Ei 2280 - National Park Service

Ei 2280 - National Park Service

Ei 2280 NPS Form 10-900 (Oct. 1990) United States Department of the Interior National Park Service APR 0 5 2013 National Register of Historic Plac...

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Ei 2280

NPS Form 10-900 (Oct. 1990)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

APR 0 5 2013

National Register of Historic Places Registration Form

NAT. REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES NATIONAL PARK SERVICE

This form is for use in nominating or requesting determinations for individual properties and districts. See instructions in ow to omp e e e ationa/ Register of Historic Places Registration Form (National Register Bulletin 16A). Complete each item by marking "x" in the appropriate box or by entering the information requested. If an item does not apply to the property being documented, enter "N/A" for "not applicable." For functions, architectural classification, materials, and areas of significance , enter only categories and subcategories from the instructions . Place additional entries and narrative items on continuation sheets (NPS Form 10-900a). Use a typewriter, word processor, or computer to complete all items.

1. Name of Property

"""'""ic""a"n'a=-.!S~t~o:.:::c~k'""F'-'arm~~------------------historic name ---------~H'""'urr

Sanford Stud Farm

other names/site number

2. Location te:....;3:: . .0~-----------------u= =o-= street & number _ _R

[]

city or town _ _ __ __._An=l""St.,e~rd~am~----------------- [ state

New York

code

NY

county

]

not for publication vicinity

"'" .: .cg,.,.o""'m'""'e""'r-y'--_ __ _ code ----'0"-"5'--'-7- zip code 12010 -'-"'-"'ont ---=M

3. State/Federal Agency Certification As the designated authority under the National Historic Preservation Act, as amended, I hereby certify that this [X] nomination [ ] request for determination of eligibility meets the documentation standards for registering properties in the National Register of Historic Places and meets the procedural and professional requirements as set forth in 36 CFR Part 60. In my opinion, the property [X] meets [ ] does not meet the National Register criteria. I recommend that this property be considered significant [ ] nationally [ 1 sta~wide [X] locally. ([ ] see continuation sheet for additional comments.)

I~

-

New York State Office of Parks Recreation & Historic Preservation State or Federal agency and bureau In my opinion, the property [ ] meets [ ] does not meet the National Register criteria. ([ ] see continuation sheet for additional comments.)

Signature of certifying officiai!Title

Date

State or Federal agency and bureau

I Park Service Certification date of action entered in

t~e

National Register

[ ]see continuation sheet

[ 1determined eligible for the National Register [ ] see continuation sheet [ ] determined not eligible for the National Register [ ] removed from the National Register [ ] other (explain)---- - - - -- - --

). 2. <. ·l

Hurricana Stock Farm

Montgomery, New York

Name of Property

County and State

5. Classification Ownership of Property

Category of Property

Number of Resources within Property

(check as many boxes as apply)

(Check only one box)

(Do not include previously listed resources in the count)

[X] building(s) [ ] district [ ] site [ ] structure [ ] object

Contributing

[X] private [X] public-local [ ] public-State [ ] public-Federal

Noncontributing

22

1

1 1

23 Name of related multiple property listing (Enter “N/A” if property is not part of a multiple property listing)

Number of contributing resources previously listed in the National Register

N/A

N/A

6. Function or Use Historic Functions

Current Functions

(enter categories from instructions)

(Enter categories from instructions)

AGRICULTURE/SUBSISTENCE/animal facility

VACANT/NOT IN USE

AGRICULTURE/SUBSISTENCE/agricultural outbuilding 7. Description Architectural Classification

Materials

(Enter categories from instructions)

(Enter categories from instructions)

NO STYLE

buildings sites structures objects TOTAL

foundation stone, concrete walls wood

roof slate, metal, asphalt shingle other

Hurricana Stock Farm

Montgomery, New York

Name of Property

County and State

8. Statement of Significance Applicable National Register Criteria

Areas of Significance:

(Mark “x” in one or more boxes for the criteria qualifying the property for National Register listing.)

(Enter categories from instructions)

Agriculture [X] A

Property associated with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history.

[ ]B

Property is associated with the lives of persons significant in our past.

[X] C

Property embodies the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction or that represents the work of a master, or possesses high artistic values, or represents a significant and distinguishable entity whose components lack individual distinction.

[ ]D

Property has yielded, or is likely to yield, information important in prehistory or history.

Architecture

Period of Significance:

1880-ca.1960

Significant Dates:

1880, 1895, 1913, 1920, 1939 Criteria Considerations (Mark “x” in all boxes that apply.)

[ ]A

owned by a religious institution or used for religious purposes.

[ ]B

removed from its original location

[ ]C

a birthplace or grave

[ ]D

a cemetery

[ ]E

a reconstructed building, object, or structure

[ ]F

a commemorative property

[ ]G

less than 50 years of age or achieved significance within the past 50 years

Significant Persons:

N/A

Cultural Affiliation:

N/A Architect/Builder:

unknown Narrative Statement of Significance 9. Major Bibliographical References Previous documentation on file (NPS): Primary location of additional data: [ ] preliminary determination of individual listing (36 CFR 67) [X] State Historic Preservation Office has been requested. [ ] previously listed in the National Register [ ] Other State agency [ ] previously determined eligible by the National Register [ ] Federal Agency [ ] designated a National Historic Landmark [ ] Local Government [ ] recorded by historic American Building Survey [ ] University [ ] Other repository: # [ ] recorded by Historic American Engineering Record # 10. Geographical Data

Hurricana Stock Farm

Montgomery, New York

Name of Property

County and State

Acreage of Property

123.99 acres

UTM References (Place additional UTM references on a continuation sheet.)

1

| 1 | 8 | | 5| 6| 6| 8| 8| 3| Zone Easting

| 4| 7| 5| 7| 3| 3| 4| Northing

3

| 1 | 8 | | 5| 6| 7| 0| 3| 0| Zone Easting

| 4| 7| 5| 7| 1| 1| 7 Northing

2 | 1 | 8 | | 5| 6| 6| 9| 1| 5| | 4| 7| 5| 7| 2| 9| 3| *SEE MAP FOR ADDITIONAL UTMs Verbal Boundary Description

4

| 1 | 8 | | 5| 6| 7| 1| 4| 0|

| 4| 7| 5| 6| 8| 0| 0

Please refer to attached map Boundary Justification 11. Form Prepared By name/title Jessie A. Ravage organization Preservation Consultant

date

10 January 2013

street & number 34 Delaware St

telephone 607-547-9507

city or town Cooperstown

state

NY

zip code 13326

Additional Documentation Submit the following items with the completed form:

Continuation Sheets Maps A Sketch map for historic districts and properties having large acreage or numerous resources. Photographs

Additional items (Check with SHPO or FPO for any additional items)

Property Owner (Complete this item at the request of the SHPO or FPO) name

Multiple

street & number

telephone

city or town

state

zip code

Paperwork Reduction Act Statement: This information is being collected for applications to the National Register of Historic Places to nominate properties for listing or determine eligibility for listing, to list properties, and to amend existing listings. Response to this request is required to obtain a benefit in accordance with the National Historic Preservation Act, as amended (16 U.S.C. 470 et seq.) Estimated Burden Statement: public reporting burden for this form is estimated to average 18.1 hours per response including time for reviewing instructions, gathering and maintaining data, and completing and reviewing the form. Direct comments regarding this burden estimate or any aspect of this form to the Chief, Administrative Services Division, National Park Service, P.O. Box 37127, Washington, D.C. 20503

OMB No. 1024-0018

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property

Section

7

Page

1

Montgomery, New York County and State

Narrative Description of Property Summary The stock farm known from 1880 until 1931 as Hurricana Stock Farm and thereafter as the Sanford Stud Farm is located in the Town of Amsterdam on the plateau overlooking the Mohawk Valley. The property nominated here encompasses four tax parcels (39.-5-5.1; 39.-5-6; 39.-5-9; 39.12-2-13) encompassing 126.41 acres of the historic property. This nomination comprises 22 historic-period buildings and 1 structure, all contributing, and one recently built commercial building. At it greatest extent, Hurricana spanned approximately 800 contiguous acres and possibly as much as 200 additional non–contiguous acres in the Town and City of Amsterdam. This nomination includes land and buildings east of NY 30, south of Miami Avenue, west of Locust Avenue, and north of Sunset Road. This boundary encompasses the surviving Hurricana buildings and the open land context that once characterized the larger farm property. Beyond this boundary, commercial subdivision facing onto NY 30 and Wallins Corners Rd now occupies land once part of Hurricana. The south boundary parallels the back lines of house lots subdivided and developed soon after World War II, when land on that boundary was sold from the farm. The adjacent portion of the ravine flanking Bunn Creek and the wooded land east of the watercourse, all bounded southerly by land owned by the City of Amsterdam, is also part of this nomination. Several Hurricana buildings stand within the nomination boundary. These include the very prominent Broodmare Barn and a section of the Jumping Horse Barn, both visible from NY 30. One of the numerous small, frame triangular feed storage shed stands in the northwest corner of the yard enclosed by the two buildings. In addition, one of the small mare barns was moved to the area adjacent to these two barns. A second, more numerous group of buildings belonging to the farm, stands about 300 yards east of the those near NY 30. These include a gambrel–roofed basement barn, a single–story barn, a blacksmith’s shop, two small buildings of unknown purpose, and eleven more mare barns. Ten of these stand on the east side of the old South Lane, adjoining open and partially open land running east from them. The last one stands in its original location at the east end of the East–West Lane, which once ran along the south side of the three–quarter–mile training track. Until ca.1990, a row of twelve stone monuments commemorating Hurricana Thoroughbred champions and one Percheron stallion stood in a line facing NY 30 near the Broodmare Barn. These have since been dismantled. Building List Broodmare barn (built 1880–81; training ring and east entrance added, ca.1895–1914; kitchen added by 1900; upstairs dormitory addition added ca.1914; contributing): The frame Broodmare Barn, as it has been called for the past sixty years or more, has also been known as the stock barn (ca.1880) and the racehorse barn (ca.1895). It is composed of a long, narrow main block measuring 46 x 180 feet, one–story additions on the east and west gable ends, and a two–story addition centered on the north eave wall. The exterior is clad in novelty siding with an eight–inch reveal and shallow cove, secured with cut nails, which were later reinforced with wire nails. The east and west additions also have novelty wood siding, but with a narrower five–inch reveal. The north addition has wood shingle siding. The building rests on a mortared foundation of rough cut limestone blocks

