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Welshmen Eminent Williams Robert Roberts, Rowland Thomas

1

M

EMINENT WELSHMEN.

The Rioht Hon. Lord Abebdare (1815-1895).

Eminent

Welshmen:

A SHOET BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF

WELSHMEN

WHO HAVE ATTAINED DISTINCTION FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE PRESENT, sY T.

R.

ROBERTS (AtiAHU) Author ok "Edmund Pbys," etc.

VOL. I.

CARDIFF & MERTHYR TYDFIL : THE EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING COMPANY, LTD.

1908.

i

THE M.7/ YOSK public lipi-:ary

784581 ASTO1*, Lt MIX AND Tli_OLN FGvuLwllONS |_R mi 6 l

LIST

OF

PORTRAITS.

Aberdare, Lord Adams. John ...

Frontispiece. 31

Blackwell, Rev. John ("Aran")... Boweii, Ben Breese, Edward, F.S.A. Burae-Jones, Sir Edward Coley

18 19 10 17

Charles, Rev David, Carmarthen Charles, Bev. Thomas, ^ „, B.A., Bala Chidlaw, Rev. Benjamin William Clough, Arthur Hugh

31 32 33 SI

Davies, David, Llandinam Davies, Bev. Principal David Charles, M.A ... Daviee, Edward ("Iolo Trefaldwyn") ... Davies, Griffith, the Actuary Davies. Rev. Howell Davies, Jefferson Davie*, Rev. John, Cardiff Davies, Richard ("Mynyddog") ... Davies, Richard ("Tafolog") Dav-ies, Robert Dilwyn, J^ewia LL

31 30 49 40 48 48 49 05 04 48 48

Edwards, Rev. Ebenezer Edwards, Rev. Lewis, D.D. Edwards, Rev. Roger Edwards, Thomas ("Twm o'r Nant") ... Edwards, Principal T. C, M.A., D.D. Elias, Rev. John Ellis, Thomas Edward, M.P. Evans, Rev. Christmas Evans, Rev. Daniel Silvan, Ll.D. Evans, Rev. Evan ("Ieuan Glan Geirionydd") Evans, Rev. Evan Herber, D.D. ... Evans, Rev. John (" Eglwysbach") Evans, Rev. Llewelyn loan, D.D., LID. Evans, M. A. ("George Eliot")

49 80 97 90 100 101 128 108 109 109 109 109

Frere, Sir Henry Edward Bartle

129

Gee. Thomas ... Gibson, John Griffith, David (" Clwydfardd "1 Griffith, Bev. John, Merthyr Tydfil Griffiths, Archdeacon John

144 129 145 129 129

EMINENT WELSHMEN Harris, Rev. Howell ... Howell, The Very Bev. Dean, B.D. Howells, Anthony ... ... Howells, Principal W. ... Hughes, David ... ... Hughes, Edward, Llechryd Hughes, Rev. Hugh ("Huw Tegiii") Hughes, Rev. Hugh Price ... Hughes, John, Pont Robert Hughes, Rev. John, D.D., Liverpool Hughes, John Ceiiiog ...

... ... ... ...

...

... ...

... ...

...

... ...

... ...

... ...

... ...

... ... ...

...

... ... ...

...

Jeffreys, J. Gwyn, LID.. F.R.S.... ... Jenkins, Rev. D. M. ... ... Jones, Rev. David, Llangan ... ... Jones, Rev D. Lloyd, Llandinam ... Jones, David William ("Dufydd Morganwg") Jones, Rev. E. Gurnos, D.D. ... Jones, Griffith Rhys ("Caradog") ... Jones, Rev. Hugh, D.D., Llangollen ... Jones, Rev. Humphrey ... ... Jones, John ("Idris Fychan") ... Jones, Rev. John, Rhos ... ... Jones, John ("Talhai-rn") ... Jones, Rev. John, Talysarn ... ... Jones, Rev. John Harris, M.A., Ph.D. Jones, John R. ... ... ... Jones, Principal J. Viriamu ... Jones, Michael D. ... ... ... Jones, Rev. Owen Wynne ("Glasynys") Jones, Robert, Llanllyfni ... ... Jones, Rev T. G., D.D. ... ... Jones, Rev. Thomas, Denbigh ... ... Jones, Rev. Thomas Tudno ... Jones. Tom. F.R.C.8. ... ... Jones, Sir William ... ... Jones, W. E. ("Cawrdaf'V Jones, William Pearce ... ... Jones. Willinm R. ... ... ... Kenyon, Lord

... ...

...

Lewis, Benjamin F. ... Lewis, David (Judge) ... ... Lewis, Lewis William ("Llew Llwyfo") Lewis, Rev. Thomas, B.A. ... Lewis, Rev. William Dickens, D.D. Llwyd, Edward ... ...

...

Mathew, Admiral Thomas ... Matthews, Rev. Edward, Ewenny ... Morgan, Rev. D., Ysbytty ... Morris, Rev. Caleb ... ... Morris, Rev. Ebenezer ... Morris, Lewis ("Llewelyn Ddu o Fon") Morris, Sir Lewis ... ...

...

... ...

...

... ...

...

... ...

...

... ...

...

... ...

...

... ...

...

... ...

...

... ...

...

... ...

...

... ...

...

... ...

...

... ...

...

... -

...

...

...

... ...

... ...

... ...

... ...

... ...

...

... ...

... ...

... ...

... ...

... ...

... ...

... ...

148 149 156 177 41 177 157 192 177 193 176 209 208 288 225 237 228 236 229 288 225 276 224 225 225 277 240 241 277 256 277 276 257 284 276 '28& 340 289 389 304 305 320 369 321 336 341 337 349 348 349 432 368

LIST OF PORTRAITS Nicholson, Rev. 'William ... Owen, Daniel Owen, Ellis. F.S.A. Owen. Sir Hugh Owen. Rev. R. lilugwy, M.A., Ph.D. ... Owen. William, R.A. Paget, Henry William, Marquis of Anglesey Parry. Dr. 'Joseph ... Aps, Rev. Thomas, D.D. Picton. Sir Thomas PryBe, John Robert ("Golyddan") Pryse, Robert John {"Gweirydd ap Rhys") Pughe. Or. William Owen Pugh, Rev. John, D.D., Cardiff ... Rees. Rev. Henry ... Reee, Robert ("Eos Morlais") Richard, Henry, M.P. Richards, David (" Dafydd Ionawr ") ... "Roberta,. David ("Dewi Havhesp") Roberts, John (" Ieuan Gwyllt ")

Rowlands, Judge Bowen Rowlands, Daniel Rowlands, Rev. W., D.D. Saunders, Rev. David, D.D. Stanley, Sir H. M. ... Stephen, Rev. Edward (" Tanymarian ") Thomas. Ebenezer (" Eben Fardd ") Thomas, Rev. Owen, D.D.... Thomas, Rev. William (" Islwyn ") Vanghan, Archbishop Watts-Hughes, Mrs. Margaret ... Williams, Edward (" Iolo Morganwg ")... Williams, Rev. Edward Williams, Judge Gwilym Williams, Rev. J. (Erromanga) ... Williams. Morgan B. Williams. Rev. Peter, Carmarthen Williams, Rev. Morris, M.A. (" Nicander ") Williams, Watkin H. (" Watcyn Wyn ") Williams, Rev. W. (" Caledfryn ") Williams, Rev. William (Pantycelyn) Williams. William, F.R.C.V.S., F.R.S.E. Wilson, Richard • By inadvertoaoe, the name of Hugh Derfel Hughes was portraii of David Roberto (" Dewi Havhesp

PREFACE.

The MS. of this work was sent to the Carnarvon National Eisteddfod, 1906, in competition for a prize of £50 offered for " A List, with short notes, of Eminent Welshmen who flourished between 1700 and 1900." Nineteen compositions were received, ten of which were written in Welsh and nine in English. The prize was awarded to a Welsh compilation. The adjudicators described this work as " an excellent compilation," shewing " much discrimination as to who are eminent and who are not," and added that they considered it well worthy of publication. The Author has chosen to write in English, rather than in Welsh, because he has long felt the need of such a work in that language. A good deal more has been published on the subject in Welsh than in English, and there are indications that a volume such as this will be welcomed by a large number of readers of Welsh descent who are unable to speak the language, as well as by the steadily increasing number of Englishmen who take a keen interest in everything appertaining to the Principality. The Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Welshmen, by the Rev. Robert Williams, M.A., published in 1852, has long been out of print. The present Dictionary brings that work up to date, but it also includes some hundreds of names omitted by Williams. The following, taken from two surnames only, are cited as examples :— Morgan, Rev. Abel, 1673-1722, a Baptist minister and author. Morgan, Rev. Abel, 1712-1785, an eminent American preacher. Morgan, Daniel, 1736-1802, the American general. Morgan, David, -1746, the Welsh Jacobite and author.

Morgan, Rev. John, born about 1680, a clergyman and author. Morgan, Maurice, 1726-1802, a civil servant and author. Morgan, Thomas, -1769,Member of Parliament and Judge-Advocate General.

2 Morgan, Rev. Thomas, 1720-1799, of Morley, near Leeds, a Presby terian minister and author. Morgan, Thomas, 1737-1813, a Unitarian minister and author. Morgan, William, 1750-1833, the eminent actuary. Morris, Captain Charles, 17451838, the political song-writer.

Morris, Eev. David. 1744-1791, preacher and hymn-writer. Morris, Ebenezer, 1769-1825, the celebrated preacher. Morris, Gouverneur, 1752-1816, the American diplomatist. Morris, Lewis, -1746, an American jurist. Morris, Robert, 1734-1806, the American Secretary of Finance.

It may be explained that the strictly alphabetical plan has been adopted in the arrangement of the names, and where there happen to be two or more persons of the same name they are placed in chronological order of birth. This method of dealing with the names, of course, renders an index quite unnecessary. No trouble has been spared to make the notes to the biographical sketches as complete as possible, so that readers who desire fuller information in regard to any particular name may know exactly where it is to be found. As a general rule, the poets, literati, and musicians of Wales are best known by their pen names. In this work, however, they are entered under their proper names, but, in order that they may be easily traced, cross references are given, thus :— Carnhuanawc, see Price, Thomas. Gwilym Hiraethog, see Bees, William. Islwyn, see Thomas, William. As already indicated, this volume covers the period from 1700 to 1900 ; it also contains brief sketches of Welshmen of eminence who have died since the latter date. Arrangements have been made to publish a second volume dealing with the period prior to 1700. T. R. ROBERTS. Carnarvon.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS.

Agric. Survey Ap Vychan Arch. Camb. B. Cerddorion Cymreig Book of Days Border Counties' Worthies British Physicians Bye-Gones C. & D. Herald Cam, Reg. Cam. Q. Magazine Cardiff Catalogue Ceinion Lien. G. Congreg. Year Book Contemporary Portraits Cycle of Names Cyraanfaoedd Lerpwl Cyfansoddiadau Sam Cymru Cymru, 0. J. Cymry Minnesota Diet. Em. W. Diet Nat Biog. Diet of Music Distinguished Americans Encyclo. Brit Enwog. C. Enwog. Mon Enwog. y Ffydd Enwogion Meirion G. B.

Davies' Agricultural Survey of North Wales. Gwaith Ap Vychan, 0. M. Edwards. Archteologia Cambrensis. Bywgraffiaeth Cerddorion Cymreig, M. 0. Jones. Chambers' Book of Days. Border Counties' Worthies, E. G. Salisbury (1880) Lives of British Physicians (1830). Bye-Gones relating to Wales and the BorderCounties (Oswestry). Carnarvon and Denbigh Herald. The Cambrian Register. The Cambrian Quarterly Magazine. Catalogue of Welsh Department, Cardiff Free Libraries. Ceinion Llenyddiaeth Gymreig. The Congregational Year Book. Contemporary Portraits and Biographies (Cardiff 1896). The Century Cyclopaedia of Names (London : The Times Office). Haneg Cymanfaoedd Annibynwyr Lerpwl, Rev. T. Eli Evans (1902). Cyfansoddiadau Buddugol Eisteddfod Sarn Meillteyrn, 1883. Cymru, edited by 0. M. Edwards. Cymru, yn Hanesyddol, Parthedegol, a Bywgraphyddol, y Parch Owen Jones. Hanes Cymry Minnesota, &o. (Utica, 1905). Dictionary of Eminent Welshman, Rev. Robert Williams. Dictionary of National Biography. Dictionary of Music and Musicians (Grove). National Portrait Gallery of Distinguished Americans. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Enwogion Cymru (Foulkes). Enwogion Mon, Rev. R Parry (Gwalchmai) (1877). Enwogion y Ffydd. Traethawd ar Enwogion Swydd Feirion, Edward Davies (Iolo Meirion). Geiriadur Bywgraphyddol, Rev. Josiah T. Jones, Aberdare.

4 Geirionydd

Cyfansoddiadau Barddonol, &c, Ienan Glan Geirionydd. Gent. Mag. The Gentleman's Magazine. Great Preachers, &c. The Great Preachers of Wales, Rev. Owen Jones, M.A. Handbook English Lit. The Handbook of English Literature, Dr. Angus. The Official Guide and Handbook to Swansea and Handbook to Swansea District (Gamwell, 1880). Hanes Crefydd, Ac. Hanes Crefydd yn Nghymru. Hanes Emynwyr Cymru, Rev. W. A. Griffiths. Hanes Emynwyr Hanes Llenyddiaeth Gymreig, Charles Ashton. Hanes Lien. G. Hanes y Bedyddwyr, Rev. Joshua Thomas Hanes y Bedyddwyr (Carmarthen : J. Boss, 1778). The Harmsworth Encyclopaedia. Harmsworth Herefordshire Biog. Herefordshire Biographies, John Hutchinson (Hereford, 1890). Historical Handbook Historical Handbook of the Presbyterian Church of Wales, Bev. Edward Griffiths. The Imperial Dictionary of Universal Biography Imp. Diet. Biog. (Mackenzie). History of Brecknockshire, Theophilus Jones. Jones' Brecknockshire Lives of the Judges of England, Foss. Judges of England The Liverpool Echo. L. Echo Leaves from the History, &c. Leaves from the History of Welsh Nonconformity in the 17th Century. Lewis' Topographical Dictionary of Wales. Lewis' Top. Diet. Life, &c. of Dean Stanley The Life and Correspondence of Dean Stanley (1893). The Life of Howell Harris, Rev. Hugh J. Hughes Life of Howell Harris (1892). Lippincott's Dictionary of Biography, edited by Lippincott Joseph Thomas, M.D., LL.D. (Philadelphia, 1901). Llenyddiaeth fy Ngwlad, T. M. Jones (Gwenallt). Lien, fy Ngwlad Llyfr Gwybodaeth GyfEredinol (Carnarvon : Hugh Llyfr Gwybodaeth, &c. Humphreys). Llyfr y Jubili, Rev. T. Phillips (1854). Llyfr y Jubili. Llyfryddiaeth y Cymry, Wm. Rowlands. Llyfrydd. y Cymry The Manchester Guardian. M. Guardian Men of Invention and Industry, Samuel Smiles. Men of Invention, &c. Minutes of Conference (Wesleyan Methodist Book Minutes of Conference Room). Montgomeryshire Worthies, Richard Williams, Mont. Worthies F.E.Hist.S., 2nd edn. Musical History, by Sir George Macfarren. Musical History Traethawd Gwobrwyol ar Nodweddiad y Cymry Nodweddiad y Cymry fel Cenedl, Rev. William Jones (Carnarvon : W. Potter & Co.). Samuel Palmer's Continuation of Calamy's Non Noncon. Memorial conformists' Memorial. Griffiths' Notable Welsh Musicians. Notable W. Musicians Historic Notices of Flint, Henry Taylor. Notices of Flint i

Observer and Express Old Wales P. C. Collections Poole's Brecknockshire Private Information Recollections, &c. Rees' History Sunday Schools, &c. The Age of Steel The Cambrian The Monthly Treasury The Red Dragon The Welsh Judges Wales and its People Welsh Lyrics Welsh Poets, Ac. Welshmen as Factors, &c. Welshmen as Factors (W. B. Evans) Western Mail Y Cerddor Y Cymro Y Gestiana Y Gwyddoniadur Y Lienor (O.M.E.)

The North Wales Observer and Express, Carnarvon. Old Wales, edited by W. R. Williams. Powysland Club Collections. The Illustrated History and Biography of Brecknockshire, by Edwin Poole (188o). Inquiries from relatives or friends, search of parish registers, gravestones, &c. Recollections of Bangor Cathedral (1904). Rees' History of Protestant Nonconformity in Wales. The Sunday Schools of Wales, Rev. D. Evans, M.A The Creators of the Age of Steel, Jeans. The Cambrian, a monthly magazine (Utica, New York). The Monthly Treasury of the English Calvinistic Methodists of Wales. The Red Dragon (C. Wilkins, Cardiff). The History of the great Sessions in Wales, together with the Lives of the Welsh Judges, &c, W. R. Williams (1899). Cymru a'i Phobl (Utica, New York, 1894). Welsh Lyrics of the Nineteenth Century, Rev. Edmund O. Jones (Bangor : Jarvis & Foster, 1896). Welsh Poets of To-day and Yesterday, Eev. Edmund O. Jones (Bangor : Jarvis & Foster, 1901). Welshmen as Factors in the Formation and Development of the United States Republic, Edwards (Utica, 1899). The like, by the Rev. W. R. Evans (Utica, 1894). The Western Mail, Cardiff. Y Cerddor (Wrexham : Hughes & Son). Y Cymro (Liverpool : Isaac Foulkes). Hanes Tre'rGest (Tremadoc : Robert Isaac Jones). Y Gwyddoniadur Cymreig (Denbigh : Thos. Gee). Y Lienor, edited by O. M. Edwards, 1895 et geq.

A Dictionary of Eminent Welshmen

A Welsh Freeholder, see Jones, David. Ab Geraint, see Phillips, John Rowland. Ab loan, see Williams, John. Ab Ithel, see Williams, John. Aberdare, Lord, see Bruce, Henry Austin. Adams, Charles Francis, 1807-1886, an American diplomatist of Welsh descent, was the son of John Quincy Adams (1767-1848, see post), and was born in Boston, U.S.A. He passed his childhood mostly in St. Petersburg and London ; graduated at Harvard College in 1825 ; studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1828. He served for five years in the legislature of Massachusetts. He wa3 nominated at Buffalo, in 1848, for the office of vice-president by the convention of FreeSoilers, which nominated Martin Van Buren for the presidency. He published " The Life and Works of John Adams " (10 vols., 1850-56). In 1858 he was elected to Congress as a Republican by the voters of the third division of Massachusetts. He was re-elected in 1860, and appointed Minister to England in the spring of 1861. " No ambassador in recent times," says the London Spectator, " has ever had to fill a position, not merely so delicate and difficult, but so trying to the equanimity of him who held it through the rapid and extreme changes of fortune in the State of which he has been the mouth piece." He was an arbitrator in the Alabama Claims tribunal of 1871-72. ( Welshmen as Factors, &c.; Lippincott; Imp. Diet. Biog.) Adams, Charles Francis (Jr.), 1835, an American statesman, a son of Charles Francis Adams (1807-1886, see ante), was born at Boston, U.S.A. He was admitted to the bar in 1858 ; served throughout the war of 1861-65, becoming a colonel of negro cavalry ; served 1869-70 as a railroad commissioner of Massachusetts ; was from 1879 to 1882 one of the board of arbitrators of the railroads of the Northern States, appointed to settle disputes, and in 1882 became sole arbitrator. His Phi Beta Kappa address of 1883 (afterwards re-issued as "A College Fetich "), a sharp criticism on the American system of higher education, provoked much discussion. He also published "Chapters of Erie" (1871), &c. In 1884 he was elected president of the Union Pacific Railway and its subsidiary lines. He became president of the Massachusetts Historical Society in 1895. (Lippincott.)

8

A DICTIONARY OF

Adams, Isaac, 1802-1883, of Boston, U.S.A., inventor of the Adams power printing-press, was of Welsh descent. His press was introduced in 1830, and came into almost universal use ; but it has now been largely superseded by later inventions. (Welshmen as Factors, &c. ; Lippincott.) Adams, John, 1735-1826, an eminent American statesman, the second President of the United States, was of Welsh descent, and was born at Braintree, Massachusetts. He graduated at Harvard College in 1755, and three years later was admitted to the bar. He soon became distinguished as one of the most prominent and intrepid advocates of the popular cause. He was one of the five delegates sent by Massachusetts to the first continental Congress, which met at Philadelphia in 1774. In Congress he found a fitting arena for the exercise of those great talents, both for business and debate, which ultimately raised him to the leadership of that body. When, in 1789, Washington was made President of the United States, Adams became Vice-President, and in 1796 he was elected President. He retired from public life in 1801. ( Welshmen as Factors, &c. ; Lippincott ; Imp. Diet. Biog.) See also The Life and Works of John Adams, edited by his grandson, Charles Francis Adams, 10 vols, octavo, 1850-56 ; Bancroft's History of the United States ; Hilderth's History of the United States ; Quarterly Review for December, 1841 ; New York Review for January, 1842 ; North American Review for October, 1850 ; Jared Sparks' Diplomatic Correspondence of the American Revolution ; Males, vol. 1, p. 28 2. Adams, John Quincy, 1767-1848, an American statesman, orator, and diplomatist, the sixth President of the United States, was the eldest son of President John Adams (1735-1826, see ante), and was born at Braintree, Massachusetts. He studied law with the celebrated Theophilus Parsons, of Newburyport ; was admitted to the bar in 1790, and began to practice in Boston. In 1791 he published in the Boston Centinel, under the signature of " Publicola," a series of able essays, in which he exposed the fallacies and vagaries of the French political reformers. These papers attracted much attention in Europe as well as in the United States. He was elected a senator of the United States by the Federalists of Massachusetts, for the term beginning March, 1803. Two years later he was appointed professor of rhetoric and belles-lettres at Harvard College, and his lectures were published in 1810. In the same year he was appointed minister to Russia, remaining there till 1815, when he was sent in the same capacity to London. In 1825 he was honoured with the Presidency of the United States, but held that dignity only one term of four years. From 1829 he continued a member of the House of Repre sentatives till his death. ( Welshmen as Factors, &c. ; Diet. Nat. Biog.; Lippincott.) See also William H. Seward's Life of John Quincy Adams (1849) ; Josiah Quincy's Memoir of the Life of John Quincy Adams (1858). Adams, Samuel, 1722-1803, one of the leaders in the American Revolution, was of Welsh descent. He was born at Bo3ton, U.S.A.,

EMINENT WELSHMEN

9

and educated at Harvard College. When graduating he took for his theme the question, " Whether it be lawful to resist the supreme magistrate if the Commonwealth cannot otherwise be preserved ? " He held the affirmative, and so struck the key-note of " the anthem of the free," sung and discoursed by Jefferson. In 1766 he was elected a member of the State Legislature of Massachusetts, and, in 1774, was sent to " the first Congress of the Old Confederation." It was said of him, " He was born for the Revolutionary epoch." In 1789 he was appointed lieutenant-governor, and, in 1794, governor of his native state, retiring from public life three years later. Though of a diminutive stature, his aspect was dignified and engaging. He lived all his days in honoured poverty, revered for his public and private virtues. ( Welshmen as Factors, &c. ; Lippincott ; Imp. Diet. Biog.) See also Life and Public Services of Samuel Adams, by William V. Wells, Boston (1865) ; Encyclopaedia Americana ; Goodrich's Lives of the Signers to the Declaration of Independence ; Wales, vol. 1, p. 282. Adams, William, 1807-1880, an American Presbyterian divine, born at Colchester, Connecticut, U.S.A., was of Welsh descent. He graduated at Phillips' Academy, Andover, where his father, John Adams, was principal, and at Yale College in 1827. He was for many years the pastor of churches in New York City, winning great fame as a pulpit orator. In 1873 he became president and professor of sacred rhetoric in the Union Theological Seminary, New York. He published several religious books, and many sermons, lectures, &c. He rendered excellent service in con nection with the re-union of the Presbyterian churches in America, advocating it in a never-to-be-forgotten speech delivered before the Assembly of 1869. ( Welshmen as Factors, &c. ; Lippincott.) Alaw Ddu, see Rees, William Thomas. Alaw Elwy, see Roberts, John. Alawydd, see Roberts, David. Alfardd, see Hughes, John James. Allen, Ethan, 1742-1789, an officer of the American Revolutionary War, born at Lichfield, Connecticut, U.S.A., was of Welsh descent. He settled, when young, in Vermont, and became the leader of the famous "Green Mountain Boys." On the tenth May, 1775, at the head of only eighty-three men, he took the forts Ticonderoga and Crown Point. In September of the same year, while on an expedition to take Montreal, he fell in with a much larger force of British troops and was taken prisoner. He remained in captivity about two years and a half, when he was exchanged for Colonel Campbell, an English officer. After his release he was appointed General of the State Militia. Besides a narrative of his captivity, and some writings of a political character, he wrote a work entitled " Reason the Only Oracle of Man," in which he advocated pure Deism. (Welshmen as Factors, &c, W. R. Evans ; Wales and its People ; Lippincott.) See Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Heroes of '75, by H. W. DePuy ; Life of Etlutn Allen in

10

A DICTIONARY OF

Sparks' American Biography ; Hugh Moore's Memoir of Colonel E. Allen, 1834. Allen, Evan Owen, 1805-1852, a poet, was born at Pantyllin, Llanrwst, Denbighshire, his father being a farmer in a good position. He was an excellent prose writer, and was a frequent contributor to the old Seren Gomer and other magazines. He left behind him a good deal of poetry, of a high order, in manuscript. He died at Ruthin, and was buried at Llanfwrog, in the burial ground attached to the Baptist chapel. (Enwog. C.) Alltud Eifion, see Jones, Robert Isaac. Alun, see Blackwell, John. Ambrose, William, "Emrys", 1813-1873, a Congregational minister and poet, was born at Bangor, and was educated at the Grammar School there. In 1828 he was apprenticed to a draper in Liverpool, and soon afterwards he commenced to preach with the Welsh Congregationalists. In 1836 he settled down as minister at Portmadoc, where he remained till his death. He was a staunch supporter of the Eisteddfod, where he scored many notable successes. His chief poem is an ode on " The Creation," the chair subject at the Aberffraw Eisteddfod in 1849, and by common consent he fully deserved the prize, but it was awarded to another. He was a very popular preacher, and his poetry is remarkable for beauty of thought and language. He also composed several excellent hymns. His numerous articles in the Dysgedydd, of which he was one of the editors for nearly twenty years, are among the most readable compositions in the Welsh language. As a citizen, a literary character, and a minister of the Gospel, he was respected and honoured by rich and poor. (Rees' Hisl.) See Hanes Lien. G. ; Y Geninen, 1888, p. 240 ; Congregational Year Book, 1874; Gweithiau Emrys, Dolgelly: W. Hughes, 1875 ; Cymru, vol. 8, p. 238 : Y TraethodyM, 1903, p. 282 ; Y Geninen, 1905, p. 60; Cymru, vol. 28, p. 49 et seq. ; Adgofuwch Anghof, p. 270; Y Geninen, 1895, p. 130 ; Sweet Singers of Wales, p. 114 ; Y Geninen, Mar. 1897, p. 8. Ambrose, William Robert, 1832-1878, a Baptist minister and antiquary, was born at Galltraeth, Carnarvonshire. His father, the Rev. Robert Ambrose, died when the subject of this sketch was hardly twelve months old, but he was tenderly cared for by a pious mother. After a stay of some years at Bangor, Carnarvon, Liverpool, and Portmadoc respectively, he settled at Talysarn, near Carnarvon, taking the oversight of the cause in that place, which greatly increased under his ministrations. His mind revelled in the field of antiquarian research. He gained a prize at the Bangor National Eisteddfod of 1874 for an essay on "The old Castles and Fortresses of Carnarvon shire," and at various times won several prizes for essays on similar subjects. (Baptist Handbook, 1881.) Andreas O Fdn, see Brereton, A. J. Anthony Lewis, 1832-1898, a musician, was born at Cwmaman, Carmarthenshire, and from his youth was connected with the Welsh

EMINENT WELSHMEN

11

Congregational Church, both in his native town and at the large Ebenezer Congregational Church at Swansea, where he was choirmaster for a long term of years. In 1867 he emigrated to America, where he took a prominent part in musical circles. For some time he carried on business at Wilkesbarre, where he formed a choir which, under his baton became one of the best church choirs in Wyoming Valley. A few days before his death he was presented with a public testimonial in recognition of his services to music. (B. Cerddorion Cymreig.) Anwyl, Edward, 1786-1857, a prominent Welsh Wesleyan minister, was a native of Llanegryn, Merionethshire, and received a liberal education. He preached his first sermon in 1808, and soon afterwards became an ordained minister. He proved an indefatigable worker, and it is recorded of him that on a certain Sunday he walked 72 miles, and preached three sermons. He was a great reader, had a marvellous memory, and rendered his denomination valuable service in connection with the formation and building up of churches in various parts of the Principality. (Enwog. C.) See Y Geninen, March, 1901, p. 18. Anwyl, Lewis, -1776, a clergyman and author, was preferred to the living of Yspytty Ifan, Denbighshire, and, in 1742, became vicar of Abergele, where he died. He translated a work by Bishop Synge on the Church of England Catechism, and wrote :— " Y Nefol Ganllaw, neu yr uniawn ffordd i fynwes Abraham " ; " Myfyrdodau Wythnosol " ; " Cynghor yr Athraw i Rieni yn nghylch dwyn eu plant i fyny." (Enwog. C. ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry). See Banes Lien. Q. ; Cardiff Catalogue. Anwyl, Robert, 1779-1831, a soldier, was a native of Mer ioneth, his seat being Fron, near Bala. He joined the army at an early age, and saw much active service,—at Walcheren in 1809 ; Gibraltar in 1810 ; Torres Vedras in 1811 ; the battle of Salamanca, where he was wounded, his horse being killed under him ; Yittoria, 4c. In 1827, he was placed in command of the 95th regiment, and was specially rewarded for his bravery at St. Sebastian. He died in the Isle of Wight. (Enwogion Meiriori). Ap Ffarmwr, see Jones, John Owen. Ap P. A. Mon, see Jones, John William Ap Vychan, see Thomas, Robert. Apperley, Charles James, 1779-1843, noted as a foxhunter and writer on sporting subjects, under the pseudonym of "Nimrod," was born at Plasgronow, in Denbighshire. In 1790 he was entered at Rugby, and eight years later was gazetted a cornet in Sir Watkyn Wynn's ancient Light British Dragoons, with which he served in the suppression of the Irish rebellion. Besides many articles for sporting journals, he wrote :—" Remarks on the Condition of Hunters, the Choice of Horses, and their management," (1831) ; "Nimrod's Hunting Tours," (1835) ; and "The Chase, the Turf, and the Road," (1837). The last appeared in the Quarterly Review, (1S27).

12

A DICTIONARY OF

He also published " Memoirs of the Life of John Mytton," (1837) ; " Nimrod Abroad," (1842) ; " The Life of a Sportsman," (1842), of which an edition was published, with a biography of the author, in 1874, and " Hunting Reminiscenses " (1843). (Lippincott: Harmsworth). See Diet., Nat. Biog. : Gentleman's Magazine, 1843, vol. 2, p. 103 ; Baily's Magazine, 1870, vol. 1, p. 253 ; Fraser's Magazine, 1843, vol. 2 ; Malet's Annals of the Road, 1876, p. 177 et seq. ; Lawless Life of the Druid. Arfonwyson, see Thomas, John Wm. Asaph Glatl Taf, see Beynon, Rosser. Ashton, Charles, 1848-1899, known as "The Welsh Literary Policeman," was born at Trefeglwys, in Montgomeryshire. After working in the lead mines, and as a railway porter, he joined the Merionethshire Constabulary in 1869, retiring in 1894. Stationed for the most part in country districts, he was able to combine with the prosaic duties of a rural policeman the habits of a student, and all his leisure was devoted to the study of Welsh literature and history, and to research among M.S.S. and ancient records. He was a voluminous writer, and, in 1895, his labours were recognised by a grant of £100 from the Royal Bounty Fund His principal works are his " History of Welsh Literature from 1650 to 1850 " ; " The Life and Times of Bishop Morgan " ; and a collection of the works of Iolo Goch, all in Welsh. At the time of his death he was engaged upon a Welsh Bibliography of the nineteenth century, which is to be published by the National Eisteddfod Association. (Young Wales, 1899, p. 237). See Bye Qones, 1899, p. 227 ; Cymru, vol. 17, p. 242 ; Y Qeninen, 1901, p. 187 ; ibid, 1900, p. 103 et seq, and Mch., p. 9. Ashton John, 1830,was born at Llanwnog, in Montgomery shire, and commenced life as a shoemaker, but afterwards joined the police force. In 1874, he emigrated to New Zealand. He was an excellent musician, and composed several tunes, many of which— Trefeglwys, Llanbrynmair, Llawryglyn, Glantrefnant, Llanfyllin, and others, are included in various hymnals. He won a number of eisteddfodic prizes for musical compositions. (B. Cerddorion Cymreig). Aubrey, John, 1625-1700, an antiquary, was born at Easton Pierse, in Wiltshire, and was a descendant of the Aubreys of Llanfrynach, Brecknockshire. He completed his education at Trinity College, Oxford. He was one of the earliest members of the Royal Society, being elected in 1662. He assisted Dugdale in his compilation of the " Monasticon Anglicanum," and in 1649 drew attention to the megalithic remains at Avebury, of which, in 1663, he wrote an account by command of Charles II. After 1670 he worked on antiquarian subjects along with Hobbes and Ashmole. His " Miscellanies upon Day Fatality, Omens, Dreams, Knockings, Corps-Candles in Wales, etc.," is a complete storehouse of quaint ancedotes with reference to supernatural subjects. This work was first published in 1696, and again in 1721 and 1784. His " Minutes of Lives," given by him to Anthony a Wood, and printed in " Letters by Eminent Persons," (1813),

EMINENT WELSHMEN

13

show him as a kind of " immature Boswell." His antiquarian researches in Surrey were pubiished in 5 vols, by Rawlinson (1718-19) ; and a similar collection for Wilts was privately printed by Sir T. Phillips in 1821. The Ashmolean Museum at Oxford contains much unpublished MSS. of his. A good " Life of Aubrey," by J. Britton was published in 1845. (Poole's Brecknockshire ; Harmsworth ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry). See his Biography by J. Britton (London, 1845) ; British Quarterly Review, vol. 24. Awbrey, Sir John, Bart., 1650 - 1700, second baronet, Member of Parliament, was the son of Sir John Awbrey, of Llantrythydd, Glamorganshire. He matriculated at Jesus College, Oxford, in 1668, and represented Brackley in Parliament from 1698, till his death in Sept., 1700. (Foster's Alumni Oxoniensis, 1500-1714, p. 44). Awbrey, Sir John, Bart., -1826, was a nathe of Glamor ganshire, and for some time represented the county of Buckingham in Parliament. He was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty in 1782, and Chancellor of the Exchequer in the following year. At the date of his death he was regarded as the "father" of the House of Commons. (Enivog. C.) Aubrey, Thomas, 1808-1867. a celebrated Wesleyan preacher, was born near Merthyr Tydfil, and commenced preaching when he was but 16 years of age, Two years later he was recommended for the ministry as " a young man of more than ordinary ministerial abilities." He soon took a prominent place among the preachers of Wales. From 1854, he was chairman of the North Wales district for eleven years ; during his term of office he established a Loan Fund for the relief of the heavy debts resting on most of the chapels of the denomination. He was truly a great man, a mighty preacher, a faithful, wise, and loving pastor. But what distinguished him most, in his public character, was the remarkable gift of eloquence he possessed. That eloquence was sometimes calm and subdued, at other times vehement and elevated. His sermons were prepared with care, but delivered with freedom. He published a small volume on Baptism, and con tributed several articles to Welsh periodicals. (Rees'' Hist.) See Cofiant T. Aubrey, by the Rev. Saml. Davies, 1887 ; Y Geninen, 1894, p. 80 ; Trans. Nat. Eist., Liverpool, 1884, p. 603 ; Yr Eurgrawn Wesleyaidd, April and May, 1831 ; Y Qeninen, 1901, p. 151 ; ibid Mch. 1895, p. 53. Baddy, Thomas, -1729, an author, was a native of North Wales, but of what part is uncertain. He was an accomplished scholar, and settled as pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Denbigh about 1693, remaining there till his death. He was possessed of some property, and Dr. Charles Owen describes him as "a very humble and industrious minister." He wrote several hymns, and published a metrical version of Solomon's Song, with explanatory notes. He also translated into Welsh, Doolittle's work on the " Lord's Supper," and Wadsworth on w Self-examination." (.Bees' Hist.), see Enwog. C.; Llyfrydd. y Cymry; Hanes Lien. G. ; Y Traethodydd, 1869, p. 454. Bardd Alaw, see Parry, John.

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A DICTIONARY OF

Bardd Du Mon, see Williamson, Robert. Bardd Einion, see Morris, David. Bardd Nantglyn, see Daviea, Robert. Bardd y Brenin, see Jones, Edward. Barker, Thomas, 1769-1847, a painter of landscapes and historical subjects, was born at Pontypool, Monmouthshire. He spent the greater part of his life at Bath, and is frequently called " Barker of Bath." He began his career by copying the Flemish and Dutch masters, especially Rembrandt and Ruysdael, and having acquired sufficient proficiency, executed several pictures of great merit. His best known paintings are " The Woodman " (engraved by Bartolozzi), and " Old Tom," and his huge fresco, " The Inroad of the Turks upon Scio." He amassed a considerable fortune by the practice of his art, and expended a large sum in the erection of a house at Bath, upon the walls of which he painted the fresco before referred to. He exhibited frequently at the British Institution from 1807 until the year of his death. (Cycle of Names ; Imp. Diet. Biog. ; Harmsworth). See Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Art Union, 1848, p. 51 ; Catalogue of Pictures in the National Gallery\ British and Modern Schools, 1884 ; Catalogue of the National Gallery of British Art at South Kensington, 1884. Barker, Thomas Jones, 1815-1882, a painter, was the son of Thomas Barker (1769-1847, see ante). His early art education he received from his father, but in 1834 he went to Paris, and there became a pupil of Horace Vernet, in whose studio he remained for several years. His works include " The Meeting of Wellington and Blucher," " Nelson on Board the San Josef," and other military pictures. (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Harmsworth.) See Times, 29th March, 1882 ; Meyer's Allgemeines Kunstler-Lexikon, 1872, vol. 3, p. 22 ; Royal Academy Exhibition Catalogues, 1845-76. Bassett, Christopher, 1753-1784, was a native of Penpark, Glamorganshire. He was trained for holy orders, and took his degree of M.A. at Jesus College, Oxford. His first curacy was at St. Anne's, Blackfriars, London, and he soon attracted attention as a brilliant preacher. He afterwards became curate of St. Fagan's, near Cardiff, and while there he came into contact with the Calvinistic Methodists, whom he supported and encouraged in every possible way. He frequently preached in Nonconformist chapels in various parts of Wales, but when at the height of his popularity and usefulness he died of consumption at the early age of 31. (Enwog. C.). See his Elegy, by W. Williams, 1784. Baugh, Robert, abt. 1748-1832, an engraver, was born at Llanymynech, Montgomeryshire. He was a musician of considerable merit, but is best known as an engraver. Among other instances of his ability and skill as an engraver may be mentioned the large Map of North Wales, published in 1795, by his friend and neighbour, John Evans, of Llwynygroes (1723-1795, see post). In 1809 the Society of Arts awarded to Mr. Baugh their silver medal and fifteen guineas in

EMINENT WELSHMEN

15

money for a map of Shropshire. He acted for many years as parish clerk of Llanymynech. (B. Cerddorion Cymreig ; Mont. Worthies). Baxter, George Robert Wythen, 1815-1854, an author, .was born at Hereford. He was the only son of George Frohnan Baxter, Esq., and was a member of an old family long settled in the neighbourhood of Newtown, Montgomeryshire, and claimed among his ancestry the celebrated Nonconformist divine, William Baxter (see post). He was the author of the " The Book of the Bastiles," an attack upon the Poor Law, the " Bastiles " being the workhouses ; " Honour and Pathos," and several other works. He died on the 17th of January, 1854, in the thirty-ninth year of his age, and a handsome marble tablet was erected to his memory by his mother, in Llanaelhaiarn Church. (Mont. Worthies). Baxter, William, 1650-1723, philological writer and antiquary, nephew and heir of the celebrated nor conformist divine, Richard Baxter, was born at Llanllugan, Montgomeryshire. When 18 years of age he was sent to school at Harrow. At that time, according to his own account, he knew not one letter in a book, nor understood a word of any language but Welsh. At Harrow he made rapid progress, and subsequently devoted himself chiefly to the study of philology and antiquities. In 1679 he published a grammar entitled " De Analogia, sen Arte Latinae Linguae Commentariolus," and in 1695 appeared his new and corrected edition of Anacreon, with notes. In 1701 he published an edition of Horace, and in 1719 a curious and learned Dictionary of British Antiquities. His " Glossary of Roman Anti quities " was published in 1726. He was an able critic in Welsh and Irish, and in the Northern and Eastern languages, as well as in Latin and Greek. For most of his life he was engaged in the tuition of youth, and for over 20 years acted as master of Mercers' School in London, a post which he resigned shortly before his death, which took place in May, 1723. (Diet. Em. W.) See Nichols' Anecdotes, vol. 1, p. 163-5 ; Monthly Review, N.S., vol. 25 ; Richard Baxter's Life ; Biographia Britannica ; Reliquios Baxlerianae, edited by Moses Williams, 1726 ; Mont. Worthies. Beau Nash, see Nash, Richard. Bennett, Nicholas, 1823-1899, an antiquary, a thoroughly patriotic Welshman, belonged to a family which had been settled in the neighbourhood of Montgomeryshire for more than three centuries. In the reign of James I. a Nicholas Bennett was mayor of Caersws. Mr. Bennett converted his home at Glanyrafon, Trefeglwys, into a miniature Welsh national museum, one of the most valued contents of which was a manuscript volume descriptive of the heraldic arms of the Welsh princes, illustrated with blazonmente made by Mr. Bennett's nephew, Mr. Breese Bennett Owen. He did good work in the collection of Welsh MSS. and objects illustrative of Welsh history, but his favourite pursuit was the collection of folk songs and heraldic lore, which resulted in the publication of two fine folio volumes, entitled " Alawon fy Ngwlad " (The Lays of my Land). The work contains biographical sketches and portraits of famous Welsh harpists and

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A DICTIONARY OF

pennillion singers by D. Emlyn Evans (Newtown : 1896). (Bye-Gones, 1899, p. 191 ; Cardiff Catalogue). See Ceinion Lien. G., vol. 2, p. 271 ; Y Geninen, 1900, Men., p. 45. Bevan, Hopkin, 1765-1839, a popular preacher with the Calvinistic Methodists, was a native of Llangyfelach, Glamorganshire. He commenced to preach in 1792, and was one of the earliest ordained ministers of the connexion. He wrote a history of the progress of Methodism in the district in which he laboured (1838). (Enwoff. (J). See Cymru, vol. 17, p. 19. Bevan, Madame, d. abt. 1781, whose maiden name was Bridget Vaughan, was born near Carmarthen. In her early days she was in the habit of attending the services conducted by the Rev. Griffith Jones, of Llanddowror, and afterwards took a prominent part in furthering the interests of education and religion. Through her marriage with Arthur Bevan, Esq., of Laugharne. she became exceed ingly wealthy, and assisted the Rev. Griffith Jones liberally with funds for the establishment of his circulating schools. After the death of that eminent man, she continued to maintain these schools at her own expense. (G.B. ; The Sunday Schools of Wales). See Charity Schools, T. Burgess, 1809 ; Griffith Jones, by T. Levi, 1884. Bevan, Thomas, 1795-1819, one of the first two Protestant missionaries to Madagascar, w&s born at Neuaddlwyd, Cardiganshire. He and David Jones, his co-missionary, who was also a native of the same district, sailed from England at the end of 1817, and reached the Mauritius in the following spring. Soon afterwards David Jones' wife and child died, and that missionary himself became seriously ill. This so affected Bevan that he died, after an illness of three days only, at the very threshold of a most promising career. (Enwog. C.) Bevan, Thomas, 1802-1882, '4 Caradawc y Fenni," was born near Talybont, Breconshire, and afterwards settled at Abergavenny. In 1833 he was instrumental in forming the Abergavenny Cymreigyddion Society, which was the means of inaugurating a most successful series of Eisteddfodau in that town. At one of those gatherings—1835—he won the prize offered for a Welsh essay on the " History of Gwent under Roman rule." During the last 30 or 40 years of his life he spent much of his time in collecting photographs and autographs of all the literati of Wales, and of those born in Wales. This work involved considerable trouble and expense, and he left it in a fairly complete state. The volume contained many hundreds of photographs of distinguished persons throughout the Principality, and in numerous cases their autographs also. (The Red Dragon). Beynon, Rosser, 1811-1876, "Asaph Glan Taf," a musician, was a native of Neath, Glamorganshire. He was almost entirely self-taught, his parents being in poor circumstances. He composed a number of tunes, and in 1848 he published a congregational tune book—"Telyn Seion"—containing 130 tunes and 22 anthems, Ac., 20 of the former being his own composition. He was very successful

Edward Breesb, F.S.A. (1835-1881).

Sik Edward Coi.ey Bubne-Joneb (1833-1898).

EMINENT WELSHMEN

17

as a choir conductor, and was one of the most prominent musical adjudicators of the day. (B. Cerddorion Cymreig). Beynon, Thomas, 1744-1833, a clergyman, was born in Carmarthenshire. He received a liberal education, and graduated M.A. He held several livings at the same time, namely—Llanfihangel Abc-rbythych ; Llanfihangel Cilfargen ; Llanddeusaint, and Penboyr. He did much to extend the influence of the Church of England in the diccese of St. David's, and, being possessed of private means, he devoted nearly the whole of his stipend to ecclesiastical purposes, and contributed one thousand pounds towards the building fund of St. David's College, Lampeter. He was a warm supporter of Welsh literature. A prize offered at the Carmarthen Eisteddfod of 1834 for the best elegy to his memory was won by " Gwenffrwd " (Thomas Lloyd Jones). (Enwog. C.). Blackwell, John, 1797-1840, "Alun," a clergyman and poet, was born at Mold, in Flintshire. For some years he worked at the trade of a shoemaker, at the same time availing himself of every opportunity for improving his mind. Several Eisteddfodic successes brought him into notice, and, by the liberality of friends, he was enabled to enter Jesus College, Oxford. He became curate of Holywell, and was afterwards preferred to the living of Manor Deify, in Pembrokeshire. He contributed largely to the columns of the " Gwyliedydd," a periodical devoted to the interests of the Established Church ; and was the first editor of " Y Cylchgrawn," which he conducted with consummate ability. His poems and essays, which are of a very high order, were published in 1851, with a memoir by the Rev. Griffith Edwards (Gutyn Padarn) (Ruthin : Isaac Clarke). His translation into Welsh of Pope's " Messiah," appeared in 1825 ; and his " Farewell Sermon " delivered in the Parish Church of Holywell was published in 1833 (Holywell ; D. Davey). A selection of his poems was published by Isaac Foulkes in the "Cyfres y Ceinion." His "Elegy on Bishop Heber" is one of the most beautiful and pathetic in the Welsh language. (Diet. Em. W. ; Cyfres y Ceinion; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Ceinion Alun; The Gwyneddon, cr an Account of the Royal Denbigh Eisteddfod, p. 133 ; Y Geninen, 1897, p. 125; Hanes Lien. G,; Y Qeninen, Mch., 1901, p. 36; Y Cymmrodor, v. 2, p. 20 ; Y Traethodydd-, 1900, p. 282 ; Nodweddiad y Cymry, p. 252 ; Adgof uwch Anghof, p. 194 ; Welsh Lyrics, p. 3 ; Qent. Mag., N.S. v. 14, p. 100 ; Cymru, vol. 23, p. 181. Blayney, Thomas, 1785, a celebrated Welsh harpist, the third son of Arthur Blayney, of Tynycoed, in the parish of Llanwchhirin, Montgomeryshire, by Letitia, daughter of Mr. Owens, of Dalfor, in the same parish. At the Carmarthen Eisteddfod, in 1819, after a keen contest, he was awarded the chief prize of a silver harp and thirty guineas for his performance on the harp. In 1829, he was appointed harpist to Earl Powys, which post he retained till his death some years later. He played at most of the Eisteddfodau of those days, and went about the country occasionally with the triple

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A DICTIONARY OF

harp, on which he was an admirable player. (B. Cerddorion Cymreig; Mont. Worthies). See Cymru, vol. 30, p. 42. Bleddyn, see Jones, William, (pit - « 'fo 3 Boscawen, W. H., 1825-1882, a clergyman, was a native of Flintshire. He was educated at Oxford, and ordained priest in 1848, and eventually became rector of Marchwiel, near Wrexham, a living which he held till his death 15 years later. He was one of the best known clergymen in the diocese of St. Asaph, and for some years occupied the office of Rural Dean. He occasionally appeared as a lecturer on general subjects, and in this capacity was ready to give his assistance to the literary institutions of the district. His son, Mr. St. Chad Boscawen, is a well-known writer on Palestine. (Bye-Gones, 1882, p. 132 ; Private Information). Bowen, Ben, 1878-1903, a very promising poet, was a native of Treorky, Glamorganshire. He was known as the youngest chaired bard in Wales, having won that distinction in his eighteenth year. He won another chair at Aberdare in 1897. At that time he worked as a miner, but shortly afterwards he was induced to study for the ministry. At the Liverpool National Eisteddfod, in 1900, his poem secured second place in the competition for the crown prize. His health soon afterwards broke down, and after spending a year in South Africa, he returned to the Rhondda Valley, where he died in his twenty-fourth year. A volume of his poems, with memoir, was published in 1905 by his brother, Myfir Hefin, and the Rev. H. Elvet Lewis, in reviewing the work, writes :—" No one was more a child of the newer day in Wales than he ; no one showed more distinctly the genuine spirit of poetry, while as yet he was not given time to grow mature." (Manchester Guardian ; British Weekly). See Y Geninen, Mch, 1905, p, 57 ; Yspryd yr Oes, vol. 2 (March, 1905), p. 41, with portrait. Bowen, John, 1815-1858, Bishop of Sierra Leone, the son of Captain Thomas Bowen, of the 85th Foot, was born at Court, near Fishguard, Pembrokeshire, and educated at Haverfordwest. He sailed for Canada in April, 1835, and farmed land at Danville, on the shores of Lake Erie, for seven years, returning to Wales in 1842. He entered himself at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1843, and graduated B.A. in 1847, and LL.B. and LL.D. ten years later. He was ordained priest in 1847. His first curacy was at Knaresborough, in Yorkshire (1848-50), and in 1853 he was preferred to the rectory of Orton Longueville, Hunts. He inherited considerable property after an uncle, and this enabled him to devote himself to missionary work, in connection with which he spent about £800 a year. Under the auspices of the Church of England Missionary Society he visited Jerusalem, Syria, Cairo, Mogul, Smyrna, and other centres. In 1857 he was consecrated Bishop of Sierra Leone, and sailed for his diocese in November of that year, but the deadly climate claimed him as a victim in about 18 months afterwards, and he died at Freetown, the capital of the colony, on 28th May, 1859. His sister published the " Memorials of John

Rev. John Black well. "Alun" (1797-1840).

Ben Bowen (1878-1903).

EMINENT WELSHMEN

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Bowen, compiled from his Letters and Journals," in 1862. (Enwog. C. ; Old Wales, vol. 1, p. 344). See Gent. Mag. 1859, p. 187-8. Bradford, John, 1690-1780, "Ieuan Tir Iarll," a poet, was a native of Glamorganshire. He was also an antiquary of note, and it was he who furnished Edward Williams (" Iolo Morganwg,") with the manuscript of " Cyfrinach y Beirdd." Lewis Morris (" Llewelyn Ddu o F6n,") speaks rather disparagingly of him, but his notes in " Cyf rinach y Beirdd " shew that he was a thorough master of the rules of Welsh poetry. See " Cyfrinach y Beirdd," " Taliesin," vol. 1, p. 213 ; " Gwaith Llywarch Hen," by Dr. W. Owen Pughe, lxii, Ixiii. (Enwog. C.) Breese, Edward. 1835-1881, an antiquary, was the second son of the Rev. John Breese (1789-1842), see post), and a nephew of Mr. David Williams, M.P. (1800-1869, see post). He was born at Carmar then, where his father ministered before leaving for Liverpool. He completed his education at Lewisham College, and was articled as a solicitor in his uncle's office at Portmadoc, afterwards succeeding to his practice. He was appointed clerk of the peace for the county of Merioneth. He wrote a number of articles to the " Archaeologia Cambrensis," and other antiquarian magazines, but is best known as the author, in conjunction with Mr. R. M. Wynne, of Peniarth, of "The Kalendars of Gwynedd," which is recognised as a standard work. He was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. All his literary work is characterised by scholarly accuracy and pains taking research,—with him accuracy was the first requisite. In politics he was a Liberal, and was looked upon as the future member for Merioneth. (F Qestiana ; Bye-Gones, 1881, p. 206), Breese, Evan, 1798, poet, was born at Dol Howell, Llangadfan, Montgomeryshire, and was a grandson of the well-known scholar, William Jones, of that place. He spent most of his life as a schoolmaster in various parts of the country, and was a local preacher with the Wesleyans. Two small volumes of poems were published by him, containing carols and other religious verses. He died at Llanerfyl, and was buried there. (Mont. Worthies). Breese, John, 1789 - 1842, a Congregational preacher, was born at Llanbrynmair, Montgomeryshire. He received but little education in early life, and for some time he was employed as a farm labourer. When 24 years of age. having, in the meantime, commenced to preach, he was sent to Shrewsbury School, and afterwards to college. He then settled down as pastor in Liverpool, where he laboured with great success for 17 years. He spent the last seven years of his life at Carmarthen. He travelled much, and among the people of his own denomination was considered second only to Williams of Wern as a preacher. He was exceptionally liberal in his views as a Noncon formist, so much so that during his pastorate in Lherpool, Dr. Bethell, then Bishop of Bangor, wrote offering to ordain him as a minister of the Church of England, andi subsequently sent a neighbouring clergyman to Liverpool speciallyjto endeavour to persuade him to take orders in the Church, but he declined. His sermons were mainly

20

A DICTIONARY OP

doctrinal, and, at times, only the most intelligent of his hearers could follow him with any profit. (Enwog. C. ; Mont. Worthies). Breese, Samuel, 1772-1812, a Baptist minister, was born at Llandinam, Montgomeryshire. In his eighth year, he became lame, and this induced his parents to give him a better education than they would otherwise have done. For some time he followed the occupation of schoolmaster, but in 1795 he began to preach. He became one of the most popular and powerful preachers of the day, and in 1803 became co-pastor at Aberystwyth with the Rev. John James. He afterwards removed to Newcastle Emlyn, where he laboured with much success. His descriptive powers were remarkably vivid, and few preachers were more eloquent and popular. He travelled much throughout Wales and parts of England, preaching fluently in English as well as Welsh. He was buried in the burial ground attached to the old Baptist Chapel at Cilfowyr, Pembrokeshire. Elegies were written on his death by the Revs. D. Saunders and Christmas Evans, and the latter was reprinted in the form of a pamphlet at Llanidloes in 1846. (Enwog. C. ; Mont. Worthies). Brereton, Andrew Jones, 1827-1885, "Andreas o F6n," a poet, was a native of Anglesea. He began his business career in Liverpool, subsequently removing, in 1852, to Mold, where he entered the employ of a firm of brewers, Messrs. Jones, Lloyd and Company, as clerk. He afterwards became managing partner, and retired from business some years before his death. He was a constant contributor to the magazines, and an ardent Eisteddfodwr. He edited the prize compositions of the Mold Eisteddfod of 1851. In 1878 a sum of three hundred and twenty pounds was collected for presentation to him in recognition of his services to various Welsh movements, and especially the Eisteddfod. He, however, declined to accept a pecuniary testimonial, and three hundred pounds of the amount went towards founding a scholarship in his name at the Aberystwyth University College, the balance being applied to the purchase of a piece of silver which was presented to him. (The Red Dragon; Cardiff Catalogue ; C. & D. Herald). See Golud yr Oes, vol. 2, p. 34. Brereton, Jane, 1685-1740, an authoress, was the daughter of Thomas Hughes, of Bryn Griffith, near Mold, Flintshire, and in 1711 she married Thomas Brereton, the dramatist, of Chester, who was drowned in the Dee in 1722. Mrs. Brereton spent the remaining eighteen years of her life at Wrexham. She was a gifted writer, and wrote poetry of a high order, much of which appeared in the "Gentleman's Magazine." Her works were collected and published in 1744, four years after her death. Sir Egerton Brydges, in his "Censura Literaria," has an appreciative reference to her. (Cilcain eCr Amgylchoedd ; Diet. Nat. Biog.). Brereton, Owen Salusbury, 1715-1798, antiquary, was the son of Mr. Thomas Brereton, of Flintshire, and afterwards of Shotwick Park, Cheshire. He added the name of " Salusbury " on succeeding to estates in the counties of Chester, Denbigh, and Flint, on his father's death, about 1756. He was called to the bar in 1738, and in

EMINENT WELSHMEN

21

1742 was appointed recorder of Liverpool, a position which he retained for fifty-six years. He was a member of the Society of Arts, the Royal Society, and the Society of Antiquaries. He sat as M.P. for Ilchester from 1775 to 1780, and was appointed constable of Flint Castle in 1775. He contributed a number of papers to the " Archaeologia" and the "Philosophical Transactions" of 1781 on various objects of antiquity in North Wales. (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Notices of Flint). See Chalmer's Biog. Diet. ; Gentleman's Magazine, 1798, vol. 68, part 2, p. 816; Ormerod's Cheshire, ed. Helsby, 1882, vol. 2, p. 573 ; Welch's Westminster Scholars, 1188 ; Return of Members of Parliament, 1878, vol. 2, p. 154. Brewer, Jehoiada, 1752-1818, an author, was a native of Newport, Monmouthshire. He was induced by the Rev. Caradoc Glascott, vicar of Hatherleigh, Devon, to study for the church, and he accordingly entered the Countess of Huntingdon's College at Trevecca, but the Bishop refused to ordain him, and he laboured with the Non conformists, first at Sheffield, and then at Birmingham. He published several sermons, etc. ; wrote several pieces of poetry ; and composed hymns,—two of which—the "Hiding Place," and the "Star of Bethlehem,"—were very popular. His publications include :—" An Introduction Discourse at the Ordination of the late Mr. Jonathan Evans, at Poleshill, April 4, 1797"; "A Sermon preached before the Missionary Society in London, May, 1793"; and "An Oration delivered at the Interment of the Rev. Samuel Pearce, of Birmingham." (Enwog. C.) See Y Brytlwn, vol. 1, second edit., p. 410 ; Evangelical Magazine, Oct., 1817 ; Bishop's Christian Memorials of the Nineteenth Century, 1826 ; Gadsby's Hymn Writers, 1855: Briscoe, Thomas, 1813-1895, a clergyman and author, was born at Wrexham, where his father, Richard Briscoe, carried on business as a druggist. He completed his education at Oxford, and received the degree of D.D. He was ordained priest in 1837 by the Bishop of Oxford. After several preferments he was, in 1858, appointed vicar of Holyhead, subsequently becoming Chancellor of Bangor Cathedral, and Proctor in Convocation for the Dean and Chapter of Bangor. He was an excellent Hebrew and Greek scholar, and translated into Welsh the Book of Job from the original (Holy well : 1854) ; and also the Book of Proverbs and the Psalms (Holy well : 1855). In 1894 he translated the New Testament " from the readings adopted by the revisers of the authorised version," (Bangor : Jarvis & Foster). (C. & D. Herald ; Cardiff Catalogue). See Y Traethodydd, 1895, p. 143 ; Y Geninen, 1884, p. 230 ; Ibid, 1897, p. 36. Brown, Richard, 1812-1895, a Calvinistic Methodist minister and author, was born at Llanidloes, in Montgomeryshire, and was ordained in 1838. His first pastorate was at Llanmartyn, Mon., but he afterwards removed to North Wales, where he often preached with John Elias. Later on he went to Liverpool, where he took charge of the Liverpool City Mission, having under his care about 25 local

22

A DICTIONARY OF

missions. During his stay there, he published about 17 volumes, one of the most popular being " Byways of the Bible." (C7. & D. Herald). Bruce, Henry Austin, 1815-1895, first Lord Aberdare, was the son of Mr. John Bruce Piyce Bruce, of Duffryn, St. Nicholas, Glamorganshire. In youth he spent six years in France, and returning to England in 1827, he entered Swansea Grammar School. In 1837 he was called to the bar, and from 1847 to 1852 he was police magis trate at Merthyr Tydfil. From 1852 to 1868 he represented Merthyr in Parliament, and in 1869 was elected for Renfrewshire. He was under-secretary at the Home Office from 1862 to 1864, and subse quently, until July, 1866, was vice-president of the Committee of Council on Education. In 1868 he took office under Mr. Gladstone as Home Secretary, and in 1873, when he was appointed Lord President of the Council, he was raised to the peerage. In Wales he will always be remembered for the interest he took in the promotion of higher education, and it was he who presided over the Royal Commission, whose report led to the foundation of the University Colleges of North and South Wales. He also took a deep interest in the welfare of the University College of Wales at Aberystwyth, and filled the office of President of the Board of Governors. He wrote a " Life of General Napier" (1864), "National Education" (1866), and published his " Speech on the Education of the Poor Bill " in 1867. (Bye-Gones, 1895, p. 43 ; Harmsworth). Bruce, Sir James Lewis Knight, 1791-1866, judge, was the son of John Knight, of Devonshire, by Margaret, daughter of William Bruce, of Llanblethian, in Glamorganshire. He was called to the bar in 1817, and for a short time took the Welsh circuit. The increase of his Chancery practice soon caused him to abandon the common-law bar, and he confined himself to the Equity Court. In 1831 he was returned to Parliament for Bishop's Castle in the Conser vative interest. His parliamentary career was, however, very short, the borough he represented being disfranchised by the Reform Bill. In 1834 he received the honorary degree of D.C.L. from Oxford University. On several occasions he was one of the counsel heard at the House of Lords on matters relating to the Reform Bill and Ecclesiastical Duties and Revenues Bill. In 1842 he was sworn a member of the Privy Council, and in the same year became Chief Judge in Bankruptcy, and held the yearly office of Treasurer of Lincoln's Inn. Upon the creation of the Court of Appeal in Chan cery, he was appointed one of the first Lords Justices. He shewed a wonderful aptitude for business, and a profound knowledge of law ; his judgments, especially the earlier ones, were models of composition. He was buried in Cheriton Churchyard, near Folkestone. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Law Mag. and Review, v. 22, p. 278 ; Law Journal, v. 1, p. 564 ; Solicitors' Journal, vol. 11, p. 25 ; Gent. Mag. 1866, pp. 681, 818, 833. Brutus, see Owen, David. Bryan, John, 1770-1856, a well-known Wesleyan preacher, was born at Llanfyllin, Montgomeryshire. He removed in early life to

EMINENT WELSHMEN

23

Chester, audi found employment in a shop, but was soon induced to commence preaching. He joined the Wesleyan Mission in 1801, and laboured in Wales for fifteen years. He was afterwards transferred to England, where he remained for eight years. He was a very popular preacher, and a prolific writer, and as a translator of verse he had few equals. He translated a very large number of the hymns now in use by the Wesleyans, and published several prose works, among them Welsh versions of " The Life of John Haime " (1811) ; " The Life of John Nelson " (1812) ; " The Life of James Arminius," and " Wesley on Universal Salvation " (1841). He also contributed to the " Eurgrawn Wesleyaidd" a number of articles on the theological controversies of the day. He died at Carnarvon in the eighty-seventh year of his age. (Enivog. C.; Mont. Worthies). See Hanes Lien. G. ; Cymru, vol. 3, p. 220. Brychan, see Davies, John. Burne-Jones, Sir Edward Coley, 1833-1898, painter, was born in Birmingham. The name "Burne was a baptismal name, and was adopted as part of the surname as a matter of convenience. His father, a man of Welsh descent, was Edward Richard Jones. Young Jones matriculated at Oxford, in 1852, with the intention of taking orders in the Church of England. He, however, formed a friendship with a fellow graduate, also of Welsh nationality—William Morris— and forsook the path of divinity for those of literature and art. At first he studied under Rosetti, and worked with him on the Walls of the Oxford Union. It was at the opening of the Grosvenor Gallery in 1877, that Burne-Jones' work was practically first introduced to the world. His principal contributions to that gallery made a great impression, but he attained a still more striking success by the " Briar Rose " series of pictures. As is evident from nearly all his work, he was a passionate student of Celtic romance. Together with Rosetti and Morris he has profoundly affected th« renaissance in England of decorative art proper, and the artistic crafts. He designed stained glass windows for churches in England, America, India, Germany and France, and the mosaic decorations in the apse of the American Church, Rome, are his. (Diet. Nat. Biog., Harrmworth.) See Mal colm BelVs Sir Edward Burne-Jones, 1898; Nineteenth Century, January, 1899. Butler, Benjamin Franklin, 1818-1893, an American general, was of Welsh descent, and was born at Deerfield, New Hamp shire, U.S.A. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1840, and practised with success. When the Civil War broke out in 1861, he entered Baltimore at the head of the Federal brigade, and was given command of the department of East Virginia. In 1863 he co-operated with General Grant in an unsuccessful attack on Richmond. Failing to capture Fort Fisher, in December, 1864, he was removed from his command for exceeding his instructions. He was returned to Congress by the Republicans of Massachusetts in 1866-76, and was one of the Committee appointed to try President Andrew Johnson. He was elected Governor of Massachusetts in 1882. ( Welshmen as Factors, &c., W. R.

24

A DICTIONARY OF

Evans ; Lippincott ; Harmsworth.) See Parton's General Butler in New Orleans (1863) ; Life, by Bland (1879) ; and his own Autobiography (1892). Cadfan, see Williams, Hugh. Cadvan Gwynedd, see Hughes, Hugh. Cadwalader, John, 1743-1786, a general in the American army, who was of a Welsh family, was born in Philadelphia. He received the appointment of Brigadier-general in 1777, and bravely fought at the battles of Princeton, Brandywine, and Monmouth. He fought a duel with General Conway, because he had intrigued with Gates against Washington, and was severely wounded. In the winter of 1776-7, he had the whole of the Pennsylvanian troops under his command, and his men were foremost in some of the most important battles of the Revolutionary crisis. In 1778 he was offered, but declined to accept, an appointment from Congress as General of the Cavalry. He is described as " wealthy, and liberal to a fault." (Wales and its People ; Welshmen as Factors.) See Lippincott. Cadwalader, John, 1806-1879, an American lawyer and general, born in Philadelphia, was of Welsh descent. He served as a brigadier-general in the Mexican war of 1847. In 1861 he was second in command under General Patterson in Virginia, and was appointed a major-general of volunteers in 1862. (Wales and its People; Lippincott.) Cadwaladr, Ellis, d. about 1740, a poet, was a native of Llandrillo, near Corwen. Four of his poems were published in the " Blodeugerdd"; he had evidently received a good education, and knew something of the classics. He won the chair prize at an Eisteddfod held at Bala in 1738, and in addressing him on that occasion the adjudicator (the Rev. Edward Wynne, vicar of Gwyddelwern) gave utterance to an alliterative line of verse—" Goreu i gyd, gwr y Gadair " —which has ever since been retained as an Eisteddfod motto. (Enwog. C.) See his poem to Watkin Williams Wynne, Esq. (Shrewsbury: T. Durston, 1737), at Cardiff Library, W. 3, 2133. Caerfallwch, see Edwards, Thomas. Caledfryn, see Williams, William. Campbell, Eliza Constantia, 1796-1864, a talented poetess, was the eldest child of Richard Pryce, Esq., of Gunley, her mother being a Miss Edwards, of Pentre Hall. She married, in 1826, Robert Campbell, Commander in the Royal Navy, and a first cousin of Thomas Campbell, the poet. In December, 1833, she published "Stories from the History of Wales" (printed by Eddowes, Shrewsbury, published by Longmans, London). A second edition was printed and published in Edinburgh in 1837, under the title of " Tales about Wales." Thomas Campbell thought very highly of his " cousin's " taste and character. Her husband died at Gunley in 1832, and was buried in Forden Churchyard (Montgomeryshire), and in 1844 she was married to her second husband, Captain Hugh Morrieson.

EMINENT WELSHMEN

25

Prof. Lewis Campbell (born 1830), Greek scholar and author, who held the chair of Greek at St. Andrew's University from 1863 to 1892, is a son of Mrs. Campbell. (Mont. Worthies ; Harmsworth). Canrhawdfardd, see Jones, Thomas. Caradawc y Fenni, see Bevan, Thomas. Caradog, see Jones, Griffith Rhys. Carbery, Earl Of, 1641-1713, was descended from an old Welsh family. It is probable that his father, as became a Welshman, was a Loyalist, for at the coronation of King Charles II., in 1661, his youthful son (the subject of this sketch) was created a Knight of the Order of the Bath. In the same year he attained his majority, and 'was returned to Parliament for the borough of Carmarthen, which he continued to represent till his succession to the Peerage. He rose so rapidly in the estimation of the Sovereign and his Ministers, that at the early age of 30, he was appointed to the Governorship of Jamaica, which he held for eight years. (The Red Dragon.) Cam Ingli, see Hughes, Joseph. Carnhuanawc, see Price, Thomas. Carter, Hugh, 1784-1855, a Wesleyan minister and author, was born near Mold, and was the son of Mr. Carter, tanner, of Denbigh. He entered the Wesleyan ministry in 1805, and served with success among Welsh and English churches. He published an abridged edition of the duoglot Bible. He was a constant contributor to the earlier volumes of " Yr Eurgrawn Wesleyaidd." (Enivog. C.) See Minutes of Conference, 1856. Ceiriog, see Hughes, John Ceiriog. Ceulanydd, see Williams, John. Charles, David, 1762-1834, a Calvinistic Methodist preacher, and the youngest brother of the Rev. Thomas Charles (see post), like him, a powerful preacher, and a true builder of the churches, was born near St. Clears, Carmarthenshire. He was educated at the village school, and was converted about 1777, and in 1783 he commenced business at Carmarthen. Five years later he was appointed a deacon of the Calvinistic Methodist Church, and in 1803 began to preach. Early Methodism in Wales owed much to his soberness and wisdom. He spent many years of his early manhood in Bristol, and was an effective preacher in English as well as in Welsh. He preached several times with and for Rowland Hill ; and twice at least he occupied the famous pulpit of Surrey Chapel. He wrote several hymns, one of which—" 0 fryniau Caersalem ceir gweled "—ranks among the foremost hymns in the language. His sermons and hymns give a fair insight into the lofty thoughts and glorious visions with which his mind was constantly engaged. Some of his hymns are unrivalled in their beauty and pathos, and the originality of their ideas. (Sweet Singers of Wales ; Historical Handbook). See his Memoir by H. Hughes, prefixed to English edition of Charles' Sermons ; Y Traethodydd, 1896, p. 241.

