26. August 2014
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Inhaltsverzeichnis 0.1 Einleitung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.2 Herstellung und Entstehungsweise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.3 Pﬂege . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 6 15
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23 23 24 25
Kurze, ungehäkelte Dreadlocks.
Rastafari mit Dreadlocks.
Dreadlocks1 , kurz Dreads, sind Strähnen verﬁlzter Kopfhaare. Diese können sich unter Umständen selbst entwickeln, wenn das Haar für eine längere Zeitperiode nicht gekämmt, geschnitten oder rasiert wird, die Dreadlocks werden aber meist künstlich angelegt und die Verﬁlzung durch mechanische Hilfsmittel gefördert. Manche Dreadlock-Träger (die sich selbst häuﬁg als "Dread-Heads" bezeichnen) verzieren ihre Haare zusätzlich mit verschiedenem Schmuck wie Perlen aus Holz, Metall oder Fimo oder auch anderen Materialien.
Inhaltsverzeichnis Dreadlocks werden heute in Europa und den USA meist als modische Frisur getragen. In manchen Kulturkreisen, beispielsweise bei den Rastafari2 , können sie aber auch religiöse oder spirituelle Hintergründe haben. Dieses Buch soll eine Anleitung geben, wie man seine Haare in schöne, gepﬂegte Dreadlocks verwandeln kann.
0.2 Herstellung und Entstehungsweise Zwar können Dreadlocks auch selbstständig durch langsames Verﬁlzen entstehen, wenn das Haar lange nicht geschnitten oder gekämmt wird, aber aus ästhetischen Gründen wird der Verﬁlzungsprozess heute meist künstlich gesteuert und beschleunigt. Der Vorgang der Anlegen der späteren Dreadlocks wird dabei mit dem Neologismus "dreaden" bezeichnet. Dabei werden die Haare in einzelne Strähnen unterteilt, die dann durch mechanische Einwirkung ineinander verknotet werden. Im Laufe der nächsten ein bis zwei Jahre verﬁlzen die Haare der einzelnen Strähnen und es bilden sich Dreadlocks. Die künstlichen Herstellungsweisen sind manchmal unangenehm für die Kopfhaut, dies hängt jedoch von der Sensibilität der Kopfhaut und der Vorsicht desjenigen ab, der die Dreadlocks macht (sog. Dreader) sowie der verwendeten Methode. Des Weiteren können nach der Herstellung einige Tage lang Kopfschmerzen auftreten, die durch die starke Zugbelastung auf die Kopfhaut entstehen. Diese Schmerzen verschwinden allerdings nach spätestens einer Woche von alleine, wenn sich die Zugspannung auf die Kopfhaut gelegt hat.
0.2.1 Mindesthaarlänge Eine Mindesthaarlänge von etwa zehn Zentimetern für die Rubbelmethode und 15-20cm für die Strähnchen-/Backcombingmethode sollte gegeben sein. Je kürzer das Haar, desto aufwändiger ist die notwendige Nachbehandlung und um so häuﬁger muss sie wiederholt werden. Beim Dreaden ist mit einem hohen Längenverlust der Haare zu rechnen, je nach verwendeter Methode und Dicke der Dreadlocks bis über 50%. Weiterhin verliert das Haar während des nachfolgenden Filzprozesses an Länge.
0.2.2 Arbeitszeit Die Arbeitszeit bei künstlich angelegten Dreadlocks richtet sich nach der Haarlänge und -fülle, nach der Anzahl und Dicke der einzelnen Dreadlocks sowie nach der angewendeten Methode, beträgt aber mindestens vier bis fünf Stunden und kann auch deutlich über zehn Stunden liegen. Bei der Rubbelmethode verteilt sich die Arbeitszeit aber auf viele einzelne Behandlungen.
