Effective Practices in Writing Instruction

Effective Practices in Writing Instruction

Effective Practices in Writing Instruction Monday September 26th, 2011 Today • • • • • • • Project Purpose Discussion with Mentors New Common Core...

2MB Sizes 0 Downloads 5 Views

Effective Practices in Writing Instruction Monday September 26th, 2011

Today • • • • • • •

Project Purpose Discussion with Mentors New Common Core Standards in Writing Writing on Demand Reading/Writing Connection Technology and Writing Writing Games

Project Purpose

Effective Practices in Writing Instruction Monday September 26th, 2011

5

Why are we here? • Mission • Mentors role thus far – Lead conversations, dialogues for self-reflection (+,-), collect lesson samples and student work – Integration of strategies • (e.g. The Concept Mastery Routing, the FRAMING Routine, QAR, development of curriculum based measurements, and use of technology to support literacy)

6

Why are we here? • Solid foundation in the common core standards, accompanying assessments, and instructional strategies. • PD sessions to focus on comprehensive strategy integration (CSI) in the Spring of 2012. • Teachers expected to combine multiple strategies during instruction. 7

Project Objectives and Connection to Common Core Standards • Objective 1: Increase teacher knowledge of the common core standards. • Objective 2: Increase teacher use of curriculum based measures. • Objective 3: Increase teacher knowledge of research-based strategies. • Objective 4: Increase teacher use of researchbased strategies. • Objective 5: Increase student knowledge and use of research-based strategies.

11

The evaluation will • determine the extent to which the project accomplished the following goals and will follow Tom Guskey’s five critical levels of professional development evaluation (i.e., participant perceptions of the PD, participant knowledge, school and district support, participant practice, and student achievement) (Guskey, 2002). 12

13

Today • • • • • •

Writing and KDE initiative Common Core Standards in Writing Writing on Demand Reading/Writing Connection Writing Games Technology and Writing

14

Discussion with Mentors • Assessment (topic from last time) • Writing (topic this time) • Vocabulary (topic for next time)

New Common Core Standards in Writing • Text Types and Purposes – Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. – Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content. – Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.

New Common Core Standards in Writing • Production and Distribution of Writing – Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) – With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. – Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting.

New Common Core Standards in Writing • Research to Build and Present Knowledge – Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate. – Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources. – Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

New Common Core Standards in Writing • Range of Writing – Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Writing on Demand New Common Core Connection Text Types and Purposes– Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. – Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content. – Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.

Range of WritingWrite routinely over shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Writing on Demand Essential Questions: 1. Why do we need to focus more on preparing students for On Demand Writing? 2. What can we do to improve student performance in On Demand Writing?

The Need to Improve On Demand Writing Performance Why Do We Need to Focus on Improving Student Performance in On Demand Writing? 1. Student writing proficiency is essential for college and career readiness. 2. Student writing proficiency is assessed through Writing On Demand. 3. Current testing suggests that the majority of Kentucky middle school students are not proficient writers, and are not meeting college and career readiness goals.

Evidence from KDE KDE has identified reading, writing, and mathematics deficiencies for middle school students, based on 2010 testing results, and has set five year goals for improvement.

Middle School Proficiency Goals:

*Note that writing proficiency is the lowest at 42%, and requires the most improvement by 2015—a 29% increase.

How Do We Increase Student Performance on Writing Tests? 1. Do more of what we already do to help our students become better writers. 2. Teach students specific Writing On Demand techniques. 3. Help make new testing procedures, prompts, and assessments transparent to students.

Do More of What We Already Do • Teaching that helps students meet KCAS helps students perform better in On Demand Writing. • You already teach many things that help your students become better writers (i.e. audience, purpose, and form awareness, prewriting strategies, drafting strategies, and revision and editing strategies). • One of the best things we can do to improve student performance is to simply do what we already do more often; more writing practice leads to better writers.