26

A DICTIONARY OF

Charles, David, 1812-1878, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was born at Bala, and educated at Oxford, where he graduated B.A. He was a grandson of the great Thomas Charles (1755-1814, see post). In conjunction with his brother-in-law (Dr. Lewis Edwards) he founded Bala College in 1837. He became principal of Trevecca College in 1842, a post, which he held for 20 years. In 1867 he was appointed secretary and registrar of the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. There are three movements which stand out prominently in the story of his life, of which he might be justly termed the chief actor,—the founding of the college at Bala, at Trevecca, and the establishing of the University College at Aber ystwyth. In his capacity as principal at Trevecca he was most diligent and persevering, always ready to exercise endless patience on behalf of the students. He did a great work, and that conscientously. It was his privilege to do a little pastoral work in two places,—Abercarn and Aberdovey ; and his fidelity to truth, and his devotion to his Master's work, were marked features in his work in both places. As a preacher, temperance advocate and lecturer, he was beloved by all classes of the community. (Historical Handbook). See T Traethodydd, 1893, pp. 45, 131, and 264 ; Sunday Schools, &c, p. 336. Charles, Edward, abt. 1760-1828, "Sierlyn Fardd," a poet, was born at Clocaenog, near Ruthin, Denbighshire, but spent most of his life in London. He was a prominent member of the Gwyneddigion Society, and acted as its secretary in 1796, and four years later was elected chief bard of the Society. He was the first to be elected to that office, and acted in the same capacity in 1810. On his election to the post in 1800 what is described as " a large and handsome silver medal " was presented to him by the Society, and his poem in acknowledgment of the gift is printed in "Golud yr Oes," vol. 2, p. 49. Another poem "to the Cymreigyddion Society" appears on p. 224 of the same volume. One of his poems was appended to an ode by Thomas Jones (Y Bardd Cloff) printed in 1799 (London : J. Jones). (Enwog. C. ; Golud yr Oes, vol. 2, pp. 49, 224). See Report on Welsh MSS., J. Gwenogfryn Evans, vol. 2, pt. 1, p. 297, for contents of a MS. in his handwriting, containing a number of his own poems, together with those of other bards ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry, p. 725. Charles, Thomas, 1755-1814, of Bala, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was born in the parish of Llanfihangel, Carmarthenshire. He received his early training at Llanddowror and at the Academy at Carmarthen, and entered Jesus College in 1775. Ordained in 1778, he entered on a curacy in Somersetshire. In 1784 he was appointed curate at Llanymawddwy, but in about a year afterwards he withdrew from the Established Church, and became a most active minister with the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists, with whom he had been associated in his early youth. It was on the occasion of a visit to an Oxford fellow-student (the Rev. Simon Lloyd, Bala) that he first saw the little town in Merioneth with which his name will always be associated. He greatly increased the membership of the denomination by establishing Circulating Schools throughout

EMINENT WELSHMEN

27

the Principality, and, later on, took a leading part, with the Revds. Edward Williams, D.D., Morgan John Rhys, and others in extending the Sunday School movement set on foot by Robert Raikes in 17S5. (See Cymru, -vol. 22, p. 153 et seq.). He was the principal instrument in founding the Bible Society, and prepared two editions of the Welsh Bible for the press. He published a new edition of the works of Walker Cradock, and several tracts, &c, for the use of his schools, but his most important work is the " Geiriadur Ysgrythyrol," a Welsh Scripture Dictionary of very great merit, which is still regarded as a standard book. (Diet. Em. W. ; Young Wales, 1904, p. 30). See Enwog. y Ffydd ; Cymru, vol. 18, p. 323 ; vol. 14, p. 47 ; Traethodau Llenyddol Dr. Edwards, p. 278 ; Y Geninen, 1885, p. 220 ; Y Traethodydd, 1895, pp. 93 and 290 ; Nodweddiad y Cymry, p. 209 ; Y Traethodydd. 1884, p. 29 ; Life of Rev. Thos. Charles, by W. Hughes ; Hist, of the Life and Labours of the Rev. T. Charles, by Edward Morgan ; Meth, Cymru ; Y Tadau Methodistaidd ; Sunday Schools, &c. ; Y Traethodydd, 1899, pp. 310 and 501 ; Ibid, 1882, p. 342 ; Ibid, 1900, p. 313. Chidlaw, Benjamin William, -1892, an American preacher and social reformer. "This remarkable Welshman was ordained at 25, and a year later entered on a long period of service as missionary of the American Sunday School Union. He has literally founded thousands of Sunday Schools, in remote districts, and given the first impulse to new churches." (Missionary Review of the World.) He acted as chaplain during the American War, and he is described as " an ideal chaplain, known to the whole army with which he served for his earnestness, his fearlessness, his friendliness, his affectionate devotion to the soldiers, his tender ministrations in times of trouble, his charities, his patriotism, the pathos of his services amid the perils of war, his eloquence that was as quickening as a bugle note." (Welshmen as Factors,
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A DICTIONARY OF

Brecknock, amidst the acclamations of the people, on the 26th July, 1802. Lord Nelson subsequently wrote to the poet, thanking him for his lines. Southey, the poet, was in the county in 1798, and became personally acquainted with Churchey. (Poole's Brecknockshire ; Enwog. 0. ; Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Cowper's Works (Bohn), vol. 3, p. 370 ; Cottle's Reminiscences of Coleridge ; Southey, &c, 1847, p. 230 ; Tyerman's Life and Times of John Wesley, 1871, vol. 3, p. 244 et seq. Clough, Anne Jemima, 1820-1892, first principal of Newnham College, Cambridge, who was of Welsh descent, and a sister of Arthur Hugh Clough (see post) was born in Liverpool. She spent most of her younger days in South Carolina, but, returning in 1836, she became a school teacher in Wales, afterwards establishing a school at Ambleside, in Westmoreland, in 1852. Ten years later she closed her school to organise the scheme for the higher education of women. This led to her appointment as head of a house of residence at Cambridge, which formed the nucleus of Newnham College, opened under her principalship in 1880. Her memoir was published by her sister, Miss Blanche A. Clough, in 1897. (Harms worth.) See Diet. Nat. Biog. Clough, Arthur Hugh, 1819-1861, a poet, born in Liverpool, was of Welsh descent. He was educated at Rugby, under Dr. Arnold. He took a prominent part in the political and social movements of the day, and by a pamphlet on " Retrenchment," written in 1847, and occasioned by the potatoe famine in Ireland, he earned for himself the reputation of a Socialist. He spent some time in America, earning a living by literary and scholastic work, but returned to England in 1853 to take up a post in the Education Office, which he held till his death. He died at Florence, and was buried in the little Protestant cemetery on the outskirts of the city. His poems, edited by F. T. Palgrave, were published in 1862 ; his " Poems and Prose Remains," with a selection from his letters and a memoir, edited by Miss Blanche Clough, appeared in 1869. Selections from his works were also published in 1894, and (edited by Ernest Rhys) in 1896, and a mono graph, by S. Waddington, in 1883. Professor Sellar writes of him :— "No modern English poet is so truly Homeric—not through conscious imitation so much as the gift of a kindred spirit—in seizing immediately the real aspects and simple effects of Nature, which may be perceived and felt every day by the peasant as well as the poet." (Harmsworth.) See The Penny Poets, No. 29, and the works above referred to ; Red Dragon, vol. 8, p. 521. Clough, R. B. 1782-1830, rector of Corwen, was a bard and prose writer of some note. Some of his poetry was published in the " Gwyliedydd." He was exceedingly patriotic, and never tired in shewing hospitality to the bardic fraternity. (Enwog. C.) Clwydfardd, see Griffith, David. Clymer, George, 1739-1813, an American statesman, was born in Philadelphia, U.S.A., and was of Welsh descent. He became about 1773 an active supporter of the popular cause, was chosen

EMINENT WELSHMEN

29

a member of Congress in 1776, and signed the Declaration of In dependence. In 1780 he was re-elected to Congress. He was a member of the Convention which framed the Federal Constitution in 1787, and was the founder of the Pennsylvania Agricultural Society. (Welshmen as Factors, Jcc, W. R. Evans ; Lippincott). See Goodrich's Lives of the Signers to the Declaration of Independence. Coke, Thomas, 1747-1814, a missionary, was the son of a surgeon at Brecon, where he was born in 1747. After spending a few years at Brecon College School, in his seventeenth year he entered Jesus College, Oxford, where he took the degree of LL.D. in 1775. For three years he held the curacy of South Petherton, in Somersetshire, but in 1777 he threw in his lot with the Wesleyan Methodists, and became one of their most ardent supporters. In 1784, he made his first voyage to North America, where he was actively employed in the Methodist cause. In consequence of certain expressions in some of his sermons, and an apparent sacrifice of his loyalty in an address to the President, as superintendent of the Methodists of the United States, he was censured by the rulers of his own body on his return to England. Soon afterwards, he returned to North America, where his denunciations of slavery exposed him to great persecution and danger. In all, he made nine voyages to America, and devoted much time and energy to the establishing of missions in Ireland, Scotland, France, and Africa. In 1800 he formulated a plan for the introduction of Wesleyan Methodism into Wales, through the medium of the Welsh language. He published a Commentary on the Scriptures, and a History of the West Indies (Diet. Em. W.). See Y Geninen, 1885, p. 166 ; Ibid, 1886, p. 94 ; his Life, by Saml. Drew, 1817 ; Minutes of Conference, 1815. Corfanydd, see Williams, Robert Herbert. Cotton, Sir Stapleton, 1773-1865, first Viscount Combermere, a soldier, was born in Denbighshire. In 1808 he went to the Peninsula, and two years later was placed in command of the cavalry of the allied forces in Spain. He fought at Talavera, Salamanca, and Toulouse. Later he commanded the cavalry of the army of occupation in France after Waterloo. He was created Baron Combermere in 1814, and Viscount in 1827. He captured Bhartpur in 1826. He was commander of the forces in the West Indies from 1817 to 1820, commander-in-chief in Ireland from 1822 to 1825, and in India from 1825 to 1830. In 1855 he was appointed field-marshal He died at Clifton February 21, 1865. (Cyclo. of Names ; Harmsworth). 8ee Memoirs and Correspondence of Viscount Combermere, by Lady Combermere and Captain W. W. Knollys, London, 1866 ; Fraser's Magazine, November, 1866. Crawley, Richard, 1840-1893, scholar, was born at Bryngwyn Rectory, Monmouthshire, and was the eldest son of William Crawley, archdeacon of Monmouth, by his wife, Mary Gertrude, third daughter of Sir Love Jones Parry, of Madryn, Carnarvonshire. He graduated B.A. at Oxford in 1866, and was afterwards called

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A DICTIONARY OF

to the bar, but never practised, owing to ill-health. He had an admirable literary taste, and a wide knowledge of literature. He published a number of volumes, but his most notable performance was a translation of Thucydides' " History of the Peloponnesian War," an able and vigorous piece of work, which, however, secured little recognition. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Athenceum, 8th April, 1893 ; Times, 8th April, 1893. Creuddynfab, see Williams, William. Cristiolus Mon, see Hughes, David. Cromwell, see Williams, William W. Cromwell, Richard, 1626-1712, son of the great Protector, Oliver Cromwell, succeeded his father as lord protector, but, lacking the governing faculty, he remained in office for a few months only. He quietly acquiesced in the Restoration, and took up his residence at Cheshunt, in Hertfordshire, where he lived, "peaceful and forgotten, to the advanced age of 86." Oliver Cromwell's Welsh descent does not admit of any doubt. He was descended from Morgan Williams, a Glamorganshire Welshman, who married the sister of Thomas Cromwell, the minister of Henry VIII. His son, Richard Williams, adopted his mother's maiden surname, though he subscribed himself "Cromwell alias Williams." Oliver Cromwell himself occasionally used the name Williams concurrently with that of Cromwell, and it appeared in his marriage settlement, and even in the inscription on his bed when his effigy lay in state. After the Restoration of Charles II. some members of the Cromwell family resumed the name of Williams. (John Morley's Oliver Cromwell ; Harmsworth ; Imp. Diet. Biog. See Life of Oliver Cromwell and his sons, Richard and Henry, 1820 ; Waylon's House of Cromwell, 1880 ; Y Geninen, 1899, p. 233 ; Memoirs of the Protectorate House of Cromwell, M. Noble, 1784, which traces the Welsh origin of the family. Cyffin, see Jones, Thomas Griffiths. Cyffin Glan Cynwy, see Jones, John. Cymro Gwyllt, see Edwards, William. Cyndeym, see Davies, Robert. Cynddelw, see Ellis, Robert. Cynfaen, see Evans, John Hugh. Dalydd, Philip, -about 1800, a poet, was a native of South Wales. He published in 1791 an elegy on the death of the Rev. William Williams, Pantycelyn, and in 1797 a poem in memory of the Rev. Daniel Rowlands, Llangeitho. ( G. B.; Llyfrydd. y Cymry). Dafydd ap Gwilym Buallt, see Williams, David D. Dafydd Ddu Eryri, see Thomas, David. Dafydd Ionawr, see Richards, David. Dafydd Morganwg, see Jones, David William.

Rev. Principal David Charles Davies, M.A. (1826-1891).

John Adam* (1735-1826).

Rev. David Chari.es (Carmarthen). 17G2-1834.

Arthur Hugh Ci.ouoh (181<1-18I'-1).

David Davies (Llandinam), 1818-1890.

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Dafydd o Went, see Jones, David P. Dafydd Sion Dafydd, see Jones, David. Dafydd y Garreg Wen, see Owen, David. Daniel Ddu O Geredigion, see Evans, Daniel. Daniel, Robert Thomas, 1773an American minister, was the son of Welsh parents, and was born in Caroline County, Virginia. After the war, the family removed to North Carolina. R. T. Daniel was the fifth son ; for many years he was an earnest preacher of the Gospel, and organised several churches. His own record of his thirty-seven years' labour is thus given :—" I have travelled, for the purpose of preaching the Gospel, about 60,000 miles ; preached upwards of 5,000 sermons ; baptized more than 1,500 people." Many were led to enter the ministry through his influence. ( Welsh men as Factors, <£c). David, David, -1878, a sailor, was a native of Glamor ganshire. He started life when only 12 years of age, as a stable boy, at Dunlands, under the Rev. Robert Came, of that place. At the age of 16 he joined the Royal Navy, and for many years distinguished himself in several severe battles with pirates, more particularly with the Dyaks of Borneo. He was once pinned by a cutlass to the ma3t, and left in that state whilst the vessel was taken and retaken, and at length being liberated, after a long and serious illness, recovered and returned to his native soil. Had he been a good scholar he would have obtained the rank of lieutenant, but all that could be done for him was done by the Admiralty Board of that time. The Rajah of Sarawak had a great partiality for him, and constantly wrote to him. He spent the remainder of his life at Llantwit Major, in his native country. (Bye-Gones, 1878, p. 83). David, Job, 1746-1813, a Baptist minister, was a son of a preacher of the same name, who lived in Glamorganshire. The son ministered for some time in his native country, but afterwards removed to Frome, Somerset, where he remained for thirty years. He subsequently accepted a call to Taunton, but five years later, owing to ill-health, he removed to Swansea. He wrote several works, including w A Letter on the Use of Scriptural Doxology," and " A Reply to Dr. Priestley on the subject of Infant Baptism." (Gentleman's Magazine ; Enwog. C.) David, Thomas Essile, 1820-1891, "Dewi Wyn o Essyllt," was a native of Dinas Powis, Glamorganshire, and resided there until 1874, when he removed to Pontypridd, carrying on business there for the remainder of his life. For some time he acted as editor of " Y Gwladgarwr " ; " Y Fellten " ; and " Cyfaill y Plentyn." He displayed an early talent for poetry, and was an Eisteddfod competitor for the greater part of his life-time. His chief poems are those on "Man" ; " The Sun " ; " Sir Rowland Hill " ; " Sir Hugh Owen " ; and " The Martyrdom of Stephen." He was a constant contributor to the Welsh magazines, and frequently acted as adjudicator at the National Eistedd fod. In 1874 he published a volume of 588 pages, containing his

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poems and essays, under the title of " Ceinion Essyllt," with portrait (Cardiff : D. Duncan & Sons). He also published separately his poems on " Sir Rowland Hill " (Aberdare : Mills & Lynch, 1882) ; " Sir J. J. Guest " (Merthyr Tydfil : P. Williams, 1857) ; " William Rees, D.D." (Cardiff : D. Owen & Co., 1884) ; and " Conquests of the Human Mind " (Swansea : W. Morris, 1854). Y Geninen, Mch., 1891, p. 49 ; Cardiff Catalogue). See Y Geninen, Mch., 1892, p. 12. Davids, Thomas William, 1816-1884, a Congregational minister and author, was the son of the Revd. Wm. Saunders Davids, pastor of Providence Church, Gower, near Swansea. At first he studied for the medical profession, but in 1836 entered Homerton College to prepare for the ministry. In 1841 he was ordained pastor of the Lion Walk Congregational church, Colchester, and there he laboured with great ability and untiring energy for 34 years. He found time for extensive philosophical and theological studies, and wrote more than one valuable series of lectures, never given to the public. During the political commotion of 1848, he published an admirable sermon from Isaiah vi. 13, on " England's obligation to her Pious Men." In compliance with the request of the Committee of the Essex County Union that he should prepare a volume on the Essex Ejected Ministers, he wrote his "Annals of Evangelical Nonconformity in Essex," an enduring monument of painstaking labour. He also contributed a noteworthy article in the " British Quarterly Review " (1870), on " Nonconformity under the Plantagenets." During his later years he contributed numerous articles to the " Dictionary of Christian Bio graphy," edited by Dr. Smith and Prof. Wace. He left behind him 20 volumes of classified manuscripts, that will be of great service to future labourers in the same fields. His eldest son, Dr. Thomas William Rhys Davids (born 1843), is the author of several works on Buddhism. (Congreg. Year Book, 1885 ; Harmsworth.) Davie, William R., 1756-1820, a general in the American army, though born in England, was said to be of Welsh descent. He went to the United States when five years of age, and was adopted by an uncle in South Carolina, and graduated at Princeton, in 1776. He soon afterwards commenced the study of the law, but abandoned it for the field ; and in 1779 he was attached to Pulaski's Legion as lieutenant of horse. He headed the cavalry troop at the engagements of Hanging Rock, Ramsey's Mills, and Wahab's plantation, and was commissary to General Green at the battles of Guilford, Hob Kirk's Hill, and Ninetysix. In 1786 he resumed the protession of the law, having married into the family of General Allen Jones. He was a member of the convention which formed the Federal Constitution in 1787, and was chosen governor of North Carolina in 1799. He was sent as envoy to France in 1799 or 1800, and died in 1820. (Wales and its People ; Distinguished Americans). See Sparks' American Biography, vol. 15, second series. Davies, Benjamin, 1739-1817, head master of Abergavenny College, was a distinguished scholar. He was afterwards appointed classical master at Homerton College. His health failing him, he

Rev. Tiiomas Chari.eh, B.A. (Bai.a), 1755-1814.

Rbv. Benjamin William Chidlaw, d. 1892.

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33

removed to Bath, where he formed a close friendship with the Rev. Mr. Jay. He published a number of sermons, and a pamphlet, under the title of " Primitive Candour," controverting the teaching of Dr. Priestley. (Evangelical Magazine, 1819 ; Enwog. C). See Y Brython, vol. 2, second edition, p. 435. Davies, Benjamin, 1814-1875, a Baptist minister and author, was born at Worn, near St. Clears, Carmarthenshire, and preached his first sermon when he was not yet 16. He entered Bristol College in 1830, and afterwards proceeded to Dublin, Glasgow, and Germany, where he graduated Ph.D. at Leipsic. The degree of LL.D. from Dublin was afterwards conferred upon him. For six years he had charge, for the Canada Missionary Society, of its new institution at Montreal for training Baptist ministers. In 1844 he returned to England to take the theological tutorship and presidency of Stepney College, a post which he held for two years and a half. Whilst at Stepney he edited Dr. Robinson's " Harmony of the Gospels " for the Religious Tract Society. In 1847 he accepted a professorship at McGill College, Montreal, and spent the next 10 years there in congenial labour. He was a ripe and perfect scholar in the Hebrew and its cognate languages when he became, in 1857, classical and Oriental tutor at the old Stepney College, just then removed to Regent's Park. During this period he engaged largely in literary work, writing or editing the notes to several of the Epistles in the Religious Tract Society's Annotated Paragraph Bible ; assisting the Dean of Canterbury in the preparation of his great Syriac Lexicon; and preparing successive editions of his own admirable " Student's Grammar " and " Student's Lexicon of the Hebrew Language." He was a member of the Old Testament Company of Revisers. (Baptist Handbook, 1876). See Baptist, 30th July, 1875. Davies, Catherine, 1773-1841, authoress of "Eleven years' residence in the family of Murat, King of Naples," was born at Beaumaris, Anglesey, being one of a family of thirty-three children. After residing in Liverpool, and subsequently in London, she went to France in 1802 as governess. A few months later she took a similar situation under Madame Mauprat, the second sister of Bonaparte. She retained her position when Napoleon declared Murat and his wife King and Queen of Italy. In her volume above referred to she describes, in a very interesting manner, the inner life of Murat and his family during their struggles, and her book contains many facts not to be found elsewhere. Miss Davies settled at Beaumaris in 1818, and two years later she was summoned to London as a witness in the impending trial of Queen Caroline, but was not called. For some years her health was failing, and in 1841 Messrs. How & Parsons issued by subscription the "Eleven Years' Residence" for her sole benefit. (Diet. Nat. Biog.). See Eleven Years'' Residence, &c.; Monthly Review, Nov., 1841, p. 349 ; Literary Gazette, No. 1290, 8th Oct., 1841, p. 651. Davies, Charles, -1891, an engineer and agriculturist, was a son of Thomas Davies, Castle Street, Montgomery. He was for

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many years associated with his brother-in-law, Mr. B. Pieroy, civil engineer, in all his engineering works in Italy, and was a resident there for upwards of twenty years. The last few years of his life he devoted to agricultural pursuits, having purchased extensive estates in the Island of Sardinia, and devoted much time, energy, and capital to their improvement, for which he was created Chevalier of the Order of San Maurizio of the Kingdom of Italy by the King. Numerous medals were conferred upon him by the various Industrial Societies of the Island. (Bye-Gones, 1891, p. 52). Davies, Dan Isaac, 1839-1887, Inspector of Schools and author, began life as a pupil teacher at Llandovery British Schools, Carmarthenshire, where he served an apprenticeship of five years. He afterwards took charge of the Park British Schools, Aberdare. In 1869 he became the successor of Dr. Evan Davies as headmaster of the Normal College, Swansea, and two years afterwards was offered the post of assistant Inspector of Schools under Mr. Joseph Boustead. He was afterwards promoted to be sub-inspector, being one of the first elementary teachers chosen for this distinction. In 1682 he was promoted to the Merthyr district. He took a very active interest in the Society for utilising the Welsh Language and similar organizations, and was the author of " Tair Miliwn o Gymry Dwy-Ieithawg mewn Can' Mlynedd" (Denbigh; Gee & Son, 1885). (Bye-Gones, 1887, p. 320 ; Cardiff Catalogue). See Wales and her Language, p. 138. Davies, Daniel, 1797-1876, a Baptist minister, was born near Llandovery, Carmarthenshire. His parents were Calvinistic Methodists, and he joined that body, and, in 1818, began to preach. Three years later he changed his views, and joined the Baptists. The small-pox deprived him of his eyesight when he was about six years of age, but through his superior mental powers and flowing eloquence he became a most powerful and popular preacher, and his popularity continued undiminished to the close of his long life. In 1826 he succeeded the Rev. Joseph Harris (Gomer) as pastor at Bethesda, Swansea. In 1855 he removed to Cardigan, and, later on, to Aberavon. His minute acquaintance with Scripture, and the variety of subjects with which he was familiar in many branches of knowledge contributed in no small degree to his popularity. When in the great " hwyl " on a platform, with some twelve or fifteen thousand persons before him, the effect produced by his preaching was sometimes almost over powering. His memoir, from the pen of his son-in-law, the Rev. John Rowlands, Llanelly, with a selection of his works, appeared in 1879 (Llanelly : J. Davies & Co.). He was buried at Swansea. (Rees' Hist. ; Baptist Handbook, 1877.) Davies, Daniel Thomas, 1852-1899, a self-made man, was born at New Quay, Cardiganshire. Leaving home at an early age, he spent a short period at Rhymney, Glamorganshire, emigrated to the States in 1869, worked three years in the coal mines of Pennsylvania and Ohio, and finally settled in the silver mines of Colorado. In 1803 he established the Davies Packing Company, of which he was

EMINENT WELSHMEN

35

sole proprietor. In November, 1897, he was elected for two years to a seat in the State Legislature of Minnesota. (The Cambrian.) Davies, David, 1745-1827, a Presbyterian minister and poet, was born at Goetre, in the parish of Llangybi, Cardiganshire. He finished his education at the Presbyterian College, Carmarthen, and afterwards became an Arminian preacher. He first settled at Ciliau Aeron, but subsequently removed to Castle Howel, with which place his name has ever since been associated. Here he established a very celebrated school, in which many eminent men received their early training. He was an excellent classical scholar. As a poet his imitative faculties were certainly stronger than his creative powers, and it is as a translator into Welsh that he will be remembered, for in that capacity he has never been excelled. His translations, as a rule, are quite equal, if not sometimes even superior, to the originals. His most successful versions are those of Gray's " Elegy," Cowper's " Alexander Selkirk," some passages from Young's " Night Thoughts," and Mrs. Barbauld's " Address to the Deity." A volume of his poetical works was published under the title of " Telyn Dewi." {Diet. Em. W. ; Y Cymmrodor, vol. 10, p. 59). See Llyfrydd. y Cymry ; Enwog. C. ; and his Welsh Biography, by Tau Gimel (the Rev. Thomas Griffith) (Carmarthen : J. Evans, 1828) ; Y Traethodydd, 1900, p. 280 ; Ibid, 1848 ; Nodweddiad y Cymry, p. 258 ; Y Geninen, 1898, p. 288 ; Cymru, vol. 23, p. 49 et seq. ; Rees' Hist. Noncon. ; Christian Reformer, 1861, p. 209 ; Memoir in 1876 edition of Telyn Deuri ; Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Y Geninen, 1886, p. 113. Davies, David, 1763-1816, one of the most powerful pulpit orators of his day, was a native of Llangeler, Carmarthenshire, and, as his parents were not in affluent circumstances, the education he received was very meagre. He joined the Independent Church at Pencader, and soon attracted notice by his extraordinary gift in prayer. He was then induced to commence preaching, and his eloquence was such that multitudes of people assembled to hear him wherever he went. In 1795 he became pastor of three congregations near Swansea, and his labours there, and also in the town of Swansea, were signally successful. It is impossible to form an exact estimate of the amount and variety of his labours, and of the service he rendered to the cause of religion. His style of preaching was especially adapted to alarm the unconverted, and to win them to the love of religion ; and in these respects he was made extensively useful. He began to publish a quarto edition of the Welsh Bible, but died before the work was completed. He also composed about 80 Welsh hymns, some of which are among the finest compositions in the language. (Bees' Hist.) See Hanes Lien. G. Davies, David, 1778 -abt. 1823, a clergyman and author, was born at Ty Uchaf, Mallwyd, Montgomeryshire, and completed his education at Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1798. After serving as curate at Llandyssil, he received the living of Llanymawddwy. He published several essays, among them " Psalmody " in 1807, " Peace and the Bad Harvest " in 1818, and " The Advantage

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A DICTIONARY OF

of Public Worship " in 1819. In- 1823 there appeared a volume containing 21 of his sermons, together with a memoir. (Enwog. C. ; Mont. Worthies). Davies, David, 1789-1861, a Presbyterian minister, was born in the parish of Llandysilio, Cardiganshire. He began to preach at Pensarn in 1814, and in 1837 emigrated to Bloomfield township, Jackson County, Ohio. There he preached to the Welsh settlers, whom he organized into two churches, with places of worship and flourishing Sunday Schools. His ministerial connection in America was with the Presbyterian Church, but he ministered mostly to Congregational Churches. He spent the last five years of his life in Blue Earth County, Minnesota, where he assisted in forming a Congregational Church. He was a great reader, a close thinker, and a sound reasoner ; a man of strong convictions and of unswerving loyalty to his principles. (Cymry Minnesota). Davies, David, 1791-1864, a well-known Congregational minister and author, was born at Aberayron, Cardiganshire. His father, who was a well-to-do farmer, gave him a good education. After spending some years at Carmarthen College, he accepted a call to Carnarvon, where he was ordained in 1813. Two years later, he removed to Panteg and Peniel, near Carmarthen. He was subsequently ap pointed to the chair of theology at Carmarthen College, which he filled with marked success for 21 years. He was an excellent Greek and Hebrew scholar, and a very acceptable preacher. He wrote expository notes on some of the Epistles, and on the Book of Revelation, for the Family Bible of the Rev. D. Davies, Swansea, and published several essays and sermons. He was also editor of the magazine known as " Y Tywysydd." (Enwog. C.). See Enwogion Sir Aberteifl, p. 15 ; Hanes Lien. G. Davies, Sir David, 1793-1865, was a native of South Wales. He studied for the medical profession, and after practising for some time at Hampton, Middlesex, he was appointed physician to William IV. and Queen Adelaide. He married a daughter of the Rev. John Williams, Ystradmeurig, and died at Lucca, in Italy. He was knighted by Queen Victoria soon after her accession to the throne. (Enwog. G). Davies, David, 1794-1861, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was a native of Abercowarch, Merionethshire. He was ordained in 1848, and soon became a most eloquent and popular preacher, being known far and wide as " David Davies, Cowarch." He had a style peculiarly his own, and his influence over his hearers was very remarkable. An interesting sketch of his career, from the pen of the Rev. Francis Jones, appears at p. 133 of the " Traethodydd " for 1869. (Enwog. Meirion.). Davies, David, 1818-1890, a self-made man, was born at Draintewion, Llandinam, Montgomeryshire, of humble parents. His father could not afford to give him much education, and he had to start life on his own account at a very early age. In his twentieth

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37

year, the support of his mother and eight younger brothers and sisters devolved upon him. He became a railway contractor, and his success in his various undertakings was marvellous. The rapidity and com pleteness of his grasp of details, and his promptness in making up his mind, were striking features of his character. He afterwards turned his attention to coal-mining, and in one year made a profit of nearly £100,000 from the well-known Ocean collieries. In 1874 he was elected member of Parliament for the Cardigan Boroughs, which he continued to represent until they were merged in the county in 1885. His liberality to all religious, educational, and benevolent objects was almost unbounded ; in one year his contributions amounted to £16,000. His high Christian character, deep religious convictions, stability and firmness of mind, were prominent features of his character. A bronze statue was erected to his memory at Llandinam, and also at Barry Dock. (Mont. Worthies.) See Y Traethodydd, 1890, p. 413. Davies, David, 1823 - 1865, vicar of Dylife, was the son of Mr. Davies, a farmer, living at Clochfaen Isaf, Llangurig, where he was born. Having for some time been employed as a solicitor's clerk at Llanidloes, he determined to forsake the law and enter the church. In 1848 he was ordained deacon, and appointed to the curacy of Llanwnog. There he laboured assiduously in his sacred calling, employing his leisure time in investigating the antiquities of Caersws and the neighbourhood. In 1853 he was appointed one of the local secretaries for Montgomeryshire of the Cambrian Archaeological Association, and at the Meeting of that Society held at Ruthin in 1854 he read a paper on " Roman Remains discovered at Caersws." In 1856 he was promoted to the incumbency of the newly-formed ecclesiastical district of Dylife. He was a zealous and intelligent antiquary. (Mont. Worthies.) Davies, David Charles, 1826-1891, a Calvinistic Methodist minister and author, was born at Aberystwyth, and completed his education at the University College, London, where he graduated B.A. in 1847, and M.A. two years later. He was originally intended for the bar, but relinquished that intention, and in 1852 became pastor at Builth. His subsequent pastorates were Liverpool, Builth (a second time), Newtown, and London. In 1876 he removed to Bangor, and on the death of Principal William Howells, in 1888, he was prevailed upon to accept the post of Principal of Trevecca College, and his advent there proved to be a bright chapter in his history, although a short one. By the many qualifications with which he was endowed he was clearly marked out for the position. His attainments as a scholar and a divine of the highest order, his experience for nearly 40 years as teacher in the Bible classes and lecturer upon various aspects of Christianity, his character as a severe and conscientious student himself, his status amongst the foremost preachers of the country—all these led the denomination to point to him as the man for the post. He wrote " Yr Eglwys" (The Church) ; "Lectures on the Inspiration of the Bible"; "Addresses on Baptism and the Bible"; "A Commentary on the First Epistle of St. John," &c.

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His biography and a selection of his sermons, under the editorship of the Rev. E. Wynne Parry, appeared in 1896. (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Cardiff Catalogue ; Historical Handbook.) See Y Traethodydd, 1881-2 ; Ibid. 1888 ; Ibid. 1893, pp. 181 and 378 ; Y Geninen, Mar. 1892. p. 1; Young Wales, 1902, p. 60 ; Y Drysorfa, 1891, p. 441. Davies, David Christopher, 1827-1885, geologist and mining engineer, was born at Oswestry, of humble parents, and was entirely self-educated. He was brought up to the trade of an ironmonger, but acquired an excellent knowledge of the rocks of his native district, and about 1852 began to practise, with considerable success, as a mining engineer. He carried off several Eisteddfod prizes for essays on geological subjects. He was also a lay preacher, and a volume of his sermons was published. He published treatises on " Slate and Slate-quarrying " and " Metalliferous Minerals and Mining." He took full advantage of the commercial prosperity which culminated about 1873, and his success as a mining engineer was insured by his thorough self-training and his high reputation for integrity. Between 1880 and 1885 several large quarries were opened, under his direction, in the south of France ; also one in Germany. He was a frequent contri butor to the " British Architect," the " British Quarterly," and several mining journals. He left incomplete an elaborate treatise upon the "Geology of North Wales," on which he spent much time and trouble, and which he intended to be his principal work. (Diet. Nat. Biog.). See Quar. Journal Geol. Soc., vol. 43, p. 43 ; Athenaeum, 26th Sept., 1885 ; Times, 24th Sept., 1885. Davies, David Stephen, 1841-1898, a Congregational preacher and author, was born at Plas Marl, near Swansea, his father being the Rev. J. Jeremiah Davies. At an early age he became a pupil at the Normal College, Swansea, where he distinguished himself as a student. He lost his father when he was thirteen years of age, and went to Aberdare in search of employment. He worked for some years as an engine-driver, and in 1857 emigrated to America. Here he commenced preaching, receiving ministerial training at Wyoming. In 1875 he returned to Wales, and accepted a call from Bangor, leaving there in 1886 for Carmarthen. He was an eloquent preacher, and an ardent temperance advocate. He wrote several books, and one—on baptism— attracted considerable attention. He devised a system of shorthand, which, however, met with but little success. He acted as editor of the Celt, a weekly newspaper, almost from its first appearance. (C7. & D. Herald; Y Cymro; Congreg. Year Book, 1899.) See Y Geninen, Mar. 1899, p. 47 ; Ibid, 1899, p. 56 et seq. Davies, Ebenezer, 1808-1882, a Congregational minister, was born at Ruthin, North Wales. Early in life he removed to Liverpool, afterwards entering Rotherham College. In 1838 he was ordained pastor of the Tabernacle Chapel, Stockport, and in one year the church doubled its membership. In answer to an urgent call from the London Missionary Society he went out to succeed the Rev. John Wray, at New Amsterdam, Berbice, where his labours were crowned with abundant success. In 1848 he returned to England, and became the

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39

minister of a large chapel in what was then a new neighbonrhood in London, where he laboured for 24 years. He was a man of great natural powers, but the gifts of nature had been augmented by long and studious culture. His literary and scientific knowledge was extensive. In addition to a volume of missionary travels, he published a volume of sermons on the " Ruins of Bible Cities." Mr. Davies, who was elected F.6.S., died at Ruthin, and was buried at Rhiw, Den bighshire. (Congreg. Year Book, 1883.) Davies, Edward, 1756-1831, a clergyman and author, was born in the parish of Llanfarth, Radnorshire. When 18 years of age he was sent to the Grammar School at Brecknock, where he formed a life long friendship with Theophilus Jones, who was one of his school fellows. In 1779 he received the curacy of Bacton, in Herefordshire, where he had to serve for a year without any stipend. Soon afterwards he removed to the curacies of Dorston and Peterchurch, performing divine service five times and preaching thrice every Sunday, travelling over thirty miles, for £30 a year. He subsequently took charge of a grammar school in Gloucestershire, and in 1805 he obtained the living of Bishopston, near Swansea. In 1804 he published his " Celtic Researches," and in 1809 the " Mythology of the Druids," works which have placed him in the front rank as a writer on the history and manners of the Ancient Britons. In 1823 his eyesight, which had always been impaired, almost entirely failed him. In the following year he was elected one of the ten Associates of the Royal Society of Literature, which entitled him to a hundred guineas a year. (Diet. Em. W.; Camb. Q. Mag., vol. 3, p. 408.) See Hist, of Radnorshire, 1905, p. 419. Davies, Edward, 1796-1857, Congregational minister, was born at Ashton, Salop, of Welsh parents. He gave promise in child hood of the scholarship which distinguished him in his manhood. He was educated at Wrexham and Chester, and having chosen to devote himself to the Nonconformist ministry, he was sent to the Llanfyllin Academy, in 1817, where, under the guidance of Dr. George Lewis, he soon acquired a knowledge of the principal points in divinity, as then held by the Independents. He had not been very long at Llanfyllin before he was appointed classical tutor to the College, and some time after the removal of that institution to Newtown, he became principal of it, and minister of the Congre gational Church in that town. In 1839, the Academy was transferred to Brecon, South Wales, and for eighteen years after that he occupied the position of classical tutor with great honour and acceptance. (Border Counties' Worthies). Davies, Edward, 1819-1887, "Iolo Trefaldwyn," a poet, was born at Moel-y-Froches, near Llanfyllin, Montgomeryshire. In his early days, he worked as a miner. He was a good poet, excelling in the composition of Englynion and short pieces, particularly epitaphs. He won the chair prize at one of the Liverpool Gordofic Eisteddfodau, as well as many other prizes at similar gatherings elsewhere. A few years before he died, a collection of his shorter

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A DICTIONARY OF

poems was published, under the title, " Caneuon Iolo Trefaldwyn." He was a good singer, and often sang " pennillion " to the accom paniment of the harp. (Mont. Worthies). See Cymru, vol. 3, p. 269. Davies, Edward, 1827-1904, a Congregational minister and author, was born in New York City. His parents were William and Catherine Davies, who had emigrated to America from the neigh bourhood of Bala. He was trained for the ministry under the tutorship of the Rev. Morris Roberts, Remsen ; commenced to preach in 1848 ; and was ordained in 1853. His first pastorate was that of the Welsh Congregational Church at Waterville, New York, and there he laboured for 17 years. He afterwards had charge of the English cause at Oriskany Falls and Deansville, and finally, in 1882, succeeded the Rev. Morris Roberts at Remsen. In the same year he became editor of " Y Cenhadwr." He ranked among the ablest of the Welsh preachers of America, his sermons being distinguished by purity of diction and solidity of thought. His contributions to Welsh literature were considerable, among his works being, " The Life of Llewelyn D. Howell " ; " The Life of Morris Roberts " ; and " Grawnion Addfed," a volume of sermons by the principal preachers of Wales. His style of composition was vigorous, clear and concise, and his articles in the " Cenhadwr " rank among the best ever published in that periodical. (The Cambrian, 1896, p. 162 ; Ibid. 1905, p. 37). Davies, Edward, 1852-1898, a philanthropist and inventor, was the son of David Davies, of Llandinam (1818-1890, see ante). After matriculating at London he joined his father in business, assisting him in most of his large undertaking. He was the inventor, in conjunction with Mr. Metcalf, of Aberystwyth, of the exhaust steam injector, a valuable contrivance for the utilization of waste steam, which is now generally applied to stationary steam boilers. A member of the Calvinistic Methodist denomination, he was a liberal supporter of their missionary and other funds. He subscribed £1,000 to Trevecca College, and a like sum to Bala College. He was also a liberal donor to the University Colleges of Cardiff and Aberystwyth, and at the time of his death was con sidering a draft scheme of scholarships in the Welsh Intermediate Schools, in memory of his father, for the county of Montgomery, and also for the employees of the Barry Railway Company. His son, Mr. David Davies, was returned, without opposition, as member of Parliament for Montgomeryshire at the general election of 1906. (The Cambrian, 1898, p. 86. See Bye-Gones, 1898, p. 279). Davies, Ellis Thomas, 1822-1895, a Congregational minister and author, was born at Ty Mawr, Llanuwchllyn, Merionethshire. He began his collegiate course at Bala College, then held at Waunllwyd, under the principalship of the Rev. Michael Jones, and after three years entered Brecon College, where he soon distinguished himself as a brilliant scholar. On leaving in 1847, he went to serve the churches at Moelfre and St. George, near Abergele, and, receiving a call from them, he wad ordained on December 7th, 1848.

Griffith Davies.

David Hughes.

EMINENT WELSHMEN

41

The following year he took the church at Abergele under his care, and he continued the pastor of the three churches until he resigned in 1887. He was an able man and an accomplished scholar, preaching in English as fluently as in his native Welsh. He composed several pieces of poetry, both in Welsh and English, and published a volume of these under the title, " Caniadau." He also translated into Welsh that valuable book, " Our Principles," by 6. B. Johnson. He served the Association of Denbighshire and Flintshire as secretary for many years. (Congreg. Tear Book, 1896). Davies, Evan, 1794-1855, "Eta Delta," a Congregational minister and author, was born at Cefn, Llanbrynmair, Montgomery shire. He commenced to preach about 1820, and afterwards spent some time at Dr. Lewis' Academy at Llanfyllin. He subsequently laboured in the ministry at Llanrwst and at Llanerchymedd, and finally at Newmarket, in Flintshire, where he died. He is best known as one of the pioneers of total abstinence in Wales. By means of lectures, pamphlets, and otherwise, he did much to further the temperance cause, and that in spite of much opposition. A testimonial was presented to him as 4'the first advocate of total abstinence in Wales," and this was handed over by him to his church at Llanerch ymedd. He also published several pamphlets on religious subjects. (Enwog. C. ; Mont. Worthies). See Y Traethodydd, 1881, p. 434 ; Y Diwygiad Dirwestol yn Nghymru, by Rev. John Thomas, D.D. ; Llawlyfr Dirwestol, introduction (Dolgelley : E. W. Evans, 1891). Davies, Evan, 1799-1888, "Myfyr Morganwg," a poet, was a native of Glamorgan, and for many years prior to his death resided at Pontypridd. He published several works on Druidism, which he argued was the true religion. Amongst his works are : " Hynafiaeth y Delyn " (Pontypridd : 1860) ; " Hynafiaeth Aruthrol y Trwn, neu Orsedd Beirdd Ynys Prydain" (1875); " Amddiffyniad y Bardd Cyfrin i Hynafiaeth y Nod Uchod (/IV) &c. (1885); " Gogoniant Hynafol y Cymry" (1865). He engaged in a public debate on "Temperance" with John Jones, of Llangollen, in 1842, a report of the same being published in pamphlet form (Llanelly : Rees & Thomas). By trade he was a watchmaker, but for several years he had been unable to work, and lived to a considerable extent on the bounty of Lord Bute, who took a kindly interest in him. He was the recognized head of the Druids who met periodically around the famous rocking-stone at Pontypridd, although his claim to the title of Archdruid was vigorously contested by Dr. Price, of Llantrisant. (Bye-Gones, 1888, p. 45 ; Cardiff Catalogue). Davies, Evan, 1801-1850, a surgeon and literary man, was a native of Pontypridd, Glamorganshire. He was noted for his generous treatment of the poor. In 1827, he commenced- to publish his " Family Doctor," in English and Welsh, in parallel columns, but only three numbers appeared. He was a frequent contributor to " Sere a Gomer," and published a book on " Unitarianism," which attracted considerable notice. (Enivog. U.).

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A DICTIONARY OF

Davies, Evan, 1805-1864, a Congregational minister, was born at Heugwm, Cardiganshire, and educated at the Neuaddlwyd Academy, and at Exeter. He was ordained in 1835, and went out to Penang as a missionary to the Chinese, under the auspices of the London Missionary Society, but had to return home in four years owing to failing health. In 1844 he removed to Richmond, Surrey, where he remained for 13 years. He wrote a volume on "China and her Spiritual Claims ; " " Memoirs of the Rev. Samuel Dyer ; " " Revivals in Wales," and other works. (Congregational Tear Book, 1865). See Old Wales, vol. 1, p. 343. Davies, Evan, 1826-1872, a musician, was a native of Llanycrwys, Carmarthenshire. He received a liberal education, and in 1842 won a scholarship at the Glasgow University. He remained there until he graduated M.A., and in 1858 he received the degree of LL.D. He was afterwards appointed head-master of a grammar school at Brecon, but subsequently studied for the law. He died, at the age of 46, when on the threshold of a promising legal career. He was an accomplished musician, and wrote a masterly criticism of " Ystorm Tiberias " (Rev. E. Stephen) to the Dysgedydd. He acted as musical adjudicator at the principal Eisteddfodau of South Wales for many years, and did much to foster a taste for classical music. (B. Cerddorton Gymreig). Davies, Gethin, 1846-1896, a Baptist minister, was born in the village of Aberdulais, near Neath, Glamorganshire, and was the only son of a foreman at a local tinplate works. When he was about six years of age, his parents removed to Landore, near Swansea. He received his early education at Hafod British Schools, where he after wards acted as assistant teacher. He commenced preaching in 1863, and three years later was admitted into the Bristol Baptist College, and here he remained for four years. He passed the intermediate B.Sc. examination at the University of London in 1869, but instead of completing his degree, he applied, in 1870, for the position of classical tutor at the North Wales Baptist College, then located at Llangollen, which he secured. In 1883, oa the death of the Revd. Dr. Hugh Jones, he was appointed principal. He filled this post for nine years at Llangollen, and for four years after the removal of the college to Bangor. He received the degree of D.D. from William Jewell College, Missouri. He had a large share in the building of chapels, and became one of the leading ministers of the connection. (Baptist Handbook, 1897). See T Geninen, 1896, p. 185. Davies, Griffith, 1788 - 1855, the actuary, was born at the foot of the Cilgwyn mountain, near Carnarvon. He was brought up as a quarryman, and was about 17 years old before he knew even the numera tion table ; but so fond was he of figures that he devoted part of his meal-times at the quarry to arithmetical operations with an iron pencil on the slates he had to make. After spending some time at a school in Carnarvon, kept by the Rev. Evan Richardson, he made his way to London, arriving there in 1809, without friends, and with a very imperfect knowledge of English. He found employment in a school,

EMINENT WELSHMEN

43

where he became usher. Here he paid special attention to mathematics, and so great was the progress he made that in 1822 he was appointed consulting actuary to the Guardian Assurance Company. Soon after wards he was employed in actuarial matters by the East India Company, the Bank of England, and various other societies and companies. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society, and other learned societies. He was the author of " A Key to Bonnycastle's Trigonometry," 1814 ; "Life Contingencies," 1825; and a work on "Annuities." (Old Karnarwn.) See Assurance, May & July, 1855, pp. 337-48 ; Watford's Insurance Cyclopedia, vol .2, pp. 72-4 ; Gentleman's Magazine, May, 1855, p. 534 ; Times, 26th March, 1855, p. 7 ; Pink's Glerkenwell, 1881 edit., pp. 705-8 ; Diet. Nat. Biog ; Y Geninen, 1897, p. 275 ; Cambrian Journal, 1855, p. 132 ; Cymru, vol. 8, p. 93. Davies, Henry, 1696-1766, a Congregational minister, was a native of Carmarthenshire. He established a cause at Cymmer, near Pontypridd, and became its first pastor. He rendered excellent service as an itinerary preacher in South Wales. Two of his letters to Howell Harris, written in 1738, which throw a good deal of light on the state of religion in Wales in those days, are given in " Enwogion Cymru," p. 201. (Enwog. C.) See Rees' History. Davies, Henry, 1785-1862, a Baptist minister, of Llangloffan, in Pembrokeshire, began to preach at nineteen or twenty years of age He spent two years at Abergavenny College, and in 1811 was ordained as co-pastor with kis venerable father over the church at Llan gloffan. Here he continued till his death. He preached the Gospel without fee or reward ; for twenty-eight years he was secretary of the Pembrokeshire Baptist Association, and was one of the chief instru ments in the establishment of the college at Haverfordwest. His liberality and large-heartedness were as conspicuous as his other excellent qualities. With his own hands he distributed, at three different times, no less than four thousand pounds to different charities and institutions. He was lamented as "the last of the Pembrokeshire Patriarchs." (Baptist Handbook, 1863). Davies, Henry Naunton, 1827-1899, a surgeon, was a native of the Rhondda Valley, Glamorganshire. He was privately educated in Swansea, eventually proceeding to Guy's Hospital. He took up his residence at Porth, in his native county, and lived to enjoy a very extensive practice, which increased with the remarkable development of the coalfield. He was surgeon to the Tynewydd Colliery during the memorable inundation in 1877, and for the zeal and bravery which he then displayed, he was presented with some valuable plate from the Mansion House Fund, and a gold medal from the British Medical Association, he being the first gold medallist of that Association. (The Cambrian, 1899, p. 377). Davies, Howell, 1719-1770, a clergyman, was a native of Pembrokeshire, and began to preach in an awakening manner about the same time as Howell Harries and Daniel Rowlands. He "was a Boanerges, and mere formalists could not bear the faithful manner in which he proclaimed the salvation of Jesus." For some time the

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A DICTIONARY OF

largest churches were open to him, and thousands flocked to hear him. He preached in every part of Wales, and many parts of England, and yet succeeded, not without repeated annoyances, in retaining his livings in the Established Church. He has a name among the " mighties " of Wales, both as reformer and preacher, and has been most appropriately termed " the Apostle of Pembrokeshire." In later years, he chose the town of Haverfordwest as the centre of his labours, and thereat built the edifice known as " The Room of the Tabernacle." Fully alive to his great responsibilities, and the realities of the world to come, his zeal in the Master's cause, and his efforts for the salvation ' of souls, knew no bounds. (Evangelical Magazine, 1814 ; Rees' History; Historical Handbook). Davies, Hugh, 1739-1821, the naturalist, was the son of Lewis Davies, rector of Llandyfrydog, Anglesey. He was educated at Beau maris, and afterwards entered Jesus College, Oxford, where he took the degree of B.A. In 1778 he was preferred to the living of Beaumaris, and nine years later removed to Aber, near Bangor. As a naturalist he stood in the front rank, and in 1790 was elected a fellow of the Linniean Society. He assisted Pennant in the Faunula of the second edition of his " Indian Zoology," published in 1792, and also supplied him botanical information for the " Tours in Wales." His "Botany of Anglesey," published in 1813 (London: W. Marchant), is an excellent production, and remains the standard work on the subject. He also wrote a small handbook entitled "Arts and Sciences in Miniature " (Aberystwyth : James & Williams, 1811). He resigned the living of Aber in 1816, and died five years later at Beaumaris. (Diet. Em. W.; Cardiff Catalogue.) i

Davies, Jacob, 1816-1849, a missionary, was born at Cefnmawr, near Newtown, of humble parents, and was a spinner by trade. He joined the Baptist denomination, and was publicly baptised in April, 1835, and in 1837 began to preach. In 1844, he offered himself, and was accepted, as a missionary, Ceylon being assigned to him as his field of labour. He worked hard and successfully in that island for five years, and applied himself with so much assiduity to the study of Cingalese that he became, according to the then Governor of the island, the best Cingalese scholar of the day. His health, however, gave way, and he died after a short illness, at the early age of 33. (Mont. Worthies.) Davies, James, 1644-1722, "Iago ab Dewi," a poet and antiquary, was a native of Llandyssul, Cardiganshire, and, at an early age, joined the Independent cause, which was then under the charge of Stephen Hughes. He lived for a number of years at Pencader, and in the course of time moved to the parish of Llanllawddog, Carmarthenshire, where he died and was buried. He rendered valuable service to the cause of religion by translating into Welsh over a dozen tracts and sermons by Matthew Henry, John Bunyan, Bishop Webb and others. He was also a poet of some merit, and some of his compositions appeared in " Blodau Dyfed" (1824), and in a collection of songs, entitled " Awenydd," published by Peter

EMINENT WELSHMEN

45

Evans, at Carnarvon. He had no equal in those days as a writer of epigrams, serious and humorous ; many of these are to be found in * Flores Poetarum Britannicorum " (1710). (Banes Lien. G. ; The Cambrian, 1904, p. 132 ; Cambrian Biography ; History of the Baptists, by the Rev. Josiah Thomas). See Enwog. y Ffydd ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry ; Y Brython, vol. 4, p. 155 ; Enwog. C. ; Iolo MSS., p.p. 94, 193 and 222 ; Cymru, vol. 23, p. 225 ; Y Brython, vol. 5, p. 66 for a poem by him ; Y Geninen, 1895, p. 98. DaVies, James Griffiths, 1838-1890, a Baptist minister, was born near Solva, Pembrokeshire. Baptized when 13 years of age, he was received into Haverfordwest College in 1859. In 1862 he settled at Beulah Church, where he ministered for 27 years. As a preacher he was endowed with rare abilities, and he became one of the best known public men in his denomination throughout Wales. His profound thought, penetrating judgment, intense earnestness, and glowing eloquence commanded the admiration of all who attended his ministrations. He was remarkably zealous in the cause of civil liberty and religious equality. (Baptist Handbook, 1890). Davies, James Phillip, 1839-1906, "a Baptist minister and author, was born at Llanbadarnfawr, Cardiganshire. He entered Haverfordwest College in 1860, and three years later was ordained at Puncheston. He served as pastor at Bethlehem and Salem, Haver fordwest, and afterwards at Ebenezer and Penuel, Cardiganshire, re moving in 1878 to take charge of the cause at Tonyfelin, Caerphilly, a church associated with the name of Christmas Evans. He was an antiquary and writer of note. He wrote pamphlets on " The History of the Baptists in the reign of Queen Victoria " and " The position of the Baptists in comparison with other denominations." He frequently contributed to the connexional magazines, and often competed at the National Eisteddfod, his greatest effort being a " History of Welsh Literature" at Cardiff in 1883, when he was adjudged second to Gweirydd ap Rhys for a prize of £100. (The Western Mail). Davies, John, — abt. 1730, the genealogist, was born at Rhiwlas, in the parish of Llansilin, Denhighshire. His " Display of Heraldry," published in 1716 (Shrewsbury ; J. Roderick), which contains a record of the pedigrees of many families in North Wales, is a work of considerable value. His name is attached, in attestation of its correct ness, to Lewis Dwnn's Heraldic Visitation of the Counties of Anglesey, Carnarvon and Merioneth ; published by the Welsh MSS. Society. Upon his death his MSS. were taken possession of by his nephew, John Reynolds, of Waen, and they were published by him, in 1735, in a somewhat crude form, under the title " Book of Pedigrees." (Enwog. C.). See Diet. Em. W. ; Cardiff Catalogue. Davies, John, 1718-1812, a soldier, who was first cousin to the Duke of Norfolk, was descended from the Davies family of Llanarch, North Wales. He took his degree at Cambridge about 1738, and soon afterwards joined the army, becoming captain of the Royals. He served with distinction at the battles of Dettingen, Fontenoy, and during all the German war. He was selected to succeed Wolfe as

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A DICTIONARY OF

aide-de-camp to the celebrated General Hawley. In 1762 the King, at the request of William, Duke of Cumberland, was graciously pleased to permit his retiring on full pay. In 1775 he purchased a house at Twickenham, where he died at the age of 94, highly esteemed by all who had the honour of his acquaintance, amongst whom were some of the first personages in the kingdom. (Gent. Mag., August, 1812). Davies, John, 1772-1855, the missionary to Tahiti (probably the first modern Welsh missionary to the heathen), was born in the parish of Llanfihangel, Montgomeryshire. His father was a poor weaver, but struggled hard to give his son the best education he could afford. After leaving school, young Davies for some time himself kept a day school at Llanrhaiadr-Mochnant, and subsequently at Llanwyddelan. At this time, he was accepted by the London Missionary Society as one of its missionaries, and in February, 1800, was despatched to Tahiti, one of the South Sea Islands, where, after more than a year's voyage, he arrived on the 10th July, 1801. He published several works in the native language of Tahiti, including several portions of the Bible. He also wrote many hymns in the same language, some of them being translations from the Welsh. (Mont. Worthies). Davies, John, 1781 - 1845, a Wesleyan preacher, was a native of Llanergain, Flintshire. He was almost entirely self-educated. He commenced to preach in 1804, and soon became one of the leading men of the connexion. For the last twenty-one years of his life he kept a minute account of the journeys he undertook and of the sermons he preached. During that period he travelled 90,905 miles. He published a Catechism for Sunday School children, under the title of "Cydymaith Buddiol." He spent the last few years of his life in South Wales, and died at Merthyr Tydfil. (Enwog. C.) Davies, John, 1784-1864, "Brychan," a poet and prose writer, was born at Blaina, in Monmouthshire, and spent the last fifty years of his life at Tredegar. He won many Eisteddfodic prizes for prose and poetry, and frequently acted as adjudicator. He was editor of the " Odydd Cymreig," and various other publications relating to the Oddfellows. He published two volumes of poems (Merthyr : T. Price, 1827 and 1835.) (Enwog. C. ; Cardiff Catalogue). See Hanes Lien. G. Davies, John, 1795-1861, a canon in the diocese of Durham, was born in the parish of Llanddewi-brefi, of well-to-do parents. He completed his education at Cambridge, where he graduated B.D. in 1830, and D.D. in 1844. He was preferred to the living of St. Pancras, Chichester, and in 1840 accepted the living of Gateshead, being after wards appointed honorary canon. He was a prolific writer, his most important work being " An Estimate of the Human mind, being a Philosophical Enquiry into the legitimate application and extent of its leading faculties, as connected with the Principles and the Obligations of the Christian Religion." This was a very valuable work, and met with a ready sale, a second edition being called for. (Enwog. C.)

EMINENT WELSHMEN

47

Davies, John, 1804-1884, a Congregational minister and author was born at Castell-y-geifr Farm, Llanarth, South Wales. He had a great desire to preach when very young, and when he began exercising his gifts as a preacher, he attracted considerable attention. He entered the college at Newtown in 1822, and remained there for four years. He accepted an invitation to the pastorate at Glandwr, Pembrokeshire, as successor of the Rev. W. Griffiths, scholar and hymnologist, and was ordained there in 1827. He prepared for the pulpit with great diligence and care ; faithfully attended and frequently took part in the Quarterly Meetings, and yet pursued his studies in the classics, and in the Hebrew, Syriac, and Chaldee tongues, in all of which he was quite at home. He was admired for his learning in the Old and New Testament languages, and recognised as an authority on Biblical criticism. His services were in great request as a preacher, both in English and Welsh. He published, in the Welsh language, a new translation of the Minor Prophets, with an exposition, which is a treasury of learning. He was for some time a joint-editor of " Y Dysgedydd," and was also a frequent contributor to other periodicals. (Congreg. Year Book, 1885.) Davies, John, 1806-1886, a Congregational minister and author, was born at Carnffrwd Farm, near Carmarthen. He attended the Penygraig Independent chapel, and there commenced to preach before he was fifteen years of age. In due time he was admitted into the Presbyterian College, Carmarthen, then under the principalship of the Rev. D. Peters, where he distinguished himself as a very successful student. At the termination of his studies, he accepted a call to his mother church at Penygraig, and was there ordained in 1829. In five years he removed to Cwmaman, in Carmarthenshire, and there remained till his death. As a preacher he was fluent, eloquent, and powerful— sometimes terrible. He was one of the most popular preachers of his day in the Principality. One who was well acquainted with him and had frequent opportunities of hearing his preaching, said, " 1 never knew anyone like him who could storm a congregation in spite of all difficulties, and sweep everything before him." In 1854 he published a Welsh book containing " Short Meditations for Every Day of the Year" (Llanelly: D. Rees and J. Williams), and wrote a biographical sketch of Matthias Maurice, which was printed in the third edition of the Welsh translation of "Social Religion" (Carmarthen: W.Thomas, 1865). (Congreg. Year Book, 1887; Cardiff Catalogue.) Davies, John, 1821-1889, " loan Idris," a poet, was born at Bala, Merionethshire, his father being John Davies, a bookbinder and stationer. He was educated at the Dolgelly Grammar School, and at an early age came in contact with the Welsh bards " Meurig Idris " and " Idris Vychan," who took great interest in him, and taught him the rules of Welsh poetry. When he was twenty-one years of age he emigrated to Utica, New York. He wrote a good deal of poetry, his best-known poem being that on "Y Ddafad Golledig" (The Lost Sheep). (Cymry Minnesota.)

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A DICTIONARY OF

Davies, John, 1823-1874, a Congregational minister, was born in the parish of Mothvey, Carmarthenshire, and in his fifteenth year removed to Defynnock, in Breconshire, to follow a secular occupation. At the request of his pastor, the Rev. John Stephens, Brychgoed, he began to preach when only a few months over his sixteenth year. Soon afterwards he entered a preparatory school at Hanover, Monmouthshire, proceeding, in 1842, to Brecon College. He was ordained at Llanelly in 1846, where the church and con gregation soon greatly increased under his stirring and efficient ministry. In 1854 he removed to Aberaman, Aberdare, and nine years later he accepted an invitation to a more extensive sphere of usefulness at Mount Stuart Square, Cardiff. He was the means of establishing an English cause in Hannah Street, of which he after wards became pastor. He was an exceedingly popular preacher, and one of the most efficient ministers of the connexion. He was a very able writer, and edited the " Beirniad," a quarterly periodical, from its commencement, in 1860, till within two months of his death. His " Biography " (Welsh), by the Rev. John Thomas, D.D., Liver pool, and others, was published in 1883. (Congreg. Year Book, 1875). Davies, John, 1825-1904, a Congregational minister, was a native of Morriston, near Swansea. In 1851 he was ordained to the joint pastorate of Taihirion and Efail Isaf, in the Vale of Glamorgan. These churches were six miles apart, with the near thickly-populated district of Pentyrch about half-way between them, and the young minister was not long settled before he took steps to form a church and build a chapel at Bronllwyn Pentyrch, which was opened in 1858. He was a member of the committee of the Memorial College, Brecon, for many years, and was ever ready to encourage and help young men to equip themselves for the ministry. He was selected as one of the Union preachers, in 1890, for the Congregational Union of Wales, and it was well known that he would, years before, have been elected chairman if he had not vetoed the suggestion. In 1880 he visited the Welsh churches in America, and, upon his return, was presented by the three churches with an address, which, strange to say, was prepared by the curate of Llantrisant ; for Mr. Davies, though a militant Free Churchman, was held in high esteem by Christians of all denominations, and even Church men did not grudge him his title of " Bishop of the Vale." In 1879 he published a Welsh History of the Congregational cause in East Glamorgan. (Cardiff : T. Roberts). (Congreg. Year Book, 1905 ; Cardiff Catalogue). Davies, John, 1832-1904, "Gwyneddon," journalist and essayist, was a native of Bangor. He became a reporter and a sub-editor on the staff of the " North Wales Chronicle," and when the " Goleuad " was first published, in 1869, he was appointed editor. He was a voluminous writer to the Welsh press, and was an authority upon Welsh literature, being constantly engaged as adjudicator at National and local Eisteddfodau. (Manchester Guardian). See Y Traethodydd, 1901, p. 281 ; Y Qeninen, Mch. 1905, p. 1.

Rev. John Davtes.

Rev.iEhekezer Edwards.