Herstellung und Entstehungsweise
0.2.3 Vorbehandlung Waschen Vor dem Anlegen der Dreadlocks kann man versuchen, das Haar auf das Dreaden vorzubereiten. In dieser Zeit sollten Pﬂegespülungen oder Shampoo mit hoher Pﬂegewirkung vermieden werden, da zu glatte Haare sich leichter wieder aus den gedreadeten Strähnen lösen. Da man Dreadlocks aufgrund des Aufwandes meistens etwas seltener wäscht als oﬀene Haare, ist es auch nützlich, den Waschrhythmus schon vorher entsprechend anzupassen, bspw. nur noch alle drei Tage statt täglich, um die Kopfhaut daran zu gewöhnen. Am besten wäscht man die Haare vor und auch nach dem sogenannten "dreaden" mit Kernseife oder Kieselerdepulver. Dieses Pulver vermischt man mit etwas Wasser, sodass eine zähe Masse entsteht und lässt sie mindestens 30 min im Haar einwirken. Die Masse trocknet die Drads aus und beschleunigt den Filzungsprozess. Abteilen
Abb. 5 Spezielle Dreadgummis, um die Ansätze und Spitzen zu ﬁxieren.
Abb. 6 Erster Schritt: Einteilung der ersten Reihe.
Einteilung der rechten Seite.
Einteilung komplett fertig.
Die Haare werden dazu in gleichmäßige Strähnen abgeteilt. Damit wird die Lage der Ansätze und die Dicke der späteren Dreadlocks festgelegt, da sich beides später nicht oder nur mit großem Aufwand wieder ändern lässt. Je nach persönlichem Geschmack kann dabei ein Mittel- oder Seitenscheitel angelegt und die Dreadlocks regelmäßig und gleich groß oder unregelmäßig geplant werden. Die Dicke der Dreadlocks wird durch die Wahl der Ansatzgröße bestimmt, je nach Haarfülle und -dicke werden dabei meist zwischen etwa 35 Strähnen für sehr dicke Dreads und etwa 70-80 Strähnen für dünne Dreads abgeteilt. Die Dreaddicke ist zwar in erster Linie eine ästhetische Entscheidung, jedoch sollten auch die praktischen Auswirkungen bedacht werden. Dünne Dreadlocks erfordern durch ihre hohe Anzahl einen höheren Pﬂegeaufwand, dicke Dreadlocks sind dagegen aufwändiger beim Waschen und Trocknen und verursachen häuﬁger Probleme mit Helmen oder anderen Kopfbedeckungen.
0.2.4 Methoden Backcombing-Methode
Herstellung und Entstehungsweise
Abb. 9 Zweiter Schritt: Grundstock: Haare aufbauschen / toupieren ("Backcombing").
Dreaden komplett fertig.
Abb. 12 Dreaden.
Abb. 13 Dreaden. Nach dem Abteilen werden die Haare mit Hilfe eines möglichst feinzinkigen Kammes (z.B. einem Hundefellkamm aus dem Tierbedarf, am besten aus Metall, damit die Zinken nicht abbrechen) fest zum Haaransatz bzw. zur Kopfhaut hin gekämmt (toupiert). Dabei ist darauf zu achten, dass sich keine Schlaufen bilden. Zwischendurch werden die Strähnen immer wieder zwischen den Handﬂächen gerollt, um eine gleichmäßige Form zu erzielen. Dieser Vorgang wird so lange wiederholt, bis die Strähne fest ist und keine glatten Haare mehr vorhanden sind. Es wird Strähne für Strähne bearbeitet. Um eine gute Haltbarkeit zu erreichen, werden die Haare bis zum Ansatz sehr fest zusammengeschoben, dadurch stehen die entstehenden Dreadlocks in den ersten Tagen fast senkrecht vom Kopf ab. Strähnchen-Methode Nach dem Abteilen werden hier die Haarspitzen einer Strähne mit den Fingern gegeneinander verdreht. Sind die Haare ausreichend verdreht, wird die Strähne auseinander gezogen, so dass sich die Haare zur Kopfhaut hin verknoten. Hier wird der Knoten massiert, so dass er in Form gebracht und noch fester wird. Dann wird erneut damit begonnen, die weiteren Haare zu verdrehen. Der Vorgang wiederholt sich so lange, bis jede abgeteilte Strähne fertig ist.