OMB No. 1024-0018

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property

Section

7

Page

2

Montgomery, New York County and State

randomly laid up. It has a new roof replacing the original metal roof; the eaves are encased in the same material. The main block of the barn rises an imposing two stories in height, and its ridgeline is capped by a tall, fairly wide clerestory running its length. Twenty windows, each with six–over–six wood sash, are evenly spaced on each side of the clerestory. These forty operational openings allow ventilation and light into the center aisle. There are two additional windows in each end wall of the clerestory; these are flanked by louvered shutters painted green. This section bears a strong resemblance to a mill building of the period with its tall, narrow profile, shallow gabled roof, and clerestory with its regular fenestration. The interior walls of the main block are clad in neatly fitted, smoothly finished horizontally laid up boards. These are painted dark brown up to the top edge of the stall doors and white above, both inside the stalls and along the aisle. The aisle has an asphalt floor, which covers the hard–packed clay floor still forming the floors of the thirteen box stalls, each measuring 12 x 16 feet. The wood stall doors open out into the aisle and are secured with sliding wooden latches. The open space above each door can be closed with a slatted sliding door. In a separate transom above the stall doors, there are solid sliding doors. Each stall has two four– light sash set high on the exterior wall. At the east end of the stable block, large paired doors with barred sections in their top panel can close the aisle from the later–added training ring. The tack room is located at the middle of the north row of stalls. A large brick chimney, located in its southeast corner, projects above the roof of the entire building. This room has walls clad in even width boards and doors made of diagonally laid up boards. It no longer has an outside wall, as the kitchen now adjoins its north side, but a single window with double–hung, six–over–six sash allows filtered light from the kitchen to dimly light the tack room. The enclosed stair to the dormitory ascends the far side of the west wall and is reached through a narrow door in the west wall. A fourteenth stall, located near the middle of the south side, was converted into an apothecary’s room for a veterinarian’s use by the early 1890s. The walls in this room are neatly covered in painted galvanized iron, and the older stall gate was replaced with a solid wood door. A small window is cut in the room’s west wall to allow the vet to observe mares in the adjacent birthing stall. The veterinarian’s room and the birthing stall are both heated by cast iron radiators placed high on the walls and supplied by an insulated pipe crossing high above the aisle from the boiler located in the chamber east of the tack room. Adjoining the tack room on the east side are a furnace room and another room housing an oat crushing machine once used to make feed. These rooms were first designed as stalls, bringing the original number of stalls to seventeen. Above the stalls and flanking the aisle, a hay mow runs the length of the south side of the main block. Three compartments fill the same space on the north side. The central section of that space now forms part of the men’s dormitory, which was added in the 1910s. At the east end, there was oat storage above the crusher. At the west end, trunks for packing tack and other paraphernalia used for travel were stored. These compartments are accessed from inside via simple wood ladders scaling the walls to doors made of vertically laid up boards. In addition to the interior doors, there are three single–width doors made of vertical boards hung on patent hinges at intervals on the south side and two more on the north side. In the end walls of each chamber are two additional openings: three have six–over–six sash while those in the northeast chamber have doors of vertical boards hung on patent hinges.

OMB No. 1024-0018

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property

Section

7

Page

3

Montgomery, New York County and State

The single–story east entrance and the small training wing at the west end of the main block have similarly sized and configured footprints forming seven sides of a dodecagon, or 12–sided figure. Both additions are centered on their respective adjacent walls and rest on mortared stone foundations made of random cut local limestone. The training ring foundation is recently rebuilt with a concrete water table and is banked towards the main block. The ring is lit by single windows with plain casings and six–over–six wood sash flanked by louvered shutters, one centered in each wall section except the west wall. That wall has paired doors of diagonally laid boards. The east entrance is similarly lit; in addition to the paired doors, each with three small lights spanning the center panel, in the east end wall, there is a narrow door in the adjacent southeast–facing wall. Both additions have low hipped roofs. Inside, each addition encloses a single large room. The large wood–shingled kitchen and dormitory addition projects from the center of the north wall of the main block. Based on historic photographs, the first floor was later topped by the upper story, which has a shallow–pitched flat roof. A small, single–story, flat–roofed addition adjoins the corner formed by the east wall of the addition and north wall of the main block. The regular fenestration uses windows with plain casings and six–over–six wood sash throughout. The Greek Revival door casing with extended architraves applied to the north exterior entrance to the kitchen is not part of the original scheme: it was removed from the back ell of the farm manager’s house before it fell in a few years ago. The kitchen occupies the eastern two–thirds of the first floor and is entered via a door from the tack room. The room is finished with painted beadboard walls and ceiling and wood plank floor. Painted cupboards, also made of beadboard, are built on the south wall flanking a door opening onto the pantry. Two bedrooms, one for the trainer and one for the cooks, occupy the western third of the main floor. These are similarly finished with closets made of painted beadboard. The upstairs dormitory is reached by the enclosed staircase entered from the tack room. A wind at the bottom immediately turns the staircase to ascend steeply southwards on very shallow, very worn treads. The dormitory has rows of shellacked beadboard closets on the west and south walls of the two chambers, which are divided by a single high step running the width of the room. The breedmaster’s bedroom occupies the west section of the upper story. Its finishes are similar to the bedrooms below. Jumping horse barn (built ca.1920; south half demolished, DATE; contributing): The jumping horse barn is a long, narrow, gable–roofed, frame building. Its ridge runs north–south, and it has a slate roof. The building retains raking cornices and novelty siding of similar dimension and profile to that on the east and west additions on the Broodmare Barn secured with wire nails. The barn rests on a poured concrete foundation. A gabled dormer with a projecting beam in the peak breaks the roofline and provides access to the low mow through paired doors of vertically laid up boards. This is centered over the northernmost of three evenly spaced doors in the facade. The Jumping Horse Barn has a single aisle running the length of the east wall of the barn. This is lit by sets of five evenly spaced windows with four–light wood sash alternating with three wide doorways. Each of these had a door made of vertical boards hung on sliders mounted on the inside wall of the building. Eight of the original sixteen box stalls remain. These run along the west wall of the building, and large wood sliding doors with mesh panels in their upper sections open onto the aisle. The aisle has an asphalt floor, and the stalls have packed clay floors. The walls of the stalls are smoothly clad in cherry boards, while the door casings are made of a more deeply grained wood, possibly oak or chestnut. Each stall is lit by a single west–facing window

OMB No. 1024-0018

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property

Section

7

Page

4

Montgomery, New York County and State

with a four–light wood sash, set high in the wall. The aisle walls are painted white. Small wood medicine chests meant for the individual horses in each stall are mounted to the adjacent wall on the aisle. The south half (and mirror image) of the Jumping Horse Barn was removed in 1992. The sliding door in the south gable wall opening onto the aisle was probably added at that time. Feed shed (built ca.1895; contributing): The feed shed, one of many once at Hurricana, is a small (about eight feet on a side) frame building with a triangular footprint and frontal–gable façade. The side walls have board– and–batten siding and a fairly wide raking cornice. A single–width door of vertically laid up boards is placed asymmetrically in the front wall. The shed has a slate roof. Mare barn (built ca.1885, moved ca.2000; contributing): The mare barn now standing southeast of the Broodmare Barn and east of the Jumping Horse Barn was moved from the East–West Lane, where its eave walls originally faced north and south. The narrow, side–gabled building has a steeply pitched slate roof. A gable dormer, which breaks the eaveline, is centered on the front (now east) roof face. A beam with a large hook projects from the peak above for loading the small mow above. Two large sliding doors made up of vertical boards are located in the opposite long wall (now facing west). These open into the corners of identical stalls, each occupying half of the building. These are lit by a pair of closely spaced windows with four–light sash adjacent to the doors, as well as two additional windows in each gable wall and four more, two per stall, on the other long wall. The barn has board–and–batten siding with fairly wide battens and raking cornices. It now rests on a poured concrete slab. Farm barn (built ca.1890–1905; contributing): The Farm Barn is a substantial frame barn with a high gambrel roof clad in slate. Its walls have wood novelty siding and fairly wide raking boards at the roofline. It rests on a low, level limestone foundation. It has wide paired doors each composed of paired panels of diagonally laid up beadboard with chamfered rails and stiles centered in the long eave walls. Each is protected by a pent roof with two faces, mimicking the gambrel roof of the building. On the east wall, these are flanked by narrower doors matching the main ones. These are surmounted by transoms. Another slightly wider door opens in the west wall north of the large main doors. On this side, a gambrel–roofed dormer window is centered in the roof above the main door. On the west side, there are three more such dormers evenly spaced across the roof. These have six–over–six wood sash, through which can be seen the trusses holding up the roof. The windows provide light and decorative finish. On the main floor, there are six evenly spaced, small, four–light wood sash on the south wall and four similar windows in the north wall. There are additional single windows adjacent on the eave walls. The fenestration of the main floor shows that the mow was loaded from the central floor on the main level of the barn, the horses drawing the wagons in and then continuing out the other door. The mows are above stalls lining both end walls, which are marked by the small high windows. There are additional single– width doors in the end walls in the upper story, the construction and hinges of these doors differs from the handsome finish of those on the main floor, and they are probably later additions. Paired windows with gambrel heads matching the roof are located in each peak. The roof is capped by an unusually large louvered ventilator with a diminutive gambrel roof mimicking the proportions of the main roof. All roof surfaces including the dormers are covered in slates. Blacksmith’s shop (built ca.1893, contributing): The blacksmith shop is a small, frontal–gable frame building with a steeply peaked roof. Its ridgeline runs east–west, and its foundation is reinforced with concrete that hides the original appearance. The board–and–batten siding and raking cornice boards match the finishes of the

OMB No. 1024-0018

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property

Section

7

Page

5

Montgomery, New York County and State

mare barns on the East–West Lane and two additional ones opposite the Farm Barn and associated buildings. A brick chimney pokes through the north face of the slate roof. The shop has several windows, including one with six–over–six sash set asymmetrically in the west wall, and ones set high in the wall with four–light sash. The entrance is centered in the east gable wall, and a second door is centered in the south eave wall. East of this is another large window with six–over–six sash. Tool and horse barn (built ca.1910, contributing): This single–story, frame building has low, broad proportions unlike every other surviving Hurricana building. Its fairly steep gabled slate roof is oriented east– west and has a small brick interior chimney at the east end. The building retains wood novelty siding similar in scale and profile to that on the Jumping Horse barn and the Farm Barn. It is trimmed with cornerboards and raking friezeboards and rests on a poured concrete foundation. Paired doors made up of vertical boards are hung on sliders mounted to the exterior walls. Small windows with four–light wood sash are set high and evenly in the walls of the main floor. A pair of additional such windows is placed in each peak. Garage (built ca.1915, contributing): This single–bay, gable–roofed, frame garage with a concrete foundation, wood novelty siding, and a slate roof stands east of the Farm Barn and north of the east end of the old East– West Lane. Its ridge is aligned north–south, and there is an upward sliding door in the north gable wall. Shed (built ca.1900, contributing): This small, single–story outbuilding stands about 50 feet west of the last remaining Mare Barn on the East–West Lane. Its ridge runs north and it has a single door in the north gable end. It has no windows. It is clad in pressed mineral shingles and has a slate roof. The building rests on a high poured concrete foundation. Its use is unknown. Shed (built ca.1900, contributing): This small shed–roofed frame stands at northwest corner of shed listed just above. Its use is unknown. Mare barn (built ca.1893, contributing): This mare barn matches the one moved to its site near the Broodmare and Jumping Horse barns. It, however, remains in its original location, where it was the easternmost of the mare barns on the south side of the East–West Lane. Two long paddocks once extended south from this building. It appears to rest on a poured concrete slab. South Lane mare barns: (built 1890-95,ten contributing buildings) The South Lane runs north–south east of the Farm Barn and the recently built Tessiero Drive, which makes an L through the property. Ten small steeply gabled mare barns face onto the east side of the lane. Their ridges run east–west, and their west gable walls adjoin the lane, or, as in the case of those east and north of the Farm Barn. All share the same interior plan of two large box stalls divided by a solid, north–south wall and sliding doors in the north and south eave walls, one in each stall. The larger exterior spatial arrangement of long narrow paddocks running east from the barns, two per barn divided by wood fences, is lost. Fencing adjoining the lane also connected the barns: remnants of this part of the enclosure system survives adjacent to barns north of the former East–West Lane. The South Lane mare barns appear to have been built in two groups. The seven south of East–West Lane and the most northerly one are slightly larger than two older, more deteriorated ones partially hidden by mature pine trees opposite the Farm Barn. These eight barns (built ca.1895) have slightly narrower battens over the vertical board siding, and the corners of the battens have been softened. These eight barns have slate roofs. The two smaller barns (built ca.1890) have deteriorated wood shingle roofs and slightly wider, lower profile