EMINENT WELSHMEN

49

Davies, John, 1839-1892, "Ossian Gwent," a poet, was born at Cardigan, and when he was quite young his parents removed to Rhymney, where he was employed, first as joiner, and afterwards as pattern-maker. He subsequently removed to Merthyr, and from thence to Pontypridd, bat eventually returned to Rhymney, where he remained until his death. As a poet, he avoided the strict alliterative metres, and devoted his attention to lyrics ; in this department, by universal consent, he is accorded a high position. A selection of his songs, some of which are very popular, has been published by Hughes & Son, Wrexham. (F Qeninen, March, 1894, p. 33). See Cymru, vol. 5, p. 236 ; Welsh Lyrics, p. 103. Davies, John, -1900, a clergyman and Sanskrit scholar, who was of Welsh parentage, was rector of Walsoken, in Norfolk, from 1857 to 1871, but afterwards gave up active service in the Church and devoted himself to literature. His translation of " Bhagavad Gita," found a place in Trubner's Oriental Series. He was for many years a zealous member of the Council of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion. Shortly before his death he contributed an article to the " Cymmrodor," on Sir William Jones and Professor Hoffmann. (C. & D. Herald). Davies, John, A.G., 1801-1840, an American lawyer, was of Welsh descent. He was a graduate of William and Mary College, and married a grand-niece of Thomas Jefferson. In 1830, he was appointed professor of law in the Virginia University. He met his death by the pistol shot of an assassin, just as he was climbing to the zenith of his glory and usefulness. He published a work of great value on "Criminal Law," and the Legislature paid twelve thousand dollars to his family for the copyright. (Welshmen as Factors, &c). Davies, John D., 1822-1901, a self-made man, was born in the Aeron Valley, South Wales. He came of a poor family, and received but little education, but by the force of his own energy, he attained to a respectable mastery of the English language, shewing a special talent for mathematics. He emigrated to America, and became one of the pioneers in the development of the iron industries of Southern Ohio. He was remarkably successful in business, and amassed a considerable fortune. He was the founder of the Jefferson Iron Furnace Company, one of the most successful undertakings of its kind in America. The company paid over forty per cent, dividend for forty years, and made every one of ite stock-holders wealthy, but, in contrast to other similar concerns, not a stroke of work was ever done on the Sabbath day. Not once during his management did the men go on strike, and not a single serious disagreement ever occurred. He was a prominent member of the Congregational Church at Oak Hill, Ohio. (The Cambrian, 1901, p. 520). Davies, John Griffith, 1836-1861, a poet, was the son of the Rev. John Davies, of Glandwr, Pembrokeshire. He received a good

J

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A DICTIONARY OF

education, and displayed a remarkable talent for languages, being very proficient in Latin, Hebrew, German, and Italian. He translated a good deal of poetry from the Italian and other languages, and wrote several poems, but his chief work is an English novel entitled " The Bride of Santa Croce." (G.B.). Davies, John Lloyd, 1801 - 1860, a self-made man, was born at Aberystwyth. When about five years of age, he lost his father, but his mother determined to give him the best possible education. He worked hard, became articled to a solicitor, and by the time he was 24 years of age he had succeeded to a lucrative practice in Newcastle Emlyn. He married the widow of Col. Stewart, of Blaendyffryn, Carmarthenshire, through whom he became very wealthy. In 1855 he was returned as member of Parliament for the Cardigan boroughs, but retired at the general election two years later. (Enwog. C). Davies, John Ogmore, 1846-1892, a Congregational minister, was born at Cefncribwr, Glamorganshire. Of humble parentage, enjoying few early advantages, entering college with a very imperfect knowledge of English, and passing away in the prime of life, he yet lived long and strenuously enough to make good his title to be considered an English preacher of extraordinary originality and power. He entered Lancashire College in 1868, his career there being signalised rather by the continuous and rapid development of the inborn preaching faculty in him than by the achievement of academic success and distinctions. His ministerial life began in 1873, when he accepted a call to the pastorate of Bethel chapel, Sunderland. After a brilliant ministry there he removed, in 1878, to Crescent Chapel, Liverpool. In 1882 he became pastor of Craven Chapel, London, and finally, in 1885, entered upon his ministry at Chapel Street, Blackburn. His personality, his preaching, and his influence were long held in fragrant memory by those who had the privilege of being associated with him in all four of his pastorates. (Congreg. Year Book, 1893). Davies, John Philip, 1786-1832, a Baptist minister, known as " Davies, Tredegar," was the son of a clergyman at Henllan, in Cardiganshire. He joined the Baptists at an early age, and was the first minister of the connexion in Flintshire, being ordained in 1810. In 1818, he removed to Tredegar, where he died in 1832. He was a voluminous writer, his chief works being a translation of Andrew Fuller's Commentary on the Book of Revelations, and a volume of Theological Essays, published after his death. He wrote a good deal to " Seren Gomer " under the pen-name of " Mab Dewi Ddu " and an able lecture of his on '4The Welsh Language" appeared in that magazine. He was a very able man and a powerful preacher, and his influence in the Baptist ministry was great and abiding. (Enwog. C.). Davies, Jonathan, 1796-1831, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was born in the parish of Llywel, in Breconshire. When twenty-three years of age, he commenced to preach, and he soon enjoyed great popularity, his method of expounding and applying texts of Scripture being exceptionally clear and practical. He completed his ministerial training at Neuaddlwyd, under the Rev. Dr. Phillips, and afterwards

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settled in his native parish. He wrote a number of essays, many of which were published in "Lleaad yr Oes," and left many others in manuscript. (Enwog. 0.). Davies, Joseph, -1831, a solicitor and journalist, was a native of Builth, but spent many years of his life in Liverpool. He was the editor of, and chief contributor to, a magazine called Brud a Sylivydd (The Chronicle and Observer), containing English and Welsh articles on current topics, which rendered excellent service at a time when the periodical press of Wales was in its infancy. (Enwog. C. ; Lien, fy Ngwlad.) Davies, Lewis, 1777 -about 1840, a soldier, was a native of Aberystwyth, and became lieutenant in the 31st Foot in 1794, captain in May, 1796, and second major in the 36th Foot in 1800. He served abroad two years later, until the peace. In August, 1804, he became senior of the four majors of the regiment, and was made brevet lieutenant-colonel in the army in 1808. He became fourth substantive lieutenant-colonel of the 36th Foot in 1812, being attached to its 2nd Battalion in August, 1814, and attained the rank of brevet-colonel on the 4th June, 1814. He served in the Peninsular War, and received a medal after the battle of Salamanca. He retired on half pay at the close of 1814, and was made a Companion of the Bath in 1815. For some years prior to his death he resided at Tanybwlch, Aberystwyth. (Old Wales, vol. 1, p. 192 ; Gentleman's Magazine, 1828 ; Enwog. C.). See Old Wales, vol. 2, p. 77). Davies, Margaret, about 1816-1884, "Meinwen Elwy," was the daughter of Owen Williams, Troscanol, near Bangor, and a descendant of Goronwy Owen. She became the wife of Robert Davies (Cyndeyrn), and wrote some poetry of a high order. (B. Cerddorion Cymreig). Davies, Mary, 1847 - 1882, a poetess, was a native of Portmadoc, and at an early age displayed a talent for literary work. She was a frequent and successful competitor at the local eisteddfodau, both in prose and poetry. A small collection of her poems and essays was published, under the editorship of William Roberts (Gwilym Eryri). (Y Gestiana). Davies, Miles, 1662 -about 1730, an author, was born at Tre'r Abbot, in the parish of Whitford, Flintshire. He is said to have been a clergyman, but little is known of his history. He was undoubtedly a good scholar, and was very conversant in the history of his country, but was most unfortunate in turning his knowledge to advantage. He removed to London, and practised as a " counsellor at law," but his time seems to have been spent chiefly in writing books, and in hawking them from door to door. He published a curious work under the title of "Athenae Britannicae," containing bibliographical, biographical, and critical matter, but, according to Baker, the antiquary, most of the material was borrowed from modern historians. That work, according to some authorities, appeared in four volumes, but Henry Salusbury says "the entire work consisted of seven volumes." In 1715 he published "Icon Libellorum, a critical history of pam phlets," a queer production, but cram full of curious information." (Diet. Em. W. i Bye-Gones, 1883, p. 181.) See D'Israeli's Calamities

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of Authors, 1812, vol. 1, p. 66 ; D'Israeli's Curiosities of Literature, 1866, p. 128 ; Nicholl's Lit. Anec., vol. 8, p. 501 ; Lowndes' Bibl. Manual (Bonn), p. 600 ; Chalmers' Biog. Diet. ; Diet. Nat. Biog. Davies, Morris, 1780-1861, "Meurig Ebrill," a poet, spent the greater part of his life at Dolgelley, where he was one of the leading members of the Congregational cause. He wrote a good deal of poetry, which he published in two volumes, under the title " Diliau Meirion." (Enwog. Meirion). Davies, Morris, 1796 - 1876, an essayist, was born in the parish of Mallwyd, Montgomeryshire, but resided, during the latter part of his life, at Bangor. He had few educational advantages in early youth, but soon shewed a taste for literature, and before he was seventeen years of age had composed a good deal of poetry and prose. He contributed a large number of essays to the " Traethodydd," and also wrote for the " Gwyddoniadur." He published a collection of congregational tunes, of which ten were his own composition. He was an accomplished musician, and did much to raise the standard of music in the Principality. He was the composer of about two hundred hymns, some of them of great merit, and was the greatest authority of his day on Welsh hymnology. He translated into Welsh Dr. King's " Treatise on the Lord's Supper ; " Dr. McCosh's Lectures on " The Mysteries of the Bible," and other works. He also edited the sermons of the Rev. Edward Morgan, Dyffryn (1873-75). His last work was a volume on the " Welsh Reformers," published by the Religions Tract Society. (B. Cerddorion Cytnreig ; Mont. Worthies). See T Geninen, Mch. 1891, p. 30 ; Y Traethodydd, 1877 ; Cymru, vol. 30. p, 38. Davies, Moses, 1799-1866, a musician, was born at Defynnock, Breconshire, but, when five years of age, removed with his parents to Merthyr Tydfil. He began to study music when about 18 years old, and soon acquired great proficiency. His services were in constant request as conductor of choirs. He also composed twenty-two congre gational tunes, many of which became very popular. His best known tunes are Bremhill, Tiverley, Corinth, Soar, Pontrobert, India, Portmadoc, and Yatesbury. He was the father of William Davies (Mynorydd), the well-known sculptor. (B. Cerddorion Cymreig). Davies, Oliver, about 1790—about 1840, a harpist. He was the principal harpist at the great Welshpool Eisteddfod, held in September, 1824 ; and at the Cymmrodorion Eisteddfod in London, on May 6th, 1829, he is said to have " astonished the assembly with his masterly execution upon the pedal harp." We find him again at another Eisteddfod held in London in 1831, delighting all present with his playing of " Lady Owen's Delight," and other airs. (Mont. Worthies). Davies, Owen, 1752-1830, a Wesleyan minister and author, was born at Wrexham. Removing to London, he joined the Wesleyan Methodists, and was for some years employed as an itinerant preacher. On the establishment of the Welsh Wesleyan Mission, he came to Wales to take up the post of superintendent, and settled at Denbigh. In 1818 he was superannuated, and removed to Liverpool, where he

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continued to reside till his death. In 1806 he published a " Defence of Wesleyan Methodism," and in the following year there appeared from his pen a volume containing " Dialogues shewing the Errors of Calvinism." In 1808 he wrote (in Welsh), " Remarks on a Book recently published by Mr. T. Jones, of Denbigh." He also published a volume containing twelve of his sermons (1812) and a " Children's Catechism" (1811). (Diet. Em. W.; Cardiff Catalogue; Enwog. C.) See Cofiant y Parch. John Jones, Talysarn, pp. 281-4; Yr Eurgrawn Wesleyaidd, 1886, pp. 31 and 158 ; Banes Lien G. Davies, Owen, 1829-1898, "Eos Llechid," a clergyman and musician, was a native of Llanllechid, near Bangor. He was ordained deacon in 1877, and priest seven years later. After holding several curacies, he was appointed rector of Rhiw, near Pwllheli, in 1888, and six years afterwards, vicar of Llechcynfarwy, Anglesey. He was the author of at least 50 anthems and cantatas, his best known anthem being " Cenwch i'r Arglwydd." He also prepared a Welsh choral service book, a work on church music, and a volume of carols, the latter appearing in 1892. (C. & D. Herald ; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Y Geninen, March, 1901, p. 33 ; Ibid, 1902, p. 212 ; Ibid, March, 1903, p. 40. Davies, Rees, 1772-1847, an itinerary preacher connected with the Congregationalists, popularly known as " Rhys y glun bren," (Rees of the wooden leg), was born at Newcastle-Emlyn, Carmarthenshire. He joined the Congregationalists at an early age, and soon afterwards commenced to preach. He had many drawbacks as a preacher—a harsh voice, a repulsive appearance, and a very peculiar delivery—but his earnestness was such that he proved of immense service to the cause of religion throughout Wales. When keeping a school at Pennal, he was invited, in 1803, to preaoh at Talybont, Cardiganshire, and soon afterwards a flourishing cause was established there. It was he, too, who was instrumental in converting a lad who became one of the greatest preachers in Wales—William Williams, of Wern. (Enwog. C.) Davies, Rees, about 1832-about 1890, a distinguished surgeon in America, was of Welsh descent. After qualifying, he settled in Wilkesbarre, Pennsylvania, and soon acquired fame, being especially skilful in critical surgery cases. He was president of the American Medical Association, and contributed articles to the medical journals which elicited "the favourable recognition of his profession all over the country." ( Welshmen as Factors,
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A DICTIONARY OF

joined the Independents, bnt when abont 22 years of age he threw in his lot with the Society of Friends, and devoted himself to the dis semination of their tenets. In consequence of this he suffered much persecution, and frequent imprisonment, and was for a time estranged from his relatives. He engaged in controversy with Bishop Lloyd, with whom, however, he was on terms of close personal friendship. He made frequent journeys to London, and in 1702, he was appointed, with eleven others, to present an address to Queen Anne, with an acknowledgement from the Society of Friends for the continuation of their liberty and protection. He wrote a most quaint and interesting autobiography, entitled "Leaves from the History of Welsh Non conformity in the Seventeenth Century," which contains much valuable information as to the social state of Wales during that period. An eighth edition of this work, with notes, was published in 1899 (Newport : J. £. Southall), and a Welsh edition appeared in 1840, being a translation of the sixth English edition, issued in 1825. (Diet. Em. W. ; Leaves from the History, &c). See Y Geninen, Mch., 1891, p. 5 ; Base's Sufferings of the Quakers ; Smith's Cata logue of Friends' Books ; Fox's Journal, 1765 ; Diet. Nat. Biog. DaVies, Richard, 1659-1714, was a native of Cardiganshire. He became a Nonconformist minister, and was pastor at Rowell, in Northamptonshire, for 25 years. He displayed much of the spirit, and utilised many of the methods afterwards adopted by Wesley and Whitfield, whom he preceded by about forty years. In 1704 he published a volume entitled, "Faith: the grand evidence of our interest in Christ" (Enwog. C.) Davies, Richard, 1808-1888, a Congregational preacher, was born at Brithdir, Llanrhaiadr-yn-Mochnant. It is believed that he never attended a day school, but the Sunday School had commenced at Brithdir, and this he followed regularly. When about twenty years of age he joined the Congregational church at Llanrhaiadr, and became an energetic teacher and public speaker, being especially active as an advocate of Sunday Schools, and the temperance cause. About 1838, he removed to Llansilin, where he died fifty years later. He was greatly appreciated as an earnest, evangelical preacher of the old school. He composed a great number of englynion on different subjects, several of which appeared in the " Dysgedydd," and other periodicals. (Bye-Gones, 1888, p. 122). Davies, Richard, 1814-1854, a clergyman, born at Rhuddlan, in Flintshire, was the son of the Rev. Richard Davies, the first vicar of the Welsh church in Liverpool. In 1841, he was appointed secretary of the Church Missionary Society, and editor of the " Church Mission ary Record," and the "Gleaner." In 1848, he became vicar of Brenchley, in Kent, where he died six years later. A volume of his sermons was published under the editorship of the Rev. H. Venn. (Enwog. C.) Davies, Richard, 1816-1896, a self-made man, was a native of Llangefni, Anglesey, and was educated in the National School. He commenced business in a small way, and afterwards joined his brbther, Robert Davies, the firm carrying on a very extensive trade as shipowners

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and merchants, by which they accumulated considerable wealth. He married a daughter of the Rev. Henry Rees, and became one of the leading laymen of the Calvinistic Methodist Connexion. In 1868 he was returned without opposition as member of Parliament for his native county. At the general election in 1874 he was opposed by Captain Bulkeley, of Baron Hill, Beaumaris, whom he defeated by 1635 to 793. He was appointed by Mr. Gladstone Lord-Lieutenant of Anglesey. He was noted for his philanthropy, and no good cause ever appealed to him in vain. (C. and D. Herald). Davies, Richard, 1831-1904, "Tafolog," poet and essayist, was a native of Cwm Tafolog, near Llanerfyl, in Montgomeryshire. He won his first bardic chair at the Liverpool Eisteddfod in 1867, the subject of his poem on that occasion being " Prayer." Four years later he won the chair at the Towyn Eisteddfod for the best poem on " The Churchyard," and at the Carnarvon National Eisteddfod, in 1886, he was the chaired bard for the best " awdi " (ode) on " Gobaith " (Hope). He was a master of the alliterative measures, was regarded as an able critic, and his services were in great demand as an adjudicator. He composed a large number of Welsh hymns, was a frequent contributor to the Welsh magazines, and some of his articles in the " Geninen " are among the best critical reviews in the Welsh language. He was a member of the Council and of the executive of the National Eisteddfod Association, and was one of the " Beirdd y Meini Gwynion " in connection with the Gorsedd of the Bards. (Manchester Guardian). See Bye-Gones, 1904, p. 292 ; Cymru, vol. 26, p. 201 et seq. ; Ibid, vol. 27, p. 186 et seq. ; Y Geninen, Mch., 1906, p. 31 ; Ibid, 1888, p. 141 ; Ibid, 1904, p. 83 et. seq. ; Ibid, 1905, p. 168. Davies, Richard, 1833-1877, " Mynyddog," a musician, poet, and Eisteddfod conductor, was a native of Llanbrynmair. He was brought up as a farmer, but soon turned his attention to music and poetry. He competed successfully at various Eisteddfodau, and he also become a most popular prose writer, a series of letters which he contributed to the " Dydd " and the " Herald Cymraeg " placing him in the front rank of Welsh newspaper contributors. Mynyddog wrote the libretto of the first-published Welsh opera—"Blodwen"— by Dr. Joseph Parry. Another libretto of his, although much shorter, is that of the "Fairy Tribe" (D. Emlyn Evans). He possessed unique talents as a singer, and especially as a conductor of Eisteddfodic gatherings ; in the latter capacity he stood pre-eminent. His services were considered indispensable at these gatherings ; he displayed so much good humour, ability and tact, as to ensure the most complete control over the audience ; he possessed a commanding stature, a powerful voice, a pleasing countenance, a cool brain, and a ready tongue. His poems are distinguished by geniality and humour, combined with frequent touches of deep pathos, and sterling commonsense, rather than a lofty imagination ; by homeliness of expression rather than polished language. He published, in 1866, " Caneuon Mynyddog," in 1870 " Yr Ail Gynnyg," and in 1877 " Y Trydydd Cyunyg" (Hughes & Son. Wrexham). (Mont. Worthies; The Red

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Dragon, vol. 4, (1883) p. 1). See Cymru, vol. 4, p. 7 ; 7 Traethodydd, 1890, p. 118 ; Y Geninen, Mch., 1899, p. 36; Cymru, vol. 14, p. 110 et seq. ; Welsh Lyrics, p. 93 ; Cymru, vol. 28, p. 312 ; Ibid, vol. 30, p. 41. Davies, Richard Meredith, 1815-1905, a Congregational minister, was born near Wrexham. His parents soon removed to Manchester, where, as a lad, he was associated with the church in Mosley Street. His pastor commended him to the work of the Christian ministry, and he entered Blackburn Academy. In 1843 he accepted a call to Oldham, to a church which had but eleven members, and here for 52 years he faithfully served. The congregations increased, and the church ultimately became one of the largest and most influential in Lancashire. As the church grew, the Sunday School also grew, carefully fostered by Mr. Davies. His activity, sincerity, and ability won for him a large place in the life of Oldham. In addition to the work he did for religious institutions, he took a leading part in civic life. One of the founders of the General Hospital, he was from the beginning a governor, and for some time prior to his death the president. For more than 40 years he acted as secretary of the Lancashire Congregational Union, and in 1880 he was elected chairman. (Congreg. Year Book, 1906). Davies, Robert, 1684-1728, a well-known antiquary, of Llannerch, Denbighshire, and Gwysaney, Flintshire, was a diligent student of the history and antiquities of his native country, and formed a valuable collection of Welsh MSS. A superb monument was erected to his memory in Mold Church, with his figure in a standing attitude, in Roman costume. (Dwnn's Heraldic Visitations of Wales, vol. 2, p. 321). See Diet. Em. W.; Cathrall's History of North Wales, vol. 2, p. 223 ; Diet. Nat. Biog. Davies, Robert, 1769-1835, "Bardd Nantglyn," a poet, was born at Nantglyn, near Denbigh. He shewed a taste for poetry at a very early age, and, under the tuition of Thomas Edwards (Twm o'r Nant) he soon became very proficient in the rules of Welsh verse. In 1800 he removed to London, where he associated himself with a band of patriotic Welshmen who established the Gwyneddigion Society, of which, for a time, he acted as secretary. After a stay of four years in the metropolis, the illness of his family compelled him to return to Nantglyn, where he remained till his death. He was a bard of considerable merit, and a very successful competitor at the Eisteddfodau. In 1820 he won the bardic chair at Wrexham, for an elegy on the death of George III. Altogether, he was the winner of eleven medals, in addition to several money prizes. A volume of his poems, entitled "Diliau Barddas," was published at Denbigh in 1827, and afterwards by Mr. Isaac Foulkes, Liverpool, in " Cyfres y Ceinion." He also prepared an excellent Welsh Grammar, containing the rules of poetry, which passed through at least five editions. (Hanes Lien. G.; Diet. Em. W.; Cardiff Catalogue). See Enwog. C.; Y Traethodydd, 1854, p. 33 ; Adguf uwch Anghof, pp. 94 and 114 ; Y Brython, vol. 5, p. 335 ; Y Traethodydd, 1900, p. 270 ; Nodweddiad y Cymry, p. 256 ;

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Llyfrydd. y Cymry ; Gent. Mag., new series, vol. 5, p. 327 ; Y Geninen, 1897, p. 125. Davies, Robert, 1814-1867, " Cyndeyrn," a musician, was born at Henllan, near Denbigh. He was apprenticed to a painter and plumber at St. Asaph, but, when about 20 years of age, he removed to Bangor, where his musical talent soon attracted attention. He was subsequently appointed chief alto singer at St. Asaph Cathedral, a post which he held for nearly 27 years. In 1852 he won a prize at the Bethesda Eisteddfod for an anthem, a success which he repeated in the following year. His funeral anthem, " I heard a voice from heaven," composed in memory of Mrs. Hicks-Owen, a sister of Mrs. Hemans, was very favourably received. He composed several other pieces, including congregational tunes. Many of the latter—" St. Kentigern," "Pechadur," " Gethsemane," "St. Asaph," "Gobaith," &c—are still sung. (B. Cerddorion Cymreig). Davies, Robert, 1816-1905, a philanthropist, was a native of Llangefni, Anglesey, and was a brother of Richard Davies, for some years member of Parliament for the county (1816-1896, see ante). From small beginnings, in conjunction with his brothers John and Richard, he founded a large business as timber merchants, iron founders and shipowners, and became exceedingly wealthy. He was keenly interested in mechanics and chemistry, having in his house extensive laboratories, fitted up in the most complete and up-to-date manner. He was a member of the Calvinistic Methodist denomination, and his benefactions to the cause of religion were large and very numerous. To the Calvinistic Methodist Foreign Missionary Society he gave sums of £30,000 and £155,000 respectively, whilst his gifts towards the clearing off of chapel debts amounted to scores of thousands of pounds. His total benefactions could not have been far short of half a million sterling. (Liverpool Daily Post and Mercury). See Y Geninen, 1906, p. 117 ; Y Drysorfa, 1906 ; Adgofion (Reminiscences) by Rev. John Jones, F.R.G.S. (Pwllheli : D. Caradog Evans, 1906). Davies, Samuel, 1724-1761, an American divine, who was of Welsh descent, was born in Newcastle County, U.S. America. He was ordained as a Presbyterian minister in 1747, and succeeded Jonathan Edwards as president of Princeton College. In 1753 the synod of New York sent him to England to solicit benefactions for Princeton College. He preached before the King at the royal command, and had the boldness to administer an indirect rebuke to His Majesty for some act of seeming irreverence during the service. George II. afterwards said of him, " An honest man 1 an honest man ! " In a public speech, soon after Washington's miraculous escape at Braddock's defeat, he used the following prophetic language in regard to the then " Colonel " Washington :—" I cannot but hope that Providence has hitherto preserved him in so signal a manner for some important service to his country." Four years after his death a collection of his " Sermons on the most Useful and Important Subjects " was published in three volumes octavo, which passed through several editions, and was reprinted in London. Davies was a poet also, and many of his hymns are still printed and read. (Wales and its People; Imp. Diet. Biog.)

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DaVies, Samuel, 1788-1854, a Wesleyan minister and author, was born at Maesygroes, Flintshire. He had but a fortnight's schooling in his younger days, but was a regular attendant at the Sunday School, and availed himself of every opportunity for self-improvement. He was ordained to the ministry at Carnarvon in 1807. He took a prominent part in the theological discussions of the day. His first contribution to the literature of the subject was a sermon on " General Redemption." This was replied to in a pamphlet by Evan Evans (Ieuan Glan Geirionydd), then a church member with the Calvinistic Methodists at Chester, entitled " Special Redemption." Mr. Davies replied in a book entitled " Calvinism exposed,'' published in 1820. He also published, in 1835, a biography of Edward Prichard, a Wesleyan preacher. In conjunction with the Rev. Thomas Jones, he wrote a Welsh Theological Handbook, but his principal work is a volume of 416 pp., entitled " Etholedigaeth Ddiammodol yn cael ei Gwrthbrofi " (Unconditional Election Disproved), 1839. He wrote a number of articles to the "Eurgrawn Wesleyaidd," and a selection of his sermons, edited by William Owen and John Hugh Evans, appeared in 1864 (Holywell : A. E. Prichard). (Hanes Lien. G.). See his biography, by the Rev. Samuel Davies ; Y Bywgraffydd Wesleyaidd, p. 70 ; Cofiant y Parch. John Jones, Talysarn, p. 336. J Davies, Samuel, 1818-1891, a Wesleyan minister, was a native of Denbigh. He entered the Wesleyan ministry in 1843, and for several years was stationed at Llanfyllin and Llanrhaiadr-yn-Mochnant. By reason of his abilities and devotion to his duties, he soon secured for himself a distinguished position in the connexion. For a few years he filled the office of financial secretary to the North Wales Wesleyan District, and in 1886 was appointed chairman of the district, and editor of the Welsh Connexional Magazine, and resided at Bangor, Carnarvonshire. On his retirement from this office in 1887, he was made the recipient of a public testimonial in the form of a substantial sum of money, together with an illuminated address, in which his valuable services to the Connexion were gratefully recognized. After he had become a supernumerary, his interest in the welfare of the Connexion remained undiminished. (Bye-Gones, 1891, p. 109.) See Y Geninen, 1892, pp. 39 and 42 ; Ibid, 1893, p. 252. Davies, Sarah, 1828-1889, an authoress, was born at Oswestry, of Welsh parents. She spent the greater part of her life in Dublin, where she took an active part in religious and philanthropic work, particularly the well-known "Bird's Nest," a refuge for poor and neglected children. She was actively engaged with Miss Whateley, daughter of Archbishop Whateley, and other friends, in the manage ment of the " Birds' Nests " and other institutions of a like character. She wrote several works relating to them, including " Holly and Ivy," "St. Patrick's Armour," and "Other Cities Also," and through the interest excited by her writings was the means of raising sufficient funds to carry on the good work with great efficiency up to the time of her death. (Bye-Gones, 1889, p. 90). Davies, Sneyd, 1709-1769, a poet, was the son of John Davies,

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prebendary of Hereford and St. Asaph, and was educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge. He wrote poems at school, and was distinguished for his scholarship. He entered the church, and was successively chaplain to the Bishop of Lichfield, master of St. John's Hospital, prebendary of Lichfield, and archdeacon of Derby. Though professing love of seclusion, he seems to have had some hankerings after preferment, and shewed much irritation when Pratt (who was an old Eton friend), Lord Chancellor in 1766, failed to obtain patronage for him. On his death he left the whole of his fortune to a Mrs. Evans. His poems were never collected. They included Latin verses ; burlesque imitations of Milton, whom he specially admired ; and verses in the manner of Swift. George Hardinge, who tried hard to discover sublimity as well as elegance, pathos, and humour in his writings, prefers his Miltonic vein. Some of his poems were published anonymously, in two volumes, by John Whaley, also a Fellow of High's College. His '< Biographical Memoirs," with extracts from his writings, edited by G. Hardinge, appeared in 1817. (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Cardiff Catalogue). See Nichol's Illustrations of Literature, vol. 1, p. 481 ; vol. 3, p. 130 ; Anna Seward's Letters, vol. 1, pp. 194, 352 ; Le Neve's Fasti, vol. 1, pp. 577, 615 ; Churton's Lives of the Founders of Brasenose, p. 488. Davies, Stephen, 1790-1858, "Stephan," a poet, was born at Prestatyn, Flintshire. He was a successful eisteddfod competitor, and wrote a number of excellent poems. His elegy on the death of his wife is one of the most pathetic compositions in the Welsh language. This elegy is published in the " Gwladgarwr," vol. 3, p. 248, and several compositions by him are to be found in the same magazine. His poem on " Hiraeth ar ol Mabolaeth," which was awarded the prize at the Liverpool Qordovic Eisteddfod in 1840, is printed in the u Beirniadur Cymreig " for 1846. Hie last work was " Ymddiddan rhwng y Bardd ac Amser " (A Dialogue between the Bard and Time), published in the " Drysorfa " for 1858, the year in which he died. He was buried at Galltmelyd, the parish in which Prestatyn is situate. {Enwog. C.) Davies, Taliesin, 1822-1895, a Congregational minister, of Claptons, Wooburn, Bucks, was born in the borough of Southwark, of Welsh parents. When quite a youth he joined the church at Surrey Chapel, under the pastorate of the Rev. James Sherman, became a Sanday School teacher, and engaged in tract distribution. Having occupied his leisure for some years in mission and temperance work, he, in 1857, entered the Congregational ministry, and eventually settled down at High Wycombe. There for nine years he laboured energetically, not only in his church, but in temperance and other local and philanthropic interests. He was an able and popular preacher, whose ministry, whether in the pulpit or upon the platform, was marked by deep earnestness and intense enthusiasm. His addresses were full of the fire and fervour characteristic of his Welsh nationality, and his speeches possessed much originality of thought and a fund of grace and humour. (Congreg. Year Book, 1896.)

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Davies, Thomas, 1792-1839, a physician, was born in Car marthenshire, and, after some schooling in London, became an apothecary, and for two years practised at the east end of London. He went to Montpelier, and afterwards to Paris, for his health, and learned the then new art of auscultation, under Laennec, its inventor. He graduated M.D. at Paris, and, on his return to London, was admitted a licentiate of the College of Physicians. He lectured at his house on diseases of the lungs and heart, and explained all he had learnt from Laennec ; he also published a volume on the same subject. The lectures secured for him the post of assistant physician to the London Hospital in 1827. He printed, in the " London Medical Gazette," a course of lectures on diseases of the chest, which shewed that he had mastered and tested for himself all the observations of Laennec and of Hope. His special advice to his patients was " Keep up your spirits," and he had sad experience of the need of such advioe in his own last illness, when he suffered much from mental depression. He was buried in the Churchyard of St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate. (Diet. Nat. Biog.). See Munk's Coll. of Phys., 1878, vol. 3, p. 289 ; Physic & Physicians, London, 1839, vol. 2, p. 266. Davies, Thomas, "Trithyd," about 1810-1873, a musician, was a native of Carmarthenshire, and followed the occupation of farmer. In April, 1854, he published a collection of hymns, tunes, anthems, &c, about forty of which were his own compositions. (B. Cerddorion Cymreig.) Davies, Thomas, 1815-1892, a Congregational minister, was born at Abergavenny. At the age of 26 he sought admission to Highbury College, to prepare for the work of the ministry. Always a diligent reader, he made good use of his period of study, and at the close of his course, settled at Maidenhead. In 1850 he became pastor of the York Road Chapel, Lambeth, where in addition to his pastoral duties, he was secretary of the Chapel Building Society. There he remained till 1855, when owing to ill-health, he removed to Cannon Street Chapel, Preston, where he laboured till 1860, and then became pastor of Duckworth Street Congregational Chapel, Darwen, with which his name was so long and so honourably associated. He was gifted in a rare degree with clearness of thought, and the power of persuasive eloquence. He was careful of every epithet which he employed, and hence, however simply he spoke, his words told. In 1871 he was chairman of the Lancashire Congregational Union. (Congreg. Tear Book, 1894.) Davies, Thomas, 1820-1873, a Congregational minister and author, was born in the parish of Trelech, Carmarthenshire. In his twenty-first year, at the request of the church at Trelech, he began to preach. After spending some time at a preparatory school at Carmarthen, he was, in 1843, admitted to Brecon College. In 1847 he was ordained at the Tabernacle, Llandilo, in his native county, as the successor of the seraphic W. Williams. He soon proved that he was not unworthy of his eminent predecessor, and under his ministry the church and congregation increased from year to year. As a pastor,

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he was diligent and conscientious in the discharge of his duties, and as a preacher he was remarkably powerful and eloquent. The geniality of his countenance, the melody of his voice, his telling illustrations, and the agreeableness and fluency of his delivery, made him one of the most popular preachers of the day. He was the author of " The Life and Writings of the Rev. D. Rees, Llanelly," in Welsh, (Llanelly : B. R Rees, 1871) ; and " Crynodeb o Hanes y Cymry," a summary of Welsh history. His Memoir, and a selection of his sermons, edited by Wm. Thomas, of Gwynfe, appeared in 1877. (Congreg. Year Book, 1874 ; Cardiff Catalogue). Davies, Thomas, 1823 - 1898, a Congregational minister and author, was born near Lampeter, Cardiganshire, and in 1839 removed with his parents to Dowlais, Glamorganshire. He received his preparatory education at Ffrwdyfal Academy, and entered Brecon College in 1848. Four years later he was ordained pastor at Llansamlet, removing in 1854 to Llanelly, where he laboured for forty-three years. He was a most prominent figure in educational, political, and religious matters, and was a very popular lecturer. He was a sedulous scholar, of a scientific turn of mind ; a linguist of no mean order, with an especial acquaintance with the Greek Testament, and as a preacher he was orderly, evangelical, earnest, delighting in a conversational style rather than the oratorical and declamatory. He was chairman of the Welsh Congregational Union in 1889, and received the honorary degree of D.D. from the University of Iowa, U.S.A. His volume of sermons, " Cyfrol Jubili Siloah," is owned to be worthy of a high and abiding place in sermonic literature, the " Independent " speaking of the sermons as being " remarkable for a very charming combination, the theological phrase of fifty years ago and the liberal spirit of to-day." He was for fourteen years editor of "Y Diwygiwr." (C. and D. Herald; Congreg. Tear Book, 1899). See Y Geninen, 1902, Mch., p. 33. Davies, Thomas, 1833-1899, a j-Congregational minister and author, was born at Newcastle Emlyn, Cardiganshire. He received his preparatory training at the Adpar Grammar School, and in 1854 entered Brecon College. He was ordained at Dolgelley in 1858, and had a large share in the great revival in that and the following year. While there he inaugurated a magazine for young people called " Y Baner " (The Banner), and in 1861 published a volume entitled " Yr Aelod Cyflawn " (The Complete Member). In 1863 he accepted an invitation to Painswick, Glos., where he became so popular as a preacher that the congregation filled the chapel, and even crowded the pulpit stairs. In 1864, for a critical thesis upon the Kantian- philosophy, he had conferred upon him the degrees of M.A., Ph.D., by the University of Gottingen. After serving in the pastorate at Ross and Pembroke Dock, he removed to London, ministering first at York Road and afterwards at Brompton. In 1882, he published a volume of " Sermons and Expositions," which was well received, being characterised as the work of " an independent thinker." He also published " The Children's Service Handbook," and in 1886 founded and edited " The Weekly Pulpit," which enjoyed a considerable

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circulation. In 1889, he wrote in Welsh the " Biography of the Rev. R. Ll. Thomas, Borough, London." In 1893, he published a "Tale for the Times," entitled "My Sister's Down-Grade Diary," and in 1895 he sent forth to the public a second series of " Sermons and Expositions," and also a volume of " Homiletical Expositions of the Epistle to the Philippians." (Congreg. Year Book, 1901). Davies, Thomas Rees, 1790-1859, a Baptist minister, was a native of Cilgeran, Pembrokeshire. His parents were Congregationalists, but he joined the Baptists at an early age, commenced to preach, and was ordained in 1814. Four years later, as the result of a dispute as to the trust deeds of a chapel, he was expelled by the denomination, and joined the Wesleyans. In 1826, he was received back by the Baptists, and ministered with great success in Liverpool, Cilgeran, his native place, and in the neighbourhood of Conway. He was a very popular preacher, and was the means of doing much useful work. (Enivog. C.) See Y Geninen, March, 1889, p. 33. Davies, Timothy, 1779-1860, for forty years Congregational minister at Evesham, was born at Ciliau Aeron, in Cardiganshire. After completing his education, when 22 years of age, he became joint-pastor with his father, the Rev. David Davies. In 1810, he accepted a call to Coventry, where he laboured with great success for eight years. He afterwards removed to Evesham, and while there he translated the greater part of Dr. Coke's Commentary into Welsh. (Enwog. V.). Davies, Timothy, 1802-1862, a clergyman, was a native of Carmarthenshire, his father being curate of Llanddeusant, in that county. He completed his education at the Carmarthen Grammar School, and was first appointed to the curacy of Ystradgynlais, Breconshire. In 1848, he was preferred to the Vicarage of Defynog, where he died. He was a most eloquent preacher, and rendered invaluable service to the Church in South Wales. (G. B.). Davies, Walter, 1761-1849, "Gwallter Mechain," a well-known poet, critic, and author, was a native of Llanfechain, Montgomeryshire. The education he received in early life was very meagre, but he availed himself of every opportunity to improve his mind by reading every book that came in his way. In 1791, he obtained a clerkship at All Souls' College, Oxford ; afterwards removing to Cambridge, where he graduated. After holding various livings, he became vicar of Llanrhaiadr-yn-Mochnant, where he died. He was a voluminous writer, and a very successful Eisteddfodic competitor ; his services as adjudicator were also in great request. His poems are chiefly written in the ancient bardic style, but he also wrote several lyrical composi tions, in a style less severe. He wrote a number of prize essays, the best known being those on " Liberty," and " The Life of Man." He was a constant contributor to the magazines of the day, his articles being remarkable for clearness and liveliness of style, accuracy of information, and soundness of judgment. His " General View of the Agriculture and Domestic Economy of North Wales and South Wales," published by order of the Board of Agriculture, is a very valuable

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work ; in the words of Dr. Carl Meyer, it is " fall of shrewd observa tion, lively description, and excellent practical advice." He contributed largely to Carlisle's " Topographical Dictionary of Wales," Bingley's " Tours," the " Myvyrian Archaiology," the " Cambrian Register," and other works. He also edited the poems of Hugh Maurice (Eos Ceiriog), and, jointly with the Rev. John Jones (Tegid), those of Lewis Glyn Cothi. (Y Beimiad, 1868, p. 89 ; Diet. Em. W.). See Y Traethodydd, 1896, p. 498 ; Entvog. y Ffydd, vol. 2 ; Cymru O. J., vol. 1 ; Enwog. C ; Yr Haul, 1891, p. 76 ; Mont. Worthies; Y Traethodydd, 1900, p. 268 ; Yr Adolygydd, vol. 1, p. 256 ; Y Geninen, 1883, p. 150 ; Nodweddiad y Cymry, p. 268 ; Adgof uwch Anghtif, p. 53 ; Y Geninen, 1887, p. 139; Hanes Lien. G.; Young Wales, 1899, p. 63 et seq. Davies, William, 1727-1787, vicar of Newcastle-Emlyn, was a native of Lanfynydd, Carmarthenshire. He first of all served as curate under the Rev. Mr. Pinkey, and during that time, as well as after Mr. Pinkey's death, he met with a good deal of opposition at the hands of the parishioners, or a section of them. This had the effect of inducing him to join the Calvinistic Methodists, with whom he became an itinerary preacher. He was an eloquent preacher, and travelled much throughout North and South Wales. (Enwog. C.) See Mtthodistiaeth Cymru ; Hanes Bywyd Siencyn Penhydd. Davies, William, - 1821, a clergyman, who held a living in Cynwyl, Carmarthenshire. He rendered considerable service in the Methodist revival, but in 1811 he severed his connection with the movement, in consequence of his objection to the method of ordaining ministers. He afterwards confined his energies to the Established Church, and being an eloquent preacher, he was the means of adding considerably to the number of church adherents in the parish in which he laboured, as well as in the surrounding district. (Enwog. C.) Davies, William, 1784-1851, a Wesleyan missionary, better known as " Davies, Africa," was born at a farmhouse called Croes Efa, near Ruthin. He began to preach in 1804, and ten years later was appointed to take charge of the Wesleyan mission in Sierra Leone. After serving, with much success, for four years, he had to return to this country owing to ill-health. He published a Diary of his missionwork, a short memoir of his wife, and other works ; he also translated several of Wesley's hymns into Welsh, and composed a number of original hymns. Some of his sermons were published in the " Eurgrawn Wesleyaidd." (Enwog. C.) Davies, William, 1804-1859, widely known as "Davies, Ffrwdyfal," a Congregational minister, was born in the parish of Llanycrwys, Carmarthenshire. After completing his education he laboured for some years as pastor of a Congregational chapel in Somerset, but subsequently returned to his native country, where ho settled down as schoolmaster. He was a good classical scholar, received the degree of Ph.D., and turned out many pupils who had a distinguished career. He founded an Academy at Ffrwdvale, which he conducted for about 20 years. He afterwards removed to Derlwyn, and two years later was appointed professor of science and

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mathematics at the Presbyterian College, Carmarthen. A number of articles from his pen are to be found in " Y Diwygiwr," " Y Drysovfa Gynulleidfaol." "Y Tywysydd," and "Y Dysgedydd." (Enwog. C. ; G. B., vol. 1, p. 200 ; Cymru, vol. 16, p. 231 ; Ibid., vol. 18, p. 140; Ibid, v. 29, p. 138; T Brython, v. 3, p. 60, 103, 141.) Davies, William, 1814-1891, palaeontologist, was born at Holywell, and was the son of a Thomas Davies. After going to school in his native town, he studied botany, and in 1843 obtained a post in the British Museum, devoting himself first to mineralogy, and afterwards to vertebrate palaeontology. In this he acquired great technical knowledge as to the best methods of developing and preserv ing delicate specimens, and was pronounced to be " one of its most accomplished students." He took an active part in the re-arrangement of the National collection in 1880, when it was transferred from Bloomsbury to its present abode in Cromwell Road, and gave most valuable assistance to Sir Antonio Brady in collecting and describing the mammalian remains found near Uford. He received the Murchison Medal from the Geological Society in 1873, and became a Fellow in 1877. He disliked literary compositions, so that his scientific papers are not numerous—about fifteen in all ; but his extensive knowledge was ever at the service of others, for he was one of those men who cared more for the advancement of science than of himself. In 1887 he retired on a pension from the Museum. He was twice married, and left issue by his first wife one son and one daughter. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Geological Mag., 1891, pp. 144, 190 ; Quart. Joum. of Geol. Soc., vol. 47, proc. p. 56. Davies, William, 1820-1875, a Wesleyan minister and author, was born at Aberystwyth, where his father worked as a stonemason. Soon after his birth his parents removed to Merthyr Tydfil, then to Aberavon and Aberdovey, and finally settling again at Aberystwyth. He was apprenticed to a shoemaker, but his progress was slow : it is said of him that when at work he invariably had a book open in front of him. At an early age he showed a desire to enter the ministry, and preached his first sermon in 1841. In 1843 he removed to Llangefni, and two years later to Conway, being fully ordained to the ministry at Liverpool in August, 1847. He soon attained great popularity as a preacher, and became one of the foremost ministers of his denomina tion. He edited Y Winllan, a Wesleyan magazine for the young from 1857 to 1860, and Yr Eurgraum Wesleyaidd from 1866 to 1875. He also acted as Bookroom Steward from 1867 to 1875. In 1870 he received the degree of D.D. from America. He was the author of "Agoriad i'r Ysgrythyrau " (An Introduction to the Scriptures), (Carnarvon : H. Humphreys, 1860) of which a second edition was published in 1884. (C. & D. Herald; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Yr Eurgraum Wesleyaidd, 1875 ; Y Geninen, 1886, p. 145 ; Ibid., 1887, p. 8. Davies, William, 1830-1897, an author, who came of Welsh parents, resided for many years in Rome, but spent the last few years of his life at Chester. He was the author of " The Pilgrimage of the Tiber," " Songs of a Wayfarer," and other books, the last of which was

Richard Davies (Tafolog).

Richard Davies (Mynyddog).

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" The Pilgrim of the Infinite," published in 1895. He also edited the letters of his friend James Smetham. He was an excellent Italian scholar, and knew Dante almost by heart. He was remarkable for his sympathy with, and generosity (according to his means) to, the members of that literary and artistic circle with which it was the pleasure of his life to associate. (Bye-Gones, 1897, p. 116.) Davies, William, 1832-1904, was born at Caerblaidd, Festiniog, in October 1832. He showed considerable ability as a musician when young ; he could read music with ease when only nine years of age, and in his sixteenth year he was a choir conductor. He composed several anthems and other musical pieces, and at the Festiniog Eisteddfod in 1854 won a priae for an anthem when Gwilym Gwent was among the competitors. (B. Cerddorion Cymreig ; Manchester Guardian.) Davies, William Cadwaladr, 1849-1905, a barrister, was born at Bangor, and began his career in a local newspaper office. He became a journalist, and took a keen interest in Welsh movements, particularly those relating to the Eisteddfod and to education. In London, he became acquainted and associated with Sir Hugh Owen and his work. He took up for a time the position of manager of a Bangor bank, a position which he vacated in order to become Registrar of the University College of North Wales in that city. In that connection he rendered most valuable service to the cause of higher education in the Principality, and was associated with the movement which led to the establishment of the University in Wales. He married Miss Mary Davies, the well-known singer, in 1888, and shortly afterwards joined the bar. He was appointed one of the standing counsel to the Welsh University, and was one of the assistant Charity Commissioners appointed to inquire into Welsh charities, his particular sphere being the county of Merioneth. As a member of the Executive Committee of the National Eisteddfod Association and of the Council of the Society of Cymmrodorion, he took an active interest in Welsh movements. He collaborated with Prof. Lewis Jones in writing a history of the University of Wales. (Manchester Guardian.) See Cymru, vol. 31, p. 59. Davies, Sir William David, about 1760-1821, a lawyer, of Welsh descent, was born in London, and educated at Harrow School. He was admitted an attorney in 1789, and began to practise at Leigh, in Lancashire. Five years later he was called to the bar, and joined the Northern circuit. He took up his residence in Liverpool, and acquired a considerable practice as special pleader and conveyancer. In 1813 he was appointed first stipendiary magistrate of Manchester, and two years later became Vice-Chancellor of the county palatine of Lancaster. He held both offices concurrently, and discharged his duties with dignity and impartiality, until 1818. He was the author of several legal works, among them an enlarged edition of " Salkeld's Reports," 1795 ; " Essays on the Action for money lent and received," 1802 ; " A General View of the Decisions of Lord Mansfield in Civil Causes," 1803 ; " A Treatise on the Law of Obligations and Contracts, from the French of Pothier," 1806 ; " The Practice of the Court of

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Common Pleas of Lancaster," 1814 ; " An Address on Discharging the Prisoners apprehended on account of an illegal assembly at Man chester," 1817 ; " A Collection of Statutes relating to the Clergy, with Notes," 1817. (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Cymry Manceinion). See Nichol son's Memoirs of Sir W. D. Evans, Warrington, 1845 ; Allibone's Dictionary of Authors ; Manchester Free Library Catalogue. Davies, William D., 1839-1900, an author and lecturer, was a native of Penboyr, Carmarthenshire. In 1866 he b.egan preaching in connection with the Calvinistic Methodist church at H6ol Fach, in the Rhondda Valley, and two years later he emigrated to America, where he did valuable service for the same denomination for over a quarter of a century. He was for many years a travelling corres pondent of the " Drych," and was very popular as a lecturer. His residence in America was at Scranton, Pennsylvania. He died at Brymbo, near Wrexham, where he was engaged on a lecturing tour. He published several Welsh works, the best known being " Llwybrau Bywyd" (The Paths of Life) ; "Cartref Dedwydd, neu Ysgol y Teulu" (A Happy Home, or the Family School) ; and " America, a Gweledigaethau Bywyd" (America, and Visions of Life). (Bye-Goms, 1900, p. 357). Davies, William Ryle, 1844-1901, a Calvinistic Methodist minister and essayist, was a native of Dinorwic, near Carnarvon, and worked in a slate quarry until he was 25 years of age. He was prevailed upon to study for the ministry, and after a course of training at Bala College he went to Edinburgh, but, owing to failing health, his stay there was shortened, and he had to return to his native country. He afterwards accepted the pastorate of one of the Calvinistic Methodist churches in London, where he died. He was a powerful preacher, and an excellent prose writer. He contributed several able articles—chiefly on philosophical subjects—to the Welsh magazines. (C. & D. Herald.) See T Geninen, Mch., 1902, p. 40 ; his Welsh Biography, by the Rev. Richard Humphreys. Davis, David, 1815-1886, a lawyer, was born in Cecil County, Maryland, U.S.A., of Welsh parents. He graduated at Kenyon College, and the Yale College Law School, and in 1876 became a resident of Bloomington, Illinois. He was thrice elected judge in a State Court, holding that position from 1848 to 1862. From the latter year to 1877 he was a Justice of the United States Supreme Court ; United States Senator from Illinois, 1877-1883, and president pro tempore of the Senate, 1881-83. (Welshmen as Factors, &c, W. R. Evans; Lippincott.) Davis, David Daniel, 1777-1841, a physician, was born in the parish of Llandefaelog, near Carmarthen, where his father farmed his own freehold. He received a good grammatical education at a local school, and afterwards proceeded to a college at Northampton, and then to the Glasgow University, where he greatly distinguished himself, taking the degree of M.D. in 1801. For the first ten years of his professional life he acted as one of the physicians to the Sheffield General Infirmary. In 1813 he removed to London, and six years

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later, having, arrived at great eminence, he was selected as physicianaccoucheur to the Duchess of Kent, upon the occasion of the birth of Queen Victoria. He delivered lectures annually on midwifery, and, before the close of his professional career, he had taught 1100 pupils. In 1825, he was elected to the chair of midwifery in the University College, London. He wrote very valuable works on operative mid wifery and obstetric medicine. He was succeeded in his practice by his son, Dr. John Hall Davis, who added to the advantages derived from the experience and teaching of his father indefatigable industry, patient investigation, and great powers of original observation. (Diet. Em. W.) See Munk's Coll. of Phys., 1870, vol. 4, p. 117 ; Diet. Nat. Biog. ; The Lancet, 30th May, 1846 ; Imp. Diet. Biog. Davis, James, about 1705-1755, satirical writer, a Welshman, was a member of Jesus College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A., in 1726, and M.A., three years later. He turned his attention to Medicine, and practised at Devizes, in Wiltshire. The year before his death, he published, anonymously, a volume on the antiquities of the Devizes, a well-written jeu d'esprit aimed at the absurd etymologies of Musgrave, Stnkeley, Wise, Baxter, and Willis. It was reprinted as the work of " Dr. Davis," in " The Repository," London. Owing to a misstatement by George Hardinge, the piece has been wrongly ascribed to Dr. 8neyd Davies. The Doctor's jokes deceived the author of " Chronicles of the Devizes," who has reproduced the choicest as hard facts in what professes to be a grave biography of Davis. Among the additional MSS. in the British Museum are three of Davis' letters to Professor John Ward, but wholly upon antiquarian subjects. (Diet. Nat. Biog). See Monthly Review, vol. 10, p. 231 ; Waylen's Chronicles of the Devizes, pp. 13, 345-6. Davis, Jefferson, 1808-1889, president of the American Confederate States, was born in Christian (now Todd) County, Kentucky. He was of Welsh descent, and in a statement dictated by him a short time before his death, he stated that he was the grandson of Evan Davies, the youngest of 3 brothers, who emigrated to America from Wales in the early part of the eighteenth century, and who settled at Philadelphia. He was the first elected to the United States Senate in 1847, and was afterwards recognised as one of the leaders of the Democrats. In 1861 he framed the revolutionary scheme adopted in secret caucus by the Southern senators, and in the same year he was elected president. Then followed the War of 1861-5. After two years of its course his policy began to be severely criticised. Charges of mismanagement and of cruelty to the Northern prisoners were made, while the Confederate finances completely collapsed. Shortly after tho final defeat of the Confederates at Richmond in 1865, Davis was captured and imprisoned for two years, but afterwards released on bail. In 1881 he published "The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government." (Oswestry Advertiser, 4th June, 1890 ; The Cambrian, 1896, p. 77 ; Harmsworth ; Memoir of Jefferson Davis, by his widow, 1891). Davis, John, about 1750, of Tredyffryn, a soldier in the American war, entered the service in March, 1776, under Col. Atlee.

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In November of the same year, he raised a company—the 9th Pennsylvania—of which he became captain. He was faithful to the close of the war, and his services in several battles " were an honour to this soldier of Welsh blood." He was a member of the Welsh Presbyterian Church. (Welshmen as Factors, &c). Davis, John, about 1815-1890, a physician, who attained con siderable eminence in America, was the son of parents who emigrated from Wales. He was born in New London, Ohio, and received the best educational advantages. In 1852 he was instrumental in founding the Miami Medical College at Cincinnati, in which he was for many years professor. For about 30 years he was on the Cincinnati Hospital Staff, and for two years during the war he was medical officer in charge of the Government Marine Hospital in the same city. (Welshmen as Factors, &c). Davis, Noah, 1818-1902, an American Judge, was born at Haverhill, in the United States. He was of Welsh descent, his ancestors having crossed to America about the same time as Roger Williams, settling first in Connecticut, and afterwards in Rhode Island. He was educated at Albion, New York, and was admitted to the bar in 1841. In 1857 he was appointed a Justice of the New York Supreme Court, and after serving for 12 years he resigned. For some time he sat as a Republican in the National House of Representatives, resigning in 1870 on his being appointed Attorney for the southern district of New York. He afterwards served another term of 5 years as Justice of the Supreme Court. After his retirement in 1887 he engaged in the practice of the law in New York city, his advice and services being sought in some of the most important cases. He was an active member of the New York St. David's Society, and took a special interest in the prosperity and welfare of the Welsh people in America. (The Cambrian, 1896, p. 5, and 1902, p. 373). Davis, Thomas Osborne, 1814-1845, a poet and essayist, born at Mallow, in Ireland, was of Welsh descent. Sir Charles Govan Duffy once declared that " the young Irish patriot of Welsh descent had been the idol of two generations of scholars and thinkers." Mr. Justin McCarthy described him as "the most surprising man ever connected with any movement." His " Cymric Rule and Cymric Rulers," arranged to the popular air of " Men of Harlech," is of inferior poetical merit to the generality of his songs, but it borrows an interest in our eyes from the insight which it affords into his warm love for Wales and Welshmen. When quite a young man, he became a member of the Dublin College Historical Society, where he was distinguished, less for eloquence of delivery than for the solidity of his arguments and the scope of his learning. As a politician he was enthusiastic, laborious, manly and sincere, and endowed with a wonderful power of waking up a popular feeling of nationality in Irish Society. As a writer he showed great force, and all the verve of a mind of original genius and acquired erudition. Some of his poems are full of dramatic action, fine illustration, and great pathos. His essays and poems have been published, the latter with an introduction by Mr. Wallis. In conjunction with J. B. Dillon and Charles Gavan

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Duffy he founded the " Nation " newspaper, in 1842, to which he contributed stirring ballads and articles on patriotic subjects. He wrote an " Essay on Irish Songs " for Barry's Songs of Ireland, 1845, and also edited the Speeches of Curran. (3 he Red Dragon; Imp. Diet. Biog.). See Sir C. G. Duffy's Ytmng Ireland; Webb's Compendium of Irish Biog., p. 123 ; Wills' Irish Nation, vol. 4, pp. 78, 612 ; Read's Cabinet of Irish Literature, vol. 3, p. 180 ; Miss Mitford's Recollections of a Literary Life, vol. 1, p. 18. Derfel, Robert Jones, 1824-1905, a poet and prose writer, was born in the parish of Llandderfel, Merionethshire, his parents being Edward and Catherine Jones, Fotty. At an early age he removed to Manchester, and for some time was a commercial traveller in the drapery line. He then opened a shop in Manchester as a bookseller, which proved a failure, but finally succeeded in establishing a fairly good business as printer. Adopting the surname " Derfel," he attracted considerable not^ by means of a series of able letters on "The Treachery of the Blue Books," which he contributed to the " Amserau." He was a great admirer of Robert Owen, of Newtown, and was a voluminous writer on Socialistic subjects, both in English and Welsh. Among these productions may be mentioned " Common Misconceptions about Socialism," 1891 ; and " Poverty, the Problem of Problems." He was also the author of " Hymns and Songs for the Church of Man," 1889 ; " Social Songs," 1889 ; " Caneuon," 1891 ; and " Caneuon Canol Oes." He had previously—1864—published a collection of Welsh songs under the title " Caneuon Qwladgarol Cymru." (Y Cymro; Cardiff Catalogue). Dewi Arfbtl, see Jones, David. Dewi Fardd, see Jones, David. Dewi Glan Dulas, see Morris, David William. Dewi Haratl, see Evans, David. Dewi Silin, see Richards, David. Dewi Wyn O Eifion, see Owen, David. Dewi Wyn O Esyllt, see David, Thomas E. Dick Aberdaron, see Jones, Richard Robert. Dillwyn, Lewis Llewelyn, 1814-1892, member of Parlia ment, was a son of Lewis Weston Dillwyn, of Swansea (see post). He was educated at Bath, and afterwards succeeded to the management of the Cambrian and Glamorgan Potteries. Later, he turned his attention to the manufacture of spelter, and, in conjunction with Sir William Siemens, was the means of introducing the steel industry at Landore, and establishing a large manufactory there. He was M.P. for Swansea for 37 years. (0. and D. Herald). Dillwyn, Lewis Weston, 1778-1855, a botanist, naturalist, and member of Parliament, was the son of William Dillwyn, who was descended from an old Breconshire family of that name. He con tributed a number of valuable articles to the scientific magazines, and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society ; he was a very voluminous

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writer, and among his publications may be mentioned " Contributions towards a History of Swansea " (1840) ; and " Materials for a Fauna and Flora of Swansea and the neighbourhood " (1848). In 1832, he was returned to the Reformed Parliament, as a second member for Glamorganshire, being again returned in 1837. Four years later he retired finally, on the dissolution of Parliament, from public life. (His Biography, by " Soranus," M.D. 1855). See Proceedings of the Linncean Society, 1856, p. 26 ; Jackson's Lit. of Botany, p. 540 ; Cat. Scientific Papers, vol. 2, p. 205 ; Smith's Friends' Books, vol. 1, p. 582 ; Did. Nat. Biog. ; Cambrian Journal, 1855, p. 287. Dyer, John, 1701 - 1757, the poet, was the son of a solicitor, and was born at Aberglasney, Carmarthenshire. He was educated at West minster School, under Dr. Freind, and, having a natural taste for painting, he became pupil to Jonathan Richardson, but did not attain distinction in that profession. In 1727 he published his " Grongar Hill," which became one of the most popular of descriptive poems. After travelling in Italy, he published a poem, in blank verse, on " The Ruins of Rome," which contains many passages which are truly poetical, the strain of moral and political reflection being that of a benevolent and enlightened mind. He afterwards entered into holy orders, and resided at Coningsby, in Lincolnshire. His largest work, "The Fleece, a didactic poem in four books," did not enhance his reputation, ite theme—" the care of sheep, the labours of the loom, and arts of trade"—being hardly adapted to poetry. Wordsworth found parts of the poem " dry and heavy," and parts superior to any writer in verse since Milton, for imagination and purity of style. Dr. Drake expressed the opinion that " it contains a vast variety of land scapes, drawn and coloured in the most spirited and fascinating style." It was praised, among Dyer's contemporaries, by Dr. James Grainger, a verse writer in The Monthly Review, and by Gray. He left behind him "the reputation of an ingenious poet, the character of an honest, humane, and good man." (Diet. Em. W. ; The Poems of John Dyer —The Welsh Library.) See T Geninen, 1901, p. 144 ; Red Dragon, v. 10, p. 208 ; Johnson's Lives of the Poets ; Duncombe's Letters, v. 3, p. 56 ; Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Y Geninen, 1887, p. 288 ; Malkin's South Wales, vol. 2, p. 447. Eben Fardd, see Thomas, Ebenezer. Edmunds, Edward, 1839-1872, a Congregational minister and author, was born at Beaufort, Brecknockshire. In his sixteenth year he commenced preaching, and soon after was admitted to Bala College, where he remained two years. From Bala he removed to the Presbyterian College, Carmarthen. Too much work during his college career over powered his delicate constitution, and laid the foundation of consump tion. In 1864 he was ordained pastor of the English cause at Ruabon, Denbighshire, but soon afterwards his health gave way, and he made his home for the last six years of his life with the Rev. Evan Evans, Werngoch, near Neath. He was endowed with brilliant natural talents, was an excellent scholar, and an unceasing worker. About two years before his death, while scarcely able to leave his bed, he composed an

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essay on " The Church in Wales," which gained the prize of twenty guineas offered by the Liberation Society. His numerous contributions to the Welsh and some English periodicals show that he was an able and elegant writer. (Congreg. Year Book, 1873.) Ednyfed, see Evans, Frederick. Edwards, Bela Bates, 1802-1852, a theologian, who was born in Southampton, Massachusetts, U.S.A., was of Welsh descent. For five years he acted as assistant secretary of the American Education Society. " He was an enthusiast in sacred philology, and originated and planned many philanthropic institutions." He founded the American Quarterly Observer in 1833 ; edited the Biblical Repository from 1835 to 1838, and the Bibliotheca Sacra from 1844 to 1852. In 1837 he became Professor of Hebrew, and in 1848 Professor of Biblical Literature, at Andover Seminary. (Welshmen as Factors, &c; Lippincott.) Edwards, David, died about 1800, the bridge-builder, was the son of William Edwards, the builder of what is known as "the bridge of beauty" at Pontypridd (1719-1789, see post). He inherited his father's skill to a peculiar degree. His best-known work is the Llandilo bridge, in Carmarthenshire, " of three very light, elegant, and large arches," built in 1786. He also constructed the fine five-arched bridge over the Usk at Newport. (The Cambrian, 1902, p. 146.) Edwards, David, 1816-1876, an American preacher, was born near Llangedwin, Denbighshire, and with his parents emigrated to America in 1821. He was a man of extraordinary influence and power, and stood in the front rank as a pulpit orator. He was for twenty-seven years bishop of the " United Brethren in Christ." For four years he occupied the editorial chair, conducting the Religious Telescope, the official organ of the church of his choice. He died at Baltimore on the 6th of June, 1876, and his biography was written by a fellow-countryman, Dr. L. Davis. (Welshmen as Factors, &c, W. R, Evans.) Edwards, Ebenezer, 1824-1901, a Baptist minister and author, was a native of Llangollen, Denbighshire, and received his education at the Academy at Haverfordwest. He began to preach at the age of eighteen years, and while yet a young man he went to America, and entered a college in New York State to prepare himself for the ministry. In 1851 he became pastor of the Baptist cause at Pittston, afterwards removing to Cincinnati, Ohio. About 1858 he came over to Wales, and spent some years in the ministry at Brynmawr, and afterwards at Llanelly. He returned to America in 1868, and after several changes settled at Allentown, Pennsylvania, where he died. He received the degree of D.D. from an American University. He was a close student of the Bible, a profound thinker, and an eloquent preacher. He composed a number of poems of considera ble merit. At the World's Fair Eisteddfod at Chicago in 1893 he won a prize of three hundred dollars for his essay on " Welshmen as Factors in the Formation of the United States Republic," which was afterwards published in book form. (The Cambrian, 1901, p. 135.)

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Edwards, Ebenezer Ward, -1897, a clergyman, was a son of the Rev. Willium Edwards, vicar of Llanymawddwy, and after wards of Llangollen, and a brother of Bishop Edwards of St. Asaph. He held the Powis scholarship at Jesus College, Oxford, and graduated third class in Lit. Hum. in 1852, proceeding to his M.A. degree three years later. He was ordained priest in 1854, and was curate to his father at Llangollen from 1853 to 1857. In the latter year he was presented to the vicarage of Nantglyn, and 1862 to the vicarage of Ruabon, being afterwards appointed canon. During his vicariate at Ruabon he formed the ecclesiastical parish of Penycae, was instrumental in building its church and schools, and in securing endowments sufficient to maintain the living. The parish of Bryn, Penylan, was also formed and a separate church and clergyman were given to it. The Wynnstay chapel was afterwards built, so that Canon Edwards saw his original parish divided into three, each having a church and incumbent of its own. He also restored Ruabon parish church, and had the National schools greatly enlarged. (Bye-Gones, 1897, p. 202.) Edwards, Edward, 1803-1879, marine zoologist, was born at Corwen, Merionethshire. He started life as a draper at Bangor, but in 1840 established a foundry and iron works at Menai Bridge. In 1864, he began to study the habits of the fish in their native element. He was induced to attempt an artificial arrangement for preserving the fish in health in confinement, so as to be enabled to study their habits more closely. By an imitation of the material conditions under which they flourished, he succeeded in introducing such improvements in the construction of aquaria as enabled him to preserve the fish for an almost unlimited period without change of water. He invented a darkwater frame slope-back tank, the result of a close study of the rockpools, with their fissures and chasms in the rocks on the shores of the Menai Straits, and the principle of his tank was most successfully adopted in all the large establishments of this country, as well as on the Continent and in America. To the pursuit of this interesting branch of natural history he devoted the best years of his life. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Athenceum, 6th Sept., 1879. Edwards, Edward, 1812-1886, one of the pioneers in the formation of Free Public Libraries was, according to his own statement, of Welsh descent, though born in London. From 1839 to 1849 he was employed at the British Museum. In 1851, he was appointed librarian of the first Free Public Library at Manchester. He did much to secure the passing of the Free Public Libraries' Act, 1850. He was the author of " Memoirs of Libraries," in 2 vols. : " Lives of the Founders of the British Museum," 2 vols. : The Life of Sir Walter Raleigh," and several other works. In 1883, he was placed on the Civil List, receiving a pension of £80 a year. (Cymry Manceinion ; The Library Chronicle, 1886). See Greenwood's " Edward Edwards;' 1902 ; Autobiographical passages in Edward's Writings ; Memoirs in Academy and Library Chronicle ; Reports of British Museum Com mittees, 1835 and 1849 ; Diet. Nat. Biog. Edwards, Edward, 1842-1906, a self-made man, was born in Merthyr Tydfil. When still young he emigrated to America,

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securing employment with Mr. David Thomas, the pioneer in the iron business in America (1794-1882, see post). Commencing his career there in a very humble capacity, he ultimately became president and general manager of the Slatington Rolling Mills, and amassed a large fortune. His success in life was due solely to his own efforts, and to the high standard of honesty which he always maintained. (Western Mail, March 10th, 1906). Edwards, George Rowland, 1810-1894, a soldier, who was of Welsh descent, was the son of John Edwards, Esq., J.P., Ness Strange, and after completing his education at Donnington school, near Shrewsbury, went out to India, at the age of 16, in the service of the East India Company. He returned to England in 1837, and served during the Chartist riots at Welshpool and Montgomery, as secretary to Lord Clive. In 1839 he again sailed for India, and became attached to the 2nd Madras Cavalry, serving in that presidency for 23 years. In 1862 he returned home, and retired from the army with the rank of colonel. He was the owner of considerable property, and in addition to the estate at Ness Strange, had property at Cefnymaes, near Oswestry. He was an ardent advocate of small holdings, and wrote several papers advocating the scheme contained in the phrase " Three acres and a cow." These papers were published, and were favourably noticed at the time by Lord Onslow, and many members of Parliament. (Bye-gortes, 1894, p. 303.) Edwards, Griffith, 1812-1893, "Gutyn Padarn," a clergyman and poet, was a native of Llanberis, Carnarvonshire. He started life as a quarryman, but sought diligently after knowledge by all the means he could obtain, and was fortunate enough to receive some classical instruction from the Rev. P. B. Williams, of Llanrug, a well-known scholar and antiquary. This enabled him to enter Trinity College, Dublin, where he graduated B.A. in 1843, and M.A. in 1846. In 1832, he was awarded the prize at the Beaumaris Eisteddfod for the best "Elegy to the Memory of the Rev. John Jenkins of Kerry." He afterwards won several Eisteddfod prizes. His services were greatly sought after as an adjudicator at various Eisteddfodau, for besides being himself a good poet, be was considered an excellent critic, who always discharged his duties with ability, impartiality, and general satisfaction. He was a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society. (Mont. Worthies). See Y Geninen, March, 1894, p. 1 ; Ibid, March, 1893, p. 68 ; Ibid, 1897, p. 127. Edwards, Henry Thomas, 1837-1884, Dean of Bangor, was born in Merionethshire, and educated at Westminster, where he was a Welsh " Bishop boy," holding the Williams Exhibition. In 1861, he became curate to his father at Llangollen. He reconstructed the church in that town at an expense of £3,000, and the number of the congregation was nearly trebled during his stay there. In 1866 he became vicar of Aberdare, and three years later vicar of Carnarvon. In 1876 he was made Dean of Bangor. He took a prominent part in all movements tending to the welfare of the Church, and was the

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means of raising £7,000 towards the reconstruction of Bangor Cathedral. He was a prominent platform man, and took an active part in the public meetings to protest against the exclusion of Religious Education from primary schools, and against Disestablishment. He was the author of several works, including a commentary on St. Matthew's Gospel. His paper at the Swansea Church Congress, in 1879, will be long remembered for the forcible arguments with which he pleaded the cause of the Church in Wales. Of all his public utterances, however, the most remarkable for intellectual and oratorical efforts was, perhaps, his speech on " The National Recognition of God," delivered at Carnarvon shortly before his death. (Diet. Nat. Biog.; Recollections, &c). See Church Portrait Journal, 1879, p. 71 ; Mackason's Church Congress Handbook, 1877, p. 76 ; Y Geninen, 1884, p. 161 ; Ibid, 1897, p. 36 ; Welsh Religious Leaders in the Victorian Era ; Red Dragon, 1884, p. 385. Edwards, Sir Herbert Benjamin, 1820-1868, a major in the East India Company's service, was born at Frodesley, in Shropshire, of Welsh parents. He completed his education at King's College, London, and passed for his cadetship in 1840. In 1845 he was appointed aide-de-camp to Sir Hugh Gough, commander-in-chief of the British Army in Hindustan. He was afterwards appointed first assistant to Sir Henry Lawrence, and for his conduct during the Sikh war he received the local rank of major in the Lahore territories. He came to England in 1849, and resided for some months in Wales, where he wrote his "Year on the Punjaub Frontier," returning to India in 1851. Subsequently appointed a commissioner at Peshawur, he did good service at the outbreak of the Indian mutinies by calling on the native chiefs to rally round him, and send him levies of horse and foot. This appeal was promptly responded to, with the result that Peshawur, instead of being the source of constant anxiety, became the strongest point in India. This change was in no small measure dne to Edwards' alertness, and to the faith in himself with which he had inspired the population of the district. He was made a K.C.B. in 1860, and colonel in 1861. The University of Cambridge conferred on him the degree of Doctor of Laws, and the East India Company gave him a pension, and struck a gold medal in his honour, but he did not long survive these marks of respect. (Bye-Gones, 1874, p. 137). See Imp. Diet. Biog. ; his Memorials, by his widow, 1886. Edwards, James, 1800-1887, a Baptist minister and poet, was born at Abergavenny. Under the pastorate of the Rev. Micah Thomas he was induced to study for the ministry, and in 1824 entered Horton College. Four years later he was ordained pastor of the church at Shipley, in Yorkshire. In 1830 he removed to George Street, Nottingham, where he laboured for 34 years. His popular pulpit gifts caused him to be much sought after. A musical voice, fluent utterance, lucid language, and apt illustration combined to render his preaching attractive. In 1839 his health gave way, and consumption was feared. Under medical advice he went to Madeira, and there recovered his vigour. Some verses which he wrote on the

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voyage appeared in the " Baptist Magazine," and furnished a good idea of a poetic faculty which never failed him. He resigned the pastoral office in 1864, and finally settled at Finchley, frequently preaching in and around London. (Baptist Handbook, 1888). Edwards, James Coster, 1829-1896, a self-made man, was born in a small cottage near the Trefynant Works, Ruabon. He began his business life in Wrexham, where he was apprenticed in a drapery establishment, but caring nothing for it, he left it and became storekeeper at Acrefair. When about 30 years of age he started in business as a brick and tile manufacturer. This was the first step in the building of a business which increased to enormous proportions. He set to work with the most untiring perseverance. The business was a Tory small one, and only gave employment to one man and two boys, the bricks being made in the old-fashioned way by grinding the clay in a kind of " pug-mill." In a short time he bought the Trefynant Works, then only a very small concern. These works he quickly developed, and at the date of his death they covered some six acres of ground, contained twenty-nine kilns, and gave employment to two hundred and seventy men. About 1872, he bought what are now the celebrated Penybont Terra Cotta Works. He may almost be said to have been the original maker of terra-cotta ware in the kingdom, having begun his workings before the famous Doulton. In 1892-3 he served the office of High Sheriff for the county of Denbigh, of which he was a magistrate and lord-lieutenant. (ByeQones, 1896, p. 314). Edwards, John, about 1700-1776, "Sion y Potiau," a poet and translator, was born in Glyn Ceiriog, Denbighshire. He was a weaver by trade, and resided for many years in a cottage near the church at Llansantffraid - Glyn -Ceiriog. It is said that, some time after his marriage, he left his family, and spent 7 years in the service of a London bookseller. In that capacity he acquired considerable general knowledge. He was a poet of some merit, and translated " The Pilgrim's Progress" into Welsh (Chester: printed by John Harvey, for David Lloyd, 1768). He had two sons, Cain and Abel. The former gained some note as a publisher of almanacs ; the latter was the father of the Rev. Abel Jones, Baptist minister, of Merthyr Tydfil. (Ltyfrydd y Cymry ; Y Tyst Apostolaidd, 1850, p. 136 ; Diet. Nat. Biog.) Edwards, John, 1714-1785, a hymn writer, was born at Shrewsbury, of Welsh parents. He spent the earlier years of his life in his native town, and afterwards went to Ireland, where, under the preaching of Mr. Whitefield, he became a religious character. Becoming a preacher, he laboured under Mr. Wesley at Leeds for some years, but afterwards built a chapel of his own in that town, and there he continued to minister for upwards of thirty years. He possessed considerable ability as a preacher, and, being a devout and godly man, his residence at Leeds proved to be of great service to the people there. He published a volume of hymns of great merit. (Bye-Go)ies, 1874, p. 137). Edwards, John, d. about 1740, parish clerk of Manafon,

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Montgomeryshire, was a poet who wrote englynion and carols, some of which were printed in the almanacks then annually published by his friend and neighbour, Evan Davies (Philomath), and by Gwilym Howell, of Llanidloes. (Mont. Worthies). Edwards, John, 1747-1792, 4-Sion Ceiriog," a poet, was born at Crogen Wladys, in Glynceiriog, Denbighshire, but at an early age he removed to London. He, Owen Jones (Myfyr), and Robert Hughes (Robin Ddu o Fon), were the three literary Welshmen who founded the Gwyneddigion Society in 1773, of which Edwards successively acted as secretary and president. He was a poet of some merit, and attained considerable fame as an astronomer. He was also an accom plished musician. He wrote an " awdl " (ode) for the meeting of the Gwyneddigion Society on St. David's Day, 1778. John Jones, Glan-ygors, contributed some memorial verses to the " Geirgrawn " of June, 1796, with these prefatory remarks :— " To the memory of John Edwards, Glynceiriog, in the parish of Llangollen, Denbighshire, who was generally known as ' Sion Ceiriog,' a poet, an orator, and an astronomer, a curious historian of sea and land, a manipulator of musical instruments, a true lover of his country and of his Welsh mother tongue, who, to the great regret of his friends, died and was buried in London, September, 1792." (B. Cerddorion Cymreig). See Enwog. C ; Y Geirgrawn, June, 1796 ; Did. Nat. Biog. Edwards, John, 1755-1823, a preacher with the Calvinistic Methodists, was a native of Ereiniog, Carnarvonshire. In 1816, he published a veterinary handbook, under the title of " Y Meddyg Anifeiliaid," which became exceedingly popular. In 1835, a second edition of the work was published, revised by his son, John Edwards ; and in 1865, a third edition, edited by his son and his grandson, John Edwards, M.R.C.V.S., Abergele (Wrexham : Hughes & Son). From 1795 to 1811 he lived at Gelligynan, a farm in the parish of Llanarmon-yn-Ial, Denbighshire, removing in the latter year to Plascoch, Llanychan, in the Vale of Clwyd, and again, in 1817, to Caerwys, near Denbigh, where he died. (Enwog. C.). See Methodistiaeth Cymru ; Introduction to Y Meddyg Anifeiliaid. Edwards, Sir John, 1770-1850, member of Parliament, was the son of John Edwards, a solicitor, of Greenfields (now called Plas Machynlleth), his mother being a daughter of Richard Owen, Esq., of Garth, near Llanidloes, Montgomeryshire. He represented the Mont gomeryshire Boroughs in the House of Commons for many years, and after his retirement from Parliament was presented by his constituents with a testimonial in acknowledgment of the fidelity and zeal with which he discharged his duties in five successive Parliament, and of the firm, consistent, and independent support he gave in carrying out the great principles of civil and religious liberty and commercial free dom. As a reward for his services in the Liberal cause a baronetcy was conferred upon him in 1838. His election contests, and the peti tions consequent thereon, are said to have cost him over £20,000. His only daughter, Mary Cornelia, in 1846 married George Henry Robert Charles William Vane Tempest, who became second Earl Vane and fifth Marquis of Londonderry. (Mont. Worthies).