Herstellung und Entstehungsweise Kombination Beliebt sind auch Kombination aus beiden Methoden, bei denen z.B. die Ansätze mit der Strähnchenmethode und der Rest via Backcombingmethode bearbeitet werden. Rubbel-Methode Eine Alternative besteht in der Rubbel-Methode. Diese besteht im Wesentlichen daraus, sich jeden Tag mit einem Handtuch, einem Waschlappen, einem Microfasertuch oder auch mit bloßen Händen in kreisförmigen Bewegungen über das vollständig trockene Haar zu rubbeln. Zuerst entsteht eine Art Afro-Frisur, die nach einiger Zeit zu Strähnchen, später zu festen Dreads verﬁlzt. Dies kann durchaus bis zu einem halben Jahr dauern. Ein "in Strähnchen reißen" oder schneiden, wie in vielen Anleitungen steht, ist nicht nötig, die Haare werden von selbst zu dünnen, sehr gleichmäßigen Dreadlocks verﬁlzen. Es wird empfohlen mit kleinen Kreisen (immer in die selbe Richtung) mit viel Druck zu beginnen, wodurch sich der erste Filz bilden kann und später zu großen Kreisen (auch in die gleiche Richtung) mit weniger Druck überzugehen, was dafür sorgt, dass die einzelnen Strähnen und die Spitzen besser ﬁlzen.
0.2.5 Nachbehandlung Wachs
Abb. 14 Optional: Dreadwachs zur optischen Aufbesserung der jungen Dreads.
Abb. 15 Von oben. Besonders von kommerziellen Anbietern wird häuﬁg ein spezielles Haarwachs (DreadWachs) verwendet. Dies dient jedoch nur kosmetischen Zwecken und soll die noch nicht verﬁlzten Strähnen zusammen halten und mehr nach Dreadlocks aussehen lassen. Bei der Verwendung ist Vorsicht geboten, nicht nur kann zu reichlich aufgetragenes Wachs Verschmutzung an Kleidung und Wäsche verursachen, es behindert auch den eigentlichen Filzvorgang. Sind die Strähnen sorgfältig behandelt worden ist eine Verwendung von Wachs nicht notwendig. Häkeln
Abb. 16 Dreadlocks-Ansätze werden gehäkelt.
Herstellung und Entstehungsweise
Abb. 17 Anleitung zum "häkeln" von Dreadlocks. Sowohl beim Anlegen der Dreadlocks als auch bei der späteren Pﬂege ist eine feine Häkelnadel mit einer Größe von ca. einem Milimeter hilfreich. Damit können die oﬀen gebliebenen Haare an der Spitze der Strähnen in den verknoteten Teil gezogen werden. So wird verhindert, dass sich frisch angelegte Dreadlocks von der Spitze her wieder auﬂösen. Auch die heraus stehendene, nicht verﬁlzten Haare werden damit in die Dreadlocks eingearbeitet, in dem man die Häkelnadel durch den Dread sticht, die losen Haare herumwickelt und sie hindurch zieht. Ansatzbehandlung Die nachwachsenden Haare verﬁlzen meistens von alleine, sobald sie weit genug aus der Kopfhaut ausgetreten sind. Ein paar Zentimeter des Dreadansatzes sind aber natürlich immer unverﬁlzt. Ist dieser Abschnitt zu lang, kann man den Ansatz zwischen zwei Finger der ﬂachen Hand nehmen und in kreisenden Bewegungen über die Kopfhaut reiben, bis sich die Haare ineinander verknotet haben. Sind zuviele lose Haare am Ansatz vorhanden, können benachbarte Ansätze zusammenﬁlzen. Es ist ratsam, die Ansätze regelmäßig zu kontrollieren und ggf. vorsichtig auseinander zu reißen oder schneiden.
Inhaltsverzeichnis Gummiringe Zur Fixierung loser Haare an Ansatz und Spitzen können Gummiringe verwendet werden. Diese sollten hinreichend stabil sein, auch unter Wassereinwirkung. Von Haushaltsgummis u.Ä. ist daher abzuraten, da sich diese leicht zersetzen. Als kostengünstige und praktische Lösung bieten sich Mähnengummis aus dem Reitsportbedarf an. Diese sind stabil und in vielen Farben erhältlich, so dass eine zur Haarfarbe passende Ausführung verwendet werden kann.
Frische Dreadlocks nach dem Häkeln (links) und ältere (rechts).
