local enterprises now. Over the long term, the country must develop a critical mass of young people who can appreciate, understand and eventually use science and technology as they participate in government, business, and industry. Accordingly, our educational system must make science a major focus, something that practically all our neighboring countries have been doing for years.

THE PHILIPPINE FOUNDATION FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY The Philippine Foundation for Science and Technology (PFST), which celebrates its 30th year, has as its vision: “A nation of science culture and productive citizenry.” It has adopted as its mission the “promotion of science and technology consciousness among the youth, and thereby develop a critical mass of young people interested in the value of science and technology for their future and for the country.” PFST operates a Science Centrum currently located at the Riverbanks Center in Marikina. It has over 150 interactive science exhibits for elementary and high school students and their teachers. It accommodates at least 60,000 visitors annually. PFST, in cooperation with the Department of Education and local government units, also deploys five Travelling Interactive Science Exhibits, composed of 40 interactive modules each.

F E AT U R E

Each traveling exhibit stays in one venue for four to six weeks at a time, and accommodates about 20,000 to 50,000 visitors during the period of display. In total, about 450,000 students and teachers visit annually the traveling exhibits all over the country. As many as 1,200,000 have seen the traveling exhibits: 570,000 in Luzon, 540,000 in Visayas, and 90,000 in Mindanao. In the last five years alone, 325,000 have visited the main centrum in Marikina, each paying only 120 pesos. Students may enter for 50 pesos while teachers may enter free of charge. So far, the traveling exhibits have been shown in more than 170 venues in cities and municipalities from Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao over the years. Currently the Traveling Exhibits are in Tarlac, Nueva Viscaya, and Cebu. Two are set to be deployed in Pangasinan and Mindoro. PFST has a board of trustees with former Department

The Philippines must have a long-term vision starting with the youth. They will be the source of the engineers, technologists, and scientists who will help the country become competitive. of Science and Technology Secretary Ceferino Follosco, (founding member and chairman emeritus), Meneleo Carlos as chairperson, and Filemon T. Berba, Jr. as president. The council of advisers is headed by former Prime Minister Cesar Virata, Dr. Jose B. Cruz, JR., Ambassador Cesar Bautista, and other prominent friends of science.

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

25

F E AT U R E developed Chemistry Laboratory in a Shoebox, a microscale chemistry lab equivalent to the usual chemistry laboratories in high school. Over 5,000 science teachers so far have attended programs on “Teaching Science Through Interactive Approaches” and “Hands-On, Minds-On Microsale Chemistry” workshops.

LUZON

570,000

VISITORS

Visitors from science museums in other countries who have seen the Centrum exhibits have been impressed and have ordered modules from the fabrication unit of PFST. Exhibits designed and made at PFST’s fabrication facility can be found in Brunei, Australia, Malaysia, and Nepal—proving that Filipino ingenuity can be both technically superior and cost effective.

VISAYAS 540,000

VISITORS

In the country, PFST has helped establish science centrums in 15 locations, among which are the Zamboanga Science Centrum in 2013, and earlier the Iloilo Science Centrum, the Bicol Science Centrum, Pasig Science Centrum, and Quezon City Centrum among others.

MINDANAO 90,000

While the country should be proud of having the world class, multimillion peso Mind Museum in Global City, which is a showcase for the country, only a few can afford to visit it. We need to expose young people in islands and provinces far from Metro Manila.

VISITORS

TRAVELING SCIENCE CENTRUM VISITORS FROM 2009-2013

TEACHERS’ CAMPS AND MORE A survey made among students who have visited the exhibits showed that 67% said they would like to take a science course after high school. Exposure to interactive science exhibits stirs up their imagination and interest in science because they could touch and see the results. Sponsors provide the funding for sets for design and fabrication. Such sponsorships can be part of the corporate social responsibility programs of large companies and foundations that believe in science as the key to the future. Among the major sponsors and supporters are the Guronasyon Foundation headed by Atty. Gilberto Duavit, the DMCI Group of Companies of the Consunjis, Dr. Magdaleno Albarrasin, Tan Yan Kee Foundation, D&L Industries, and 2GO Travel. The Centrum and the Travelling Exhibits have already touched the lives of over 6,000,000 students and teachers over the years. Plans are in place for additional traveling exhibits with themes on telecommunication, information technology, health, and medical subjects. PFST also conducts about four Teachers’ Camps annually, where science teachers are guided by science and math specialists on how to teach science more effectively. In addition to the Teachers’ Camps, Balik Scientist of PFST