What Specific Standard Calls for Proficiency in On Demand Writing? Range of Writing—CCR 10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

What other Writing Standards Address Skills Assessed with On Demand Writing? All 10, Although 1-4 are more easily assessed in an OD writing situation CCR anchor standards Standard 1: Write arguments… Standard 2: Write informative/explanatory texts… Standard 3: Write narratives… Standard 4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience

The Rhetorical Situation of On Demand Writing Besides simply teaching to the standards, what else can we do to help students do well when Writing On Demand? We can teach students to 1. Analyze writing prompts so they know how they are supposed to respond. 2. Understand the ways they will be tested and assessed, so they know what to expect and what graders are looking for.

Mnemonic to Help Students Analyze Writing Prompts Help students identify SPAM when faced with a writing prompt: • Situation: The event that causes you the need to write. (on tests prompts ask students to pretend) • Purpose: The reason you are writing (these correspond to text types—to narrate, to explain, to argue). • Audience: The person (people) you’re pretending to write to. • Mode: The type of writing you are to do (i.e. letter, articles, editorial).

Situation • The situation is labeled for students • It’s always the first part of the prompt • It’s a make believe situation that hasn’t really happened • It creates a need to write

Purpose The purpose corresponds with one of three text types: • Narrative—Narrate an event to make a point. • Exposition—Respond to a text/graphic/chart with well organized main ideas and supporting details. • Argument—Make a claim and support it with valid reasoning and sufficient evidence (*Note the greater emphasis on reasoning and evidence in the new standards; students can no longer score well relying on opinions and making emotional appeals).

Audience • Students should look in the writing task for the audience • It might be an individual or a group • Students should identify in the prompt why they are writing to a specific audience • Students should consider what the audience needs to know, wants to know, and already knows • Students should imagine what questions readers will have about the topic and answer them in their writing.

Mode • Students should look in the writing task for the mode of discourse (letter, feature article, editorial, speech) • Students should know the textual features expected of that mode of discourse (e.g. a letter has a date, a greeting, a body, a closing, a signature) • Students should follow the format suggested in the prompt

Identify SPAM in this Sample 8th Grade Writing Prompt With a partner, spend the next 5 minutes Identifying the SPAM of this Sample 8th Grade Writing Prompt Situation: In an effort to promote better relationships in the community, an entire issue of your local newspaper will be devoted to acts of kindness. These acts could include a student standing up for another student, someone helping his or her neighbor during a difficult time, or an individual volunteering to make someone’s life easier. Writing Task: Write an editorial for the local newspaper about the importance of being kind to others. Tell about a time when you observed or participated in an act of kindness. Support your response with details or examples.

What is the SPAM? Situation: In an effort to promote better relationships in the community, an entire issue of your local newspaper will be devoted to acts of kindness. These acts could include a student standing up for another student, someone helping his or her neighbor during a difficult time, or an individual volunteering to make someone’s life easier. Writing Task: Write an editorial for the local newspaper about the importance of being kind to others. Tell about a time when you observed or participated in an act of kindness. Support your response with details or examples.

Mini-Lesson 1. Write a prompt on the board (like the one we just read). 2. Have the class find the SPAM (as we just did). 3. Have small groups brainstorm a process a student might follow in writing a response to the prompt, including specific prewriting, drafting, revision and editing ideas that can be used in about an hour (we will spend 15 minutes doing this now). 4. Have the groups share these ideas with the class (we will share our ideas in about 15 minutes).

Writing Process Ideas To craft an answer to the previous prompt, as student could: • Idea 1—locate the situation. Identify spam • Idea 2—reread their writing and the writing prompt. • Idea 3—time management (spending set amounts of time on each writing stage). • Idea 4—WWF (who, what, format) • Idea 5--practice

Testing Procedures In addition to teaching students how to analyze and respond to the writing prompt, we should also make them familiar with testing and assessment procedures. This includes 1. Going over testing instructions beforehand (see new testing script handout) 2. Reviewing writing aids they will have while testing (i.e. Writer’s Reference Sheet) 3. Reviewing scoring criteria and grading rubric for On-Demand Writing (these are changing this year) 4. Helping students score writing samples so they can understand how graders will use scoring criteria

KY Writing Rubric DRAFT

Practice Scoring Student Work Activity: Using the scoring rubric provided, spend about 10 minutes scoring the Student Response to the previously discussed writing prompt (an editorial about an act of kindness). Note: For this exercise, we will use the old scoring rubric with which we should already be familiar. The same procedure can be used with the new rubric.