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Edwards, John, 1804-1887, a Wesleyan missionary, was born at Bridford, Devonshire, of Welsh parents. At the age of 19 he became a local preacher, and in 1830 was received by the Conference as a pro bationer. After a year spent in an English circuit he was ordained to the ministry, prior to his being sent out as a missionary to South Africa, in 1832. For the next seven years he laboured in the interior, then a wild and almost unknown legion. The rest of his life was devoted chiefly to the work of colonial circuits, in which he was remarkably successful. Port Elizabeth, Cradock, Somerset East and Graaff-Reinet circuits were the result of his enterprise and zeal. In 1876 he became a supernumerary, and fixed his residence at Grahamstown. His toils and perils and successess are vividly described in his little book entitled " Fifty Years of Mission Life." (Minutes of Conference, 1888). Edwards, John D., 1805-1885, a clergyman and musician, was a native of Gwnnws, Cardiganshire. He completed his education at Jesus College, Oxford, where he graduated M.A. In 1836, and in 1843, he published two volumes of his own compositions, under the title of " Original Sacred Music." Several of his hymn-tunes—among them, St John, Blenheim, Liston, and Lovely—were very popular. He had an excellent voice, but declined to take up singing as a profession. His services were in frequent demand as musical adjudicator at the Eisteddfod. (B. Cerddorion Oymreig.) Edwards, Jonathan, 1629-1712, a clergyman and author, was born at Wrexham, and entered Christ Church, Oxford, as servitor in 1655. He was admitted B.A., and ordained in 1659 ; elected Fellow of Jesns College in 1662 ; passed B.D. in 1669, and was successively rector of Winnington, in Oxfordshire, and Hinton, in Hampshire. He became principal of Jesus College in November, 1686, and treasurer of Llandaff in 1687. He took his degree of D.D. immediately after he became principal, and officiated as vice-chancellor of the University from 1689 to 1691, besides enjoying other preferments. He figured in the Antinomian controversy which agitated the Presbyterians and Independents of London in consequence of the alleged anti-Calvinistic tendency of Dr. Daniel Williams's " Gospel Truth " (1691). Stephen Lobb, the Independent, quoted Edwards as condemning the positions of Williams, but Edwards, in a letter to Williams (dated from Jesus College, 28th October, 1697) justified the latter's statements on the points in dispute. He also entered into a controversy on original sin with Daniel Whitby, but this he did not live to finish. In 1693 he published " A Preservative against Socinianism " in four parts, 4to, (Oxford). (Diet. Em. W. ; Imp. Diet. Biog.) See Enwog. C. ; Wood's Athena Oxon. 1692, vol. 2, p. 898 ; Chalmer's Biog. Diet., 1814, vol. 13, p. 52 ; Edwards' Works. Edwards, Jonathan, 1703-1758, an American divine and metaphysician, who was of Welsh descent, was born at East Windsor, Connecticut, U.S.A., and settled as pastor at Northampton, Massa chusetts, in 1727. His pastorate was eminently successful, and during it he wrote the greater number of the twenty-nine publications which

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issued from his pen. Here he remained till 1750, when he became missionary to the Housatonnuck, or River Indians, at Stockbridge, in 1751. There he laboured till 1757, when, on the death of Aaron Burr, president of the Princeton College, he became president, but died a few weeks after his installation. His eldest son, Timothy Edwards (1738 1813), began life as a merchant in Elizabeth Town, New Jersey, and afterwards became Judge of Probate for Berkshire county. His youngest eon, Pierrepont Edwards (1750-1826), who was a lawyer, sat as Judge of the United States District Court. Edwards wrote on widely diverse subjects, including "Thoughts on the Revival of Religion in New England" (1742), and "Life and Diary of the Rev. David Brainerd" (Christian Fireside Library, 1852), "The Freedom of the Will" (1754), and a "Treatise on the Religious Affections " (1746). Collected editions of his works have been published by Austin (8 vols., 1808-9), Williams and Parsons (8 vols., 1817), and S. E. Dwight (10 vols., 1830). ( Walts and Us People ; Lippincott ; Harmsworth). See his Life, by Allen (1889) ; Allibone's Dictionary of Authors; Spark's American Biography, vol. 8; Griswold's Prose Writers of America; Duyckinck's Cyclopaedia of American Literature, vol. 1 ; Wales, v. 3, p. 18. Edwards, Jonathan, 1745-1801, an American minister, born in Northampton, Massachusetts, was a son of the Rev. Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758, see ante). He graduated at the college of New Jersey in 1765, and was tutor at Princeton College for two years (1767-68). In 1769 he became pastor of the church at White Haven, near New Haven, Connecticut, where he remained until 1795, being then dismissed on account of his religious opinions. He was next settled at Colebrook, Connecticut, and finally was appointed president of Union College, Schenectady, in 1799. He was a man of superior talents and great penetration, being scarcely inferior to his father in intellectual force. He published a number of sermons and treatises on theology, including "A Dissertation concerning Liberty and Necessity" (1797), and "The Necessity of the Atonement" (1785). (Lippincott.) See Collected edition of his works by Tryon Edwards, 2 vols., 1842. Edwards, Jonathan W., 1772-1831, an American lawyer, grandson of the celebrated Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758, see ante), was born in New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A. He graduated at Yale, with distinguished honours, in 1789. On taking his second degree two years later, he attacked with so much ability the law granting a double portion of an estate to the eldest son (if the father died intes tate), as to cause its repeal. He practised at Hartford. (Lippincott). Edwards, Joseph, 1814 - 1882, a sculptor, was born at Ynysgau, Merthyr Tydfil. When about 17 years old, he had an opportunity of seeing the collection of sculpture at Margam, which set up a longing for a wider knowledge of an art to which he was already attached. He was employed for two years by a statuary mason at Swansea, but in 1835 he set out for London, with £10 and an introduction to the eminent sculptor Behnes in his pocket. He secured employment with Behnes at a guinea a week, and in 1837 was admitted a student at the Royal

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Academy of Arts, receiving in the following year the silver medal of the Academy for the best model from the antique. His progress was rapid, and he was entrusted with several important commissions. In 1881, he found himself in straitened circumstances, and was elected a Turner annuitant of the Academy, which brought him £50 a year, but he died in a few months afterwards. His bust of Edith Wynne, the Welsh prima donna, has been described as " one of the best female busts in English art." The monument erected by him in Cefn cemetery, near Merthyr Tydfil, forms a beautiful object, to which visitors who feel any interest in works of art have their attention called. The commission for this monument, which is the only work of such dimensions that Edwards executed in marble, was given to him by Mr. William Harries. He was buried at Highgate cemetery, London, very near his statue of " Religion," and over his grave a simple but effective memorial in marble was erected. (Wales, 0. M. Edwards, v. 3, p. 24, et seq.) See Wales, vol. 2, p. 134, et seq. Edwards, Justin, 1787-1853, a divine and author, was born in Westhampton, Massachusetts, U.S.A., of Welsh parents. He graduated at Williams College in 1810, and was afterwards for fifteen years pastor at Andover, and two years in Boston, when he resigned his ministerial charge and devoted himself to the cause of temperance, the observance of the Sabbath, and to educational and literary labours. He was for six years president of the theological seminary at Andover. As secretary of the American Temperance Society, he prepared the " Temperance Manual," of which about two hundred thousand copies have been printed. He was also one of the founders of the Boston Tract Society. He was descended from Alexander Edwards, who emigrated from Wales, and resided at Northampton, Massachusetts, from 1655 to 1690. (Welshmen as Factors, &c, W. R. Evans.) See Lippincott. Edwards, Lewis, 1809-1887, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, essayist, and theologian, was born in Cardiganshire. The school he first attended was kept by a superannuated old soldier. He was after wards educated by an uncle, and eventually attended a school kept by a clergyman. He then removed to Llangeitho, where in 1826 he began to preach, and proceeded later to Edinburgh. There he was enabled to take his degree at the end of three instead of four years, and was the first of his denomination to obtain the degree of M.A. He was later, in 1837, ordained, and shortly afterwards opened a school for preachers, and eventually became Principal of what is now known as Bala College. In 1845 he sent forward the first number of Y Traethodydd, the leading Welsh magazine. He was one of the most finished writers of Welsh in his day, and did more than any of his contemporaries to cultivate a taste for literature in the people. His best-known work is on the " Atonement," of which an English trans lation was afterwards published. His essays—theological and literary —were collected and published in two volumes (Wrexham: Hughes & Son). In 1865 he received the degree of D.D. from his own University of Edinburgh, having previously refused it from America. As a preacher he had a name among the mightiest, rather on account of the matter and substance of his sermons than the delivery. (Diet. Nat. Biog. ;

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Historical Handbook.) See Enwog. y Ffydd, vol. 2 ; Y Drysorfa, 1887, p. 316 ; Hanes Lien. G. ; Y Beirniad, 1861, p. 150 ; Sunday Schools, &c, p. 68 el seq., Cymru, vol. 9, p. 55 ; Y Traeihodydd, 1902, p. 1 ; Ibid., 1888, p. 124 ; Ibid., 1894, p. 107 ; Ibid., 1895, p. 276 ; Cymru, vol. 15, p. 24 ; Biog. £ Crit. Essay, G. Tecwyn Parry, 1896 ; Welsh Religious Leaders in the Victorian Era; The Welsh Review, 1907, p. 73; Y Geninen, Mar. 1897, p. 19 ; Ibid, 1900, p. 233. Edwards, Lewis, 1832-1861, " Llewelyn Twrog," a promising bard and essayist, who was cut down at the early age of 29, was born at Maentwrog, near Festiniog. Some of his productions appeared in the " Herald Cymraeg," and the " Bedyddiwr," but most of his work remained in manuscript at the time of his death. He was a successful Eisteddfodic competitor. His poem on " Love " is of considerable merit. (Enwogion Meirion.) Edwards, Morgan, 1722-1795, an American preacher and scholar, was born at Penygarn, South Wales, and, after spending some years in Ireland, emigrated to America in 1761. He graduated M.A., and wrote a History of the Baptiste in Wales, together with a number of handbooks giving the History of the denomination in America. The first of these was published in 1770. He evinced a love for historical research long before he left for America, and some of his productions are said to have been published in Ireland. Dr. Cathcart thus speaks of him :—" Edwards was a man of uncommon genius. In his day, no Baptist minister equalled him, and none since his time has surpassed him." (Welshmen as Factors, &c.; Bye-Gones, 1879, p. 181.) Edwards, Pierrepont, 1750-1826, a lawyer, the youngest son of the Rev. Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758, see ante), was born in North ampton, Massachusetts. He graduated at Princeton, and in 1771 began life as a lawyer. He served in the Revolutionary army, and was a member of the Continental Congress of 1787-8, afterwards becoming Judge of the United States District Court. (Appleton's Biography.) Edwards, Richard Foulkes, 1836-1870, "Rhisiart Ddu o Wynedd," a poet, was a native of Bodfari, in the Vale of Clwyd. He showed great promise at a very early age, and wrote some very creditable poetry in his fourteenth year. When nineteen years of age he competed for the chair prize at an Eisteddfod, and, although he failed to win, his poem was placed in the first class. In 1858, he published a small volume of his poetry, which was very favourably received (Denbigh : T. Gee), and at the Llandudno National Eisteddfod, in 1864, he secured the chair for the best poem on " John in the Isle of Patmos." He was an ordained minister with the Welsh Congregationalists, and after receiving a call to the pastorate of the church at Mynydd Islwyn, South Wales, he crossed over to America in the hope of restoring his health, but died in Wisconsin, at the early age of thirty four. ( Y Traethodydd, 1903, p. 299.) See Enwog. C. ; his Welsh Biography
Thomas Edwakds (Twm o'r Nant).

Rev. Lewis Edwards, D.D.

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Edwards, R. Wynne, 1825-1885, a clergyman, was a son of Canon Wynne Edwards, of Rhuddlan, Flintshire, and took his degree at Oxford. He was for several years rector of Meifod, Montgomery shire, and in 1877 was presented to the living of Llanrhaiadr-inKinmerch, Denbighshire, being afterwards appointed a canon of St. Asaph, rnral dean, and examining chaplain to the Bishop. He belonged to the evangelical school, and was an eminent Welsh scholar. (Bye Gones, 1885, p. 239). Edwards, Roger, 1811-1886, a Calvinistic Methodist minister and author, was born at Bala, and received a good education. He joined the Calvinistic Methodists, and preached his first sermon when twenty years of age. In 1834 he settled at Mold, where he remained till the end of his days, earning the popular title of " Bishop of Flintshire." His services in connection with the rise of Welsh periodical literature were invaluable. During the earlier period of his life he edited "Cronicl yr Oes." In 1846 he was appointed sole editor of " Y Drysorfa," the monthly organ of the Calvinistic Methodists ; and, with Dr. Lewis Edwards, he was instrumental in starting the leading review of Wales—" Y Traethodydd." In 1840 he edited a denomina tional hymn-book, for which he wrote several hymns. He also published a volume of moral and sacred songs. He was the author of one of the best Welsh novels—"Y Tri Brawd" (The Three Brothers). He edited the "Sermons of the Rev. Henry Rees," and, with Ebenezer Thomas (Eben Fardd), compiled a collection of Psalms and Hymns entitled " Y Salmydd Cymreig " (Denbigh : T. Glee, 1840) ; and in conjunction with Dr. John Hughes, Carnarvon, pre pared the biography of the Rev. John Hughes, Liverpool. (Sweet Singers of Wales ; Bye-Ghnes, 1886, p. 101 ; Cardiff Catalogue). See Hanes Lien. G. ; Y Drysorfa, 1886 ; Y Geninen, 1886, p. 217 ; Ibid. 1887, p. 28. Edwards, Samuel, 1814-1872, a Congregational minister, was born in the neighbourhood of Glandwr, Pembrokeshire. Having spent a short time at Llanboidy, under the instruction of the Rev. W. Davies, of Rhydyceisiaid, he was ordained at Ceidio, Carnarvonshire, in 1838. In 1839 he received an invitation to become minister of the church at Graig, Machynlleth, and its branches, which he faithfully served until 1853, when he gave up the church at Graig, and confined his labours more especially to the churches at Zoar, Glasbwll, and Derwenlas. He was a man of fine natural abilities, a striking and effective preacher, and of undoubted piety. Besides some tracts, and many articles in the Welsh periodicals, he published a selection of sermons, in two volumes, which were very favourably received (Machynlleth: J. Williams, 1867-71). (Congreg. Year Book, 1873; Cardiff Catalogue). Edwards, Sydenham Teak, 1769-1819, natural historical draughtsman, was the son of a schoolmaster and organist at Aber gavenny, Monmouthshire. Having made copies of certain plates in Curtis's " Flora Londinensis," they were brought under the notice of William Curtis, the founder of the " Botanical Magazine," who was

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bo pleased with their execution that he sent for Edwards to London, and there had him instructed in drawing. From 1798 onwards, Edwards made nearly the whole of the tracings for the " Botanical Magazine," and also for the " Flora Londinensis." He accompanied Curtis on various excursions, that the plants and animals they found might be drawn from life. His patron died in 1799, but Edwards continued to furnish the *-4 Botanical Magazine " with drawings, and he also issued six parte of " Cynographia Britannica," consisting of coloured engravings of the various kinds of dogs in Great Britain, &c. He also supplied the plates of a serial publication, the " New Botanic Garden," which began in 1805, was completed in 1807, and was re issued by a different publisher in 1812, with text, under the title " The New Flora Britannica." In 1814 he was induced to withdraw from the " Botanical Magazine," and to start the "Botanical Register," the text of which was at first contributed by J. B. Ker-Gawler, and at a later period by Dr. John Lindley. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Qent. Mag., 1819, pt. 1, p. 188 ; General Index, Botanical Mag., 1828, p. 10. Edwards, Thomas, 1652-1721, divine and orientalist, was born at Llanllechid, near Bangor, and educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. in 1677. In 1685 he was engaged by Dr. Fell, Dean of Christ Church and Bishop of Oxford, to assist in the impression of the New Testament in Coptic, almost finished by Dr. Thomas Marshall. At the same time he became chaplain of Christ Church. In 1707 he was preferred to the rectory of Aldwinckle All Saints, Northamptonshire. He left a Coptic Lexicon ready for the press, and published " A Discourse against Extempore Prayer." Edmund Calamy referred to this book in support of his charge of apostacy against Theophilus Dorrington —" Defence of Moderate Nonconform ity "—and Edwards retorted fiercely in " Diocesan Episcopacy proved from Holy Scripture : with a Letter to Mr. Edmund Calamy in the room of a Dedicatory Epistle." (Diet. Nat. Biog.) gee Bridge's Northamptonshire (Whalley), vol. 2, p. 210. Edwards, Thomas, 1738-1810, "Twm o'r Nant," a poet, was born in the parish of Llanefydd, near Denbigh. His parents being poor, he practically received no school training, but learnt to read and write when very young. He wrote many songs and two interludes—a peculiar species of dramatic composition—before he was nine years of age. He was mostly engaged as a carrier in different parts of Wales, and his life is remarkable for its vicissitudes. He composed quite a number of interludes, in the acting of which he generally took part. They abound in genuine humour, and were very popular. In these he denounced the evil tendencies of his time in very scathing terms, his witty sayings and trite expressions making him the most popular bard of the day. Most of his productions are in the free metres, and were so put together as to be easily understood by the most illiterate, but he was also well versed in the more stringent rules of Welsh poetry. In 1790 he published a volume of poems called " Gardd o Gerddi " (A Garden of Songs). He was also a good prose writer, and the " Greal " for 1805 contains a most interesting autobiography of his. He was buried at Whitchurch,

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Denbigh, where a tablet was placed to Mb memory by the Gwyneddigion Society. (Y Gwladgarwr, 1838.) See his Works, with Biography (Liverpool : Isaac Foulkes, 1874) ; Y Traethodydd, 1886, p. 271 ; Ibid., 1887, p. 122 ; Ibid., 1876, p. 45 ; Ibid., 1888, p. 433 ; Ibid., 1907, p. 79; Cymru, O.G.; Llyfrydd. y Cymry; Hones Lien. G. ; Ceinion Lien. G., vol. 1, p. 304 ; Y Geninen, 1902, p. 66 ; Cymru, vol. 21, p. 235 ; Adgof uwch Anghof, p. 6. Edwards, Thomas, 1779-1858, lexicographer and grammarian, was a native of Northop, Flintshire, and adopted the nom de plume of " Caerfallwch," the name of the hamlet in which he was born. At the age of 14 he was apprenticed to a saddler at Mold, but a subsequent attempt to carry on business on his own account proved a failure. In 1803 he obtain a post in the office of a Mr. Bell, and nine years later he became chief secretary to Mr. Nathaniel M. Rothschild. On one occasion he was sent to audit the accounts of some German princes with whom Rothschild bad dealings, and in two months his auditing resulted in a gain of £350,000 to his employer, who presented him with a cheque for £1,000. He was a good musician, and wrote a good deal of prose and poetry, but his chief work is his English and Welsh Dictionary, which was first published in 1850. This is a work of very great merit. A second edition appeared in 1861-4, and it was also published in America. Two of his poems are included in " Opinion Awen y Cymry." In 1847 he published "A Brief Analysis of Welsh Orthography" (Denbigh : T. Gee). He was for many years a member of the Cymmrodorion Society, and one of his addresses delivered before the 8ociety—on " Currency "—was printed in " Seren Gomer." Enwog* (7.) ; See Hanes Lien. Q. ; Cardiff Catalogue. Edwards, Thomas Charles, 1837-1900. a Calvinistic Methodist minister and author, was a son of the Rev. Dr Lewis Edwards (see ante), and was born at Llanycil, Bala. He received his early education from his father, subsequently proceeding to London, and graduating M.A. at Oxford in 1862. In 1867 he took charge of the English Presbyterian Church in Liverpool, but resigned in 1872 to become first principal of the University College at Aberystwyth. He received the honorary degree of D.D. from Edinburgh, and in 1898 had the same degree conferred upon him by the University of Wales. In 1891 he resigned his post at Aberystwyth, becoming principal of the Calvinistic Methodist College at Bala, in succession to his father. In the work of securing an educated ministry for Wales he laboured incessantly ; he was a preacher of the first rank ; and as an expositor he took his place amongst the foremost. In the work of training young men for the ministry his worthy father did much, but he was able to do more. His chief works are :— " The God-Man," being the Davies Lecture for 1895 ; " A Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews," and " A Commentary on the Epistle to the Corinthians." He also published a memoir of his father in 1887, and translated the history, constitution, rules of discipline, and confession of faith of the Calvinistic Methodists in LWales. (Diet. Nat. Biog.; Cardiff Catalogue; Historical Handbook). See Bye

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Gones, 1900, p. 346 ; F Geninen, Mch. 1901, pp. 1 & 52 ; F Traethodydd, 1885, p. 343 ; Ibid. 1901, p. 94, et seq.; Ibid. 1899, p. 1 ; Ibid. 1904, p. 161, et seq. ; Y Geninen, 1900, p. 145 ; Ibid, 1901, p. 131 ; 1906, p. 257 ; Ibid., 1907, p. 140 ; Welsh Religious Leaders in the Victorian Era. Edwards, Timothy, 1731-1780, an illustrious seaman, was descended from the ancient family of Nanhoron, in Carnarvonshire, and succeeded to the family estates on the death of his uncle, Richard Edwards. He entered the Navy, and was promoted to the rank of commander in 1757. In 1778 he accompanied Vice-Admiral Byron to the West Indies, and at an engagement off Grenada he greatly distin guished himself. His ship was reduced almost to a wreck, and in his despatches Byron bestowed the highest encomiums on his conduct. He took a prominent part in subsequent engagements, and was marked out for signal honours as the reward for his gallant services, but on his voyage home he w as seized with bilious fever, and died at sea. (Diet. Em. W.) See G. B., vol. 1, p. 228 ; Enwog. C.; Cymru 0. J., p. 481. Edwards, Timothy, 1738-1813, a lawyer, was the eldest son of the Rev. Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758, see ante), and was born in Northampton, Massachusetts. After graduating at Princeton, he com menced a commercial career in Elizabeth Town, New Jersey. When about 30 years of age, he removed to Stockbridge, where he remained till his death. He reached a very prominent position, and sat as Judge of Probate for Berkshire county. (Appleton's Biography.) Edwards, William, 1719-1789, an extraordinary example of self-taught genius, was born at Eglwysilan, in Glamorganshire. At an early age he shewed great promise as a builder, and in 1746 he under took to construct a bridge over the river Taff. He put up a fine structure, but in two years and a half it was completely carried away by a great flood. He at once commenced another, but, when the arch was completed, the key-stones were forced out by the enormous pressure over the haunches. Still determined to succeed, he set to work again with a new plan of his own invention, and by means of three circular apertures through the work over the haunches, he so reduced the weight that there was no further danger from it. This bridge was completed in 1755, and remains a splendid monument of his talent. He devised several improvements in the art of bridgebuilding, and was employed to carry out several important works. For the last 40 years of his life, in addition to his daily occupation, he served as pastor of the Congregational Church at Groeswen, near Pontypridd. (Malkin's South Wales, vol. 1, pp. 83-94, where there is an engraving of the Taff bridge.) See Diet. Em. W. ; Georgian Era, vol. 4, p. 501; Diet. Nat. Biog; Cymru, vol. 28, p. 321; A Gentleman's Tour through Monmouthshire and Wales in 1774 ; Yr Ymofynydd, April, 1865. Edwards, William, abt. 1 735 a colonel in the American army, and afterwards an extensive manufacturer, was of Welsh descent. He introduced tanneries into New York State, and shipped

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to Boston, in 1794, the first tanned leather from Northampton. He worked his way up from being a journeyman in Elizabethtown, New Jersey, where he earned but £30 a year, to be a manufacturer of great wealth and influence. Bishop says that to him "the leather manufacture of America is indebted for some of the most valuable mechanical aids it has ever received ; " and according to Johnson's Cyclopaedia, the success of the industry "must be ascribed to the improved methods first employed by Edwards." (Welshmen as Factors,
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joined the Calvinistic Methodists about 1808, commencing to preach six or seven years later. He removed to Pentraeth, Anglesey, in 1830, where he died. He was ordained minister at Bala in 1835, and was a most acceptable preacher. His work on " Yr Arfaeth Dragywyddol " (The Eternal Design) was very favourably received. He also wrote some hymns. (G.B.) Elias, John, 1774-1841, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was born in the parish of Abererch, near Pwllheli. He was indebted for his early training to his grandfather, and the religious impressions of his early days were deepened by a visit to the Bala Association in 1792. He joined the Calvinistic Methodists at an early age, and in his twentieth year was appointed an itinerant preacher. His progress was very rapid, and notwithstanding his want of education he was soon found in the front rank. His passion for work was intense ; he laboured night and day to make amends for what was lacking in former days. Almost in tears did he plead with the rulers of the Presbytery for permission to attend the Rev. Evan Richardson's school at Carnarvon, and, when this was reluctantly granted him, his progress during the few months he attended the school was astonishing. In 1799 he removed to Llanfechell, and in 1830 to Llangefni, Anglesey, where he resided during the rest of his life. His biographer, from personal acquaintance, says that " he was a man of very acute, as well as vigorous and sublime genius. His mind was most penetrating, piercing like his eye His strong intellect and solid judgment were clearly developed in his compositions, speeches, and sermons. Perhaps no mathematician could arrange his ideas better, and no logician could draw more correct and proper inferences from them, and no orator could bring them to bear on the people in a more commanding and influential manner, by the instrumentality of voice, manner, and eloquence His discourses possessed amazing depth, solidity and power." In his day, he was the greatest pulpit orator of Wales. There were many other great preachers—equal to him, perhaps, in some respects—but Elias took the palm as an orator ; he was the Demosthenes of the Principality. He was buried at Llanfaes, Beaumaris, and over ten thousand persons followed his remains to the grave. (Diet. Em. W. ; Historical Handbook). See Enwog. y Ffydd, vol. 2, p. 415 ; Enwog. C. ; Hanes Lien. G. ; Cofiant John Elias ; Eliasia, by Bleddyn ; Morgan's Memoir ; Morgan's Letters of J. Elias ; Bye-Gones, 1900, p. 520 : Y Traethodydd, 1845 ; Nodweddiad y Cymry, page 211 ; Y Geninen, 1898, p. 135 ; Ibid, Mch., 1898, p. 32 ; Ibid, 1899, p. 65 et seq. ; Cymru, vol. 13, p. 181. Elias, John Roose, 1819-1881, " Y Thesbiad," a poet and prose writer, was the son of the Rev. David Elias (1790-1856, see ante), and was born at Bryndu, Anglesey. He received a good education, and after a short stay in Liverpool, became traveller for the North Wales district for a firm of Manchester warehousemen. His father had in the meantime started business as general dealer at Pentraeth, Anglesey, and upon the latter's death in 1856 the son succeeded to the business, and thereafter devoted his leisure to literary and antiquarian pursuits. He contributed a large number of articles to the Welsh

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press on literary, political, and social questions, in which he displayed considerable critical acumen. In the days of Cobden and Bright, he took an active part in the promotion of the doctrine of Free Trade. He also wrote a good deal of poetry, both in English and Welsh, and published a small collection of his compositions, under the title " Llais o'r Ogof " (A Voice from the Cave). (F Geninen, Mar. 1890, p. 57.) Elis Wyn O Wyrfai, see Roberts, Ellis. Ellis, David, 1739-1795, a clergyman and author, was born at Hafod-y-Meirch, near Dolgelley, Merioneth. He served as curate at Llanberis, Llangeinwen (Anglesey), Derwen (Denbighshire),\and Amlwch (Anglesey), and afterwards became vicar of Llanberis, and, later, of Criccieth, Carnarvonshire. He rendered considerable service to Welsh literature by copying from old and imperfect MSS. the works of several Welsh poets. He was the compiler of the wellknown " Piser Hir "—a long MS. book—which contains a great number of Welsh poems, dating from the 14th to the 18th century. This MS. is now at the Swansea Library, and at least two copies of it are in existence, in the handwriting respectively of Owen Williams, Waenfawr, and Sion Wyn o Eifion. It contains some of the most beautiful poems in the whole range of Welsh literature. He translated Taylor's "History of the Holy Jesus" (Trefriw: 1776); Merrick's " Handbook of Prayers " (London : 1774) ; and one of Bishop Wilson's works. He also translated "The Penitent Shepherd," an English poem by the Rev. Evan Evans (Ieuan Brydydd Hir) into Welsh ; this is published in " Blodau Dyfed," pp. 52, 55. His elegy on the death of Ieuan Brydydd Hir is to be found in " Trysorfa Gwybodaeth " (Carnarvon : 1807). (Enwog C.) See Cantref MeirionyM, p. 208 ; Adgof uwch Anghof, pp. 76 and 2 88; Hemes Lien. G. ; Wales, vol. 3, p. 422 ; F Greal, 1800, p. 25 ; F Brython, vol. 3, p. 9 : Report on Welsh MSS. (J. Gwenogfryn Evans), vol. 2, part. 1, pp. 231, 239 ; Cymru, v. 9, p. 134 ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry. Ellis, Ellis Owen, 1813-1861, artist, was a native of Abererch, Carnarvonshire, his mother being a daughter of John Roberts (Sion Lleyn). He displayed considerable talent at a very early age, and in 1834 we find him studying in the London Galleries. Soon afterwards his paintings were exhibited at Exeter Hall and at Westminister ; his " Fall of Llewelyn, the last Prince of Wales," and " The Battle of Morfa Rhuddlan," being exceptionally well received. His principal work was a crayon drawing, about four feet by two, containing sketches of about a hundred Welsh bards and literary men. (Enwog. G). Ellis, John, about 1680—about 1730, a clergyman and antiquary, was a native of Merioneth, his mother being a sister of Bishop Humphrey. He graduated D.D. at Oxford, and was preferred to the living of Llandwrog, Carnarvonshire, in 1710. He subsequently became Archdeacon of Merioneth. He stood in the front rank as antiquary, and gave valuable assistance to Brown-Willis in the collection of materials for his history of the diocese of Bangor. [Enwog. C). See F Brython, vol. 5, ji. 155 ; Lewis' Top. Did.

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Ellis, John, 1750-1834, musician, known as "John Ellis, Llanrwst," was born in the parish of Llangwm, Denbighshire. He was a saddler by trade, but devoted all the leisure he could find to the study of music. He composed the congregational tnne known as " Elliott," and an anthem, " Molwch yr Arglwydd," which was at one time very popular. He also published a collection of Psalms and Hymns (Trefriw : I. Diivies, 1816) and other musical works, and rendered valuable service to congregational singing in North Wales. (Enwog. C. ; Cardiff Catalogue). Ellis, Morgan A., 1832-1901, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was born near Machynlleth. His parents were in poor circumstances, but by means of outside assistance he received a liberal education, and graduated M.A. He kept a school at Llanberis, near Carnarvon, for four years, and in 1853 emigrated to America. He edited the " Gwyliedydd " at Utica, and was connected with the " Drych," in New York, for a short time. Very soon he commenced to preach, and accepted a call from the Calvinistic Methodist Church at Ebensburg, Pennsylvania, where he remained three years. At the close of 1866, on the death of Dr. William Rowlands, he was appointed editor of the " Cyfaill," and two years later became pastor ot the Calvinistic Methodist Church at Scranton, where he ministered for ten years. During this time he was associate editor of the " Baner America," a Welsh weekly. (The Cambrian, 1901, p. 377.) Ellis, Philip Constable, 1822-1900, a clergyman and author, was born at Rhyllech, near Pwllheli, Carnarvonshire, and received his early education at the Beaumaris Grammar School, whence he proceeded to Jesus College, Oxford, where he graduated M.A. in 1845. In the following year he was ordained deacon, and in 1847 priest. He served as assistant curate of Holyhead, under Dr. Charles Williams, from 1846 to 1850, and from the latter year to 1862 he held the vicarage of Llanfaes, Anglesey, being afterwards preferred to the rectory of Llanfairfechan. From 1862 to 1890 he was rural dean of Arllechwedd, and examining chaplain to the Bishop of Bangor. He was Proctor in Convocation from 1876 to 1892, and took a foremost part in the deliberations of that body. He was the author of "Letters to a Dissenting Minister," and published several sermons and pamphlets. For more than half a century he was a prominent figure in the Welsh Church, and one of the ablest of her clergy. (C. and D. Herald.) See Bye-Gones, 1900, p. 380. Ellis, Robert, 1812-1875, " Cynddelw," a Baptist minister, poet, and antiquary, was born at Llanrhaiadr, Denbighshire. His school days were limited to three months, and his only other education was at a Sunday school. When he had grown to manhood he visited, for some months, John Williams, of Llansilin (afterwards the Rev. John Williams, Rhos, whose biography he afterwards wrote) his inter course with whom much stimulated his mind. His thirst for knowledge was insatiable ; he read everything that came in his way. He began to preach in 1834, and in 1862 settled in Carnarvon. As a preacher he is described as learned rather than popular,

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but as a public lecturer he was both popular and learned. The subjects of his lectures were " Ancient Welsh Wisdom," " Welsh Proverbs," " Welsh Laws," &c- He shewed considerable skill in popularising antiquarian subjects. He wrote largely for the periodical literature of the day, and published several volumes, including "Tafol y Beirdd," and an Exposition on the Bible in Welsh. His poetical works were published in 1877. His "Cywydd Berwyn " (Traethodydd, 1875) is an excellent specimen of his poetical talent. His other works include " Lectures on Baptism and the History of the Baptists," and a " Life of the Rev. Ellis Evans, D.D." (Diet. Nat. Biog.; Mont. Worthies.) See Hanes Lien. G.\ Cynddelw: Traethawd Bywgraffyddol a Beimiadol (Carnarvon : Humphreys) ; Cymru, v. 24, p. 5 ; Y Traethudydd, 1902, p. 411 ; Adgof uwch Anghaf, p. 337, et seq.; Y Geninen, 1890, p. 127, and Mch., p. 11; Ibid., 1891, pp. 204 and 257, and Mch., p. 54 ; Ibid, 1892, p. 62 ; Welsh Religious Leaders in the Victorian Era ; Wales, v. 3, p. 319. Ellis, Samuel, 1803-1852, of Irwell Works, Salford, a successful and ingenious mechanic, engineer, and iron founder, was born at Melinrhyd Mill, near Cyfronydd, Montgomeryshire. At an early age, he was placed by his father to work with his men and his other sons at the trade of a millwright. While he was thus employed, young Ellis read voraciously everything that came in his way, and he was very fond of sketching during his spare moments. Feeling a strong desire to go to Manchester, he sought his parents' consent, and this being refused, he started from home without it. He had only seven shillings and sixpence in his pocket, and walked all the way to Manchester. He obtained work at once, and soon gained the confi dence of his employers, so that in less than three years he became foreman of more than one hundred men. There his genius for mechanical invention found full scope. He made great improvements in the construction of railway turntables and weighing machines, and Robert Stephenson described his turntable to be one of the greatest improvements in railway machinery that had ever come under his notice. He subsequently perfected an invention for better adapting travelling cranes for general use on railways. He was buried at Pendlebury Churchyard. (Mont. Worthies.) Ellis, Thomas, 1819-1856, a remarkable Orientalist, was born in Lower Street, Llanfyllin, Montgomeryshire. His father, John Ellis, was a shoemaker, and he himself in his youth worked at the same trade. He had a great talent for languages, and was employed by the late Mr. Bagster, about the years 1848 to 1850, in reading for the press his editions of the Hebrew scriptures, the Syriac New Testament, the Analytical Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon, Gesenius' Hebrew Lexicon, 4c From the commencement of 1851 to the date of his death, he was employed at the British Museum in arranging and cataloguing the Museum collection of Syriac MSS.—a work, however, which he failed to complete before he died. He had acquired the rep utation of being a very remarkable Hebrew, Chaldee, and Syriac scholar. (Mont. Worthies.)

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Ellis, Thomas Edward, 1859-1899, one of the most brilliant young Welshmen of the nineteenth century, was born at Llanuwchllyn, Merionethshire, and was the son of a farmer. After spending some time at the local schools, he was sent to the University College, Aberystwyth, and afterwards to Oxford, where he took his degree with honours in classical moderations and a second-class in modern history. In 1886, he was elected Member of Parliament for his native county, and soon began to make his mark. In 1892, Mr. Gladstone appointed him second Government Whip, and subsequently Lord Rosebery made him Chief Whip. His short and brilliant career soon afterwards came to an end, but short as his life was, he lived to see the fulfilment of many of his aspirations, particularly in regard to secondary and higher education. In the discharge of his delicate and arduous duties of Chief Whip, Mr. Ellis achieved a degree of success which won him many cordial friends, and conquered all initial prejudices. Gifted in the highest degree with the rare faculty of true statesmanship, and already within sight of the highest positions in the service of the State, his early death was mourned as a grave national loss. His name will go down to posterity as the champion of the class from which he sprang ; his work for education in Wales will alone give him a distinct and honoured place in the history of the Principality he loved so well. He was the editor of the works of Morgan Llwyd, issued in the Guild of Graduates' series of Welsh reprints. (F Cymro ; Young Wales, 1899, p. 75 et seq). See Bye-Gones, 1899, p. 82 ; Cymru, v. 16, p. 245 ; Ibid, v. 24, p. 93 ; Ibid, v. 26, p. 197 ; Ibid, v. 27, p. 161 ; Ibid, v. 28, p. 24, et seq ; F Traethodydd, 1899, p. 269 ; F Geninen, March, 1900, p. 1 ; Young Wales, 1903, pp. 199, 233 ; Ibid, 1904, p. 12 ; Ibid, 1896, p. 89 ; F Geninen, 1899, p. 145. Ellis, William, 1723-1786, a Calvinistic Methodist preacher and hymn-writer, was born in 1723, but the place of his birth is not known. He wrote a number of excellent hymns, the best known being those beginning: "Mi drof fy ngolwg ofnus, egwan," "Yr Iesu roes i'r gyfraith lawn," " Amlygwyd cariad Duw," and " Tros oriau y prydnawn." (Hanes Emynwyr.) Emrys, see Ambrose, William. Emrys ap Iwan, see Jones, Robert Ambrose. Eos Bradwen, see Jones, John. EOs Ceiriog, see Maurice, Hugh. EOs Ebrill, see Lewis, Rees. Eos Gwynedd, see Thomas, John. Eos Gwynfa, see Williams, Thomas. Eos Llechyd, see Davies, Owen. EOs Maldwyn, see Hughes, Edward. EOs Morlais, see Rees, Robert. EOs y Mynydd, see Williams, Thomas. Erfyl, see Jones, Hugh.

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Eryrog, see Pritchard, E. M. Eryron Gwyllt Walia, see Owen, Robert. Eta Delta, see Davies, Evan. Evan, Lewis, 1719 1792, of Llanllugan, Montgomeryshire, one of the founders of Calvinistic Methodism in that county, was a man of remarkable zeal, piety and devotion. In the year 1739, he heard Howell Harris preach at Trefeglwys, his second sermon in North Wales, and was so deeply impressed, that he became a changed character, and very soon began to exhort others to embrace the truth, which had proved his own salvation. His preaching was attended with very beneficial results, and was very acceptable to many. On one occasion, he was imprisoned :it Dolgelly for no offence whatever, and detained for six months, but on his release, he declined to prosecute for false imprisonment the magistrate who had committed him. During fifty years of incessant labour he had many narrow escapes from peril at the hands of his enemies. His Elegy, by James Lewis, Machynlleth, was published in 1793. (Mont. Worthies). See Cymru v. 30, p. 8 ; Cardiff Catalogue. Evans, Arthur Benoni, 1781-1854, a miscellaneous writer, was born in Berkshire, his father being the Rev. Lewis Evans (17551827, aee post.) He graduated M.A. in 1820, and B.D. and D.D. in 1828. In addition to his knowledge of the classical languages, he became well versed in Hebrew, French, Italian, Spanish, German, and Icelandic. He studied geology and botany, and his knowledge of Greek, Roman and English coins, of which he had a large collection, was considerable. He was ordained to the curacy at Hartpury, Gloucester, 1804, and in the following year was appointed professor of classics and history in the Royal Military College, then established at Great Marlow, but which was afterwards removed to Sandhurst. He wroke a number of works, including "The Curate, and other poems," 1810 ; " Sermons on the Christian Life and Character," 1832 ; " The Village Church : a poem," 1843 ; and " Personal Piety, or Aids to Private Prayer for Individuals of all Classes," 1851. His son, Sir John Evans (b. 1823), is an eminent archaeologist, and was president of the Society of Antiquaries (1885-92), and of the British Association (1897-8) ; another son—Sebastian, was a designer for glass work, and a poet ; and his daughter, Anne (1820-1870), wrote poems and music. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Gent. Mag., January, 1855, p. 100 ; Men of the Time, 1887, p. 360. Evans, Benjamin, 1740-1821, a Congregational minister and author, was born in the parish of Meline, Pembrokeshire. In his early days as minister he met with a good deal of persecution, and was compelled to apply to the King's Bench for a mandamus before he was allowed to conduct the services in peace. In 1779, he settled down in Drewen, Cardiganshire, where he gained the love and respect of the inhabitants. He set to work with great tact and judgment to obliterate the work of his predecessor, who was in sympathy with the Arminian movement, and gradually succeeded in prevailing upon the

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congregation to return to the Calvinism of the day. He took a prominent part in the Baptist controversy of 1788 and the following years, and probably nothing abler was ever written on both sides of this question than the letters of Evans on the one side, and those of Dr. William Richards on the other. Evans' services to his country men were very great, both from the pulpit and through the press. He published many Welsh books, and several poems, among them "Annerchiad Difrifol i'r bobl a gyfenwir yn Wesleiaid ac yn Arminiaid," with hymns (Carmarthen : J. Evans, 1807) ; and "Crefydd Gymdeithasol," by M. Maurice, the latter being a translation. (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Enwog y Ffydd, v. 2 ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry ; Hanes Lien. G. ; Seren Corner, 1822, p. 225. Evans, Benjamin, 1816-1886, a Baptist minister and author, was born of poor but pious parents at Drefach, Cardiganshire. Owing to the death of his father, he found himself, when only a tender youth, handling a pick and shovel in a coal mine. The only education he had was at the Sunday School. He was admitted to Pontypool College in 1839, and in three years he took charge of the cause at Hirwain, Glamorganshire. There he laboured very successfully— forming two English churches as branches—until 1857. He then took the oversight of Mill Street Church, Aberdare, one of the branches referred to, and during his pastorate of four years, two other churches were formed as branches from Mill Street. In 1861 he removed to Neath, where, for a quarter of a century he filled, with honour and success, a difficult sphere of labour—building a new chapel, and commencing a new chnrch at Skewen, and acting as secretary to the Glamorganshire United Welsh Baptist Association. He wrote many Welsh tracts and pamphlete, and was the author of " Yr Ymholydd," a Catechism on the New Testament (Carmarthen : W. M. Evans, 1866). He was a very popular preacher, and one of the most original exegetes of the Welsh pulpit in his day. (Baptist Handbook, 1888 ; Cardiff Catalogue). Evans, Benjamin, 1844-1900, "Telynfab,'' a Baptist minister, was born at Dowlais, Glamorganshire, and commenced to work under ground in the coal mines when about eight years old. Four years later, he professed Christ, and joined Moriah Church, Dowlais. At the age of fifteen he removed with his parents to Mountain Ash, and there commenced to preach. He entered Haverfordwest College in 1868, and three years later was ordained pastor of the church at St. David's, Pembrokeshire, where he ministered with great acceptance for over five years. He accepted the pastorate at Gadlys, Aberdare, in 1876, which he filled with exemplary diligence, success, and respect, for nearly a quarter of a century. He was for many years agent for Wales of the Baptist Missionary Society, and was a member of the Committee of the Society. As an active Eisteddfodwr, he acted as adjudicator and conductor in several important Eisteddfodau, and his tact in interesting a large assembly placed him in the front rank as a speaker. He was a busy writer, and contributed largely to the Press on various subjects, but possibly his literary masterpiece was the biography he prepared of Dr. Price, of Aberdare (Aberdare : J. Howell, 1891). He deservedl y

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occupied an honourable position as a prtacher amongst the Welsh Baptists, and as a lecturer he was both humorous and instructive. (Baptist Handbook, 1901.) See Y Geninen, 1901, p. 210; Cardiff Catalogue. Evans, Caleb, 1737-1791, a Baptist minister and author, was the son of the Rev. Hugh Evans, of Bristol, who was a native of Breconshire. He was ordained in 1767, and became colleague to his father as pastor of the church at Broadmead, Bristol. He afterwards received the degree of D.D. from Aberdeen. It was he who founded the Bristol Education Society, for the purpose of educating candidates for the Baptist ministry. He published a volume of sermons, a collection of hymns, and other works, and edited the poems of Theodosia (Miss Slute), in three volumes. (Enwog. C.). Evans, Charles, 1781-1864, a Baptist minister and author, was born at Llanuwchllyn, Merionethshire. He began to preach in 1809, in connection with the church at Dolgelly. In 1811, he was admitted to the Abergavenny Academy, where he remained for two years. He subsequently settled as pastor of the small church at Llanefydd and Llansanan, under the auspices of the Baptist Association, where he laboured for seven years. In 1823, he removed to Cefnmawr, where he remained for thirty-five years, twenty-nine of which he laboured as pastor of the church, when, owing to the infirmities of old age, he resigned his charge, and for the remaining six years, in consideration of past labour and faithfulness, he received for his support a stated sum from the church. In 1861, the honorary degree of D.D. was conferred upon him by Jewell College, U.S.A., as a recognition of his literary labours. His preaching was almost entirely expository, and characterised by great earnestness, vigour, and comprehensiveness. He published several works, among them being " The Peculiar Tenets of the Baptists " and " A History of the Baptists, based on the Funda mental Principles of the System." Of the latter—promising to be a work of rare value—a portion only has appeared, its publication having been interrupted by his death. (Baptist Handbook, 1865.) Evans, Christmas, 1766-1838, a Baptist minister, was born at Ysgarwen, in the parish of Llandyssil, Cardiganshire, on Christmas day, 1766. His parents were not in a position to pay for his education, and, when about seventeen years of age, he became farm servant to the Rev. David Davies, Castle Howel, where he was initiated into the rudiments of learning. He was induced to commence preaching, and joined the Arminian Presbyterians, but preached also occasionally with the Independents and Baptists. He afterwards threw in his lot with the Baptists, and became one of the most powerful preachers of the day. In 1791 he settled at Llangefni, Anglesey, removing in 1826 to Caerphilly, in Glamorganshire, and 1832 to Carnarvon, where he remained till his death. His striking imaginative style, and lively theatrical action in preaching, rendered him exceedingly popular. He travelled much throughout the Principality, stirring the hearts of the people, and producing mighty results. For vigorous thought, rich imagination, and picturesque language, he had few equals. He

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was the author of several religious and controversial tracts in Welsh, and a few excellent hymns. He was also one of the translators of Dr. Gill's Exposition of the New Testament into Welsh. A volume of his " Allegories," with a sketch of his life, appeared in 1864 (Liverpool : Isaac Foulkes), and his works, in three volumes, edited by the Rev. Owen Davies, D.D., were published in 1895-7 (Carnarvon : W. Gwenlyn Evans). (Diet. Em. W. ; Enwog. y Ffydd ; Cardiff Catalogue). See Y Beimiad, 1864, p. 256 ; Hanes Emynwyr Cymry, p. 215 ; Y Traethodydd, 1881, p. 440 ; Christmas Evans, by Rev. Paxton Hood ; Y Traethodydd, 1854; Y Geninen, Mch., 1898, p. 32; his Biog. by W. Morgan (1839), D. R. Stephen (1847), and T. Levi (1887). Evans, Daniel, 1774-1835, a Congregational minister and author, was a native of Eglwyswrw, Pembrokeshire. At an early age he became a church member, and soon afterwards began to preach, with great enthusiasm, from house to house. He thus trained himself for his future work, and became very successful as a home missionary. In 1799 he went to Bangor, where his salary, owing to the congregation numbering only 25 members, was £10 a year. Fortunately, he had a little private means. He gradually added to this congregation, and established seven new churches in the neighbourhood. In 1808 he removed to Mynydd Bach, in Glamorganshire, where he was again very successful ; during six months no fewer than 650 were added to the membership of his churches. He published several Welsh memoirs and other works, among them, " Cawell y Bara Croyw ; neu dri o Draethodau" (Swansea: E. Griffiths, 1833); " Lleferydd yr Asyn " (Swansea : J. Harris, 1822) ; " Ychydig Ddaioni o Nazareth, sef Tair o Ganiadau " (Carmarthen : D. Harris, 1834). (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Cardiff Catalogue). See Enwog. C. ; Cofiant y Parch. John Jones, Talysarn, pp. 511-13 ; Hanes Lien. C. ; Cymru, vol. 17, p. 147. Evans, Daniel, 1792-1846, "Daniel Ddu o Geredigion," a clergyman and poet, was born at Maes Mynach, in the parish of Llanfihangel Ystrad, Cardiganshire, his father being a wealthy farmer. He was first sent to Lampeter School, and afterwards to Jesus College, Oxford, taking his degree of B.D. He was an excellent classical scholar, and was a good writer of Latin verse. He won the chair prize at the Carmarthen Eisteddfod in 1823 for a Welsh ode on "St. David's College," and at the same eisteddfod he took the prize for an ode on " The Recent Victories of the Greeks over the Turks." His poetical works were published in 1831, under the title of "Gwinllan y Bardd," and acquired considerable popularity, his plain and unaffected style endearing his compositions to Welsh readers. The volume referred to contains thirty-six of his Welsh hymns. Nothing that he has written is so well known as his hymn-poem on the Prodigal Son. Its dramatic caste stands in the way of its being used as a whole, but some of the verses are extensively known. (Diet. Em. W. ; Sweet Singers of Wales.) See Hanes Lien. G. ; Enwog C. ; Y Brython, vol. 2, second edition, p. 239 ; Y Geninen, March, 1901, p. 10 ; Cymru, vol. 3, p. 79 ; Ibid, vol. 16, p. 183 ; F Traethodydd, 1900, p. 280 ; Ibid, vol. 17, p. 205 ; Nodweddiad y Cymry, p. 269 ; Y Geninen, 1886, p. 227 ; Ibid, 1897, p. 125.

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Evans, Daniel, 1821-1889, a clergyman, was educated at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. He graduated in 1844, and in the same year was ordained deacon, and priest in 1845. He was curate of Wolstanton, Staffordshire, in 1844-6 ; of Bangor in 1846-58 ; vicar of the latter place 1858-89 ; Rural Dean of Arfon and Honorary Canon of Bangor Cathedral, 1880-9. Never was there a clergyman more devoted to his work in every department than Canon Evans. He was a diligent visitor and a quiet and unobtrusive worker among the poor as vicar of Bangor and chaplain of the Workhouse. In his charitable works, his right hand knew not what his left did. As a preacher he was earnest and impressive ; there was an evenness about his sermons, and they were always good. The Church of St. James, Upper Bangor, was built largely through his efforts, at a cost of £6,000, and was consecrated in 1867, the then Bishop of Lincoln (Bishop Jackson, afterwards of London) preaching the English sermon on that occasion. (Recollections, &c.) Evans, Daniel, 1833-1888, a clergyman, was educated at St. Bees and St. David's Colleges. He was ordained deacon in 1856, and priest in the following year. He was curate of Mynyddislwyn 1856-8; Merthyr Tydfil, 1858-60; vicar of Corris from 1860 to 1872; rector of Llanwrin 1872-6; vicar of Carnarvon 1876-85; honorary canon of Bangor Cathedral in 1876, and in 1877 the Archbishop of Canterbury conferred on him the degree of D.D. Canon Evans was a typical Welsh preacher—eloquent, powerful, persuasive, and pathetic. His collection of "Welsh hymns for the use of the Church in Wales," supplied a much-needed want, and it was for some time generally used. Up to 1880 it had passed through fourteen editions, and is still in use, notwithstanding the issue of several other collections of Welsh hymns, all in use in the services of the Church in Wales. In conjunction with Dean Edwards, he took a prominent part in the defence of the Church on public platforms, and delivered a number of eloquent addresses. His labours on behalf of the Welsh Church press were not less powerful and effective. He was also the author of "Meddiannau yr Eglwys" (The Possessions of the Church). (Recollections, &c.) See Y Genimn, Mch., 1892, p. 6 ; Ibid, 1897, p. 36. Evans, Daniel Silvan, 1818-1903, a clergyman and lexico grapher, was a native of Llanarth, Carmarthenshire, and was ordained priest in 1849. In 1862 he was presented to the living of Llanymawddwy, which he held with great distinction for fourteen years, and was then promoted to the rectory of Llanwrin, where he resided up to the time of his decease. He was made Canon of Bangor in 1888, and was subsequently appointed to the chancellorship of the cathedral, which he held for eight years. For an equal period he had been previously professor of Welsh at the University College of Wales, and was, in virtue of his eminence as a Welsh scholar, appointed a Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford. As far back as 1858 he established his reputation as a Welsh scholar by publishing an English-Welsh dictionary, which is far and away the best work of the kind.

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Some years later, he published an able work on Welsh orthography (" Llythyraeth yr Iaith Gymraeg"), and a translation of the Black Book of Carmarthen and the Book of Anenrin. He also edited the works of Owallter Mechain, in fonr volumes, and the works of Ieuan Brydydd Hir. His other works—as poet, editor, translator, and essayist—are numerous and important ; among them, editions of 4* Y Bardd Cwsg" (Elis Wyn) ; " Llyfryddiaeth y Cymry" (Rev. Wm. Richards) ; Stephens' " Literature of the Kymry ;" and Lewis Morris' " Celtic Remains." His great work, however, was his Welsh dictionary (left incomplete), upon which he laboured for more than forty years. In 1901, the degree of doctor in literature was conferred upon him by the University of Wales. (The Western Mail.) See Bye-Gones, 1903, p. 84 ; Cymru, vol. 3, p. 81 ; Young Wales, 1901, p. 184 ; Y Geninen, 1905, p. 15. Evans, David, about 1700-1788, a clergyman and author, was born in the parish of Llangyniw, Montgomeryshire, and successively held the livings of Llanerfyl and Llanymynech ; being afterwards appointed canon of St. Asaph. He was an excellent scholar, and received the degree of D.D. He assisted Dr. Burney in writing his " History of Music," and rendered valuable help to Edward Jones in collecting and arranging old Welsh airs. Among his papers a letter from one of his friends was discovered, requesting his literary assis tance in the following terms;—"A friend of mine, of the name of Samuel Johnson, talks of writing a Dictionary of the English language, and would be much obliged to you for sending a list of those English words which are derived from the Welsh." Dr. Evans was buried in his native parish, a marble tablet being erected to his memory. (Enwog. C.) See Y Brython, vol. 5, p. 154 ; Edwards' Brown Willis ; Lewis' Top. Diet. ; Cymru, vol. 30, p. 41. Evans, David, 1813-1885, "Dewi Haran," a poet, was a native of South Wales, and for the last few years of his life resided at Ponty pridd. He took great interest in Welsh literature and poetry from his youth, contributing not a little to the periodical press. He had written several prize essays at the National and other Eisteddfodau. A selection of his poems, under the title of " Telyn Haran " (Haran's Harp), dedicated to Lord Tredegar, with portrait, was published in 1878 (Pontypridd : B. Davies). The volume was edited by the Rev. W. Glanffrwd Thomas, and contains English translations by Titus Lewis, F.S.A. (Bye-Gones, 1885, p. 265 ; Cardiff' Catalogue.) Evans, David, 1814-1847, a Wesleyan preacher and author, was born at Aberhosan, and began to preach before he was nineteen years old. He afterwards spent some time at the Hoxton Theological College, London, and joined the Cardigan Wesleyan Circuit, removing afterwards to Mold. He wrote an able treatise in Welsh to confute the Arian and Socinian heresies, entitled, " The Personal Divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ." After spending two years in retirement, owing to ill-health, he resumed his ministerial duties at Llanidloes, in 1844, being appointed superintendent of the Wesleyan Bookroom there. In 1845 he became editor of the connexions! magazine, " Yr Eurgrawn

Principal T. C. Edwards. M.A., D.D.

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Wesleyaidd," which post he had to relinquish owing to ill-health. (Enwoff. C. ; Mont. Worthies). Evans, David, 1835-1903, a Calvinistic Methodist minister and author, was born at Penrhyndeudraeth, in Merionethshire. He com pleted his education at Bala College, graduated M.A. (London), and was called to the pastorate at Dolgelly, where he remained for ten years. In 1875, he was appointed headmaster of the Gelligaer En dowed Grammar School, near Merthyr Tydfil, which then, with Brecon and Llandovery, held a foremost place among the collegiate schools of South Wales. This appointment he held for 13 years, after which he retired to his native county. He contributed to various magazines, and wrote a valuable history of " The Sunday Schools of Wales : their origin, progress, peculiarities, and prospects," which was pub lished in London by the Sunday School Union. He also wrote a number of articles for the " Gwyddoniadur," and published a work in Welsh dealing with Ritualism. (C. and D. Herald ; Y Geninen, March, 1904, p. 34.) See his articles in Y Traethodydd for 1871, 1873, 1877, 1885, 1890, and 1894 ; Y Geninen for 1885, 1886 1893, and 1894; Y Drysorfa for 1868 and 1892. Evans, David, 1848-1901, a Congregational minister, was born at Pentre Estyll, near Swansea. He received his preliminary training at the Normal College, Swansea, under Dr. Evan Davies, and at the age of 19 was admitted into the Presbyterian College, Carmarthen. The course extended over four years, and every year he was successful in winning the honourable distinction of being first prizeman of his college. His first ministerial charge was at Rehoboth, Brynmawr, where he was ordained in 1871. There he laboured with much acceptance till 1874, .when he accepted the pastorate of the English cause at Porthcawl. In two years, he removed to Cirencester, where he ministered for five years. In 1881, he returned to South Wales, and settled as pastor at Bun y Port, where he spent the remaining 20 years of his life. For many years he acted as secretary of the Carmarthenshire and Glamorganshire Congregational Association, and did noble work as temperance advocate. As a preacher he was earnest and devout. His sermons were thoughtful and able, marked by much tenderness, and always instructive and helpful. Well abreast of modern thought, and familiar with the teachings of modern theologians, he never deviated from the "old paths," or lost his love for the orthodox and evangelical conception of the Gospel. (Congreg. Year Book, 1902.) Evans, David, 1858-1905, a Baptist minister and author, was born at Bettws, near Ammanford, Carmarthenshire. At the age of seventeen he began to preach, and after spending fifteen months at a preparatory school at Llandilo, was admitted a student into Trefecca College. He afterwards left the Calvinistic Methodists, and threw in his lot with the Baptists. His first pastorate was at Dolgelly. In 1889 he removed to Llangefni, Anglesey, where he remained only two years. His ardent thirst for knowledge prompted him to cross the Atlantic and take a course of study in philosophy and theology at Colgate University, New York. Subsequently he became the minister of an English church at Westport, and afterwards a Welsh church at

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Utica. In 1896 he accepted the pastorate of the church at Blaenconin, Pembrokeshire. Daring the last six years of his life, he also had the charge of Gelli church, and was the means of erecting a new chapel in that place. He was a frequent contributor to the presS. Articles from his pen appeared in the " Greal," " Seren Gomer," " Hauwr " (Sower), " Seren Cymru " (Star of Wales), and other denominational newspapers and periodicals. He also published an English book on " Baptism," and several pamphlets. During his stay in America, he edited for a time the "Drych" (Mirror). (Baptist Handbook, 1906). See Y Geninen, March, 1906, p. 10. Evans, David Lewis, 1813-1902, a Unitarian minister and professor, was born in the parish of Llanwenog, Cardiganshire. For some time he acted as usher in a school kept at Blaenbydernyn Towers by the Rev. John Davies, afterwards undergoing a icourse of training at Carmarthen College. In 1839 he succeeded the Rev. Joseph Jevans as pastor at Bloxham and Milton, in the county of Oxford, but four years later he joined the staff of the Bridgend Academy. In 1850 he accepted a call to the pastorate at Colyton, remaining there till 1863, when he was appointed Hebrew and mathematical professor at his old college at Carmarthen, a post which he filled with much success for eleven years. He afterwards spent some time in lecturing throughout North and South Wales on "Unitarian Christianity." In 1847 he took part in the founding of a monthly journal called " Yr Ymofynydd," of which he acted as assistant editor till 1866, and as editor from 1868. He was also the author of a volume entitled "Fashion and Truth, or the Faithful Believer" (London: E. T. Whitfield, Strand.) (Biographical Sketch, by his son, Geo. Eyre Evans, Aberystwyth : " Welsh Gazette " Office.) See Cymru, v. 24, p. 39. Evans, David Meyrick, 1827-1870, a Baptist minister and author, was born in London of Welsh parents. At three years of age he removed with his parents to a small farm in the neighbourhood of Tregaron, Cardiganshire. He was educated at Ystradmeurig Grammar School, proceeding afterwards to Accrington Baptist College, and finally to the University of Glasgow. He was ordained, in 1851, to the pastorate of Grosvenor Street Baptist Church, Manchester, remov ing in 1858 to Llanelly as pastor of the English cause. His discourses were replete with lucid statements of Christian truth, enforced in a style of chaste and forcible language. In 1860, he undertook the editorship of the " Llanelly Telegraph," and continued to do so until its amalgamation with the "South Wales Press" in 1867. His literary fame will mainly and securely rest on his "Memoir of Christmas Evans," a work of singular interest and power. At the Glasgow University he gained two prizes, one for an essay on logic, and the other for a Socratic dialogue. He also contributed special articles to the "Freeman" and other periodicals, and wrote to the "Titan Magazine " an admirable critical notice of the sermons of Mr. Robertson, of Brighton. (Baptist Handbook, 1872.) Evans, David Morier, 1819-1874, a journalist, was the son of Joshua Lloyd Evans, of Llanidloes, Montgomeryshire, but was

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born in London. He formed an early connection with journalism, and became assistant City correspondent on the " Times." He after wards assumed the direction of the money articles in the " Morning Herald " and the " Standard." He left the latter newspaper in 1872, and started a paper called " The Hour," on which he spent his entire means, being afterwards adjudicated a bankrupt. His health broke down under the very heavy strain of his financial difficulties. In addition to his regular work, he was connected with several com mercial and financial periodicals, among them being the " Banker s Magazine," to which he was one of the principal contributors. He published several works bearing on, or arising out of City affairs, chief among which were :—" The Commercial Crisis of 1847 - 8 ;" " History of the Commencement of the Crisis 1887 - 8 ;" " City Men and City Manners," and " Facts, Failures, and Frauds." He died in South Hackney, London, and was buried in Abney Park Cemetery. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Men of the Time, 8th edn., p. 345 ; Times, 2nd Jan., 1874 ; Standard, 6th Jan., 1874 ; British Museum Library Catalogue. Evans, David Tudor, -1896, a journalist, was a son of the Rev. John Evans, a Welsh Congregational minister, of Penygroes, South Wales. His connection with journalism commenced in 1847, when he settled at Haverfordwest as editor of an English weekly newspaper called " The Principality," in which he was associated with the Rev. Evan Jones (Ieuan Gwynedd). Four years later he removed its headquarters to Cardiff, and there continued it on undenomi national and non-party lines. Finally, the venture proved a failure, and the journal ceased to exist in 1852. In 1881, he became closely identified with the " Western Mail." He acted as general secretary of the Cardiff National Eisteddfod in 1883, and to his efforts is mainly due the credit that the Cardiff Eisteddfod was the first to publish its " Transactions " in the form which has been generally followed since. In 1893 his services to Welsh literature were recognized by a grant of £100 from the Royal Bounty Fund. (C. & D. Herald.) Evans, Edward, 1716-1798, a poet, and pastor of the Old Meeting House at Aberdare from 1772 to 1798. He was born in the parish of Aberdare, and is said to have " devoted his life faithfully to his religious duties to a large number of people, who attended from the country, from a distance of many miles." He published a Welsh translation of S. Bourne's " Catechism " (1757) ; " Book of Ecclesiastes done into verse," jointly with Lewis Hopkin (Bristol : 1767) ; " An Address delivered before the Association of Ministers at Dref Wen, near Newcastle-Emlyn, with two Hymns " (1775). His poetical works were collected and edited by his son, Rees Evans (1778-1869), (1st edition, Merthyr : 1804 ; 2nd, Merthyr : 1816 ; 3rd, Merthyr : 1837 ; 4th, Aberdare : 1875). He died on the 21st of June, 1798, the date on which he had arranged to meet the other bards of the Chair of Glamorgan. The preservation of this noted bardic cult may be traced mainly to his efforts. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Yr Ymofynydd, 1854, p. 58 ; Church Records of the Meeting House, Aberdare ; G. B. ; B. Cerddorion Qymreig.

f • J • - JO-1-

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Evans, Ellis, 1786-1864, a Baptist minister and author, was born near Bala. When about 20 years of age he joined the Baptists, and three years later he began to preach. In 1819, he became pastor at Cefn Mawr, Ruabon, where he remained until his death 45 years afterwards. He rendered excellent service to his denomination, and enjoyed great popularity as a preacher. He commenced to publish a Welsh History of the Baptists, and was a frequent contributor to the connexional magazines. He also composed several hymns. In 1861 he received the degree of D.D. from the William Jewell College, America. (Enwog. C.) See Cymru, vol. 9, p. 39. Evans, Ernest Rowe, 1866-1899, a Baptist minister, was the son of the Rev. Thomas Evans, missionary, and was born in Calcutta. He came to England when 12 years of age, and was educated at Blackheath. Ordained to the ministry at Llantarnam, Monmouthshire, in 1886, he remained pastor of that church until 1891, when he removed to Merthyr. He began his ministry at Orchard-place, Neath, in 1893, and preached there with fervour and power to large and increasing congregations to the time of his death. Upon few men had Nature so lavished her gifts. Handsome ; dignified ; graceful ; a gentleman to the manner born, he had equally attractive qualities of heart. The springs of optimism never dried within him. He was always bright, and made all bright around him. He was an orator, and his voice, of wonderful range, was rich in its musical qualities. His gift of extemporaneous utterance was marvel lous. In the face of a congregation it would kindle, and beautiful thoughts in beautiful settings would be his gifts to ever-appreciative audiences. He made a model Eisteddfod conductor, and was in frequent demand as a popular lecturer. (Baptist Handbook, 1900.) Evans, Evan, 1731-1789, "Ieuan Brydydd Hir," poet and antiquary, was born in the parish of Lledrod, Cardiganshire. He received his education at the Ystradmeurig Grammar School, under the tuition of the well-known poet, Edward Richards. He inherited a small freehold, which he sold to a younger brother, and with the proceeds he completed his education at Oxford. He shewed an early attachment to the Muse, and applied himself with great diligence to the cultivation of Welsh literature. He also devoted much time to the transcribing of ancient manuscripts, for which purpose he visited the best-known libraries in Wales. In 1764 he published a volume of Ancient Welsh Poems, with Latin translations, to which he subjoined a learned dissertation, which ranked him high as an antiquary and critic, and supplied Gray with matter for some of his most beautiful poetry. His English poem, " The Love of our Country," was first published in 1772. (Carmarthen : J. Ross). In disposition, Ieuan was humane and benevolent, and he possessed many excellent qualities. In person, he was tall, athletic, and of a dark complexion. After his decease, his papers and collections became the property of Mr. Paul Panton, Plasgwyn, Anglesey. In 1876 Canon Silvan Evans edited a volume of his poems and letters, to which he prefixed a brief biography of the poet. (Carnarvon : H. Humphreys). (Diet. Em. W.; Wales, vol. 1, p. 186.) See Enwog.

Rev. Christmas Evans.

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C. ; Hanes Lien. G. ; Y Brython, vol. 1, 2nd edn., p. 49, et seq. ; Y Piser Hir, at Swansea Library ; Cymru Fydd, 1889, p. 465 ; Cymru, v. 25, p. 213 ; Ibid., v. 27, p. 142 ; Y Geninen, 1893, p. 87. Evans, Evan, 1795-1855, "Ieuan Glan Geirionydd," a clergyman and poet, was born at the farmhouse of Tyn-y-celyn, near Trefriw, in Carnarvonshire. He showed great promise while young, and attracted the attention of patriotic Churchmen, through whose assistance he was enabled to study for holy orders. In 1826, he was appointed to a curacy at Christleton, near Chester ; in 1843, he removed to the per petual curacy of Ince. He returned to Trefriw, when he lost his wife, in 1852 ; held a curacy at Rhyl in 1854, and died in the following year. Ab editor of the Gwladgarwr, he did much to bring about the awakening in Wales which followed from contact with the thought of England. He was a poet of very great merit, and his longer poems have undoubtedly had a good influence on later generations of bards. His patriotic song, " Morfa Rhuddlan " (Rhuddlan Marsh) and the " Cuckoo's Song to Arvon " are very popular, while some of his hymns rank among the best in the language. These hymns are nearly all prayers, and are full of the tenderest appeals. The subjects of his longer poems are " Belzhazzar's Feast," " The Wreck of the Bothsay Castle" " Goronwy Owen's Departure from Anglesey," " Charles of Bala," "The Grave," and "The Resurrection." The last extends to about 3,000 lines. He was also a musician of considerable ability, and did much to improve the service of song in the sanctuary. (Geirionydd, by W. J. Roberts ; Sweet Singers of Wales). See Enwog. C. ; Y Geninen, vol. 6 (1888), p. 239 ; Hanes Lien. G. ; Y Geninen, March, 1891, p. 37 ; Wales, v. 1, p. 222 ; Y Traethodydd, 1900, pp. 275, 374 ; Ceinion Lien. C., vol. 1, p. 368 ; Nodweddiad y Cymry, p. 271 ; Cymru, v. 10, p. 124 ; Y Geninen, 1903, p. 186 ; Welsh Lyrics, p. 11 ; Welsh Poets, &c, p. 11 ; Wales, v. 2, p. 79 ; Adgof uwch Anghof, p. 218 ; Y Geninen, 1897, p. 126 ; Cymru, v. 13, p. 261. Evans, Evan, 1804-1886, generally known in Wales as "Evans Bach Nantyglo," a Congregational minister and author, was born in Cardiganshire. He commenced preaching with the Calvinistic Methodists in 1825, and Ave years later became a total abstainer. He met with much opposition for his advocacy of temperance principles, which were new in those days. In 1847 he joined the Congregationaliste, and continued a popular preacher among them through life. He afterwards emigrated to America, whither a daughter and several brothers and sisters had preceded him. He took up his residence at Oakhill, Ohio, and in 1881 founded a small Welsh church in Arkansas. This was the first Welsh cause in that State, and Mr. Evans continued in charge of it until his death. His works include " Athrawiaeth a Dyledswydd, sef Efrydiaeth yr Areithfa " (Swansea : E. Griffiths, 1866) ; " Y Cyfammod Gweithredoedd " (Crickhowell : T. Williams, 1833) ; and translations of works by Dr. John Brown, Dr. Thomas Goodwin, and John Owen. He also translated " The Rise and Fall of Papistry " by R. Ffieming, junior (1849). His son, Mr. Beriah Gwynfe Evans, is a well-known dramatist and author of several works.