26

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

During an international symposium on science museums held in South Korea two years ago with 17 participating national science museums. All the national museums were funded by their respective governments, except the PFST Centrum and its traveling exhibits, which depend on private sector support. The participants were quite impressed that people did not have to travel to the main location in Marikina. Instead, the Travelling Interactive Science Exhibits are able to reach out to people in the many islands. Regular programs are conducted in cooperation with the Department of Education, Department of Science and Technology, and science organizations. There are the annual water rocket workshop and competition, the science film festival, a symposium on coral reef preservation, in cooperation with the California Academy of Science, prototyping and innovation contests, etc. In conclusion, the world is now moving and competing in a technology environment. The Philippines must have a longterm vision starting with the youth. They will be the source of the engineers, technologists, and scientists who will help the country become competitive. We need these young science oriented minds now if we are to meet the challenges of the future. --

Filemon T. Berba, Jr. is President of the Philippine Foundation for Science and Technology. He holds an electrical engineering degree from UP and an MBA from Wharton. He was formerly President of IMI, Globe Telecom, Manila Water, and Philippine Electric Corporation of the First Holdings Group. He was President of the Management Association of the Philippines in 1982.

LIGHTNING PROTECTION OF TALL STRUCTURES

THUNDERBOLT AND

VERY VERY FRIGHT’NING? PART 2 OF 2

BY DRABKIN M.M., MUI C.Y.A., AND ONG LAI MUN OF HITACHI CRITICAL FACILITIES PROTECTION PTE. LTD. SINGAPORE

THE LIGHTNING PROTECTION ARRAY SYSTEM (LPAS) INSTALLED ON THE TOP OF A TALL STRUCTURE SUPPRESSES THE INITIATION OF THE UPWARD-MOVING LIGHTNING LEADER FROM THE STRUCTURE, THEREBY REDUCING THE NUMBER OF LIGHTNING STRIKES TO THE PROTECTED STRUCTURE.

THE SUPPRESSION OF AN UPWARD LEADER FROM LPAS

The theoretical determination and technical realization of the conditions leading to the suppression of the upward leader requires study of the following physical problems. •

• A LEADER INITIATION CONSISTS TYPICALLY OF SEVERAL CONSECUTIVE STEPS, i.e., transition of the ultra-corona to the streamer flashes, development of the leader, and propagation of the initiated leader through the corona space charge cloud. The process of the leader suppression is a part of the theory of the non-stationary corona in the air gap between the thunderstorm cloud and ground, and the influence of the injected space charges on the development of the lightning discharge to the protected object. This theory has been developed by Russian scientists Aleksandrov N.L., Bazelyan E.M., and Raizer Y.P. in the last fifteen years. The results of that scientific investigation were presented in various international conferences and published in numerous papers [2]-[7].



First, the qualitative and quantitative properties of the nonstationary corona developed under the lightning electric field of thundercloud cell and downward stepped leader have to be studied. Second, the redistribution of the electric field and potentials caused by the propagation of the local space charge produced by the LPAS with the given geometrical shape and size has to be analyzed. The influence of the redistribution of the electric field on the initiation and stable propagation of the upward leader through the local space charge has to be established. Third, the influence on the initiation and propagation of the upward leader by the downward leaders propagated nearby has to be determined.

A real pattern of the corona near a tall structure and of possible leader initiation is very complicated; some simplification must be made to analyze the evolution in time of a space charge cloud in order to understand the physics of the processes. The simplest model of the corona was considered, where the voltage is applied to a grounded sphere of radius placed at the height

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

27

of h in free space. Corona is induced by the voltage drop created by the thunderstorm electric field along the distance between the sphere and ground.

the upward-moving leader is not possible in this case.