Wenn die Dreadlocks erfolgreich angelegt sind, muss nun gewartet und immer wieder nachgebessert werden, bis nach ein bis zwei Jahren fester Filz entsteht und sich richtige Dreadlocks formen. Allerdings sind Dreadlocks auch dann nicht „fertig“ bzw. perfekt, es muss immer wieder nachgebessert werden, damit sie gepﬂegt bleiben.
0.2.7 Haltbarkeit Sehr entscheidend für die Haltbarkeit der Dreadlocks ist die Nachbehandlung durch das Häkeln (besonders am Ansatz). Daher variiert die Haltbarkeit von Dreadlocks zwischen wenigen Monaten bis hin zu unendlich, je nach Einsatz des Trägers. In der Regel sind Dreadlocks allerdings eine dauerhafte Frisur, der man sich nur durch einen Haarschnitt, eine
Pﬂege Rasur oder sehr mühevolles Herauskämmen entledigen kann (bei sehr frischen Dreadlocks, die nicht älter als drei Monate sind, geht das Herauskämmen noch recht gut. Nach dem vollständigen Verﬁlzungsprozess ist es sehr schwierig und zum Teil sehr schmerzhaft).
0.3 Pﬂege 0.3.1 Waschen Generell können Dreadlocks genauso gewaschen werden wie normales Haar. Aufgrund des hohen Aufwandes waschen sich 'Dread-Heads' ihre Haare jedoch oft etwas seltener als Menschen mit normalem Haar. Da sich Dreadlocks mit Wasser vollsaugen, verlängert sich der Trocknungsprozess erheblich. Um eine ausreichende Trocknung zu erzielen, ist daher der Einsatz eines Föns oder einer Trockenhaube zu empfehlen. In den ersten Monaten können sich zu oft gewaschene Dreadlocks leichter auﬂösen, insbesondere, wenn Shampoos oder Conditioners, also Glättungsmittel, verwendet werden. Diese verhindern den natürlichen Verﬁlzungsprozess der Haare, was hier nicht erwünscht ist. Daher sollte am Anfang auf Shampoos mit hoher Pﬂegewirkung oder Spülungen verzichtet werden. Um zu glatte Haare aufzurauen sind Anfangs auch Shampoos mit Salz- bzw. Meerwasser, z. B. Totes-Meer-Salz-Präperate beliebt. Weiterhin eignet sich auch einfaches Duschgel. Sobald die Dreadlocks hinreichend gefestigt sind, kann die Shampoowahl nach Bedarf erfolgen und auch Spülungen sind dann anzuraten, da ältere Haare mit der Zeit brüchig werden.
0.3.2 Wundermittel Da der eigentlich Vorgang der Dreadbildung sehr langwierig ist, kursieren viele obskure „Geheimtipps“ und „Wundermittel“, wie schneller schöne Dreadlocks zu erreichen sind. Mittel zur Austrocknung der Haare Oft wird versucht, durch Verwendung von Kernseife, konzentriertem Salzwasser oder sogar Waschpulver, die Haare auszutrocknen (also rauer zu machen). Dies kann kurzfristig die Verﬁlzung fördern, greift jedoch die empﬁndliche Kopfhaut an und kann dort zu Reizungen, Entzündungen oder Schuppenbildung führen. Außerdem verbleiben oft Rückstände von Kernseife in den Haaren, die unschöne weiße Ablagerungen bilden. Die fortgesetzte Anwendung führt darüberhinaus zur Schädigung und Bruch der Haare, die Dreadlocks können dann ausdünnen oder ganz abreißen. Eine andere Methode zur „Austrocknung“ der Haare ist der Einsatz von Babypuder. Babypuder besteht aus dem Mineral Magnesiumsilikathydrat, auch bekannt als Talk oder Talkum. Magnesiumsilikathydrat ist hautverträglich (Verwendung auf Babyhaut) und bindet Fette, deshalb ist es für die „Austrocknung“ der Haare ideal. Dieser Eﬀekt wurde auch in den 80ern im sogenanntem Trockenshampoo verwendet. Ausserdem kann Kieselerde vor und nach dem dreaden verwendet werden. Siehe oben vorbehandlung -waschen.