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(Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Bye-Gones, 1886, p. 189 ; Cyfaill yr Aelwyd, March, 1887. Evans, Evan Herber, 1836-1896, one of the most eloquent preachers of Wales, was born near Newcastle Emlyn, his father being a blacksmith. He received a fair education, and was apprenticed to a draper and general dealer. In 1854, he made his way to Liverpool, where he found employment in a draper's shop, but soon afterwards, being urged to enter the ministry, he preached his trial sermon at the Tabernacle Chapel of the Welsh Congregationals. It was a pro nounced success, and, after a few years' preparation in college, he settled down as pastor of Libanus, Morriston, South Wales. In 1865 he accepted a call to Carnarvon, where he remained, despite many tempting offers, till 1894. In that year he accepted the principalship of the Congregational College at Bangor. He played a leading and inspiring part in every Welsh movement in his day, and with voice and pen he exercised a powerful influence on the current of Welsh thought and action. For some years he lectured much throughout the country on such subjects as " David Livingstone " and " Oliver Cromwell," and there can be no doubt that these lectures were an inspiration to thousands in all parts of England and Wales. The degree of D.D. was conferred upon him by an American University. He was editor of the "Dysgedydd" for about 18 years, and had been chairman of the Congregational Union of England and Wales. Thomas Jones, the famous poet-preacher, once described him as "the greatest orator Wales has produced," and the British Weekly declared that for sheer subduing, overwhelming eloquence, he was unequalled by any living preacher. A selection of the monthly " Notes," contributed by Dr. Herber Evans to the " Dysgedydd," edited by the Rev. 0. L. Roberts, appeared in 1897, and in the same year a volume of his English sermons was published, edited by his brother, the Rev. W. Justin Evans, under the title, " True and False Aims," and other Sermons. (Life of Herber Evans, by Elvet Lewis ; Young Wales, 1895, p. 211.) See Y Traethodydd, 1897, p. 211 ; Ibid., 1901, p. 300 ; Cymru, v. 1, p. 3 ; Ibid., v. 3, p. 273 ; Y Geninen, 1898, p. 277, and March, p. 17 ; Young Wales, 1901, pp. 31, 165 ; Y Dysgedydd, Feb., 1897 ; The Congreg. Year Book, 1898; Bye-Gones, 1897, p. 3 ; Y Geninen, 1897; Stephen's Album Aberhonddu ; Y Geninen, 1904, p. 1 (March) ; Ibid., 1899, p. 246 ; Cymru, v. 12, p. 122 ; vol. 31, p. 123 ; Welsh Religious Leaders in the Victorian Era. Evans, Evan John, -1891, Professor of Hebrew and Philosophy at New College, was born and brought up on a Breconshire farm, and as a lad he attended the ministry of the Rev. David Williams, at Troedrhiwdalar, in the neighbourhood of Builth. He matriculated at London University, and then entered Coward College. He graduated B.A. at London, and Ph. D. at Heidelberg, and in 1864 he was appointed Professor of Hebrew and Philosophy at Cheshunt College. This chair he resigned in 1877, and in 1878 he was invited to undertake similar duties at New College. In these he was actively engaged until within a few days of his death. As a professor he was

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conscientious, painstaking and thorough. Wide as his own reading had been, and well abreast as he kept himself of all current discussions on Old Testament criticism and in philosophy, he never simply trusted to these. Every fresh course of lectures was the result of a careful re reading of old results in the light of the latest and best scholarship ; and the notes of few lectures are so valuable as his for reference, even after the lapse of long years. Although he never published any books, he was engaged up to his death in the preparation of a Commentary on the Psalms. (Cong. Year Book, 1892). Evans, Evan P., about 1825 , a professor at the Cornell University, in America, was a native of Wales. He graduated at Yale in 1851, and afterwards became a teacher there. He then removed to Marietta College, Ohio, and in 1867 was made Dean of the Mathe matical College at Cornell. He left behind him an unfinished " His tory of Wales," on which he had bestowed great labour. ( Welshmen as Factors, &c). Evans, Foulk, 1783-1866, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was born at Llanuwchllyn, near Bala. In 1825 he moved to Machynlleth. He was a very powerful preacher, and travelled a good deal on preaching missions throughout the Principality. His memoir was written by the Rev. John Ogwen Jones. (Enwog. Meirion.) Evans, Sir Francis Henry, 1840-1907, partner in the firm of Messrs. Donald Currie and Co., managers of the Union Castle Line, was the son of Mr. William Evans, a Welshman who lived at Crumpsall, near Manchester. He was educated both in England and Germany, and travelled widely in his early years. In 1862 he fought in the American Civil War. He was articled to Sir James Brunlees, the eminent engineer, under whom he worked in many great under takings. He was a remarkably keen and able man of business, and finding scope in the banking world for his talents as a financier, he relinquished the active pursuit of his profession as a civil engineer, and devoted himself to banking, his operations being largely carried on between this country and America. His firm was known as Melville, Evans & Co. In his shipping enterprises he displayed great business capacity, and for years presided with much success over the fortunes of the Union Line. He was twice elected as Liberal member for Southampton—on each occasion at a bye-election in which he won the seat from the Conservatives. In 1901 he was elected for Maidstone, when Mr. John Barker was unseated on petition. In the election of 1906, however, he lost his seat to Lord Castlereagh. He was created a baronet and K.C.M.G., and was succeeded by his eldest son, Mr. Murland de Grasse Evans. (Manchester Guardian, Jan. 24, 1907 ; The Times, same date.) Evans, Frederick, -1897, "Ednyfed," a Nonconformist minister and poet, was a native of Llandybie, Carmarthenshire, and was ordained in 1861. Five years later he emigrated to America, settling in Hyde Park, Pennsylvania. In 1869 he became pastor of an English cause in New York, but in 1874 removed to Franklin. His subsequent pastorates were at Philadelphia and Milwaukee. He

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received the honorary degree of D.D., and as " Dr. Fred Evans " became a familiar figure in literary and religious circles. As an Eisteddfod conductor he stood in the front rank. ( Y Geninen, March, 1898, p. 60.) Evans, Frederick William, 1808-1893, a social reformer, of Welsh descent, was born at Bromyard, Herefordshire. He emigrated to America in 1820, and adopted the socialistic and materialistic views of his brother, George Henry Evans (1805-1855, see post). In 1830 he joined the Shakers :>t Monnt Lebanon, New York, and became their principal elder. He wrote various works on the doctrines of the Shakers, and, in conjunction with his brother, founded " The Working-man's Advocate," the first American labour and reform newspaper. (Lippincott ; Munseifs Magazine, 1906, p. 754.) Evans, George, about 1790, a Welshman who attained great eminence in the American Congress. From 1829 to 1841, he served in the House of Representatives, and was then transferred to the Senate. In Blaine's " Twenty Years of Congress," we are told that "as a Parliamentary debater, using that term in its true significance and with proper limitations, George Evans is entitled to high rank When Mr. Evans' term of service drew near to the close, Mr. Webster paid him the extraordinary commendation of saying in the Senate ' that his retirement would be a serious loss to the Government and the country.' ... Of all who have represented New England in the Senate, Mr. Evans as a debater is entitled to rank next to Mr. Webster." ( Welshmen as Factors, &c.) Evans, George Henry, 1805-1 855, one of the earliest advocates of land reform in the United States, was of Welsh descent, and was born at Bromyard, Herefordshire. At an early age he emigrated to America, where he played a prominent part as social reformer. He agitated for inalienable homesteads, general bankrupt laws, labourers' liens, women's rights, abolition of slavery, and a limitation in the right of any person to hold lands. In several respects his theories anticipated those of Henry George. He died at Granville, New Jersey. (Lippincott ; Mvmey's Magazine, 1906, p. 754.) Evans, George S., 1841-1903, an American civil servant, was born at Cardigan, and emigrated with his parents to the United S'ates when a boy eight years of age, living practically all his life in Cambridge, Mass. When a youth he learned the printing business, and when the Civil War broke out he enlisted in the 56th Massachusetts Regiment, and took part in the many battles which took place in front of Petersburg in 1864 and 1865. In 1897 he was appointed Chief Post Office Inspector of the New England division, with an office at Boston, and nearly 12,000 offices under his charge. This post he honourably filled until his death. In his death Boston lost one of her best-known and noblest men, who had risen from very humble circumstances to a position of influence in the State. As a member of the Cymmrodorion Society he was ever ready to do all in his power to assist in bringing about the social welfare of his fellow-countrymen. (The Cambrian, 1903, p. 301.)

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Evans, Gwilym, 1851-1905, a self-made man, was the son of David Evans, of Dolauhirion Farm, near Llandovery, Carmarthenshire. He was educated at Llandovery College, and then qualified with honours as a chemist. About 1870 he commenced business in Llanelly, where he quickly established for himself a reputation, not only as a skilful chemist, but as an uncommonly shrewd man of business. In later years he specialised in quinine, and brought his Quinine Bitters before the public. This proved to be a most profitable venture, and it soon brought him a large fortune. In 1888 the business had grown to such proportions that it was converted into a limited liability company, with branches and agencies all over the world. Some years before his death he had retired from business, and devoted himself to public work. He was high sheriff of his native county in 1899, and later on was made a deputy-lieutenant. He was generous in his support of every philanthropic movement. In 1888 he wrote a pamphlet entitled " First Impressions of India." ( Western Mail ; Cardiff Catalogue.) Evans, James, about 1800a Welsh missionary among the Creek Indians, who devised a new syllabary for the use of those among whom he laboured. It was phonetic, and the characters were simpler than those formerly in use, being composed of squares and parts of squares, and circles and parts of circles. He cut his type out of wood, and made castings from the original blocks with lead from tea chests, which he begged from officers of the Hudson Bay Company. He manufactured ink out of soot, and on a hand-press of his own construction printed many little tracts and leaflets for the benefit of the Indians. With some modifications, his characters came into general use not only with the Crees, but also among many tribes of the north-west which speak languages in no wise akin to that of the Crees, and scores of books have been printed in them. (The Washington Star, quoted in Welshmen as Factors, &c.) Evans, John, 1628-1700, headmaster of the Oswestry Free Grammar School during the Commonwealth, was the son of the Rev. Matthew Evans, the vicar of Penegoes, near Machynlleth, and was educated at Balliol College, Oxford. In 1648 he was received into the church, but soon afterwards he became an itinerant preacher, and afterwards took charge of the school at Oswestry. In consequence of the Act of Uniformity, he had to abandon the school, and was thrown into great poverty. He then became pastor of the Independent cause at Wrexham, where he remained till his death. Being an excellent scholar, some gentlemen of means sent their sons to board with him for several years, which helped him considerably under the persecution to which he was subjected. He was repeatedly fined, and at last out lawed, and for years he was obliged for his own protection to keep his doors constantly locked. He is described as "a man of good learning, great gravity, and seriousness : of a most unblamable conversation, and a laborious and judicious preacher." (Noncon. Memorial ; Mont. Worthies). See Bye-Gones, 1898, p. 360 ; Foster's Alumni Oxoniensis, 1500-1714; Border Counties' Worthies.

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Evans, John, -1724, Bishop of Meath, was a native of Car narvonshire, and received his university education at Jesus College, Oxford. He was for some time rector of Llanaelhaiarn, in South Carnarvonshire ; in 1701 he was appointed Bishop of Bangor, and in 1715 he was translated to the bishopric of Meath, in Ireland. In con sequence of his attitude on church discipline he incurred the displea sure of Dean Swift, who held preferment in his diocese, and who penned very severe and sarcastic letters to the bishop. Other eminent contemporaries, however, spoke of him in terms of esteem. At his death he devoted his property, as he had done during his life, to the benefit of the Church in England and Ireland, and as one writer expresses it, " It were difficult to imagine a more judicious and appro priate distribution of property acquired from the church, and thus devoted to her emolument." (Ware's Bishops of Ireland). See Diary of W. Hedges, published by Col. Yule for the Hakluyt Society ; Browne Willis' Survey of Bangor (1721), p. 119 ; Mant's Church of Ireland, vol. 2, pp. 309, 390, 397 ; Swift's Works (1814), pp. 91, 354, 392, 440 ; Parl. Hist., vol. 6, p. 1142 ; Nicholson's Letters (1807), p. 525 ; Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Diet. Em. W. Evans, John, 1680-1730, a Congregational minister and author, was a native of Wrexham, and a son of the Rev. John Evans (16281700, see ante). He studied for some time under the eminent dissent ing teachers, Rowe and Jollie, and was ordained in Wrexham in 1702. Soon afterwards. Dr. Daniel Williams invited him to London, and he became co-pastor and successor of that learned and able man. He was also lecturer at Salter's Hall. For his learning and ability, he was made D.D. by the Universities of Edinburgh and Aberdeen. As a preacher, he displayed considerable eloquence, and as a writer he is said to have been admired by divines of all denominations. He took part in the Arian controversy, and published "Practical Discourses concerning the Christian Temper," which Dr. Watts declared to be the most complete summary of those duties which make up the Christian life that had been published. He also prepared notes for illustrating the Epistle to the Romans, of which Doddridge said "the Exposition of the Romans, begun by Henry, and finished by Dr. Evans, is the best I ever saw." He was engaged some years on a " History of Nonconformity, from the Reformation to the Civil Wars," but on his death, in 1730, that work devolved on Daniel Neal. (Diet. Em. W. ; Imp. Diet. Biog.) See Life of John Evans, by Dr. John Erskine, 1802 ; Wilson's Hist, of Dissenting Churches, v. 2, p. 212 ; Neat's Hist, of the Puritans, 1822, v. 1, p. 31; Noble's Biog. Hist, of England, v. 3, p. 146 ; Diet. Nat. Biog. Evans, John, -1779, a clergyman and author, was born at Llangeitho, Cardiganshire, and educated at Oxford, where he graduated M.A. His first curacy was that of Llanarth, in his native county, whence he removed to Portsmouth. The author of the " Welsh Bibliography " supposes him to have been the " loan Evans " who translated Mr. Jabez Earle's " Meditations on the Sacraments." His " Harmony of the Four Gospels " was published in 1765. This was the first work published in Welsh to expound any portion of the

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Bible, being fifteen years earlier than that of Peter Williams. Evans is believed to have seen through the press the Welsh Bible of 1769. He also translated Bishop Gastrell's " Christian Institutes " (1773), and a volume by J. Earle in 1735. A second edition of the " Harmony of the Four Gospels " appeared in 1804. (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Cardiff Catalogue). See Llyfrydd. y Cymry ; Hanes Lien. G. ; Great Llundain, p. 282 ; Gwaith Gwallter Mechain, vol, 3, p. 259 ; Enwogion Ceredigion, by Gwynionydd ; Rees' Hist. Evans, John, -1797, a native of Carnarvonshire, who sailed for America in 1790, with a view of discovering the Welsh Indians, or descendants of Madawg and his followers. After surmounting many difficulties, and penetrating about 1,300 miles up the river Missouri, he was obliged to return to St. Louis, on the Mississippi, and before he could make another attempt he died of fever. (Cambrian Biography.) The Welsh immigration into America is confirmed in a remarkable manner by an unprejudiced American traveller, Mr. Catlin, who was convinced that he found the descendants of the Welsh colony in the Mandans, an amiable and civilised tribe, with which he became intimately acquainted. (Catlin's Manners and Conditions of the North American Indians). See Diet. Em. W. Evans, John, 1723-1795, a native of Llanymynech, Mont gomeryshire. He prepared the large map of North Wales, engraved by his neighbour, Mr. Robert Baugh, of Llandysilio, and published it in 1795. He aUo published some prints from sketches taken by himself, among them a large engraving of Pistyll Rhaiadr, an excellent specimen of his skill, with a description of the waterfall and the derivation of names appended. On his death, in 1795, his map-publishing business passed into the hands of his son, John Evans, M.D., of Shrewsbury, and in May, 1802, the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, adjudged the sum of forty-five guineas to Dr. Evans " in consideration of the merits of his two maps of South Wales." These maps are noted for their accuracy, and also for the clearness and sharpness of the engraved lines. (Mont. Worthies ; Bye-Gones, 1878, pp. 29 & 39.) Evans, John, -1818V a Baptist minister, was bOrn in the parish of Meline, Pembrokeshire. He completed his education at Bath College, and became joint-pastor with the Rev. John Turner at Abington ; on the latter 's death, he was appointed pastor. After his decease a volume of his sermons, edited by the Rev. James Hinton, Oxford, appeared. (Enwog. C.) Evans, John, 1756-1846, a surgeon, was the son of John Evans (1723-1795, see ante), and was born at Llanymynech, Montgomery shire. He was educated at Westminster School, and afterwards pro ceeded to Oxford, and subsequently went to Edinburgh, where he graduated M.D. He settled at Shrewsbury, residing at the Council House, and soon acquired an extensive practice. He spent much of his time in the study of trees and tree culture, and wrote a didactic poem, entitled, 4 The Bee," illustrated with valuable notes— philo sophical and botanical. In 1802, he published an improved copy of

^v

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his father's map of North Wales, for which he received a prize from the Society of Arts. (Mont. Worthies.) Evans, John, 1767-1827, a Dissenting minister and author* was born at Usk, in Monmouthshire. He studied for some time under the celebrated Robert Hall, and afterwards matriculated at Aberdeen, taking his M.A. degree at Edinburgh. About 1792, he succeeded Mr. Anthony Robinson as pastor of a congregation in Worship Street, London, and, later on, he opened an academy in Islington, where be acquired a considerable reputation as an instructor of youth. In 1815, he was deprived of the use of his limbs, but continued to preach, being carried from his couch to his pulpit. In 1819 he received the degree of D.C.L. from one of the American Universities. He excelled as an extempore preacher, and was much admired for the simple yet impressive style of his discourses, in which practical utility was his primary object. He published several topographical, theological, and miscellaneous works, the principal being "An Address designed to promote the Revival of Religion among the General Baptists ; " "An Address to Young People on the necessity and importance of Religion ; " "A Sketch of the Denominations of the Christian World," for the copyright of which he only received £10, though one hundred thousand copies were sold ; and " Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Wm. Richards, LL.D.," and a "Picture of Worthing" (1805). (Diet. Em. W. ; Cardiff Catalogue). See Annual Biography and Obituary, vol. 2, p. 12 ; Qent. Mag., vol. 97, pt. 1, p. 369 ; Lewis' History of the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, pp. 166, 349 ; Allibone's Diet., vol. 1, p. 565 ; Bing. Diet, of Living Authors, 1816 ; Diet. Nat. Biog. Evans, John, 1768 - 1832, a schoolmaster and author, is believed to have been the son of Benjamin Evans, a Welshman, who resided at Lydney, in Gloucestershire. He became a student of Jesus College, Oxford, where he matriculated in April, 1789, taking his B.A. degree three years later. He kept a school for some time in Lower Park Row, Bristol, and died at Euston House Academy, in Euston Square, London, in or just before April, 1832. He was the author of "A Tour through part of North Wales in 1798, and at other times ; " " Letters written during a Tour in South Wales during the year 1803, and at other times ; " " War not inconsistent with Christianity " (1804) ; " The Doctrine of Philosophical Necessity considered in reference to its tendency" (1807); "The Ponderer, a series of essays" (1812); "Remains of William Reed" (1816); and "A brief History of Bristol." (Old Wales, v. 1, p. 7.) Evans, John, 1779-1847, a Calvinistic Methodist preacher, of New Inn, was a native of Llanfihangel-ar-arth, Carmarthenshire. He joined the Methodists in 1793, and, soon afterwards, began to preach. In 1809 he forsook Nonconformity, and was ordained by Bishop Watson, of Llandaff. As a preacher, he was exceedingly earnest and active ; his readiness to preach wherever an opportunity offered led to friction between him and the Church authorities ; he returned to the Calvinistic Methodists, and became one of their shining lights. The

Rev. Evan Evans (Ienan Glan Geirionydd).

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name of John Evans, Llwynffortnn (as he was popularly called), stands in the front rank amongst the preachers of the first half of the nineteenth century. (Enwog. C.) See G. B. ; Dr. Lewis Edwards' Traethodau Llenyddol, pp. 310-26 ; Memoir by the Rev. T. J. Williams, Myddfai. Evans, John, 1796-1861, a mathematician, was a native of Blaenplwyf, Cardiganshire. He commenced life as a weaver, but soon showed a talent for figures. He removed to London, where he came in contact with Mr. Griffith Davies, the actuary. Having made considerable progress in geometry, algebra, trigonometry, &c, he returned to Wales, and opened a school at Aberystwyth, where he was very successful. (Enwog. ft) See Enwogion Sir Aberteift. Evans, John, 1796-1889, a clergyman and author, was born of Welsh parents. He was at one time chaplain to Viscount Combermere, and in 1844 was appointed vicar of Whixhall, Salop,where he remained till his death, in his ninety-second year. He was an excellent classical scholar, and afforded a remarkable example of untiring energy and perseverance, having won his way through schools and colleges principally by means of exhibitions and scholarships which he gained. He graduated M.A. at Christ Church, Oxford. He was a clever arithmetician and linguist, and published a work on "Decimal and Fractional Arithmetic." In 1843 he published "The Statutes of the Fourth General Council of Lateran, recognised and established by subsequent Councils and Synods down to the Council of Trent," and in 1859 there appeared a small volume of his poems. He also took a great interest in antiquarian matters. (Bye-Gones, 1889, p. 65). See Y Brython, v. 5, p. 154. Evans, John, 1814-1875, " I. D. Ffraid," a Calvinistic Methodist minister and poet, was born at Ty Mawr, Llansantffraid-glan-Conwy. When only 16 years of age he published " A History of the Jews," in Welsh, and at 21 a volume of poems entitled " Difyrwch Bechgyn Glanau Conwy " (Llanrwst : John Jones, 1835). He was a regular contributor of prose and verse to the periodicals of the day, and for many years wrote a weekly letter on current topics to the Baner, under the name of "Adda Jones." A writer in the Qwyddoniadur says that many of these letters remind one of Addison's Essays in their liveliness, wit, and ingenious reasonings. He translated into Welsh Young's " Night Thoughts," and Milton's " Paradise Lost," the latter being highly praised by Dr. Lewis Edwards. He compiled " A New English and Welsh Dictionary, with a Botanical Dictionary sub joined," which was published in 1847 (Llanrwst : J. Jones), a second edition being issued in the following year. (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Cardiff Catalogue). See Traethodau Llenyddol Dr. Lewis Edwards ; Y Otninen, March 1888, p. 1 ; Ibid, 1889, p. 124 ; Ibid, 1898, p. 70. Evans, John, 1818-1891, a clergyman, was the son of Mr. John Evans, of Tynycoed, Merionethshire. He began his career as a solicitor, and was articled to Mr. David Williams, M.P., but abandoned the law, and took his degree at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1841. He was ordained deacon in the same year, and priest in 1842. After

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serving as curate at Llanbedrycenin, and at Pentrevoelas, he was in 1857 preferred to the rectory of Machynlleth. He succeeded Dean Cotton as rector at Llanllechid in 1862, which benefice he held till 1888, when Lord Penrhyn preferred him to the rectory of Aber, near Bangor. He was a diligent and successful parish priest, and was the first secretary of the Bangor Church Extension Society, which was established in 1869. He succeeded Archdeacon White, in 1866, as archdeacon of Merioneth and canon residentiary of Bangor Cathedral. He was an excellent antiquary, and his accounts of Pentrevoelas and Ysbytty Ifan parishes are masterpieces of parochial history. (Recollec tions, &c. : Bye-Gonea, 1891, p. 94.) See Y Geninen, 1894, p. 180. Evans, John, -1882, an engineer, was born at Aberdare, South Wales. From a fitter at Abernant, then on the Taff Vale, afterwards at Uskside, he entered the Russian Navy as engineer, then joined the Spanish, and, finally, was for some years in the Turkish Navy. During the American War, and while in the Russian service, he repeatedly ran the blockade. He was a most skilled engineer, and held several important positions in the navy, and at the arsenal, &c. At the time of his death, he was assistant engineer at the Bute Docks, Cardiff. (The Red Dragon.) Evans, John, 1830-1883, "Iota Eta," a Wesleyan minister and author, was a native of Llanrwst, Denbighshire, and after entering the ministry served in most of the chief circuits of North Wales, including Llanfyllin, Llangollen, and Corwen. At the time of his death he was superintendent minister of the Mold circuit. He was editor of the Welsh Wesleyan Diary, and regularly contributed articles and notes on current topics to the "Eurgrawn," the chief periodical of the denomination in Wales, and to other publications. (Bye-Gones, 1883, p. 175.) Evans, John, 1840-1897, a Wesleyan minister and author, was born in Eglwysbach, Denbighshire, with which place his name will always be associated. He was educated at the National School, and commenced to preach when 17 years of age. He was ordained at Mold in 1865, and subsequently served in the ministry in Liverpool, Bangor, Oswestry, and London. To make up for the loss of collegiate training he attended evening classes, and availed himself of every opportunity for self-improvement, eventually becoming an Associate of King's College, London. He ranked amongst the greatest of Welsh pulpit orators, being styled "The Welsh Spurgeon." During the last four years of his life he organised and conducted, with excellent results, a "forward movement" mission in Glamorgan. Great earnestness of purpose and zeal characterized his utterances, and he was universally loved throughout Wales. His principal works are :—A Welsh "Biography of John Wesley;" "The Life and Epistles of St. Paul;" and a " Short Biography of John Wesley." Several volumes of his sermons, delivered in London, were published between the years 1883 and 1887. (Diet. Nat. Biog.; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Y Geninen, March, 1899, pp. 10, 60 ; Ibid, 1898, p. 13, and March, p. 52 ; Ibid, March, 1905, p. 30 ; Ibid, March, 1900, pp. 27, 56 ; Yr Eurgrawn

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Wesleyaidd, 1897 ; Minutes of Conference, 1898 ; His Biography by the Rev. Thos. Hughes; Methodist Recorder, 29th Oct., 1897; Methodist Times, same date ; The Christian, 9th Dec, 1897 ; Cytnru, v. 13, p. 268 ; Welsh Religious Leaders in the Victorian Era. Evans, John Hugh, 1833-1886, "Cynfaen," a Wesleyan minister and poet, was born at Ysgeifiog, near Holywell. He was favoured in early life with a religions home. When about 19 years of age he was led to be deeply in earnest for his soul's salvation, and soon after his conversion he became a local preacher. At the Conference of 1860 he was received into the ministry and appointed to circuit-work. During his ministerial course he steadily increased in power and efficiency. He was a man of very rare intellectual ability,—his imaginative faculties were of a very high order, and his discourses were full of fresh, vigorous, and stimulating thoughts. He was eminent as a poet, and his contributions to the press won for him a very high literary reputation among his countrymen. He was a man of undoubted principle and of singular fidelity to his convictions, and at the same time he was greatly beloved by his brethren. He won the chair of the Liverpool Gordovic Eisteddfod, in 1877, for an ode on " The Tempta tion of Christ," and also the prize for the best poem on Thomas Aubrey. In his popular lectures on " Man in Earnest," " Luther Bendragon," "Volcanoes," &c, he gave pleasure and instruction to multitudes. He edited the " Sermons of the Rev. Rowland Hughes " (Carnarvon : H. Humphreys, 1877) ; a " Memorial Volume," containing his lecture on " Job," and twenty-two of his sermons, and a sketch of his life, by his brother, the Rev. William Hugh Evans, was published in 1888 (Holywell: P. M. Evans & Son). (Minutes of Conference, 1886; Cardif Catalogue.) See F Traethodydd, 1903, p. 432; F Geninen, March, 1888, p. 12 ; Ibid, 1902, p. 32 ; Ibid, 1887, p. 233 ; Rnd, 1889, p. 119, et seq.; Ibid, 1890, p. 235, and March, p. 29 ; Welsh Religious Leaders in the Victorian Era. Evans, John Rhaiadore, about 1790 -about 1850, a doctor of medicine and author, was born at Glantanad Isaf, in the parish of Llanrhaiadr, Montgomeryshire. He was educated at the Oswestry Grammar School, and subsequently articled with Mr. Hugh Roberts, a surgeon in good practice at Llanfyllin. He afterwards became a pupil of Sir Benjamin Brodie. After filling the office of chief medical officer at the Bangor Infirmary, he was appointed Lecturer on Surgery, and one of the medical officers of the Middlesex and Royal Metropolitan Infirmaries. He enjoyed for some time an extensive practice in London, and amassed a good fortune. He wrote several medical works of acknowledged merit, among them being treatises on "The Remediable Evils attending the Life of the People " ; on " Irritation of the Spinal Nerves ; Introductory Lectures to a course on Distortions of the Spine, Chest and Limbs, and on Nervous Irritation " ; and " The Remedial Influence of Oxygen on Vital Air." (Mont. Worthies.) Evans, John W., 1810-1892, a Presbyterian minister, was born in the parish of Blaenpennal, Cardiganshire. His educational advantages were few in early life, but he devoted all his leisure to selfimprovement. In 1841 he emigrated to America, and made his home

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in the Welsh settlements of Jackson and Gallia counties,—at that time a mere frontier wilderness. He was licensed to preach by the Ohio Presbytery in 1843, and ordained to the ministry six years later. He devoted himself to the work with great earnestness, and became a very effective preacher, gaining for himself an honourable position among his brethren in the ministry. He was elected moderator of the General Assembly, and several times served in the same office in the Synod of Ohio. (The Cambrian, 1894, p. 161.) Evans, Jonah, 1836-1896, a Congregational minister and author, was born in the parish of Llanfihangel, Carmarthenshire, and began preaching when about 18 years of age. In June, 1857, he was admitted to the Presbyterian College, Carmarthen, where he spent four years. In 1861 he opened a grammar school at Llanybyther, preaching in the neighbouring churches on the Sundays. He took a very prominent part in the erection of Shiloh Independent Chapel, Llansawel, in his native county, and was ordained there in June, 1870. He passed, at an advanced age, an examination which qualified him to lecture on agriculture, and his services were often required in that capacity at technical school centres. He published also several works, among them " The Biography of the Rev. E. Jones, Crugybar," in Welsh (Llandilo : D. W. & G. Jones, 1883), and a theological work, entitled, " Y Berllan Dduwinyddol." (Congreg. Tear Book, 1897 ; Cardiff Catalogue.) Evans, Lewis, 1755-1827, a mathematician, was the son of the Rev. Thomas Evans, of Bassaleg, Monmouthshire, and was educated at Merton College, Oxford, but did not graduate. He entered holy orders, his first curacy being that of Ashbury, Berkshire, where he remained until 1778. He then became curate of Compton, in the same county, and ten years later he was preferred to the vicarage of Froxfield, Wiltshire. From 1799 to 1820 he held the post of mathematical master at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. In addition to a competent knowledge of various sciences, he had devoted much attention, in the latter part of his life, to astronomy. He possessed a valuable collection of instruments, and had a private observatory of his own on Woolwich Common. He contributed a number of articles to the Philosophical Magazine, and in 1823 was elected F.R.S. He was also a Fellow of the Astronomical Society. He left two sons—Thomas Simpson Evans (see post), and Arthur Benoni Evans (see ante). (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Royal Kalendars ; Monthly Notices of the Astronomical Society of London, v. 1, p. 53. Evans, Llewelyn loan, 1833-1892, professor of Hebrew and Old Testament exegeses at the Bala Calvinistic Methodist College, was the son of the Rev. Edward T. Evans, formerly of Caerwys, Flintshire. He emigrated with his parents to America in 1850, his father becoming pastor at Racine, Wisconsin. After graduating, he was elected lecturer in church history at Cincinnati ; in 1867 he was appointed professor of Hebrew ; and in 1873 he became professor of New Testament, Greek, and Exegesis. In each department his great and varied attainments enabled him to render invaluable service in the

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preparation of candidates for the ministry. He died suddenly, very soon after his arrival in this country to take up his duties at Bala. A volume of his sermons, entitled—" Preaching Christ," with a sketch of his life, from the pen of Dr. Henry P. Smith, was published by the Christian Literature Co., New York, in 1893, and another volume containing his " Poems, Addresses, and Essays," published by the same firm, followed immediately afterwards. Dr. Smith refers to him as " one of the most exemplary and earnest, as well as one of the most scholarly and brilliant men," in the American ministry. (C. & D. Herald; The Cambrian, 1894, p. 50). See Y Traethodydd, 1892, p. 117 ; Y Geninen, 1895, p. 225. Evans, Mary Ann (or Marian), 1819-1880, "George Eliot," a novelist, was born in Warwickshire. In " George Eliot's Life, as related in her Letters and Journals," we read that her father "was born in 1773 at Ellaston, in Staffordshire, son of a George Evans, who carried on the business of builder and carpenter there ; the Evans family having come originally from Northop, in Flintshire." Her first considerable work, " Scenes of Clerical Life," which appeared in Blackwood in 1854, gave evidence of that power of blending imagina tion with descriptions of realities which is one of the charms of her later writings. It was followed in 1859 by " Adam Bede ;" by " The Mill on the Floss " in 1860 ; and by " Silas Marner " in 1861. She wrote a number of other novels, and several poems, and was regarded as one of the leading novelists of the day. She died in May, 1880, and was buried in Highgate Cemetery, London. Her " Life," edited by Mr. J. W. Cross, was published, in three volumes, in 1884. (ByeQones, 1885, p. 256; Harmsworth ; Imp. Diet. Biog.) See Bye-Gones, 1902, p. 473 ; A Series of Articles on " The True Story of Seth Bede and Dinah Morris" in " Leisure Hour" Nov. 1902, et seq. ; Univer sity College of Wales Mag., 1883, p. 189 ; Biog., by Leslie Stephen. Evans, Morgan, 1830-1899, a journalist and specialist in live stock and agricultural subjects, was a native of South Wales, and died at Fishguard. In 1870, in conjunction with the well-known veterinary expert, the late Professor Gamgee, he started a paper entitled "A Milk Journal," which had for its object the drawing of the attention of Parliament to the then wholesale adulteration of milk. Their efforts were speedily successful, as, in 1872, milk was placed within the scope of the " Adulteration of Foods Act." ((7. is D. Herald.) Evans, Oliver, 1755-1819, an inventor, described as the "James Watt of the Western Hemisphere," was "a poor boy of a Welsh farming family in Pennsylvania, and self-taught." He was born at Newport, Delaware, and apprenticed to a wheelwright, but became a miller. He was a man " whose inventive and constructive skill have added to the permanent wealth of the State and Union " (Bishop). As early as 1771, he affirmed that he could propel boats and wagons by means of steam. His inventions include improvements in flour mills, a steam carriage (1799), the first American steam dredger (1804), and a quaint machine which was used as a carriage on land and a steamer on the river. He is chiefly memorable as the inventor of the high

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pressure steam engine. In 1805 he published his famous " Engineer's Guide," fully describing the principles and methods of propelling by steam, both on land and water. He planned a railway between New York and Philadelphia, but died at New York before it was carried out (Welshmen as Factors, &c.; Imp. Diet. Biog.; Harmsworth.) See Wales, v. 3, p. 22. Evans, Owen, 1808-1865, a Unitarian minister, was born at Pyrlip, Llandyssul, Cardiganshire. He was prepared for the ministry by the Rev. David Davies, Castell Hywel ; supplied Pantdefaid for some time, and kept a school ; became assistant-master to one Mr. Whiting, at Evesham, but was obliged to leave at the end of six months owing to his religions views. He was minister at Blaengwrach, Vale of Neath, in 1836, and from 1837 to 1865 at Cefncoedycymmer. For some time he acted as examiner in Hebrew at the Presbyterian College, Carmarthen, and was one of the chief contributors to Yr Ymofynydd from the first number in September, 1847. His sermon on " Barnedigaethau Tymhorol " (Temporal Judgments), published by the Welsh Unitarian Society, in 1846, was much read and discussed. (The Uni tarian Students at the Presbyterian College, Carmarthen, Rev. R. Jenkin Jones, M.A., 1901, p. 35 ; Yr Ymofynydd, 1865 ; Ibid, 1895, memoir and portrait.) Evans, Rees, 1799-1878, a Baptist minister and journalist, was born at Pencareg, Carmarthenshire. When about 20 years of age he was baptized at Aberduar, and being soon afterwards pressed to preach he devoted himself to the work of the ministry. He spent some time at the Neuaddlwyd School, and afterwards proceeded to the Baptist College at Abergavenny, then under the presidency of the Rev. Micah Thomas. On leaving college, about 1827, he settled down in the pastorate at Llangadock. He became widely known in the Principality in connection with Seren Comer (the " Star of Gomer "), the denom inational magazine of the Baptists. (Baptist Handbook, 1879.) Evans, Richard, 1793-1832, was a native of Llanbrynmair, Montgomeryshire. He spent the last few years of his life in London, where he became well-known as a philanthropist, the special objects of his care being his poor fellow-countrymen. He took a great interest in all matters relating to Wales, and afforded valuable aid to many a young Welshman on his first arrival in London. At the time of his death he was president of the Cymreigyddion Society, and curator of Welsh MSS. to the Royal Cambrian Society. (Camb. Quarterly Mag., v. 4.) Evans, Robert, -1750, parish clerk of Meifod in the first half of the nineteenth century, was a good poet. He was the author of "Cerdd y Winllan" ("Ode to the Vineyard"), a very popular ballad, or song, which, with two other compositions of his, are published in the " Blodeugerdd." He never debased his muse, as too many of his contemporaries did, by writing on profane subjects. He taught the vicar of his native parish, Dr. Salisbury Price, to read Welsh, and is supposed to have died in the Almshouse. (Mont. Worthies.)

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Evans, Robert Wilson, 1789-1866, a clergyman and author, was the second son of John Evans. M.D., of Llwynygroes, near Oswestry. He was educated at Shrewsbury School, and afterwards at Cambridge, where he was seventh wrangler and second Chancellor's medallist. He obtained a fellowship in 1813, and in the following year was elected classical tutor of his college. In 1836 he became examining chaplain to the Bishop of Lichfield, and vicar of Tarvin, in Cheshire. Six years later he accepted from his college the vicarage of Heversham, in Westmoreland. In 1856 he was appointed Archdeacon of Westmoreland, and after discharging the duties of that office with great satisfaction for 10 years he resigned, on account of his advancing years. He was the author of over twenty volumes, and wrote a strong protest against the proposed union of the dioceses of Bangor and St. Asaph. He also wrote five volumes in the series known as the "Theological Library." (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Guardian, 14th March, 1866, p. 272 ; Gent. Mag., June, 1866, p. 909 ; Church of England Photographic Portrait Gallery, 1859, portrait 33 ; Memoir, with portrait, in the Bishopric of Souls, ed. E. Bickersteth, 1877, pp. 5-14 ; Westmoreland Gazette & Kendal Advertiser, 17th March, 1866, p. 5. Evans, Samuel, 1777-1833, a Congregational preacher and hymn-writer, was born at Clydach, near Abergavenny. He carried on a very successful school for some years. In 1810, he became pastor of the cause at Soar, Merthyr Tydfil. He composed a number of hymns, the best-known being "Dal fi, Arglwydd, dal fi ronyn;" "Ni ddryllia'r gorsen ysig byth," and " Y fendith fwyaf gaed." (Hanes Emynwyr.) Evans, Samuel, -1835, a landscape painter of repute, was a native of Flintshire, but subsequently settled at Windsor. Here he was selected to teach drawing to the daughters of George III., and eventually he became drawing master at Eton College. Some of his views of North Wales and Windsor were engraved. He left Eton about 1818 for Droxford, Hampshire, (Diet. Nat. Biog.) Evans, Samuel, 1793-1856, editor of Seren Gomer, was born at a house called Llwyn-y-piod, near St. Clears, Carmarthenshire. When the Rev. Joseph Harris (Gomer) died, in 1825, the publishing office of the periodical referred to was removed from Swansea to Carmarthen, and, although the Rev. D. D. Evans was nominally editor, the actual work devolved upon Samuel Evans, and he conducted it with great success for 25 years. In 1839 he published an excellent revised edition of Dr. Richards' Dictionary, and in 1840 was one of the five literary men to whom the question of Welsh orthography was referred for consideration, with the view of securing uniformity. He published a number of valuable articles on the subject in Seren Cymru, which, in 1854, were collected and published in one volume under the title " Gomerydd " (Cardiff : W. Owen). In 1852 he removed to Cardiff, where he edited the Bedyddiwr and Y Cymro Bach, and translated Dr. Gill's Commentary into Welsh. He remained there till his death, August 30, 1856. As a Welsh scholar he excelled, and as editor he outshone most of his contemporaries. (Enwog. C.; Bye-Gones, 1891, p. 184.)

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Evans, Samuel, 1817-1902, a Congregational minister, was born in Ruabon, Denbighshire, and was the son of Thomas Evans, an architect. In 1834 he commenced preaching under the direction of the Rev. William Williams, of Wern, who was so much impressed with the young preacher's first effort that he persuaded him to persevere. He was for over half a century one of the popular preachers of North Wales. In 1840 he preached his first sermon at Llandegla, near Wrexham, where he soon afterwards became pastor. During his ministry, the two chapels at Pisgah and Bwlchgwyn, were twice renovated and the debts cleared. He was a frequent contributor to the Welsh press, particularly Y Dysgedydd, and edited Y Llusern for many years. He was also a good musician, and the composer of several congregational tunes. (C. & D. Herald ; Congreg. Year Book, 1903.) Evans, Simon, 1824-1885, a Congregational minister and author, was the son of the Rev. John Evans, Penygroes, one of the most holy, devoted, and influential men that ever fulfilled the duties of a minister of Christ in Pembrokeshire, and was born at Penlan, Eglwys Wen, in that county. He attained a high position of influence among his brethren through the great excellency of his unblemished character, and unwearied fidelity to all public engagements. He was elected chairman of the Welsh Congregational Union in 1881, and delivered a most powerful address upon " The Theology of the Words of Christ." His labours were incessant ; for in addition to his numerous ministerial engagements, he took a leading part in all the educational, temperance, and philanthropic movements of his country. He edited the autobiography of the Rev. James Griffiths, of St. David's. (Llanelly : Rees and Williams, 1860.) (Congreg. Year Book, 1887 ; Cardiff Catalogue). Evans, Stephen, 1818-1905, a patriotic Welshman, was born near Cardigan, and went to London at an early age, where he established and maintained for many years a prosperous business as a warehouseman. In the fifties he came under the influence of Sir Hugh Owen, and for fully half a oentury he took a very active part in the promotion of educational and other movements for the advance ment of his native country. He was a pioneer and a most liberal supporter of the University at Aberystwyth, for which he laboured assiduously and consistently to the end of his days. An ardent Eisteddfodwr, he gave every support to the national institution throughout his life. Of Welsh music he was a devoted admirer, and Welsh artists and composers found in him a constant and a generous friend. In 1873, when the Cymmrodorion Society was revived, he was elected chairman of the Council, a position to which he was re-elected every year, and which he occupied with dignity to the day of his death. In connection with the various Welsh denominations in London he rendered inestimable service. He was held in the greatest respect and veneration as a generous-hearted man and a true patriot. (North Wales Observer & Express.) Evans, Theophilus, 1694-1767, a clergyman and author, was a native of Penywenallt, Cardiganshire. He was ordained priest in

EMINENT WELSHMEN 1719, and after several preferments he received the living of St. David's in Llanfaes, which he held until his death. It was Mr. Evans who discovered, in 1732, the medicinal virtues of the Llanwrtyd springs, being himself cured of what he describes as "a radicated scurvy of many years' continuance, and very near a leprosy." He contributed an interesting article on the subject to the St. James' Chronicle. He is the author of " Drych y Prif Oesoedd " (A Mirror of the Primitive Ages), which has been much read and admired, and of which several editions have appeared. In 1752, he published, in English, " A History of Modern Enthusiasm," in which he treats sectaries of all descriptions with great severity, but quotes their own authors, and instances their own leaders for what he conceives to be their most objectionable principles. (Jones' History of Brecknock shire.) See Enwog. O. ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry ; Hanes Lien. G. ; Enwog. y Ffydd, vol. 2 ; The Spas of Wales ; Pryse's Handbook to the Radnorshire and Breconshire Mineral Springs ; Revue Celtique, vol. 1, pp. 379 and 394 ; Y Diwygiwr, November, 1906. Evans, Thomas, 1739-1803, a self-made man, was born in Wales, and began life in London as a bookseller's porter. By industry and perseverance he became the publisher of the " Morning Chronicle," as well as the " London Packet," in which was printed the objection able letter reflecting on Goldsmith and Miss Horneck, " the Jessamy bride." Goldsmith went to chastise Evans in his shop in Paternoster Row, as the person responsible for the article, and got the worst of the encounter. Goldsmith was summoned for assault, but settled the matter by paying £50 to a Welsh charity. Evans afterwards took over the extensive business of Messrs. Hawes, Clarke, and Collins, of 32, Paternoster Row. He retired some years before his death. He was separated from his wife owing to her affection for a wilful son, and left the bulk of his large fortune to an old friend. His only son married in 1790, was in business for himself, deserted his family, went to America, came back, and died in poverty eighteen months before the death of his father. He published several books relating to Wales, among them Caradoc's "History of Wales" (1774); "A Gentleman's Tour through Monmouthshire " (1774) ; and " The Worthies of Wales " (1775). (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Llyfr. y Cymry ; Bye-Gones, 1874, p. 145.) See Gent. Mag., 1803, p. 696 ; Boswell's Life of Johnson, G. B. Hill, vol. 2, p. 209; J. Forster's Life of Goldsmith, 1854, vol. 2, p. 384 ; Andrews' Hist, of British Journalism, 1859. Evans, Thomas, 1762-1829, was born at Welshpool, where he became the heir to a small property. He, with his wife (formerly Grace Sugden), and six others, were the founders of Independency or Congregationalism at Welshpool, having, on the 19th December, 1794, formed themselves " into a church on the Independent plan." He was a man of very exemplary piety, and a friend and correspondent of De Courcy, Sir Richard Hill, Huntingdon, and others of the Evan gelical clergy and laity of those days. His latter years he spent at Oswestry, where he died, being buried at Welshpool. (Mont. Worthies.)

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Evans, Thomas, about 1760-1819, a musician, was a native of Carmarthenshire, and attained considerable popularity as a harpist. He was the author of the popular air, " Y Ferch o'r Seer " (B. Cerddorion Cymreig.) Evans, Thomas, 1764-1833, "Tomos Glyn Cothi," Unitarian minister, poet and author, was born in the parish of LlanfihangelRhosycorn, Carmarthenshire. His early education was very limited, but his desire for knowledge was intense. At an early age he joined the Unitarians. In 1797 he was charged with high treason, on account of an English song he is said to have composed. He denied the charge, but was convicted, and sentenced to two year's imprisonment. While in prison, he prepared an English-Welsh Dictionary (460 pp.) which was published in 1809. In 1793 he published what was probably a translation of Priestley's "Triumph of Truth," being an account of the Trial of Elwall for publishing a book in defence of the Unity of God. In 1795 he issued the first number of a Welsh quarterly magazine, "The Miscellaneous Repository," but it was discontinued after the appearance of the third number. In 1811 he issued a hymn-book, containing 100 hymns, all original, for Unitarian congregations, a second edition appearing in 1822. He became minister of the Old Meeting House, Aberdare, in 1811, not 1813 as generally stated ; the church cash book is conclusive on this point. Mr. Evans was the author of the first Unitarian sermon ever published in Welsh. (Enwog. C. ; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Hanes Lien. 6.; Diet. Nat. Biog.; Memoir in " Gardd Aberdar" being the Eisteddfod Transactions of 1853. Evans, Captain Thomas, R.N., 1791-1853, a distinguished naval officer, was the third son of Dr. Evans, Llwynygroes (John Evans, 1756-1846, see ante). He entered the Navy, and saw much active service. From September, 1809, until 1811, he was employed under Sir John P. Beresford in the "Theseus" and "Poictiers" (70 guns), and in the yacht " Royal Sovereign," along the Portugese coast, where he found an opportunity of distinguishing himself in the boats of the " Poictiers " upon their being sent up the Tagus to harass the French lines. In August, 1815, he was placed on half-pay, and was not afterwards employed on active service. Some years later, he received the honorary rank of Captain. (Mont. Worthies.) Evans, Thomas, 1840-1865, "Telynog," a poet, was a son of a ship-carpenter, and was born at Cardigan. His early education was very rudimentary, and at the age of 11 he was apprenticed on a small trading vessel. His treatment was so bad that he determined to run away, and went to Aberdare, where he found employment in a coal mine. He devoted his leisure hours to music, and attracted public attention as a singer. Soon afterwards he commenced to compete at the local eisteddfodau, and won no fewer than 20 prizes. All this time he worked as a collier. His last six years were spent constantly struggling with ill-health. His poems were characterised by pathos and pleasantry, and had a charm that always touched his countrymen. His poetical works were collected and arranged by Dafydd Morganwg,

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and published in 1866, with a brief memoir from the pen of Mr. Howel Williams. A third edition appeared in 1886 (Cwmavon : LI. Griffiths.) (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Cardiff Catalogue.) Evans, Thomas, 1843-1900, a Congregational minister, was born at Welshpool, from which place his parents moved to Newtown, where his early manhood was spent. He was educated as a school master, in which profession he served at Aberhosan. In 1873 he was ordained pastor of the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church at Welsh pool. In 1876 he moved to Hope Chapel, Merthyr, where he laboured for eight years. He then became minister of the Congrega tional Chapel, Lancaster Road, Preston, and in 1886 took charge of Victoria Park Church, London. Here he ministered for 10 years in one of the largest chapels in the metropolis. The last four years of his life were spent as pastor of East Cliff, Bournemouth. As a lecturer his services were in great demand throughout the United Kingdom ; England and Scotland appreciated his unique gifts. (Congreg. Year Book, 1902.) Evans, Thomas David, 1844-1903, an architect, was a native of Wales, and emigrated to America in 1856. He served through the war of rebellion, and afterwards studied architecture, commencing business on his own account in 1871. He was very successful in Ms profession, and stood high with his associates. He served as president of the Pittsburg chapter of the American Institute of Architecture, and was many times a delegate to its national conven tions. Among the buildings he designed, were the Lewis' Block,—the first of its kind in Pittsburg,—the Hamilton building and the Solomon stores. He paid special attention to Gothic architecture, erecting churches at Johnstown, Braddock, McKeesport, and other towns. The great plant of the Carborandum Company at Niagara Falls was built from his designs, and he erected several glass factories in Pittsburg and Indiana. (The Cambrian.) Evans, Thomas Penry, 1838-1888, a Congregational minister and lecturer, was born in the neighbourhood of Panteg, Carmarthen shire. After attending for some time a neighbouring school, he entered the service of a farmer. In 1856 he decided to leave his native place for Glamorganshire, and obtained employment at the Ystalyfera ironworks, Swansea Valley. In 1859 he joined the Gurnos Congregational Church, where he proved himself to be possessed of rare gifts as a speaker, being a favourite reciter, always eagerly listened to, and highly appreciated. In 1865 he was admitted to Carmarthen College, and afterwards accepted a call to the pastorate of Dock Chapel, Llanelly, where he laboured with much success for two years. He then removed to New Quay, Cardiganshire, and in 1882 became pastor at Pontardulais, Carmarthenshire. He rapidly became the most renowned lecturer in the Welsh Congregational denomination, and, it has been said, the most popular lecturer in any denomination in the Principality. He was by common consent one of the most unique and gifted of the many preachers who have made the pulpit such a power in Wales. (Congreg. Tear Book, 1889.)

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Evans, Thomas Rhys, 1852-1892, a Congregational minister and author, was of Welsh origin, though he was born in Elleemere, Salop. His father, the Rev. B. W. Evans, who was then pastor of the Congregational Chnrch in that town, removed, when his son was five years old, to Yelvertoft, near Rugby. In 1869, Mr. T. R. Evans entered Cheshunt College, and in 1874 he accepted the pastorate at Brighton, previously held by the Rev. E. Paxton Hood. The conditions of the work here were very difficult, and there had been an inharmonious past to overcome, but he set himself steadily to the task. No man ever cared or sought less for popularity, and none more surely won it. Once known and heard, it was admitted that Brighton contained no man more interesting and more richly endowed. His acquaintance with literature was altogether exceptional. Familiar with the original of many of the Greek and Latin masterpieces, passionately fond of all that was highest in English poetry and prose ; he also delighted in exploring less frequented paths. He acquired Danish and Norwegian, translated Martensen's profound book upon the mystic Jacob Boehme, and also Ibsen's plays. But the literary love of his life was Dante. He acquired Italian in order to read the original, and spent years in collecting material for what, had he been spared to write it, would have been a work that would have enriched our literature. He published " A History of the Council of Trent," and for years many of the ablest articles in the Literary World were from his pen. (Gongreg. Tear Book, 1893.) Evans, Thomas Simpson, 1777-1818, a mathematician, was the eldest son of the Rev. Lewis Evans (1755-1827, see ante). In or about 1797 he appears to have taken charge of a private observatory at Blackheath, belonging to William Larkins, formerly accountant-general to the East India Company at Bengal. After the death of Larkins, he was taken on as an assistant at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, but resigned in 1805. About the same time, he was appointed mathema tical master under his father at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. Here he continued till 1810, when he accepted the mastership of the mathematical school at New Chorlton, near Woolwich. In 1813 he became master of mathematics at Christ's Hospital, London. His attainments won for him the degree of Ll.D., and the Fellowship of the Linnean Society. He also contributed some articles to the Philosophical Magazine, among which may be mentioned, " Problems on the Reduction of Angles " (v. 28) ; " An Abridgement of the Life of Julien Le Roy, the Watchmaker, by his son " (v. 31) ; " A Short Account of the Improvements gradually made in determining the Astronomic Refraction " (v. 36), &c. His library was considered one of the most valuable collections of mathematical and philosophical works in the kingdom. (Royal Kalendars ; Foster's Alumni Oxon (1715-1886); Diet. Nat. Biog.) Evans, Thomas T., 1807-1897, a Calvinistic Methodist minister and publisher, was born at Trefeglwys, near Llanidloes, Montgomery shire, and was the only son of Thomas and Elizabeth Evans. He began to preach about 1833, and emigrated to America about 1840, settling in Oneida County, New York. He was ordained to the full

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work of the ministry in 1845 at Remsen, and took charge of the churches at Penygraig and French Road. In 1850 he removed to Floyd, and in 1870 to Holland Patent, New York. His labours in the ministry were greatly supplemented by the publication, on his own responsihility, of valuable religious books in the Welsh language, among them being the Rev. James Hughes' " Commentary on the New Testament ; " Charles' " Bible Dictionary ; " Gurnal's " Christian in Complete Armour," &c. (The Cambrian, 1895, p. 130.) See Cymru, vol 21, p. 67. Eyans, Thomas Williams, 1823 -1897, a distinguished dentist, was born at Philadelphia, of Welsh parents. He studied dentistry, and became one of the most skilful of American dental surgeons, being afterwards appointed court dentist to Napoleon III. He dwelt in Paris for the remainder of his life, and worked for members of all the royal houses of Europe, being loaded with gifts and decorations, and gaining a fortune of several millions of dollars. He became known as an expert in military sanitation, and was the founder of the Red Cross Society. On the night of the revolution of the Parisian people, September 4, 1870, the Empress Eugenie sought shelter at his house, and was taken by him to the coast, whence she escaped to England. He had a long and intimate relationship with Napoleon III. and his family, and was brought into connection with many of the chief European figures from 1848 to 1870. He left "Memoirs" in two parts—a sketch (made in 1884) of the political and military situation before the Franco-German War, with a full account of the escape of the Empress Eugenie from Paris ; and an autobiographical record, written the year before his death. He died in 1897, leaving nearly the whole of his great fortune to found a museum and dental institute in Philadelphia. (Lippincott ; Private Information). See The Memoirs of Dr. Thomas W. Evans, edited by E. A. Crane, M.D. Evans, William, -1720, a Presbyterian divine, was born and educated in Carmarthenshire. Little is known of his early history, and the date of his birth is uncertain. He entered the ministry, and settled at Pencader, in his native county, in 1688, remaining there until 1703, when he became pastor of the Presbyterian cause at Carmarthen. He there received into his house students for the ministry, and he has been regarded as the founder of the Welsh Academy in that town, from the fact that the education of divinity students first assumed under him a collegiate form. He was a man of superior attainments as scholar and divine. In 1707 he published a Welsh translation of "The Principles of the Christian Religion," of which at least two subsequent editions appeared. He is believed by some to have been the author of a small, but useful Welsh and English Dictionary, which was published 51 years after his death, but this was probably the work of another person of the same name (see next sketch). In 1714 he wrote a preface for "Gemau Doethineb" (Gems of Wisdom), a very interesting work by his old tutor, R. Prytherch ; and in 1717 he wrote a long preface to the Welsh translation by Iago ab Dewi of Matthew Henry's "Catechism." (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Hones Lien. G.; Rees' Hist, of Carmarthen College ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry.

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Evans, William, -about 1776, a lexicographer, was educated at Carmarthen College, under Dr. Jenkins, 1767-72. He was probably born in Carmarthenshire. His chief claim to notice is based on his English- Welsh Dictionary, compiled while he was a student, and published in 1771. A second edition appeared in 1812. The Rev. Dr. D. Silvan Evans describes it as a very respectable work. He was for some years pastor of the Presbyterian congregation at Sherborne, but removed owing to declining health, to take charge of a congregation at Moreton-Hampstead, Devonshire, in 1776, but was only able to retain it a few weeks, and probably died shortly after. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Christian Reformer, 1833, p. 552 ; 1847, p. 631 ; Tr Ymo/ynydd, 1888. Evans, William, 1779-1854, a Wesleyan minister and author, was a native of Bangor, and served for some time as home missionary at Cardiff. He edited the connexional magazine, " Yr Eurgrawn " for some time, and in 1850 published a biography of the Rev. E. Jones, Bathafarn (Machynlleth : A. Evans). He also wrote a book on the Arminian controversy, entitled " Ymddiffynwr y Gwir : neu Eglnr Olygiad ar Athrawiaeth y Calfiniaid a'r Arminiaid ; ynghyd a Sylwadan Cyffredinol ar Lyfr J. Roberts, Llanbrynmair " (Dolgelly : R. Jones, 1822). (Enwog. C. ; Cardiff Catalogue.) Evans, William, 1798-1877, water-colour painter, born at Eton, was the son of Samuel Evans, a landscape painter (see ante). In 1818 he was appointed drawing master at Eton College, in succes sion to his father. He had originally studied medicine, but eventually turned to art, and became a pupil of William Collins, R.A. He was elected an Associate of the old Society of Painters in Water Colours in 1828, and exhibited drawings of Windsor, Eton, Thames Fishermen, &c. In 1830 ho was elected a member of the society. His work was not marked by originality, but it shewed much vigour and brilliance. He continued to teach drawing at Eton until 1837, when he deter mined to remove to London. In 1840 he was induced to take charge of the Boarding School in connection with Eton College, where he was the means of introducing several important reforms. He died at Eton, and was succeeded in the post of drawing-master to the school by his son, Samuel T. G. Evans (also a member of the Society of Painters in Water-Colours), and in the management of the boardinghouse by his daughter, Miss Jane Evans. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Redgrave's Diet. of Artists ; Ottley's Diet. of Recent and Living Painters ; Art. Journal, 1878, p. 76. Evans, William, 1811-1858, landscape painter, usually known as " Evans, of Bristol," in order to distinguish him from William Evans, the water-colour painter, of Eton, was an associate member of the old Society of Painters in Water-Colours, and a native of North Wales. He visited Rome and Naples in 1852, and his later work was influenced by the Italian School. He made himself a home for many years in the centre of beautiful mountain scenery at a farm called Tynycae, near Conway. Here he was able to cultivate a natural impulse for originality and grandeur in the constant contemplation of

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Nature in some of its wildest forms, and he produced some fine works, the best known being a painting of " Traeth Mawr." There is a fine water-colonr drawing by him in the print room at the British Museum. (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Harmsworth.) See Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Ottley's Diet, of Recent and Living Painters ; Bryan's Diet, of Painters and Engravers, ed. R. E. Graves; Gent. Magazine, 1859, p. 105. Evans, William Edward, 1801-1869, youngest son of a Welsh medical man, John Evans, M.D. (1756-1846, see ante), was born at the Council House, Shrewsbury, and educated at the Grammar School there, when it was under the distinguished mastership of Dr. Butler. He proceeded thence to Clare College, Cambridge, and having chosen the Church for his profession, he was ordained to the ministry, and served for some time as curate of Llanymynech, in his native county. Subsequently, he went to Criggion, Montgomeryshire, and Monkland, Herefordshire, and in each of these places he did good service to the Church. When at Monkland, he was made precentor of Hereford, and soon afterwards vicar of Madley-with-Tiberton, in that county, and 1860 or 1861, Canon Residentiary of Hereford Cathedral. His name will be known to the reading public, as the author of " Songs of the Birds " ; " Sermons on Genesis," and " Family Prayers." (Border Counties Worthies). See Athenaeum, 19th July, 1845 ; board's Graduatiae Cantab., p. 170 ; Diet. Nat. Biog. Everest, Sir George, 1790-1866, a military engineer and geographer, was born at Gwernvale, Breconshire. He was sent to India in 1806 as a cadet in the army, was chiefly employed in surveys and engineering works, and was surveyor-general of India, from 1830 to 1843. He wrote important professional papers and reports, including an "Account of the Measurement of Two sections of Meridional Arc of India " (1847) ; and gave his name to Mount Everest, in the Himalayas. (Lippincott; Harmsworth.) See Proceedings of the Royal Society, v. 16, 1868 ; Monthly Notices of Astronomical Society, v. 27, 1867, p. 105 ; Journal of Geographical Society, v. 37, 1867, p. 115 ; Annual Report of Royal Asiatic Society, v. 3, 1867, p. 16 ; Stubbs' Hist, of Bengal Artillery, v. 2, 1877, p. 251 ; Catalogue of Scientific Papers, vol. 2, 1868, p. 531. Everett, Robert, 1791-1875, a Congregational minister, was born at Gronant, in the parish of Llanasa, Flintshire, his father being a lay preacher. In 1808 he joined the Congregationalists at New market, in his native county, and in the following year began to preach. He subsequently received a short course of training at the Denbigh Grammar School, and the Wrexham Academy. He then became pastor at Denbigh, and eight years later crossed to America. He spent nine years as pastor in Utica, removing in 1838 to Steuben, where he remained for the rest of his life. For many years he was the editor and publisher of the Welsh Congregational organ, " Y Cenhadwr " ( The Missionary). In 1830 he founded the first temperance society among the Welsh in Utica, and a powerful letter from his pen, which appeared in T Dysgedydd for 1834, gave an

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impetus to a similar movement in Wales. He took a prominent part in the anti-slavery campaign, and in conjunction with the Rev. Morris Roberts, published, in 1846, an excellent collection of hymns, under the title of " Caniadaeth y Cysegr." In 1861 he received the degree of D.D. from Hamilton College, New York. (Cymru, v. 20, p. 281 ; Welshmen as Factors ; his Welsh Biography by David Davies, " Dewi Emlyn," 1879.) Fenton, Richard, 1746-1821, an author, was born at St. David's, Pembrokeshire, and received his early education at the Cathedral School. He subsequently entered the Middle Temple, and there studied for the legal profession. During his stay in the Metropolis he met Dr. Johnson, and was on intimate terms with Goldsmith and David Garrick. He was a good Greek, Latin, and French scholar, and his " Historical Tour through Pembrokeshire " is a work of great merit, and contains much interesting information. He also wrote " A Tour in Quest of Genealogy," 1811 ; " The Memoirs of an Old Wig " ; and a very caustic reply to the strictures of Dr. Burgess, bishop of St. David's, on his " Historical Tour." An " Index to the Historical Tour," compiled by Henry Owen, was published in 1894. He is described by one who knew him as "a man of indefatigable industry, of a fine poetical fancy, of a very cheerful disposition, of particularly gentlemanly and fascinating manners, and a person of the best information, almost on every subject, he ever knew." He was buried at Manorowen, near Fishguard. (Diet. Em. W. ; Cardiff Catalogue. ) See Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Biographical Sketches of the most Eminent Individuals Wales has produced, p. 11 ; Biog. Diet, of Living Authors, p. 114 ; Evans' Catalogue of Engraved Portraits, No. 3,827 ; Qent. Mag. xci.. Part II., p. 644, new set, 37, p. 218 ; Lowndes' Bibl. Man. (Bohn), p. 790 ; Notes and Queries—first series, v. 8, p. 198 ; third series, v. 2, p. 331 ; sixth series, v. 5, pp. 279, 339. Ffoulkes, Edmund Salusbury, 1819-1894, a clergyman and author, was the third son of Col. Ffoulkes, of Eriviatt Hall, near Denbigh. He was educated at Shrewsbury School, and matricu lated at Jesus College, Oxford, of which his uncle, Dr. Ffoulkes, was then principal. He took a second class in the Final Classical Schools in 1841, and subsequently became Fellow, Tutor, and Junior Bursar of his College. In 1855 he joined the Church of Rome, and remained in the communion of that Church for 15 years. Becoming dissatisfied with his position, he applied to his old diocesan, Bishop Wilberforce, to be reinstated as a clergyman of the Church of England, and his request was granted. In 1876 his college presented him to the rectory of Wigginton, near Banbury, and in 1878 he became vicar of the Church of St. Mary the Virgin, Oxford—the University Church. He was the author of many works :—" Christendom's Divisions ; " " The Church's Creed or the Crown's Creed ?" ; " Difficulties of the Day ; " " Sermons on the New Criticism," and "The Primitive Consecration of the Eucharistic Oblation." His last work was " The History of St. Mary the Virgin," on which he spent several years. For a long time he was

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one of the Divinity lecturers to the non-collegiate students, a body in whom he took deep interest. (Bye-Gones, 1894, p. 324.) FfOUlkes, Henry Powell, 1815-1886, a clergyman and author, was the second son of Mr. John Powell Ffoulkes, of Eriviatt, near Denbigh. He was educated at King's College, Chester, Shrewsbury School, and Balliol College, Oxford, where in 1840 he graduated M.A.. Soon after leaving Oxford he applied himself to the study of the Welsh language under the Rev. J. Williams (Ab Ithel). In 1839 he was licensed to the curacy of Halkyn, Flintshire, afterwards removing to Buckley, in the same county. He did excellent work in this district, both as an earnest parish priest, and in making the services of the Church more attractive to the parishioners. In 1857 he was preferred to the rectory of Llandyssil, where he remained for 22 years. In 1861 he was appointed archdeacon of Montgomery, and canon residentiary of St. Asaph. In 1879 he was appointed rector of Whittington, where he remained till his death. He was the author of several publications for the use of Sunday Schools. He was looked upon in Convocation as the chief representative of Wales, and at the Church Congress held at Leeds, in 1872, he read a paper on " The Church in Wales," which excited a good deal of attention. (Bye-Gones, 1886, p. 10.) Ffoulkes, William Wynne, 1821-1903, a lawyer, was the fourth and youngest son of Colonel John Powell Ffoulkes, of Eriviatt, near Denbigh, and a brother of Archdeacon Henry Powell Ffoulkes (1815-1886, see ante). He was educated at Shrewsbury School, whence he went to Jesus College, Oxford. He took his B.A. degree in 1844, and his M.A. in 1847. He entered Lincoln's Inn, and was called to the Bar in 1847. He soon proved himself an able lawyer, and had a good practice. He was nominated revising barrister for the North Wales Circuit in 1868, and was a Commissioner of Escheat for Chester and North Wales from 1872 to 1874. In the following year he was appointed County Court Judge of Circuit No. 7, comprising Birkenhead, Warrington, Runcorn, Ac. After twenty-four years on the Bench, he retired in 1899, and was succeeded by Mr. W. Bowen Rowlands, K.C. (Bye-Qones, 1903, p. 137.) Fiske, John, 1842-1901, an American historian and philosopher, who was of Welsh blood on the maternal side, was born at Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.A. He graduated at Harvard College in 1863, and at the Dane Law School in 1865. From 1869 to 1871 he lectured at Harvard on philosophy, and in 1870 on history, and was assistant librarian there from 1872 to 1879. His " Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy " (1874), a masterly exposition of the Speneerian system, immediately attracted notice on both sides of the Atlantic This work was followed by "The Unseen World" (1876); "Darwinism and other Essays" (1879); "Excursions of an Evolutionist" (1883); "The Destiny of Man" (1884); "The Idea of God" (1885); and "Origin of Evil" (1899). For the last 20 years of his life Fiske devoted himself almost entirely to American history, and his works in that department include " American Political Ideas " (1885) ; " The Critical Period of American History " (1888) ; " The American

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Revolution" (1891); "The Discovery of America" (1892); "Old Virginia and Her Neighbours " (1897) ; " Dutch and Quaker fiolonies " (1899); and "New France and New England" (1903). Fiske was also a charming essayist, lucid, suggestive, and penetrating. His essays, in two volumes, appeared in 1903. (Welshmen as Factors,
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biography of Daniel Owen, the novelist. He contributed largely to the compilation of biographies known as " Enwogion Cymru," which he published in 1870. His " Life of Ceiriog Hughes," is in some respects one of the most felicitous biographies in the Welsh language. He was an ardent Eisteddfodwr, and frequently acted as adjudicator. It is to him that Wales is indebted for cheap editions of several Welsh poets, and reprints of many scarce books, including the " Mabinogion." He also penned " Cymru Fu," an excellent collection of the traditional tales of the Principality ; " Rheinallt ab Gruffydd," a Welsh romance of considerable merit ; and other popular works. In 1891 he started Y Gymro, as a Welsh literary newspaper, and enriched its pages with some of his best work. (Manchester Guardian ; Y Cymrodor). See Y Geninen, 1905. p. 31 ; Ibid, Mch., 1905, pp. 6-39 ; Cymru, v. 28, p. 237). Foulkes, Peter, 1676-1747, a clergyman and author, was the third son of Robert Foulkes, of Llechryd, Denbighshire, and received his early education at Westminster School. In 1694 he proceeded to Oxford College, where he graduated M.A. in 1701, and D.D. in 1710. In 1724 he was made canon of Christ Church, and having married a daughter of the Bishop of Exeter, he was, in 1730, promoted to a prebend in that cathedral, and to other livings in the diocese. While an under graduate he published, in conjunction with John Freind, an edition of " Aeachinea against Ctesiphon and Demosthenes on the Crown," with a Latin translation (Oxford, 1696). He also published a number of Latin poems, and " A Sermon preached in the Cathedral Church of Exeter, January 30th, 1723, being the day of the martyrdom of King Charles I." (Exeter, 1723). (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Bye-Gones, 1874, p. 151). See Gent. Mag., v. 9, p. 46 ; Johnson's Lives of the Poets. Francis, Benjamin, 1734-1799, a Baptist minister and poet, was a son of the Rev. Enoch Francis, pastor of the Baptist church at Newcastle Emlyn, Carmarthenshire (1689-1740, see post). He began to preach when he was 19 years of age, and at the close of his course at college he was, in 1758, ordained minister of the Baptist cause at Horaley, Gloucestershire. In 1774 he published a collection of 104 hymns of his own composition, a second collection of 94 hymns following in 1786. Some of these became very popular, and a few have been included in modern hymn books. He is the author of the hymn commencing " 0 Arglwydd Dduw I bywha dy waith, Dros holl derfynau'r ddaear faith," but in most collections the name of the author is not given. He also wrote several poems. (Hanes Lien. G.) See Y Traethodydd, 1877, p. 172 ; Yr Adolygydd, v. 2, p. 340 ; Sweet Singers of Wales. Francis, Enoch, 1689-1740, a Baptist minister and author, was born in the Vale of Teifi, and in his nineteenth year was invited to preach. Soon afterwards he became assistant to his aged pastor, the Rev. John James, of Newcastle Emlyn, and after his death was appointed his successor. He soon distinguished himself as a most devoted and able minister of the gospel. In 1729 he published, by

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request, a notable sermon which he bad delivered at Llangloffsin, Pembrokeshire, and four years later appeared his " Gair yn ei Bryd " (A Word in Season), a volume of 214pp., dealing with the theological discussions then prevalent on the subject of Predestination. The work was well received, for a second edition was called for in 1746. In 1766, a third edition was advertised by Stafford Prys, Shrewsbury, but whether it made its appearance or not is uncertain. (if«s' History ; Hanes Lien. G.) See Enwog. y Ffydd, v. 2 ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry ; Y Traethidydd, 1886, p. 272; Thomas' Hist. Baptist Association ; Thomas' Hanes y Bedyddwyr. Francis, John M., 1823, an American ambassador, was the son of Richard Francis, of Llys-y-fran, near Haverfordwest, Pembroke shire, and was born at Prattsburg, Steuben County, New York, to which place his father had emigrated. He commenced life as a printer, and afterwards became editor of the Rochester Daily Advertiser. He subsequently became proprietor of the Troy Times, one of the most influential daily papers in Central New York. He was a member of the State Constitutional Convention of 1868-9, and took a leading part in the deliberations of that body. In 1871 General Grant appointed him minister to Greece, where he served for three years. It was the intention of President Garfield to nominate him minister to Brussels, but this was not realised owing to the President's untimely death. President Arthur, however, sent him as minister to Portugal. In 1882 he was promoted to be Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten tiary to Austro-Hungary, where he remained until he was relieved by his Democratic successor. Industry, conscientiousness, and absolute fidelity to duty were conspicuous traits in his character, and great success crowned all his efforts. (The Cambrian, 1894, p. 259). Frere, Sir Henry Edward Bartle, 1815-1884, British representative in South Africa, was the fifth son of Mr. Edward Frere, by Mary Ann, his wife, of Llanelly, Brecknockshire, and nephew of the well-known scholar, wit and diplomatist, the Right. Hon. John Hookam Frere, M.P. He was bom at Ty Mawr, in the Vale of Clydach, and educated at King Edward's Grammar School, Bath, and afterwards at Hailebury College, where he gained many prizes, and went as a cadet to India, with a high reputation already gained, in 1834. Being selected for the Bombay Presidency, and having held a variety of inferior posts, in 1846 he was appointed Resident at Sattara, and held the post of Chief Commissioner in Sindh from 1850 to 1859 ; in the latter year he was sworn a member of the Council of the Governor-General of Calcutta. In the following year, he acted as President of the Council during the absence of the Governor-General. From 1862 to 1866, he was Governor of Bombay. His mastery of Indian vernaculars, and his intimate knowledge of native character, made him an authority on all questions of Indian administration. From 1877 to 1881 he was governor of the Cape, and first high commissioner of South Africa. He was nominated a K.C.B., Civil division, in 1859, and was sworn a member of Her Majesty's Privy Council in 1873. (Poole's Brecknockshire ; Harmsworth). See Life by Martineau, 1895.