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property

Section

7

Page

6

Montgomery, New York County and State

battens similar to those on the mare barns from the East–West Lane. The slightly rounded corners of their raking cornice boards match the finish of the battens. The generally upright appearance of the buildings suggests that their frames are protected from the damp earth below, but the foundations of all of these barns are hidden by the surrounding grass. Trainer’s House (5031 NY 30) (built ca.1920, contributing): This two–story, T–plan frame house stands on a separate, but adjacent, property at the southwest corner of the remaining acreage. The three–bay main block is a single room deep and has a steeply pitched slate roof. The asymmetrically placed, slightly recessed entrance has sidelights and transom lights. A large, Queen Anne–style window is located in the north half of the first floor front façade. The ridgeline of the two–story back ell is the same height as the main block roof. Fenestration is not entirely regular with single, double, and tripled openings, but all openings are the same size and now have vinyl one–over–one replacement sash. A second entrance is located on the south eave wall of the ell. These are matched by windows in the main block except for round–arched windows in the attic peak, which retain wood six–light upper sash. An open porch with fluted Tuscan columns, tripled at the corners, spans the front façade. This rests on a low brick wall. The house itself is set on a stone foundation. A second, frontal–gable entrance porch with slender Tuscan columns covers the south entrance. There are two chimneys. An exterior chimney made of rough, dark red brick rises on the north gable end of the main block. A small brick chimney, possible for a range and a furnace, pokes through the roof of the ell. The house now has vinyl siding. Outbuilding with Trainer’s house (built ca.1920, contributing): Two–level, hip–roofed outbuilding with wood novelty siding and asphalt shingle roof stands behind the house.

OMB No. 1024-0018

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property

Section

8

Page

1

Montgomery, New York County and State

Statement of Significance: Hurricana, or the Sanford Stud Farm, in the Town of Amsterdam, Montgomery County, New York, is eligible for the National Register of Historic Places under Criteria A in area agriculture as a significant site of Thoroughbred breeding and training in New York’s Mohawk Valley. Hurricana was begun as a stock farm for breed improvement in 1880 by Stephen Sanford (1831-1913), a carpet manufacturer of national renown from the Civil War period until his death in 1913. Sanford and his son John (1851-1939) were the first to successfully breed Thoroughbred horses in this section of the country. They did so by developing architectural and technological innovations to breed and train horses through the coldest parts of the year. The Sanfords raised a significant number of champion horses. After his father’s death, John Sanford took his stable to France. Another Amsterdam, New York, native, Hollie Hughes (1888-1981) became his trainer, and in 1920, when Sanford brought his horses home to Hurricana in Amsterdam, Hughes managed the enterprise. Hughes entered the National Racing Museum Hall of Fame at Saratoga Springs in 1973. The site is additionally eligible under Criteria C in the area of Architecture for its outstanding collection of distinctive buildings designed and constructed during the period 1880 through ca.1920. The buildings include the Broodmare Barn, half of Jumping Horse Barn, 12 mare barns (one recently moved to a different part of the property), the Farm Barn and its associated outbuildings, a small feed shed, and the smith shop. The nomination of Huriricana additionally includes over 100 acres of its open land context. A local period of significance has been established that begins in 1880, the date Stephen Sanford purchased the land and constructed the Broodmare Barn, to c.1950, when Hurricana’s lands began to significantly erode due to adjacent residential and commercial development. Sanford Family and the Carpet Mills of Amsterdam, New York Three generations of the Sanford family played roles in the development of Hurricana Stock Farm, as “General” Stephen Sanford (1826–1913) named it about 1880 for the steady wind on the high plateau overlooking the Mohawk Valley. His sons, John (1851–1939) and William C.[ochran] (1854–1896), introduced him to Thoroughbred racing about 1880. John’s son, Stephen “Laddie” Sanford (1899–1977) was the third and last generation to own the farm, which was sold after his death. Stephen Sanford was the eldest son of John (1803–1857) and Mary Slack Sanford (1803–1888). John Sanford was born in Roxbury, Connecticut, and he did not leave New England until 1821. While a very large New English outmigration had occurred between 1783 and about 1800, the Erie Canal, which was gradually opening and connecting the west with the Hudson River navigation in the early 1820s, offered considerable economic opportunity for a second wave of Yankees seeking industrial and commercial opportunity. Sanford began simply enough, teaching school in the Town of Mayfield, Fulton County, where he also ran a store. He met and married Mary Slack, and the couple had six children—three sons and three daughters—by 1836. The Sanfords moved to the Village of Amsterdam in 1840, where John opened a store and ran for election to the House of Representatives. He served a single term in the 41st Congress of the United States of America. Amsterdam, first known as Veddersburg, developed at the mouth of the North Chuctanunda Creek, where it empties into the Mohawk River. The creek rapidly descends nearly 800 feet from the high plateau to the north, thus providing a prodigious potential power source. This was enhanced by dams impounding a series of ponds and associated raceways to turn wheels and turbines not only the Village of Amsterdam, but also the

OMB No. 1024-0018

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property

Section

8

Page

2

Montgomery, New York County and State

Village of Hagamans and the hamlet of Harrowers, all located on the Chuctanunda. With access to the worldwide transportation network afforded by the Erie Canal, which was fully open by 1825, manufacturing on the Chuctanunda expanded rapidly. By 1836, the Utica and Schenectady Railroad paralleled the waterway. 1 While this road probably served passengers more than freight in its early years, it prefigured the approaching age of steam railways able to move large amounts of cargo. In the late 1830s, another enterprising Connecticut Yankee, William K. Greene, working as a bookkeeper in a Poughkeepsie silk mill, read an advertisement for a mill and associated dwelling house in Hagamans. He convinced his fellow boarder, a dyer named Douglas, to share the rent of $100, the cost of six looms, and the pay of two carpet weavers, William Perkins and William Wright. 2 They set up shop in Hagamans, until in the early 1840s, John Sanford offered Greene a partnership and the former site of Aaron Vedder’s saw mill on Market Hill. They sold their first production of ingrain carpet from this partnership in 1842. 3 When John first went into the carpet business, he was still a congressman and his eldest son, Stephen, was at Georgetown College in Washington, D.C. In March 1843, John concluded his last session of Congress. By then, Stephen had moved to the United States Military Academy at West Point, whence his father called him home in 1844 to help run the mill. 4 Four years later, Stephen became a partner in the business, having first learned the details of all parts of the manufacturing process. 5 That year his father remarked in a letter to his nephew Henry Shelton Sanford, a prominent diplomat, that Stephen was copying “high stile carpets” in “cheaper goods” to meet market demand. 6 In the winter of 1849, the Sanford and Greene mill burned, and Sanford sold his interest and the site to Greene. The latter entered the power knitting industry, while the Sanfords acquired a new site at the corner of Church and Prospect streets. At this location, John Sanford & Son installed 100 hand looms, a dozen three–ply ingrain carpet looms, and 28 tufted rug looms. 7 In 1853, the new mill burned to ground. John Sanford sold his interest in the incinerated mill to his son, who rebuilt the factory. Stephen bought cards for ingrain weaving from a shuttered Utica mill and added a spinning mill. 8 In addition to managing the new business, Stephen married Sarah Jane Cochrane (1830–1901) in December 1849. Their eldest son, John, was born in January 1851. A second son, William Cochrane arrived in July 1854. Three more sons—Henry Curtis (1859–1874), Charles Francis (1864–1882), and Stephen (1868– 1870)—followed. 9 In 1868, like his father before him, Stephen Sanford was elected to a term in Congress. Throughout this period, Stephen Sanford expanded the business. Before 1870, he was manufacturing pile carpets in New England under patent. During the 1870s, the mills in Amsterdam began producing Brussels 1 “Completion of the Utica and Schenectady Railroad,” Albany Evening Journal, 26 July 1836. http://www.threerivershms.com/utica– schenRR.htm 2 Hugh P. Donlon. Amsterdam, New York: Annals of a Mill Town in the Mohawk Valley. (Amsterdam, New York: Donlon Associates, 1980): 87. 3 Alex M. Robb. The Sanfords of Amsterdam: The Biography of a Family in Americana. (New York: William–Frederick Press, 1969): 22. 4 Robb, 28. 5 Hudson–Mohawk Genealogical and Family Memoirs: Sanford located at www.schenectadyhistory.org/families/mhgfm/sanford.html. 6 Robb, 29. 7 Robb, 30. 8 Robb, 36. 9 Hudson–Mohawk Genealogical and Family Memoirs.

OMB No. 1024-0018

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property

Section

8

Page

3

Montgomery, New York County and State

carpet. 10 An 1868 map shows Sanford’s dam impounding a large pond, head and tail races to supply and release the pond, and several buildings on either bank of the creek. The same plate also shows the J. Cornell dwelling just down the hill from the mill office on the opposite side of Church Street, adjacent to the elaborately planned rural Green Hill Cemetery. 11 Stephen Sanford purchased that house a year or two later. He sent the floor plan to his cousin Henry in April 1871, asking him to help furnish it. He wrote, “I neither know what I want nor what it will cost. I am fond of fine things and yet I do not wish to be extravagant.” 12 This single line suggests an earnest and careful man who had hitherto made little time for much beyond growing his business. During the 1890s, Stephen Sanford & Sons was among the first American manufacturers to add broad looms able to weave carpet in strips ten feet or more wide. They also added thick–piled Axminster carpet weaving to their production. 13 By the early twentieth century, he employed 2,500 people in a business manufacturing $3,000,000 worth of carpet a year. Stephen Sanford served on numerous local boards and in many civil, religious, and philanthropic organizations. His wife devoted much of her time to charitable endeavors until her death in March 1901. Several events seem to have led to Stephen broadening his interests beyond the mill during the 1870s. He and his wife lost their youngest child, an infant, in 1870. Two years later, their middle son died at Saint Russel’s School in New Haven, Connecticut. 14 During the same period, their eldest son, John, graduated from Yale in 1872. Like his father, he returned to Amsterdam to help manage the carpet mill. Also like his father, he worked in various departments before gaining partnership in 1874. Will followed a few years later. 15 The loss of two sons and the coming of age of two more surely changed the lives of the Sanford family and may have led Stephen to be more interested in his surviving children. Further, the acknowledged strain of his expanding business brought on dyspepsia. Sanford much later related that his physician told him that he should “buy a farm” to ease his ailment. 16 Buying a Farm Sanford’s physician’s proposed antidote for the industrialist’s overwork was characteristic of the time. From the period of the early republic and even earlier, wealthy American men took considerable interest in agricultural improvement. In the antebellum era, the nation’s largest output remained agricultural produce, and educated men treated agriculture as a form of industrial endeavor. Stock breeding, new implements, improved crop varieties, fertilizer, and many other aspects of enhancing agricultural production filled the letters of men like John Jay, James Fenimore Cooper, Thomas Jefferson, and many others. Agricultural pursuits marked the gentleman, and these individuals were often leaders in county agricultural societies and published letters and commentary about their successes and observations in the emerging agricultural press of the mid–1800s. 10