Inhaltsverzeichnis Lebensmittel und organische Stoﬀe Berichte über Lebensmittel wie Ei, Honig, Nutella o. Ä. oder andere organische Substanzen („Kuhdung“) in den Dreadlocks sind in der Regel urbane Legenden, die zur Diskreditierung von Dreadlocksträgern in die Welt gesetzt werden und werden nur selten von besonders leichtgläubigen oder besonders jungen Dreadheads nachgeahmt. Werden die Lebensmittel nicht schnell und gründlich genug ausgewaschen, kann sich Schimmel in den Dreadlocks bilden und die Dreadlocks müssen vollständig entfernt werden! Ei macht das Haar weich, glänzend und gibt ihm Nährstoﬀe..... also es trocknet sicherlich nicht aus.
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If such problems arise substantially in other domains, we stand ready to extend this provision to those domains in future versions of the GPL, as needed to protect the freedom of users. Finally, every program is threatened constantly by software patents. States should not allow patents to restrict development and use of software on general-purpose computers, but in those that do, we wish to avoid the special danger that patents applied to a free program could make it eﬀectively proprietary. To prevent this, the GPL assures that patents cannot be used to render the program non-free. The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modiﬁcation follow. TERMS AND CONDITIONS 0. Deﬁnitions. “This License” refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public License. “Copyright” also means copyright-like laws that apply to other kinds of works, such as semiconductor masks. “The Program” refers to any copyrightable work licensed under this License. Each licensee is addressed as “you”. “Licensees” and “recipients” may be individuals or organizations. To “modify” a work means to copy from or adapt all or part of the work in a fashion requiring copyright permission, other than the making of an exact copy. The resulting work is called a “modiﬁed version” of the earlier work or a work “based on” the earlier work. A “covered work” means either the unmodiﬁed Program or a work based on the Program. To “propagate” a work means to do anything with it that, without permission, would make you directly or secondarily liable for infringement under applicable copyright law, except executing it on a computer or modifying a private copy. Propagation includes copying, distribution (with or without modiﬁcation), making available to the public, and in some countries other activities as well. To “convey” a work means any kind of propagation that enables other parties to make or receive copies. Mere interaction with a user through a computer network, with no transfer of a copy, is not conveying. An interactive user interface displays “Appropriate Legal Notices” to the extent that it includes a convenient and prominently visible feature that (1) displays an appropriate copyright notice, and (2) tells the user that there is no warranty for the work (except to the extent that warranties are provided), that licensees may convey the work under this License, and how to view a copy of this License. If the interface presents a list of user commands or options, such as a menu, a prominent item in the list meets this criterion. 1. Source Code. The “source code” for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modiﬁcations to it. “Object code” means any non-source form of a work. A “Standard Interface” means an interface that either is an oﬃcial standard deﬁned by a recognized standards body, or, in the case of interfaces speciﬁed for a particular programming language, one that is widely used among developers working in that language. The “System Libraries” of an executable work include anything, other than the work as a whole, that (a) is included in the normal form of packaging a Major Component, but which is not part of that Major Component, and (b) serves only to enable use of the work with that Major Component, or to implement a Standard Interface for which an implementation is available to the public in source code form. A “Major Component”, in this context, means a major essential component (kernel, window system, and so on) of the speciﬁc operating system (if any) on which the executable work runs, or a compiler used to produce the work, or an object code interpreter used to run it.