Comparing Our Results with Peers Activity, Part 2: Get together in groups of 3-4 and spend the next 10 minutes talking about your scoring of the sample student response. If there are differences in scoring, talk about the reasoning behind those differences. Try to come to a consensus about what scores the Student Response should receive.

Sharing Our Results with the Class Activity, Part 3: Share your individual and group scoring with the class. Official Scoring 3-3-3.

Reading-Writing Connection New Common Core Connection • Research to Build and Present Knowledge – Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate. – Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources. – Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

FRAME

MI

MI

MI

D

D

D

D

D

D

So What?

48

Reading/Writing Connection

Reading Reviews

FRAME Routine

Sentence writing

Paraphrasing Strategy (RAP)

Reader Response

Concept Mapping

Formative assessment

49

Gage • Most sentences were not complete. • If a complete sentence, they were simple sentences. • He wants to be a pilot or a race car driver. 50

How Has Strategy Instruction Helped? • Academically, students learn how to learn and perform independently. Pre-Test

Gage

51

Purpose of the Sentence Writing Strategy Teach students to write a variety of complete simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences with fluency.

52

SENTENCE FLUENCY emerging Incomplete

Choppy Run-on Phrasing doesn’t sound natural Many sentences begin the same way

strong Variety of sentence types and lengths Purposeful beginnings

Makes meaning clear Inviting to the reader 53

Airframe by Michael Crichton Reviewed by Gage

Published in:

1996

Length:

348 pages

Ranking (1-10): 10 Genre:

Fiction

Age:

Adult 54

Reading/Writing Connection 59 passengers are either injured or dead in a virtually destroyed cabin as the pilot manages to land the plane. As soon as this midair disaster occurs, a national investigation immediately starts involving safety in the skies... and even a shocking discovery! When the control operators get a distress signal from Trans Pacific flight 545 asking for an emergency landing and 40 ambulances along side of their landing site, they knew something was terribly wrong. The Trans Pacific Airline Co. immediately sends out an investigating team that has to figure out what the heck happened on flight 545 and the best way to prevent it happening again. But they have to do it all in a deadline of 1 week before the press gets the story and shuts down the airline company. During their investigation, the team runs into threats, old records about the twin jet-liner that the disaster occurred on, and even a discovery that uncovers the shocking truth. This is a great book for those who like suspense. I feel that the author, Michael Crichton describes the actual reality about what really happens in airline companies. The only problem with the book is that it is 348 pages of meetings, meals, and looking at the plane inside of a deserted hanger. Other than that it is a great book. I really recommend it. 55

Complete Sentences 1. Start with a capital letter 2. Have end punctuation (. ? !) 3. Have a subject (S) 4. Have a verb (V)

5. Make sense

S

V

.?! 56

Turn to your neighbor.

Name the five requirements of a sentence. Use Cue Card as needed.

57

Types of Simple Sentences SV "One person doing one thing" SSV "Two people doing one thing"

SVV "One person doing two things' SSVV

"Two people doing two things"

58

Paraphrasing Strategy Overview Pertinent setting demands Reading, understanding, and remembering written information.

Purpose of this strategy To make the student active in the reading process by requiring the student to search out and state the main ideas and details of each paragraph.

59

The Paraphrasing Strategy • Is used to paraphrase the main ideas and important details of each paragraph in a passage • Is designed to improve recall of main ideas and specific facts. – You will be looking for quality and quantity of the paraphrase statements

60

The Paraphrasing Strategy • Requires students to read short passages of materials and rephrase the content, including the main ideas and specific facts, in their own words.

61

Paraphrasing Strategy Overview Steps of the strategy

Read a paragraph Step 2: Ask what are the main ideas and Step 1:

details Step 3:

Put the main idea and at least two details into your own words

62

Anatomy of the Paraphrasing Strategy The first letters spell the mnemonic word “rap”; the meaning of which is related to the behavior.