Robb, 43. Beach Nichols. Atlas of Montgomery and Fulton counties, New York [cartographic material] : from actual surveys / by and under the direction of B. Nichols, assisted by H.B. Stranahan [and others]. New York: J. Jay Stranahan and Beach Nichols, 1868 (Reprint: Churchville, N.Y. M. Wehle, 1978): pl.6. 12 Robb, 46. 13 Robb, 74. 14 Sanford family bible. Information provided by Londine Manigault via Louis F. Hildebrandtt, Jr. Saint Russel’s School does not appear to exist anymore, having disappeared leaving no traceable information on the Worldwide Web. 15 Robb, 48. 16 Louis F. Hildebrandt, Jr. Hurricana. Thoroughbred Dynasty, Amsterdam Landmark (Troy, N.Y.: Louis F. Hildebrandtt, 2009): 3. Hildebrandtt quotes from the speech Sanford presented to the Amsterdam Board of Trade in 1906. 11

OMB No. 1024-0018

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property

Section

8

Page

4

Montgomery, New York County and State

Many who earned fortunes in industry in the middle decades of the 1800s had grown up on farms, and both nostalgia for what seemed simpler times and the developing ethos of the American industrial class—which included developing rural estates—beckoned them towards agricultural improvement. With skills honed in mill and market, these men applied themselves to stock breeding and associated agrarian activities, especially in the post–Civil War period. This tendency was matched and encouraged in the political and economic environment of the time, when state and federal censuses enumerated in detail every farm’s output. The country estates of this new class of wealthy, often self–made, men dotted the landscape of rural New York. Unlike many such men, Stephen Sanford made his fortune in comparatively rural Mohawk Valley village rather than in a larger city. He had only to buy property on the outskirts of Amsterdam, now become a city, and travel a few miles from his mill each afternoon to assuage the strains of his busy life. 17 Beginning in 1880, he assembled Hurricana, which eventually comprised about 800 contiguous acres bounded mainly by NY 30 (a.k.a. Amsterdam and Fish House Plank Road, the Broadalbin Road, and the Perth Road), Wallins Corners Road (CR 15), Midline Road, and Locust Avenue. The first property, a farm bought from Alexander and Isabella McFarlan in October 1880 for $12,000, encompassed 100 acres adjacent to NY 30. 18 It had a Greek Revival farmhouse that Sanford retained, but if there were additional buildings, these were soon removed. Among Sanford’s earliest ventures was breeding Percheron horses to pull the heavy drays of wool and carpet to and from the mills. 19 He imported the first of his Percheron stallions, Monarchist, born in France in 1881. This horse was buried many years later at Hurricana. 20 At least one receipt from Isaac H. Dahlmann’s Sale and Exchange Stables in New York City dated 1882 for a second imported Norman Percheron roan stallion survives. 21 Based on later accounts, Sanford also bred cattle and sheep, at least through 1908. He offered his improved stock to service local farmers’ livestock to raise the quality of their animals. 22 This appears to have provided the property’s early moniker of stock farm rather than stud farm. Thoroughbreds at Hurricana In addition to the improvement of agricultural livestock, the farm provided space to indulge Stephen’s sons’ interest in hot–blooded Thoroughbred horses. They had been educated among the sons of the well–to–do at Yale and were drawn to racing at nearby Saratoga Springs. Located about thirty miles northeast of Amsterdam, the popular sulfur springs spa had rapidly developed during the 1860s into one of America’s most extravagant summer resorts with its racetrack and elegant hotels. The Saratoga Race Course was opened in 1864 the year after the first Thoroughbred meet was held on the “Old Trotting Track” at the spa. John Morrissey, a former bare knuckled heavyweight champion, was the originator of the new course. Knowing his own dubious reputation, he asked William Travers to be the president of the Saratoga Association. 23

17

“Stephen Sanford Died Last Night,” Amsterdam Morning Sentinel (14 February 1913): 1. 101/570. 19 Robb, 53. Robb says this was his first venture, but Monarchist, allegedly the first Percheron was not born until 1881, according to his stone monument. It may be that Sanford started with a Percheron already imported and of an age to breed. 20 Hildebrandt, 65. 21 Hildebrandt, 11. 22 “The Last Campaign of the Hurricana Horses,” The New York Press (28 June 1908): Section 3, page 1. 23 Allan Carter, Historian, National Racing Museum at Saratoga Springs, New York, via e-mail 28 December 2012. 18

OMB No. 1024-0018

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property

Section

8

Page

5

Montgomery, New York County and State

Thoroughbred racing in the United States shared with England the definition of a Thoroughbred horse, the types of racing, and the principles of betting and stakes racing. Thoroughbred horses all have pedigrees traceable back to three stallions imported to England in the late 1600s and early 1700s: the Byerley Turk, the Darley Arabian, and the Godolphin Arabian. In the eighteenth century, these hot–blooded horses were bred to English foundation mares to generate horses notable for their agility, speed, and spirit. Thoroughbreds are used for flat racing, show jumping, hunting, dressage, combined training, and polo. They were imported to the English colonies in 1730. 24 In the early republic, horse racing remained far more popular in the South than the North. By 1840, there were 63 tracks south of the Mason–Dixon line including ten in Tennessee and 17 in Kentucky. In the North there were a handful of tracks, and only one—the Union Course on Long Island—in New York before the mid–century. 25 Occasional well–publicized races drew enormous crowds and rather large bets. Indeed, when Stephen was a student at Georgetown and his father John was in Congress, the two journeyed to Long Island to watch Fashion and Boston race on the 10th of May 1842. 26 Stephen, although apparently stern, was not immune to a fine horse. Apparently led by his sons’ interest in racing, which allegedly led them to hide a Thoroughbred called General Phillips in an Amsterdam livery stable without telling their father, each of the Sanfords registered his own silks in 1880. John’s were black with gold braid, Will added an orange cap to his brother’s combination, and Stephen, listed as “Mr. Irving” early on, adopted gold with purple stripes with a cherry cap. 27 On 21 October 1881, less than a year after buying the farm, father and sons hosted an Exhibition of Horsemanship at Sanford’s Stock Farm, as it was named on the printed program, and invited the local people. Because it was held on a Friday afternoon, Sanford called a half–day of work in the mills. 28 Three races—a three–quarter mile race featuring Barmaid and Fireman, a “Scramble for Polo Ponies” featuring four ponies, and a hurdle race featuring Post Guard (formerly General Phillips) and All Right”—were held in addition to Will displaying his hunter, Sir Harry. The Thoroughbred stallion Chimney Sweep and another horse, Partnership, were led out for exhibition. The jockeys wore the colors of the three Sanford men. 29 The Amsterdam Daily Democrat devoted two full columns, an unusually large amount of coverage, to the event. It described the three–quarter–mile dirt training track and the stone gateposts just south of the old farmhouse, which provided a stately entrance to the property. Already, Sanford had built the main section of the building now called the Broodmare Barn. The 48’ x 160’ building was then known as the stock barn (and for a time after that until 1901 as the racehorse barn). Its unusually long, narrow, and tall massing with a clerestory—or ventilating and lighting cupola—incorporating numerous windows and running the entire length of the main block—strongly resembles mill buildings of the period. To improve the land’s productivity, 24

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thoroughbred. Edward Hotaling. They’re off!: Horse Racing at Saratoga ([Syracuse, N.Y.]: Syracuse University Press, 1995): 22–23. 26 Robb, 27. 27 Robb, 55. Hildebrandt relates a story that has come down as Sanford family lore whereby the horse was renamed Partnership, and father and sons watched him race. Allan Carter, who has researched the racing record, says that General Phillips was raced in 1879 as a five-year-old for S.D. Bruce and in 1880 for W.C. and J.H. Phillips, including ten times at Saratoga. He never raced for the Sanfords. Further, no horse named Partnership was raced in the United States between 1879 and 1889. It appears that the Sanfords bought General Phillips after the 1880 racing season as a stud, but this is not firmly established. 28 Amsterdam Daily Democrat (22 October 1881): 2. 29 Program is reproduced in Hildebrandt, 19. 25

OMB No. 1024-0018

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property

Section

8

Page

6

Montgomery, New York County and State

Sanford had laid nearly a mile of drainage tile. Two farm barns were under construction. 30 These would provide storage for feed and bedding, much of which Sanford expected to raise on the property. Expanding Hurricana Racing Thoroughbreds leads to an interest in breeding Thoroughbreds, and no later than 1883, Stephen Sanford had added them to his breeding endeavors at Hurricana. The three–year–old filly Barmaid exhibited in October 1881 was bred to Chimneysweep in 1883, 1884, and 1885. In 1886 and 1888, she was bred to either Chimneysweep or Postguard, formerly named General Phillips, who was later acknowledged as the first Sanford sire. 31 In 1889, 1890, and 1891, she was bred to Postguard. At present, it is unknown whether there were additional Thoroughbred stallions at Hurricana before the early 1880s, or exactly how many mares were kept during the 1880s. 32 The latter number almost certainly increased over the decade. In 1885, Stephen Sanford began buying land adjacent to the original 100–acre parcel. He purchased the 99–acre Chalmers farm north of the original parcel for $12,000. 33 In December 1889 and May 1890, he bought the Phillips farm adjacent to the south. The December deed purchased 60 acres east of NY 30 for $12,000; the May deed was for seven acres west of NY 30 bought for $3,725. 34 Later in 1890, Sanford bought the Sullivan Farm, the next property south of Phillips on the west side of Bunn Creek and adjacent to Market Street (NY 30) from the executor of the Widow Sullivan’s estate. 35 In April 1891, Sanford bought the 40 acres, two roods, and 20 perches of land east of NY 30 between McFarlan and Chalmers from James F. Birch for $10,000. 36 Hurricana now encompassed all of the land east of the Amsterdam and Fish House Plank Road (NY 30), west of Bunn Creek, south of Wallins Corners Rd (a.k.a. the road to Hagaman’s), north of the village line. With the land west of Bunn Creek secured, in February 1893, Stephen began buying land east of Bunn Creek to Midline Road. This served the dual purpose of increasing his holdings and helped to protect the water of Bunn Creek as the frontage farther south on Locust Avenue was already being subdivided for house lots to accommodate workers at the recently opened Harrowers Mill on the Chuctanunda Creek. In purchases of 32 acres for $4,800 from Charles D. and Frances A. Austin 37 and 116 acres for $13,187.50 from John Sherwood 38 , he secured that southern section. The Sanford campaign to acquire land for the stock farm was largely complete

30

Amsterdam Daily Democrat (22 October 1881): 2. For a time until the Race Barn was constructed in 1901, it appears that this building was referred to as the racehorse barn, according to the caption of a photo printed in the Amsterdam Evening Recorder 25 March 1939. 31 Barmaid’s progeny provided by Allan Carter, Historian at the National Racing Museum, Saratoga Springs, New York, via e–mail, 13 December 2012. An article “Hurricana Stock Farm/Beautifully Situated in the Mohawk Valley/Nature Favors it for Breeding Purposes and General Sanford is Successful—Famous Sires and Finely Bred Mares—What the New York Tribune Says About it,” Amsterdam Daily Democrat (25 July 1894): 4, states that Postguard was the first Hurricana stallion. 32 Mares’ progeny are easy to document, according to Allan Carter, at the National Racing Museum, if one has names. Stallions’ progeny are nearly impossible to document in this period. The program from the 1881 exhibition at Hurricana provides the only names traced until the late 1880s at Hurricana. 33 Book of Deeds 113/363. (Montgomery County Clerk’s Office, Fonda, N.Y.). All subsequent deed references will follow the convention “Book no., page no.” 34 122/66 and 124/356. These parcels and several bounding properties were surveyed and mapped by E.H. Putman. The map, in possession of Louis F. Hildebrandt, Jr., shows two 1890 Sanford purchases. 35 115/439. A sliver of this is shown on Putman’s map. The deed does not specify acreage or purchase price. 36 124/584. 37 129/274 38 136/388