The “Corresponding Source” for a work in object code form means all the source code needed to generate, install, and (for an executable work) run the object code and to modify the work, including scripts to control those activities. However, it does not include the work's System Libraries, or general-purpose tools or generally available free programs which are used unmodiﬁed in performing those activities but which are not part of the work. For example, Corresponding Source includes interface deﬁnition ﬁles associated with source ﬁles for the work, and the source code for shared libraries and dynamically linked subprograms that the work is speciﬁcally designed to require, such as by intimate data communication or control ﬂow between those subprograms and other parts of the work. The Corresponding Source need not include anything that users can regenerate automatically from other parts of the Corresponding Source. The Corresponding Source for a work in source code form is that same work. 2. Basic Permissions. All rights granted under this License are granted for the term of copyright on the Program, and are irrevocable provided the stated conditions are met. This License explicitly aﬃrms your unlimited permission to run the unmodiﬁed Program. The output from running a covered work is covered by this License only if the output, given its content, constitutes a covered work. This License acknowledges your rights of fair use or other equivalent, as provided by copyright law. You may make, run and propagate covered works that you do not convey, without conditions so long as your license otherwise remains in force. You may convey covered works to others for the sole purpose of having them make modiﬁcations exclusively for you, or provide you with facilities for running those works, provided that you comply with the terms of this License in conveying all material for which you do not control copyright. Those thus making or running the covered works for you must do so exclusively on your behalf, under your direction and control, on terms that prohibit them from making any copies of your copyrighted material outside their relationship with you. Conveying under any other circumstances is permitted solely under the conditions stated below. Sublicensing is not allowed; section 10 makes it unnecessary. 3. Protecting Users' Legal Rights From AntiCircumvention Law. No covered work shall be deemed part of an eﬀective technological measure under any applicable law fulﬁlling obligations under article 11 of the WIPO copyright treaty adopted on 20 December 1996, or similar laws prohibiting or restricting circumvention of such measures. When you convey a covered work, you waive any legal power to forbid circumvention of technological measures to the extent such circumvention is eﬀected by exercising rights under this License with respect to the covered work, and you disclaim any intention to limit operation or modiﬁcation of the work as a means of enforcing, against the work's users, your or third parties' legal rights to forbid circumvention of technological measures. 4. Conveying Verbatim Copies. You may convey verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice; keep intact all notices stating that this License and any non-permissive terms added in accord with section 7 apply to the code; keep intact all notices of the absence of any warranty; and give all recipients a copy of this License along with the Program. You may charge any price or no price for each copy that you convey, and you may oﬀer support or warranty protection for a fee. 5. Conveying Modiﬁed Source Versions. You may convey a work based on the Program, or the modiﬁcations to produce it from the Program, in the form of source code under the terms of section 4, provided that you also meet all of these conditions: * a) The work must carry prominent notices stating that you modiﬁed it, and giving a relevant date. * b) The work must carry prominent notices stating that it is released under this License and any conditions added under section 7. This requirement modiﬁes the requirement in section 4 to “keep intact all notices”. * c) You must license the entire work, as a whole, under this License to anyone who comes into possession of a copy. This License will therefore apply, along with any applicable section 7 additional terms, to the whole of the work, and all its parts, regardless of how they are packaged. This License gives no permission to license the work in any other way, but it does not invalidate such permission if you have separately received it. * d) If the work has interactive user interfaces, each must display Appropriate Legal Notices; however, if the Program has interactive interfaces that do not display Appropriate Legal Notices, your work need not make them do so. A compilation of a covered work with other separate and independent works, which are not by their nature extensions of the covered work, and which are not combined with it such as to form a larger program, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the compilation and its resulting copyright are not used to limit the access or legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. Inclusion of a covered work in an aggregate does not cause this License to apply to the other parts of the aggregate. 6. Conveying Non-Source Forms. You may convey a covered work in object code form under the terms of sections 4 and 5, provided that you also convey the machine-readable Corresponding Source under the terms of this License, in one of these ways: * a) Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by the Corresponding Source ﬁxed on a durable physical medium customarily used for software interchange. * b) Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by a written oﬀer, valid for at least three years and valid for as long as you oﬀer spare parts or customer support for that product model, to give anyone who possesses the object code either (1) a copy of the Corresponding Source for all the software in the product that is covered by this License, on a durable physical medium customarily used for software interchange, for a price no more than your reasonable cost of physically performing this conveying of source, or (2) access to copy the Corresponding Source from a network server at no charge. * c) Convey individual copies of the object code with a copy of the written oﬀer to provide the Corresponding Source. This alternative is allowed only occasionally and noncommercially, and only if you received the object code with such an oﬀer, in accord with subsection 6b. * d) Convey the object code by oﬀering access from a designated place (gratis or for a charge), and oﬀer equivalent access to the Corresponding Source in the same way through the same place at no further charge. You need not require recipients to copy the Corresponding Source along with the object code. If the place to copy the
object code is a network server, the Corresponding Source may be on a diﬀerent server (operated by you or a third party) that supports equivalent copying facilities, provided you maintain clear directions next to the object code saying where to ﬁnd the Corresponding Source. Regardless of what server hosts the Corresponding Source, you remain obligated to ensure that it is available for as long as needed to satisfy these requirements. * e) Convey the object code using peer-to-peer transmission, provided you inform other peers where the object code and Corresponding Source of the work are being oﬀered to the general public at no charge under subsection 6d.
your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.