The strategy steps are task-specific (reading), not situation or content specific. The student uses selfinstruction of the strategy steps to cue self of what to do.

Only a few steps are used to facilitate complex cognitive processes.

Each step of the strategy begins with a verb that facilitates a more active response.

R A P

Read a paragraph

The wording of steps is simple and brief.

This step cues the reader to use the cognitive strategy of self-questioning.

Ask yourself, “What were the main ideas and details in this paragraph?” Put the main idea and details into your own words

This step elicits an overt response that can be evaluated and on which corrective feedback can be provided.

This step cues reader to use a transformational strategy (paraphrasing) to elaborate on the information from the paragraph.

This step cues the reader to relationally organize the information and decide what is important and unimportant. 63

64

Critical Features of the Paraphrasing Strategy Intervention

Behavioral Elements Design of the Strategy

• Provides specificity for needed reading behaviors • Performance outcomes observable • Specific setting demands addressed

65

Critical Features of the Paraphrasing Strategy Intervention Behavioral Elements Design • Direct explanation in use of strategy of the Strategy • Prompted (guided) practice gradually changes to instruction unprompted (independent) practice • Initial teacher-directed feedback on specific behaviors relates to correctly performing the strategy • Specific mastery criteria used; students made aware of criteria • Students plot own progress 66

Rationales Behind the Paraphrasing Steps 1. The strategy requires the student to actively interact with and think about the material rather than passively reading it. 2. Following a step-by-step process requires a high level of attention during a reading activity.

3. “Chunking” material into small units facilitates better memory and subsequent recall of the material.

67

Steps for Paraphrasing Step 1

Read a paragraph.

Step 2

Ask yourself, “What were the

main ideas and details in this paragraph?” Step 3

Put the main ideas and details into your own words.

68

Finding the Main Idea Questions to Ask What is this paragraph about? This paragraph is about _________________. What does it tell me about _________________? It tells me ____________________________ ____________________________.

69

Requirements for a Paraphrase 1. Must contain a complete thought – –

subject verb

2. Must be totally accurate

3. Must have new information (not literally from text) 4. Must make sense 5. Must contain useful information 6. Must be in your own words 7. Only one general statement per paragraph is allowed 70

Paraphrasing Verbal Rehearsal

Student’s Name:

Attempts Steps

1

2

3

4

5

6

Read a paragraph Ask what you need Put the main idea and details into your own words Percentage correct

%

%

%

%

%

%

Date

71

Number the Stars



Introduction Lois Lowry, author of "Number the Stars" begins her novel in Denmark in the year 1943. World War II is now into its fourth year and the Nazi military has occupied Denmark for three of them. The Danish Jews are about to be arrested and the Danish Resistance is determined to smuggle their Jewish countrymen to the safety of Sweden. The history behind these and other events Lowry mentions in her novel.

72

Alignment to KCAS Novel: Number the Stars by Lois Lowry Standards Based Unit of Study (SBUS): Materials for instruction and assessment activity Students will use comprehension strategies (e.g., using prior knowledge, predicting, generating clarifying, literal and inferential questions, constructing sensory images, locating and using text features) while reading, listening to, or viewing literary and informational texts

Text from “Number the Stars” Why Are You Running? Chapter 1 “I’ll race you to the corner, Ellen!” Annemarie adjusted the thick leather pack on her back so that her schoolbooks balanced evenly. “Ready?” She looked at her best friend. Ellen made a face. “No,” she said, laughing “You know I can’t beat you — my legs aren’t as long. Can’t we just walk, like civilized people?” She was a stocky ten-year-old, unlike lanky Annemarie. “We have to practice for the athletic meet on Friday — I know I’m going to win the girls’ race this week. I was second last week, but I’ve been practicing everyday. Come on, Ellen,” Annemarie pleaded, eyeing the distance to the next corner of the Copenhagen street. “Please?” Ellen hesitated, then nodded and shifted her own rucksack of books against her shoulders. “Oh, all right. Ready,” she said. “Go!” shouted Annemarie, and the two girls were off, racing along - the residential sidewalk. Annemarie’s silvery blond hair flew behind her, and Ellen’s dark pigtails bounced against her shoulders. “Wait for me!” wailed little Kirsti, left behind, but the two older girls weren’t listening. Annemarie outdistanced her friend quickly, even though one of her shoes came untied as she sped along the street called Osterbrogade, past the small shops and cafés of her neighborhood here in northeast Copenhagen. Laughing, she skirted an elderly lady in black who carried a shopping bag made of string. A young woman pushing a baby in a carriage moved aside to make way. The corner was just ahead. Annemarie looked up, panting, just as she reached the corner. Her laughter stopped. Her heart seemed to skip a beat. “Halte!” the soldier ordered in a stern voice. The German word was as familiar as it was frightening. Annemarie had heard it often enough before, but it had never been directed at her until now.

