E G Y P T I A N C U L T

E G Y P T I A N C U L T

Originalveröffentlichung, in: Christina Riggs (Hrsg.), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Egypt. Oxford/New York 2012, S. 457–473 CHAPTER 27 EGYPTIAN CULT...

10MB Sizes 2 Downloads 22 Views

Originalveröffentlichung, in: Christina Riggs (Hrsg.), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Egypt. Oxford/New York 2012, S. 457–473

CHAPTER 27

EGYPTIAN CULT Evidence from Temple Scriptoria and Christian Hagiographies

M A R T I N ANDREAS STADLER

EGYPTIAN CULT A N D ROMAN RULE Everything could have turned out so well! The Persian kings and the Ptolemies had placed themselves in the tradition of the Egyptian kings and with varying success had taken over, at least formally, their very central role in Egyptian religion. Could one not have expected this of the Roman Octavian? When, however, his rule over Egypt began in 30 BCE and he viewed the conquered land, though paying his respects to Alexander the Great at his mon­ ument, he would not go on to visit the tombs of the Ptolemies (Cass. Dio 51.16.5; Cary i960: 44­7). From the perspective of the Egyptian priesthood this would have been toler­ able, but his refusal to present offerings at the altar of the Apis bull was not: the Apis was a living bull, selected on particular criteria by the priests, and worshipped as a god. Acting in this way, Octavian refused to carry out one of the most intrinsic duties of an Egyptian king (Suet. Aug. 93; Rolfe 1998: 284­5) and thus removed a foundation stone from the Egyptian world­view. According to Cassius Dio (51.16.5; Cary i960: 46­7), he is even sup­ posed to have said, when he declined to present offerings to the Apis, that he was accus­ tomed to make offerings to gods and not cattle. In theory, however, a king who performed religious functions was indispensable to the Egyptian cult, as the priests acted only as his representatives. Octavians affront posed difficult theological problems for the Egyptian priests, which carried over to the economic and administrative level (cf. Kockelmann 2010: 204­14 for the Fayum). Temple land was nationalized, at least in part, and the former owners received payments in lieu from the state in the form of grain and money, or they were allowed to lease back the land on favourable terms (Evans 1961; cf., however, Monson 2005). Thus, the temples, the centres of the Egyptian cult, lost a considerable part of their economic power.

4 5 8 MARTIN ANDREAS STADLER

A f u r t h e r c h a n g e m a d e by t h e R o m a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w h i c h , t h o u g h less serious, m i g h t n e v e r t h e l e s s e n d a n g e r t h e c o n t i n u a n c e of t h e Egyptian cult, w a s in t h e stipulations listed in t h e G n o m o n of t h e Idios Logos, w h i c h were to be fulfilled if o n e was to serve as a priest ( M o y e r 2003: 53). It e m e r g e s f r o m t h e edict of t h e praefectus Aegypti C. T u r r a n i u s ( 7 - 4 BCE) that m e m b e r s h i p of t h e priestly class w a s i n d e e d strictly c o n t r o l l e d (BGUIV 1199; Geraci 1983: 185-7; Jordens 2009: 3 3 9 - 4 0 with n. 38). A d m i t t e d l y this w a s p r o b a b l y a m e a s u r e to p r e v e n t t o o m a n y p e o p l e f r o m e n j o y i n g t h e priestly privilege of r e d u c e d taxation ( J o r d e n s 2009: 338-43). However, t h e n u m b e r of t h o s e b e l o n g i n g to t h e class t h a t p e r f o r m e d t h e cult was t h e r e b y restricted. Despite these initial stresses, t h e Egyptian cult was n o t destroyed. A circular of Q. Aemilius S a t u r n i n u s of 199 CE, w h i c h f o r b a d e d i v i n a t i o n a n d typically Egyptian practices, s u c h as o b t a i n i n g o r a c u l a r p r o n o u n c e m e n t s b y m e a n s of p r o c e s s i o n s o r via w r i t t e n notes, s h o w s t h e c o n t i n u a n c e of certain f o r m s of t h e practice of t h e E g y p t i a n cult until at least t h e e n d of t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y (Ritner 1995: 3355-6; Jordens 2008: 445). The circular w a s n o t even p a r t i c u ­ larly effective u n d e r s o m e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a n d was obviously c i r c u m v e n t e d ( F r a n k f u r t e r 1998:153­6). In this c h a p t e r I will also d i s c u s s several references to a c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h e t e m ­ ple cult into t h e fifth century. T h e rest of t h e imperial family, a n d s u b s e q u e n t rulers, d i d n o t take t h e negative attitude t o w a r d s t h e Egyptian t e m p l e s t h a t O c t a v i a n h a d initially b e e n forced to d o in 30 BCE, against t h e b a c k g r o u n d of his struggle against M. A n t o n i u s , w h i c h was p r e s e n t e d as t h e d e f e n c e of t r a d i t i o n a l R o m a n values against oriental d e c a d e n c e . A little less t h a n fifty years later, in 19 CE, G e r m a n i c u s , a h i g h ­ r a n k i n g m e m b e r of t h e i m p e r i a l family, travelled to E g y p t — t h o u g h w i t h o u t T i b e r i u s ' p e r m i s s i o n — a n d , u n l i k e O c t a v i a n , m a d e offerings to t h e Apis. G e r m a n i ­ c u s was, however, n o t a ruler, a n d so his a c t i o n s m a y have b e e n p r e s u m p t u o u s . The a n i m a l , as stated by Pliny {HN 185; E r n o u t 1952: 8 7 ­ 8 ) a n d A m m i a n u s M a r c e l l i n u s (22.14.8; Rolfe 1950:278­9), d i d n o t eat. The refusal of t h e bull to accept t h e o f f e r i n g was seen as a p r e m o n i ­ tion (prodigium) of t h e d e a t h of G e r m a n i c u s , w h i c h was to o c c u r in t h e s a m e year. M e a n ­ while, a m o d u s vivendi h a d evolved, a n d T i b e r i u s c o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h o u t any difficulty in t h e ritual scenes of t h e temples. This h a d n o t always b e e n t h e case. At first t h e Egyptian priests n e e d e d to deal with t h e p r o b l e m of h o w t h e king was to b e n a m e d if t h e p e r s o n first in q u e s t i o n , O c t a v i a n , w a s so dismissive of t h e cult. In parallel with t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e p r i n c i p a t e in R o m e , t h e evolu­ tion of a R o m a n o r cultic p h a r a o h p r o g r e s s e d in several stages, in o r d e r to fill t h e gap left by t h e king, so keenly felt in t h e t e m p l e w o r l d (Holbl 1996, 2 0 0 0 , 2004; also C h a p t e r 22). O c t a v i a n ­ A u g u s t u s a n d his successors t h u s c o n t i n u e d t e m p l e b u i l d i n g , t h o u g h o n a smaller scale t h a n t h e Ptolemies, a n d as a c o n s e q u e n c e t o o k over t h e role of t h e p h a r a o h w h o per­ f o r m e d t h e cult.

P R A C T I T I O N E R S OF R E L I G I O N A N D C U L T

For E g y p t i a n religion t h e s e p r o b l e m s a r e n o t m e r e m a t t e r s of detail in t h e daily b u s i n e s s of w o r s h i p , o r in t h e o l o g i c a l d i s c o u r s e s b y a f e w priests, b u t h a v e f u n d a m e n t a l s i g n i f i c a n c e b e c a u s e t h e E g y p t i a n religion w a s a cult religion ( A s s m a n n 1984). It w a s b a s e d n o t o n rev­ elation by a f o u n d e r o r a c a n o n i c a l s a c r e d text, b u t lived t h r o u g h c o n s t a n t r e n e w a l in t h e

EGYPTIAN CULT

459

exercise of the cult. If the rituals ceased, then the Egyptian religion would also come to an end. The Egyptian cult as it was performed in temples has a holistic character in its focus on cosmic connections, and claims to be effective in saving the world from destruction (Assmann 1990:160-236). One of the most essential royal tasks is to nurture this through the building and maintenance of the temples. The building and maintenance of the tem­ ples is thus a divine offering in itself and part of the cult (see Chapter 22). The opportuni­ ties for private individuals to participate actively in these cult forms were, of course, restricted by their economic power. Yet there was always private participation in the cult, of the most diverse kinds, with contributions made according to the individual's means (Baines 1987, 1991). From the time of the Ptolemies and the Romans there are increased surviving sources evidencing private financial involvement in the temple cult, underesti­ mated until now, or in the erection of temple buildings (Kockelmann and Pfeiffer 2009). The motivation for this could be the wish to prove one was a loyal functionary of the king, i.e. a public official who supports privately a cult fostered by the king, or it could be a real, personal religious relationship to an Egyptian deity (Heinen 1994; Kockelmann and Pfeiffer 2009). Besides individuals, groups could also form in support of the cult, like the sheep­breeders of Neiloupolis in 24 BCE, for instance. Through their stela they informed posterity that they had financed the enclosing wall of the temple of Dime (Soknopaiou Nesos) (Bernand 1975: 142­4, no. 74). Mentions of such private endowments are significantly rarer in Roman than in Ptolemaic times in the Fayum, and even the more substantial endowments date from before 79 CE (Kockelmann 2010: 214­20). More common were the religious associations in which usually wealthier individuals from one place joined together (Liiddeckens 1968; de Cenival 1972; San Nicolo 1972: 11­29; Muszynski 1977). Such religious associations existed from at least the 26th dynasty, and though they are best documented and researched for the Ptolemaic period, were active even in Roman Imperial times (Monson 2006; Lippert 2008: 119). In their constitutions, adopted afresh every year, which are known from Demotic and Greek papyri, the members were obliged to pay a membership fee and participate in the cult of the temple concerned. Thus, they contributed offertory gifts like loaves of bread, salves, oil, and incense, took part in the burial of the sacred animal of their temple, and joined in the feasts and processions with burnt offerings and libations. They could also pay the costs of building works in the temenos (e.g. in Dendara (?), 19 CE; Vleeming 2001:145­6, no. 159). A great deal of space in their constitutions is taken up by the social aspects, i.e. mutual sup­ port of the members in different situations in life (legal proceedings, mourning, death, and burial). This bonding into a group could count as reciprocation for their involvement in the cult. Cult communities, like church parishes, thus created a social network and the opportu­ nity for lay people to take part in the temple cult. The actual performance, of course, was in the hands of specialists, the priests, who were not necessarily members of the religious associations, though holders of the highest priestly offices do feature as contributors among the members. I highlighted earlier in this chapter the regulation of membership of the priestly class by the Roman provincial administration. Nevertheless, in the temple of Dime, for instance, one might count up to 130 priests who appeared daily (Lippert and Schentuleit 2006: 21­3). In Tebtunis there were still fifty priests early in the second century, but in other temples after 150 CE the temple staff was reduced (Kockelmann 2010: 212­14). The sanctuary of Dime was, as a building, only of moderate size, and for this reason the number 130 might be surprising. However, as far as taxation was