A separable portion of the object code, whose source code is excluded from the Corresponding Source as a System Library, need not be included in conveying the object code work.
Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same material under section 10. 9. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.
A “User Product” is either (1) a “consumer product”, which means any tangible personal property which is normally used for personal, family, or household purposes, or (2) anything designed or sold for incorporation into a dwelling. In determining whether a product is a consumer product, doubtful cases shall be resolved in favor of coverage. For a particular product received by a particular user, “normally used” refers to a typical or common use of that class of product, regardless of the status of the particular user or of the way in which the particular user actually uses, or expects or is expected to use, the product. A product is a consumer product regardless of whether the product has substantial commercial, industrial or non-consumer uses, unless such uses represent the only signiﬁcant mode of use of the product. “Installation Information” for a User Product means any methods, procedures, authorization keys, or other information required to install and execute modiﬁed versions of a covered work in that User Product from a modiﬁed version of its Corresponding Source. The information must suﬃce to ensure that the continued functioning of the modiﬁed object code is in no case prevented or interfered with solely because modiﬁcation has been made. If you convey an object code work under this section in, or with, or speciﬁcally for use in, a User Product, and the conveying occurs as part of a transaction in which the right of possession and use of the User Product is transferred to the recipient in perpetuity or for a ﬁxed term (regardless of how the transaction is characterized), the Corresponding Source conveyed under this section must be accompanied by the Installation Information. But this requirement does not apply if neither you nor any third party retains the ability to install modiﬁed object code on the User Product (for example, the work has been installed in ROM). The requirement to provide Installation Information does not include a requirement to continue to provide support service, warranty, or updates for a work that has been modiﬁed or installed by the recipient, or for the User Product in which it has been modiﬁed or installed. Access to a network may be denied when the modiﬁcation itself materially and adversely aﬀects the operation of the network or violates the rules and protocols for communication across the network. Corresponding Source conveyed, and Installation Information provided, in accord with this section must be in a format that is publicly documented (and with an implementation available to the public in source code form), and must require no special password or key for unpacking, reading or copying. 7. Additional Terms. “Additional permissions” are terms that supplement the terms of this License by making exceptions from one or more of its conditions. Additional permissions that are applicable to the entire Program shall be treated as though they were included in this License, to the extent that they are valid under applicable law. If additional permissions apply only to part of the Program, that part may be used separately under those permissions, but the entire Program remains governed by this License without regard to the additional permissions. When you convey a copy of a covered work, you may at your option remove any additional permissions from that copy, or from any part of it. (Additional permissions may be written to require their own removal in certain cases when you modify the work.) You may place additional permissions on material, added by you to a covered work, for which you have or can give appropriate copyright permission. Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, for material you add to a covered work, you may (if authorized by the copyright holders of that material) supplement the terms of this License with terms: * a) Disclaiming warranty or limiting liability diﬀerently from the terms of sections 15 and 16 of this License; or * b) Requiring preservation of speciﬁed reasonable legal notices or author attributions in that material or in the Appropriate Legal Notices displayed by works containing it; or * c) Prohibiting misrepresentation of the origin of that material, or requiring that modiﬁed versions of such material be marked in reasonable ways as diﬀerent from the original version; or * d) Limiting the use for publicity purposes of names of licensors or authors of the material; or * e) Declining to grant rights under trademark law for use of some trade names, trademarks, or service marks; or * f) Requiring indemniﬁcation of licensors and authors of that material by anyone who conveys the material (or modiﬁed versions of it) with contractual assumptions of liability to the recipient, for any liability that these contractual assumptions directly impose on those licensors and authors. All other non-permissive additional terms are considered “further restrictions” within the meaning of section 10. If the Program as you received it, or any part of it, contains a notice stating that it is governed by this License along with a term that is a further restriction, you may remove that term. If a license document contains a further restriction but permits relicensing or conveying under this License, you may add to a covered work material governed by the terms of that license document, provided that the further restriction does not survive such relicensing or conveying. If you add terms to a covered work in accord with this section, you must place, in the relevant source ﬁles, a statement of the additional terms that apply to those ﬁles, or a notice indicating where to ﬁnd the applicable terms. Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in the form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions; the above requirements apply either way. 8. Termination. You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to propagate or modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License (including any patent licenses granted under the third paragraph of section 11). However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and ﬁnally terminates
Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notiﬁes you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the ﬁrst time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.