Students will make predictions, draw conclusions, make generalizations or make inferences based on what is read.

Reader Response I wonder: I predict:

My conclusions: My inference:

73

Alignment to KCAS http://www.kimskorner4teachertalk.com

Students will demonstrate understanding of literary elements and literary passages/texts: a) identify characteristics of different types of literary texts (e.g., stories, poems, plays, folktales, historical fiction, realistic fiction, mysteries, science fiction, myths, legends)

Students will identify or explain the use of literary elements (e.g., characterization, setting, plot, theme, point of view) in a passage.

Students will identify and describe characteristics of short stories, novels, poetry or plays.

b) identify and explain the main idea of a passage Students will identify or explain the main idea of a passage. Co-construct visual organizer to support understanding of literary elements.

74

Integrate Unit and Lesson Organizer

75

76

Can Alph Pull Through? 6th Grade

Now and at the Hour by Robert Cormier Reviewed by Graham

Published in:

1970

Length:

149 pages

Ranking (1-10): 1

F

Genre:

Fiction

Age:

Young Adult

77

What would you do if one day pain flooded through your body out of nowhere and you couldn't make it stop? Alph LeBlanc has worked all his life to provide for his family. In his old age he gets cancer and a tumor in his arm. At first he thinks it will go away eventually but he soon realizes that he's dying and he isn't going to get better. His son s and daughters come and visit him consistently and he loves spending time with them but only one of them he really enjoys having be his nurse. Susan's touch soothes Alph's pain and when she¹s gone all he does is wait for her return. As days go by Alph gets worse and worse. He can't get out of bed and it's difficult for him to talk. The minister comes a couple of times and listens to his confessions like, "I turned my back on god. . . . .," but when he leaves Alph feels worse than he did before the visit. Alph doesn't want to die and he's puzzled with that because he's a dedicated Christian and he was always taught that he would go to heaven and be better off there. He finally understands what he has to do but he's to sick and unhealthy to do anything about it. He remembers how he could never treat his kids to the good life and they were always fairly poor. Now as he is going to die he realizes that he won¹t be able to leave them with anything when he dies either. This book was horrible and I don't recommend it to anyone. On a scale from 110 (with 10 being the best) I give it a 1. It drags on and on without ever being exciting or fun to read. I do however recommend Robert Cormier's other books like The Chocolate War, Beyond the Chocolate War, 8 Plus 1, and others you will find in the link. 78

79

80

81

Number the Stars Chapter 1: Why Are You Running? “I’ll race you to the corner, Ellen!” Annemarie adjusted the thick leather pack on her back so that her schoolbooks balanced evenly. “Ready?” She looked at her best friend. Ellen made a face. “No,” she said, laughing “You know I can’t beat you — my legs aren’t as long. Can’t we just walk, like civilized people?” She was a stocky ten-year-old, unlike lanky Annemarie. “We have to practice for the athletic meet on Friday — I know I’m going to win the girls’ race this week. I was second last week, but I’ve been practicing everyday. Come on, Ellen,” Annemarie pleaded, eyeing the distance to the next corner of the Copenhagen street. “Please?” Ellen hesitated, then nodded and shifted her own rucksack of books against her shoulders. “Oh, all right. Ready,” she said. “Go!” shouted Annemarie, and the two girls were off, racing along - the residential sidewalk. Annemarie’s silvery blond hair flew behind her, and Ellen’s dark pigtails bounced against her shoulders. “Wait for me!” wailed little Kirsti, left behind, but the two older girls weren’t listening. Annemarie outdistanced her friend quickly, even though one of her shoes came untied as she sped along the street called Osterbrogade, past the small shops and cafés of her neighborhood here in northeast Copenhagen. Laughing, she skirted an elderly lady in black who carried a shopping bag made of string. A young woman pushing a baby in a carriage moved aside to make way. The corner was just ahead. Annemarie looked up, panting, just as she reached the corner. Her laughter stopped. Her heart seemed to skip a beat. “Halte!” the soldier ordered in a stern voice.