4 6 0 MARTIN A N D R E A S STADLER

concerned, Dime was in the first rank of temples, and thus among the more significant institutions of its kind in Imperial Egypt. Thanks to the Demotic documents from the site, produced by the temple administration, we are particularly well informed about Dime. They include the description of the priests' duties (hn.w), only a few of which have so far been published, which list the conditions for numerous vocations within the temple admin­ istration, including that of the priests (Lippert 2007). Breaches were punished with fines, and for this reason the agreements are similar in a certain way to the constitutions of the religious associations. In addition, we are informed about the rules for priestly purity by the relevant vows, which are preserved in the Book of the Temple. The Book of the Temple is a substantial, comprehensive treatise, attested in many manuscripts, which describes the architecture, the organization, and the cult of an ideal Egyptian temple. It has not been published in its entirety, but it has been made known by its editor through more than a dozen preliminary reports (most recently Quack 2009b). In its completeness of content it must be a unique source for the Egyptian temple, and of course it also deals with the tasks of the priests. Among them are the vows of priestly purity, which are also known in a Greek translation (Quack 1997, 2005) and are connected with the Negative Confession of chapter 125 of the Book of the Dead (Stadler 2008). The Book of the Temple seems to have been particularly popular among Egyptian priests of the Imperial period, for we know of around thirty exem­ plars from Tebtunis alone and fifteen from Dime. In addition, there are other places in Egypt that are proven to have possessed this handbook. The great number of priests active in a temple of medium size, together with the high incidence of a treatise about the Egyp­ tian temple, indicates in the first two centuries CE at least a very lively and active priestly milieu with functioning scriptoria (Egyptian: prcnh, 'House of Life') in which priestly train­ ing was carried out and priestly knowledge was cultivated. Numerous other sources, which cannot be treated here, enrich our knowledge of the creativity of the Houses of Life in Roman Egypt, like the Book of Thoth, itself a text for an initiation rite (Jasnow and Zauzich 2005; cf. Quack 2007) or the handbooks of priestly knowledge (Osing 1998; Osing and Rosati 1998), which summarize cult knowledge.

CULT AND MAGIC

Rituals were not performed only in an official temple context, primarily by priests: rituals also have their place in the private sphere. They are made immediate and concrete by coro­ plastic figures of a whole bevy of deities and bear witness to the piety of the population (see Chapters 20 and 38). In the case of home cults there is, however, a fluid boundary with magic (see Chapter 21). A differentiation between religion and magic, or cult and magic practices, is problematic in the case of Egypt, for here magic, or more accurately the power of incanta­ tion ibk), is an integral component of the official temple cult, as an instrument of cult activ­ ity and religious practice (Baines 1987; Fitzenreiter 2004). Thus, there is hardly any recognizable distinction between religion and magic. For this reason a distinction of this kind in present­day Egyptological research is rejected out of a kind of political correctness

EGYPTIAN CULT 4 6 1

(cf. Q u a c k 2002, esp. 43), as t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n religion a n d m a g i c w o u l d d e v a l u e t h e m a g i c texts as c o m p a r e d with t h e religious texts. In d o i n g so, however, s c h o l a r s h i p a d o p t s a p a r t i c u l a r l y C h r i s t i a n , d i s p a r a g i n g c o n c e p t of magic, w h i c h at t h a t t i m e w a s applied w i t h o u t d i s t i n c t i o n to a n y t h i n g t h a t w a s n o n - C h r i s t i a n . In a s e r m o n , S h e n o u t e of A t r i p e (died 465), f o r instance, gives a list of objects that h e r e m o v e d f r o m a s a n c t u a r y or s h r i n e . A m o n g t h e m w a s also 'the b o o k w h i c h w a s filled w i t h e v e r y k i n d of m a g i c ' ( n x u ) U ) M 6 e T M e j > M M A T U NIM); Leipoldt 1908:89, lines 15-16; t h e t r a n s l a t i o n 'sorcery b o o k s ' in F r a n k f u r t e r 2 0 0 8 : 1 4 2 is m i s ­ leading). As I shall a r g u e below, it is v e r y p r o b a b l e t h a t this w a s a b o o k of rituals that, o n a c c o u n t of its h e a t h e n origins, w a s in A b b o t Shenoute's eyes full of m a g i c , a n d n o t religion, w h i c h f o r h i m c o u l d o n l y be Christianity. The eyes of m a g i c are fixed n o t o n t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t , b u t o n e v e r y d a y h u m a n life a n d t h e p r o b l e m s associated w i t h it, w h i l e t h e a i m of t h e t e m p l e ritual is d i r e c t e d at a m u c h w i d e r context, especially m a i n t a i n i n g t h e j o u r n e y of t h e s u n . T h e t e m p l e ritual is d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s gods, f r o m e a r t h to h e a v e n , to m a k e t h e g o d s b e n e v o l e n t to m a n k i n d , w h i l e t h e act of m a g i c is essentially tied to t h e e a r t h a n d seeks t o b r i n g t h e g o d s h e r e by force. In all t h e acts of i n c a n t a t i o n t h a t t o o k place w i t h i n t h e t e m p l e cult ( Q u a c k 2002), t h e r e are t h u s t w o different f u n d a m e n t a l attitudes t o w a r d s G o d : t h e o n e is t h a t of t h e priest, w h i c h is e x e m p l i f i e d in h y m n s p r a i s i n g G o d , his m a g n i f i c e n c e , his m i g h t , a n d his qualities as t h e p r i m e v a l creator, o n w h o s e a c t i o n s t h e welfare of t h e e a r t h essentially d e p e n d s ; t h e o t h e r is t h a t of a m a g i c i a n w h o p u t s p r e s s u r e o n a god, t h r e a t e n s t h e cessation of offering, a n d t h u s seeks t o blackmail h i m into h e l p i n g (Ritner 1992). T h e E g y p t i a n m a g i c i a n t h u s places h i m s e l f a b o v e t h e entity w h e r e p o w e r resides, a n d o p e r a t e s in a secular sphere, n o l o n g e r s e r v i n g t h e deity b u t a t t e m p t i n g to m a k e t h e p e r f e c t i o n of d i v i n e p o w e r s u b s e r v i e n t to his o w n will. M a g i c t h u s takes a d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n vis­a­vis t h e divine f r o m that t a k e n by t h e t e m p l e cult. The b o r d e r ­ line is fluid, however, a n d d e p e n d s o n t h e cultural b a c k g r o u n d o r t h e p o i n t of view of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s : if a G r e e k in R o m a n I m p e r i a l t i m e s receives in e x c h a n g e f o r p a y m e n t a vessel d i v i n a t i o n f r o m an E g y p t i a n priest, t h e n t h e priest is p e r f o r m i n g a ritual. For t h e buyer, h o w ­ ever, it is magic, n o t least b e c a u s e it is a b o u g h t p r o d u c t ( M o y e r 2003). T h e e x a m p l e of S h e n ­ o u t e a n d his attitude to t e m p l e b o o k s given above also s h o w s that it is t h e o b s e r v e r w h o makes the distinction. D e s p i t e all t h e c o m m o n a l i t y , n a m e l y t h e s a m e p r o c e s s e s a n d t h e u n i f o r m E g y p t i a n t e r m i ­ n o l o g y of (hk?), 'incantation', t h e d i f f e r e n c e s are retained, for i n c a n t a t o r y p o w e r a n d m a g i c are n o t t h e s a m e t h i n g . I n c a n t a t o r y p o w e r (hh), w h i c h t h e E g y p t i a n s c o n s i d e r e d really to exist, is an i n s t r u m e n t that w a s u s e d in t h e t e m p l e cult just as it was b y private p e o p l e in simi­ lar o r related practices. Thus, (hk?) is a c o n n e c t i n g link b e t w e e n religion a n d magic, a n d it is t e m p t i n g to c o n f u s e t h e s e t w o areas. S e p a r a t i n g t h e m d o e s n o t , however, i m p l y a value j u d g e m e n t , f o r m a g i c in Egypt is n o t a d e g r a d e d f o r m of religion, b u t its t w i n sibling. A n a d d i t i o n a l factor to this close r e l a t i o n s h i p of cult a n d m a g i c p r a c t i c e is that temples, of c o u rse , d i d n o t exist r e m o v e d a n d isolated f r o m t h e cares of m a n k i n d , b u t h a d to deal w i t h h u m a n needs. This w a s t h e p u r p o s e of t h e oracle cults a t t a c h e d to t h e sanctuaries, o r t h e cult at t h e c o n t r a temple, w h i c h e n j o y e d s o m e p o p u l a r i t y even in I m p e r i a l t i m e s (see C h a p t e r 20; Stadler f o r t h c o m i n g ) . W i t h o t h e r texts we can n o l o n g e r d i s t i n g u i s h w i t h c e r t a i n t y w h e t h e r t h e y w e r e u s e d in t h e t e m p l e cult o r in t h e d o m e s t i c s p h e r e a n d t h u s m i g h t be a k i n t o t h e Greek, Latin, or C o p t i c sortes b o o k s (Stadler 2004, esp. 269­75; 2 0 0 6 ; D i e l e m a n 2009; Naether20io).