You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or run a copy of the Program. Ancillary propagation of a covered work occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance. However, nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or modify any covered work. These actions infringe copyright if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or propagating a covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. 10. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients. Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and propagate that work, subject to this License. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License. An “entity transaction” is a transaction transferring control of an organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an organization, or merging organizations. If propagation of a covered work results from an entity transaction, each party to that transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever licenses to the work the party's predecessor in interest had or could give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable eﬀorts. You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the rights granted or aﬃrmed under this License. For example, you may not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate litigation (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, oﬀering for sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it. 11. Patents. A “contributor” is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based. The work thus licensed is called the contributor's “contributor version”. A contributor's “essential patent claims” are all patent claims owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version, but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a consequence of further modiﬁcation of the contributor version. For purposes of this deﬁnition, “control” includes the right to grant patent sublicenses in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License. Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free patent license under the contributor's essential patent claims, to make, use, sell, oﬀer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and propagate the contents of its contributor version. In the following three paragraphs, a “patent license” is any express agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent (such as an express permission to practice a patent or covenant not to sue for patent infringement). To “grant” such a patent license to a party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a patent against the party. If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license, and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a publicly available network server or other readily accessible means, then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the beneﬁt of the patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent license to downstream recipients. “Knowingly relying” means you have actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the covered work in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work in a country, would infringe one or more identiﬁable patents in that country that you have reason to believe are valid. If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify or convey a speciﬁc copy of the covered work, then the patent license you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered work and works based on it. A patent license is “discriminatory” if it does not include within the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are speciﬁcally granted under this License. You may not convey a covered work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily for and in connection with speciﬁc products or compilations that contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement, or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007. Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law. 12. No Surrender of Others' Freedom. If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot convey a covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not convey it at all. For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this License would be to refrain entirely from
conveying the Program. 13. Use with the GNU Aﬀero General Public License. Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed under version 3 of the GNU Aﬀero General Public License into a single combined work, and to convey the resulting work. The terms of this License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work, but the special requirements of the GNU Aﬀero General Public License, section 13, concerning interaction through a network will apply to the combination as such. 14. Revised Versions of this License. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the GNU General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may diﬀer in detail to address new problems or concerns. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program speciﬁes that a certain numbered version of the GNU General Public License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of the GNU General Public License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program speciﬁes that a proxy can decide which future versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Program.
Later license versions may give you additional or diﬀerent permissions. However, no additional obligations are imposed on any author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a later version. 15. Disclaimer of Warranty. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM “AS IS” WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION. 16. Limitation of Liability. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES AND/OR CONVEYS THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. 17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.
If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided above cannot be given local legal eﬀect according to their terms, reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a copy of the Program in return for a fee.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
Copyright (C) This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'. This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source ﬁle to most eﬀectively state the exclusion of warranty; and each ﬁle should have at least the “copyright” line and a pointer to where the full notice is found. Copyright (C) This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, your program's commands might be diﬀerent; for a GUI interface, you would use an “about box”. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school, if any, to sign a “copyright disclaimer” for the program, if necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see . The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. But ﬁrst, please read .
2.2 GNU Free Documentation License Version 1.3, 3 November 2008 Copyright © 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc. Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. 0. PREAMBLE The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document "freeïn the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the eﬀective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modiﬁcations made by others. This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software. We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference. 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a speciﬁc section name mentioned below, such as Äcknowledgements", "Dedications", Ëndorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Titleöf such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section Ëntitled XYZäccording to this deﬁnition. The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no eﬀect on the meaning of this License. 2. VERBATIM COPYING You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3. You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies. 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY
This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.
If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.
A "Modiﬁed Versionöf the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modiﬁcations and/or translated into another language.
If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to ﬁt legibly, you should put the ﬁrst ones listed (as many as ﬁt reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.
A SSecondary Sectionïs a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.
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