82

Number the Stars Chapter 1: Why Are You Running? “I’ll race you to the corner, Ellen!” Annemarie adjusted the thick leather pack on her back so that her schoolbooks balanced evenly. “Ready?” She looked at her best friend. Ellen made a face. “No,” she said, laughing “You know I can’t beat you — my legs aren’t as long. Can’t we just walk, like civilized people?” She was a stocky ten-year-old, unlike lanky Annemarie. “We have to practice for the athletic meet on Friday — I know I’m going to win the girls’ race this week. I was second last week, but I’ve been practicing everyday. Come on, Ellen,” Annemarie pleaded, eyeing the distance to the next corner of the Copenhagen street. “Please?” Ellen hesitated, then nodded and shifted her own rucksack of books against her shoulders. “Oh, all right. Ready,” she said. “Go!” shouted Annemarie, and the two girls were off, racing along - the residential sidewalk. Annemarie’s silvery blond hair flew behind her, and Ellen’s dark pigtails bounced against her shoulders. “Wait for me!” wailed little Kirsti, left behind, but the two older girls weren’t listening. Annemarie outdistanced her friend quickly, even though one of her shoes came untied as she sped along the street called Osterbrogade, past the small shops and cafés of her neighborhood here in northeast Copenhagen. Laughing, she skirted an elderly lady in black who carried a shopping bag made of string. A young woman pushing a baby in a carriage moved aside to make way. The corner was just ahead. Annemarie looked up, panting, just as she reached the corner. Her laughter stopped. Her heart seemed to skip a beat. “Halte!” the soldier ordered in a stern voice.

83

Reading Writing Connections

When your teaching strategy is When your teaching strategy is Text/Discussion …use these Lecture…use these modifications modifications • Provide an outline • Color code, highlight main ideas • Use visuals while direct • Provide vocabulary supports instruction • Provide incomplete outlines • Color coding (CLOZE) • *, !, ?, = INSERT • Guided reading in smaller groups with students reading different • Graphic Organizers articles • Graphs, charts, model, • Highlight on the board for demonstration discussion reference; Ask ?’s Discussion • Pair/ share before whole class Independent Seat • Margin Notes 84

THINKING ABOUT ON-GOING ASSESSMENT STUDENT DATA SOURCES 1. 2. 3.

Xx Yy Zz

TEACHER DATA MECHANISMS 1. Xx 2. Yy 3. Zz

85

www.wi-rsn.org

THINKING ABOUT ON-GOING ASSESSMENT STUDENT DATA SOURCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Journal entry Short answer test Open response test Home learning Notebook Oral response Portfolio entry Exhibition Culminating product Question writing Problem solving

TEACHER DATA MECHANISMS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Anecdotal records Observation by checklist Skills checklist Class discussion Small group interaction Teacher – student conference Assessment stations Exit cards Problem posing Performance tasks and rubrics

86

www.wi-rsn.org

Writing Games

Independent clause, CC, I

subject subject verb verb

I,cI

SS VV I;I

Independent clause; Independent clause 87

Technology and Writing

88

Reading-Writing Connection: Find the students do this Main Idea Have with their own writing collaboratively in pairs/groups

Read each paragraph Put a line under the main idea Tell your partner why you picked that sentence Max’s little sister can be a pest. For example, yesterday she drew all over his homework with marking pens. While he was at school, she messed up the puzzle he had been working on for days. Then at dinner, she knocked her glass of milk over and it landed in his lap. Evan-Moore Corp, 1997

Reading-Writing Connection: What students do this Doesn’t Belong? Have with their own writing collaboratively in pairs/groups

Good Friends Emily and Tonya are good friends. They play games, ride their bikes, and go to the park together. Tonya’s dog can run very fast. Emily and Tonya ride the bus to school together. They spend the night at each other’s houses.