OMB No. 1024-0018

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property

Section

8

Page

7

Montgomery, New York County and State

by 1895, when he added part, possibly all, of the Tilton farm, southwest of the junction of Midline and Wallins Corners roads. 39 As Sanford acquired farms, each with its own dwelling, he retained most or all of the dwellings and apparently often outbuildings. The dwelling houses, marked on the 1853 and 1868 maps of Montgomery County, each labeled with names familiar from the Sanford deeds, were all marked “S. Sanford” in the 1905 New Century Atlas of Montgomery County. 40 These mostly housed staff and their families. 41 Of these, only the Round View farm house on Midline Road survives. It appears that at least the Chalmers property also included a sizable barn, its ridge oriented east–west and capped by a cupola ventilator. 42 The Northern Bred horse 43 The record of Hurricana’s expansion between 1885 to about 1900 suggests also a time of experimentation as the Sanfords adjusted, refined, and focused their efforts on Thoroughbreds. Stephen always stated that his primary interest was in breed improvement. The business of raising the best Thoroughbreds, even if one had little interest in betting, requires ample funds, and it appears that the Hurricana experiment was generously financed. Stephen spent more than $85,000 over two decades assembling the property, but over time—and especially after about 1892—he spent as much and more acquiring superior breed stock. It was noted in 1908 that he spent approximately $36,000 a year in excess of the property’s sales revenue and earnings on the turf. 44 Identified progeny records in conjunction with deeds and later plans of the property suggest that the breeding operation developed in two general stages during the 1880s and 1890s. The earlier stage, lasting until about 1891, when Sanford acquired the Birch farm, south of where the Broodmare Barn stands, appears to have been on a more limited scale than the later phase. The mare Barmaid’s progeny record for the 1880s and 1890s shows a shift from only two stallions standing her until 1892, the year after John Sanford purchased Laureate for $35,000. This was the first of two costly stallions bought abroad to breed with American mares at Hurricana. 45 A second stallion, American–bred Potomac, was purchased no later than 1894 for $30,000 to cover the string of six English broodmares John bought in England in the same period. In 1894, there were 26 brood mares at Hurricana including Lady Primrose ($18,000, born 1884), Viola ($20,000, born 1885), and La Tosca ($12,000, born 1888). 46 The shift at Hurricana to breeding on a large scale caused a stir in the Thoroughbred community. A writer from the New York Tribune visited at the beginning of the Saratoga season in the summer of 1894. He 39

133/471, from Elizabeth Tilton for 70 acres, and 144/313, for $1,000. The latter deed does not specify acreage; the price suggests a house

lot. 40 Three published maps are identified for this period. These are the following. Samuel Geil and B.J. Hunter, Map of Mongomery County (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Peter A. Griner, 1853); the Beach Nichols Atlas of Montgomery and Fulton counties published in 1868 and previously mentioned; the New Century Atlas of Montgomery and Fulton counties (Philadelphia: Century Map Company, 1905). 41 Louis F. Hildebrandt, Jr. (b.1942), recollects visiting families living in these buildings as a boy when his father was a jockey riding for the Sanfords. 42 Hildebrandt, 44. 43 This was a subhead in the obituary for Stephen Sanford published in the Amsterdam Morning Sentinel (14 February 1913): 1. 44 “The Last Campaign of the Hurricana Horses,” The New York Press (28 June 1908): Section 3, page 1. 45 Barmaid was bred to Laureate in 1892. The colt Post Laureate was recorded in 1893. Allan Carter located this information in progeny records. Laureate’s stone monument at Hurricana was inscribed with importation date by S. Sanford & Sons in 1891. 46 “Hurricana Stock Farm,” Amsterdam Daily Democrat (25 July 1894): 5.

OMB No. 1024-0018

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property

Section

8

Page

8

Montgomery, New York County and State

wrote eloquently of the 600–acre stock farm’s setting surrounded by acres of “multi–colored fields” against the dark backdrop of the “health–giving” Adirondacks and overlooking the Mohawk Valley with its river like a “ribbon of burnished steel.” But he reminded readers that “a native of Kentucky [would] shrug his shoulders and tell you that [you] can’t raise Thoroughbreds on scenery.” Yes, the Mohawk Valley produced an excellent grade of oats known as New York Whites and superb hay, but breeding in upstate New York required more winter feed, warm stables for foaling early in the new year, and a place to maintain training condition for yearlings and racehorses even when deep snow blanketed the land. Hurricana’s acreage provided hay and grain. For winter foaling, Sanford installed a furnace and steam radiators in the foaling stall and veterinarian’s room on the sunny side of the stock barn. Further, the entire building was snug with interior walls of tightly nailed boards in addition to its rabbeted exterior siding. 47 To emphasize his point about breeding in New York, Sanford began naming the progeny of these efforts for places and historically significant people in and near the Mohawk Valley by the late 1890s. Among the first of these was La Tosca’s colt Chuctanunda (born 1898), named for the creek that powered the Amsterdam mills and the Sanford fortune. Others included Caughnawaga (La Tosca by Clifford, 1899); Sacandaga (La Tosca by Royal Emblem, 1902); Mohawk 2nd and Mohawk Girl (La Tosca by Rockton (the adjacent mill hamlet, also called Harrowers), 1903 and 1905 respectively). Sir William Johnson, the Superintendent of Northern Indian Affairs in the pre–Revolutionary period, his son, Sir John Johnson, and William’s Mohawk wife, Molly Brant, were also memorialized. An 1895 photograph of the Hurricana staff shot in the corridor of the Broodmare Barn—known at the time as the racehorse barn—marked preparations to take the new yearlings to the annual sale at Sheepshead Bay, Long Island. 48 The text associated with the photograph when it was published in a 1939 newspaper states that in 1895, Sanford was breeding but not racing. This statement is not corroborated, but the lack of race wins recorded for Hurricana horses for 1893, 1894, and 1895 may support it. During this period, the Saratoga race course was owned by Gottfried Waldbaum, who was accused of being a crook by many horsemen. They abandoned racing at Saratoga, and the track itself was shut down in 1896 for financial reasons. 49 For Stephen Sanford, who preferred to race at Saratoga, where he could watch his horses run, this might have been reason enough. Following his interest in breed improvement, Stephen purchased Tosca in 1893 and John’s of Clifford in 1897, even though both were in poor health for racing. They would prove, however, to be excellent breeding stock. 50 And, by the mid–1890s, Hurricana was selling yearlings for high sums. In 1896, a dozen were 47 Hurricana Stock Farm,” Amsterdam Daily Democrat (25 July 1894): 5. The birth years and the following progeny records are provided by Allan Carter. The progeny records show that Lady Primrose was bred to St. Blaise in 1889, 1890, and 1891. She was barren in 1892 and 1893, and successfully bred to Potomac in 1894. Viola was imported in 1889 and bought by the Sanfords from August Belmont soon after. She was bred to Kingfisher in 1889 and 1890, to St. Blaise in 1891, and to Laureate in 1892. The first recorded progeny for La Tosca is a colt by Laureate born in 1895. It is unknown to whom Kingfisher and St. Blaise belonged, and whether these mares were at Hurricana or elsewhere before being bred to Laureate. 48 “Scene at Sanford Hurricana Farm When Yearlings were Bred for Sale and Thoroughbreds not Raced,” Amsterdam Evening Recorder, 25 March 1939. Caption: “The above picture was taken in the year 1895 in the old racehorse ban on the S. Sanford & Sons Hurricana stock farm on the Amsterdam–Perth road. This barn is now used as the foaling barn. At the time this picture was taken, the late Stephen Sanford was not racing his Thoroughbred horses but instead selling them as yearlings to be raced by other stables. The men in the picture were engaged in preparing the yearlings for the annual sale at Sheepshead Bay, Long Island. They are from left to right: Dr. Smith, veterinarian in charge of the breeding department; David Hickok, Felix Burdon, Walter Harrison, Charles Cunningham, the small boy looking over the saddle is James Duffy, Samuel Freightenburg, William Duffy, James Bont, John Snook, John Dillon, and William Ehmke.” 49 Allan Carter, e–mail, 20 December 2012. 50 The New York Times covered these purchases on 11 June 1893 and 26 October 1897. Both articles found in the Times online archive.

OMB No. 1024-0018

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property

Section

8

Page

9

Montgomery, New York County and State

auctioned at Sheepshead Bay for $5,536. Of this class, three were sired by Laureate, eight by Potomac, and one by Chimneysweep. 51 By 1901, the Sanfords had returned to racing following the purchase of the track at Saratoga by new owners headed by William C. Whitney. 52 In 1901, the Sanfords built their own stable at Saratoga to house a string of between 25 and 35 horses for the duration of the meet, which ran from late July to early September. In addition to the U–plan stable block, the Sanford complex facing onto Nelson Avenue included cottages for the trainer and the cook connected by an open porch spanning both dwellings. The jockeys slept in spare stalls or the lofts. 53 At Hurricana, they built a new 28–stall barn for the racehorses the same year. 54 In this period, Sanford also built a 200–yard indoor training ring to develop and maintain conditioning when deep snow prevented running outdoors. 55 During the ensuing decade, Hurricana progeny were successful on the track. On his first day at Saratoga, Rockton won the 1901 Saratoga Handicap at odds of ten to one, surprising bettors who had been at downstate tracks earlier in the season. 56 The same season, Chuctanunda won the Delaware Handicap. 57 Three years later, Clifford’s daughter, Molly Brant won the Delaware Handicap and the Merchant and Citizen’s Handicap. She won the Delaware Handicap again in 1905. Mohawk II won the Saratoga Special and the Hopeful Stakes in 1905. 58 Caughnawaga won the 1906 Saratoga Handicap. 59 The Sanfords erected a dozen stone monuments similar in form to the farm gateposts along the Perth Road (NY 30), several memorializing the best performances of their northern bred horses, including Caughnawaga, Chuctanunda, Mohawk II, Molly Brant, and Rockton. A New York Times article detailing Molly Brant’s 1904 win in the Delaware Handicap noted the “long– established custom of the great breeding farm at Amsterdam” to wait until the meet at Saratoga to race its horses. 60 Stephen Sanford believed this allowed the young horses extra time to build muscular and skeletal strength. 61 Hurricana’s string of Thoroughbreds walked to the meet at Saratoga during this era. A few weeks before the walk, the Sanfords hosted their matinee races from 1903 through 1908. These gala events exhibited their horses and brought thousands of spectators to the farm for a Saturday outing and entertainment. 62 The cover of each year’s program stated the Hurricana Stock Farm’s purpose: “For the Improvement of the Breed of Horses.” 63 Soon after the Matinee Races, the string would set out about 1 a.m. two days before the meet at the spa. Half the horses were saddled; the remainder were led. After rests at inns at Topnotch (now West Galway) 51