4 6 2 MARTIN ANDREAS STADLER

T H E R E A L I T Y OF T H E T E M P L E C U L T IN R O M A N IMPERIAL TIMES The magic texts that survive from Egypt from the third century CE and later, in Greek and in Demotic, fill a gap in the documentation of Egyptian rituals after c.200 CE. They continue into the fifth century and may be compared with texts from Pharaonic Egypt, to which they are related (Quack 2009c; Chapter 20). In the third century, however, the direct Egyptian sources for the cult diminish dramatically, and for this reason the magical papyri, despite the distinction just drawn, are still undeniably important in gaining an adequate understanding of the continuance of the Egyptian cult. But what is the range of documentation of temple ritual texts in the Egyptian language for the period up to the rule of Septimius Severus? It includes the inscriptions and ritual scenes of the temples, papyrus manuscripts, and also isolated texts on other portable writ­ ing surfaces such as wooden panels (Widmer 2004). The documentation is so extensive that a description of Egyptian cult practice in Roman Imperial times must be restricted, given the space of this chapter, to Egyptian texts, and may create the erroneous impression that the temples were barely touched by close contact with foreign cultures and religions or by the changing historical conditions sketched briefly above, and that almost nothing had changed since the New Kingdom. The reality of the cult is, of course, much more colour­ ful—the reference to magic has already made that clear—but I will focus on a description according to the Egyptian sources, while Frankfurter (Chapter 20 in this volume) describes religious practice outside the temple and highlights the interaction of non­Egyptian and Egyptian religions. It is this existence side by side with the traditional Egyptian temple cult and its adaptations in daily life, using forms of worship associated with non­indigenous Egyptian divinities, that makes the study of religion in the considerably Hellenized Egypt of Roman Imperial times so appealing. While little is known of Thebes, at one time so significant in terms of cult, and still domi­ nant in the domain of funerary texts in early Imperial times (see Chapter 23), Latopolis (Esna) situated about 55 km south of Thebes, offers a large corpus of inscriptions from which there emerges a very good picture of the festive events in this temple, where Khnum was worshipped as the main god (Sauneron 1962). From the sanctuaries still decorated in Roman Imperial times there also survive major corpora of inscriptions, above all from Dendara, Kom Ombo, and Philae. On the basis of the documentation we cannot determine with cer­ tainty in every case what is new in these sources and what is founded on ancient Pharaonic traditions. Yet the Imperial inscriptions differ so little from earlier Egyptian religious sources that we must assume there was a high proportion of old ideas, old concepts of the divine and the way the divine was worshipped, rather than an extreme degree of innovation. In the case of several hieratic manuscripts, unfortunately very fragmented, the older models are easily demonstrated. The papyri we are concerned with contain recitation texts for the daily ritual in the temple of Tebtunis and are dated from the first and second centuries CE. I shall call these texts simply the Daily Ritual; in Egyptian they are entitled (n. wn.wh.t-ntr try mpr Sbk nb Bdnw, 'Utterances of the things of God which are performed in the temple of Soknebtu­ nis). Although dating from Imperial times, the papyri are clearly written, both graphically and linguistically, and are evidence of the competence of the priesthood there in dealing

EGYPTIAN CULT 4 6 3

w i t h r e l i g i o u s texts. A f e w of t h e m a n u s c r i p t s h a v e b e e n p u b l i s h e d ( R o s a t i 1998), o t h e r s h a v e n o t ( O s i n g , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) , a n d still o t h e r s h a v e b e e n d u g u p in r e c e n t y e a r s in Tebtunis ( G u e r m e u r 2008, forthcoming). T h e r e is a s u r v i v i n g D e m o t i c v e r s i o n of t h e D a i l y R i t u a l f r o m D i m e ; e l e v e n m a n u s c r i p t s of it a r e k n o w n , all of w h i c h d a t e f r o m t h e first t w o c e n t u r i e s CE, t o j u d g e b y t h e i r p a l a e o g r a ­ p h y ( S t a d l e r 2 0 0 7 ) . To p e r f o r m t h e daily r i t u a l of o f f e r i n g s , t h e p r i e s t h a d t o e n t e r t h e t e m p l e a n d h e a d t o w a r d s t h e i n n e r m o s t s a n c t u a r y w i t h t h e cult i m a g e . B e f o r e h e c o u l d g o i n t o t h e t e m p l e itself, h e h a d t o p u r i f y h i m s e l f , a n d t h e n in t h e c a s e of t h e D i m e t e m p l e w a l k t h r o u g h five gates. H e t h e n r e a c h e d t h e hall (wsh.t, in E d f u t h e wsh.t wr.t, ' G r e a t H a l f ) , a n d t h r o u g h t h e altar hall (wsh.t htp in E d f u ) a n d t h e c e n t r a l hall (wsh.t hr.t-ib in E d f u ) h e r e a c h e d t h e s a n c t u a r y . T h e D a i l y Ritual as it c a n b e r e c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m t h e i n d i v i d u a l m a n u s c r i p t s is a c o l l e c t i o n of t h e w o r d s t h a t t h e p r i e s t h a d t o r e c i t e at e a c h s t a t i o n . A n e x t r a c t is given b y w a y of e x a m p l e , q u o t e d f r o m t h e T e b t u n i s v e r s i o n a n d s u p p l e m e n t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e D i m e version: Utterance on entering the hall. Words to be spoken: [Greeting to you, the Hall, your n a m e being Nut.].. .pure. [I cense, I . . . so that] you [avert] away every evil harm, [driving back slaughter ... ] I am pure. [My purity is the purity of the gods. Hail,] Nut, Geb, Osiris, Isis, Nephthys, Horus, son of Isis, May [you] drive away [every evil. Take action against evil. May you drive outside every evil enemy away from me, when t]hey enter the temple behind me, for I am [Thoth, w h o created the Horus eye] after his exhaustion. An offering that the king may give. I am pure. (P Flor. = PSII 70 fr. A I, Z 1­3; Rosati 1998:106) T h e D e m o t i c v e r s i o n f r o m D i m e is a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y i d e n t i c a l , a n d m a r k s o n l y t h e p a r t f r o m 'Hail, N u t , G e b , O s i r i s , I s i s . . . ' as a v a r i a n t (ky r?) of w h a t p r e c e d e s it. T h e c h a r a c t e r a n d s t r u c t u r e of t h e u t t e r a n c e s c a n easily b e i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h t h i s q u o t a t i o n . A f t e r a title p a r t l y w r i t t e n in r e d i n k ( h e r e g i v e n in italics), w h i c h a n n o u n c e s a c o n t e x t of a c t i o n , t h e r e f o l l o w short h y m n s or invocations to deities or the self­identification with the g o d s by the priest p e r f o r m i n g t h e ritual; h e r e it is T h o t h , in o t h e r p l a c e s H o r u s o r A n u b i s . T h e titles m a k e it possible to follow t h e p a t h t h e priest took. T h e text itself is n o t a n e w c r e a t i o n of P t o l e m a i c a n d R o m a n t i m e s , b u t h a s , in p a r t s , p a r a l ­ lels in t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e D a i l y Ritual a n d t h e a s s o c i a t e d s u b s i d i a r y w r i t i n g s of t h e N e w K i n g d o m ( M o r e t 1902; K a u s e n 1988; O s i n g 1999; T a c k e 2003; C o o n e y a n d M c C l a i n 2005). F u r t h e r p a r a l l e l s a r e p r e s e r v e d in t h e r i t u a l s for A m u n a n d f o r M u t , a m o n g o t h e r s , t h e m a n ­ u s c r i p t s of w h i c h c o m e f r o m T h e b e s a n d w e r e w r i t t e n in t h e T h i r d I n t e r m e d i a t e p e r i o d ( G e n e r a l v e r w a l t u n g d e r k o n i g l i c h e n M u s e e n z u B e r l i n 1901; G u g l i e l m i a n d B u r o h 1997) a n d a l s o in i n s c r i p t i o n s f r o m t h e t e m p l e s of t h e G r a e c o ­ R o m a n p e r i o d . T h i s is t h e c a s e w i t h t h e ritual of t h e h o u r l y vigil ( P r i e s 2011), w h i c h in t u r n is b a s e d o n a l o n g t r a d i t i o n r e a c h i n g b a c k t o t h e O l d K i n g d o m . T h e v e r s i o n s of T e b t u n i s a n d D i m e s u p p l e m e n t t h i s s t o c k of t e x t s with utterances coincidentally n o t attested until now. T h o u g h s o m e parts are n o t paralleled in e a r l i e r s o u r c e s , t h e y a r e o l d , as is s h o w n b y t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n w i t h d e m o n s t r a b l y o l d l a n g u a g e c o r p o r a a n d t h e M i d d l e E g y p t i a n l a n g u a g e , i.e. t h e f o r m of E g y p t i a n as it w a s