Archdeacon John , Griffiths.

Rev. John iGritfith, ISI8-I880.

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Gaius, see Jones, David Harvard. GaiUs, see Morgan, David Griffith. Gambold, John, 1711-1771, a scholar and divine, was the son of the Rev. William Gambold, rector of Puncheston, near Haverfordwest (see post). He took his degree of M.A. at Oxford in 1734, and abont five years later he was presented to the vicarage of Stanton Harcourt in Oxfordshire. In 1742, he resigned his living, having embraced the tenets of the Moravian school. He thereupon returned to Wales, where he kept a school, and preached occasionally, but in 1744 he removed to London, and preached in Fetter Lane. In 1754 he was chosen a bishop of the Church of the United Brethren. He was an excellent scholar, and was frequently employed by the celebrated Mr. Bowyer to correct proofs for the press. He was the editor of a neat edition of the Greek Testament. His writings consist of poems, sermons, and smaller theological pieces, which were published in one volume, the best edition being from the Glasgow press, with an essay by Erskine, in 1822. He was also the editor and translator of Crantz' "History of Greenland," 2 vols., 8vo., 1767. (Diet. Em. W. ; Imp. Diet. Biog.) See Nicholls' Anecdotes of W. Bowyer, 1782 ; Tyerman's Oxford Methodists, 1873 ; Gambold'* Works ; Malkins' South Wales, t. 2, p. 295. Gambold, William, 1672-1728, a clergyman and author, was born in the town of Cardigan, and received a classical education, which was completed at Oxford. He entered holy orders, and was presented to the rectory of Puncheston, in Pembrokeshire, where his pious character made him highly esteemed. Being disabled from clerical duty, he devoted the latter years of his life to the compilation of an English and Welsh Dictionary, but he was not able to obtain funds to print it, and he left it behind him in manuscript. He had applied himself closely to the preparation of this work for 15 years, perusing for that purpose all the Welsh books and MSS. he could meet with. In 1727, he published a very useful Grammar of the Welsh Language in English. Subsequent editions of this work were published in 1817, 1833, and 1843. A letter from him to his son (the Rev. John Gambold, see ante) is printed in the preface to the first edition of Walters' English and Welsh Dictionary, 1794. (Diet. Em. W.; Cardiff Catalogue.) Games, Stephen, 1779-1814, one of the earliest Wesleyan ministers in Wales, was a native of Breconshire, and was a descendant of Sir David Gam, one of the heroes of the battle of Agincourt. He joined the Wesleyans at Carmarthen in 1799, and began to preach in 1802. He spent the latter part of his life at Denbigh and Ruthin, where he rendered excellent service. (Enwog. C.) Garmonydd, see Jones, Humphrey B. Gee, Robert, 1820-1891, a physician, was a native of Denbigh, and a brother of Thomas Gee (1815-1898, see post). He studied in the colleges devoted to medical science in various towns on the Continent, chiefly in Germany. He settled in Liverpool about 1850, and speedily built up a large and lucrative private practice, which, as

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old age came on him, he relinquished in a great measure, contenting himself with acting in a consultative capacity. For many years he was the medical adviser of many of the oldest-established and wealthiest families in Liverpool and the suburbs. He was a generally recognised authority on medical jurisprudence, and a specialist in fever, his services being oftentimes requisitioned when any serious outbreaks of that disease took place. During his long, useful and honourable career, his sympathies were always with the poor and afflicted, to whom he generously gave advice and pecuniary assistance. He was the prime mover in the establishment of a fever hospital at Netherfield House, Liverpool, with which he was officially connected for many years. (Bye-Gones, 1891, p. 4.) Gee, Thomas, 1815-1898, the well-known publisher, and a most prominent public man, was a native of Denbigh, where he resided throughout his long career. He succeeded to the business of printer and publisher which had been established by his father. His whole career is a record of pluck, energy, and indomitable persever ance. His Welsh newspaper, the Baner, has always been in the front of every movement affecting Wales, and by his enterprise as a publisher he rendered yeoman service to the literature of his country. The valuable works issued by him form quite a long catalogue ; chief among them is the Welsh Encyclopaedia, a work which is said to have entailed an expenditure upon its production of £20,000. The battle for religious equality found in Mr. Gee one of its most undaunted champions. He also rendered noble service to the cause of Welsh education. He was essentially a leader of men, largely impressing every movement in which he took part with his own distinctive personality. ( Young Wales, 1898.) See Cymru, v. 20, p. 207 ; Ibid, v. 16, p. 165 et seq.; Y Traethodydd, 1899, p. 36 ; Y Geninen, 1901, p. 108 ; Ibid, 1902, p. 109, and March, p. 43 ; Ibid, March, 1899, p. 7 ; Young Wales, 1895, p. 211 ; Ibid, 1896, p. 38 ; Y Geninen, 1899, pp. 150, 292. George Eliot, see Evans, Mary Anne. Gibbs, Marmaduke, about 1640-1701, a lawyer, was a native of Neath, Glamorganshire. He was called to the bar in 1673, and was second justice of the Carmarthen circuit from 1689 until his death in November, 1701. (The Welsh Judges). Gibson, John, 1790-1866, the sculptor, was the son of a landscape gardener, and was born near Conway. When nine years of age he removed with his parents to Liverpool, where he was apprenticed to a cabinet-maker. He afterwards entered the employ of a carver in wood, and some of his carvings having attracted the attention of a marble mason, he was induced to proceed to London, and from thence to Rome, to study sculpture. He entered the studio of the great Canova, where his progress was rapid. After Canova's death, although himself already a master, Gibson studied for a time under Thorwaldsen, thus becoming successively the pupil of the two greatest sculptors respectively of the south and the north of Europe ; but forming ultimately for himself a style independent of either. He devoted himself almost exclusively to

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the production of poetic subjects, chiefly taken from the mythology of Greece and Rome. He also executed a few portrait statues, but only for special positions, the chief being the colossal seated statue of Queen Victoria, supported by Justice and Mercy, which is placed in the prince's chamber at Westminster ; another statue of Her Majesty, in Buckingham Palace ; a marble statue of Huskisson, for the cemetery, Liverpool ; and of Sir Robert Peel, for Westminster Abbey. He was admittedly the chief of British sculptors of his day. Everything he did shows refined taste, a thorough knowledge of the specific style, and entire mastery of the technics of his art. He was elected A.R.A. in 1833, and R.A. in 1838. His most famous works are " The Hunter and Dog," " The Tinted Venus," " Pandora," " Mars and Cupid," and "Hero and Leander." He died and was buried at Rome. (Imp. Diet. Biog.) See Life, by Lady Eaatlake, 1870 ; Tram. Nat. Eist., Liverpool, 1884. p. 598 ; T Traethodydd, 1866 ; Redgrave's Diet.; Cymru, v. 28, p. 233 ; Young Wales, 1904, p. 26 ; Diet. Nat. Biog. Gittins, Edward, -1884, "Iorwerth Pentyrch," a poet, was born in the parish of Llanfair-Caereinion, Montgomeryshire, where he lived all his life. As may be supposed, his opportunities for mental improvement, and for indulging his literary tastes, were few and scanty, but he acquired some reputation as a Welsh poet, and secured several prizes for englynion, as well as a prize for a " Parochial His tory of Llanfair," which subsequently appeared in the " Montgomery shire Collections." The latter, especially considering the disadvantages under which it was written, is a very creditable production. (Mont. Worthies.) GiraldUs, see Griffith, Owen. Glan Alun, see Jones, Thomas. Glanaraeth, see Richards, Henry. Glan Pherath, see Hughes, Thomas. Glanffrwd, see Thomas, William. Glanmor, see Williams, John. Glanystwyth, see Hughes, John. Glasynys, see Jones, Owen Wynne. Gogrynwr, see Jones, Thomas. Golden Rule Jones, see Jones, Samuel Milton. Goleufryn, see Jones, William R. Golyddan, see Pryse, John Robert. Gomel", see Harris, Joseph. Gorfyniawc o Arfon, see Williams, John. Goronway, George, 1842-1902, a poet, known as "Shenkyn 8hadrach," who was of Welsh descent, spent the whole of his life in America. He wrote a good deal of poetry of a high order, his most popular poems being " The Battle of Manilla," " When I go back to Wales, my boys," " Tell me, Robin," and the " Rose of Love." He was

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buried at Hollenback Cemetery, where rest the remains of his compatriots, Gwilym Gwent and Lewis Anthony. (The Cambrian, 1902, p. 509). Goronwy Ddu O F6n, see Owen, Qoronwy. Gower, Sir Erasmus, Bart., 1742-1814, an illustrious seaman, was a native of Pembrokeshire, and at a very early age was appointed second captain of a ship of the line. In 1766 he was made a lieutenant, and in 1775 he was chosen by Sir George Rodney to be his first lieutenant on board the " Sandwich." He took part in several engagements, and was knighted in 1793. In November, 1794, he was appointed to the command of the " Triumph " (74 guns), which was one of the squadron under Admiral Cornwallis, when he made his celebrated retreat in the face of the French armament. On this occasion Sir Erasmus was highly commended by the admiral. In 1799 he was made rear-admiral. (Lives of Illustrious Seamen.) See Gent. Mag., 1814, vol. 84, part 2, p. 289; Diet. Nat. Biog.; Diet. Em. W. Gravell, David, 1787-1872, an essayist and hymn writer, was born near Carmarthen, and lived there during the whole of his life. He was a prominent member of the Congregational connexion, and had frequent discussions in public with the Rev. D. Rees, Llanelly, on the question of church government. In 1847 he published a collection of over 1,200 hymns, many being his own composition, under the title " Caniadau Seion." In 1859 there appeared his 4 Henafiaethau Cristionogol," a Welsh history of the Christian Church. (Hants Emyntvyr : Cardiff Catalogue.) Gray, Thomas, 1840-1906, a Calvinistic Methodist minister and author, was a native of Bangor, and was educated at Menai Bridge, Beaumaris Grammar School, and Bala Theological College. For a year (between 17 and 18 years of age), at the request of Sir Hugh Owen, he taught at the British School, Dwyran, Anglesey. He commenced preaching at the early age of nineteen while attending a grammar school kept by Mr. John Evans, M.A., at Beaumaris. A year later he entered Bala Theological College, and studied there for four years. In July, 1864, he entered upon his first pastorate of the Welsh Calvinistic Church at Welshpool. Here he laboured with great success for five years. The church doubled in membership, and a new church was built and paid for. In 1869 he left for Rhyl, and laboured there, as minister of Clwyd Street Church, from 1869 to 1876. This church also doubled in numbers during his pastorate, and a new church was erected at Foryd. In 1876 he was invited to Wrexham and Heywood Street, Manchester, and accepted the latter call. In Manchester he laboured for 14 years with much success, removing in 1890 to Parkfield, Birkenhead. For 35 years he visited various parts of the Principality on behalf of the British and Foreign Bible Society, his natural eloquence in English and Welsh making him a great favourite on the platform of the Bible Society. At the time of his death, he was moderator of the General Assembly of North and South Wales. He wrote a biography of his brother (which had a large circulation), entitled, "A Teacher in Earnest," and was a

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frequent contributor to Welsh periodicals. He also wrote an epic poem on "John Penry," and other poems on "The Bible," "The Victory of the Cross," and a number of Welsh Hymns. (Liverpool Daily Post and Mercury, 7 August, 1906 ; Y Genedl Qymreig, same date). See F Drysorfa, 1906 ; Y Geninen, Mar. 1907, p. 6. Griffith, David, 1792-1873, a Congregational minister, popularly known as " Griffith, Bethel," was born at Llanegwad, Carmarthenshire. He was educated for the ministry at Carmarthen College, and in 1814 he became assistant to the Rev. John Griffith at Carnarvon and Bethel, and was ordained a year later. He afterwards became pastor at Bethel, and became a distinguished preacher in the Principality. New churches were planted by him, and new chapels built in many directions ; his services were in constant demand in North and South Wales, and such was his fame that immense crowds flocked to hear him wherever he went. During the great revival of 1840, and again in 1859, his ministry was remarkably successful. His noble physique, his fine musical voice, together with his unaffected simplicity of manner, coupled also with his earnestness, zeal, and remarkable pathos, gave him great power over his hearers. His Biography, in Welsh, with elegies by the Rev. Wm. Rees (Gwilym Hiraethog) and D. Price (Dewi Dinorwic), edited by his sons, David Griffith and R. W. Griffith, appeared in 1879 (Carnarvon: 0. R. Owen). (Congreg. Year Book, 1874 ; Cardiff Catalogue.) Griffith, David, 1800-1894, " Clwydfardd," a poet, was born at Denbigh, his father being a watchmaker, carrying on business in that town. The son was brought up to the same trade. In 1826 he became a local preacher with the Wesleyans. He first came into prominence as a bard in 1824, when he won a silver medal at the Denbigh Eisteddfod for an ode on the Vale of Clwyd. In 1827 he secured the prize at the Ruthin Eisteddfod for the best translation of Goldsmith's " Deserted Village ; " and in August of the same year he won a prize for a poem on " Difyrwch Helwriaeth " (the Pleasures of Hunting). His subsequent successes were numerous. For many years prior to his death he acted as archdruid, and as conductor and adjudicator his services were in constant request, his ripe and impartial judgment securing for him universal respect. In 1890 he received a Treasury grant of £200 in recognition of his services to Welsh literature. In the words of Dean Howell :—" A true, patriotic, warm hearted Welshman, he merged the Christian in the bard or the druid. He maintained an exemplary tendency of Christian character to the end of a useful and estimable life of large sympathies and noble qualities." His remains were interred in Abergele churchyard. (ByeQonea, 1894, p. 478.) See F Geninen, March, 1896, pp. 7, 37 ; Ibid, 1895, p. 86 et seq. Griffith, David, 1823-1878, a Unitarian minister and author, was a native of Llandyssul, Cardiganshire. He was minister of Onen Fawr, Llandilo, 1843-49; Aberdeen, 1849-53; Wareham, 1854-58; Tavistock, 1858-66 ; and Cheltenham, 1866-78. He published several works, all in English, the most important being " The Continuity of

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Religious Development," 1867. (The Unitarian Students at the Presbyterian College, Carmarthen, 1901, p. 43 ; Vestiges of Protestant Dissent, Geo. Eyre Evans, 1897 ; Yr Ymofynydd, 1849, p. 282 ; Ibid, 1878, p. 143.) Griffith, Elizabeth, about 1720-1793, an authoress, was born in Glamorganshire. About 1752 she married Richard Griffith (about 1704-1788, see post), and, in conjunction with him, wrote the "Letters of Henry and Frances," 4 vols., which enjoyed much popularity. She also wrote several plays, and a book of more merit entitled "The Morality of Shakespeare's Dramas illustrated." Her comedy, " The Platonic Wife," adapted from the French, was played for six nights at Drury Lane Theatre in 1765. In the following year, another comedy, "A Double Mistake," was acted on 12 successive nights at Covent Garden. Her " School for Rakes " was produced with great success in February, 1769, and was reprinted in book form several times She also published two novels, " The History of Lady Barton," 1771, and " The Story of Lady Juliana Harley," 1776, and edited a collection of novels in three volumes, consisting of works by Mrs. Behn, Mrs. Aubin and Eliza Haywood, and some translations. One of her latest publica tions was " Essays to Young Married Women," 1782. Her plays are brightly written, and are considered superior in point of merit to her novels. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Baker's Biog. Dram., vol. 1, p. 301 ; Victor's History of the Theatres of London, pp. 69, 76, 137 ; Garrick's Private Correspondence ; British Museum Catalogue ; Watt's BibL Brit. ; Genest's History of the Stage, vol. 5 ; Diet. Em. W. ; Imp. Diet. Biog. Griffith, George, 1812 - 1883, an author, was a son of a native of Carmarthenshire, and was a corn merchant by trade, and resided for many years prior to his death at Bewdley. He was well known as a writer on Grammar Schools, about which he published the following : " The History of the Endowed Schools of Worcestershire " (1852) ; " The History of the Endowed Schools of Staffordshire " (I860) ; " The History of the Grammar School of King Edward VI., Shrews bury " (1860) ; " The History of the Endowed Schools, Colleges, Hospitals, and Asylums of Birmingham " (1841) ; " The History of George Wilson, a foundation scholar " (1864) ; " The Endowed Schools of England and Ireland " (1864). These works contain much statistical and other information, which will render them still more valuable in future years. He also wrote " Reminiscences of the Midland Counties," and a poem descriptive of Quatford, Bridgnorth. (ByeGones, 1883, p. 189.) Griffith, James, 1782-1858, a Congregational minister and author, was a native of Meidrym, Carmarthenshire, and completed his education at the Carmarthen Grammar School, then under the care of the Rev. Timothy Davies. In 1806 he became pastor at Machynlleth, where he laboured successfully for about seven years. In 1814 he undertook the care of the united churches of St. David's and Solva, Pembrokeshire, and in 1828 he was appointed secretary of the Pembrokeshire Missionary Society, an office which he held for nearly

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twenty years. He published a number of pamphlets and articles on the Congregational method of church government and cognate subjects, among them, " Trefn yr Eglwys dan y Testament Newydd, golwg fer ar natur yr eglwys, mewn ffordd o ymddiddan rhwng Presbuteras a Juvenis." (Carmarthen : J. Evans, 1811.) Enwog. C. ; Cardiff Catalogue. See Gongreg. Year Book, 1859. Griffith, James Milo, 1843-1897, a sculptor, was a native of Pembrokeshire, and was educated at the British School, in the parish of Llechryd, Cardiganshire. Here he shewed a taste for art, and became imbued with a strong desire to excel as a painter. But he was destined to take up the sister art of sculpture as a profession, although his sense of colour was equally as strong as that of form. When about 14 years of age he was apprenticed to Mr. Clark, the sculptor engaged upon the restoration of Llandaff Cathedral. In his nineteenth year he removed to London, and studied in the Lambeth School of Art, and the Royal Academy, where he won many prizes, including the silver medal in the Antique School, and the National medallion, the highest prize then given. He quickly rose to a leading position in his profession, and received many important commissions. His chief works are " Fine Arts," on the Holborn Viaduct ; " The Four Evangelists," in Bristol Cathedral ; the Drinking Fountain at Bridgenorth ; " Summer Flowers," at Margam Castle ; " Sheridan's Ride," exhibited at the Chicago Exhibition ; the statue of John Batchelor, in Cardiff; and of Sir Hugh Owen, in Castle Square, Carnarvon. (The Cambrian, 1894, p. 3 ; Liverpool Mercury.) See Bye-Gones, 1897, p. 200 ; Y Qeninen, Mar. 1898, p. 42. Griffith, John, about 1621-1700, a Baptist minister and author, was for some years pastor of the church at Dunning's Alley, Bishopgate Street Without, London. He was one of those who declined to take the oath of allegiance, and in consequence he spent upwards of fourteen years in different prisons for preaching the Gospel. He wrote " A Voice from the Word of the Lord to Quakers ;" '< Six Principles of the Christian Religion ;" and " A Complaint of the Oppressed." (Wilson's Dissenting Churches of London; Crosby's History of English Baptists.) Griffith, John, 1818-1885, a clergyman, a native of Aberystwyth, was educated at Ystradmeurig, Swansea, and Christ College, Cambridge, where he won classical and musical honours. He was ordained in 1843, and for some time acted as tutor in the family of Sir Stephen Olynne, Bart., Hawarden. He afterwards became vicar of Aberdare, and, finally, rector of Merthyr. As a preacher, he was a master of descriptive, and almost dramatic, excellence. His earnestness and eloquence in the pulpit ; his practical aid in the various colliery disasters ; his success for appeals to the world for aid to the poor widow, and the poorer orphan, had endeared him to all. In his early days, he paid a good deal of attention to archaeology. He was local secretary of the Cambrian Archaeological Society, and was no inapt student of the vexed controversies which occupied Celtic Davies (as he was called), Iolo Morganwg, Stephens, and Pritchard. (The Red Dragon, 1885, p. 481).

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Griffith, John, 1821-1877, popularly known as " Y Gohebydd," was born near Barmouth, Merioneth, his mother being a daughter of the Rev. John Roberts of Llanbrynmair (1767-1834, see post). Starting life as a grocer's apprentice, he removed to London, and engaged in the more congenial work of assisting Sir (then Mr.) Hugh Owen, in establishing British Schools in Wales. He was afterwards engaged by Mr. Thomas Gee (see ante) as London correspondent for the Baner, and his letters to that newspaper on current topics were the means of increasing its circulation very considerably. His literary style was direct, striking, and picturesque, and his letters abounded in shrewd common sense. He was an ardent patriot, who fearlessly exposed wrongs wherever he found them ; in politics, intensely Liberal ; in religion, a thoroughgoing Nonconformist ; a remarkably keen observer of men and manners ; and a sagacious interpreter of current events and the signs of the times. (Mont. Worthies.) See Y Geninen, 1890, p. 186 ; his Biog., Gee, Denbigh, 1906 ; Y Geninen, 1906, p. 173. Griffith, John Owen, 1828-1881, "loan Arfon," a poet, was born at Waenfawr, Carnarvonshire. He had very little schooling as a boy, for at 12 years of age he began work at the Llanberis Slate Quarries. Some years afterwards he spent about six years at a grammar school, and later on settled in business on his own account at Carnarvon, where he died. He was buried at Llandwrog, near Carnarvon, where a monument was erected to his memory in 1883. In 1865 he carried off the chair prize at the Bethesda Eisteddfod, and he also won many other prizes at Eisteddfodau in the Principality and in Australia. His principal compositions are his ode on " Adam," and " The Deluge," and his poems on " The Night ; " " Hope ; " "Home ; " " The Grave," and his " Elegy on the Death of Glasynys " (Rev. Owen Wynne Jones). He was an authority on the geology of his native county, and his Welsh essay on " The Slate Quarries of Carnarvonshire " passed through at least three editions. He edited the poems of the Rev. Robert Ellis (Cynddelw), published in 1877 (Carnarvon : H. Humphreys). As an adjudicator he was much sought after, the greatest confidence being felt in his thoroughness and conscientious ness. (O. & D. Herald.) See Y Brython, vol. 3, pp. 148, 176; Ibid., vol. 5, p. 429 ; Y Geninen, 1885, p. 8 ; Yr Eisteddfod, v. 2, p. 267, for his poem on " The Night." Griffith, Moses, 1769-1809, draughtsman and engraver, was a native of Bryncroes, in South Carnarvonshire. His parents were in humble circumstances, and his education was of a very elementary character. From boyhood he was clever with his pencil, and in due course he studied drawing and engraving. He entered the employ of Thomas Pennant (q.v.) whose constant companion he became on his toure. He made the drawings and engravings for Pennant's Works. On leaving Pennant's service he settled near Holyhead, where he followed his occupation as engraver. He was also employed by Francis Grose to engrave some of the plates in his "Antiquities." (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See G.B., vol. 1, p. 433 ; Y Brython, vol. 2, sec.

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ed., p. 435 ; Gent. Mag., 1809, pt. 2 ; Redgrave's Diet, of Artiste ; Pennant's Literary Life. Griffith, Owen, about 1643-1730, a poet and antiquary, the son of the Rev. Griffith Owen, of Cefn Treflaeth, was born in the parish of Llanystumdwy, Carnarvonshire, and spent the whole of his long life in that and the adjoining parishes of Penmorfa and Dolbenmaen. His early promise brought him under the notice of Bishop Humphreys, who befriended him in many ways. Among other acts of kindness the Bishop allowed him to live rent-free in a small tenement, which is known to this day as " Tyddyn Owen " (Owen's Tenement). He was one of the leading poets of the day, and wrote a large number of elegies and poems in acknowledgment of favours received at the hands of the gentry of the neighbourhood. Some years before his death he became totally blind, and at that time his poems were written from his dictation by William Elias, Bryn y Beddau, who lived close by. His poetry was contained in five large MSS. volumes. In 1806 David Thomas (Dafydd Ddu Eryri) wrote a narrative of Griffith's life in English and Welsh, but it does not appear to have been published. He died at Llanystumdwy, and was buried in the Churchyard of that parish. (Cymru, vol. 3, p. 132.) See 7 Brython, vol. 3, p. 270 ; Qolud yr Oes, vol. 1, pp. 159, 415 ; Oyfres y Fil (O. M. Edwards) ; Cell Meudwy (Ellis Owen), p. 58. Griffith, Owen, 1832-1896, " Giraldus," a Baptist minister and author, was born at Garn Dolbenmaen, Carnarvonshire, where he received his early education, joining the Baptists at the age of 13. He was apprenticed as ship's carpenter at Portmadoc, and followed that occupation till he was 30 years of age. He then went through a course of study at Haverfordwest College, and afterwards was called to the pastorate at Risca, South Wales. In 1866 he went to America, and in the following year became pastor at Minersville, Pennsylvania. In 1872 he removed to Utica, which he made his home during the remainder of his life. His sermons were always instructive and practical, but he was best known as an author, and as editor and publisher of Y Wawr (The Dawn), a Welsh religious monthly magazine devoted to the service of the Baptists in America, which he started in 1876, and edited till his death. His first book, " Above and Around," was published in 1872, and consisted chiefly of sermons and miscellaneous sketches. In 1887, after a visit to Wales, he published " Naw Mis yn Nghymru " (Nine Months in Wales). This was followed, in 1891, by a volume in Welsh on " The Two Christian Sacraments in their Origin and Development," written from the Baptist point of view, which was well received. (The Cambrian, 1896, p. 194). Griffith, Sir Richard, about 1704-1788, an author, was the elder son of Edward Griffith. His grandfather, Richard Griffith, was rector of Coleraine and dean of Ross. The family, originally of Penrhyn, Carnarvonshire, settled in Ireland in the reign of James I. Griffith shewed literary tastes at an early age. After a long engage ment he married, about 1752, Elizabeth Griffith, a native of Glamor ganshire (about 1720-1793, see ante). About 1760 he seems to have

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received some post from the Duke of Bedford, lord-lieutenant of Ireland. In 1764 he published a novel entitled " The Triumvirate ;" he also wrote, jointly with his wife, the " Letters of Henry and Frances." (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Gent. Mag., 1797, voL 2, p. 755 ; Notes and Queries, 1st series, vol. 1, p. 418 ; Chalmers' Biog. Diet. ; Burke's & Foster's Baronetage. Griffith, Richard, 1752-1820, a merchant, was the only son of Sir Richard Griffith (about 1704-1788, see ante), and Elizabeth Griffith (about 1720-1793, see ante). Early in life he made a fortune in trade in the East Indies, and settled at Millicent, Naas, county Kildare. In 1786 he was deputy-governor of the county, and from 1783 to 1790 he represented Askheaton in the Irish Parliament. He proved himself a most useful member, and the Corporation of Dublin presented him with the freedom of the city in recognition of his spirited defence of their rights and privileges in Parliament. He was buried at Millicent. By his first wife he was the father of Sir Richard John Griffith, the geologist (1784-1878, see post). (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Gent. Mag., 1797, vol. 2, p. 7S5 ; Notes and Queries, 1st series, vol. 1, p. 418. Griffith, Richard D., 1813-1856, a Wesleyan preacher and missionary, was born near Swansea, and was one of the first students of Hoxton College. He went out to the West Indies as missionary in 1837, and was one of the translators of the Bible into the Tamil dialect. He suffered a good deal of persecution, and, owing to the state of his health, was compelled to return to England, where he died in 1856. (Enwog. C.) Griffith, Sir Richard John, Bart., 1784-1878, a geologist, was born in Dublin. He was of Welsh descent, and a grandson of Elizabeth Griffith (about 1720-1793, see ante). In 1797 he was placed at a school in Kildare, and for some time served in the army. In 1808 he became a member of the Royal Dublin Society, for which- he made a survey of the Leinster coal district. When the Society, four years later, founded a professorship of geology and practical mining, Mr. Griffith was appointed to it. In 1824, a general valuation and ordnance survey of Ireland having been directed by Government, his recommendation of a scale of six inches to the mile was adopted, and he was appointed to carry out, as a prelude, a territorial or boundary survey of the country. This work was completed in 1846. The accuracy of " Griffith's Valua tion " has been much discussed, but it is still used for purposes of taxation, and indirectly for the fixing of fair rents under the Irish Land Acts. From the year 1812 Mr. Griffith had been engaged in geological investigations, and his labours finally resulted in his great geological map of Ireland, on a scale of four miles to an inch. In 1854 the late Prof. Forbes, on behalf of the Geological Society of London, presented him with the Woolaston paladium medal, and described his map as " one of the most remarkable geological maps ever produced by a single geologist." He was LL.D., F.G.S., and F.R.S. (Imp. Diet. Biog. ; Harmsuorth.) See Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Dublin Univ. Mag., May, 1874 ; R Barry O'Brien's Irish Land Question ; Quarterly

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Journal of the Geological Society, 1879 ; Nature, vol. 18 ; The Irish Times, 24th September, 1878 ; The Times, 27th September, 1878. Griffith, Robert William, 1835-1894, a Congregational minister, of Bethel, Carnarvonshire, was born there on the 10th January, 1835. He was a son of the Rev. David Griffith (1792-1873, see ante), for upwards of fifty years an honoured minister in the Principality. Educated at the Collegiate Institute, Liverpool, and by the Rev. Isaac Harries, of Mold, he was at first intended for the occupation of a farmer, but his bent was to active service in the church. He and his brother David, became local preachers, and up in the resignation of their aged father, they were invited to succeed him as co-pastors. The arrangement gave every satisfaction ; subsequently, David accepted a call to Dolgelly, and the subject of this sketch became sole pastor, and continued so to the end of his life. His was a life of blameless reputation and abounding usefulness. As secretary of the North Carnarvonshire Association for more than twenty years, he became a pillar of Nonconformity in the district. He was one of the editors of " Y Dyddiadur," the Welsh Congregational Diary. (Congreg. Tear Book, 1896.) Griffith, Thomas, 1680-1743, an actor, descended from an ancient family in Wales, was born in Dublin. He was apprenticed to a mathematical instrument maker, but a lively, spirited genius made him cast his thoughts towards the theatre. His talent led him to comedy of the merry cast, in which he gave great pleasure. He was afterwards employed in the Revenue. Chetwood describes him, not only as a good actor, but a pleasing poet. (The Red Dragon). Griffith, Walter, 1727-1779, a distinguished naval officer, was the second surviving son of Walter Griffith, Esq., of Brongain, in the parish of Llanfechain, Montgomeryshire, and was born at Caerhun, in Carnarvonshire. He was educated at the Oswestry Grammar School, and, at the age of 16, entered the Navy, under the auspices of his relation, Commodore Trevor. In 1759 he was appointed captain of the "Gibraltar," and in 1771 he was ordered to America, where he distinguished himself in many important expeditions. When RearAdmiral Parker became commander-in-chief on the West India station, Captain Griffith succeeded him in the " Conqueror," but he was soon afterwards killed in an action with the French squadron, in Port Royal Bay. His courage was of the brightest kind, and evinced itself in every action of his professional life. His remains were interred at St. Lucia, .vhere a small pedestal denotes the spot. (Diet. Em. W. ; Mont. Worthies.) See Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Charnock's Biog. Nav., vol. 6, p. 365 ; Lives of Illustrious Seamen, 1803. Griffith, William, 1832, "Gwilym Caledffrwd," was born in the parish of Llandegai, near Bangor, and early displayed a taste for music. In 1860 he emigrated to America, and settled in Middle Granville, where he soon acquired a reputation as a musician. He composed a number of anthems, choruses, songs, and hymn tunes, many of which were prize compositions. ( B. Cerddorion Cymreig.) -

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Griffiths, Ann, 1776-1805, the celebrated hymn writer, was born at Dolwar Fechan, near Llanfyllin, Montgomeryshire. As a young woman, she was fall of gay spirits, and used to speak very flippantly of religion, but when 21 years of age she joined the Calvinistic Methodists, and became a strong and shining influence for many miles around. She died when 29 years of age, after a married life of about ten months only. Her hymns, so far as they have reached us, do not exceed 70 or 80 verses, and a noteworthy fact in connection with them is their preservation. The authoress did not commit them to writing, but recited them, as they were composed, to a servant in her father's house, named Ruth, who possessed a remark able memory. The two would then sing them over time after time, and after the death of Ann Griffiths, Ruth used to repeat the verses to her husband. He saw their worth, and wrote them down from her dictation. They were first published in 1806, with an introduction by the Rev. Thomas Charles. Ann Griffiths was buried at Llanfyllin, where, in 1905, on the centenary of her death, a monument was erected to her memory. (Sweet Singers of Wales.) See Enwog. y Ffydd, vol. 2, p. 436 ; Y Drysorfa, 1886, p. 12; her Biography (Welsh), by Morris Davies ; Hanes Lien. G. ; Gymru, vol. 26, p. 101 ; Ibid, vol. 3, p. 206 ; Y Traethodydd, 1846 ; Methodistiacth Cymru, vol. 2, p. 416 ; G.B.; Y Geninen, Mar. 1902, p. 52 . Ibid, 1903, p. 235 ; Cymru, vol. 30, p. 13 et seq. ; Ibid, vol. 29, p. 157 ; Cyfres y Fti (O. M. Edwards). Griffiths, Daniel, 1807-1898, a Congregational minister and author, was the son of the Rev. Daniel Griffiths, a Welsh Noncon formist minister, of Long Buckby, Northamptonshire. Before entering college, he had the advantage of a good business training, being apprenticed to an engraver in London. He received his ministerial education at Wymondley, where Dr. Thomas Morell was then principal. In 1832 he sailed for America, and spent two years in the Settlements of Ohio. On his return he published a little volume containing his impressions and observations on the land and the people, especially of the religion of the settlers. For some time he nobly did the work of an evangelist among the men who were constructing the railway from Chester to London. In 1838 he became pastor of the united churches of Cannock and Brownhills, in Staffordshire. He contributed a good deal of poetry to the local press. (Congreg. Year Book, 1899.) Griffiths, David, 1792-1863, a missionary and author, was born at Llanmeilwch, in the parish of Llangattock, Carmarthenshire. He joined the Congregationalists at Gwynfe, near Llangattock, in 1810, and soon afterwards began to preach. He spent some time at Wrexham College, and afterwards at the Gosport Missionary College. In 1820, he sailed as missionary to Madagascar, but had to return, owing to ill-health, in 1836. He was a prolific writer, his principal works being a Welsh history of Madagascar ; a History of the Martyrs of Madagascar, in English ; and a Grammar, a Catechism, a Hymn-book, and several tracts, all in Malagasy. He also translated into the same language "The Anxious Inquirer," "The Friend of Sinners," "Come to Jesus,"

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and other religious pamphlets. He prepared revised editions of " The Pilgrim's Progress," and of the Bible, in the Malagasy language, and at the time of his death had just completed a Malagasy Dictionary. He could preach in three languages, and was well versed in Greek, Latin, Hebrew, French, and Arabic. (G.B.) See Y Brython, vol. 5, p. 375 ; Baner ac Amserau Cymru, April 15th and 20th, 1 863 ; Congreg. Year Book, 1864 ; Enwog. C. ; ReeB' and Thomas' Eglwysi Annibynol Cymru, vol. 4, p. 359. Griffiths, Evan, 1778-1839, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was born at Rhosfawr, Meifod, in Montgomeryshire. He began to preach in his twenty-fourth year, and soon became one of the leading men in the connexion. He was one of the eight lay preachers selected by the denomination, in 1811, to administer the Sacraments. His biography was written by the Rev. John Hughes, Pontrobert. His brother, Thomas Griffiths, was the husband of Ann Griffiths, the celebrated hymn-writer. (Enwog. C.) Griffiths, Evan, 1795-1873, a Congregational minister and author, was born at Gellibeblig, in the parish of Bettws, near Bridgend, Glamorganshire. When he was 21 years of age, his pastor, the Rev. W. Jones, of Bridgend, encouraged him to commence preaching. Mr. Jones then kept a day school, and Mr. Griffiths spent about a year under his instruction, afterwards proceeding to Newport, Mon. He was ordained in 1824, and for four years laboured at Park Mill and Pilton Green, Gower. Having been engaged by a printer at Swansea to translate " Matthew Henry's Commentary," he took up his residence in that town. The printer failed after publishing a few numbers, and Mr. Griffiths purchased the business, and devoted himself chiefly to literary work. After completing the translation of the Commentary, he published a convenient Welsh-English Dictionary ; a collection of Welsh Hymns (1855) ; a translation of Burder's " Oriental Customs " (1837) ; and of Doddridge's " Rise and Progress " ; Brooks' " Mute Christian" (1830); James' "Church Member's Guide"; Finney's <4 Lectures on Revivals of Religion," and Finney's " Sermons " (1841). He also published from 20 to 30 smaller works, chiefly original, among them being an admirable compendium of the Ecclesiastical History of England and Wales for the last three centuries, in the catechetical form. (Congreg. Year Book, 1874 ; Cardiff Catalogue.) 8ee Reee and Thomas Eglwysi Annibynol Cymru, vol. 4 ; Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Handbook to Swansea. Griffiths, George, 1818-1888, a clergyman, was educated at St. David's College, Lampeter, and graduated B.D. there in 1855. He was ordained deacon in 1841, and priest in the following year. He was perpetual curate of Penrhyndeudraeth ; rector of Machynlleth in 1862-88 ; honorary canon of Bangor Cathedral, 1872-88; canon residentiary of Bangor Cathedral, 1886-88. He was a distinguished preacher in English and Welsh. (Recollections, Ac.) See Y Qeninen, 1893, p. 29. Griffiths, Griffith, -1845, a clergyman, was a native of Llanfihangel-geneu'r-Glyn, Cardiganshire. He was ordained by the

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Bishop of London, and went out as a missionary to the West Indies. He reached Jamaica in 1825, and proved himself to be one of the most active and successful workers in the mission field. (Enwog. C.) Griffiths, John, 1731-1811, a Congregational minister and author, was born at Castellgarw, Llanglydwen, Carmarthenshire, and was pastor at Glandwr, in that county, for over 50 years. He also conducted a very successful school, and many of his pupils became eminent as clergymen, preachers, and professional men. He was the founder of what are known in Pembrokeshire as " expository classes." He studied medicine for the benefit of his people, and rendered excellent service by giving medical advice gratuitously. He translated a number of English hymns into Welsh, and published two editions of the " Shorter Catechism " in Welsh, and a revised edition of Matthias Maurice's translation of Dr. John Owen's " Guide to Public Worship." He also translated a work on " Domestic Worship," published in 1701, and wrote an elegy on Morris Griffith, Trefgarn. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See G. B.; Enwog. C.; Hanes Eglwysi Annibynol, vol. 3, p. 50. Griffiths, John, 1752-1818, a Congregational minister, was born near Pencadair, Carmarthenshire. He was ordained a minister in 1780, and, two years later, settled at Carnarvon. In 1784, he removed to Monmouthshire, but, in pursuance of an urgent call, he returned to Carnarvon in 1797, and remained there till his death in 1818. He was a popular preacher, and was the means of establishing several churches in the Carnarvon district. He translated one of Dr. Doddridge's works, and also published a collection of hymns for the use of his own denomination. (Enwog. C.) Griffiths, John, 1818-1866, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was born at Bontnewydd, near Carnarvon, and began to preach in 1840. The greater part of his ministerial life was spent at Dolgelley and Bethesda. He was a powerful preacher, and very successful as a pastor. He wrote a good deal of poetry, specimens of which appear in T Drysorfa for May, 1866. (Enwog. C.) Griffiths, John, 1819-1897, a clergyman, was born at Park-yNeuadd, Aberaeron, South Wales. When 13 years of age he was sent to the Cardigan Grammar School, where he remained four years. He subsequently entered St. David's College, Lampeter, where he had a distinguished career. At the end of his college training he accepted the headmastership of the Cardigan Grammar School He held that post for four years, and was the means of raising the school to a state of remarkable efficiency. He was ordained deacon in 1843, his first curacy being that of Aberystruth, Monmouthshire, removing later to Nantyglo, in the same county. He was subsequently preferred to the rectory of Llansannor, Glamorganshire, and from 1855 to the time of his death he was rector of Neath, being afterwards appointed arch deacon. For 40 years he lent his powerful aid to the movement in favour of Welsh higher education, and gave his services with unstinted devotion to the efforts on behalf of the University Colleges at Aber ystwyth and Cardiff. He was an ardent Eisteddfodwr, and for many

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years his venerable form lent a charm and solemnity to the ritual of the Qorsedd. (The Cambrian, 1897, p. 479.) See Y Geninen, March, 1897, p. 29 ; Ibid., Men. 1899, p. 50 ; Ibid., 1898, p. 233, and Mch., p. 36 ; Bye-Gones, 1897, p. 196 ; Y Geninen, 1902, p. 39. Griffiths, John Thomas, 1825-1895, a mining engineer, was the son of Thomas and Dorothy Griffiths, of Brynengan, in the parish of Llanystumdwy, Carnarvonshire. His parents emigrated to America, with their children, in 1831, and after remaining a year in New York, they removed to Pottsville, Pennsylvania. In 1862 J. T. Griffiths removed to Wilkesbarre, in the same state, where he made his home. He secured a post as mine foreman under the Lehigh and Wilkesbarre Coal and Iron Co., and, by reason of his sagacity, experience, and careful management, he was soon promoted to be general inside superintendent of all their mines. He occupied that position for fourteen years, and became one of the most prominent men in mining circles in the Wyoming Valley. He took great delight in hymnology and sacred music, and composed a number of hymns to his favourite tunes, which evinced deep religious feeling and a refined poetic taste. (The Cambrian, 1895, p. 257.) Griffiths, Morris, -1805, a Baptist minister and hymn writer, was a native of Llangybi, Carnarvonshire. He found employ ment in Anglesey as a farm labourer, and, having attached himself to the Calvinistic Methodists, began to preach. He afterwards removed to South Wales, and joined the Baptists, by whom he was ordained. For some years prior to his death he was pastor of the Baptist cause at Pendergast. In 1770 he published a collection of his own hymns, which he called " Defnyddiol Hymnau i Breswylwyr y Llwch." (Hanes Emynwyr.) See Llyfrydd. y Cymry ; Hanes Lien. G. ; Revue Celtique, vol. 1, p. 378. Griffiths, Ralph, 1720 - 1803, founder, proprietor and publisher of the Monthly Review, born in Shropshire, was of Welsh origin. He began life as a watchmaker, at Stone, in Staffordshire, but removed to London, and entered the service of Jacob Robinson. He subsequently kept a bookseller's shop in St. Paul's Churchyard, and here, in 1749, he produced the first number of the Monthly Review. For some time the undertaking did not meet with much success, but latter on its circulation rapidly increased, and at one period its profits were stated to amount to £2.000 a year. Nichols describes Griffiths, as " a steady advocate of literature, a firm friend, fond of domestic life, and posses sing great social gifts." (Literary Anecdotes, v. 3, p. 507). As a companion, "he was free-hearted, lively, and intelligent, abounding beyond most men in literary history and anecdote." (W. Butler, Exercises, 1811, p. 346). He received the degree of LL. D. from the university of Philadelphia. His portrait is given in the European Magazine, for January, 1804. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See C. Knight's Shadows of the Old Booksellers, 1865, pp. 184-8 ; Essays and Criti cisms, by T. G. Wainwright, ed. W. C. Hazlitt, 1880 ; Timperley's Encyclopedia, 1842, p. 677 ; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser., v. 2, pp.

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351, 377, 458, 6th ser., v. 1, p. 509, v. 2, p.p. 208, 275 ; Nichols' Illustr., v. 7, p. 249 ; Lit. Anecd., v. 3, p. 506, v. 8, p. 452, v. 9, p. 665 ; T. Faulkner's Hist, and Antiq. of Brentford, Ealing, and Chiswick, 1845, pp. 329, 466. Griffiths, Robert, 1805-1883, inventor, was born at Lleweny Farm, in the Vale of Clwyd. He shewed an early inclination for mechanical pursuits, and was, on his own choice, apprenticed to carpentry. He afterwards served as pattern maker in an engine works in Birmingham, where he became foreman. In 1835, he invented a rivet machine, and other patents soon followed. In 1849, he took out a patent for an amended method of screw propulsion, which was largely adopted in the navy. He read a number of valuable papers before the Society of Naval Architects, and at the Royal United Service Institution, chiefly relating to his own original experiments. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Memoir in Engineering, 29th June, 1883. Griffiths, Samuel, 1783-1860, a Congregational minister, was a native of Clydai, Pembrokeshire, and for years followed the occupation of a stone mason. He studied hard, and became a very good scholar, developing a remarkable talent for mathematics. He was ordained in 1818, and became one of the most useful ministers of the connexion. He published several able pamphlets on religious subjects. His biography was written by Dr. E. Pan Jones, in 1879. (Enwog. C.) Griffiths, Thomas, 1784-1838, a Congregational minister, was a native of Trefdraeth, Pembrokeshire, but spent most of his life in Cardiganshire. He was a most popular preacher, but his chief work was in connection with the Sunday School, and in that department he probably did more than any of his contemporaries. (Enwog. C.) Griffiths, Thomas Jeremy, 1797-1871, "Tau Gimel," a Unitarian minister and author, was the son of the Rev. Griffith Griffiths (1760-1818), of Llechryd, Cardiganshire. He was educated by his father and by the Rev. David Davies, Castle Howel, and served in the ministry at Ciliau, Cribin, and Alltplaca. He spent about five years in the United States (1841-6). He wrote a Welsh " Biography of David Davies, Castell Hywel " (Carmarthen : J. Evans, 1828) ; com piled a hymn book (1828), in which there are 29 of his own hymns ; and published one number only of a small periodical called "Yr Hanesydd : Llawer mewn ychydig " (The Historian : Much in little), 1839, of which there is a copy in the Cardiff Free Library. His memoir (with portrait), from the pen of Mr. David Thomas (Dewi Hefin), appears in " Yr Ymofynydd," 1895, p. 25. His son, Thomas Griffiths, M.D., who, during the American Civil War, joined Sherman in his wonderful march, was physician to the U.S. Marine Hospital, Louisville, and died in 1884, aged 58, leaving a son, W. Mandeville Griffiths, M.D. (The Unitarian Students at the Presbyterian College, Carmarthen, Rev. R. Jenkin Jones, M.A., 1901, p. 22 ; Yr Ymofynydd, 1871, p. 22.) Griffiths, William, 1777-1825, a Congregational minister and hymn-writer, was a native of Glandwr, Pembrokeshire, where his father was minister. He was educated at Wrexham, and afterwards

Thomas Gee.

Dd. Griffith (Clwydfardd).

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succeeded his father in the pastorate of Glandwr. He wrote a number of excellent hymns, which appeared in the collection known as " Dyfroedd Cysur." The best known are :—" Iesu, cyfaill pechaduriaid ; " " Cod, fy enaid, cais yn awr," and " Dan dy fendith wrth ymadael." He also translated several favourite Welsh hymns into English, a work in which he greatly excelled. Several of these appeared in The Evangelical Magazine, such as " Fix, 0 Lord, Thy tent in Goshen ; " " Great Redeemer, friend of sinners ; " " Will not any old companion," and " 0 ! what folly ! 0 I what madness." (Hanes Emynwyr.) Griffiths, William Alonzo, 1843-1893, a Congregational minister and hymnologist, was a native of Glamorganshire. He was educated at Carmarthen Presbyterian College, which he left in 1866 to take charge of the church at Abersychan, Monmouthshire. In 1870 he removed to Oaklands, Shepherd's Bush, London, in 1874 to Narberth, Pembrokeshire, and in 1876 to Sketty, Swansea, where he died. He published a volume of "Discourses," which had a large sale, and he also wrote a book on Welsh Hymnology, entitled " Hanes Emynwyr Cymreig." This work, which deals exhaustively and critically with Welsh hymns and hymnologists, attracted much attention. He was a man of considerable pulpit power. (Congreg. Year Book, 1895). Gronow, Rees Howell, 1794-1865, a soldier, was the eldest son of William Gronow, of Swansea, and was educated at Eton. In 1812 he entered the Army as an ensign in the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards, and fought with them at Waterloo, for which he received the coveted Waterloo medal, and was promoted to the rank of captain. He entered Parliament in 1832 as member for Stafford, but was unseated on petition. In 1862 appeared the first of his literary works, his " Reminiscences," and the following year his " Recollections and Anecdotes." These were followed by " Celebrities of London and Paris," and " Last Recollections." (Old Wales, v. 1, p. 24.) Grove, Sir William Robert, 1811-1896, a man of science, and judge, only son of John Grove, magistrate for Glamorganshire, was born at Swansea. He was educated under private tutors and at Oxford, and was called to the Bar in 1835. His professional course was retarded by ill-health, and the respite thus gained enabled him to follow his natural bent towards scientific investigation. He proved a very active member of the Royal Society, and his contributions to its 4* Transactions " were numerous and valuable. In 1839 he invented the nitric acid battery, which is commonly known by his name ; and in the same year he effected the recomposition of water by means of the voltaic current produced by its decomposition. His essay on the " Correlation of Physical Forces " contains a masterly elucidation of the modern dynamic theory, and won for its author a European reputation. His health having improved, he took silk in 1853, and for some years had a lead on the South Wales and Chester circuits. He was appointed a Judge of Common Pleas in 1871, and was transferred to the Queen's Division in 1880. He retired from the Bench in 1887, and returned to his scientific studies with unabated

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zest. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Men of the Time, 1884 ; Men and Women of the Time, 1891 ; Times, 3rd August, 1896 ; Atheneeum, 8th August, 1896 ; Pump Court, May, 1885 ; Nature, 27th August, 1896 ; Law Times, 8th August, 1896 ; Solicitors' Journal, same date ; Imp. Diet. Biog. Gruffydd, Thomas, 1815-1887, harpist, was born in Llangunider, Breconshire. When three years of age he lost one eye through falling on a hatchet, and, when a schoolboy, almost lost the other by a blow. He was already musical, and after these accidents, devoted all his energies to music and to harp-playing. He had also a good voice, and sang well. In 1843 he was invited to play Welsh airs before the Queen and Psince Albert. He won numerous prizes for harp-playing at eisteddfodau, and was for many years recognised as the greatest Welsh harpist of the day. ( Y Geninen, 1888, p. 189.) Gruffydd, Rhisiart, see Roberts, Richard. Guest, Sir Josiah John, 1785-1852, a distinguished promoter of iron manufacture, was born at Dowlais, Glamorganshire. He was the son of Thomas Guest, one of the proprietors of the Dowlais Ironworks, and the grandson of John Guest, founder of those works, by whom, and by his partner Wilkinson, the smelting of iron-ore with coal was first introduced into South Wales. He passed his youth in assisting in the direction of the iron-works of his father's firm. In 1815 he became sole manager, and by his extraordinary skill, both scientific and practical, as well as by his enterprise and energy, he greatly increased the productiveness of the works. In 1826 he was elected member of Parliament for Honiton, and in 1832 first M.P. for Merthyr Tydfil. In 1838 he was created a baronet. He was noted for his benevolence, and for his solicitude for the comfort, education, and moral improvement of his workmen and their families. His second wife, Lady Charlotte Guest (1812-1895), who was the only daughter of the ninth Earl of Lindsay, took considerable interest in Welsh literature, and published a translation of the " Mabinogion," in three volumes (1838-49). (Imp. Diet. Biog.) See Welsh Ode on his Death, by Thomas Essile David (Dewi Wyn o Essyllt), 1857 ; A Sermon . . . upon the . . . Death of Sir J. J. Guest, by E. Jenkins, 1853 ; Burke's Peerage, 1882. Gurnos, see Jones, Evan Gurnos. Gutyn Padarn, see Edwards, Griffith. Gutyn Peris, see Williams, Griffith. Gwalchmai, see Parry, Richard. Gwalchmai, Humphrey, 1788-1847, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was born at Llanwyddelan, Montgomeryshire. He began preaching when he was about 17 years old. In 1813, he settled at Llanidloes, where he remained for nearly 30 years. In 1819, he was ordained to the full work of the ministry. He was one of the earliest, ablest, and most ardent apostles of the temperance and total abstinence reform in Wales, and a zealous promoter of Sunday Schools. With a view of promoting these movements, he, in 1836, started at Llanidloes,

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a monthly periodical, called Tr Athraw (The Teacher), which he ably conducted for seven years, but it did not prove a success financially. He also published several sermons and small tracts in Welsh. (Mont. Worthies.) See Cymru, v. 31, pp. 119 and 213. Gwallter Mechain, see Davies, Walter. Gweirydd ap Rhys, see Pryse, Robert John. Gwenffrwd, see Jones, Thomas Lloyd. Gwilym ab Iorwerth, see Williams, William. Gwilym Caledfryn, see Williams, William. Gwilym Caledffrwd, see Griffith, William. Gwilym Cawrdaf, see Jones, William Ellis. Gwilym Cowlyd, see Roberts, William John. Gwilym Cyfeilog, see Williams, William. Gwilym Ddu Glan Hafren, see Owen, William. Gwilym Ddu O Arfon, see Williams, William. Gwilym Gwenffrwd, se« Thomas, William J. Gwilym Gwent, see Williams, William Aubrey. Gwilym Hiraethog, see Rees, William. Gwilym Lleyn, see Rowlands, William. Gwilym Maries, see Thomas, William. Gwilym Morganwg, see Williams, Thomas. Gwilym Pant Taf, see Parry, William. Gwilym Pennant, see Powell, William. Gwinett, Button, 1732-1778, a native of Wales, was a delegate from Georgia, U. S. America, to the Continental Congress. He was well educated, and entered into mercantile pursuits in Charleston, from whence he removed to Georgia, where he had purchased a large tract of land. He was one of the seventeen Welsh signatories to the Declaration of Independence, and afterwards assisted in framing the State Constitution of Georgia, and was President of the State—an office at that time equivalent to Governor. He fell, at the age of 46, in a duel which he fought with General Mcintosh, of that State. (Wales and its People.) See Lippincott ; Goodrich's Lives of the Signers to the Declaration of Independence ; Y Brython, v. 5, p. 156 ; Wales, v. 1, p. 282 ; Ibid, v. 3, p. 18. Gwrgant, see Jones, William. Gwyn, Sir Rowland, about 1710, was a native of Radnor shire, his seat being at Llanelwedd. In 1678, he became knight of the shire for his native county, and sat during that and the succeeding Parliament, until 1685. He was knighted in 1680, but on the accession of James II. he retired for a while into private life. He was a zealous adherent of the Protestant Secession, and so exerted himself on behalf of William of Orange that, on the Prince's acceptance of the throne, in 1689, he re-entered Parliament for Radnorshire, and accepted the post

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of Treasurer of His Majesty's Chamber. In 1690 he was elected member for Breconshire, for which he sat till 1702, when he finally retired from politics. (The Red Dragon.) Gwyndaf Eryri, see Jones, Richard. Gwyneddon, see Davies, John. Gwynfryn, see Jones, Dorothea. Gwynionydd, see Williams, Benjamin. Gwynn, Francis, 1648-1734, politician, was the son and heir of Edward Gwynn, of Llansannor, Glamorganshire. He was trained for the profession of the law, but being possessed of ample means he soon shewed a preference for politics. At a bye-election in 1673, he was returned for Chippenham, and in 1685 he was elected for Cardiff. He filled several public offices. At one time he served as a commissioner of public accounts, and afterwards was a commissioner of the Board of Trade, and subsequently Secretary of War. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) Gwynne, Francis Edward, -1821, a soldier, was the son of R. Gwynne, of Middleton Hall, Llanarthney, Carmarthenshire. He was a courtier for over 30 years, and was one of the equerries to George III. from 1788 until the King's death in 1820, being attached to what was called the Windsor establishment from March 1812 to 1820, during the regency. He was a cavalry officer for many years, and became major of the 16th Light Dragoons in 1775. He served with that regiment in the American War of Independence from that year until promoted to be lieutenant-colonel of the 20th Light Dragoons in 1779. He afterwards became colonel of the 25th Light Dragoons, and this regiment he commanded until it was disbanded in 1820. He was made an A.D.C. to the King, with the rank of colonel in the Army, in 1787, major-general in 1793, lieutenant-general in 1799, and general in 1808. He served on the staff at headquarters as inspectorgeneral of the Recruiting Service ; in 1808 was made lieutenantgovernor of the Isle of Wight, but quitted this post on being made governor of Sheerness in 1812. He retained the latter appointment until his death on 13th January, 1821. (Old Wales, vol. 1, p. 350, Ibid., v. 3, p. 62). Gwynne, Marmaduke, 1642-1712, a lawyer, was the son and heir of Rice Gwynne, of Garth, Breconshire. He married the daughter of Peter Gwilym, of Glascwm, Radnorshire, who brought him a fortune of £20,000, with which, and the profits of his profession, he purchased the greater part of the hundred and manor of Builth. He was second justice of Anglesey, Carnarvon, and Merioneth, from 1702 to 1706, when he was removed from office, and died two years later. He is said to have been " like Lord Bacon, not proof against corruption." (Jones' Brecknockshire ; The Welsh Judges.) Hafrenydd, see Williams, Thomas. Halford, Sir Henry, Bart., 1766-1844, a distinguished physician, was a son of Dr. James Vaughan, a Welshman, who

Rev. I Howell Harris.

Tin. Veky Bf.v. Dean Howei, B.D.

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practised as a physician at Leicester, and a brother of Sir John Vanghan (1769-1839, see post). He was educated at Rugby, and afterwards at Christ Church, Oxford. Graduating in 1791, he continued his professional studies at Edinburgh. In 1794 he was elected a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, and settled in London. In 1795 he married a daughter of Lord St. John of Bletsho. His manners were graceful and prepossessing, and his professional in come rose to £10,000 a year. In 1800 and again in 1835, he delivered the Harveian oration. In 1809 he succeeded to a large fortune on the death of his mother's cousin, and then took the name and arms of Halford, and received a baronetcy. He acted successively as physician to George III., George IV., William IV., and Queen Victoria ; and in 1820 he was elected president of the Royal College of Physicians. In 1825 he took an active part in opening the new College of Physicians in Pall Mall East, and about the same period he wrote a number of essays on medical subjects, which were collected and published in 1831, and again in 1842. A number of Latin verses, which he had contributed to the Gentleman's Magazine, were published in one volume in 1842. (Imp. Diet. Biog.) Hall, Benjamin, 1802-1867, Lord Llanover, was the eldest son of Benjamin Hall, M.P., of Hensol Castle, Glamorganshire, by Mb wife Charlotte, daughter of William Crawshay, of Cyfarthfa, in the same county. He represented the Monmouth Boroughs in Parliament for some years, and afterwards sat for Marylebone until his elevation to the House of Lords. He took part frequently in the debates, and insisted on the right of the Welsh to have the services of the Church rendered in their own tongue. His political liberalism was of a very advanced kind, and his career was distinguished by his zealous advocacy of the abolition of Church rates. In 1838 he was made a baronet. In the coalition ministry of Lord Aberdeen he was appointed President of the Board of Health, and, in 1855, Chief Commissioner of Works. On Lord Palmerston's second accession to the Premiership he was created Baron Llanover. (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Imp. Diet. Biog.) See Alumni Westmonasterienses, 1851, p. 441 ; Men of the Time, 1865, p. 528 ; Illustrated London News, 4th May, 1867 ; Burke's Extinct Peerage, 1883, p. 257 ; Gent. Mag., 1867, pt. 1, p. 814 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon., vol. 2, p. 586 ; Brit. Mus. Cat. Hall, Richard, 1817-1866, a poet, was a native of Brecknock. He was an enthusiastic lover of Nature, and his quiet and unobtrusive thoughtfulness found vent in verse. He published a book of poems called " Tales of the Past, and other Poems." The pieces are descriptive of local scenery. He was buried in Llanspyddyd Church yard. (Poole's Brecknockshire.) Hamer, Daniel Jones, 1846-1886, a Congregational minister, was born in Lancashire. He was of Welsh descent, his mother being a daughter of the Rev. William Jones, a famous preacher and Bible expositor, and the first pastor of Maudsley Street Chapel, Bolton. He had the advantage of a good primary education, so that, when he entered the Lancashire Independent College in 1862, he won the

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Raffles' Scholarship of thirty pounds, tenable for two years, and went in for, and won, at the close of that time, one of the Sharrock Fellow ships, tenable for the three remaining years of his college course. He afterwards took a musical degree at Cambridge University. In 1867 he accepted a call to Richmond Chapel, Salford. After a ten years' ministry there, he was called to be the pastor of the large and influential church meeting in Queen Street Chapel, Wolverhampton. There his success was great, and he became a leader in the great movements of the age in which the men of the Midlands were deeply interested. In 1882 he undertook the charge of the church in Collins Street, Melbourne, and at once threw himself into the duties of his new sphere with ardent zeal. His stimulating, intellectual, and instructive ministry commanded the respect of his large congregation. (New South Wales Independent ; Congreg. Year Book, 1887.) Hancock, John, 1737-1793, an American statesman, of Welsh descent, was born in Quincy, Massachusetts, U.S.A., and graduated at Harvard in 1754. He became a merchant of Boston, and heir to a large fortune. He was chosen a member of the House of Repre sentatives of Massachusetts in 1766, became a bold assertor of liberty, and was president of the Provincial Congress in 1774. In June of the following year Governor Gage offered a pardon to all the rebels except Samuel Adams (another Welshman, see ante) and John Hancock. In 1775 he was elected president of the Continental Congress, and signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Having resigned his seat in Congress, owing to ill-health, in October, 1777, h« was elected governor of Massachusetts in 1780. He was a very popular governor, and was annually re-elected, except for the years 1785 and 1786, till his death. His eloquence, his affable disposition, and his polished manners rendered him a general favourite. As a presiding officer he was dignified and very successful. He made a generous use of his fortune, and was a liberal benefactor to Harvard College. (Welshmen as Factors, &c, W. R. Evans ; Lippincott.) Hanmer, Sir John, 1809-1881, afterwards Lord Hanmer, poet and politician, was the son of Thomas Hanmer, colonel of the Royal Flint Militia, and was eighteenth in descent from Sir John de Hanmer, constable of Carnarvon Castle in the time of Edward I. He succeeded to the baronetcy in 1828, on the death of his grandfather, Sir Thomas Hanmer, Bart., and sat in Parliament for Shrewsbury 1832-37, for Hull from 1841-47, and for the Flint Boroughs from 1847 till 1872, when he was raised to the peerage. He supported Free Trade and religious liberty, and voted for the total repeal of the Corn Laws. He was elevated to the peerage by Mr. Gladstone in 1872. He died without issue, when the barony became extinct, but the baronetcy devolved upon his next brother, Wyndham Edward Hanmer. Another brother the Rev. Henry Hanmer, M.A., was rector of Grendon, Warwickshire. Lord Hanmer, who took a warm and generous interest in Flint, was an erudite scholar. His talent as a poet was recognised in a volume of "English Sonnets," collected by Samuel Waddington, in which some of his productions are included, side by side with those of Tennyson, Swinburne, &c. He published "Fra Cipolla and other poems" (London:

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Bradbury & Evans, 1829) ; " Sonnete " (same publishers, 1840) ; and "A Memorial of the Parish and Family of Hanmer in Flintshire" (London : C. Whittingham, 1877). (Bye-Gones, 1874, p. 171 ; Ibid, 1881, p. 207; Cardiff Catalogue; Notices of Flint, pp. 209, 214, 219, 223-4.) See Times, 11 & 12 Mar, 1881; Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Burke's Diet, of the Peerage and Baronetage. Hanmer, Sir Thomas, Bart., 1677-1746, a distinguished statesman, was born at Bettisfield Park, Flintshire, and educated at Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford. He was noted for his graceful person, and, when about 21 years of age, married the Duchess of Grafton. He entered Parliament as one of the representatives of Suffolk, and soon became one of the most influential members. In 1714 he was unanimously elected Speaker, and, after an active and distinguished career as head of the high church party, he retired from public life in 1727, afterwards devoting himself to literature. In 1744 he published an elegant edition of Shakespeare in six volumes. In the preface to his own edition of Shakespeare, Dr. Johnson has praised the editorial sense, industry, and discernment of Hanmer, whose Latin epitaph he paraphrased in sonorous English verse. The correspondence of Sir Thomas Hanmer was published in 1838, with a well-written memoir of him by the editor, Sir Henry Bunbury. (Diet. Em. W. ; Imp. Diet. Biog.) See Biog. Brit, 1766, v. 6, pt. 2, pp. 222-4 ; Manning's Speakers of the House of Commons ; Burke's Peerage, &c, 1888, p. 644 ; Granger's Biog. Hist. (Noble, 1806), v. 2, pp. 171-3 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.; Notices of Flint, p. 152. Harding, Sir John Dorney, 1809, was bom at Rockfield, Monmouthshire, and having been for some time a private pupil under the celebrated Dr. Arnold, he proceeded to Oriel College, Oxford, to complete his education. He was second class in classics, 1820, and in 1837 he became a D.C.L., and commenced to practice as an advocate at Doctors' Commons. In 1852, he was appointed Queen's Advocate General, and the honour of knighthood was conferred upon him. His " Essay on the Influence of Welsh Tradition upon European Literature," which secured a prize offered by the Abergavenny Cymreigyddion Society in 1838, was published in 1839 (London : Ibotson & Palmer). (Border Counties' Worthies ; Cardiff Catalogue.) Harlech, Lord, see Ormsby-Gore, William George. Harraden, Richard, 1756-1838, artist and engraver, was born in London, but his family came from Flintshire, and originally bore the name of " Hawarden." He spent some time in Paris, but after wards worked as an artist in London, removing in 1798 to Cambridge. In 1803 he published " Costume of the various Orders in the University of Cambridge," a series of coloured lithographs with descriptive letter press, and in 1811, in conjunction with his son, Richard Bankes Harraden (see post), a quarto volume, called " Cantabrigia Depicta," a series of engravings representing the most picturesque and interesting edifices in the University of Cambridge. He also published a number of smaller engravings of great merit. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Arch.