New York Times, 12 August 1896. Allan Carter, e–mail, 20 December 2012. 53 Hildebrandt, 31. 54 Hildebrandt, 53. 55 The indoor ring is drawn on the Town of Amsterdam plan in the New Century Atlas of Montgomery County published in 1905. The plan of Hurricana shows several buildings that can be identified, but the scale of the outdoor track, labeled “Speedway,” is incorrect. 56 New York Times, 6 August 1901. 57 This victory was recorded on Chuctanunda’s monument shown in Hildebrandtt, 68. 58 Hildebrandt, 67. 59 Allan Carter, e-mail, 28 December 2013. 60 New York Times, 12 August 1904. Molly Brant’s sister, Burnt Hills, also by Clifford and named for Saratoga County hamlet in the Town of Ballston, won a non-stakes race in 1904 and shared the headline with Molly Brant. 61 Two–year–olds were in the second year of their life regardless of their birth date within the previous year. Mares were bred to drop their foals early in the year but not before if it was hoped the foals would be racers. 62 “The Last Campaign of the Hurricana Horses,” The New York Press (28 June 1908): Section 3, page 1. 63 Hildebrandt, 18. 52

OMB No. 1024-0018

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property

Section

8

Page

10

Montgomery, New York County and State

and Galway and breakfast at Milton, about halfway there, the saddles were switched, and those ridden earlier were led the rest of the way. 64 From Saratoga, the string would continue on to Belmont and Sheepshead Bay via train before returning home to Amsterdam. The Amsterdam homecomings in the fall were occasions for ceremonial parades attended by thousands of people from the city and surrounding countryside. The parade up Market Hill from the rail station was illustrated in the New York Press in 1908. 65 By the time of the Matinee Race and the walk to Saratoga in 1908, New York governor, Charles Evans Hughes had signed the Hart–Agnew Act banning most types of betting in the state. Hart–Agnew replaced the earlier anti–betting Percy–Gray Law of 1895, which permitted only oral betting in an effort to eliminate bookmaking. The first act succeeded instead in driving bookmaking underground, where it was prone to swindles, and Hart–Agnew was an attempt to strengthen the older law. 66 While Stephen Sanford was not himself a betting man, he foresaw that the lack of wagering would diminish competitiveness at the track and, by extension, a decrease interest in breed improvement. Sanford determined to stop racing his Thoroughbreds after the 1908 season, and to keep only the best of his stock, allowing them to be used by local people to improve their horse stock. According to the New York Press, this practice, part of the farm’s original intent, had never ceased. 67 Race results show, however, that at least one Hurricana horse, Sir John Johnson, raced through 1910, as he won the Merchant and Citizen Race at Saratoga in 1909 and 1910. 68 The Hart–Agnew Act reduced attendance at tracks throughout the state before 1911, when racing ceased altogether after passage of the Executive Liability Act in the 1910 legislative session. This made track officials liable for betting. 69 Several tracks went under, including Sheepshead Bay. Saratoga Springs, which had tied its fortunes to its track, experienced an economic crisis. In July 1911, the Gittins Bill, which relieved track owners of personal liability if betting occurred on races they hosted, passed the Senate. 70 A New York Appellate Court ruled the Executive Liability Act unconstitutional in time for the 1913 season. 71 Tracks that had survived the crisis opened again. Hart–Agnew was not repealed until 1934, and for two more decades, betting continued in a shadowy, often illicit, manner on and off the track. 72 Stephen Sanford died on 13 February 1913. At the time, Stephen Sanford & Sons carpet mills employed 2,500 people. The Amsterdam factories housed 418 looms (including 154 broad looms) and produced an annual product worth $3,000,000. This margin allowed him the “amusement” of the racing stable at Hurricana—“a luxury that cost him, over all that it [brought] in, some $36,000 a year. Yet he…often expressed himself as willing to lose several times that amount annually if he might the more adequately aid in bringing the racing and breeding of Thoroughbreds to the standard of perfection that he [had] set for himself.” 73 Stephen did

64

Hildebrandt, 30. “The Last Campaign of the Hurricana Horses,” The New York Press (28 June 1908): Section 3, page 1. 66 Articles found in the New York Times online archives using “Hart–Agnew” as search string provide this chronology. 67 “The Last Campaign of the Hurricana Horses,” The New York Press (28 June 1908): Section 3, page 1. The article noted, “Not Thoroughbreds alone, but trotters, coach horses, ponies, cattle, and sheep of high degree are developed on the most scientific of lines at Hurricana.” 68 Hildebrandt, 27. 69 Allan Carter provides this timeline, e-mail, 28 December 2012. 70 New York Times, 20 July 1911. 71 Allan Carter, e-mail, 28 December 2012. 72 New York Times, 7 May 1936. 73 “The Last Campaign of the Hurricana Horses,” The New York Press (28 June 1908): Section 3, page 1. 65

OMB No. 1024-0018

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property

Section

8

Page

11

Montgomery, New York County and State

not live to see Saratoga reopen that summer. The owners of the track honored his memory by naming a stakes race for him. 74 Management under John Sanford, 1913–1939 Stephen and Sarah Jane Sanford’s only surviving son, John, inherited the carpet mills and the Hurricana property, both operated as S. Sanford & Sons—a legacy estimated at $40,000,000—after his father’s death. William C., their second son, had died ill and unmarried in 1896. Like his father and grandfather before him, John served in the House of Representatives. He was elected to the 51st and 52nd United States Congresses in 1888 and 1890, respectively. Near the end of his second term, in February 1892, John married his second cousin Ethel Sanford (1873–1924), daughter of Henry Shelton Sanford (1823–1891). She was nearly two decades younger than her husband, who had turned 41 years old earlier that year. They had three children, Stephen “Laddie” (1899–1977), Sarah Jane (1900–1985), and Gertrude E. duPuy (1902–2000). While Stephen’s geographical sphere had been largely located within a two–mile radius of his home in Amsterdam, John’s interests filled a canvas spanning the Atlantic. His wife Ethel, the daughter of an American diplomat, grew up in Frankfurt and Brussels. In the post–Civil War period, her father speculated in land in Florida, where he founded the village of Sanford in 1870. Here he established orange groves and sold land, ventures which never made the return he had hoped to revive his sagging finances. 75 Ethel’s upbringing surely influenced her husband and the ways in which they spent their time. While John was well educated, he returned home from New Haven to Amsterdam to learn the mill business from the factory floor up. In much the same way, father and son learned the breeding and racing business from the ground up at Hurricana. John’s broader ambitions as a horse owner are evidenced by his importing Thoroughbreds in the early 1890s. He was influential in American racing too. By 1904, he was the chairman of the New York State Racing Commission. 76 It is unclear to what degree John’s thinking influenced his father’s management of farm in the first decade of the twentieth century. During this time, newspapers often referred to them as “the Sanfords” and document that John was clearly buying and selling horses under the Hurricana name. It seems in hindsight that the double break of his father’s death and the suspension of racing in New York State in 1911 and 1912 offered John an opportunity to manage Hurricana differently from Stephen. John Sanford had been living in France for some months by late October 1913, when the New York Times related that a second shipment from Hurricana “remove[d] practically all of the famous broodstock gathered by the late General Sanford” to Normandy, France. Fourteen horses had crossed the Atlantic earlier that summer. John Sanford apparently anticipated breeding and racing in France on a “large scale” and he “intend[ed] to pass much time [there].” 77 He was forced by the beginning of World War I less than a year later to move his horses again, this time to England. 78 When John moved to France in 1913, he left management of the Amsterdam mills under the management of William Cooper—a step surely unimaginable to his deceased father. 79 About this time, too, 74

Hildebrandt, 72. www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Shelton_Sanford. 76 New York Times, 12 August 1904. 77 New York Times, 24 October 1913. 78 Robb, 95. 79 Robb, 93. 75

OMB No. 1024-0018

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property

Section

8

Page

12

Montgomery, New York County and State

John and Ethel Sanford also acquired a French Renaissance style house in New York City in the fashionable neighborhood east of Central Park at 9 East 72nd Street. 80 This provided their children with a very different upbringing from John and his brothers. Between 1913 and 1917, John Sanford also commissioned a massive remodeling of his parents’ house on Church Street in Amsterdam. By the time they returned, the Italian Villa style dwelling was transformed into a Georgian Revival one with a grand story portico supported by Corinthian columns spanning its front façade. This was capped by a heavy balustrade. Gone were the tower and the mansard roof, replaced by a brick third story finished with a restrained brick parapet. The projecting bay windows were remodeled and the old one–over–one sash were replaced with six–over–sixes. The interior of the main block was restructured for entertaining on a grand scale with a palatial stair wrapping a two–story center hall surrounded by large elegant rooms on the main floor. 81 It is unclear how much time John and Ethel Sanford lived at the Amsterdam house after the remodeling. In 1932, it was sold to the city for the nominal dollar, and has been used as city hall ever since. John Sanford re–entered American Thoroughbred racing—the only part of the racing world where war had not eclipsed every aspect of life at all social strata—in the mid–1910s. During this period, Sanford also kept about ten Sanford mares at the Dixie Knight farm in Kentucky. Trainer Preston Burch managed the Sanford operation there. 82 Hollie Hughes, an Amsterdam native who came to work at Hurricana in 1903, still managed the training operation abroad. In 1916, Sanford celebrated the victory of George Smith at the Kentucky Derby. 83 One day in August, the Times reported from Saratoga “Sanford’s Silks Thrice at the Front.” All of these winners were imported horses crossed with imported or foreign stock. 84 In September 1918, a Times headline announced, “Blooded Yearlings Sold for Big Sums” at Durland’s Riding Academy. located at West 66th Street adjacent to Central Park. 85 These were “youngsters of the best foreign blood, of dams imported to enrich the Hurricana stud.” Eleven Sanford yearlings were auctioned; one sold for $10,000 and another for $7,000. Two of the less costly yearlings were sired by older Hurricana stallions, Mohawk II and Isidor. Nearly gone were the Mohawk Valley names of Stephen’s era epitomizing his Northern Bred Horse. 86 In 1920, John Sanford abandoned the breeding farm in Normandy and shipped 42 Thoroughbreds back to Hurricana, where he placed trainer Hollie Hughes in charge. 87 A few years later, in 1923, Stephen “Laddie” Sanford’s Sergeant Murphy was the first American horse to win the Grand National, the great steeplechase race at Aintree, England. “Sanford’s” or “Sanford Stud,” as the farm was increasingly known, was playing with great success on an international stage. John’s Thoroughbred interests were reflected in the shift in his farm’s name, although writers in the New York Times and other American papers still sometimes referred to it as “Hurricana” for another generation. All of these monikers appear to have been unofficial in the legal sense 80

Robb, 91. Built in 1894, it was designed by Carriere and Hastings, also architects of New York Public Library. Robb (pp.90-91) states that the house was replaced, but local sources say it was a remodeling. The building itself suggests the latter. 82 Robb, 96, and Hildebrandt, 9–10. F.D. “Dixie” Knight was the heir to the Almahurst Farm in Kentucky, which bred horses for generations. 83 Hildebrandt, 74. 84 New York Times, 22 August 1916. 85 http://www.nytimes.com/1999/03/28/realestate/streetscapes–7–west–66th–street–from–a–ring–for–horses–to–a–studio–for– anchors.html?pagewanted=2&src=pm. Built in 1901, Durland’s included an enormous enclosed riding ring that later became part of American Broadcasting Corporation. Part of the building survives. 86 New York Times, 14 September 1918. 87 Robb, 96-99. 81