4 6 4 MARTIN ANDREAS STADLER

s p o k e n r o u g h l y b e t w e e n t h e t w e n t i e t h a n d t h e fifteenth c e n t u r i e s BCE. T h e texts are c o m ­ p o s e d in a liturgical language, even if t h e y are r e c o r d e d in D e m o t i c writing. T h e significance of t h e Daily Ritual of D i m e lies in t h e e n r i c h m e n t of t h e c o r p u s of utter­ ances, t h e t r a n s f e r of a h i e r a t i c ­ h i e r o g l y p h i c text i n t o a n o t h e r w r i t t e n f o r m , D e m o t i c , a n d also t h e link w i t h t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e of t h e t e m p l e of D i m e , w h i c h w a s d e d i c a t e d to t h e local figure of t h e c r o c o d i l e g o d Sobek, called S o k n o p a i o s in its Hellenized f o r m (Egyptian: Sbk nb Pay, 'Sobek, t h e lord of Pai'). The ritual text c o r r e s p o n d e d exactly to t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e of t h e s a n c t u a r y in its last b u i l d i n g phase, w h e n it w a s enlarged: a priest d i d i n d e e d have to walk t h r o u g h five gates, as t h e a n t h o l o g y of u t t e r a n c e s suggests, b e f o r e h e r e a c h e d t h e wsh.t hall a n d t h e n c o n t i n u e d f u r t h e r (Stadler 2007; Davoli f o r t h c o m i n g ) . This yields a relative d a t i n g for t h e c o m p i l a t i o n a n d w r i t i n g of t h e Daily Ritual of D i m e , w h i c h m u s t have o c c u r r e d a b o u t t h e s a m e t i m e as t h e e x t e n s i o n of t h e temple. In T e b t u n i s t h e r e is a less o b v i o u s parallel b e t w e e n a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d ritual, o w i n g to t h e p o o r state of p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e t e m p l e t h e r e (Stadler 2007). T h e t r a n s f e r of t h e M i d d l e Egyptian text i n t o D e m o t i c w r i t i n g w a s d o n e u s i n g eccentric o r t h o g r a p h y ( W i d m e r 2004: 6 6 9 ­ 8 3 ) . These l n o n ­ e t y m o l o g i c a l ' or ' p h o n e t i c ' spellings are typical of a series of D e m o t i c p a p y r i with religious texts t h a t e x t e n d into I m p e r i a l times, as well as liturgical texts that are t r a n s m i t t e d o n v a r i o u s papyri, t h e m o s t c o m p l e t e e x a m p l e b e i n g P Berlin 6750—for t h e sake of brevity, I will u s e t h e n a m e of t h e p a p y r u s f o r t h e text (Spiegelberg 1902, table 71,75­83). Like o t h e r s d i s c u s s e d above, t h e p a p y r u s originates f r o m D i m e a n d c o n t a i n s t w o liturgical c o m p o s i t i o n s , t h e first of w h i c h is c o n c e r n e d a b o v e all with Osiris a n d his r e s u r r e c t i o n ; t h e s e c o n d , however, takes H o r u s , his b i r t h , a n d his p a t h to k i n g ­ ship as its t h e m e ( W i d m e r 1998; 2003: esp. 15­18). P Berlin 6750 shows, in t h e s a m e way as t h e Daily Ritual, h o w t h e I m p e r i a l era e x e m p l a r s of Egyptian ritual texts were b a s e d o n earlier ones: s h o r t sections are q u o t a t i o n s f r o m o l d e r hieratic f u n e r a r y papyri, o r t h e w e l l ­ k n o w n text of t h e ritual of t h e h o u r l y vigil, w h i c h was p a r t of t h e Osiris cult ( W i d m e r f o r t h c o m i n g ) . The events s u r r o u n d i n g t h e b i r t h of H o r u s a n d his e n t h r o n e m e n t are p r a i s e d in t h e f o r m of a festive h y m n that has s o m e very similar c o u n t e r p a r t s f r o m t h e m a m m i s i (birth h o u s e ) of E d f u , c o n s t r u c t e d a r o u n d 100 BCE ( C h a s s i n a t 1939:196.6­10; 197.8­12; 205.11­16; see Q u a c k 2001:109 with n. 53). As all t h e text e x e m p l a r s o r i g i n a t e in D i m e , w e m u s t ask to w h a t extent t h e c o n t e n t of P Berlin 6750 m a y be placed w i t h i n t h e m y t h o l o g y a n d cult of D i m e , since Sobek, t h e lord of Pai ( S o k n o p a i o s ) , i.e. a c r o c o d i l e god, was t h e m a i n object of w o r s h i p there. The n a m i n g of S o k n a p a i o s a n d S o k n o p i a i s in G r e e k s o u r c e s f r o m D i m e gave rise to t h e a s s u m p t i o n that a H o r u s deity w a s to b e seen in S o k n o p a i o s a n d an Osiris deity in S o k n o p i a i s ( W i d m e r 2005). B o t h m i g h t have b e e n i n c a r n a t e d as crocodiles: w h e n o n e sacred c r o c o d i l e died, it b e c a m e t h e Osiris crocodile, a n d a y o u n g c r o c o d i l e was e n t h r o n e d as t h e sacred a n i m a l of D i m e , w h o w o u l d take over t h e f u n c t i o n of H o r u s . For t h e associated cult, w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d , re­ e n a c t e d , a n d s u p p o r t e d t h e burial of t h e old crocodile, a n d t h e e n s u i n g installation of t h e y o u n g o n e o n t h e temple's roof, P Berlin 6750 is p r o b a b l y a c o m p i l a t i o n of relevant texts f o r recitation (Stadler f o r t h c o m i n g ) . This w o u l d c o r r e s p o n d to w h a t is k n o w n f r o m o t h e r t e m ­ ples. In E d f u , for instance, a falcon w a s e n t h r o n e d as a d i v i n e king a n d i n c a r n a t i o n of t h e divine o n e a r t h , so to s p e a k (Alliot 1954: 303­433; F a i r m a n 1954­5). T h e r e are similarities in t h e Osiris p a r t of P Berlin 6750 to t h e K h o i a k festival rites, w h i c h are k n o w n m a i n l y t h r o u g h i n s c r i p t i o n s f r o m t h e t e m p l e of D e n d a r a . In D i m e these rites, w h i c h p e r h a p s were p e r f o r m e d with crocodiles, m i g h t have t a k e n place d u r i n g t h e festival of G e n e s i a , w h i c h w a s celebrated

E G Y P T I A N CULT 4 6 5

in D i m e f r o m 7 to 25 H a t h y r (in I m p e r i a l t i m e s f r o m 3 to 21 N o v e m b e r ) , since a f e w days f r o m this p e r i o d are m e n t i o n e d in P Berlin 6750. In this i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of cult p r a c t i c e in t h e F a y u m , t h e solar a n d c o s m i c aspect of Sobek, w h i c h r e q u i r e d a regular d e a t h a n d an equally r e g u l a r r e j u v e n a t i o n a n d r e b i r t h , w a s expressed t h r o u g h t h e O s i r i s - H o r u s constellation, p r o j e c t e d o n t o Sobek, a n d ritually r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h real crocodiles. Merely t h e fact t h a t w e are able to c o m p a r e v a r i o u s t e m p l e s with each other, i n d e p e n d ­ ently of t h e chief deity of a sanctuary, s h o w s h o w v e r y t r a n s f e r a b l e cult texts are. T h e e x e m ­ plars of t h e Daily Ritual f r o m I m p e r i a l t i m e s follow m o d e l s t h a t were originally m e a n t for Osiris a n d place t h e m , in p a r t , alongside spells t h a t were recited in K a r n a k for A m u n ­ R e as t h e c o s m i c s u p r e m e g o d a n d his c o n s o r t , M u t . P Berlin 6750 also c o n t a i n s essentially O s i r i a n texts a n d s o m e in h o n o u r of H o r u s , a n d yet despite this o b v i o u s c o n n e c t i o n to t h e Osiris­ H o r u s m y t h c o m p l e x , t h e c o n t e n t s m a y also b e related to Sobek, if o n l y hypothetically. Osi­ ris, Isis, H o r u s , a n d t h e p a r t i c u l a r chief g o d are t h u s 'words' of a m y t h i c a l ritual l a n g u a g e a n d d e n o t e certain p h e n o m e n a : t h e chief deity d e n o t e s t h e c o s m i c ­ s o l a r s u p r e m e god, Osiris t h e d e a d a n d revived i n c a r n a t i o n , H o r u s t h e successor or n e w i n c a r n a t i o n of t h e divine o n e a r t h , all of w h i c h w e r e m a d e flesh a n d b l o o d in t h e sacred a n i m a l s : t h e species w a s again deter­ m i n e d by t h e local e n v i r o n m e n t a n d t h e p a r t i c u l a r mythology. H o r u s h i m s e l f is a deity w i t h m a n i f o l d m e a n i n g s w i t h i n this language, f o r in h i m are u n i t e d qualities of t h e c h i l d ­ g o d in t h e figure of H a r p o c r a t e s , a n d also s u n ­ g o d qualities, b e c a u s e H o r u s is also a g o d of h e a v e n . Thus, t h e w o r s h i p of H a r p o c r a t e s is equally t h e w o r s h i p of t h e y o u n g s u n ­ g o d ( B u d d e 2003; S a n d r i 2006; Stadler 2 0 0 6 ) . O f course, at m a n y cult sites t h e r e were also original O s i r i a n a n d H o r u s cults, a n d P Berlin 6750 m a y also have b e e n p a r t of this context, w h e r e a s w i t h i n D i m e s u c h cults have n o t yet b e e n located. The f u n d a m e n t a l Egyptian m y t h s could t h e r e f o r e b e a d a p t e d for regional use a n d t h u s e n a c t e d in rites at different places. M y t h narratives t h e m s e l v e s m u s t also be c o u n t e d as recitation texts f o r rituals, a n d t h u s as cult texts ( Q u a c k 2009a). For example, t h e D e m o t i c version of t h e M y t h of t h e S u n s Eye, w h o s e s u r v i v i n g m a n u s c r i p t s date f r o m R o m a n times, w a s p r o b a b l y i n t e n d e d f o r recitation at a festival. This is n o t an i n n o v a t i o n of t h e G r a e c o ­ R o m a n p e r i o d , b u t established Egyptian t r a d i t i o n (von Lieven 2007: 274­83). Likewise, a r e p o r t of creation in n a r r a t i v e f o r m , t h e Neith c o s m o g o n y of Esna, was clearly u s e d ritually as a text for recitation. It is d e s i g n a t e d in t h e Egyptian itself as a ritual (nt <"), a n d is related to t h e festival of 13 Epiphi (7 July) ( S a u n e r o n 1 9 6 8 : 2 8 ­ 3 4 , n o ­ 2 ° 6 ; S a u n e r o n 1962:253­76; Sternberg­el H o t a b i 1995:1078­86; Broze 1999). C r e a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e w o r d , as d e s c r i b e d here, m a y b e t h o u g h t of as t h e f u n d a m e n t a l m o d e l f o r all t h e texts that a c c o m p a n y ritual acts a n d w h i c h realize t h e acts t h r o u g h t h e i r p e r f o r m a ­ tive p o w e r ; t h a t is to say, create t h e m a n e w ( F i n n e s t a d 1985: 6 8 ­ 7 8 ; S m i t h 2002b: 1 9 9 ­ 2 0 0 ; Q u a c k 2009a).