The positive corona is considered because a thundercloud induces positive electric charges on the earth in 90 percent of cases. Electrons generated in the ionization layer move to the electrode, whereas positive ions drift in the electric field in E(r,l) in the opposite direction fonning a cloud of space charge with the density p(r, I). The spatial distribution of E, p and electric potential U(r) can be written in the following form:

1

FIGURE 2. DISTRIBUTION OF THE ELECTRIC FIELD ABOVE THE LP AS OF RADIUS OF I M AS A FUNCTION OF ITS HEIGHT. 2

is the ion mobility, R is the front radius of the expanding Here, space charge cloud. A thundercloud electric field typically rises in about 10 s up to 50 -200 V , is almost constant the next tens of s and then the process can repeat itself after the next lightning discharge [8]. When a well-developed corona (which is corona corresponding to the inequality is maintained in the rising thundercloud electric field at ground level, the radius R of the space charge front varies in time in the following way [2]

3

4

at i > il and

When the voltage rises linearly and is constant the inequality i> il1 is easier to be fulfilled for voltage at which the streamer-free corona will give way to streamer flashes can be written as follows:

7

5

The major advantage of the splines array is the stabilization of the electric field over the hemisphere at a level around 1 kV cm-1. Corona space charge stabilizes electric field not only near each one spline’s tip, but near the hemisphere surface as well. As a result, an ionization wave is not formed near the hemisphere surface when the region of high electric field is detached from the electrode and removed into the gap. Figure 2 shows the calculated distribution of the electric field above the LPAS of radius of 1 m under influence of the thundercloud electric field as a function of the LPAS height. The curves correspond to t = 10 s with the external electric field rise linearly within 10 s to 300 V cm-1. The maximum electric field is 2.3 kV cm-1, an order of magnitude less than the critical field in 1r0 air under standard conditions, even at the 200 m height of the LP AS. The initiation of the streamer flashes and further development into

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

6

In reality a streamer flash occurs this can result in the leader initiation.

R(t) =

Under the same conditions, the corona current and injected space charge vary in time, respectively, as

28

In order to initiate leader development near an electrode, it is necessary that streamer-free corona characterized by a thin unifonn ionization zone gives way to streamer flashes. Based on observation, these streamer flashes should not be shorter than 1 m. The electric field decreases with r from Emax = Ec near the electrode in nonstationary corona regime. Ionization occurs only in a thin layer in the vicinity of the electrode because the ionization rate in the air strongly depends on electric field at E ~ Ec ~ 30 kV cm-1. The decrease of electric field with r, can be fulfilled only at the corona current.

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

Based on (7), extremely high voltages (tens of megavolts) induced by thundercloud cells will be required to stimulate the start of streamer flashes, especially for electrodes with large radius r0 as the LPAS. This is impossible because the accumulation of electric charges in the thunderstorm clouds takes usually tens of seconds. Therefore, the corona from the top of the tall structures will never give way to streamer flashes and leader will never be initiated, if only the slow changing electric field of the thunderstorm cloud is presented. A fast change in electric field is required, such as in case of an in-cloud discharge, or the nearby propagation of a downward leader. Figure 3 shows the distribution of the electric field near the LPASes with radii of 1 meter and 5 meters at the presence of downward leader. At the instant considered, the electric field near the LPAS with radius of 1 m is reaching 30 kV cm-1, the value sufficient to initiate a streamer flash followed by the upward leader. Under the same conditions, the electric field near the LPAS with

radius of 5 meters is three times lower; here the development of a upward leader is impossible. The corona space charge is located just in the region near the electrode top in which the leaders are usually initiated. Analytical theory [2] shows that the injected corona space charge into the gap is smoothing the potential distribution near the electrode top. As result, most of the applied voltage is lost far from the electrode and is useless to the leader initiation. For a well developed corona, the voltage distribution near the hemisphere surface can be written as. Here, the voltage drop along the distance near the electrode is less by the factor than it would be without the space charge. This is a strong effect because the value of decreases by an order of magnitude at the typical ratio Rlr + 100. As was established in [10] , the initiation of a leader is possible only when the voltage drop along the streamer length of m is higher than 400 kV. Therefore, by decreasing the value of ,corona can suppress the leader initiation from a grounded electrode. The simulations on the numerical model described in [2] show that the voltage drop strongly depends on the field at the surface of the electrode top. In case of an ultra-corona, this field is higher than 30 kV under standard conditions, and can be estimated from Peak’s formula. Curve 1 in figure 4 shows in this case. the space distribution of

FIGURE 4. THE VOLTAGE DROP NEAR THE HEMISPHERE WITH RADII OF 0.5 M (CURVE 1) AND 5 M (CURVE 2) AT HEIGHT OF 540 M.