OMB No. 1024-0018

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property

Section

8

Page

13

Montgomery, New York County and State

until the late 1920s. In December 1931 the thirteen parcels composing the property were transferred to Sanford Stud Farm, Inc. 88 In 1929, John Sanford executed a merger with the Bigelow carpet mill in Thompsonville, Connecticut. This mill, with roots extending back more than a century, took over management of the Amsterdam operation. 89 The new corporation was called Bigelow–Sanford. John Sanford was nearing 80 years old, and it was evident that his only son—a talented polo player and international man about town—would never step into a management position. The merger was surely meant to put the Sanford mill interests on a solid financial footing, but within months, the Great Depression destabilized that plan. Bigelow–Sanford survived, but it did not issue dividends until 1935. 90 Sanford Stud continued breeding and racing through the 1930s. On the night of 10 June 1939 fire tore through the Race Barn. The twenty–five horses stabled there—four flat runners, eleven jumpers, and ten two– year–olds—could not be rescued, and they burned to death. The loss was estimated at $200,000. 91 It is tempting to connect the loss of the barn and its treasured horses with John’s own demise on 26 September at the Gideon Putnam Hotel in Saratoga Springs later that year. In July it was announced that the stables would be sold, and, then, a day later, that Laddie would take over. By the end of year, war was again overtaking Europe and also East Asia. In December 1941, the United States entered the conflict provoked by the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Until 1942, Sanford Stud was run from offices at 64 Church in Amsterdam. That year, this property was sold; after that, Sanford Stud Farm was run from offices at 1 Wall Street in New York City. 92 Sanford Stud continued racing with notable success through the 1940s and 1950s under the management of Hollie Hughes, who had been retained by John Sanford in France in 1914 as the trainer for Hurricana. Laddie’s primary interest in polo and his general absence from the region may have allowed Hughes considerable autonomy, helping to prolong a golden, but deepening, twilight at the Amsterdam property. Many factors appear to have contributed to the stud farm’s gentle slide from prominence: those of greatest importance may have been decreasing capitalization of the property and a declining interest in Thoroughbred racing in America. After Laddie died in 1977, the property was put on the market. Parts of the farm had been sold off beginning in 1938. The triangle encompassed by Market and Van Dyke streets and Northampton Road was sold first, most of it to a Philadelphia man. 93 This became modest house lots by the 1950s. There was also a portion sold to the county to widen Market Street. 94 In 1940, a long narrow parcel on the east side of the property adjoining the Wallins farm eventually became house lots. House lots apparently subdivided by Sanford on Locust Avenue at the turn of the century were sold to individual owners. 95 After World War II, frontages on NY 30 and Wallins Corners Rd were sold for commercial strip development along those highways. This began the transformation of NY 30 to its present appearance. The Amsterdam school district built a new high school on the north side of newly opened Miami Road, which bisected the property. The frontage on 88

226/317. Louis Hildebrandt believes Sanford Stud Farm was incorporated in 1927. http://www.enfieldhistoricalsociety.org/EHScarpet.html. 90 http://www.enfieldhistoricalsociety.org/EHScarpet.html. 91 “Fire Destroys Sanford Racing Stable,” Amsterdam Evening Recorder (10 January 1939). 92 249/587. 93 239/574. 94 241/261. 95 245/205. 89

OMB No. 1024-0018

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property

Section

8

Page

14

Montgomery, New York County and State

Midline Rd on the east side was developed as subdivisions with modest single–story houses in the 1950s. Nevertheless, nearly 200 acres of the interior of the property remains open, although not maintained as pasture or cropland, and provides some sense of the larger historic setting. Building Chronology for Hurricana, 1880–1920 The Hurricana property was almost fully developed by 1913 when its founder Stephen Sanford died. Only two barns—the Yearling Barn and Jumping Horse Barn—remained to be constructed, and these were added in the decade following his death. Much of the building chronology can be reconstructed through property deeds, period descriptions and plans, progeny records for identified Sanford mares, historic images, and the surviving built environment at Hurricana. 96 The initial property was a hundred–acre farm on the east side of the NY 30 (formerly known as the Perth Rd, the Broadalbin Rd, and the Amsterdam and Fish House Plank Rd). It included a Greek Revival style “wing–and–upright” frame house sited close to the old turnpike, as was typical of nineteenth-century farm plans in the region at that period. The original farm surely included outbuildings. By October 1881, when the Sanfords hosted their first exhibition, the Broodmare Barn (then called the new stock barn), measuring 48 x 160 feet already stood. The description of the distinctive “ventilating and lighting cupola” identifies this building. At this time, it had seventeen stalls; presumably the eighteenth cell in the symmetrical plan was the tack room located midway along the north wall. 97 Additional stalls adjacent to the tack room on the north wall were repurposed in the 1890s and early 1900s as a furnace room and the oat crusher room. The large brick chimney in the southeast corner of the tack room may not have been part of the original plan, but it was in place by the mid–1890s. 98 On the south wall, the middle stall became the veterinarian’s room by the early 1890s. Until 1885, the Sanfords only owned the hundred acres bought in 1880, and it appears that they clustered their outbuildings south of the Greek Revival house and the main drive. The drive entered the property perpendicular to the highway and then curved southeast along the outside fence of the track to its southwest corner. Stone gateposts matching those of Stephen Sanford’s house on Church Street in the City of Amsterdam flanked the drive entrance. 99 This arrangement aligned the house and the original stock barn with the highway in a generally rectilinear plan, each facing the road in an established pattern of regional farmsteads. The three–quarter–mile oval training track, definitely not typical of regional patterns, was laid out behind the house and oriented north–south. The house lay somewhat south of the midpoint of the straightaways, and the stock barn, now called the Broodmare Barn, stood at the southwest turn. The Winter Stallion Barn stood between the house and the stock barn on the west side of the drive and overlooking the track. This building was described in 1894 as being to the right of the gate, where the elegant frame structure provided a suitable front façade as one entered the Hurricana property. With its mansard roof atop the two–story, nearly square–plan main block, it resembled a Second Empire–style house, except for the two louvered cupola ventilators on its roof. The hay mow filled much of the second story and the roof. Individual paddocks where the sires could “get any desirable amount of work in stormy weather” extended 96

Additional records still in Sanford family hands might further refine this chronology. Amsterdam Daily Democrat (22 October 1881): 2. 98 The pipe carrying hot water from the boiler across the center aisle shows clearly in a photograph dated 1895 and published in the Amsterdam Daily Democrat on 25 March 1939. The warmed birthing stall adjacent to the veterinarian’s room, also heated by this pipe, was mentioned in 1894 99 Hildebrandt, 129, upper photograph. 97

OMB No. 1024-0018

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property

Section

8

Page

15

Montgomery, New York County and State

nearly a quarter–mile and half that distance in width. 100 The style of the barn—a taste nearing the close of its popularity by 1880—and its presence in all photographs of Hurricana until its demolition in 1991 or 1992 may indicate that it was built for both Percheron and Thoroughbred stallions already on the farm very soon after the 1881 exhibition races. The main drive turned east at the south end of the track, and a straight section called the East–West Lane extended about a quarter–mile east. It was reported in October 1881, that two farm barns were planned for the property, but their locations were not mentioned. Based on an account of a fire in 1908 that destroyed the largest farm barn at that period and a sketch plan drawn of the property in the 1905 New Century Atlas, it appears that these were located near the east end on the north side of the East–West Lane. The footprint of the surviving gambrel–roofed Farm Barn is drawn adjacent to a second building of similar size, which is oriented in the opposite direction. A somewhat later (ca.1913) plan drawn to scale shows only one large building. 101 At the west end of the East–West Lane, immediately south of the Broodmare Barn, historic photographs show a plainly built, single–story structure with two short clerestories, each capped by a simple wood ventilator. Early, but undated, photographs show that a portion of the paddocks adjacent to the barns were covered. These enclosures allowed weanlings born in the early months of the year to mothers kept in the Broodmare Barn to romp together when snow blanketed the outdoor paddocks and were described by a visitor to Hurricana in 1894. 102 A side–gabled, single–story tool barn, its bays opening north onto the East–West Lane, stood adjacent to the east wall of the Weanling Barn. 103 Additional photographs show the row of small mare barns lining the south side of the lane. These were probably built by the early 1890s. These five buildings, able to house a dozen mares, each with her foal, may be the physical embodiment of the Sanfords’ increased emphasis on Thoroughbred breeding in that period. The barns were small, single–story, side–gabled frame buildings with board–and–batten walls. Except for the double barn at the west end, which had two dormers, each had a single gable dormer in its north roof face providing access to the hay mow above. The large stalls, lit by regularly spaced four–light sash, opened onto paddocks extending south from the opposite eave wall. Solid board fencing connected the north walls along the lane. Two of these barns survive. The easternmost one remains in situ; another of the two–room barns has been moved to the lawn south of the Broodmare Barn. More small barns designed for two occupants separately housed were built on the North and South lanes. The North Lane paralleled the east straightaway of the track. A row of nine barns designed for stallions faced directly onto the oval. The associated paddocks extended east. None of these survives. Most or all of the mare barns constructed on the South Lane, which formed a T–junction at the east end of the East–West Lane and ran south for several hundred feet, remain. Like the barns on the East–West Lane, these have board–and– batten siding and steeply pitched roofs, but their plans differ somewhat. Rather than gabled dormer access to the mow, these barns were loaded by doors in their west peaks facing the lane and have hoists projecting overhead. Because the dividing fences between the paddocks adjoined the east gable ends of the barns, the 100

“Hurricana Stock Farm,” Amsterdam Daily Democrat (25 July 1894): 5. It is unclear how many or how exactly enclosures of this scale were slipped into the space, and the size may be exaggerated. 101 “Plan of Sanfords Hurricana Farm.” Hand drawn and colored scaled plan of property, ca.1913. Watercolor, ink, and graphite on linen. In possession of Louis F. Hildebrandt, Jr. This scale plan may have been drawn soon after Stephen’s death in February 1913 to record the property at Hurricana for inheritance records. 102 “Hurricana Stock Farm,” Amsterdam Daily Democrat (25 July 1894): 5. 103 Hildebrandt, 40, upper photograph.