T H E E N D OF T H E W R I T T E N T R A D I T I O N OF T H E E G Y P T I A N C U L T

Philological c o m p e t e n c e s e e m s to have varied greatly in different places. W h i l e t h e priests of T e b t u n i s m a i n t a i n e d t h e hieratic script, t h o s e of D i m e p r e f e r r e d t h e D e m o t i c a n d even f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d n o n ­ e t y m o l o g i c a l spelling, as m e n t i o n e d above, into a c o m p l e x system.

4 6 6 M A R T I N A N D R E A S STADLER

M e a n w h i l e , at E s n a t h e m y t h o l o g i c a l play of v i s u a l a n d p h o n e t i c v a l u e s of h i e r o g l y p h i c w r i t ­ i n g w a s still u n d e r s t o o d in t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y . T h e i n s c r i p t i o n s e x t e n d i n t o t h e r e i g n of D e c i u s ( 2 4 9 ­ 5 2 ) , yet t h e i r q u a l i t y d i m i n i s h e s u n d e r S e p t i m i u s S e v e r u s , u n t i l t h e h i e r o g l y p h s c a r v e d u n d e r D e c i u s a r e b a r e l y c o m p r e h e n s i b l e ( S a u n e r o n 1959: 4 3 ­ 4 ) . A p p a r e n t l y t h e w o o d e n p a n e l L o u v r e E 10382, w h i c h is d a t e d t o t h e e n d of t h e P t o l e m a i c o r t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e R o m a n I m p e r i a l p e r i o d , w a s u s e d f o r d i r e c t r e c i t a t i o n ( W i d m e r 2 0 0 4 ) . In o r d e r t o recite t h i s h y m n t o a n u n n a m e d g o d d e s s , d e s c r i b e d as a d a u g h t e r of t h e s u n ­ g o d , it s e e m e d a p p r o ­ p r i a t e t o t h e w r i t e r t o r e s o r t t o p h o n e t i c D e m o t i c s p e l l i n g s , i.e. t o u s e a b o v e all s p e l l i n g s w i t h D e m o t i c s i n g l e ­ c o n s o n a n t signs. C l e a r l y t h i s w a s e a s i e r f o r t h e p e r f o r m e r t o r e a d t h a n a h i e r a t i c o r h i e r o g l y p h i c text. It is n o t k n o w n w h i c h t e m p l e t h e w o o d e n p a n e l c o m e s f r o m , b u t o n t h e b a s i s of t h e d a t i n g w e m a y say t h a t it is n o t c o r r e c t t o c l a i m t h a t t h e n e w e r a text, t h e less k n o w l e d g e of h i e r o g l y p h i c o r h i e r a t i c s c r i p t c o u l d b e a s s u m e d . A n d yet w e k n o w of n o Egyptian recitation texts associated with the temple cult that were written d o w n after the s e c o n d c e n t u r y CE. T h e lack of r e l e v a n t e v i d e n c e m a y n o t b e e x p l a i n e d o n l y t h r o u g h t h e s l o w d y i n g o u t of i n d i g e n o u s E g y p t i a n s c r i p t , as t h e r i t u a l s c o u l d h a v e b e e n n o t e d d o w n in G r e e k s c r i p t s u p p l e m e n t e d w i t h special D e m o t i c s i g n s , s u c h as t h e m a g i c a l ­ r i t u a l p a p y r u s P Brit. Mus. E A 1 0 8 0 8 ( S e d e r h o l m 2 0 0 6 ; cf. o n t h i s p o i n t Q u a c k 2 0 0 9 d ) . W a s t h e r e t h e r e f o r e n o cult b e i n g p r a c t i s e d in t h e t e m p l e s f r o m t h e t h i r d c e n t u r y ? T h e c o n ­ t i n u a n c e of a n E g y p t i a n cult is s h o w n by o b j e c t i v e s o u r c e s , o b j e c t i v e b e c a u s e t h e y a r e d o c u ­ m e n t a r y , like t h e o s t r a c a f r o m N a r m o u t h i s , f r o m w h i c h it a p p e a r s t h a t in t h e late s e c o n d a n d early t h i r d c e n t u r i e s CE a cult of o f f e r i n g s w a s still b e i n g p r a c t i s e d in t h e t e m p l e of N a r m o u t h i s (Gallo 1997; M e n c h e t t i 2005). S c h o l a r s like t o q u o t e P h i l a e as t h e latest e x a m p l e , w h e r e N u b i a n B l e m m y a n s a n d N o b a d i a n s ( b u t n o t E g y p t i a n s ! ) w o r s h i p p e d Isis u n t i l 535­7, a n d w h e r e t h e r e w a s a brief r e s t o r a t i o n of t h e cult in 567 ( D i j k s t r a 2 0 0 8 ; H a h n 2 0 0 8 ) . F r o m as early as t h e 3 4 0 s t h e r e w a s o n l y o n e r e m a i n i n g t e m p l e p r i e s t in P h i l a e ( n o t m o r e t h a n o n e , as F r a n k f u r t e r 2 0 0 8 : 142 suggests): t h i s is t h e w a y it is f o r m u l a t e d b y t h e a u t h o r of t h e e p i s o d e in t h e C o p t i c life of A a r o n ( D i j k s t r a 2 0 0 8 : 235­7). A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s s o u r c e , t h e p r i e s t s s o n s a c t e d for h i m f r o m t i m e t o t i m e . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e D e m o t i c a n d G r e e k graffiti in P h i l a e a r e e v i d e n c e of a w h o l e series of i n d i v i d u a l s a c t i n g as t e m p l e staff in Philae, t h o u g h in a s o m e w h a t isolated w a y ( D i j k s t r a 2 0 0 8 : 1 9 3 ­ 2 1 8 ) . A m o n g t h e s e w e r e s o m e w h o , j u d g i n g by t h e i r titles, o u g h t t o h a v e b e e n in a p o s i t i o n at least to r e a d E g y p t i a n texts. A p a r t f r o m t h e h i g h p r i e s t s (hm-ntr), t h e s e are, in t h e y e a r s 372/3 a n d 435 particularly, t h e w r i t e r s of d i v i n e w o r d s (sh mt.t-nlr, hierogrammateus) ( G r i f f i t h 1935­7:103, table 55; E i d e et al. 1998:1110­12) a n d in 4 0 7 / 8 t h e w r i t e r of t h e d i v i n e w o r d s t o g e t h e r w i t h a m a s t e r of c e r e m o n i e s ( sste) ( G r i f f i t h 1935­7:102, t a b l e 54). To w h a t e x t e n t t h e titles w e r e a c t u a l l y h e l d b y living i n c u m b e n t s a n d w e r e n o t m e r e l y h a n d e d d o w n f o r r e a s o n s of t r a d i t i o n will p r o b a b l y n e v e r b e c o m p l e t e l y c e r t a i n . In L o w e r E g y p t , t o o , t h e a c t i v i t y of t h e p r i e s t s s e e m s t o h a v e c o n t i n u e d in t h e t e m p l e of Isis in M e n o u t h i s . A s late as t h e e n d of t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y t h e s a n c t u a r y w a s s a i d t o b e full of y o u n g m e n w h o h a d w o r k e d as p r i e s t s ( E u n a p . VS 471 = 6 . 9 , 1 6 ; W r i g h t 1952: 416­17). T h i s c o m m u n i t y h a d g a t h e r e d in q u e s t of p h i l o s o p h y , a r o u n d a c e r t a i n A n t o n i n u s . W e m u s t a s s u m e f r o m t h i s t h a t t h e circle w a s h e a v i l y H e l l e n i z e d a n d c a n n o t b e c o n s i d e r e d E g y p t i a n in t h e n a r r o w s e n s e . A f t e r t h e t e m p l e h a d b e e n t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a c h u r c h in 391, t h e r e h a d b e e n a t t e m p t s t o l i n k o r a c u l a r p r a c t i c e s w i t h t h e relics of m a r t y r s a n d t h u s p u t t h e m i n t o a C h r i s t i a n c o n t e x t ; t h e Isis cult w a s s i m p l y m o v e d to a n o t h e r b u i l d i n g u n t i l t h e p a t r i a r c h of A l e x a n d r i a , P e t r o s M o n g o s , i n t e r v e n e d . H e h a d t h i s b u i l d i n g a n d t h e i m a g e s of g o d s f o u n d t h e r e d e s t r o y e d ( Z a c h a r i a h of M y t i l e n e , Vita S e v e n 2 7 ­ 9 ; K u g e n e r 1 9 0 7 : 2 7 ­ 9 ; H e r z o g 1939).