As it was mentioned above, the stabilized electric field near the hemisphere of large radius and with the multitude of short splines mounted on the hemisphere surface can be reduced by an order of magnitude. Curve 2 in figure 4 shows that in this case the voltage drop along a length of 1 m decreases greater than by a factor of five, from 800 kV to 155 kV. The first value is sufficient to initiate an upward leader, whereas the latter value is almost three times less than the threshold voltage drop. This means that the mounting of the LPAS on top of a high structure can lead to a total suppression of an upward lightning discharge if only thundercloud electric field is presented. That holds true even for such a tall object as the Ostankino Television Tower in Moscow. (The calculations correspond to its height.) The upward leader from a tall structure can be initiated by the fast growing electric field of the moving nearby downward drop along the first stepped leader. In this case the voltage meter of the streamer length from the hemisphere surface quickly reaches and exceeds the threshold value required for the

ignition of the streamer flashes. But there is the second condition which must be present for the successful ignition of the streamer flashes. The corona current from the tip of the electrode must exceed the critical value determined by (9) . For the electrodes with small radii we have , i.e., the critical current must be constant and equal to 1 rnA per each corona-forming point. Therefore, by increasing the number of corona-producing points at a fixed total current, it is possible to decrease the current through each point and greatly enhance the stability of a streamer-free corona. The total corona current from the LPAS with array of thousands of thin splines located on its surface depends on the number of points only during a very short time at the beginning of the process when the radius R of the space charge front is less or comparable with the spline’s height and the distance between m) . In case of a well the adjacent splines (in practice, at developed corona, when the value of radius R of the front of the space charge is several tens of meters or higher, the corona current and injected space charges do not depend on the number of corona-producing points. The total corona current in this case is comparable to the corona current from a lightning rod of the same height. But the corona current from each one individual point will be equal to the total corona current divided by the number of points. Therefore, the condition for the initiation of streamer corona becomes more stringent. For example, the critical value of the point discharge current, for a spline of radius of O.l cm . For the LPAS with 10,000 splines the total corona current must exceed 20 A in order to start a streamer flash from some point. For comparison, single electrode with typical radius of 2 cm will already have a streamer flash when corona current exceeds 10 rnA. The streamer flash ignition and following an upward­moving leader initiation will happen much later for the LPAS. This delay may have a profound effect on the whole process of lightning discharge. The lightning leader developed with a delay will have a good chance to miss the attachment to a downward leader, that might have at that time some other alternative path. When all the conditions for an upward leader initiation are met, the corona current from the individual points of an array exceeds the value required for the streamers ignition. Streamer flashes are ignited, the voltage drop on the first meter of length of the streamers stem exceeds 400 kV, then upward leader starts. But, in order to complete the process of lightning discharge, the leader must be able to pass through the cloud of the space charge to free air and to meet with the tip of the downward stepped leader or reach the point of attachment in cloud. This can be achieved only when the undisturbed external electric field is greater than the electric field in the leader channel. The external electric field as a function of the electrode height can be found from the following expression (10).

10

In real conditions, taking into account the influence of the corona space charge, the electric field at ground level under the thunderstorm cloud of 20 kV can support the initiated leader from the objects higher than 225 m. For the typical structures w20 -50 m high the external electric field must be in vicinity of60 -50 kV . Such a strong electric field cannot be originated by the thunderstorm clouds alone. According to [9, 10] all the important parameters of a leader, which have covered a distance of many meters and have not reached an opposite electrode, are governed by the difference between the leader tip potential , and the potential of an external electric field at the tip point. It is assumed that the value of changes only slightly along

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

29

the streamer zone because it is far from a source of the external field. The applied voltage is a sum of the voltage drop along the channel and the tip potential (11). It describes the leader

11

development in the external electric field with the potential distribution where is the coordinate along the leader axis and L is the leader length. With a non-zero electric field it follows from (11) that . Even if the voltage U is sufficiently high to initiate a leader, this does not necessarily mean that the leader will propagate for a long time. At the potential difference , decreases with the development of the leader. When , is reduced down to the value equal or less than , the leader stops propagating. Therefore, the criterion of the leader ‘vitality’ is . The condition for the leader to escape

The leader may be attracted to the not-too-distant downward leader and complete the process of the downward lightning strike to the protected object. the use of the multi-point hemispherical system 5 meters in radius leads to a decrease in ReJJ by a factor of 6.3 and to a decrease in the total number of lightning strikes to the object by a factor of 40. CONCLUSIONS 1.