OMB No. 1024-0018

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property

Section

8

Page

16

Montgomery, New York County and State

large sliding doors to the stalls are at opposite ends of the north and south eave walls, one entering the east stall and one entering the west stall. Like all of the horse buildings on the property, these had four–light windows placed high in the walls. The barns facing the South Lane appear to have been built in two groups: those nearest the Farm Barn and just north of the East–West Lane share finishes more the like the older barns on the East–West Lane. The 1905 atlas shows all three lanes fully developed. In 1901, the same year the Sanfords built their own barn at Saratoga, they constructed the 28–stall Race Barn measuring 168 feet x 50 feet at Hurricana. This frame building had a low–pitched gable roof capped by a gabled clerestory for light and ventilation running its entire length. This barn, its ridge running north–south, stood on the south side of the east–west lane about 200 feet southeast of the Broodmare Barn. 104 About the same time, Sanford built a 200–yard indoor training ring south of the Weanling Barn and west of the Race Barn. This roofed, frame–construction oval was lit by windows around the perimeter. It appears in the sketch of Hurricana’s plan in the 1905 atlas. 105 This track allowed the Sanfords to develop and maintain conditioning when snow prevented doing so outdoors. When a farm barn described as the largest building on the property burned in late August 1908, its mow was loaded with 200 tons of incompletely seasoned hay. The newspaper account located it at the southwest turn of the track, but related that the fire threatened the stallion paddocks and the small, and at that time shingle– roofed, mare barns with their individual paddocks. 106 This description locates the large barn at the southeast corner near where the extant Farm Barn stands today. This barn’s location may be shown in the 1905 atlas, where two large outbuildings were sketched at the southeast turn, but it appears the paper was in error as the Weanling barn had stood for at least decade at the southwest corner of the track, south of the Broodmare Barn. 107 No photographs showing the farm barn that burned are yet identified to corroborate this conjecture or to help determine how and if the barn was replaced. By the time of the fire, there may have been barns used on the adjacent farms bought since the early 1880s, making it unnecessary to replace the one lost. The surviving farm barn may have replaced the one that burned, or it may be the surviving one of two. Its gambrel–roofed basement form was still a comparative novelty in barn design at the turn of the century. The fire, which resulted in a loss of several thousand dollars of property, but not of stock, may have prompted re–roofing many of Hurricana’s buildings with slates. This finish can be seen in many historic photographs of the farm. The Broodmare Barn had a metal roof already. When John Sanford brought all the horses home from France in 1920 he inaugurated a vigorous breeding program at Hurricana, or Sanford Stud, as it began to be known. Based on style, photographs, and history, the 400–foot hip–roofed yearling barn with its gabled clerestory was probably built in this era. A few years later, the 16–stall Jumping Horse Barn was built on the site of the old Weanling Barn. The greatly increased activity at Sanford Stud required more staff, and in the same period, the kitchen and dormitory addition were added to the north side of the Broodmare Barn. The interior beadboard finishes and built in cupboards are characteristic of the 1910s and 1920s, as is the wood shingled exterior. At the east end of the lanes, a tool barn and a garage, both with wood novelty siding and concrete foundations, appear to date to this 104

“Plan of Sanfords Hurricana Farm”, ca.1913. The indoor ring is drawn on the Town of Amsterdam plan in the New Century Atlas of Montgomery County surveyed that year. The plan of Hurricana shows several buildings that can be identified, but the scale of the outdoor track, labeled “Speedway,” is incorrect. 106 “Hurricana Had Narrow Escape,” Fulton County Republican (3 September 1908): 8. Located at www.fultonhistory.com. 107 “Sanfords Hurricana Farm,” drawn ca.1913, shows only one large building at the southeast corner, which may indicate that one of the large buildings shown in the New Century Atlas in 1905 was the barn that burned. 105

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

OMB No. 1024-0018

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property

Section

8

Page

17

Montgomery, New York County and State

era as well. Neither was drawn in the ca.1913 plan of the property. The blacksmith’s shop north of the Farm Barn group, with its steep roof, six–over–six sash, and board–and–batten siding appears to match the style and materials of the mare and stallion barns, which were probably built in the late 1880s and early 1890s. There were additional small buildings as well as residences for families who lived and worked at Hurricana. Of the latter, only the house at Roundview Farm on Midline Rd and the house built or remodeled on the Birch farm for Hollie Hughes (5031 NY 30) about 1920, when Sanford closed the French stable and brought horses and Hughes back to Hurricana, remain. The former retains its massing; the latter retains a higher degree of historic integrity. The farm probably had its largest number of structures from ca.1920 through the 1930s. The Race Barn was lost in the calamitous fire in 1939. The Yearling Barn burned during World War II, but the exact date is so far undocumented. The south half of the Jumping Horse Barn was removed in 1992 to make way for a road accessing the expanding commercial properties facing NY 30. The Winter Stallion Barn and the small stallion barns were demolished in the early 1990s.

OMB No. 1024-0018

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property

Section

9 Page

Montgomery County, New York

1

County and State

Bibliography: Primary sources Deeds filed in Montgomery County Clerk’s Office, Fonda, New York. Articles in the following newspapers: Amsterdam Daily Democrat, Amsterdam Evening Recorder, New York Press, New York Times, and New York Tribune. Articles located via www.FultonHistory.org and the New York Times online archives. Maps and Plans Beach Nichols. Atlas of Montgomery and Fulton counties, New York [cartographic material] : from actual surveys / by and under the direction of B. Nichols, assisted by H.B. Stranahan [and others]. New York: J. Jay Stranahan and Beach Nichols, 1868 (Reprint: Churchville, N.Y. M. Wehle, 1978). Geil, Samuel, and B.J. Hunter. Map of Montgomery County. Philadelphia: Peter A. Griner, 1853. New Century Atlas of Montgomery and Fulton counties. Philadelphia: Century Map Company, 1905. “Plan of Sanfords Hurricana Farm.” Hand drawn and colored scaled plan of property, ca.1913. Watercolor, ink, and graphite on linen. (Louis F. Hildebrandtt, Jr., Glens Falls, New York) Secondary sources Carter, Allan, Historian, National Racing Museum, Saratoga Springs, New York, provided progeny records for Hurricana mares and win details for Hurricana horses. He also provided details about American Thoroughbred racing. Donlon, Hugh P. Amsterdam, New York: Annals of a Mill Town in the Mohawk Valley. Amsterdam, New York: Donlon Associates, 1980. Hildebrandt, Louis F., Jr. Hurricana. Thoroughbred Dynasty, Amsterdam Landmark. Troy, N.Y.: Louis F. Hildebrandtt, 2009. Robb, Alex M. The Sanfords of Amsterdam: The Biography of a Family in Americana. New York: William– Frederick Press, 1969.

OMB No. 1024-0018

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property

Section

10 Page

1

Montgomery County, New York County and State

Verbal Boundary Description The boundary is indicated on the enclosed map with scale Boundary Justification The boundary encompasses 123.99 acres, the acreage where buildings constructed for Hurricana still stand, and the open land providing a sense of the larger historic context of the stud farm. The boundary uses tax parcels drawn during the period when parts of the larger land context of about 800 acres were sold, mainly along highway frontages, for commercial development and some residential development beginning c.1950.

OMB No. 1024-0018

NPS Form 10-900a (8-86)

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet Section

11

Page

1

Hurricana Stock Farm Name of Property Montgomery County, New York County and State

Additional Information List of digital photographs for NY_Montgomery County_Hurricana Stock Farm Photographs (contemporary) of property shot by Jessie A. Ravage (34 Delaware Street, Cooperstown, NY, 13326, 607-547-9507, [email protected]), December 2012 0001: Broodmare Barn, north side and east end (camera facing southwest) 0002: Broodmare Barn, interior, central corridor looking west to training ring (camera facing west) 0003: Broodmare Barn, interior, Veterinarian’s room (camera facing south from central corriodor) 0004: Broodmare Barn, interior, Tack room (camera facing north towards kitchen) 0005: Broodmare Barn, interior, Kitchen (camera facing east) 0006: Broodmare Barn, interior, Jockeys dormitory upstairs (camera facing southwest) 0007: Jumping Horse Barn (left), Broodmare Barn (center), and Mare Barn (moved to site, right) (camera facing north) 0008: Jumping Horse Barn, east side, with feed shed at corner (camera facing west) 0009: Farm Barn, garage, and tool and horse barn (camera facing northwest) 0010: Farm Barn, west side and north end (camera facing southeast) 0011: Mare Barn at east end of former East–West Lane with small sheds east of Mare Barn (camera facing west–southwest) 0012: South Lane and Mare Barns (camera facing south) 0013: Blacksmith’s shop (camera facing east) 0014: Trainer’s house (camera facing east–southeast)

NPS Form 10-900-a (8-86)

OMB Approval No. 1024-0018

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet Section number

Historic Views

Page

1

“Broodmare Barn at Turn #1”: Broodmare Barn, left, and Winter Stallion Barn, right, at Turn #1, ca.1920, camera facing WNW

See continuation sheet

NPS Form 10-900-a (8-86)

OMB Approval No. 1024-0018

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet Section number

Historic Views

Page

2

Aerial view looking north over Yearling Barn and Trainer’s House in foreground, ca.1925

See continuation sheet

NPS Form 10-900-a (8-86)

OMB Approval No. 1024-0018

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet Section number

Historic Views

Page

3

Aerial view looking northeast with Trainer’s House and Indoor Track in foreground, East-West Lane in midground, and Farm Barn group in background, ca.1940

See continuation sheet

NPS Form 10-900-a (8-86)

OMB Approval No. 1024-0018

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet Section number

Historic Views

Page

4

View west from infield of track showing old yearling barn and tool shed at left, Broodmare Barn center, and Winter Stallion Barn at right, ca.1900-1910

See continuation sheet

NPS Form 10-900-a (8-86)

OMB Approval No. 1024-0018

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet Section number

Historic Views

Page

5

Winter Stallion Barn and outbuildings from earlier farm along west side of track, ca.1900, camera facing NW

See continuation sheet

NPS Form 10-900-a (8-86)

OMB Approval No. 1024-0018

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet Section number

Historic Views

Page

6

North Lane Stallion Barns, ca.1900, camera facing NNW

East-West Lane with tool shed and Broodmare Barn at west end, ca.1950, camera facing west See continuation sheet

NPS Form 10-900-a (8-86)

OMB Approval No. 1024-0018

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet Section number

Historic Views

Page

7

East-West Lane from tool shed looking towards Farm Barn at east end, ca.1950, camera facing east

Race Barn, north end, date unknown, building stood 1901-1939 See continuation sheet

NPS Form 10-900-a (8-86)

OMB Approval No. 1024-0018

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet Section number

Historic Views

Page

8

View south towards Turn #1 of track with Winter Stallion Barn, center, and Broodmare Barn, left, ca.1900-1910

View north on South Lane past Mare Barns on right to junction of East-West Lane (marked be the easternmost Mare Barn) and Farm Barn just beyond on left. Stock office is center right with its south roof facing the camera, ca.1955 “P59 top”: Yearling barn, west end and north eave wall, ca.1920 See continuation sheet

NPS Form 10-900-a (8-86)

OMB Approval No. 1024-0018

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet Section number

Historic Views

Page

9

Yearling barn, west end and north eave wall, ca.1920

View north over paddocks adjacent to East-West Lane Mare Barns and Farm Barn beyond, ca.1950

See continuation sheet

NPS Form 10-900-a (8-86)

OMB Approval No. 1024-0018

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet Section number

Historic Views

Page

10

View WNW from paddocks behind South Lane Mare Barns showing Yearling Barn to left and Broodmare Barn in background, ca.1930

See continuation sheet

NPS Form 10-900-a (8-86)

OMB Approval No. 1024-0018

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet Section number

Historic Views

Page

11

Judges’ stand, ca.1920

See continuation sheet

NPS Form 10-900-a (8-86)

OMB Approval No. 1024-0018

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet Section number

Historic Views

Page

12

Trainer’s House, west façade and south side, ca.1930

Caretaker’s House, south side, camera facing NW

See continuation sheet

NPS Form 10-900-a (8-86)

OMB Approval No. 1024-0018

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet Section number

Historic Views

Page

13

Stone monuments on NY 30 commemorating successful Sanford Thoroughbreds

Stone monuments on NY 30 See continuation sheet

NPS Form 10-900-a (8-86)

OMB Approval No. 1024-0018

United States Department of the Interior National Park Service

National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet Section number

Historic Views

Page

14

Pump house on South Lane

See continuation sheet