EGYPTIAN CULT 4 6 7

T h e relevant d e s c r i p t i o n of this o c c u r r e n c e m e n t i o n s a h o u s e w h o s e walls w e r e c o m p l e t e l y covered in h e a t h e n i n s c r i p t i o n s , w h i c h m a k e s o n e t h i n k of h i e r o g l y p h s (thus, K u g e n e r 1907: 27, followed by T r o m b l e y 1994:221-2). Was t h e b u i l d i n g into w h i c h t h e cult of Isis h a d w i t h ­ d r a w n n o t recognizable f r o m t h e o u t s i d e as a sanctuary, b u t set u p o n t h e inside as a n e w t e m p l e ? These w o u l d have b e e n t h e last h i e r o g l y p h i c i n s c r i p t i o n s to b e c a r v e d or p a i n t e d in Egypt. In a d d i t i o n , this w o u l d suggest t h a t t h e f o r m of t h e cult of Isis as p r a c t i s e d t h e r e m a y have p r e s e n t e d itself in a v e r y Egyptian m o d e , while t h e p e o p l e of t h e t i m e were also e n t h u s i ­ astic a b o u t G r e e k philosophy. The gap of a b o u t 3 0 0 years b e t w e e n t h e last cult texts a n d t h e violent e n d i n g of t h e w o r ­ s h i p of Isis in M e n o u t h i s or Philae m a y b e b r i d g e d b y o t h e r C o p t i c h a g i o g r a p h i e s , w h i c h , as in t h e case of M e n o u t h i s , d e s c r i b e t h e r o b u s t i n t e r v e n t i o n by C o p t i c m o n k s or b i s h o p s in t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e C h r i s t i a n faith in Egypt d u r i n g t h e f o u r t h a n d fifth centuries. T h e histo­ ricity of t h o s e r e p o r t s is in essence accepted, despite t h e fact t h a t t h e y possibly m o d e l l e d t h e m s e l v e s o n biblical texts ( E m m e l 2008; F r a n k f u r t e r 2008; el­Sayed 2010). A c o m m o n fac­ t o r in t h e s e e p i s o d e s is that t h e y s p e a k of s t a m p i n g o u t h e a t h e n ritual still p r a c t i s e d in t h e temples. In a n u m b e r of cases p e o p l e like t h e a b b o t of t h e W h i t e M o n a s t e r y , S h e n o u t e of Atripe, h a d to j u s t i f y their d e e d s in c o u r t o r o t h e r state t r i b u n a l s (Leipoldt 1908; E m m e l 2 0 0 8 : 1 6 2 ­ 6 ) . Pagan priests t h u s t h o u g h t that t h e y h a d b e e n w r o n g e d a n d h a d s o m e c h a n c e of getting t h e c o u r t s to i m p o s e p u n i s h m e n t . In o n e of his raids o n p a g a n sanctuaries, S h e n o u t e , as m e n t i o n e d above, c o n f i s c a t e d f r o m a building 'the b o o k which was filled with every k i n d of magic'. The definite article in rucuxDMe, 'the b o o k , m a y indicate that it m u s t have b e e n i m p o r t a n t to t h e s a n c t u a r y a n d m a y have b e e n a b o o k of ritual. F r o m this we m a y u n d e r s t a n d t h e f o r m u l a t i o n ' w h i c h w a s filled with e v e r y k i n d of m a g i c ' ( e T M e g MMATIA. NIM), w h i c h h a s a d i f f e r e n t i m p l i c a t i o n f r o m 'sorcery i n c a n ­ tation', even if this possibility c a n n o t b e c o m p l e t e l y excluded. As t h e cult, in its o w n w o r d s , u s e d t h e p o w e r of i n c a n t a t i o n (hk?), t h e n even ritual p a p y r i w o u l d b e 'filled w i t h magic', w i t h o u t b e i n g an actual s o r c e r y b o o k . W h e t h e r S h e n o u t e could r e a d t h e text m a y be in d o u b t , b u t f o r h i m all texts in an Egyptian script w e r e t h e devil's w o r k (Young 1981) a n d t h e ' b o o k filled w i t h every k i n d of magic' w a s a t r o p h y with w h i c h h e c o u l d d e m o n s t r a t e a vic­ t o r y in t h e struggle for t h e p r o p e r w o r s h i p of G o d . It was t h u s to b e p r e s e n t e d as a d o c u m e n t of false w o r s h i p of G o d a n d with n o application f o r C h r i s t i a n s . F r o m Shenoute's n o t e it could t h u s b e c o n c l u d e d that, in t h e fifth century, ritual b o o k s o r texts still existed a n d were subject to f o c u s e d p e r s e c u t i o n , w h i c h m i g h t explain t h e gap in t h e w r i t t e n t r a d i t i o n of t h e f o u r t h a n d fifth centuries: in t h e t h i r d c e n t u r y a decline in t e m p l e s h a d b e g u n ( G r o s s m a n n 2008), a n d t h e m o s t r e c e n t s u r v i v i n g E g y p t i a n m a n u s c r i p t s , dis­ c u s s e d above, c o m e f r o m s a n c t u a r i e s that were a b a n d o n e d t o g e t h e r w i t h their associated s e t t l e m e n t s in t h e t h i r d century, so that h e r e t h e c h a n c e s f o r p r e s e r v i n g t h e p a p y r i were g o o d . However, t h e t e m p l e s or s h r i n e s t h a t were still u s e d into t h e f o u r t h o r fifth c e n t u r i e s were s u b j e c t e d to d e s t r u c t i o n by C h r i s t i a n s . P e r h a p s m a n u s c r i p t s t h a t c o n t i n u e d to b e u s e d h e r e were also v e r y old, for o n e c a n n o t a s s u m e t h a t ritual texts c o n t i n u e d t o b e p r o d u c e d in any quantity. P r e s u m a b l y t h e decline in c o m p e t e n c e in w r i t i n g Egyptian script greatly d i m i n ­ i shed t h e n u m b e r of ritual m a n u s c r i p t s p r o d u c e d a n d t h u s t h e c h a n c e s that a n y o n e e x e m ­ plar w a s p r e s e r v e d . T h e r e are s o m e t i m e s s u g g e s t i o n s in t h e literature that fully f u n c t i o n i n g t e m p l e s were closed (e.g. T r o m b l e y 1 9 9 4 : 5 ­ 6 , 2 2 0 ­ 1 ; F r a n k f u r t e r 1998; 2 0 0 8 : 1 4 2 ­ 5 ) , b u t t h e s o u r c e s hint, as s h o w n above, that in t h e fifth c e n t u r y t h e E g y p t i a n cult t o o k r e f u g e in h o u s e s a n d was t h e r e f o r e in retreat (cf. also S m i t h 2002a: 245­7).

4 6 8 M A R T I N A N D R E A S STADLER

Even if the temples b e c a m e less n u m e r o u s , they did not disappear completely. O n l y the conversion of the e m p e r o r s to Christianity, a n d the imperial laws that t u r n e d a blind eye to Christian attacks against pagan religion, led to the complete extinction of the temple cult. Faced with the initial difficulties with the R o m a n emperor, t h e n the r e d u c t i o n of temple land with the e c o n o m i c crisis of the e m p i r e in the third century, a n d t h e n the b a n o n p a g a n cults, the priests h a d m a n a g e d to c o n t i n u e the cult at a few places for m o r e t h a n 500 years f r o m the t i m e of O c t a v i a n — u n t i l the e m p e r o r s went so far as to b a n t h e cults they were once sup­ p o s e d to head.

SUGGESTED READING

The Egyptian temple cult d u r i n g the R o m a n e m p i r e has not yet been treated in a coherent a n d concise m a n n e r . A n u m b e r of individual studies are available, a n d the m o s t i m p o r t a n t ones have been cited in this chapter. Of these, however, S a u n e r o n (1962) is to be singled out a n d r e c o m m e n d e d for gaining an insight into the festivals of a temple in Imperial times, using the example of Esna temple; a similar study on D e n d a r a (Cauville 2002) is also avail­ able. For the Daily Ritual in R o m a n times, however, there is n o c o m p a r a b l e study. As a case study for the existence of the cult at t h e Sobek temples in the Fayum, K o c k e l m a n n (2010) is r e c o m m e n d e d , as is Dijkstra (2008) for the e n d of the cult in Philae.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Alliot, M. 1954. Le culte d'Horus a Edfou au temps des Ptolemies. Cairo: Institut Francais dArcheologie Orientale. Assmann, J. 1984. Agypten: Theologie und Frommigkeit einer friihen Hochkultur. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. Trans, as The Search for God in Ancient Egypt. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2001. 1990. Ma'at: Gerechtigkeit und Unsterblichkeit im Alten Agypten. Munich: Beck. Baines, J. 1987. 'Practical Religion and Piety', Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 73: 79­98. 1991. 'Society, Morality, and Religious Practice', in B. E. Shafer (ed.), Religion in Ancient Egypt: Gods, Myths, and Personal Practice. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 123­200. Bernand, E. 1975. Recueil des inscriptions grecques du Fayoum, vol. 1. Leiden: Brill. Broze, M. 1999. 'Les Sept Propos de Methyer: Structure narrative et theorie du savoir dans la cosmogonie de Neith a Esna', Bulletin de ITnstitut Francais dArcheologie Orientale du Caire 99: 63­72. Budde, D. 2003. 'Harpare­pa­chered: Ein agyptisches Gotterkind im Theben der Spatzeit u n d griechisch­romischen Epoche', in D. Budde, S. Sandri, and U. Verhoeven (eds), Kindgotter im Agypten der griechisch-romischen Zeit: Zeugnisse aus Stadt und Tempel als Spiegel des interkulturellen Kontakts. Leuven: Peeters, 16­110. Cary, E. i960. Dio's Roman History VI. London: H e i n e m a n n ; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Cauville, S. 2002. Dendara: Les fetes d'Hathor. Leuven: Peeters. Chassinat, £. 1939. Le mammisi d'Edfou. Cairo: Institut Francais dArcheologie Orientale.