12

2. from the space charge cloud as it is described in [2] can be written as where is a rise time in seconds. For instance, the rise time of 10 s the leader initiated at that time can pass the corona space charge cloud if the voltage Um to that moment will be higher than 7.3 MV. The escape of the upward leader from the space charge cloud will result in the lightning strike to the structure. The type of the strike will depend on the further orientation of the upward leader in free air. Type of the strike will depend on the further orientation of the upward leader in free air. The leader may be attracted to the not-too-distant downward leader and complete the process of the downward lightning strike to the protected object. Still other possible developments may happen in cases where the leader will continue its propagation toward the cloud independently from the downward leader and complete the process of the upward lightning strike to the structure. In determination of the total number of lightning strikes to a tall structure protected by the LPAS, downward and upward, the equidistance principle as in the electrogeometric method (EGM) can be implemented to obtain the maximal radial displacement of the tip of the downward leader, influence of which still be able to initiate the viable upward-moving leader from the structure. This displacement is in fact the equivalent attraction radius, Reffi. The total number of lightning strikes to an object is equal to the number of downward lightning discharges falling on an undisturbed ground circle of radius RejJ-Downward leaders descending at shorter horizontal distances from a ground object will be deflected from their undisturbed path and strike the object. The more distant downward leaders, despite their influence on upward leaders, will not be capable of attaching to the tip of the escaped upward leader. In this case the upward leader will continue its propagation towards the cloud. The LPAS with a large radius and thousands of corona-producing points decreases the equivalent attraction radius, Rej; several times compared to the lightning rod in the same conditions. The number of lightning strikes decreases in inverse proportionality to Rej. As an example, which was described in [4], the value of for Ostankino Television Tower in Moscow with height of 540 meters were calculated separately for the lightning rod and the LP AS with radius of 5 m and 10,000 splines. The numerical simulation showed that

30

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

3.

4.

An array of thin metal splines with sharpened tips evenly distributed over a large radius hemispherical surface (LPAS) can control the process of lightning discharge into the protected tall structure by injecting the corona space charge into the air gap cloud structure. The presence of the corona space charge in the gap smoothen the redistribution of voltage across the gap, so the initiation of the upward leader from the structure becomes impossible under the influence of only the electrical field of a thundercloud. The even distribution of the total corona current among the multitude of the array’ splines increases on orders of magnitude the total corona current required for ignition of the streamer flashes leading to the start of the upward leader. Such high current can be produced only by the electric field of the fast moving and not too distant downward stepped leader. The LPAS of a large diameter and the thousands of splines decreases the equivalent radius of attraction several times compared with the lightning rod of the same height. That results in a decrease of the total number of lightning strikes to a tall structure by an order of magnitude.

REFERENCES [I] V.A.Rakov, M.A.Uman, “Lightning Physics and Effects”, University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2003 [2] N.L.Aleksandrov, E.M.Bazelyan, R.BJr. Carpenter, M.M.Drabkin and YU.P.Raizer, “The effect of Coronae on Leader Initiation and Development Under Thunderstorm Condition and in Long Air Gaps” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, , pp. 3256-3266, lOP Publishing Ltd, UK, 200 I [3] N.L.Aleksandrov, E.M.Bazelyan, R.BJr. Carpenter, M.M.Drabkin and Yu.P.Raizer, “Initiationof Leader in Long Gaps at Qusi-Steady Corona near Stressed Electrode”, Proceedings of 91h International Symposium on Gaseous Dielectrics, Maryland, USA, May, 2001 [4] N.L.Aleksandrov, E.M.Bazelyan, R.BJr. Carpenter, M.M.Drabkin and YU.P.Raizer, “Corona Discharge at the Tip of High Grounded Object in the Electric Field of Thundercloud,” Proceedings of \21h International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering, Bangalore, India, August, 2001 [5] N.L.Aleksandrov, E.M.Bazelyan, R.BJr. Carpenter, M.M.Drabkin and YU.P.Raizer, “Prospects for Reliability Improvement of Lightning Protection Owing to Long-Duration Injection of Space Charge into Atmosphere”, Proceedings of 261h International Conference on Lightning Protection, Cracow, Poland, September, 2002 [6] N.L.Aleksandrov, E.M.Bazelyan, R.BJr. Carpenter, M.M.Drabkin and YU.P.Raizer, “Corona from Tall Objects in the Electric field of Thundercloud”, Phisics of Plazma, 28, N211, pp 1032-1043, 2002. [7] N.L.Aleksandrov, E.M.Bazelyan, R.BJr. Carpenter, M.M.Drabkin and YU.P.Raizer, “A Method to Calculate the Number of Lightning Strikes to a High Object Taking into Account Gas Discharge Process Near its 271h Tip,” Proceeding of International Conference on Lightning Protection, Avignon, France, September, 2004. [8] R.H.Golde, “Lightning”, voL I ,2, Academic Press, New York, 1977. [9] E.M. Bazelyan and YU.P.Raizer, “Spark Discharge”, Boca Raton, FJ.,CRS Press, 1998. [10] E.M. Bazelyan and Yu.P.Raizer, “Lightning Physics and Lightning Protection”, lOP Publishing Ltd., Bristol, UK, 2000.