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Hist, of the University of Cambridge, by R. Willis and J. W. Clark, 1886, v. L Harraden, Richard Bankes, 1778-1862, artist and engraver, son of Richard Harraden (see ante), made the drawings of Cambridge, for his father's work, and in 1830, published an oblong volume called " Illustrations of the University of Cambridge." He was a member of the Society of British Artists. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) Harri Myllin, see Rowlands, Henry. Harri Sion, see John, Harry. Harries, T. J., 1856-1901, a self-made man, a native of Llandilo - Abercowin, Carmarthenshire, was of humble origin, and became apprenticed to a draper. At an early age he made his way to the metropolis, ultimately founding a large and prosperous business in Oxford Street, and amassing a considerable fortune. ((7. & D. Herald). Harries, Solomon, 1726-1785, a preacher and hymn-writer, was a native of South Wales, and became pastor of a Nonconformist chapel in High Street, Aberdare, in 1751. In 1784, a year before his death, he was appointed headmaster of Carmarthen College. He wrote several hymns, and produced an excellent rendering into Welsh of Addison's well-known hymn, " The spacious firmament on high," beginning, " Yr holl ffurfafen faith uwchben." (Hanes Emynwyr). Harris, David, 1747-1834, a musician, was a native of Llansantffraid, Radnorshire, where he lived until 1824, when he removed to Ty Mawr, Carno. Montgomeryshire, to reside with a married daughter, and there he died ten years later. He attained considerable eminence as a musician ; he was probably the best Welsh musician of his day. His anthem, " Par i mi wybod dy ffyrdd," at once established his fame as a composer. Several of his hymn-tunes are included in " Caniadau Seion." He composed and sent in for competition at the Welshpool Eisteddfod, in 1824, a tune called "Babell." The prize was awarded to Mr. Roger Woodhouse, but competent musicians assert that Mr. Harris's composition is much more skilful and artistic. He was also well versed in Cambrian history and in the rules of Welsh poetry, and was an excellent antiquary. (B. Cerddorion Cymreig ; Mont. Worthies.) Harris, Evan, 1786-1861, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was a native of Breconshire. He joined the church at Pontrhydybere, near Llanwrtyd, and there, in 1814, began to preach. He removed to Brecon in 1818, and was ordained at Llangeitho in 1826. In 1837 he settled at Dowlais, Glamorganshire, and, later on, at Merthyr Tydfil, where he ended his days. He was a most fluent and original preacher, and his quaint sayings and fiery delivery made him exceedingly popular and useful. (Enwog. C.; Y Drysorfa, 1862.) Harris, George, 1722-1796, a civilian, was the son of John Harris, Bishop of Llandaff. He was educated at Oriel College, Oxford, graduated B.C.L. in 1745, and D.CX. in 1750, and was in the same year admitted into the College of Advocates. He was appointed

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Commissary of Surrey in 1756, and also of Essex and Herts in 1778, which offices he held until his death. He was also chancellor of the dioceses of Durham, Hereford, and LlandatT, and was one of the Court of Assistants selected by the Governors of the Charity for the Relief of the Poor Widows and Children of Clergymen. He left a large fortune, which he distributed among public charities, bequeathing forty thousand pounds to St. George's Hospital, and fifteen thousand to the Westminster Lying-in Hospital. He published, in 1756, an admirable edition of Justinian's " Institutes," and a volume of " Observations upon the English language." (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Old Wales, v. 1, p. 218 ; Imp. Diet. Biog.) Harris, George, 1794-1859, Unitarian minister, born at Maid stone, in Kent, was a son of Abraham Harris, Unitarian minister at Swansea. He was one of the originators of the Scottish Unitarian Association, formed in 1813, and acted for three years as its secretary. He laboured in the ministry at Liverpool, Bolton, Glasgow, and elsewhere. He was constantly writing, lecturing, or preaching, and took a prominent part in political, educational, and social questions. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) Harris, Griffith, about 1813, a musician, was a native of South Wales, and spent the greater part of his life in Carmarthen, where he took an active part in the improvement of Congregational singing. In 1849 he published a collection of about 260 hymn-tunes, under the title " Haleliwia," and, six years later, he brought out a second volume, called " Haleliwia Drachefn," containing over 200 tunes. (J5. Cerddorion Cymreig.) Harris, Howell, 1714-1773, an eminent preacher, and the introducer of the tenets and discipline of the Methodists into Wales, was born at Trevecca, in the parish of Talgarth, Breconshire. He was placed in school at the age of 18, and afterwards proceeded to Oxford, where, however, he only remained one term. He was a great friend of Whitfield, and of John and Charles Wesley, and in 1736 he became an itinerant preacher, travelling much throughout the Principality, as well as in England. During these visits he encountered a storm of violent persecution from high and low ; the jottings in his diary indicate turbulent times, and the baptism of fire through which he passed. In 1752 he established, partly at his own expense, a college at Trevecca, which flourished in a remarkable degree. In later years he withdrew from public life, and devoted his whole time to the work iit and around his home at Trevecca. He was buried in Talgarth churchyard, in thv. presence of 20,000 people. Dr. Thomas Rees describes him as " the most successful preacher that ever ascended a platform or a pulpit in Wales," and adds that "he was an extra ordinary instrument raised by Providence, at an extraordinary time, to accomplish an extraordinary work." He stands pre-eminent amongst the benefactors of his country ; religious activity in Wales began with him, and through his efforts the heart of the nation was roused to such a pitch of religious fervour that from then till now the Welsh have been known, so far as they are known at all, as a

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people of extreme religious enthusiasm. (Diet. Em. W. ; Rees History ; Life of Howell Harris, by Hugh J. Hughes.) See his Autobiography, L791 ; Morgan's Life and Times of Howell Harris ; Y Traethodyild, 1901, p. 189 et seq. ; Ibid, 1900, p. 209 ; Cymru, v. 1, p. 117 ; Y Traethod.ydd, 185-1 ; Cymru, v. 22, p. 176 ; Wales, v. 1, p. 28 et seq. ; Sunday Schools,
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He began to translate Milton's " Paradise Regained " into Welsh verse, and the work was very highly spoken of. His last production (which he also set in type), was a book entitled, " Grisiau Cerdd Arwest," a handbook of instruction in music, which met with a ready sale. This promising young Welshmen fell a victim to consumption at the early age of 21. (Enwog. C.) See Seren Gomer, 1828, p. 150. Harris, Joseph, 1702-1764, a self-taught philosopher, and the eldest brother of Howell Harris, was born in the parish of Talgarth, Breconshire. At an early age, he removed to London, and rose to a responsible post at the Mint. He was the author of several astro nomical and mathematical treatises, and was held in high esteem by the scientists of the day. On his monument in Talgarth Church, it is recorded that " his great abilities and unshaken integrity were uniformly directed to the good of his country, having by indefatigable attention gained the greatest proficiency in every branch of scientific knowledge. As an author, he published several tracts on different subjects, invented many mathematical instruments, monuments of his mathematical genius ; yet, superior to the love of fame, he forbore having even his name engraven upon them. His political talents were well known to the ministers in power in his days, who failed not to improve on all the wise and learned ideas which greatness of mind, candour, with love of his country, led him to communicate." (Jones' Brecknockshire ; Diet. Em. W. ; Life of Howell Harris.) See Did. Nat. Biog. ; The Queen's Assay Master, in Murray's Magazine for May, 1887 ; Jones' Hist, of Brecknockshire ; Poole's Brecknock shire. Harris, Joseph, about 1750-1815, a musician, is believed to have been born near Wrexham, but in any case his parents were Welsh. When he was quite a boy his parents settled in Birmingham. He received a good education, and matriculated at Magdalen College, Oxford, in March, 1773. He was organist of St. Martin's Church, Birmingham, in 1787, and died near Wrexham, early in 1815. His compositions include eight songs, arranged for solo voice, with accompaniments of a string quartette and horns ; six harpsichord quartettes, and a quintet ; and twelve songs, for solo voice, and varying accompaniments of pianofore and string and wind instruments. He was a devoted student of Handel, whose intluence is very apparent in his compositions. (B. Cerddorion Cymreig ; Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Dictionary of Musicians, 1827, p. 332 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon, vol. 2, p. 613 ; Bruce's History of Old St. Martin's, Birmingham, p. 50 ; Gent. Mag., Mar. 1815, p. 281. Harris, Joseph, 1773-1825, "Gomer," a Baptist minister and author, was born in the parish of St. Dogwell's, near Haverfordwest. In his youth he was remarkable for his devotion to books, and in 1795 he became a preacher with the Baptists. In 1801 he removed to Swansea, where he was under a great disadvantage owing to his imperfect know ledge of English. He thereupon spent four months at the Baptist Academy, Bristol, and succeeded so well that he was soon able to preach in English. He was very active in the cultivation of Welsh literature,

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and is universally recognised as " the father of Welsh periodical literature." He started, in 1814, " Seren Gomer," the first newspaper ever printed in the Welsh language, which at first was well supported, but when 85 weekly numbers had appeared it had to be discontinued, its proprietors having sustained a loss of about £1,000. In January, 1818, was published the first number of " Seren Gomer," a monthly magazine which, in one form or another, has survived to the present day. He published a " Selection of Hymns in Welsh " ; a tract " On the Peculiar Olfice of the Lord to the Church, with Answers to the Socinians." A sketch of his life, ttc., appeared in English in 1825, and in Welsh, by D. ap Rhys Stephen, in 1839. (Diet. Em. W. ; Llenyddiaeth fy NgwUid ; Cardiff Catalogue ; The Welsh Review, 1891.) See Enwog. C.; V Geninen, 1889, p. 60; Enwog. y F/ydd; Hants Lien. G. ; Ceinion Lien. G., vol. 2, p. 56 ; Y Traethcdydd, 1845; Cymru, vol. 4, p. 325 ; Nodweddiad y Cymry, p. 214. Harris, Samuel, about 1730, an American preacher, some times called " the Apostle of Virginia," was of Welsh descent. He was known also as " Colonel Harris." His pulpit power was of the Whitfield type, and " he went everywhere preaching the word." He was ordained in 1769, but prior to that he had for years been an acceptable preacher. " As colonel of the State Militia, as member of the State Legislature, as Judge of the Courts, this many-sided man of Welsh blood was highly esteemed in his day." ( Welshmen as Factors, &c.) Harris, Samuel Smith, 1841-1888, an American bishop, born in Antanga County, Alabama, U.S.A., was of Welsh parentage. He graduated at the University of Alabama in 1859 ; served with distinction in the Confederate army, 1861-65 ; practised law in Montgomery, Alabama, and in New York, till 1868 ; became a priest of the Episcopal Church, and in 1879 Bishop of Michigan. He published " Bohlen Lectures for 1882, on the Relation of Christianity to Civil Society." He received the degrees of D.D. and LL.D. He exercised a salutary and potent influence on the churches of the Episcopacy in various places north and south of the Ohio. ( Welshmen as Factors, dc : Lippincott.) Harris, Thomas, 1705-1782, a self-made man, was a brother of the Rev. Howell Harris (see ante), and was born at Talgarth, Breconshire. He left his native county (where he had been brought up as a tailor) at an early age, and settled in London, where he found employment with an uncle, Solomon Price. He afterwards secured contracts for supplying the army with clothing, by which he amassed a considerable fortune. This enabled him to return to Wales, and to purchase the estates of Tregunter, Trevecca. He wat sheriff of Breconshire in 1768, and died leaving a character of a truly honest man and a liberal benefactor to the poor. The tablet in Talgarth Church, which records the memory of Howell Harris, mentions further, in reference to Thomas Harris, that " in him the poor always found a most bountiful benefactor, his heart and mansion being ever open to the feelings of humanity by relieving the distresses of the indigent" He devised the Tregunter Estate, together with the bulk

Anthony Howells.

Rev. Hugh Hughesi(Huw Tegai).

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of his property, to Mrs. Hughes, the only daughter and heiress of his elder brother, Joseph Harris, from whom two of the leading families of the county of Brecknock at the present day are descended. (Diet. Em. W. ; Life of Howell Harris ; Jones' Brecknockshire.) Harrison, Benjamin, 1740-1791, an American statesman, whose ancestors emigrated from Wales to Virginia, U.S.A., was born at Berkeley, on the James River, Virginia. In 1764 he was a member of the Virginia legislature, and in 1774 was elected to the National Congress, in which he was distinguished for his patriotic services. He was one of the signers of the Declaration of Indepen dence. From 1782 to 1784 he was governor of Virginia. He was also a member of the Convention which framed the Constitution of the United States in 17
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M. Dawson's Life of General W. H. Harrison, 1824 ; James Hall's Memoir of the Public Ser vices of W. H. Harrison, 1836 ; S. J. Burr's Life and Times of W. H. Harrison, 1840 ; Life of William Henry Harrison, by Isaac R. Jackson ; National Portrait Gallery of Distinguished Americans, vol. 3. Harry, John, 1674-1737, was born in the parish of Aberystruth, Monmouthshire, and having united himself to the Baptists, he became one of their ministers in 1715. In 1725, he translated into the Welsh language " Alleine's New Heaven and New Earth." He was a very pious man, but cherished strange notions as to the second coming of Christ, for it is iecorded of him that he often went out at night in full expectation of His appearance on earth. (Border Counties' Worthies ,Cardiff Catalogue.) Harry, Miles, -1776, the first minister of the Baptist body who settled at Penygarn, near Pontypool, Monmouthshire, was a native of that county. He is noted as having carried on a controversy with his neighbour, Edmund Jones, upon the question of infant baptism, that led to great unpleasantness, and to his removal to Tredegar, where he erected a chapel upon a farm that belonged to him in that neighbourhood. This occurred in 1763, so that he may be looked upon as the founder of the denomination in that town. (Border Counties' Worthies.) Harry, Nunn Morgan, 1800-1842, a Congregational minister and author, was born in the parish of Lampeter Velfrey, Pembroke shire. After entering the ministry he received a call to Banbury, where he remained for some years. He then removed to New Broad Street, London, where he carried on a very successful ministry. In 1832 he published a volume containing twelve lectures on the Person of Christ and His mission in the world, under the title, " What think ye of Christ?" (Banbury: W. Potts). He was an enthusiastic supporter of the Peace Society, and in 1837 was elected one of its honorary secretaries. He also became editor of the Herald of Peace, and wrote several valuable tracts for publication by the committee. He would never speak in public without saying a word on behalf of the principles of the Peace Society. In his theology he was probably in advance of the majority of the ministers of his denomina tion. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See G. B. ; Herald of Peace for January, 1843 ; Caleb Morris' Memorial Discourse ; Enwog. C. Hartley, Richard Griffith, 1833-1870, the son of John Hartley, a native of Merioneth, was a very promising missionary. He was a brilliant scholar, and graduated B.A. when 19 years of age, and M.A. three years later. He was classical master for some years at Airedale College, Bradford, but in 1x62 he went out as missionary to Madagascar. He there took in hand the task of training native Christians for the ministry, but after seven years' very successful work his health broke down, and he returned to this country. (Cymry Manceinion.) Havard, Father, 1807-1880, a Roman Catholic priest, was a descendant of the Havards of Senny, in Breconshire. He succeeded

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an uncle at Brecon, and later on was stationed at Carmarthen, where some who widely differed from his religious views used to listen to his eloquent Welsh sermons with interest. He left few priests behind him who possessed the same command over the Welsh language in preaching. Those who knew him intimately, spoke with warmth of his deep faith and unaffected piety, and declared that in no Welshman could the love of his native land be stronger than it was in Father Havard. (Poole's Breconshire.) Havard, Griffith, 1821-1894, a Baptist minister and antiquary, was a native of Tredegar, Glamorganshire. He entered Pontypool College about 1848, and on the termination of his course there accepted a call from the Blaenavon English Church, where he was ordained. He then removed to Neath, and later on to Cwmfelin, Carmarthenshire. His next pastorate was at Saundersfoot, and subsequently he settled at Benlah, Pembrokeshire. He finally gave up pastoral work, and opened a chemist's shop at Whitland, but continned to preach. He was an able preacher, possessing a remarkable memory, with a marvellous command of choice language. He was a good scholar, and a well-known antiquary. He wrote " Yr Iwerddon ; sef Hanes Gwladlywiaeth y Saeson yn yr Iwerddon," giving an historical account of English policy in Ireland (Rhymney : G. J. Jacobs, 1888). (Baptist Handbook, 1895 ; Cardiff Catalogue.) Havard, William, 1735-1810, a self-made man and a poet, born at Hereford, was a descendant of the Havards of Breconshire. In early life he set out to seek his fortune in London, where he arrived without a penny in his pocket, having performed the journey on foot. Obtaining a clerkship in a mercantile house, he so recom mended himself by his trustworthiness and abilities that he was finally admitted as a partner, and lived to acquire a fortune sufficient to enable him to bequeath at his death a sum of £10,000 to each of his five daughters. He was exceedingly generous to his countrymen, many of whom were indebted to him for pecuniary assistance and valuable advice. A writer in the European Magazine, states that both Mr. Pitt and Mr. Fox had recourse to him in matters of commercial detail during the discussions on the commercial treaty with France about the year 1786. He also had a taste for literature, especially for poetry, and is known as the author of " The Banks of the Lugg," and other poems. He was a friend of Charles Dibdin, the song writer, and is said to have assisted him in some of his compositions, particularly in " The Bystander," but Dibdin, after Havard's death, wrote denying the accuracy of this statement. (Qent. Mag., 1810, v. 1 p. 499, v. 2 p. 60 ; Herefordshire Biographies.) Hebog, see Jones, Edward. Henry, John, 1842-1902, a self-made man, was born at Port Talbot, Glamorganshire, and, in 1866, set out to seek his fortune in America, settling at Pittsburg. For a few years after his arrival the ups and downs of his life were many ; for four years he worked as mechanic, and, by studious habits and economical methods, laid down the safe foundation of an extensive fortune and brilliant future. In

A DICTIONARY OF 1879 he was offered the superintendency of the mill in which he made his first start. This mill, at the time, was in a deplorable state, but in a few months, through his sagacity and untiring efforts, the work was in a flourishing condition, turning out superior brands of iron and steel sheet, which commanded an enviable market. Four years later he, with two others, erected the Charlier's Iron and Steel Works, and was its general manager from its start. Besides being a successful manufacturer, he was a gifted man of affairs, and endowed with the business instincts of a financier. (The Cambrian, 1902, p. 464.) Henry, Matthew, 1662-1714, the well-known Nonconformist divine and author, was born at Broad Oak, a farmhouse in the township of Iscoed, Flintshire. His father, the Rev. Philip Henry, who was rector of Worthenbury, was one of the two thousand clergymen who left the Church of England in consequence of the Act of Uniformity. Matthew Henry entered Gray's Inn with a view of studying the law, but afterwards devoted himself to the ministry, and was ordained in 1687. He settled at Chester, where he had a large congregation, and remained there for 25 years. Two years before his death he removed to Hackney. He was the author of several works, the most important being his "Exposition of the Bible," in six volumes, which has been translated into Welsh. He was only able to complete five volumes himself, the sixth being prepared by others. Other commentators have been better linguists, and some may have had a fuller acquaintance with the labours of their predecessors ; but in the great qualifications of intimate and affectionate insight into the sacred text, and of making its meaning arresting and memorable, Matthew Henry excels all. He also wrote a biography of his father, which ranks amongst, the most delightful pictures of personal and domestic piety which later times have yielded. (Diet. Em. W. ; Imp. Diet. Biog.) See Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Funeral Sermons by Williams, Tong, Bates, and Reynolds, 1714 ; Tong's Account of the Life, &c., 1716 ; Lawrence's Descendants of Philip Henry, 1844 ; Jeremy's Presbyterian Fund, 1885, p. 106. Henry, Thomas, 1734-1816, a distinguished chemist, was born at Wrexham, and was intended for holy orders, but for pecuniary reasons he was apprenticed to an apothecary. He subsequently commenced practice on his own account at Knutsford. In about five years he removed to Manchester, where he practised as a physician, being employed for nearly half a century by the more wealthy inhabitants of the town and neighbourhood. He obtained considerable distinction as a chemical philosopher. He communicated to the Royal College of Physicians a new method of preparing magnesia alba, and in 1775 was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1781 he was appointed one of the secretaries of a philosophical society which was established at Manchester, and subsequently he became its president. He contributed a number of papers to its transactions, which greatly enhanced his reputation. In 1783 he commenced a series of lectures on the general principles of chemistry, and on the arts of bleaching, dyeing, and calico-printing. His private character was most exemplary,

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and as a scientist he was considered the most eminent man in Manchester. (Diet. Em. W.) See Diet. Nat. Biog. ; William Henry's Tribute to His Father's Memory ; Memoirs of Manchester Lit. & Phil. Soc., 2nd ser., v. 3, p. 204, reprinted with funeral sermon by J. G. Robberds, 1819 ; R. Angus Smith's Centenary of Science in Manchester, 1883, p. 108 ; Royal Society's Catalogue of Scientific Papers ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Young Wales, 1904, p. 26. Henry, William, 1774-1836, chemist, was the son of Thomas Henry, F.R.S., who was a native of Wrexham (1734-1816, see ante). He assisted his father in a general medical practice at Manchester, but afterwards studied at Edinburgh, where he took the degree of M.D. in 1807. In 1808 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, and was awarded the Capley gold medal. He wrote several essays, and collected materials for a history of chemical discovery. He was an accomplished and able man, and occupied a prominent place among the chemists of the age. He made valuable researches in chemistry, on which he contributed numerous memoirs to the "Philosophical Transactions " of the Royal Society. In 1803 he ascertained the law of the absorption of gases by water of different temperatures. He was the author of well-written sketches of Davy, Priestley, and Wallaston ; also of an excellent work entitled " Elements of Experi mental Chemistry " (1800), which passed through many editions, and is remarkable for accuracy in facts and literary elegance. (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Lippincott.) See Encyclopedia Britannica ; Biographical Notice by his son, William Charles Henry, M.D., in Memoirs of Manchester Lit. & Phil. Soc., 2nd ser., v. 5 and 6 ; John Davies' Skstch of his Character, 1836 ; Royal Society's Catalogue of Scientific Papers, containing titles of 39 papers by him. Herbert, Arthur, -1716, Earl of Torrington, admiral and commander-in-chief of the English Fleet, was the eldest son of Sir Edward Herbert, of the Montgomeryshire family of Herbert of Cherbnry. Immediately after the Restoration he attracted the notice of James, Duke of York, by whose favour he was very early promoted to the command of one of his Majesty's ships of war ; and, in the first Dutch war, in the reign of Charles II., he commanded the " Pembroke," and greatly distinguished himself. In the second Dutch war he behaved with great spirit and resolution, receiving several wounds and losing the sight of one of his eyes in his country's service. He was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty by William III., and took a leading and distinguished part in the revolution of 1688, for which he was created Baron Torbay and Earl of Torrington. He also received the thanks of the House of Commons for the service he had done the nation in taking the first opportunity of fighting the French in Bantry Bay. In 1690 he was in command of the English and Dutch fleets when they were defeated by the French ofF Beachy Head. He was afterwards tried by court-martial, but acquitted. His commission, however, was taken from him, and he spent the rest of his life in privacy. (Mont. Worthies, sec. edn., p. 105 ; Campbell's Lives of the Admirals, 1700 edn., vol. 3, p. 284.) See Peerage of England, vol. 3, p. 317 ; An Impartial Account of some

i

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Remarkable Passages in the Life of Arthur, Earl of Torrington, 1691; Bnrchat's Naval History ; Burnet's History of his Oum Time, vol. 1, pp. 671, 762 ; Debates in the House of Commons, 1690, vol. 2, p. 384 ; Lippincott. Herbert, Sir Arthur James, 1820-1897, a soldier, was the son of Mr. John Jones, of Llanarth Court, Monmouthshire, by Lady Harriett Plunket, daughter of the eighth Earl of Fingall. He was born at Llanarth, and educated at Prior Park Roman Catholic College. He joined the Royal Welsh Fusiliers in 1839, served in the Crimea in 1854-5, and was promoted colonel in 1860, major-general in 1868, lieutenant-general in 1877, and general in 1885. He was A.A.G. in 1856-7, D.Q.M.G. from 1857 to 1862, A.G.Q.M.G. at Aldershot from 1863 to 1867, and A.A.G. at the Horse Guards from 1867 to 1873. He was Q.M.G. to the forces from 1882 to 1887, when he retired from the army. He was gazetted C.B. in 1867, and promoted K.C.B. in 1882. He assumed the name of Herbert in lieu of Jones in 1848, and married in 1854 the widow of Captain Ferguson, of Houghton Hall. Carlisle. He was buried at Llanarth, Monmouthshire. (Bye-Gones, 1897, p. 242.) Herbert, Lord, of Cherbury, see Herbert, Henry. Herbert, David, 1762-1835, a clergyman, was a native of Cardiganshire, and completed his education at Oxford, where he graduated B.A. He was ordained in 1791 by the Bishop of Rochester, and, after serving in England for some years, he returned to Wales, and, in 1812, was preferred to the vicarage of Llansantffraid, in his native county. He was one of the ablest preachers the Church possessed in the Principality. (G.B.) Herbert, Edward, 1785-1848, second Earl of Powis, was eldest son of Edward Clive, first Earl. He completed his education at Cambridge, and in 1806 was elected M.P. for Ludlow. In 1830 he succeeded his father as lord-lieutenant of Montgomeryshire. He strenuously opposed the scheme for the creation of a bishopric of Manchester by the union of the sees of Bangor and St. Asaph, and eventually succeeded in defeating it. He was president of the Royal Cambrian Literary Institute, and of the Welsh School, London. He also became chairman of the Roxburghe Literary Club in 1834, and the following year contributed to its publications a most curious and valuable volume entitled " English Metrical Lives of the Saints by the Monk of Clare," written in 1443. He was buried in the chancel of St. Mary's Church, Welshpool, where a beautiful monument was erected to his memory. (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Mont. Worthies.) See Gent. Mag., 1848, pt. 1, p. 482 ; Dr. Dibdin's Reminiscences of a Literary Life, pt. 1, p. 403 ; Martin's Life of the Prince Consort, v. 1, p. 385 ; Doyle's Official Baronetage, v. 3, p. 87 ; Dodd's Peerage, 1847, p. 326 ; Times, 19 January, 1848 ; Brit. Mus. Cat. Herbert, Edward James, 1818-1891, third Earl of Powis of the present creation, was the eldest son and heir of Edward Herbert, the second Earl, E.G., by his wife, Lidy Lucy Graham, third daughter of James, third Duke of Montrose, K.G. He was educated at Eton and

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at St. John's College, Cambridge, where he was placed eleventh in the first class in classics in 1840, and the same year graduated M.A. His private tutor was Bishop Selwyn. He obtained the degree of LL.D. in 1842, and the honorary degree of D.C.L. at Oxford in 1857. He took great delight in the classics, which he continued to study throughout his life, often corresponding with distinguished scholars on points of classical criticism. (Mont. Worthies). Herbert, George, 1827-1894, Dean of Hereford, was the third son of Edward, second Earl of Powis. He was educated at Eton and St. John's College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1848. In 1850 he was ordained by the Bishop of Worcester, and appointed to the curacy of Kidderminster, which he served for five years. In 1855 he was appointed to the family living of Clun, and the Bishop of Hereford conferred on him the post of prebendary of Putson Manor in Hereford Cathedral. He did admirable work as a parish priest, and acted as a voluntary deputation for several Church societies. In 1867 Mr. Disraeli nominated him to the deanery of Hereford, where he did much to develop the influence of the cathedral. His sermons bore ample testimony to his erudition, and in all educational matters he displayed a keen interest. In a letter written by him shortly before his death—probably his last read in public—he claimed to be by descent a Welshman. (Mont. Worthies ; Bye-Gones, 1894, p. 306). Herbert, George Edward, 1809-1891, a soldier, was the second son of George Arthur Herbert, Esq., of Qlanhafren and Llanllugan, Montgomeryshire, by Elizabeth, eldest daughter, and heiress of Athelstan Hamer, Esq., of Qlanhafren. At the age of 17 he entered the army, joining the 9th Bengal Light Cavalry, which body he served with for twenty-eight years, passing with it through the Sikh and Afghan campaigns. He retired with the rank of lieutenant-colonel in 1858. He succeeded to the possession of the Montgomeryshire estates on the death of his elder brother, the Rev. John Arthur Herbert, rector of Penstrowed. He was a justice of the peace for that county and the North Riding of Yorkshire, and a deputy-lientenant for the North Riding, and in 1879 filled the office of High Sheriff for his native county. Amongst his Montgomeryshire neighbours, he was held in very high esteem for his character as a landlord, and for his kindliness to his poorer neighbours. {Bye-Gones, 1892, p. 235). Herbert, Henry, 1654-1709, created Lord Herbert of Cherbury, was the son of Sir Henry Herbert, a native of Montgomeryshire. In 1676, he succeeded his father as M.P. for Bewdley. He was afterwards in pecuniary difficulties, and in 1691 he petitioned William III. for the office of auditor of Wales on the ground of former service. In 1695 he was appointed Custos Rotulorum of Brecon, and in 1705 one of the Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plantations. He was a man of consider able ability, and distinguished for his affability and politeness. His judgment and capacity were so highly thought of in the House of Lords, that he was elected chairman of a Committee on a very critical occasion. (P. C. Collections ; Mont. Worthies).

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Herbert, Henry, -1738, second Lord Herbert of Cherbury, was the only child of the first Earl (1654-1709, see ante). In 1707 he was returned as member of Parliament for Bewdley, in succession to his father. He was an ardent Whig in politics, and greatly impoverished himself owing to his heavy expenditure in his electoral contests. (Diet. Nat. Biog.). See P. C. Collections, v. 7, p. 156 ; and v. 11, p. 344 ; Warner's Epistolary Curiosities, 1818 ; Chester's Marriage Licenses, ed. Foster, p. 669 ; Annals of Anne, v. 8, p. 361. Herbert, Henry, 1693-1751, ninth Earl of Pembroke, called, " The Architect Earl," was the eldest son of Thomas, the eighth Earl. He acted as one of the lords-justices during the absence of the King from England in 1740, and again three years later, and also in 1748. Walpole speaks of him as " a second Inigo Jones," and quotes several instances of his taste and skill in architectural design. He rendered valuable public service in promoting the erection of Westminster Bridge, since re-built. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1743. (Diet. Nat. Biog.). See H. Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, v. 3, p. 771 ; containing portrait ; Nicholls' Lit. Anecd. ; Cresy's Encycl. of Civil Engineering, London, 1856, p. 422 ; Report on Westminster Bridge in Parl. Papers, Reports of Select Committees, 1844, v. 6. Herbert, Henry, 1734-1794, tenth Earl of Pembroke, was the eldest son of the ninth Earl. He entered the army, and was made colonel of the Wiltshire militia in 1778. He was afterwards appointed governor of Portsmouth, and attained the rank of general in 1782. (Diet. Nat. Biog.). See Foster's Peerage ; Cannon's Hist. Records 1st Royal Dragoons and 15th King's Hussars ; Lord Pembroke's Art of Breaking Horses, preface to 3rd edn., 1778 ; 6th and 9th Reports of Historical MSS. Commission. Herbert, Henry Arthur, about 1700-1772, Earl of Powis, was the son of Francis Herbert, of Dolguog and Oakley Park. He was elected member of Parliament for Ludlow in 1727, and represented that borough in three Parliaments. In 1743 he was, by letters patent, created Lord Herbert of Cherbury (third creation). On the death of William, Marquis of Powis, in 1748, who left him his whole estate, he was further advanced to the dignity of Baron Powis, of Powis Castle, Viscount Ludlow and Earl of Powis, by letters patent, dated the 27th of May, 1748. In 1745 he was appointed lord lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum for Shropshire, and in the same year was one of the thirteen peers commissioned to raise a regiment of foot to suppress the rebellion, a task which, so far as he himself was concerned, he fulfilled in a very short time. (Mont. Worthies.) Herbert, Sir James, 1644-1709, was born at Colebrook, Monmouthshire, and was a distinguished member of the ancient family of his name settled in that county. He sat in Parliament for some years, and having rendered in that, and other ways, service to his country, he gained the respect and confidence of his neighbours, and the honours befitting his name and character. (Border Counties Worthies.)

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Herbert, John Maurice, 1808-1882, county court judge of the Monmouth Circuit, was the son of John Lawrence Herbert, Esq., of New Hall, Kerry, Montgomeryshire, by his marriage with Joyce Susannah, daughter of Charles Thomas Jones, Esq., of Fronfraith, Llandyseil, in the same county. He was educated at Hereford and Cambridge, and was called to the bar in 1835, joining the Oxford circuit. In 1847 he was appointed county court judge, and brought to the discharge of his duties an enthusiastic disposition, great industry, and a wide and extensive knowledge of the law, qualities which combined to make him a most able judge. He was a fluent speaker, and expressed himself with great clearness and force. His decisions were rarely appealed against, and more rarely reversed ; and, as shewing the estimation in which his judgment was held, trial by jury had become almost obsolete in his courts. (Mont. Worthies.) Herbert, Lady Lucy, 1669-1744, devotional writer, was fourth daughter of William Herbert, the first Marquis and titular Duke of Powis. She was professed in the convent of the English Angustinian Canonesses at Bruges in 1693, and was elected its prioress in 1709. She bore a very high character for devotion and the sanctity of her life, and wrote several books of devotion, of which many editions have been published. They appear to have been collected and published in 1791, under the title, " Several Excellent Methods of hearing Mass with fruit and benefit, according to the institution of that divine sacrifice and the intention of our Holy Mother the Church, .with motives to induce all good Christians, particularly religious persons, to make use of the same." (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Mont. Worthies). See Dodd's Church History, v. 3, p. 447 ; Husenbeth's Colleges and Convents on the" Continent, p. 55 ; Kirk's Biog. Collections, No. 43, cited in Gillow's Bibl. Diet. Herbert, Sir Percy Egerton, 1822-1876, lieutenant-general, was the second son of Edward Herbert, second Earl Powis. He joined the army, and saw much hard service in the Kaffir war of 1851-3, and afterwards in the Crimea. For his distinguished services in the Crimea he was made aide-de-camp to the Queen, and nominated a Companion of the Order of the Bath. He afterwards commanded the 82nd Foot during the Indian Mutiny, and had charge of the districts of Cawnpore and Futtehpore, till the spring of 1859. As a campaigner, probably few officers have ever exhibited greater powers of enduring fatigue and privation. It may with truth be said that he was a brave and true soldier, who worthily sustained the military traditions of his family, and the honour attached to the illustrious name he bore. He sat in Parliament, in the Conservative interest, for Ludlow, from 1854 to 1860, and for South Shropshire from 1865 till his death. (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Mont. Worthies.) See Burke's Peerage, under " Powis " ; Army Lists and London Gazettes ; Kinglake's Invasion of the Crimea, 6th edit. (1877-88), v. 3, 5, and 6. Herbert, Hon. Robert Charles, 1827-1902, a soldier, was the fourth son of the second Earl of Powis, and was educated at Eton and St. John's College, Cambridge, taking a first class in classics in 1855.

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He was high-sheriff of Shropshire in 1878, and a deputy-lieutenant of the county. He was aide-de-camp to the governor of the Fiji Islands from 1880 to 1883, and served in the Zulu War in 1879, for which he had the medal. He also served in the Soudan campaign in 1884, receiving the medal, clasp, and star. (Bye-Gones, 1902, p. 484.) Herbert, Thomas, 1656-1733, was the son of Philip Herbert, fifth Earl of Pembroke. He held several public appointments, and in 1707 became lord-lieutenant of Ireland. He was a man of great learn ing, especially in mathematics. He was president of the Royal Society in 1689-90, and it was to him that Locke dedicated his essay on the Human Understanding, " in token of gratitude for kind offices done in evil times." (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Collin's Peerage, ed. 1779, v. 3, p. 125 ; Burnet's History of his Own Time ; Macaulay's History of England. Herbert, William, -1745, second marquis and titular Duke of Powis, was the son of William Herbert, the first marquis, whom he succeeded on the death of the latter in 1696. Some years before this a proclamation had been issued for his apprehension on suspicion of abetting the French in a threatened invasion of England. To prevent his outlawry he surrendered himself in 1696, and was committed to Newgate, where he seems to have remained for six months, after which he was bailed out. A technical error on the part of the sheriffs of London enabled him to retain his estate. His son, William, third Duke of Powis, died unmarried in 1748, whereupon the dukedom became extinct. Under the will of the subject of this sketch his large estate devolved upon Henry Arthur, Lord Herbert of Cherbury, of the third creation, who was in 1745 created Earl of Powis. (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Mont. Worthies). See P. C. Collections, v. 5, pp. 381-91 ; Hist. MSS. Commission, 10th Rep. App. pt. 4, p. 398 ; Doyle's Official Baronage, v. 3, pp. 83-4. Herbert, Lady Winifred, -1749, afterwards Countess of Nithsdale, was the fifth and most celebrated daughter of the first Duke of Powis. The date of her marriage is not known, but her husband, William Maxwell, Earl of Nithsdale, took a leading part in the Jacobite rising of 1715, and was one of those who were obliged to surrender at Preston. Soon afterwards, he was tried and condemned to death, and sent to the Tower of London, there to await execution. From this fate the countess, with true wifely devotion, resolved to save him at all costs. She travelled night and day, mostly on horse back, through deep snow and tempestuous weather, that she might solace him in the dark hour of his need, appeal to the king to pardon him, or, if all other efforts to save his life proved unsuccessful, plan and effect his escape from prison. Failing to obtain his pardon, or a reversal of his sentence, she, with amazing coolness, skill, and courage, took two women with her to the Tower, one of whom was her maid, Grace Evans, Welshpool, and disguising the Earl partly in their and partly in her own clothes, she most cleverly deceived the guards, and brought her husband safely out of prison on the 23rd of February,

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1716, being the day preceding that fixed for his execution. (Mont. Worthies.) Herring, John, 1789-1832, a Baptist minister, was a native of Llanyspyddyd, Breconshire, and was ordained in 1811. In 1821 he was the means of forming a home mission in Cardiganshire, to which he devoted his attention for the rest of his life. He was a most eloquent preacher, and formed a large number of churches in that county. (Enwog. C.) Hicks, Henry, 1837-1899, geologist, was born at St David's, Pembrokeshire, where his father, Thomas Hicks, was in practice as a surgeon, his mother being a daughter of William Griffiths, of Carmarthen. He studied medicine at Guy's Hospital, and became a member of the Royal College of Surgeons. Returning to St. David's to follow his profession, he made the acquaintance of Salter, of the Geological Survey, and became inspired with his enthusiasm for discovery in a path which was then almost virgin. He made great progress, and became known as a geologist who was singularly acute, both in eye and mind. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Nature, v. 61, p. 109 ; Cat. Scientific Papers of the Royal Society ; Geological Mag., 1899, p. 574 ; Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, 1900, Proc. 58. Hill, Sir Dudley St. Leger, 1790-1851, a soldier, was the eldest son of Dudley Hill, a gentleman of Welsh descent. He was appointed ensign in the 82nd Foot in 1804, exchanging in the follow ing year to the 95th Rifles, now Rifle Brigade. As lieutenant he accompanied his battalion to South America in 1806, and commanded the scaling party that captured the north gate of Monte Video in February, 1807. In the subsequent attempt on Buenos Ayres, in the following June, he was wounded and taken prisoner. He saw active service in Portugal in 1808, and was present at Corunna. In the Burgos retreat his battalion lost half its numbers, and he himself was wounded and taken prisoner. At the storming of Sebastian in Sept., 1813, he headed the attack of the 5th division ; he was also present at the repulse of the sortie at Bayonne in 1814. In the same year he was made C.B., knighted in 1816, and made K.C.B. in 1848. He also received several Portuguese decorations, and on his return to England was presented with a sword and two valuable pieces of plate. At the date of his death he had attained the rank of major-general. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Phillippart's Royal Military Calendar, 1820, v. 4, P- 475 ; Cope's History of the Rifle Brigade ; Gent. Mag., 1851, v. 1, p. 552. Hinde, Charles Thomas Edward, 1820-1870, a soldier, was the second son of Captain Jacob William Hinde, of the 15th Hussars, by Harriet, daughter of the Rev. Thomas Youde, and grand-daughter of Jenkin Lloyd, Esq., of Clochfaen, Llangurig, Montgomeryshire. He was born at Plas Madog, near Ruabon, and in 1840 entered tbe service of the East India Co. On the outbreak of hostilities between Russia and Turkey in 1853, he volunteered his services to Omar Pasha, then commanding the Turkish Army on the Danube, and ^as appointed a lieutenant-colonel, under the name of Beyzad Bey.

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In 1854 he took an active part in the passage of the Danube, and the Battle of Ginrgevo, and was present at various skirmishes before Sebastopol in 1855-6. From the Crimea he accompanied the force of Omar Pasha to Mingrelia, and was present at the battle and passage of the Ingnr. For his services he received the English Crimean medal, and several Turkish medals and distinctions. He returned to India in 1857, and was appointed to a command in the state of Rewah, receiving the thanks of the Governor-General in Council for his services. He was promoted to the rank of colonel in 1862, and to that of majorgeneral in 1870. He died at Brussels, and was buried in the cemetery of Ixelle. (Mont. Worthies.) Hopkin, Lewis, 1708-1771, a poet, was born in Llandyfodwg, Glamorganshire. In 1767, in conjunction with Edward Evans, he published a rhymed version of the Book of Ecclesiastes. His fine translation of " Chevy Chase," and several of his poems, appeared in various numbers of the " Eurgrawn " for 1770. His poetical works were collected and published, under the title of "Y Fel Gafod," edited by John Miles, of Pencoed, Llanilid, Glamorganshire (Merthyr Tydfil, 1813). This volume also contains a short English poem by a son, described as the Rev. Lewis Hopkin, junior. Two poems on the death of the father were written by his friend, Edward Evans (17161798), and another, composed by Edward Williams (Iolo Morganwg), was published at Cowbridge, in 1772, under the title " Dagrau Awen." (Diet. Nat. Biog.) Hopkin, William, 1700-1741, a poet and musician, was a native of Llangynwyd, Glamorganshire, and died, as the result of an accident, in August, 1741. He was the composer of several songs, among them being the well-known one, " Myfi sydd fachgen ieuanc ff61." The popular air, " Bugeilio'r Gwenith Gwyn," is also attributed to him. ( Y Cerddor Cymreig, 1864.) Hopkins, Albert, about 1800, professor of mathematics and natural philosophy in Williams College, America, was of Welsh descent. In 1832 he established a noon-day prayer meeting for half-an-hour four times a week, and maintained it for forty years. In the words of SchafE, " acquaintance with Prof. Hopkins was a means of grace." ( Welshmen as Factors, &e.) Hopkins, Esek, 1718-1802, an American naval officer, of Welsh descent, was born in Scituate, Rhode Island, U.S.A. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Navy in 1775. He captured a British fort at New Providence and several vessels of war in 1775 or 1776. (Welshmen as Factors, &c, W. R. Evans ; Lippincott.) Hopkins, Stephen, 1707-1785, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, came of a Welsh family. His father, William Hopkins, of Cardiff, emigrated to America in 1670, and Stephen was born in Rhode Island, U.S.A., and was entirely self-taught. He was a farmer in his youth, and afterwards a merchant. He was chief justice of the Superior Court from 1751 to 1754, and subsequently governor of Rhode Island. He wrote and acted against the political course of England long before the Revolution, and after having tilled important

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offices in the State, he became a member of the first Continental Congress, remaining a member until 1799. He wrote a book entitled, " Rights of Colonies considered," which was published by order of the General Assembly in 1765. (Enwog. C. ; Wales and its People ; LippincoU.) See Wales, vol. 1, p. 282. Hopkins, William, 1706-1786, a clergyman and author, was a native of Monmouth, and took his B.A. degree at Oxford in 1728. After serving several curacies, he was presented to the vicarage of Bolney, in Sussex. In 1758 he was elected Master of the Grammar School of Cuckfield, and in 1763 he revised and published "The Liturgy of the Church of England." His last volume, " Exodus, a corrected translation; with notes, critical and explanatory," is con sidered a valuable addition to Scriptural criticism. He also wrote two treatises entitled, "Queries recommended to the consideration of the Public with regard to the Thirty-nine Articles," and a " Letter to the Rev. Josiah Tucker, dean of Gloucester, occasioned by his Apology for the present Church of England." His " Appeal to the Common Sense of all Christian People " respecting the doctrine of the Trinity, in which he sought to adapt Arian arguments to all capacities, was answered by Jones of Nayland, and led to a warm discussion. (Diet. Em. W. ; Imp. Diet. Biog.) Hopkinson, Francis, 1737-1791, an American author, wit, and patriot, who was descended from a Welsh family, was born in Philadelphia, U.S.A. He graduated at the college of his native city, and chose the profession of the law. Having visited England in 1765, and passed two years there, he returned home, settled at Bordentown, and married Miss Annie Borden. From 1774 to 1777 he published "The Pretty Story," " The Prophecy," and the " Political Catechism," three humorous and popular essays, which contributed to foment the spirit of freedom and to prepare the people for national independence. He represented New Jersey in the Continental Congress of 1776, and signed the Declaration of Independence. He was appointed judge of the admiralty of Pennsylvania in 1779, and in 1790 judge of the district court of the United States. Besides the above essays, he wrote " The Battle of the Kegs," a ballad, and others, in prose and verse. (Wales and its People; LippincoU.) See Sanderson's Biography of the Signers to the Declaration of Independence ; National Portrait Gallery of Distinguished Americans, vol. 3 ; Y Brython, v. 5, p. 157. Hopkinson, Joseph, 1770-1842, an American jurist, and author of " Hail, Columbia," was the son of Francis Hopkinson (see ante), and was born in Philadelphia. He was educated at the University of Pennsylvania, studied law, and rose to eminence in his profession in his native city. He was the leading counsel for Dr. Rush in his famous libel suit against William Cobbett in 1799, and was also employed in the trials under the alien and sedition laws before Judge Chase in 1800, and in the impeachment of the latter for alleged misdemeanour in office during these trials, before the United States Senate, in 1805. From 1815 to 1819 he was a representative in Congress, in which he distinguished himself as a speaker, particularly

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in opposition to the United States Bank, and on the Seminole war. In 1828 he was appointed by President Adams judge of the United Court for the eastern district of Pennsylvania, which position he held till his death. (Lippincott ; Harmsworth.) See Lives of Eminent Philadelphians, 1859. Howell, Daniel, 1824-1895, an engineer, was a son of William Howell, of Bont, Dolgadfan, Llanbrynmair, his mother being a sister of the first Rev. John Roberts, Llanbrynmair. His only education was that of the village school, but by perseverance and self-culture he acquired considerable knowledge. He was articled to Mr. Yates, a land surveyor, at Whittington, Salop, and in 1851 crossed over to America, settling in Cincinnati. In 1859 he removed to Wisconsin, where he was engaged as chief engineer on the Milwaukee and La Crosse Railroad. He afterwards settled at Toledo, Ohio, where he held for twenty years the post of chief engineer at the extensive works of the Smith Bridge Company. He stood in the front rank of his profession, and took a leading part in the promotion and construction of railway schemes. (The Cambrian, 1896, p. 129.) Howell, David, about 1740, was a graduate of Prince ton, America, 1766, and subsequently a professor of mathematics and natural philosophy in Rhode Island College " until college exercises were suspended, and the school was broken up, by the necessities of the Revolutionary War." He was afterwards appointed judge, and was regarded as one of the first lawyers of Providence County. He was also a member of the Congress of Federation. ( Welshmen as Factors, &c.) Howell, David, 1831-1903, "Llawdden," a clergyman and poet, was a native of Llangan, Glamorganshire, where his father was a deacon with the Calvinistic Methodists. At the suggestion of Arch deacon Griffith, he studied for holy orders, and was ordained in 1855. After serving as curate at Neath for about eighteen months, he was appointed secretary of the Pastoral Aid Society. In 1861 he became vicar of Pwllheli, Carnarvonshire ; from 1864 to 1875 he was vicar of St. John's, Cardiff ; vicar of Wrexham from 1875 to 1891 ; his last promotion being to the deanery of St. David's in 1897. In 1877 Arch bishop Tait conferred upon him the honorary degree of B.D. Among the Welshmen of the nineteenth century who sought to discipline the taste, direct the culture, and elevate the imagination of their country men, and to impart higher and more patriotic bent to all national movements, Dean Howell ranks among the foremost. He was a preacher of the evangelical type, and his style of preaching, his theological views, and his broad sympathies made him quite as popular amongst Nonconformists as among Churchmen. A thorough Welsh nationalist of the non-political type, he took a keen interest in Welsh movements, and was to the last an enthusiastic follower of the eisteddfod. Of him it could with truth be said that he was a great man, a great patriot, and a great Christian. He was a most eloquent preacher, and his orations on the platform of the National Eisteddfod will never be forgotten by those who were privileged to hear them.

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His father, John Howell, of Pencoed, was a poet of no mean order, and a volume of his poems appeared in 1879 (Wrexham : Hughes & Son). (Bye-Gones, 1903, p. 16.) See Cymru, v. 27, p. 73, el seq ; Y Traethodydd, 1890, pp. 227 and 300 ; Young Wales, 1902, p. 10 ; Y Geninen, 1903, p. 105, el seq, and March, p. 1 ; Ibid, March, 1904, p. 42 ; Welsh Religious Leaders in the Victorian Era. Howell, Griffith, about 1750, a clergyman, was curate of Llanymynech, near Oswestry, from 1784 to 1816. He had a remarkable talent for mechanics, and contrived a small drill for sowing any kind of grain, two rows at a time, adapted either for broad intervals or for equidistant rows of any breadth. It was also contrived so as to scuffle and hoe between the rows. He set up a good lathe for his own use, and spent much of his time in mechanical pursuits. Richard Roberts, the inventor (see post), received from him his primary instruction in the use of the lathe. (Agric. Survey, p. 177.) Howell, H. P., 1836-1899, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was born at Cemmaes, Montgomeryshire, and emigrated to America when a mere lad. In 1867, he accepted a call at Milwaukee, but in 1884 removed to Columbus, Ohio, where he remained until his death. In 1886 the Rev. W. Roberts, D.D., resigned the editorship of the Cy/aill, and Mr. Howell was chosen to undertake the work. He ranked among the best Welsh preachers in America. (The Cambrian.) See Cymru, vol. 4, p. 125. Howell, John, 1774-1830, "loan Glandyfroedd," a poet, was born in the parish of Abergwilly, Carmarthenshire. His parents were poor, and at an early age he was apprenticed to a weaver. Having a taste for music, he joined the band of the Carmarthenshire Militia, of which he became fife-major ; his leisure time he spent in supplying the deficiency of his education. He made such progress that he was appointed headmaster of the National School at Llandovery. In 1824 he published a volume entitled " Blodau Dyfed," containing a selection of poems by other bards, together with nineteen of his own productions. He was a good musician, and rendered valuable service as a teacher of psalmody. His poetry contains strong marks of genius, and is written with great metrical correctness and propriety of diction. (Diet. Em. W.) (Enwog. Cymru.) See Diet. Nat. Biog.; Blodau Dyfed (Carmarthen, 1824) ; Rolls of the Ruyal Carmarthen Fusiliers Militia in Public Record Office, London ; B. Cerddorion Cymreig. Howell, John, 1849-1896, a Baptist minister, was a native of Carmarthenshire. His early education was scanty, and he worked underground at a colliery at Aberdare whilst quite a boy. In 1870 he entered Pontypool College, and at the end of his course of training settled as pastor of the Welsh church at Cwmpark, Glamorganshire. Two years later he joined the English cause at Tonypandy, leaving there in eighteen months to take charge of the English church at Mountain Ash, where he spent eighteen years. He was a thoughtful and earnest preacher, a painstaking pastor, and an excellent public man. He was one of the most prominent members of the Glamorgan shire English Baptist Association, and was held in high repute as a

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journalist. His lectures on Palestine, Brittany, &c., in which countries he had travelled much, were very popular. (Baptist Handbook, 1896.) Howell, Pryce, 1827-1902, a Congregational minister, was born at Pontrobert, Montgomeryshire, and was trained for the ministry at Bala College. He was called to take the oversight of churches at Amana and Bethmaca in Carnarvonshire, and ordained in 1851. In 1855 he accepted a call from the church at Llanfyllin as co-pastor with the Rev. D. Morgan. After two years he removed to Penlan, Pwllheli, and in 1862 he settled at Ynysgau, Merthyr Tydfil. He had now developed into a powerful and popular preacher. In 1871 the church at Jeru salem, Festiniog, invited him to take its oversight, and there he remained till 1900, when he resigned his charge. The church at Jerusalem had increased very much during his powerful and most evangelical ministry. Soon after giving up his charge he removed to Rhuddlan. He received every honour that the denomination in Wales could bestow upon him. In 1880 he was elected to preach the annual sermon for the Welsh Union, and in 1888 he was called to the chair, when he delivered a very able and powerful address upon " The Authority of Christ in His church." All his sermons, addresses and articles to Welsh periodicals were models in conception and composition. A volume of his sermons, with a biographical sketch, edited by the Rev. Owen Evans, D.D., appeared in 1905 (Merthyr Tydfil: Joseph Williams & Sons). (Congreg. Year Book, 1903.) Howell, Richard P., 1831-1899, a self-made man, was the son of Daniel Howell, a small farmer in Montgomeryshire. In 1854 he emigrated to America, where he experienced the toil and trials of a young man in a new strange land. In course of time he became a most successful contractor, and was called upon to fill many honour able positions. For six years he was a member of the Board of Supervisors ; for five years was a member of the Board of Education, and in 1882 was elected assemblyman from the First District. For many years he was a trustee of the Taylor Orphan Asylum, and its secretary. He was also connected with the First National Bank for several years, and a director for years. ( The Cambrian, 1899, p. 233.) Howell, William, 1705-1775, a poet, was a native of Llangnrig, Montgomeryshire, but spent the greater part of his life at Llanidloes, holding the post of steward or agent of the Berthllwyd Estate for many years, and at one time serving the office of chief magistrate of that borough. He was a poet of some merit, but is best known as a publisher of a series of Welsh almanacks, or annuals, containing, in addition to the astronomical notes and other information usually com prised in such publications, original poetry and other literary matter of much interest. Ten of these annuals were published under his editorship, and attained great popularity. (Mont. Worthies.) Howells, Anthony, 1832a self-made man, was born in Dowlais, Glamorganshire, and emigrated to America in 1850. He became a successful merchant in Youngstown, and was afterwards connected with various coal mines. He took a prominent part in public affairs, and was State treasurer of Ohio in 1886, and postmaster of Massillon in 1889. ( Welshmen as Factors, &c.)

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Howells (David), 1797-1873, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was born near St. Clears, in Carmarthenshire. He commenced preach ing in 1815, and soon afterwards settled at Swansea, where he married. He afterwards laboured at Penybont, near Llandrindod, for six or seven years, as a home missionary, subsequently returning to Swansea, where he died. He occupied a very high and influential position in his own denomination, and was highly esteemed generally. He was a sound evangelical preacher, always acceptable, and often very effective. (Rees' Hist.) Howells, Morgan, 1794-1852, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was born in the parish of St. Nicholas, Glamorganshire. When sixteen years of age he was apprenticed to a joiner at Newport, Mon., but soon afterwards began to preach, attaining a prominent position in the denomination. His sermons and essays were edited by the Rev. E. Matthews, Ewenny, and published in 1858 (Swansea: Rosser & Williams), and his biography, under the title of "Boanerges," written by the Rev. E. Morgan, with an elegy by the Rev. William Thomas (Islwyn), appeared in 1853 (Cardiff: W. Owen). (Enwog. C.\ Cardiff Catalogue.) Howells, William, 1778-1832, a clergyman and author, was born at Llwyn Helyg, near Cowbridge, Glamorganshire. He was educated with a view to entering the legal profession,but this intention he afterwards abandoned. He went to Oxford in 1800, and while there was deeply influenced by the ministry of a Baptist preacher named Hinton. On his return to Wales he became intimately acquainted with the renowned David Jones, rector of Llangan, and, after his ordination in 1804, he became curate of Llangan, where he remained, and became deservedly popular, until the death of Mr. Jones in 1811. He then removed to London, where he served as curate to the Rev. W. Goode, until the death of the latter in 1816. He afterwards had charge of the church at Longacre, London, where he became extremely popular. He was interred in Trinity Church, Islington, where there is a tablet to his memory. In 1834 a volume of his sermons, with a memoir by Charles Bowdler, was published. (Enwog. C.) See Bye-Gones, 1899, p. 148 ; Cymru 0. J., pp. 643-4 ; Y Traethodydd, 1849 ; Memoir by the Rev. E, Morgan ; Funeral Sermon by the Rev. Henry Melville ; Allibone's Diet, of Eng. Lit., v. 1, p. 905. -Howells, William, 1818-1888, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was born at Cowbridge, Glamorganshire, and educated at local schools. He entered Trevecca College at its opening in 1842, ami was ordained in August 1847. His pastorates were Argyle Church, Swansea ; Zion Church, Carmarthen ; and Windsor Street (now Catherine Street), Liverpool. In 1865 he was appointed Principal of Trevecca College. Throughout his life-time he dreaded the public eye ; he always leaned towards privacy rather than publicity. Whilst others were " careful and troubled about many things," such as Presbytery and Synod meetings, committee meetings, and official positions in the connexion, he kept himself apart in the quietness and seclusion of the home. He read and studied the best authors, both ancient and modern ; he also

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enriched our hymnology with some of the finest hymns, and with translations of many beautiful Welsh hymns. Great were the services rendered by him to the denomination and to the country as Principal of Trevecca College. Being well-educated in his early days, and having travelled much outside the Principality, he was intensely alive to the need of an educated ministry for Wales, which accounts for his whole hearted devotion to the cause for upwards of 23 years. Principal Howells was a nephew of William Howells (1778-1832, see ante). (Historical Handbook.) See Y Traethodydd, 1889, p. 168 ; Y Geninen, Mar. 1889, p. 45. Howells, William Cooper, 1806-1894, United States Consul, was the son of a native of Hay, Breconshire. His grandfather, Thomas Howells, was a flannel manufacturer, and his father, who was engaged in the same business, emigrated to the United States in 1808, settling in Jefferson, Ohio. He was engaged in newspaper work from 1830 to 1874, when he was appointed by President Grant United States Consul to Quebec, where he remained for four years, afterwards serving for five years at Toronto. He was a member of the Ohio State Senate in 1864. He left two daughters and four sons, one of whom is William Dean Howells, the distinguished novelist. (The Cambrian, 1894, p. 318). Hughes, Alfred William, 1861-1900, a surgeon, was born at Corris, Merionethshire, and educated at the Dolgelley Grammar School and the Universities of Edinburgh, London, and Leipzig. He was the author of several important anatomical works and papers in anatomical and surgical journals. He was appointed professor of anatomy at King's College, London. From small beginnings, with no outside interest, by dint of his own hard work, indomitable pluck, and innate cleverness, he raised himself to a very high scientific position. During the South African War he organised a Welsh military hospital, and volunteered for active service. He died of fever contracted in South Africa, and was buried at Corris, where a memorial, in the form of a Celtic cross, was erected to his memory in 1905. (The Manchester Guardian ; Contemporary Portraits.) See Bye-Gones, 1900, p. 498 ; Cymru, vol. 20, p. 181. Hughes, Benjamin, 1824-1900, a mining engineer, was born at Bryn Mawr, Breconshire. His father, Daniel Hughes, was in comfortable circumstances, being foreman at the Nantyglo Ironworks, bo that he received a good education. He settled in America in 1848, and worked as a miner until 1855, when he was appointed foreman of the Diamond Mines at Scranton, Pennsylvania. In 1865, he was appointed general inside superintendent of several mines in that district, which gave employment to 7,000 men and boys. He attained a very high position as mining engineer, and was a member ot the American Institute of Mining Engineers, and served the State several times as a member of the Board of Examiners for Mine Inspectors. (The Cambrian, 1895, p. 1 ; and 1900, p. 232.) Hughes, Catherine, 1732-1813, an authoress, was the daughter of the Rev. John Jones, vicar of Llanegryn, Merionethshire, and a relative of the celebrated Rhys Jones, of Blaenau. She received the

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best education, and possessed considerable talent, shewing special taste for the classics. She also wrote a good deal of poetry and prose. (Enurog. C.) Hughes, Charles, 1823-1886, a publisher, was the son of Richard Hughes, founder of the firm of Hughes and Son, of Wrexham. He was educated at the Fairfield Academy (conducted by his uncle, afterwards well-known as the Rev. John Hughes, Liverpool), and subsequently at the Bridgnorth Grammar School. On leaving school he proceeded to London, where he entered the service of the wellknown publishers, Simpkin, Marshall and Co. There he acquired much of the experience which enabled him to extend the business established by his father. Returning to Wrexhnm, he joined his father, and took a prominent part in the religious and public life of the town. He was an earnest advocate of temperance, and was one of the pioneers of the peace movement, being selected as a delegate to attend an international peace conference, held at Frankfort-on-Maine, in 1848. As publishers of Welsh literature and music the firm of which he was the head has long been to the fore. (Bye-Gones, 1886, p. 33.) Hughes, David, 1800-1849, a Congregational minister, was born near Amlwch, Anglesey. In 1821 he entered Carmarthen College, and afterwards accepted a call to Newport, Mon. He remained there until 1839, when he removed to Trelech, in his native county, where he was remarkably successful ; during the ten years he ministered there the churches under his charge increased by 700. In 1840 he published a useful catechism, and five years later a pamphlet entitled " Eithafion a Chanol y Ffordd." (Enwog. C.) Hughes, David, - 1850, a clergyman, was a native of South Wales. He was educated at Jesus College, Oxford, and was an excellent scholar. In 1808 he was appointed rector of Hirnant, and five years later rector of Llanfyllin, Mont., a living which he held for 37 years. He was one of the public examiners at his University in 1810-11, and was corrector of the University Press when the corrected edition of the Bible was brought out in 1809. He also published a visitation sermon, and a small collection of psalms and hymns under the title, " Pigion o Salmau a Hymnau wedi eu casglu allan o waith amryw Awdwyr." (Llandovery : 1847.) (Mont. Worthies ; Cardiff Catalogue.) Hughes, David, about 1810-1881, "Cristiolus Mon," a musician, was a native of Llangristiolus, Anglesey. He was by occupation a schoolmaster, and served in that capacity for some years at Rhewl, near Ruthin. In 1842, he won an Eisteddfod prize for an anthem, "Gweledigaeth loan ; " in 1843, he published "The Sacred Melodist," containing his prize anthem, five other anthems, and six hymn-tunes ; and in 1851 appeared his " Athraw Cerddorol " (Musical Teacher), a handbook on the elements of music and voice-culture. A great mass of his musical compositions remain in MS. (B. Cerddorion Cytnreig). Hughes, David, 1813-1872, a Congregational minister, was born in the parish of Llanddeiniolen, near Carnarvon, and began to

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preach in 1832. He studied at Hackney College, and afterwards at the University of Glasgow, where he graduated B.A. with honours, and read theology under Dr. Wardlaw. He was ordained in 1841, at St. George's, near Abergele. In 1845 he removed to St. Asaph, where he became part editor of Y Beirniadur, and projected his chief work, a Welsh Scriptural and theological dictionary. In 1846 he settled at Great Jackson Street Church, Hulme, and in 1855 became minister of Saron Chapel, Tredegar, where he laboured till his death. He wrote a large number of articles for Y Gwyddoniadur, and edited and enlarged the English and Welsh Dictionary of Thomas Edwards (Caerfallwch), 1861-4. He also published a handbook on Geography, under the title " Elfenau Daearyddiaeth " (Bethesda : R. Jones, 1859). A second edition of his Theological Dictionary, edited by the Revs. John Peter and Thomas Lewis, was published by W. Hughes, Dolgelley, 1875-9. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Congreg. Year Book, 1873; Cardiff" Catalogue; Y Geninen, March, 1890, p. 49. Hughes, David, 1820-1904, a self-made man, and a prominent Calvinistic Methodist, was born at Cemaes, Anglesey, and received but a moderate education. On leaving school he was apprenticed to a carpenter, and, hearing of the success of some compatriots in Liverpool, he made his way there to seek his fortune. By dint of thrift, honesty and industry in the building line he succeeded beyond his most sanguine expectations. Very soon he rose to be one of the leading operators in house and warehouse property, amassing a large fortune. He was a generous subscriber to all philanthropic movements ; was placed on the commission of the peace in Liverpool and Anglesey, and in 1886 was high sheriff of his native county. (Liverpool Echo.) See The Monthly Treasury, 1902, p. 243 ; Cymru, v. 15, p. 121. Hughes, David Edward, 1830-1900, electrician and inventor, was born in London, and in his youth emigrated to America. His father, David Hughes, was the son of Robert Hnghes, bootmaker, of Bala. At an early age David Edward displayed a talent for music, and in 1849 he became professor of music at St. Joseph's College, Bardstown, Kentucky, where he had been educated. He took a great interest in experimental science, and this led to his undertaking the teaching of natural philosophy. It was during his tenure of the double office that the idea of his type-printing telegraph occurred to him. This was completed and patented in 1855. It was afterwards adopted by the American Telegraph Co. and most of the continental governments, but in England Hughes did not meet with the reception he expected. In 1877 he settled in London, and devoted much of his time to experimental work with apparatus which he himself had constructed. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, and received the Society's gold medal and many other decora tions and honours. He also invented the microphone (1878) and the induction balance (1879). (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Harmsworth). See Lippincntt ; Journ. Inst. Electr. Eng., v. 29, p. 951 ; Electr. Rev. v. 46, p. 185 ; Prescott's Electricity and the Electric Tel., 7th ed., v. 2, p. 603, it. seq. ; Preece & Sivewright's Telegraphy ; Preece & Staubbs' Telephony ; Fabrie's Hist, of Wireless Telegraphy, p. 289.

John Ceibiog Hughes.

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Hughes, Sir Edward, about 1720-1794, a naval officer, was born at Hereford, of Welsh parentage, and entered the navy at an early age. In 1740 Admiral Vernon promoted him to the rank of lieutenant, as a reward for the valour he had displayed at the capture of Porto Bello. He was appointed to the command of the " Lark " in 1747, and eight years afterwards he was in command of the " Deal Castle." In 1778 he was made a rear admiral of the blue, got a chief command in the East Indies, and was honoured with the Order of the Bath. He became an admiral in 1798. The story of his stirring life, his gallantry, his successes, and his sufferings, is well narrated in the account of the British Admirals. He had gained much wealth in India, and died at Luxborough, in Essex. (Bye-Qones, 1879, p. 236 ; Harmsworth.) See Ekins' Naval Battles of Great Britain, pp. 18098 ; Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Ralfe's Nav. Biog., v. 1, p. 137 ; Naval Chronicle, v. 9, p. 85 ; Charnock's Biog. Nav., v. 6, p. 65 ; Beatson's Nav. and Mil. Memoirs, v. 5, pp. 561-615. Hughes, Edward, 1773-1850, "Y Dryw," a clergyman and poet, was a native of Merionethshire, and for some years was chaplain on a man-of-war. He afterwards became rector of Llanddulas, and, in 1818, of Bodfari, near Denbigh, where he died. He was an excellent scholar, and graduated M.A. He wrote a good deal of poetry of a high order. His ode on " Elusengarweh " (Almsgiving), secured the chair prize at the Denbigh Eisteddfod in 1819. This award provoked considerable comment, the prevalent idea being that the premier place should have been given to David Owen (Dewi Wyn o Eifion). Hughes was also awarded prizes at the Denbigh Eisteddfod, 1828, for odes on " Boadicea '' and " Agriculture," together with the prize of the Cymmrodorion Society, in 1822, for a poem on "Hu Gadarn," the patriarch of the Cymry. A song of his is published in Y Brython, vol. 2, p. 232, slti English translation being given on p. 283 ; and two other poems are printed in " Ceinion Awen y Cymry." His ode on " Almsgiving " is published as an appendix to an essay on " The Antiquities of Glyn Neath," by Taliesin Williams (Aberdare : J. Howell, 1886). (Bnwog. C.; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Y Traethodydd, 1900, p. 273 ; Nodweddiad y Cymry, p. 268 ; Informa tion furnished by the Rev. S. F. Phillips, rector of Bodfari. Hughes, Edward, -1862, "Eos Maldwyn," son of William Hughes (1798-1866, see post), was also, like his father, an accomplished performer on the harp. Among many other Eisteddfodic honours, he won a grand Welsh harp at the Abergavenny Eisteddfod, with a silver medal, presented by Lady Hall (afterwards Lady Llanover). (Mont. Worthies.) Hughes, Edward, 1821-1894, a schoolmaster, author, and musician, was a son of the Rev. Wm. Hughes, a Wesleyan minister, and was born at Dolgelley, Merionethshire. He was educated at Machynlleth, Bristol, and Cardiff, and after following the trade of cabinet-maker for some years, he entered the College at Brecon, and in 1849 settled at Llechryd, about two miles from Cardigan, where he established a very successful school. He was the author of a useful

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" English Grammar," and also published "A Mannal of Words curiously derived, for the use of Students of the English Language," and a collection of dialogues and recitations. In 1862 he secured prizes at the Carnarvon National Eisteddfod for a poem on " The Drunkard," and an essay on " The Welsh Language." He also wrote essays on " The Best Method of Teaching Welsh Children the English Language," " The Migration of the Celts," and " The Translation of the Welsh Bible." He composed a number of tunes. (Cymru, vol. 32, p. 253.) See Y Qeninen, Mar. 1895, p. 61 ; Y Cerddor, 1894, p. 48 ; Yr Eisteddfod, vol. 1, p. 75, for his essay on " The Best Method of Teaching Welsh," &c. Hughes, Ezekiel, 1767-1849, the first Welsh settler in Ohio, was the second son of Richard and Mary Hughes, of Cwmcarnedd, Llanbrynmair. He was placed in a school at Shrewsbury for some time, and, when 18 yearp of age, was apprenticed to a clockmaker and jeweller at Machynlleth. Having finished his apprenticeship, he determined to seek a home in the far West. After having visited several Welsh settlements in Pennsylvania, he made his way to Fort Washington, now Cincinnati, where he was very successful. In 1805, he was appointed by the Governor of Ohio, with two others, to plan and make a road from the mouth of the Miami to Hamilton, Ohio, and in the following year was made a Justice of the Peace. President Harrison was one of his intimate friends and a near neighbour, and both laboured together as teachers in the same Sunday School. Throughout his life he cherished with great fondness his native Welsh language, and the religious principles of his youth. He delighted in reading Welsh books, and was always particularly kind to Welsh emigrants, hundreds of whom owed not a little to his timely assistance and advice. (Mont. Worthies.) Hughes, Francis W., about 1810 , an American lawyer, was the son of John Hughes, whose ancestors emigrated from Wales. In 1834 he commenced the study of law in Pottsville, completing his studies in Philadelphia. He was admitted in 1837, and soon proved himself a master of his profession. In 1839 he was appointed deputy attorney general, a position which he held for eleven years. He had few equals as a nisi prius lawyer. He was also famous for the argument of cases in the Supreme Courts, on appeal. ( Welshmen as Factors, &c.) Hughes, Griffith, about 1707, a clergyman and naturalist, is believed to have been the son of Edward Hughes, of Towyn, Merionethshire. He matriculated at St. John's College, Oxford, in 1729, and graduated M.A. in 1748. He became rector of St. Lucy's, Barbadoes, and published by subscription a " Natural History of Barbadoes," 314 pp. with map and 29 plates. He contributed a paper, " A zoophyton resembling the flower of the marigold," to the " Philosophical Transactions " for 1743, p. 590. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1750, the year in which he published

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his work on Barbadoes. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Foster's Alumni Oxonienses. Hughes, Henry Bailey, 1833-1887, a Roman Catholic priest, was the eldest son of the Rev. Howell Hughes, rector first of Trefriw, near Llanrwst, and afterwards of Rhoscolyn, Holyhead, and belonged to an old family long resident at Llwyn Pantdu and Cochwillan, in the parish of Llanllechid, near Bangor. Born at Carnarvon, when his father was curate of that town, he joined the Roman Catholic Church at the age of 16. Soon afterwards he entered the Dominican College at Lisbon, where he later on became professor. He then travelled on a preaching tour through Spain, Portugal, Belgium, and Italy, and was selected to preach at the great Vatican Council at Rome. For six months he was in Africa, with episcopal jurisdiction, instructing the natives in their own language, but his health gave way when he was about to be consecrated bishop. He subsequently had charge of a Portugese congregation at Boston, U.S.A. He there founded many convents and orphanages. He finally returned to Wales, and settled in the island of St. Tudwal's, off the Carnarvonshire coast. Father Hughes was an excellent linguist, and could preach in several languages. He composed a number of Welsh hymns, which his musical talent and powerful voice enabled him to lead his auditory in singing with effect. In early life he published a work entitled " A Romance of the Holy Wars." (Bye-Gones, 1888, p. 36 ; Information from the Rev. Father Jones, Carnarvon.) See A Sketch of the Life and Labours of Father Hughes, by J. H. Matthews, 1890 ; Cymru, v. 31, p. 39. Hughes, Hugh, 1693-1776, «Y Bardd Coch," a poet and antiquary, was born at Llwydiarth Esgob, near Llanerchymedd, Anglesey. His early education was somewhat neglected, but having good natural abilties, he soon made up the deficiency. He became a good Welsh scholar, and wrote several poems in Welsh and English. His poems, together with those of two other Anglesey bards, were published in a volume entitled " Diddanwch Teuluaidd ; neu Waith Beirdd Mon." They were also published in 1879 by Isaac Foulkes (Liverpool) in a small volume, with poems of Lewis Morris and Robert Hughes (Robin Ddu o Fon). He translated " The Laws of Natural Morality," and other English works, into Welsh. He was a diligent collector of old Welsh MSS., some of which appeared in the volume of "Iolo Manuscripts " published in 1848. (Diet. Em. W.; Cardiff Catalogue; Qwaith Beirdd Mon.) See Enwog. C.; Hanes Lien. G.; Y Brython, v. 1, sec. edn., p. 34; Yr Adolygydd, v. 1, p. 200 ; Y Qeninen, March, 1888, p. 61 ; " F Piser Hir," at Swansea Library ; Biographical sketch prefixed to Diddanwch Teuluaidd, ed. 1817 ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry; Works of Goronwy Owen (Rev. R. Jones), v. 1, p. 80 ; Y Geninen, March, 1904, p. 60. Hughes, Hugh, 1778-1855, a Wesleyan minister, was born at Llannor, near Pwllheli, Carnarvonshire, and while in the employ of a gentleman, near Liverpool, in 1805, he was converted, and in the following year commenced to preach. He exercised his ministry with

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remarkable acceptance and success, chiefly in South Wales, and in 1834, he was chosen one of the "legal hundred," an honour never before conferred on a Welsh minister. He translated some portions of Wesley's " Notes on the New Testament," into Welsh ; published several pamphlets, and was for some time editor of the Eurgrawn Wesleyaidd. (Rees' Hist.) See G. B., v. 1, p 551 ; Enwog. y Ffydd, v. 4, p. 432 ; Cofiant Hugh Hughes (Carmarthen : W. Spurrell, 1856) ; Enwog. C. Hughes, Hugh, 1790-1863, artist, was born near Llandudno. He was apprenticed to an engraver in Liverpool, removing afterwards to London as improver, taking lessons also in oil-painting. He was a radical in religion and politics, and signed a petition in favour of the passing of the Catholic Emancipation Bill. The London elders of the Calvinistic Methodist body, to which he belonged, thereupon expelled him, an act which he denounced in Seren Gomer, 1828-30. He married a daugher of the Rev. David Charles, of Carmarthen. His chief wood-cuts appear in his " Beauties of Cambria." In his know ledge of natural form and masterly handling of the graver, he has been compared to Bewick. He also published a volume of Welsh antiqui ties, and other works. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Bye-Gones, 1903, p. 129; Red Dragon, May, 1887; Seren Gomer, 1828-32; Tr Ymofynydd, 1890 ; Wales, v. 3, pp. 316 and 353 ; Cymru, v. 8, p. 21, et seq, for interesting extracts from his diary of a tour through Wales. Hughes, Hugh, 1805-1864, "Tegai," a poet, was born in the parish of Llandegai, near Bangor. He first joined the Wesleyans, but afterwards returned to the Congregationalists, with whom he had worshipped as a boy. He became well known as a powerful preacher. He set up a printing press of his own, and edited " Yr Arweinydd," a penny monthly, for many years. He was a very voluminous writer, and contributed largely to the current magazines. He competed fre quently and successfully at eisteddfodau, and often acted as adjudi cator. His principal works are those on " Logic," an Introduction to Welsh Grammar, and his " Grammadeg Athronyddol." (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Enwog. C. ; Y Geninen, v. 5, p. 261 ; Ibid, v. 7, pp. 100, 179; Hanes Lien. G.; Y Traethodydd, 1903, p. 295; Adgof uwch Anghof, p. 342 ; Y Geninen, 1887, p. 264 ; Ibid, 1889, p. 100, et. seq. Hughes, Hugh, 1825-1898, " Cadvan Gwynedd," a poet, was a native of North Wales, and was well known in Eisteddfodic circles. He was one of the first to advocate the establishment of a Welsh colony in Patagonia ; he was a member of the first company that went out, and was for many years a member of the council of the colony. He also, on several occasions, filled the office of President of the Colony. He was a frequent contributor to the Dravod, the organ of the Welsh people in Patagonia. (Bye-Gones, 1898, p. 406.) Hughes, Hugh Derfel, 1816-1890, " Huw Derfel," a poet and prose writer, was a native of Llandderfel, near Bala, but when young he removed to the neighbourhood of the Penrhyn Quarries, Bethesda, where he obtained employment. Later on, he became a machine-man, and as his duties were not onerous, he employed the respite from

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labour in self-improvement. He wrote a good deal of poetry, and several hymns, the best-known being " Y Cyfamod Disigl " (the Immovable Covenant), which has been translated into English. His "Hynafiaetb.au Llandegai a Llanllechid," published in 1866 by R. Jones, Bethesda, is a very interesting book. He spent a good deal of time in compiling a " Dictionary of Welsh Names," and had collected hundreds of names which he described as " much more pleasing in sound than the prevailing names, and much better suited, as distinctive names, than Edward, William, Thomas, &c.," but the collection does not seem to have been published. (Bye-Gones, 1894, p. 398.) See Cymru, v. 9, p. 83 ; T Geninen, Mch. 1893, p. 19 : Ceinion Lien. G., v. 2, p. 383 ; Cymru, v. 4, pp. 129, 177 ; Wales, v. 1, p. 10, for English translation of " The Immovable Covenant." Hughes, Hugh J., -1872, a musician, was born near Bala, and, about 1848, emigrated with his parents to New York. He was a very popular vocalist, and a prolific composer. Several of his works were published in America. He won a prize at the Utica Eisteddfod, in 1859, for an essay on the music of the sanctuary, and published several volumes of music. (B. Cerddorion Cymreig). Hughes, Hugh Price, 1847-1902, a Wesleyan minister, was born at Carmarthen, where his father, Mr. John Hughes, practised as a surgeon. He was educated at the University College, London, and at the Wesleyan Theological College, Richmond, Surrey. In a few years after entering upon the ministry he commenced his long and note worthy labours in connection with the West London Mission, and soon became the leading exponent of what was known as the " Forward Movement " in Methodism. He was editor of the Methodist Times from 1885, and was the author of " Social Christianity," " Ethical Christianity," " Essential Christianity," and other volumes. In 1898, he was elected president of the Wesleyan Conference. He was an able, zealous man, of intensely strong convictions, and took a leading part in various public movements. Probably no Welshman was more to the front in the religious life of England, during the latter part of the nineteenth century, than Hugh Price Hughes. (C. & D. Herald.) See Cymru, v. 16, p. 77 ; Hugh Price Hughes as we knew him (1902) ; bis Life, by his daughter, Dorothea Price Hughes (London : Hodder & Stonghton). Hughes, James, 1779-1844, " Iago Trichrug," a Calvinistic Methodist preacher, and author, was a native of Cardiganshire. At an early age, he went to Deptford, near London, where he found employ ment in the Dockyard, first as striker then as blacksmith. He began to preach in 1810, being ordained six years later. When he left Wales, his knowledge of English was very limited, but he soon became an excellent Latin, Greek, and Hebrew scholar. He is best known as the author of a commentary on the Bible. He commenced with the New Testament in 1829, and completed it in 1835. Three years later, hiH commentary on the Old Testament appeared, being published in five volumes. He also translated into Welsh a number of pamphlets on religious subjects, among them being Watson's " The Lord's Supper."