E G Y P T I A N CULT 4 6 9

Cooney, K. M., and J. B. McClain. 2005. "The Daily Offering Meal in the Ritual of A m e n h o t e p I: A n Instance of the Local Adaptation of Cult Liturgy', Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions 5: 41-75. Davoli, P. F o r t h c o m i n g . ' R a p p o r t o di scavo 2003-2009', in M. Capasso a n d R Davoli (eds), Soknopaiou Nesos Project I (2003-2009). Pisa: Fabrizio Serra. de Cenival, F. 1972. Les associations religieuses en Egypte d'apres les documents demotiques. Cairo: Institut Francais d'Archeologie Orientale. Dieleman, J. 2009. Review of M. A. Stadler, Isis, dasgottliche Kind und die Weltordnung: Neue religiose Texte aus dem Fayum nach dem Papyrus Wien D. 12006 recto, Bibliotheca Orientalis 66: 225-31. Dijkstra, J. H . F. 2008. Philae and the End of Ancient Egyptian Religion: A Regional Study of Religious Transformation (298-642 CE). Leuven: Peeters. Eide, T., et al. (eds) 1998. Fontes Historiae Nubiorum, vol. 3: Textual Sources for the History of the Middle Nile Region between the Eighth Century BC and the Sixth Century AD. Bergen: Institutt for Klassisk Filologi, Russisk og Religionsvitenskap. El-Sayed, R. 2010. 'Shenoute u n d die Tempel v o n Atripe: Z u r U m n u t z u n g des Triphisbezirks in der Spatantike', in H. Knuf, C. Leitz, a n d D. v o n Recklinghausen (eds), Honi soit qui mal ypense: Studien zum pharaonischen, griechisch-rdmischen undspdtantiken Agypten zu Ehren von Heinz-Josef Thissen. Leuven: Peeters, 519-38. E m m e l , S. 2008. 'Shenoute of Atripe a n d the Christian D e s t r u c t i o n of Temples in Egypt: Rhet­ oric a n d Reality', in J. H a h n , S. E m m e l , a n d U. Gotter (eds), From Temple to Church: Destruc­ tion and Renewal of Local Cultic Topography in Late Antiquity. Leiden: Brill, 161­99. E r n o u t , A. 1952. Pline YAncien: Histoire naturelle livre VIII. Paris: Belles Lettres. Evans, J. A. S. 1961. A Social a n d E c o n o m i c History of an Egyptian Temple in the Greco­ R o m a n Period', Yale Classical Studies 17:149­283. Fairman, H. W. 1954­5. 'Worship a n d Festivals in an Egyptian Temple', Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 37:165­203. Finnestad, R. B. 1985. Image of the World and Symbol of the Creator: On the Cosmological and Iconological Values of the Temple of Edfu. W i e s b a d e n : Harrassowitz. Fitzenreiter, M. 2004. ' B e m e r k u n g e n zur Beschreibung altagyptischer Religion: Mit einer Definition u n d d e m Versuch ihrer Anwendung', Gottinger Miszellen 202:19­53. Frankfurter, D. 1998. Religion in Roman Egypt: Assimilation and Resistance. Princeton: Prince­ ton University Press. 2008. 'Iconoclasm a n d Christianization in Late A n t i q u e Egypt: Christian T r e a t m e n t s of Space a n d Image', in J. H a h n , S. E m m e l , a n d U. G o t t e r (eds), From Temple to Church: Destruction and Renewal of Local Cultic Topography in Late Antiquity. Leiden: Brill, 135­59­ Gallo, P. 1997. Ostraca demotici e ieratici daliarchivio bilingue di Narmouthis II. Pisa: ETS. G e n e r a l v e r w a l t u n g der koniglichen Museen zu Berlin (ed.) 1901. Hieratische Papyrus aus den koniglichen Museen zu Berlin, vol. 1: Ritualefur den Kultus des Amon und fur den Kultus der Mut. Leipzig: Hinrichs. Geraci, G. 1983. Genesi della provincia romana d'Egitto. Bologna: CLUEB. Griffith, F. L. 1935­7. Catalogue of the Demotic Graffiti of the Dodecaschoenus. Oxford: O x f o r d University Press for Service des Antiquites. G r o s s m a n n , P. 2008. 'Modalitaten d e r Z e r s t o r u n g u n d C h r i s t i a n i s i e r u n g p h a r a o n i s c h e r Tem­ pelanlagen', in J. H a h n , S. E m m e l , and U. Gotter (eds), From Temple to Church: Destruction and Renewal of Local Cultic Topography in Late Antiquity. Leiden: Brill, 299­334.

4 7 0 M A R T I N A N D R E A S STADLER

G u e r m e u r , I. 2008. 'Les n o u v e a u x p a p y r u s hieratiques e x h u m e s sur le site de Tebtynis: Un apercu', in S. L. Lippert a n d M. Schentuleit (eds), Graeco-Roman Fayum: Texts and Archae­ ology. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 113-22. F o r t h c o m i n g . 'A p r o p o s d ' u n nouvel exemplaire du rituel journalier p o u r Soknebtynis (pTebhera 5 et autres Variantes)', in J. F. Q u a c k (ed.), Agyptische Rituale der griechisch­ romischen Zeit. Tubingen: M o h r Siebeck. Guglielmi, W., a n d K. Buroh. 1997. 'Die Eingangsspriiche des Taglichen Tempelrituals n a c h Papyrus Berlin 3055 (I, l - V I , 3)', in J. van Dijk (ed.), Essays on Ancient Egypt in Honour of Herman te Velde. G r o n i n g e n : Styx, 101-66. H a h n , J. 2008. 'Die Z e r s t o r u n g der Kulte v o n Philae: Geschichte u n d Legende a m Ersten Nilkatarakt', in J. H a h n , S. E m m e l , a n d U. Gotter (eds), From Temple to Church: Destruction and Renewal of Local Cultic Topography in Late Antiquity. Leiden: Brill, 203-42. Heinen, H. 1994. 'Agyptische Tierkulte u n d ihre hellenischen Protektoren', in M. M i n a s a n d J. Zeidler (eds), Aspekte spdtdgyptischer Kultur: Festschrift fur Erich Winter zum 65. Geburts­ tag. Mainz: von Z a b e r n , 157-68. Herzog, R. 1939. ' D e r Kampf u m den Kult v o n Menuthis', in T. Klauser (ed.), Pisciculi: Studien zur Religion und Kultur des Altertums: Franz Joseph Dolger zum sechzigsten Geburtstage dargeboten von Freunden, Verehrern und Schiilern. Miinster: Aschendorff, 117-24. Holbl, G. 1996. 'Ideologische Fragen bei d e r Ausbildung des r o m i s c h e n Pharaos', in M. SchadeBusch (ed.), Wege bffnen: Festschrift fur Rolf Gundlach zum 65. Geburstag. W i e s b a d e n : Har­ rassowitz, 98­109. 2000. Altdgypten im romischen Reich: Der romische Pharao und seine Tempel I. Mainz: von Zabern. 2004. 'Die r o m i s c h e n Kaiser u n d das agyptische Konigtum', in P. C. Bol, G. Kaminski, a n d C. M a d e r n a (eds), Fremdheit—Eigenheit: Agypten, Griechenland und Rom, Austausch und Verstdndnis. Stuttgart: Scheufele, 525­37. Jasnow, R., a n d K.­T. Zauzich. 2005. The Ancient Egyptian Book of Thoth: A Demotic. Wies­ baden: Harrassowitz. Jordens, A. 2008. 'Griechische Texte aus Agypten', in B. Janowski a n d G. Wilhelm (eds), Omnia, Orakel, Rituale und Beschwdrungen. Giitersloh: Gtitersloher Verlaghaus, 417­45. 2009. Statthalterliche Verwaltung in der romischen Kaiserzeit: Studien zum praefectus Aegypti. Stuttgart: Steiner. Kausen, E. 1988. 'Das tagliche Tempelritual', in O. Kaiser et al. (eds), Religiose Texte: Rituale und Beschwdrungen II. Giitersloh: Giitersloher Verlagshaus, 391­405. Kockelmann, H. 2010. 'Sobek u n d die Caesaren: Einige Bemerkungen zur Situation der Krokodilgot­ terkulte des Fayum unter romischer Herrschaft', in K. Lembke, M. Minas­Nerpel, and S. Pfeiffer (eds), Tradition and Transformation: Egypt under Roman Rule. Leiden: Brill, 203­30. a n d S. Pfeiffer. 2009. 'Betrachtungen zur Dedikation von Tempeln u n d Tempelteilen in ptolemaischer u n d r o m i s c h e r Zeit', in R. E b e r h a r d et al. (eds), ! . . vor dem Papyrus sind alle gleich!': Papyrologische Beitrdge zu Ehren von Barbel Kramer (P. Kramer). Berlin: de Gruyter, 93­104. Kugener, M. A. 1907. Vie de Severe, patriarche dAntioche 512­518, par Zacharie le scholastique: Textes syriaques publies, traduits et annotes. Paris: F i r m i n ­ D i d o t . Leipoldt, J. 1908. Sinuthii archimandritae vita et opera omnia, vol. 3. Paris: Poussielgue. Lippert, S. L. 2007. 'Die A b m a c h u n g e n d e r Priester: Einblicke in das Leben u n d Arbeiten in S o k n o p a i o u Nesos', in M. Capasso and P. Davoli (eds), New Archaeological and Papyrologi­ cal Researches on the Fayyum. Lecce: C o n g e d o , 145­55.