I N FO G R A P H I C

14

BEER FACTS

WORDS BY KRIS LANOT LACABA

The London beer tsunami. London experienced a beer tsunami in 1814 when several vats containing 1,224,000 liters of beer ruptured. (bbc.co.uk) Beer baptism. Children were customarily baptized with beer in the 13th century (brewingexperience.com)  Happy 6,000th. Archeologists found a 6,000-year-old recipe for making beer with a Sumerian seal dedicated to the goddess of brewing. (brewingexperience.com) The army beer allowance. The British army once supplied its men with a cash allowance for beer. (brewingexperience.com) The Mayflower beer stop. The pilgrims on the Mayflower landed on Plymouth Rock because they ran out of beer on their ship. (brewingexperience.com) Beer saint ends plague. Saint Arnold of Metz is the patron saint of beer. Legend says he plunged his crucifix in beer and saved Europe from the plague. (brewingexperience.com) Beer vs. coffee. King Frederick the Great banned coffee to boost sagging sales of beer. (brewingexperience.com)

32

THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER

1

8

2 9 3 10 4 11 5 12 6 13 7 14

VOLUME XLIV 3RD QUARTER 2014

PHOTOS BY ARIEL ROSELO

Volcano science. The study of scattered acoustic waves, used to monitor volcanoes, is the same science used to examine beer bubbles. (zdnet.com) Drowning in bad beer. Ancient Babylonians drowned brewers who sold a bad batch of beer. (huffingtonost.com)  Southeast Asia’s first. La Fabrica de Cerveza de San Miguel (the forerunner of San Miguel Corporation) became the first brewery in Southeast Asia when it was established in 1890. (sanmiguel.com.ph) The beer-marijuana connection. Hops (Humulus lupulus) used for beer and marijuana (Cannabis sativa) might be not-so-distant cousins (popsci.com) Pinoy vitamin beer. Vitamin Beer, made by Pinoy inventor Billy Malang, won first place in the Genius-Europe competition in 2004. (newsinfo.inquirer.net) 1.4 billion liters a year. In a 2004 study, the Philippines consumed 1.4 billion liters of beer annually. (newsinfo.inquirer.net) World’s top 3. A 2014 study ranks the Philippines as the world’s number three in alcohol (beer and other spirits) consumption, after South Korea and Russia. (policymic.com)

Best-in-class LV circuit protection for residential, commercial and industrial applications.

Electrical distribution solutions delivers safe and efficient power. Protect the environment, people and equipment.

Extensive line of space saving and easy-to-install contactors for all application needs.

xEnergy modular switchboard allows maximum flexibility and safety.

Power quality solution that delivers the reliable power the system needs.

Solutions to energize tomorrow’s world today. Advancing industry, new technologies, complex processes—all are driving a growing demand for, and the cost of, electrical power. Business demands solutions that increase uptime and extend equipment life, while keeping personnel and equipment safe. At Eaton, we’re energized by the challenge of powering a world that demands more. With more than 100 years of experience in electrical power management, we have the expertise to see beyond today. From groundbreaking products to turnkey design and engineering services, critical industries around the globe count on Eaton. For more information, contact us at: Eaton Philippines 29 F Ayala Life FGU Center Ayala Avenue, Makati City Philippines 1200

T : +632 812 3045 F : +632 812 3045 (7) E : [email protected] W : www.eaton.com