Evan-Moore Corp, 1997

Reading-Writing Connection: Have students do this their own writing Paragraph Sequencingwith collaboratively in pairs/groups

Place the following sentences in the correct sequence • For supper, she had lasagna and salad • Pamela had three good meals on Monday • For breakfast, she had pancakes • Pamela did not go to bed hungry on Monday • For breakfast, she had pancakes • For lunch, she had a cheeseburger and fries

Technology and Writing New Common Core Connection • Production and Distribution of Writing – Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting.

• Research to Build and Present Knowledge – Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources.

New Groupings • Amy, Teresa, Scott, Linda, Kathy • Whitney, Heather, Leslie, Freda • Michelle, Steve, Mary, Karen

Technology and Writing Common Tools What are some ways that you have been using technology to enhance writing in your own classroom?

Technology and Writing Common Tools • Digital Narratives and Essays • Wikis • Blogs

Digital Narratives and Essays • Digital narratives and essays – Involves storyboards and/or scripts – Presents information using still images, video, audio, music, and voice – Includes fiction or nonfiction material

Wilber, 2010

Digital Narratives and Essays • Purpose – Planning (storyboarding), demonstrate content understanding, response prompt

• Components – Voice, video, images, music, text

• Tools – i movie, movie maker, powerpoint, photostory 3

• Groupings – Working alone, collaboration within the classroom

Digital Narratives and Essays Practical Classroom Use • Demonstrate understanding of a concept. • Engage reluctant writers. • Enrich advanced writing.

Sample of persuasive digital essay recycling storyboard.

Sample of persuasive digital essay.

Digital Narratives and Essays • Look at the sample FRAMEs you have been provided. – How could these FRAMEs have been used in a digital narrative/essay format? – What would be the benefit of producing these FRAMEs in a digital narrative/essay format?

• What are some additional uses for digital narratives and essays?

Wikis • Wikis – A website that is a resource for information that is edited collaboratively

Wilber, 2010

Wikis • Purpose – Collaborative writing, purposeful writing, authentic writing

• Components – Webpage links, embedded video, images, documents

• Tools – Wikispaces, pbworks, mediawiki

• Groupings – Collaboration within and across classrooms, across schools

Wikis Practical Classroom Use • Collect information on a particular concept or topic. • Upload information and collaborate on projects.

Wikis • Look at the sample Concept Mastery Routine organizers you have been provided. – How could these concept mastery routine have been used in a wiki format? – What would be the benefit of producing these concept mastery routine organizers in a wiki format?

• What are some additional uses for wikis?

Blogs • Blogs – A website that is written by one or more people. Posts are listed in reverse chronological order with the newest posts listed first.

Wilber, 2010

Blogs • Purpose – Collaborative writing, purposeful writing, authentic writing

• Components – link, images, videos, documents

• Tools – Edublogs, blogger, class blogmeister

• Groupings – Collaboration across classrooms, across schools

Blogs Practical Classroom Use • Literature circles across classrooms and/or schools. • Essay draft posts, peer comments (small groups) within classrooms, across schools.

Robb, 2010

Blogs • What are some additional uses for blogs?

Writing Games New Common Core Connection • Production and Distribution of Writing – Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)

Writing Games • Snakes and Ladders (Rinvolucri, 1984; Sion, 1984) • Dominoes (Rinvolucri, 1984; Davis, ND)

Snakes and Ladders • • • •

Grammar: Verb tense and use of for/since Level: Intermediate Time: 30 minutes Materials: One board per four students One die per four students • Objective: To correct the verb tense or use of for/since in sentences in order to advance in the game

Dominoes • • • •

Grammar: Word-building: prefixes and suffixes Level: Intermediate Time: 15 minutes Materials: One set of 56 dominoes per three to six students • Objective: To create words by combining base words with prefixes and suffixes