E G Y P T I A N CULT 4 7 1

2008. Einfuhrung in die altdgyptische Rechtsgeschichte. Berlin: Lit Verlag Dr W. Hopf. a n d M. Schentuleit. 2006. Ostraka. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. Ltiddeckens, E. 1968. 'Gottesdienstliche G e m e i n s c h a f t e n im p h a r o n i s c h e n , hellenistischen u n d christlichen Agypten', Zeitschrift fiir Religions- und Geistesgeschichte 20: 93-211. Menchetti, A. 2005. Ostraka demotici e bilingui da Narmuthis (ODN100-188). Pisa: ETS. M o n s o n , A. 2005. 'Sacred Land in Ptolemaic a n d R o m a n Tebtunis', in S. Lippert a n d M. Schen­ tuleit (eds), Tebtunis und Soknopaiu Nesos: Leben im romerzeitlichen Fajum. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 79­91. 2006. 'The Ethics a n d E c o n o m i c s of Ptolemaic Religious Associations', Ancient Society 36: 221­38. Moret, A. 1902. he rituel du culte divin journalier en Egypte: D'apres les papyrus de Berlin et les textes du temple de Seti Ier a Abydos. Paris: Leroux. Moyer, I. 2003. "Thessalos of Tralles a n d Cultural Exchange', in S. B. Noegel, J. T. Walker, a n d B. M. W h e e l e r (eds), Prayer, Magic, and the Stars in the Ancient and Late Antique World. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 39­56. Muszynski, M. 1977. 'Les "associations religieuses" en Egypte d'apres les sources hieroglyph­ iques, d e m o t i q u e s et grecques', Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica 8:145­74. Naether, F. 2010. Die Sortes Astrampsychi: Problemldsungsstrategien durch Orakel im romischen Agypten. Tubingen: M o h r Siebeck. Osing, J. 1998. Hieratische Papyri aus Tebtunis I. C o p e n h a g e n : M u s e u m T u s c u l a n u m Press. 1999. ' Z u m Kultbildritual in Abydos', in E. Teeter a n d J. Larson (eds), Gold of Praise: Studies on Ancient Egypt in Honor of Edward F. Wente. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 317­34­ a n d G. Rosati. 1998. Papiri geroglifici e ieratici da Tebtunis. Florence: Istituto Papirologico G. Vitelli. Pries, A. H . 2011. Die Stundenwachen im Osiriskult: Eine Studie zur Tradition und Spdten Rezeption von Ritualen im Alten Agypten: 2 vols. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. Q u a c k , J. F. 1997. 'Ein agyptisches H a n d b u c h des Tempels u n d seine griechische Ubersetzung', Zeitschrift fiir Papyrologie und Epigraphik 119: 297­300. 2001. 'Ein S t a n d a r d h y m n u s z u m Sistrumspiel auf e i n e m d e m o t i s c h e n O s t r a k o n (Ostra­ k o n Corteggiani D 1)', Enchoria 27:101­19. 2002. 'La magie au temple', in Y. Koenig (ed.), La magie en Egypte: a la recherche d'une definition. Paris: D o c u m e n t a t i o n Francaise, M u s e e d u Louvre, 41­68. 2005. 'Die U b e r l i e f e r u n g s s t r u k t u r Buches v o m Tempel', in S. L. Lippert a n d M. Schen­ tuleit (eds), Tebtunis und Soknopaiu Nesos: Leben im romerzeitlichen Fajum. W i e s b a d e n : Harrassowitz, 105­15. 2007. 'Ein agyptischer Dialog iiber die Schreibkunst u n d das arkane Wissen', Archivfiir Religionsgeschichte 9: 259­94. 2009a. 'Erzahlen als Preisen: Vom A s t a r t e p a p y r u s zu d e n koptischen Martyrerakten', in H. Roeder (ed.), Das Erzahlen in friihen Hochkulturen, vol. 1: Der Fall Agypten. M u n i c h : Fink, 291­312. 2009b. 'Die Theologisierung d e r biirokratischen N o r m : Z u r Baubeschreibung in E d f u i m Vergleich z u m Buch v o m Tempel', in R. Preys (ed.), 7. Agyptologische Tempeltagung: Struc­ turing Religion. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 221­9. 2009c. ' M i n i a t u r i s i e r u n g als Schlussel z u m Verstandnis romerzeitlicher agyptischer Rit­ uale?', in O. Hekster, S. S c h m i d t ­ H o f n e r , a n d C. Witschel (eds), Ritual Dynamics and Reli­ gious Change in the Roman Empire. Leiden: Brill, 3 4 9 ­ 6 6 .

4 7 2 M A R T I N A N D R E A S STADLER

Quack, J. F. 2009C1. 'Review of S e d e r h o l m , Papyrus British M u s e u m 10808', Orientalistische Literaturzeitung 104: 27-33. Ritner, R. K. 1992. 'Religion vs. Magic: The Evidence of t h e Magical Statue Bases', in U. Luft (ed.), The Intellectual Heritage of Egypt: Studies Presented to L. Kdkosy. Budapest: Universite L o r a n d Eotvos, 495-501. 1995. 'Egyptian Magical Practice u n d e r t h e R o m a n Empire: The D e m o t i c Spells a n d their Religious Context', in W. Haase a n d H. T e m p o r i n i (eds), Aufstieg und Niedergang der romischen Welt II 18.5. Berlin: de Gruyter, 3333-79. Rolfe, J. C. 1950. Ammianus Marcellinus, vol. 2. C a m b r i d g e , Mass.: H a r v a r d University Press. 1998. Suetonius, vol. 1. C a m b r i d g e , Mass.: H a r v a r d University Press. Rosati, G. 1998. 'PSI inv. I 70 e pCarlsberg 307 + PSI inv. I 79 + pBerlino 14473a + pTebt. Tait 25: Rituale giornaliere di Soknebtynis', in J. O s i n g a n d G. Rosati (eds), Papiri Geroglifici e ieratici da Tebtunis. Florence: Istituto Papirologico G. Vitelli, 101-28. Sandri, S. 2006. Har-pa-chered (Harpokrates): Die Genese eines agyptischen Gbtterkindes. Leuven: Peeters. San Nicolo, M. 1972. Agyptisches Vereinswesen zur Zeit der Ptolemder und Rbmer. M u n i c h : Beck. Sauneron, S. 1959. Quatre campagnes a Esna. Cairo: Institut Francais d'Archeologie Orientale. 1962. Les fetes religieuses d'Esna aux derniers siecles du paganisme. Cairo: Institut Francais d'Archeologie Orientale. 1968. he temple d'Esna. Cairo: Institut Francais d'Archeologie Orientale. Sederholm, V. H. 2006. Papyrus British Museum 10808 and its Cultural and Religious Setting. Leiden: Brill. Smith, M. 2002a. A s p e c t s of t h e Preservation a n d Transmission of I n d i g e n o u s Religious Tra­ ditions in A k h m i m a n d its Environs d u r i n g the G r a e c o ­ R o m a n Period', in A. Egberts, B. P. M u h s , and J. van der Vliet (eds), Perspectives on Panopolis: An Egyptian Town from Alexander the Great to the Arab Conquest. Leiden: Brill, 233-47. 2002b. On the Primaeval Ocean. C o p e n h a g e n : M u s e u m T u s c u l a n u m Press. 2005. Papyrus Harkness (MMA 31.9.7). Oxford: Griffith Institute. Spiegelberg, W. 1902. Demotische Papyrus aus den Koniglichen Museen zu Berlin. Leipzig: Hinrichs. Stadler, M. A. 2004. Isis, dasgbttliche Kind und die Weltordnung: Neue religiose Texte aus dem Fayum nach dem Papyrus Wien D. 12006 recto. Vienna: Hollinek. 2006. 'Isis wurfelt nicht', Studi di Egittologia e di Papirologia 3:187-203. 2007. 'Zwischen Philologie u n d Archaologie: Das Tagliche Ritual des Tempels in Sok­ n o p a i o u Nesos', in M. Capasso a n d P. Davoli (eds), New Archaeological and Papyrological Researches on the Fayyum. Lecce: C o n g e d o , 284-302. 2008. ' J u d g m e n t after Death (Negative Confession)', in J. D i e l e m a n a n d W. W e n d r i c h (eds), UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology. Los Angeles, . F o r t h c o m i n g . 'Interpreting the Architecture of t h e Temenos: D e m o t i c Papyri a n d the Cult in Dime', in M. Capasso a n d P. Davoli (eds), Soknopaiou Nesos Project I (2003-2009). Pisa: Fabrizio Serra. Sternberg­el Hotabi, H. 1995. ' D e r M y t h o s von der Vernichtung des Menschengeschlechts', in E. Blumenthal et al. (eds), Mythen und Epen III: Texte aus der Umwelt des Alten Testaments III. 5. Gutersloh: Giitersloher Verlagshaus, 1078-86.

E G Y P T I A N CULT 4 7 3

Tacke, N. 2003. 'Das Opferritual des agyptischen N e u e n Reiches', in C. Metzner-Nebelsick et al. (eds), Rituale in der Vorgeschichte, Antike und Gegenwart: Studien zur Vorderasiatischen, Prahistorischen und Klassischen Archaologie, Agyptologie, Alten Geschichte, Theologie und Religionswissenschaft. Berlin: Leidorf, 27-36. Trombley, F. R. 1994. Hellenic Religion and Christianization €.370-529, vol. 2. Leiden: Brill. Vleeming, S. R 2001. Some Coins of Artaxerxes and Other Short Texts in the Demotic Script Found on Various Objects Gathered from Many Publications. Leuven: Peeters. v o n Lieven, A. 2007. Grundrifi des Laufes der Sterne: Das sogenannte Nutbuch. C o p e n h a g e n : M u s e u m T u s c u l a n u m Press. W i d m e r , G. 1998. ' U n p a p y r u s d e m o t i q u e religieux d u Fayoum: P. Berlin 6750', Bulletin de la Societe d'Egyptologie, Geneve 22: 83-91. 2003. 'Les fetes en l ' h o n n e u r de Sobek d a n s le Fayoum a l e p o q u e greco-romaine', Egypte, Afrique et Orient 32: 3-22. 2004. 'Une invocation a la deesse (tablette d e m o t i q u e Louvre E 10382)', in F. H o f f m a n n a n d H.-J. Thissen (eds), Res Severa Verum Gaudium: Festschrift fur Karl-Theodor Zauzich zum 65. Geburtstag am 8. Juni 2004. Leuven: Peeters, 651-86. 2005. ' O n Egyptian Religion at S o k n o p a i u Nesos in the R o m a n Period', in S. L. Lippert a n d M. Schentuleit (eds), Tebtunis und Soknopaiu Nesos: Leben im romerzeitlichen Fajum. W i e s b a d e n : Harrassowitz, 171-84. F o r t h c o m i n g . "Words a n d Writing in D e m o t i c Ritual Texts f r o m S o k n o p a i u Nesos', in J. F. Q u a c k (ed.), Agyptische Rituale der griechisch-rdmischen Zeit. Tubingen: M o h r Siebeck. Wright, W. C. 1952. Philostratus and Eunapius. L o n d o n : H e i n e m a n n ; C a m b r i d g e , Mass.: Har­ vard University Press. Young, D. W. 1981. 'A Monastic Invective against Egyptian Hieroglyphs', in Young (ed.), Studies Presented to Hans Jakob Polotsky. East Gloucester, Mass.: Pirtle and Poison, 3 4 8 ­ 6 0 .