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He was a poet of considerable merit, and in addition to composing a number of beautiful hymns, he translated " Darkness " (Byron) ; " The Bard" (Qrey), and " The Grave " (Blair). Mr. Hughes was buried at Bunhill Fields, London, where a monument was erected to his memory in July, 1907. (Enwog. C.) See Enwog. y Ffydd, v. 2, p. 432 ; Hanes Lien. G. Several of his poems are to be found in Seren Gomer for 1820, 1821, 1822. Hughes, John, 1775-1854, of Pontrobert, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was born in the parish of Llanfihangel, Montgomeryshire. For some time he kept a day-school, and, in 1880, began to preach. Having had but few educational advantages, he, by dint of hard study, not only mastered the English language, but acquired some knowledge of Greek, Latin, and Hebrew. He, indeed, partly compiled for his own use a Welsh-Greek Dictionary, which still remains in MS. He was long considered one of the leaders of the Calvinistic Methodists in Wales. His sermons, many of which are published, were vigorous, terse, and lucid. His appearance was uncouth, his personal habits slovenly, and his voice somewhat harsh, but, notwithstanding these disadvantages, he displayed much power in the pulpit, and possessed great influence over his brethren. It is chiefly to him and his wife that Wales owes the preservation of the hymns of Ann Griffiths. He wrote the biographies of Abraham Jones, Aber-Rhaiadr, and John Price, Trefeglwys. He also contributed several able articles to the Traethodydd, and was the author of many hymns, among them " Bywyd y meirw, tyr'd i'n plith," " Duw ymddangosodd yn y cnawd," " 0 ! anfon Di yr Ysbryd Glan," and " 0 ! deffro, deffro, gwisg Dy nerth." (Mont. Worthies; Cardiff' Catalogue.) See Enwog. y Ffydd, vol. 2, p. 428 ; Hanes Lien. G.; Y Traethodydd, 1891, p. 97 ; Ibid, 1890, p. 364 ; Cymru, v. 30, p. 327 ; Goleuad Gwynedd, v. 1, p. 144 ; Y Drysorfa, 1799 and 1819 ; Y Cronicl, 1849, p. 318. Hughes, John, 1776-1843, a Wesleyan minister and author, was the son of a Brecon tradesman. He received a good education, and became a local preacher with the Wesleyans. In 1796, he was appointed a minister on the Cardiff Circuit, afterwards removing to the Vale of Clwyd. He subsequently had charge of the Welsh Wesleyan mission at Liverpool and Manchester, and, at the latter end of his life, resided as a supernumerary at Knutsford, Cheshire. He was awarded several prizes, including three silver medals, for his literary productions. His works include "A Plea for Religious Liberty ; " " Horae Britannicae ; or Studies in Ancient British History " (2 vols.) ; " Theological Essays and Discourses on the Nature and Obligations of Public Worship " ; " An Essay on the Ancient and Present State of the Welsh Language " ; " Memoir of Miss Pedmore, of Knutsford," and " The Memoir and Remains of the Rev. Mr. Fussel, Wesleyan minister." He also left several works in MS. one of which— "Historical Triads," translated, with notes—was deposited in the British Museum. His " Horae Britannicae," is regarded as a valuable contribu tion to the early church history of our country, and received the approval of Dr. Burgess and other distinguished archaeologists. (Diet. Em. W.) See Y Bywgraffydd Wesleyaidd, p. 121 ; Enwog. C. ;

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Hanes Lien. G. ; Wesleyan Methodist Mag., March, 1847 ; The CambroBriton, v. 2, pp. 122, 315, and 415. Hughes, John, 1787-1860, a clergyman, was born about eight miles from Aberystwyth, and was ordained priest in 1811 by the Bishop of St. Asaph. His first curacy was Llandrillo, Carnarvonshire ; in 1817, he accepted a curacy at Foleshill, near Coventry, where he was remarkably successful ; he afterwards removed to Deddington, Oxford ; and was finally preferred to the vicarage of Llanbadarn-fawr, Cardiganshire, soon afterwards being appointed archdeacon. He was a powerful preacher, and a fine platform speaker. During his stay at Deddington he travelled a good deal on behalf of the British and Foreign Bible Society. He composed a number of hymns, and published volumes of his sermons in English and Welsh. He also translated Henry's and Scott's " Commentary " as far as Deuteronomy ; and Bishop Hall's " Meditations of the New Testament" (G.B.) See Enwog. C. ; Hones Lien. G. ; Y Brython, v. 3, p. 448 ; His Biography, by the Rev. R. Hughes, prefixed to sermons, 1864 ; Y Geninen, 1897, p. 35 ; Enwogion Sir Aberteifi. Hughes, John, 1790-1857, an author and artist, was the grandson of the Rev. Thomas Hughes, LL.B., vicar of Llansilin, and a son of the Rev. Dr. Hughes, prebendary of St. Paul's. He began his school life at Ruthin, and graduated M.A. at Oxford. He published in 1822 an " Itinerary of Provence and the Rhone " (with good etchings by himself), which was praised by Sir Walter Scott. He also wrote some poetical pieces. He was celebrated by Christopher North as " Buller of Brazenose." Thomas Hughes, the author of " Tom Brown's Schooldays" (1823-1896, see post), was his son. (Bye-Gones, 1882, p. 115; Lippincott; Imp. Diet. Biog.) See Diet. Nat. Biog.; Gent. Mag., 1858, 3rd ser., v. 4, p. 225 ; Hughes' Memoir of a Brother ; Miss Mitford's Recollections ; Burke's Landed Gentry, 1868, s.v. Bughes of Donnington Priory ; Brit. Mus. Cat. Hughes, John, 1796-1860, a Calvinistic Methodist minister and author, was born near Wrexham, and began to preach when 17 years of age. For some years he kept a very successful grammar school at Wrexham, turning out quite a large number of students for the ministry. He spent the last twenty-two years of his life as minister in Liverpool, and attained a leading position in the denomination. He was a constant contributor to the Welsh magazines, and was the author of several volumes, but his principal work is his Welsh history of Methodism, published in three volumes by Hughes, Wrexham, 1851-4. This is a standard work, and met with a gratifying reception. (G.B.). See Trans. Nat. Eist., Liverpool, 1884 ; His Biog. by Revs. Roger Edwards and John Hughes ; Y Geninen, 1906, p. 157. Hughes, John, 1805-1883, a barrister, was the youngest son of Mr. William Hughes, of Penyclawdd, Denbighshire, and completed his studies at Edinburgh University. He was called to the bar at the Inner Temple, and was appointed by the Foreign Office English Secretary to the Mixed Commission, under Sir Rutherford Alcock, for the settlement of the claims of the Portuguese Government of the

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British legion commanded by Sir De La»y Evans. He was sent twice to Sweden in the interests of the firm of Overend & Gurney, as also to the Danish Government, to obtain the restitution of a considerable sum which had been advanced previous to the Danish-German War, in which mission he was successful. He was a ripe scholar, and a true Celt, devoted to everything Welsh, and loving the land and its history. He married, first, his relative, Dorothea, eldest surviving daughter of Mr. Richard Hughes Lloyd, of Plymog, Denbighshire, and secondly, Phillippa Swinnerton, youngest daughter of Mr. Robert Lucas de Pearsall, the eminent composer. (Bye-Gones, 1883, p. 274.) Hughes, John, -1889, an inventor, was a native of Merthyr, and at an early age entered the Penydarren, Cyfarthfa and Ebbw Vale works. He afterwards established a mechanical factory at Newport, Mon. Subsequently he was director for many years of the Millwall Iron and Shipbuilding Works, where he invented the hollow stringer, and constructed the celebrated Millwall Shield, which withstood the tests better than any other armour in England. This invention brought him into connection with the Russian Government, and he went to South Russia on a tour of inspection of the rich mineral deposits of that country. In 1869 he formed a company for carrying out an important Russian Government contract, which resulted in the found ing of the New Russia Company's Iron and Steel Works, near Mariopol, and the Sea of Azoff. From there was supplied all the material for the Russian railways from St. Petersburg to Samarcand. Out of compliment to the founder of the industry, the Russian Goverment gave the name of " Hughesovka " to the town. He died on the 29th June, 1899, leaving behind him a high reputation for industry, business enterprise, and exceptional natural talents. (C. & D. Herald). Hughes, John, 1825-1890, a Congregational minister, was born at The Struett, Brecon. When young he removed to Brynmawr, and here he began to preach when he was twenty-one years of age. After spending four years at private schools he was, in 1850, ordained pastor of the Congregational church at Bethel, Victoria, Monmouthshire, where he laboured faithfully for two and a half years. Towards the end of the year 1852, he accepted a unanimous call to the pastorate of Y Foel, Llanerfyl and Beersheba, in Montgomeryshire, to which was shortly added Dolanog, which he afterwards relinquished, and took the care of Beulah, Nantyrarian. He afterwards laboured successively at Hanley ; Aber and Talybont, in his native county ; Llangadock and Tabor, in Carmarthenshire, and Penmorth, Brecknockshire. He possessed a pure character ; a warm heart ; an active spirit, and an eloquent tongue. He gave himself heartily and unsparingly to the work of the ministry, and was the author of some treatises and sermons, which he published at the request of his ministerial brethren. (Congreg. Year Book, 1891.) Hughes, John, 1827 - 1893, a Calvinistic Methodist minister and author, was born at Llanerchymedd, Anglesey, commenced life as a shoemaker, and entered Bala College, where he remained till 1852. His first pastorate was Menai Bridge, and during a stay of four or five

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years he became a very popular preacher. He then accepted the pastorate at Fitzclarence Street, Liverpool, where he remained 30 years, daring which time he attained a high rank in the Connexion. He was moderator of the North Wales Association in 1871, and of the General Assembly in 1880, and received the degree of D.D. from an American University. In 1888, he removed to Engedi, Carnarvon, continuing there till his death. Perhaps the most prominent characteristic of his preaching was fulness. He was a weighty preacher, and influenced the people, not so much by the beauty of his ideas, as by what may be called weight, or mass. His theology was mainly Puritan, and this would account in a measure for his massiveness. He was an able and prolific prose writer, and besides contributing a number of articles to the Traethodydd, and other magazines, he was the author of three Welsh books of high repute :—" The Unity of the Bible " (1866) ; "The Ministry " (187!)) ; " History of Doctrine " (1883). He also translated Butler's " Analogy " into Welsh. His biography (Welsh), was written by the Rev. John Williams (Liverpool : Isaac Foulkes). (C. & D. Herald ; Y Geninen, 1894, p. 13, and March, p. 37.) See Y Geninen, 1897, 18a ; Ibid, 1906, p. 261. Hughes, John, 1836-1898, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was born at Rhosesmor, Flintshire, and from his youth he had to work hard, his father, a miner, not being in a position to give him much education. At the age of 21 he removed to Liverpool, where ho attended a night school, and afterwards a training college for students, with a view to entering the ministry. After a few years, he became a city missioner in Liverpool, and in the discharge of his duties he displayed the sterling qualities which made his subsequent pastorate so successful. In 1866 he accepted a call to Carneddau, Cefn Canol, Rhiwlas, Llansilin, and Creiglwyn, a group of churches near Oswestry. He afterwards resigned the pastorate of three of the churches, and devoted himself to the work at Carneddau and Creiglwyn. He was an excellent preacher, having a style characteristic of himself, and " Hughes, Carneddau " was a household word in the Calvinistic Methodist Church. He received repeated calls to undertake the pastorate of large churches in London and elsewhere, but always declined the tempting offers. He was buried in Zion Chapel burialground, Oswestry. (Bye-Gones, 1898, p. 338.) Hughes, John, 1842-1902," Glanystwyth," a Wesleyan minister, poet and author, was born near Aberystwyth, and was called to the ministry in 1868, Aberdare being his first circuit. He spent the last few years of his life at Bangor. He was a man of high intellectual abilities and great moral force, and became one of the best known and most popular preachers of his denomination. He took a prominent part in the formation and inauguration of the Welsh Wesleyan Assembly. He filled with efficiency the office of Welsh Book Steward and Editor, and was at the time of his death president-elect of the Assembly. He was editor of the Eurgrawn Wesleyaidd, and also one of the editors of the new Welsh Wesleyan hymn-book. Among his works may be mentioned " Oesau Boreu'r Byd " (The Early Ages of the World), (Holywell : P. M. Evans & Son, 1892) ; a Welsh " Life of

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Christ" (1891) ; a " Life of the Rev. Isaac Jones," and a volume of sermons (Welsh) entitled " The Image of the Heavenly." He was also widely known as a poet, and at the time of his death was engaged on an epic poem on St. Paul. (C. tfc D. Herald; Minutes of Conference, 1903.) See Y Geninen, 1902, p. 145, et seq. Hughes, John, -1906, a self-made man, was a native of Aberdare, and was apprenticed to the tailoring trade in that town. He emigrated to America at an early age, and settled at Wilkesbarre. Starting with a small tailor's shop, he gradually built up a very extensive business, and died exceedingly wealthy. He was the composer of several congregational tunes, and was an accomplished instrumentalist. He was a thoroughly patriotic Welshman, and was ever ready to assist his less fortunate fellow-countrymen. (The Western Mail, 10th March, 1906.) Hughes, John Ceiriog, 1832-1887, the greatest of Welsh lyric poets, was born at Pen-y-bryn, Llanarmon, Denbighshire. In 1848, he entered the employ of a printer at Oswestry, proceeding in the following year to Manchester, where he found employment as clerk in the goods office at London Road Station. In 1865 he was appointed station-master at Llanidloes, and, after two other changes, he removed, in 1871, to Caersws, in Montgomeryshire, where he died. It was at the Llangollen Eisteddfod, in 1858, that he at once secured a foremost position among tho lyric poeta of Wales by his exquisite composition on " Myfanwy Fychan," which is not excelled by any other poem in the language. The literature of Wales and its ancient institution—the eisteddfod—had no more devoted supporter than Ceiriog, and he did much to elevate both. His verse is always true to nature, always pure, always simple. His patriotic notes are stirring and strong ; everything Welsh kindled his imagination, and gave him inspiration. He was one of our first poets to practice humour without coarseness, and gaiety without flippancy. There was hardly any eisteddfod of importance in his day with which his name was not associated, either as competitor or adjudicator. His adjudications were, as a rule, carefully written out, and are still greatly valued. Several volumes of his poems were published, including " Oriau'r Hwyr," " Oriau'r Boreu," " Cant o Ganenon," " Oriau Eraill," and " Oriau'r Haf." He wrote a large number of songs for old Welsh melodies, thus rendering to the national airs of Wales service similar to that of Burns in Scotland, and of Moore in Ireland. About fifty of these are published in "The Songs of Wales" (Brinley Richards). (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Y Traetlwdydd, 1888, p. 417 ; Cymru, vol. 6, p. 27 ; vol. 22, p. 87 ; vol. 26, p. 35 ; Y Geninen, 1887, p. 148 et seq. ; 1888, p. 22 et. seq. ; 1892, p. 52 ; 1906, p. 245 ; Trans. Nat. Eist. Wrexham, 1888, p. 236 ; Welsh Lyrics, p. 55 ; Athrylith Ceiriog Hughes, by J. Ceulanydd Williams ; Ceiriog Hughes, by Isaac Foulkes ; Young Wales, 1899, p. 234 ; 1903, p. 109 ; Mont. Worthies ; Cyfres y Fil (O. M. Edwards). Hughes, John F., 1847-1903, a self-made man, was born at Cefn Coch, in the parish of Llangernyw, Denbighshire, and com

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menced life as a plasterer. He worked for some years in Liverpool and Manchester, and in 1872 sailed for America, settling in Utica. After working for some five years or so as a journeyman, he went into the building business, and became one of the most skilful and successful builders in the city. He was a life member of the Welsh Benevolent Society, and a member of the Cymreigyddion Society. He was chosen a school commissioner in 1896, and the city of Utica never had a better or more useful commissioner. (The Cambrian, 1903, p 215.) Hughes, John Gwynne, 1824-1904, a Congregational minister, was born at Narberth, Pembrokeshire. He received his early education there in a school conducted by his minister, the Rev. H. Davies, and began to preach at the age of sixteen, and a year later was admitted into Airedale College, Bradford. After a five years' course he settled at Odiham, Hampshire, in 1848, where he speedily gained the confidence and affection of his people, and filled and enlarged the building. He also took a prominent place among the ministers of the county, and became chairman of the county union. In 1857, he accepted a call to Maldon, Essex, and it was here, during a twenty-nine years' pastorate, that the great work of his life was done. He was for many years a director of the London Missionary Society. He was both mechanically and scientifically inclined, and became a member, and afterwards a fellow, of the Royal Astronomical Society. Mr. Hughes was endowed with an intellect massive in its proportions and solid in its judgments, which gave a singular weight to his utterances, whether on the platform or in the pulpit. With a mind of this order, fed and enriched by wide reading in many fields, he united a full share of Celtic fervour. And so his preaching was like himself, weighty, impressive, informing, and now and then kindling into the highest eloquence. (Congreg. Year Book, 1905.) Hughes, John Henry, 1814-1893, " Ieuan o Leyn," a Con gregational minister and poet, was a native of Llaniestyn, South Carnarvonshire, where his father held a small farm. The son was intended for the same calling, but shewed a preference for books. He spent some time at Bangor, as assistant master at the school kept by the Rev. Dr. Arthur Jones. He afterwards entered Brecon College, and was ordained in 1843. In 1847, he went out to Demerara, British Guiana, under the auspices of the London Missionary Society. Owing to ill-health he had to return in seven years, having in the meantime rendered valuable service to the cause he had at heart. He afterwards became pastor of the English cause at West Hartlepool, and spent the last eight years of his life at Cefn Mawr, near Ruabon. As a writer of poetry he was well-known throughout the Principality, and his poem, " Beth sy'n hardd " (What is beautiful), will live as long as the language in which it is written. A volume of his sermons, entitled " The Hand that Saves, and other Sermons," edited by the Rev. David Roberts, D.D., was published in 1895 (Wrexham : Hughes and Son). (Y Geninen, 1894; Congreg. Year Book, 1894 ; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Y Lienor (0. M. Edwards), book 1, p. 51 ; Y Geninen, March, 1894, p. 5.

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Hughes, John James, 1842, "Alfardd," a journalist, was born in the parish of Llanbadrig, Anglesey. He had very little schooling, his father being in very poor circumstances, and when about 16 years of age young Hughes made his way to Bangor, where he was employed as carter for three years, and as mason's labourer for five years. He afterwards served in the police force. By dint of hard study and the assistance of literary men with whom he became acquainted at Bangor, he became an exceedingly able writer, which led to his being appointed sub-editor of the " Herald Cymraeg." He had a facile pen, and was one of the ablest Welsh writers of the day. He wrote a good deal of poetry, and two or three Welsh novels. ( Y Qeninen, March, 1891, p. 58, and Oct., p. 232.) Hughes, Jonathan, 1721-1805, a poet was born at Pengwern, near Llangollen, Denbighshire. He resided in that locality all his life, and was buried at Llangollen. Jonathan Hughes and Thomas Edwards (Twm o'r Nant), were the principal bards of North Wales during the period from 1750 to about 1790, when two much abler men made their appearance—the Rev. Walter Davies (Gwallter Mechain), and David Thomas (Dafydd Ddu Eryri). A collection of Hughes' poems was published in 1778 (Shrewsbury : Stafford Prys). Some of his com positions are to be found in the MS. known as " Y Piser Hir " at the Swansea Free Library, and one poem is printed in " Golud yr Oes," v. 2, p. 271. (Adgof uwch Anghof, p. 75 ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry, p. 576 ; The Cambru-Briton, v. 3, p. 37). See Y Geninen, 1907, p. 215. Hughes, Joseph, 1769-1833, who took a prominent part in the founding of the Bible Society, though born in London, was of Welsh descent. He joined the Baptists at an early age, and was educated at the Baptist College, Bristol, and at Aberdeen and Edinburgh. He took his degree at King's College, Aberdeen, and acted for a time as professor at the Baptist College, Bristol. In 1796, he became pastor of the Baptist cause at Battersea, London, He afterwards became secretary of the Religious Tract Society, and first secretary of the British and Foreign Bible Society. He was the one who suggested the world-wide Bible Society, and to whose genius it owes its felicitous name. He gave it the benefit of his services so long as life lasted, and was indefatigable in travelling, speaking, and preaching for it. He is described as " notably a man who loved to make other men work. . . . It was he who set John Foster to his literary task, and though Foster was very grateful he was not infrequently irritated. He quickened the indolence of Robert Hall, much to the great preacher's discomfort. He disturbed even the deep and settled complacency of William Jay. . . . . He gained, however, the deep gratitude and reverence of all with whom he worked." (Llt/fr y Jubili ; The British Weekly.) See The Founders and First Three Presidents of the Bible Society, with portraits of T. Charles, of Bala ; Joseph Hughes, of Battersea ; and J. Owens, D.D., by Henry Morris (London : The Religious Tract Society). Hughes, Joseph, 1803-1863, "Cain Ingli," a clergyman and poet, was born in the parish of Trefdraeth, Pembrokeshire, and

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educated at Carmarthen and Ystradmeurig, where he greatly distinguished himself. He was ordained deacon in 1828, and priest in 1829, by the Bishop of St. David's. After serving as curate in his native county he was preferred to the rectory of Lockwood, near Huddersfield, removing in 1836 to Liverpool. A year later he became rector of Weltham, Yorkshire, where he remained till his death. He was an able preacher, and a most hard-working clergyman. He was a successful Eisteddfod competitor, and wrote a Welsh poem of a very high order on " Summer," and translated a large portion of Young's "Night Thoughts" into Welsh. (0. B.) See Y Geninen, 1897, p. 126. Hughes, Joshua, 1807-1889, bishop of St. Asaph, was born at Nevern, Pembrokeshire. When quite a boy he was sent to Ystradmeurig Grammar School, and afterwards proceeded to Lampeter, where he attained the very highest of honours, gaining the degree of B.D. After serving the curacy of Aberystwyth, he was, in 1839, preferred to the living of Abergwili. He was for 24 years vicar of Llandovery, and was known as one of the most laborious of Welsh clergy. In 1870, Mr. Gladstone offered him the bishopric of St. Asaph, which he accepted. He was the first Welshman since 1727 who served as bishop in his own country. The appointment was criticised because Hughes was not a university man, but events justified the choice. He favoured all reasonable measures of church reform ; laboured hard to secure Welsh-speaking clergy for Welsh parishes, and was one of the first supporters of the movement for promoting higher education in Wales. He was the author of several charges, sermons, and pamphlets. He was no orator, but his sermons were earnest and practical, and his confirmation addresses very pointed. As an earnest and hard-working parish clergyman, as an enthusistic educationalist, as an ardent patriot, as a wise administrator, and above all, as an honest man of deep religious convictions, who had the courage to express and act upon his carefully-planned opinions at whatever cost, Bishop Hughes gained for himself an honoured name that will live long in the history of his country. (C. & D. Herald ; Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Y Geninen, March, 1889, p. 29, and July, p. 141 ; Record, 25th January, 1889 ; North Wales Guardian, 26th January, 1889 ; Montgomeryshire Express, 29th January, 1889 ; Y Geninen, 1889, p. 141 ; Welsh Religious Leaders in the Victorian Era. Hughes, Lot, 1787-1873, a Wesleyan minister, was born at Abergele, Denbighshire. He was among the early friends of Welsh Wesleyan Methodism in the Principality, and was converted about 1802. In his nineteenth year he began to preach, and soon afterwards was called to the full work of the ministry. His educational advantages were few, but by diligent application he greatly improved his mental powers. His health failed in 1850, when he became a super numerary. In his comparative retirement he retained his mental faculties and usual cheerfulness, taking to the last a great interest in the prosperity of the work of God. His leisure hours were latterly employed in writing historical sketches of the Rise and Progress of

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Methodism in the Principality, which were published monthly in " Yr Enrgrawn." (Minutes of Conference, 1873.) Hughes, Morris, 1808-1863, a Calvinistic Methodist minister and prose writer, was a native of Llanberis, and was almost entirely self-educated. He began life as a quarryman, but afterwards obtained a responsible position in the slate trade at Port Dinorwic, near Carnarvon. He also devoted a good deal of his time to preaching, and became one of the most prominent members of the connexion in the district. He wrote several articles to the " Traethodydd " and " Drysorfa," and took a leading part in the temperance controversy. (Enwog C.) Hughes, Sir Richard, Bart., 1780, of the royal navy, was the son of Richard Hughes, Esq., of Deptford, who was of Welsh descent, and traced his pedigree to Bleddyn ab Cynvyn, prince of Powys. He held the post of commissioner of the dockyard at Ports mouth, and had the honour, in that capacity, of having as a guest at his house and publicly entertaining George III., during his majesty's visit to that celebrated arsenal. He was created a baronet in 1773. (Burke's Peerage, &c, 1P82). Hughes, Sir Richard, Bart., -1812, a distinguished naval officer and admiral of the Red, was the son of Sir Richard Hughes, Bart. ( -1780, see ante). He was second in command under Lord Howe in that memorable relief of Gibraltar, and captured the " Solitaire," and beat the French in the sea fight off Barbadoes in 1782. He was an excellent French scholar, and translated The Spectator into that language. (Burke's Peerage, &c, 1882.) Hughes, Richard, 1817-1879, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was born at Nevin, Carnarvonshire, and commenced to preach in 1839, being ordained thirteen years later. He was a diligent student, and an able and effective preacher. One of his sermons appears in " Y Gofadail Fethodistaidd." He published an interesting biography of Simon Griffiths, of Nevin. (Cyfansoddiadau Sam ; Y Gofadail Fethodistaidd, p. 79.) Hughes, Richard Samuel, 1855-1893, a musician, was born at Aberystwyth. When quite a child he displayed an extraordinary talent for music, and in his fourth year he played the concertina on concert and eisteddfod platforms. A year later he made his first public appearance as a pianist. When seven years of age he competed in a pianoforte solo at the Carnarvon National Eisteddfod, 1862, and was awarded the prize. Some years afterwards he studied at the Royal Academy of Music, and subsequently received instruction on the organ from Dr. Roland Rogers, Bangor, who regarded him as the Sullivan of Wales. He spent the last few years of his life at Bethesda. He was probably the best pianist Wales has produced, and as a composer of songs he had few equals. His best-known compositions are " Y Golomen Wen," " Wyt ti'n cofio'r lloer yn codi," " Mary Lee," " Bradwriaeth y Don," and " Lie treigla'r Caveri." He died at Bethesda, and was buried at Glanogwen. ( Y Geninen, 1893, p. 129.) See Cymru, vol. 4, p. 237 ; Y Geninen, 1894, p. 63.

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Hughes, Robert, 1744- 1785, " Robin Ddu yr Ail o F6n," a poet and critic, was bom at Penmynydd, Anglesey. He was well educated, and kept a school at Amlwch, and afterwards in Shropshire. He subsequently removed to London, where he was employed as barrister's clerk for twenty years. He was one of the founders of the Gwyneddigion Society, and an active member for some years. Some of his poems were included in the volume entitled " Dewisol Ganiadau," and three of his compositions appear in " Gwaith Beirdd Mon " (Liverpool : Isaac Foulkes, 1879). A beautiful poem of his is to be found in " Y Brython," v. 3, p. 376. Unlike many of his con temporaries, he never wrote an impure line, or suggested an impure thought. His latter years were spent at Carnarvon, where he died. A monument was erected to his memory at Llanbeblig, Carnarvon, by the Gwyneddigion Society. Dr. W. Owen Pughe has an appre ciative reference to him in the introduction to his Welsh-English Dictionary. (Diet. Em. W. ; Gwaith Beirdd Hon. ; T Cymmrodor, vol. 10, p. 54.) Hughes, Robert, 1810-1892, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, poet, and artist, was a native of Carnarvonshire, and spent most of his lifetime at Uwchlaw'rffynon, near Pwllheli. He was a self-taught portrait and landscape painter. On one occasion, Lord Newborough, who was his personal friend, sat to him, and his Lordship's portrait, from the easel of the old minister, adorns the little dissenting chapel erected by Lord Newborough at Bardsey Island. Mr. Hughes was also a poet of some merit ; one of his poems, " Cywydd y Meddwyn " (an Ode on the Drunkard), appears in the Traethodydd for 1848. He attained considerable reputation as an antiquary. (C. & D. Herald.) Hughes, Rowland, 1811-1861, a Wesleyan minister and author, was born at Bala, but brought up at Dolgelley, his parents removing to the latter town when he was very young. He preached his first sermon in 1829, and soon became one of the most prominent men in the connexion. He ministered with great success at Carnarvon, Beaumaris, Liverpool, and elsewhere. He translated into Welsh, John Wesley's Notes on the New Testament, a volume which had a wide circulation. He was also a popular lecturer, among his subjects being " Divine Providence," and " The Deluge and Theology." A volume of his sermons was published in 1877, with a biographical and critical essay by the Rev. John Hugh Evans (Cynfaen). ((?. B.) ; Cardiff Catalogue. See Y Geninen, March, 1900, p. 58. Hughes, Samuel, 1823-1885, a Baptist minister and author, was born at Llangollen. He was well educated, and his earlier years were devoted to business pursuits. He commenced preaching when rather young, and for a number of years supplied the pulpits of English and Welsh churches at Llangollen and district, as well as on the borders of the English counties. He departed for America in 1868, and ministered successively at Camden, Canton, Cape May, and Berlin (New Jersey). He was an excellent preacher and a cultured scholar. Clear thinking was parent to a logical order and a trans parency of style that made the truth perspicuous. Some years before his death he published a work on " Baptism." (Baptist Handbook, 1886.)

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Hughes, Thomas, 1803-1898, "Glan Pherath," a Calvinistic Methodist minister and poet, was born at Trawsfynydd, Merioneth shire, and began life as a schoolmaster. At the request of the Rev. Richard Jones, of Worn, he undertook the charge of a day school at Festiniog, where he remained until he began to preach in 1823. He left Festiniog and settled at Llanelltyd, removing two years later to Machynlleth. It was as " Thomas Hughes, Machynlleth," that he became known throughout the Principality. In the earlier years of his ministry he was one of the popular preachers of Wales. At his death he was the oldest minister in the Principality, and had been preaching for 77 years. The published volume of his poetry, entitled " Y Garnedd Arian " (Llanidloes : 0. Mills, circa 1857) shews that he was one of the masters of the Welsh alliterative metres, and also an able writer of blank verse. In 1837, he published a Welsh translation of George Whitefield's " Biography." He was a frequent contributor to the Welsh press, and a short time before his death wrote several chapters of reminiscences for " Cymru." His remains were interred at Penmorfa, Tremadoc. (Bye-Gones, 1898, p. 441 ; Cardiff Cata logue.) See His Reminiscences in Cymru, vols. 6, 7, and 8 ; Cymru, vol. 6, pp. 108 and 197 ; Ibid, vol. 15, p. 225. Hughes, Thomas, 1822-1896, social economist and author, was of Welsh extraction. His great grandfather, the Rev. Thomas Hughes, LL.B., was vicar of Llansilin from 1763 to 1776, and head master of Ruthin School from 1739 to 1768. The latter's son was Dr. Thomas Hughes, Prebendary of St. Paul's London, and his son, Mr. John Hughes, M.A., of Oriel, began his school life at Ruthin. The subject of this sketch was the son of John Hughes, and was born at Uppington, Berkshire. In 1848, he joined the Christian Socialist movement, under F. D. Maurice and Charles Kingsley, and was one of the founders and principals of the Working Men's College, London. He sat in Parliament as a Liberal from 1865 to 1874, and presided at the first Co-operative Congress in 1869. A project (1879) to establish a model community at Rugby, Tennessee, resulted in heavy pecuniary loss. In 1857, appeared anonymously his first work, " Tom Brown's Schooldays," a fictitious delineation of school life at Rugby under Dr. Arnold. The work was immediately successful with a much higher class of readers than that to which the ordinary novel appeals, and it passed through several editions. He also wrote " The Scouring of the White Horse " (1858), and " Tom Brown at Oxford " (1861). He was a barrister by profession, and was made queen's counsel in 1869, afterwards becoming a county court judge. (Imp. Diet. Biog. ; Harmsworth ; Bye-Gones, 188 ', p. 115.) See Hughes' Memoir of a Brother ; Economic Review, July, 1896 ; Life of F. D. Maurice ; Men of the Times, 13th edition ; Diet. Nat. Biog. Hughes, Thomas, 1826, an antiquary, was born at Chester, of Welsh parentage. He was educated at the Chester King's School, and afterwards took great interest in the restoration of that institution, with a view of giving it a place among the semi-public schools of England. He was elected a Fellow of the Society of

Rev. Hugh Price Hughes.

Rev. John Hughes, D.D., Liverpool.

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Antiquaries in 1865, soon after the publication of his excellent work, entitled " The Strangers' Handbook to Chester." Many of his antiquarian writings appeared in the Journal of the Chester Archaeo logical Society, and for many years he was editor of that work. The letterpress to " Batenham's Chester Sixty Years Ago," published in 1878, was from his pen. (Bye-Gones, 1879, p. 237 ; Private Information.) Hughes, Thomas, about 1830-1884, a Wesleyan minister and author, was the son of a poor quarryman at Llangynog, Montgomery shire. His parents removed, when he was young, to the neighbour hood of Llangollen, and there he began to preach in 1852. In spite of many difficulties he mastered the English language, and became an influential and popular minister in several important circuits. He was a voluminous writer, his chief works being (1) " The Ideal Theory of Berkeley and the Real World (1865); (2) "The Human Will, its Functions and Freedom " (1867) ; (3) " The Economy of Thought " (1875) ; (4) " Knowledge : The Fit and Intended Furniture of the Mind " ; (5) " Sermons : The Divine and the Human in Nature, Revelation, Religion, and Life " ; (6) " Things New and Old relative to Life, being Sermons on different subjects " ; (7) " The Condition of Membership in the Christian Church viewed in connection with the Class Meeting in the Methodist Body." The last-named work, disapproving of the devotional meetings, known among Wesleyan Methodists as " Classes," brought upon its author the displeasure of his brethren in the ministry. (Mont. Worthies.) Hughes, Thomas Jones, - 1891, a clergyman and author, was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and brought his university career to a close by becoming a wrangler. He was ordained a deacon in 1846, and priest in the following year. After filling several curacies he was appointed to Llanasa, and from that living was promoted to Llanbedr. Before a paid Diocesan Inspector of Schools was appointed, he was one of the Diocesan Inspectors of Schools, and also secretary to the Rural Deanery of Duffryn Clwyd. He died at Llanbedr, near Ruthin. He was a distinguished Welsh scholar, and took a prize at Aberffraw Eisteddfod for an essay on the English and Welsh languages, which evinced great knowledge of both languages. He was a lucid writer of Welsh, and contributed a series of articles to Yr Haul, a Welsh periodical, on "Obsolete Welsh Words in the Welsh Bible." From his learning he might have taken a high position as a Welsh writer, and like many others whose tastes are refined, the quantity of his literary productions does not equal their quality. (Bye-Gones, 1891, p. 37.) Hughes, Thomas L., 1809, a self-made man, was born in a farmhouse called Ffynon Tudur, in the parish of Llanelidan, Denbighshire. He lived in Ruthin for five years, learning the trade of saddler, which occupation he followed for some time. He emigrated to America in 1840, and went direct to Cincinnati, Ohio,

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where for six years he was employed as salesman in a large establish ment. Moving to Oak Hill, Ohio, in 1846, he established and carried on an extensive and successful business. In 18:14, he and a number of Welshmen combined to form a company called " The Jefferson Furnace Company,'' and Mr. Hughes became secretary. He was connected with the company for 26 years, and then retired with a competence. He was a justice of the peace for 20 years, and in 1870 was elected by a large majority member of the Ohio Legislature. He contributed a series of articles to the " Cyfaill o'r Hen Wlad " on the life of Christ and other scriptural history, which were published in book form in 1882. (The Cambrian, 1894, p. 33.) Hughes, William, 1761-1826, a Congregational minister and a poet, was a native of Llanystumdwy, in South Carnarvonshire, joined the Congregationalists at Pwllheli when about 20 years of age, and began to preach a year later. After serving in the ministry for some years near Bangor, he settled down as pastor of the cause at Dinas Mawddwy, Merionethshire. He composed a number of hymns and poems, and wrote a bioeraphy of the Rev. Richard Tibbott, of Llanbrynmair (see post). (Enwog. Meirion.) Hughes, William, 1779-1836, born at Peuyclawdd, Monmouth shire, acquired considerable eminence as a civil engineer. When quite a lad he became a pupil under Mr. Duneombe, and was engaged by him in the execution of the Ellesmere canal. Mr. Telford afterwards employed him upon the Caledonian canal, and he was also connected with the deepening of the Clyde, the drainage of Lough Neagh, and other public works. Eventually he had the oversight of some heavy works upon the London and Birmingham Railway, and for years before his death his character as a safe and able engineer was universally acknowledged. (Border Counties' Worthies.) Hughes, William, 1798-1866, a harpist, was a native of Llansantffraid, Montgomeryshire. He was a brilliant player on the Welsh or triple harp. He unsuccessfully competed, with Benjamin Connah and others at the Wrexham Eisteddfod in 1820. At the Carnarvon Eisteddfod in 1821 he again competed with Connah and nine others, carrying off the silver harp with twenty guineas. His success was received with great enthusiasm, although it seems that some of the adjudicators wished to award the prize to Connah. (Mont. Worthies.) Hughes, William, 1821-1886, a clergyman, was the son of William Hughes, Esq., of Llanfaes, Brecknock. He was educated at Shrewsbury School and Jesus College, Oxford, and ordained in 1843. He held curacies at Wollaston, Gloucestershire, and Tavistock, North Devon, and in 1858 became vicar of Ebbw Vale. Among the benefits which his zeal and activity conferred on that town, may be mentioned the erection of the beautiful church of Christ Church, the formation and endowment of the district, the establishment of regular services in Welsh, and also of English services at Victoria and Cwm, where he built the church of St. Paul. He took an active part in everything

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that contributed to the good of his populous parish, and was most kind and sympathetic to the poor. (Poole's Brecknockshire.) Hughes,William Bulkeley, 1797-1882, Member of Parliament, was born at Plas Coch, Anglesey, and educated at Harrow. In 1826, he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, and practised a short time, one of his clerks being Sir Hugh Owen (see post), who, partly through the influence of Mr. Bulkeley Hughes, obtained a clerkship in the then Poor Law Board. Mr. Bulkeley Hughes' family is one of the oldest in North Wales, and traces an unbroken descent from Llywarch ap Bran, lord of Tre-Llywarch, and founder of the second noble tribe of Wales. He became Member for the Carnarvon Boroughs in 1837, retaining the seat till his death, when, in point of age, he was Father of the House of Commons. He took an active part in railway enter prise in Anglesey and Carnarvonshire, and from its opening up to the time of its absorption by the London & North Western Railway, he held the chairmanship of the Anglesey Central Railway. Many Welshmen who held positions in the Civil Service owed their start in life to Mr. Bulkeley Hughes. (Bye-Gones, 1882, p. 32.) Hughes, William Gray, 1792-1824, a clergyman, was the son of the Rev. John Hughes, Llanddeiniol, Cardiganshire, and was born in the parish of Nantewnlle, in that county. He worked on a farm till he was 17 years of age, and then went to school at Bettws, near Llangeitho, kept by the Rev. Richard Richards, afterwards proceeding to Lampeter. He was ordained in 1815, and in 1822 became vicar of Mathry, Pembrokeshire. He was a most powerful and effective preacher, and seemed destined for a prominent position in the Church, but was cut down at the early age of thirty-two. (Enwog. Sir Aberleifi). See Nodweddiad y Cymry, p. 340.) Hughes, William J., 1833-1879, a musician, was born at St. Asaph, and received a good education, graduating B.A. He served as classical master in Enniskillen, Ireland, for many years, removing afterwards to Norfolk. In 1855, he took charge of the Llanrwst Grammar School, but subsequently removed to Rhyl, where he died. He composed several tunes, many of which were published in the " Ceinion " (Hafrenydd), and in " Caniadau y Cyssegr " (Gee). (B. Cerddorion Cymreig.) Humffray, John Basson, 1824-1891 (or Humphrey), was born at Newtown, Montgomeryshire, and early in life emigrated to Australia. In the colony of Victoria he took sides with the gold-diggers of Ballarat in the agitation caused by the oppressive administration of the law in the goldfields. He was the first member for West Ballarat (Grenville) in the reformed Parliament, and the first Minister of Mines for the colony. Withers, in his " History of Ballarat," describes him as " a young man possessing the patriotism, and, more than usual, the caution of Welshmen. . . . His voice was musical, and he possessed a readiness of utterance which made him one of the foremost of the advocates of peaceable reform." A monument has been erected to him in the Ballarat old cemetery, the inscription upon it including a Welsh couplet from Islwyn. (Wales, 0. M. Edwards, vol. 3, p. 461.)

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Humffreys, Mostyn, -1835, a soldiei , was a native of Montgomeryshire, and received his early education at Oswestry School. His residence was at Llwyn, Llanfyllin. He became a captain in the army, and spent the last few years of his life in India. He met his death while tiger-hunting in March, 1835. He was out on foot with a few sepoys of his detachment, and in attempting to rescue one of them that had been seized by a tiger, the infuriated beast sprang upon him, and killed him on the spot. The local paper, in narrating the incident, said, " Thus perished as fine a fellow as ever came to India," (Bye-Gones, 1885, p. 237.) Humphreys, David, 1753-1818, a colonel in the American army, and who was both a poet and historian, was of Welsh descent, and was born in Derby, Connecticut, U.S.A. Ho entered the army about 1776, and in 1780 became a colonel and aide-de-camp to General Washington. He often made Mount Vernon his home, and had the unreserved confidence of Washington to the end of his life. He went with Mr. Jefferson to France, as Secretary of Legation, in 1784. For his valour at Yorktown, Congress honoured him with a sword. In 1790, he went to Portugal as minister, and seven years later to Spain in the same capacity. He took command of the militia in Connecticut in 1812, and died a few years later. He aided Barlow and other poets in " The Anarchiad," and wrote other works, among which are a " Poem on the Happiness of America " and an " Address to the Armies of the United States" (1772). (Wales and its People; Lippincott.) See Griswold's Poets and Poetry of America ; Duvcknick's Cyclopcedia of American Literature, vol. 1 ; National Portrait Gallery of Distin guished Americans, vol. 2 ; Y Brython, vol. 5, p. 157 ; Enwog. C. Humphreys, Heman, 1779-1859, an American preacher of Welsh descent, was born in Simsbury, Connecticut, U.S.A. He graduated at Yale, and received the degree of D.D. He was for twenty-three years president of Amherst College, and is described as "one of the best and weightiest men of his age." To his potent influence the Congregational and Presbyterian Churches were greatly indebted ; and in his attitude towards slavery, and his advocacy of temperance he was a valuable moral factor. He wrote several valuable works, among which are " A Tour in France, Great Britain, and Belgium," 2 vols. (1838) ; " Domestic Education " (1840), and " Letters to a Son in the Ministry " (1845). ( Welshmen as Factors, &c.; Lippincott.) Humphreys, Humphrey, 1648-1712, Bishop of Hereford, was the eldest son of Richard Humphreys, Esq., of Penrhyndeudraeth, Merionethshire. He received his early education at the Free School at Oswestry, under the care of his uncle, the Rev. Humphrey Wynn, M.A., and afterwards proceeded to Jesus College, Oxford, where he took his B.A. degree in 1670, and that of M.A. two years later. He was successively rector of Llanfrothen and Trawsfynydd, and in 1689 was advanced to the bishopric of Bangor. He was afterwards translated to Hereford, where he died. Bishop Humphreys was an able Welsh antiquary, and wrote some memoirs of eminent Welshmen. He is

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described as " a person of excellent virtues during the whole course of his life, and in his later years, of a piety so extraordinary as has but few examples." The Welsh translation of Jeremy Taylor's " Holy Living " (London, 1701) was dedicated to Bishop Humphreys. This dedication is printed in full in Y Gwyliedydd for May, 1834, p. 139. He married Margaret, the daughter of Dr. Robert Morgan, Bishop of Bangor. (Cambrian Register, vol. 1, p. 160.) See Diet. Em. W. ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry ; Golud yr Oes, vol. 2, p. 310 ; Y Gwyliedydd, 1830, p. 158 ; Gent. Mag., 1826, Supp. 2nd pt. Humphreys, James, 1768-1830, a conveyancing lawyer, was the son of Mr. Charles Gardiner Williams, a solicitor in good practice at Montgomery. He was educated at Shrewsbury School, and after wards articled to Mr. W. Pugh, solicitor, Caerhowell. In 1787, he went to London, and entered as a pupil the chambers of Mr. Charles Butler. He afterwards established a high reputation and a lucrative practice as conveyancer. He contributed several articles to the "Supplement to Viner's Abridgment," but what brought him fame was his work entitled " Observations on the Law of Real Property and Outline of a Code," published in 1826. This publication had the effect of rousing the public and the profession to successful effort in the difficult and much-needed work of reform in the law of real property. Written in a popular style, and at the right time, the book attracted general attention and approbation, and his views, more or less modified, were adopted by subsequent writers and commissioners, and have since, with some great exceptions, such as the enfranchise ment of copyholds, become law. Shortly after his death an interesting memoir of him, written by his nephew, Erskine Humphreys, appeared in the " Cambrian Quarterly Magazine." (Imp. Diet. Biog. ; Mont. Worthies.) See Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Gent. Mag., 1830, part 2, p. 571, and 1831, part 1, p. 181 ; Law Mag., vol. 1, p. 613, and vol. 5, p. 258 ; Westminster Review, October, 1826 ; Bentham's Works, ed. Bowring, vol. 5, p. 387, and vol. 6, p. 203 ; American Jurist and Law Mag., vol. 1. p. 58 ; Kent's Commentaries, vol. 4 ; Quarterly Review, vol. 34, p. 520 ; Edinburgh Review, March, 1827 ; Butler's Reminiscences, pp. 56 and 284. Humphreys, Joshua, a naval architect, of Welsh origin, who gave to Philadelphia the pre-eminence it still enjoys for ship-building. In the words of Dr. Bishop, he formed " the germ of the American navy." He suggested to Congress important improvements in the construction of vessels ordered by that body, and was called upon to furnish drafts and models for the six frigates which then constituted the American navy. Tempting offers were made to enlist his genius in other lands. ( Welshmen as Factors, &c.) Humphreys, Richard, 1791-1863, a Calvinistic Methodist minister and author, was born at Dyffryn, Merioneth. He began to preach at an early age, and carried on business, at the same time, as a grocer, &c. He was ordained in 1853, and at once became one of the leaders of the connexion. He was a prolific writer, and many of his articles are to be found in the Geiniogwerth, The Methodiet,

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Y Drysorfa and Y Traethodydd. His biography (Welsh), with a selection of his sermons and essays, by the Rev. Griffith Williams, appeared in 1873 (Wrexham : Hughes and Son). (Enwogion Meirion.) See Y Traethodydd, 1845, 1846, 1847, 1848, 1849, 1851, and 1852 for articles from his pen. Humphreys, Richard Machno, 1853 -1905, a Baptist minister and poet, was born at Talybont, Cardiganshire. He spent three years at Llangollen College, nnder the Rev. Dr. Hugh Jones, and waa ordained at Cardiff in 1877. He afterwards removed to Wrexham, where he laboured for seven years, and spent the last fifteen years of his life as pastor of the Calfaria Baptist Church, Llanelly. He was a powerful preacher and an ideal pastor. He had long been closely identified with the Eisteddfod as an adjudicator and conductor, and belonged to a family remarkable for its literary and oratorical aptitude. He carried off the chair prizes at Wrexham (1885), Rhos (1887), Newcastle Emlyn (1888), Felinfoel (1901), and Pontyberem (1901), and was the winner of the crown prize at the Rhyl National Eisteddfod (1904) for a poem on " Thomas Edward Ellis." He acted as Welsh editor of the Llanelly Mercury. (The Manchester Guardian ; The British Weekly ; Baptist Handbook, 1906.) Humphreys, Robert, 1779-1832, a Wesleyan minister and poet, was born in the parish of Llanelidan, Denbighshire, and ordained in 1805. He was a popular preacher, and spent the latter part of his life at Beaumaris. He was a regular contributor to the Eurgrawn. He translated one of Goodwin's Essays, and published a collection of hymns for Sabbath Schools, and a small collection of poems, some being his own composition. (Enwog. C. ; Cardiff Catalogue.) Humphreys, Sir Salisbury Pryce, 1778-1845, a naval officer, was a grandson of the Rev. Dr. Salisbury Pryce, who for fifty-three years was vicar of Meifod. It was he who committed the bold, yet as some think, justifiable error of firing on the " Chesapeake," an American warship. He was an officer of some distinction, and saw a good deal of service during his short career up to the time when he was appointed a captain, but will best be remembered as captain of the " Leopard," when in 1807 at Halifax, Nova Scotia, under orders, he boarded the " Chesapeake " for the seizure of naval deserters, which led to loss of life on both sides, an angry correspondence between both Governments, and to his own ultimate retirement on half-pay. Notwithstanding this, he became a Rear-Admiral of the " White," and was made a C.B. in 1831 ; and Knight-Commander of the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order in 1834. He was buried at Leckhampton. (Moiit. Worthies.) See Old Wales, vol. 1, p. 353. Humphreys, Thomas, 1818 - 1868, a self-made man, was born at Newtown, Montgomeryshire. Early in life he made his way to Manchester, where he found employment in a drapery establishment. By dint of hard work, perseverance, and strict integrity, he soon made considerable headway, becoming partner in a leading firm of Manchester warehousemen. He acquired great wealth, and was a generous supporter of various charitable movements. (Cymry Manceinion.)

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Humphreys, Whitehead, about 1730, of Welsh descent, was proprietor of it steel furnace in Philadelphia from about the year 1770. He attained considerable fame as a worker in steel, and received £100 from the Provisional Assembly for the encouragement of his genius. ( Welshmen as Factors, <£c.) Huw Derfel, see Hughes, Hugh Derfel. Huw Morus, see Maurice, Hugh. Huw Myfyr, see Jones, Hugh. Humphreys-Owen, Arthur Charles, 1836-1905, a Member of Parliament, was born at Garthmyl, Montgomeryshire, and educated at Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge, where in I860 he graduated with honours in classics and moral science. He was called to the bar in 1863, and for eight years practised as an equity draughtsman and conveyancer. In 1876, he came into possession of the Glansevern estates in Montgomeryshire, and at once began to take a leading part in county business. It was, however, in the field of education that his work for Wales was principally done. He took an active part in the movement for founding the Welsh University, and for a time he served as its junior deputy-chancellor. He might almost be described as the " father " of the Welsh intermediate education system ; he was at work on it long before the Act of 1880 was passed, and he had a hand in shaping the measure itself, and rousing public feeling in favour of it. The value of his work was recognised by his election as the first chairman of the Central Welsh Board, a position which he retained up to his death. When Mr. Stuart Rendel became a peer in 1894, Mr. Humphreys-Owen succeeded him as the Liberal member for Mont gomeryshire. (The Manchester Guardian.) See Young Wales, 1901, p. 1 ; 1904, p. 46 ; Bye-Gones, 1905, p. 178. Humphries, Thomas, -1783, a clergyman and author, of Welsh parentage, is believed to have been born in Shropshire, although some say that he was born in Wales. He was educated for the Church, and became M.A. of St. John's, Cambridge. For some time, he was second master of the Free School at Bridgnorth ; and after that, in succession to his father, master of Downton School. He was also second master of Shrewsbury School, and during the time he filled that office he was preferred to the vicarage of St. Chad, in that town. He published a letter entitled " The first of a Series of Letters to the Author of Pietas Oxoniensis "; a Sermon on behalf of the Salop Infirmary, and "A Preservative from Criminal Offences," in 1775. (Border Counties'' Worthies.) HUWCO Meirion, see Thomas, Hugh Evan. Hwfa Mon, see Williams, Rowland. IagO ab Dewi, see Davies, James. IagO ab Ieuan, see James, James. IagO Emlyn, see James, James. IagO Trichrug, see Hughes, James.

200

A DICTIONARY lOF

Idris Vychan, see Jones, John. Idrisyn, see Jones, John. Ieuan Brydydd Hir, see Evans, Evan. Ieuan DdU, see Harris, John P. Ieuan DdU, see Harris, John Ryland. Ieuan Ddu, see Thomas, John L. Ieuan Fardd Du, see Thomas, Evan. Ieuan Glan Alarch, see Mills, John. Ieuan Glan Geirionydd, see Evans, Evan. Ieuan Gwyllt, see Roberta, John. Ieuan Gwynedd, see Jones, Evan. Ieuan Lleyn, see Prichard, Evan. Ieuan O Leyn, see Hughes, John Henry. Ieuan Tir Iarll, see Bradford, John. loan ap Gwilym, see Williams, John. loan Bryngwyn Bach, see Jones, John. loan Ddu, see Jones, John Foulkes. loan Glandyfroedd, see Howell, John. loan Madog, see Williams, John. loan Emlyn, see Jones, John Emlyn. loan Idris, see Davies, John. loan Mai, see Williams, John. loan Meirion, see James, John. loan Rhagfyr, see Williams, John. loan Tegid, see Jones, John. loan Twrog, see Roberts, John. Iolo Goch, see Roberts, John. Iolo Morganwg, see Williams, Edward. Iolo Trefaldwyn, see Davies, Edward. Iorwerth Glan Aled, see Roberts, Edward. Iorwerth Pentyrch, see Gittins, Edward. Iota Eta, see Evans, John. Isalaw, see Richards, John. Islwyn, see Thomas, William. Ivor Ceri, see Jenkins, John. Iwan, Bee Williams, David. J. R., see Roberts, John. James, Daniel Bloomfield, 1841-1900, a Congregational minister, hailed from Pontypool, Monmouthshire, and though

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thoroughly Welsh in blood and temperament, his training was almost entirely English. He was educated at Western College, Plymouth, and at the age of 27 accepted the pastorate of Castle Green Church, Bristol. Two or three years later he settled at East Hill, Wan lsworth, preaching to an ever-increasing congregation, so that it wa soon found necessary to enlarge the building. He afterwards removed to Swansea, succeeding the far-famed Thomas Jones. After ministering at Croydon, he settled in 1888 at Wimbledon, where he died. As a preacher he occupied a very high position. Intellectually gifted, and keenly alive to the best thought of his age, he was predom inantly an emotional man, and had the gift of communicating his own passion to his audience to a rare degree. He did not often make men laugh, but they often felt the touch of rising tears, as he played with unerring fingers on the chords of pity, and sympathy, and love. In this he was helped by one of the most wonderful voices ever given to man. Its note was a rich baritone full of undertones and harmonies, not too powerful, but capable of rising to a splendid volume in any climax of appeal or denunciation, and ever under the most perfect command, so that whether he whispered or thundered it was equally irresistible. (Congreg. Year Book, 1901.) James, David, 1803-1871, "Dewi o Ddyfed," a clergyman and poet, was born in the parish of Manordeifi, not far from Swansea, but in the county of Pembroke. He was educated at the Swansea Grammar School, and at Ystradmeurig. After his ordination, in 1826, he held a curacy at Granston, Pembrokeshire, and afterwards at Almondbury, Yorkshire. He subsequently held livings at Kirkdale (Liverpool), Marsden (Yorkshire), and Pant-teg (Pembrokeshire). He graduated M.A. at Cambridge, was a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, and a Ph.D. of Heidelberg University. He published, in 1836, " The Patriarchal Religion of Britain ; or a Complete Manual of Ancient British Druidism" (London: J. Brook), a very learned and elaborate work. While at Kirkdale he engaged in public debate with a Roman Catholic priest, and soon afterwards there appeared from his pen a volume entitled " Peter without a Primacy, or the Pope a Usurper." He stood in the front rank as a preacher and lecturer ; he was an excellent poet : and a most patriotic Welshman. (F Geninen, Mar. 1891, p. 21 ; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Nodweddiad y Cymry ; Y Geninen, Mar. 1889, p. 21 ; Tram. Nat. Eist. Liverpool, 1884, p. 613 ; Y Geninen, Mar. 1888, p. 68 ; Ibid, 1897, p. 201 ; Y Traethodydd, 1907, p. 166. James, Edward, about 1790, military surgeon of a regiment stationed among the Ogiburas tribe of Creek Indians, was of Welsh origin. He rendered valuable service to the missionaries who laboured there by translating the New Testament into the language of the natives, and preparing a spelling book for their schools. (Welshmen as Factors, &c.) James, Edward, 1839-1904, a Congregational minister, was a native of Llanfachreth, Anglesey, and in the days of his youth was bronght under the influence of that saintly minister, the Rev. William Griffith, of Holyhead. His first pastorate was at Llanaelhaiarn, in south Carnarvonshire, where he was ordained in 1861. A few years later

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he became minister of Morfa and Nefyn churches, where, for over thirty years, he remained iu great honour and usefulness, until incapacitated by illness about six years before his death. He was a man of great intellectual power. As a thinker, he was eminently original ; he was also a born orator, and at times his sermons told on vast audiences with wonderful effect. His denomination in the Principality conferred upon him the highest honours. In 1894 he filled the presidential chair of the Welsh Congregational Union, and in that capacity he delivered an eloquent address on " Welsh Con gregationalism in the Principality and the English Towns," at the annual meetings held that year at Cardiff. (The British Weekly.} See Congreg. Year Book, 1906 ; his Biography, by Rev. 0. L. Roberta (Merthyr Tydfil: Joseph Williams & Sons, 1906). James, Isaac, about 1770, an author, of Welsh descent, carried on business as a bookseller at Bristol, where he attached himself to the Baptists. He wrote " Providence Displayed, or the Adventures of Alexander Selkirk" (1800); "An Essay on the prophet Jonah" (1802), and gave considerable assistance to Palmer in the preparation of his " Nonconformist Memorials." (Enwog. C.) James, James, 1800-1879, " Iago Emlyn," a Congregational minister and poet, was born in the West of England, of Welsh parents. When eight years old he was left an orphan, and was cared for by his paternal grandmother at Dinas, near Newcastle Emlyn, Carmarthen shire. In 1840 he entered Carmarthen College, and afterwards served in the pastorate at Llanelly, Cardiff, Newport, and Portishead. His health failing hitn, he retired from the. ministry, and settled at Clifton, near Bristol. His attainments were considerable. He regularly read the Hebrew Bible and the Greek Testament, and had a fair knowledge of Latin. He was one of the best Welsh scholars of the day, and an exceptionally able Welsh etymologist. In 1848 he published a volume of his successful eisteddfod poems (Cardiff: Owen and Roberts) ; and in 1863 published another volume of his poetical compositions (Llanelly : J. Thomas). He was the author of " An Essay on the Philosophical Construction of Celtic Nomenclature, more particularly in reference to the Welsh Names of Places in Wales, to which is added a Vocabulary of Celtic Names of Places in Scotland " (Bristol : Jefferies & Sons, 1869). {Congreg. Year Book, 1880; Cardiff Catalogue.) James, James, 1833-1902, " Iago ab Ieuan," a musician, was a native of Argoed, Merionethshire, his father being Evan James, " Ieuan ab Iago," a poet of no mean fame. His father, when Iago ab Ieuan was still comparatively young, removed to Pontypridd, and here his son for many years assisted him in his trade as a weaver. It was during this time that the son composed the music for the Welsh national anthem, " Hen Wlad fy Nhadau " (The Land of my Fathers), his father having written the words. (Hie Cambrian, 1902, p. 100.) James, John, -about 1820, a Calvinistic Methodist deacon and hymn-writer, was a native of South Wales, and resided for many years near Llanymddyfri. He wrote many hymns of great merit,

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among them being " Mae'r dydd yn agos gwawrio, niedd fy ffydd," and " 'Does feddyg yn fy w, na balm o un rhyw." (Hanes Emynwyr.) James, John, 1777-1848, a Baptist minister and hymn- writer, was born at Aberystwith. He was pastor first at the Baptist Chapel in his native town ; afterwards at Pontrhydyryn, near Pontypool, and finally at Bridgend, Glamorganshire, where he died. In 1811, he published a collection of hymns, which contains about thirty of his own composition. His most popular hymns are " Den wen, bechadnriaid, deuweh, ceisiweh heddweh yn y gwaed " ; " Gwrandewir gweddi'r gwael sy'n gruddfan ar y llawr " ; and " Mae myrddiynau o'r rhai dnaf." (Hanes Emynwyr.) See Enwog. Sir Aberteifi. James, John, 1815 - 1851, " loan Meirion," an essayist, was the son of John and Sarah Jones, and was born at a small farmhouse called Tygwyn, in the parish of Llanymawddwy, Merionethshire. Having spent his boyhood in the neighbourhood of Dinas Mawddwy, he settled down in London, where he rose to a comfortable position through his marriage to a lady of means. He acted as one of the assistant commissioners appointed by the Government, in 1846, to enquire into the state of education in Wales. Their reports were very severely commented upon, and Mr. James came in for a fair share of displeasure, his report being the subject of a trenchant article by Dr. Lewis Edwards in the " Traethodydd." He was afterwards appointed secretary to the Welsh School, near London, and for some time edited a Welsh newspaper called "Y Cymro." He died in London, and was buried in the churchyard of Llanymawddwy. (Enwog. Meirion ; Bye-Gones, 1894, p. 427.) See Traethodydd, 1848, art. Addysg yn Nghymru : Reports of the Commissioners, by Lewis Edwards, D.D. James, Maria, -about 1838, a poetess, left Wales for America when seven years of age. At that time she could only speak Welsh. She found employment as a nurse, but soon attracted attention on account of the beautiful poems she composed. After her death a volume of her poetry was published in New York, under the title of " Wales, and other Poems," with an introduction and a biographical sketch from the pen of the Rev. A. Potter, D.D. (Enwog. C. ; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Dr. Jones' Cymry of the '76 ; Y Brython, vol. 5, p. 158. James, Philip, 1664-1748, a Baptist preacher, was born in the parish of Llandeilo, on the borders of Glamorganshire and Carmarthen shire. His parents were members of the Established Church, and they educated the son for the church, but before he took orders he »aw reason to change his views, and joined the Baptists. He was subsequently disowned by his parents, and wandered to Welshpool, where he resided for some years. For some time he lived with a medical gentleman of the Baptist denomination, with whom he was naturally led to the study of medicine, in the knowledge of which he became very proficient. Later on he returned to his native place, and began to preach in connection with the Baptists at Swansea, continuing for some years with much acceptance and deserving reputation. About

A DICTIONARY OF 1705 he settled at Warwick as pastor of the Baptist cause, removing afterwards to Hemel Hempsted, in Herts. (Noncon. Memorial.) James, Richard, 1804-1867, a Baptist minister, was born at Llanddarog, Carmarthenshire. He began preaching about the year 1819, and soon afterwards entered Bradford College, then under the able presidency of Dr. Steadman. At the close of his college course he was appointed by the North Wales Baptist Association as a missionary in the maritime parts of Flintshire, and resided at Rhuddlan. In 1825 he removed to Fishguard, Pembrokeshire, to undertake the pastorate of the Baptist Church in that town. Great prosperity attended his ministry there, and his renown as a preacher of the first rank was established. He held this pastorate till 1838, when he accepted an invitation from the Baptist Church meeting at Carmel Chapel, Pontypridd, where he laboured with great success till 1853. His reputation as a preacher was enhanced during his stay there, and wherever he was announced to preach, crowded congrega tions was the result. He continued to reside in Pontypridd till 1857, when he removed to Caerphilly, having accepted an invitation to the pastorate at Tonyfelin. (Baptist Handbook, 1886.) James, Robert, 1825-1879, "Jeduthyn," a musician, was a native of Aberdare, but removed at an early age to Merthyr Tydfil. He spent about five years in Australia, but afterwards settled in Pennsylvania, where he held the office of Clerk of the Courts of Luzerne county. He won several Eisteddfodic prizes for musical compositions, and, while at Merthyr Tydfil, he published a collection of tunes under the title of " Organ y Cyssegr." He was a very successful choir conductor, and was one of the early teachers of Dr. Joseph Parry, whose sister he had married. (B. Cerddorion Cymreig.) James, Samuel, about 1700a Nonconformist minister and author, was a son of the Rev. Phillip James, a native of Carmarthenshire. He was for some years pastor at Hitchin, where he died. In 1760, he published " An Abstract of the previous dealings of God with several eminent Christians in their conversation and suffer ings, taken from authentic manuscripts, and published for the comfort and establishment of serious minds," a work which met with a ready sale, a third edition being called for. (G. B.) James, Thomas, 1817-1879, "Llallawg," a clergyman and antiquary, was born at the old rectory house of Manordeify, near Cardigan. For some time after entering holy orders he was curate at Much Wenlock, Salop, and aftewards held a curacy in Derbyshire, where he stayed until 1816, when he was appointed to the incum bency of Netherthong. He was well versed in antiquarian matters, and was a valued contributor to " Bye-Gones." (Bye-Gones, 1879, p. 261.) James, Thomas, 1827-1899, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was born at Llansawel, Carmarthenshire, and began life as a shoemaker, afterwards finding employment at the Dowlais Ironworks. After saving a little money, he entered the Ffrwdfal Grammar School, and

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proceeded in due course to Trevecca, thence to Glasgow, where he graduated M.A. He then settled at Llanelly, where he kept a grammar school for some years. He was moderator of the South Wales Association in 1875, and secretary of Trevecca College for many years. He also acted as editor of Y Cylchgrawn. (Blwyddiadur y Methodistiaid Calfinaidd.) See Y Geninen, March, 1900, p. 37. James, Sir William, Bart., 1721-1783, a distinguished naval officer, was a native of Milford Haven, Pembrokeshire. At the age of twelve, in accordance with his own wish, he became a sailor. He was gradually promoted to responsible stations, and in 1749 the East India Company appointed him to the command of the " Guardian," equipped as a ship of war, and for two years he was employed in defending merchant ships against pirates. In 1751 he received the chief command of the Company's naval forces. In 1756 he completely destroyed the power of the pirate "Angria," and, on his return to England, was presented by the company with an elegant gold-hilted sword. Soon afterwards he was chosen a director of the company, and afterwards entered Parliament. A person who knew him intimately says that "as a thorough, practical seaman he was almost without an equal ; as an officer he was brave, vigilant, prompt, and resolute ; patient in difficulty, with a presence of mind that seemed to grow from danger." (Fenton's Pembrokeshire ; Pennant's View of Hindostan ; Diet. Em. W.) See Naval Chronicle, vol. 13, p. 89, with engraved portrait by Reynolds ; Notes and Queries. 2nd series, vol. 12, pp. 244, 354, 402 ; Low's History of the Indian Navy, vol. 1, chap. 4 ; Imp. Diet. Biog. James, William, 1833-1905, a Calvinistic Methodist minister and author, was a native of Cardiganshire, and in due time entered Bala College, under Dr. Lewis Edwards. He afterwards spent three years at the University College, London, graduating B.A. in 1862. In 1863 he became pastor at Aberdovey, and after a ministry of three years he removed to Manchester, as pastor of the church which then worshipped in a small building in Grosvenor Square, but which later removed to a handsome new chapel in Moss Lane East. Here he remained till his death. In 1876, he delivered the ordination address on " Church Polity " ; in 1888, he was elected moderator of the North Wales Association ; and, in 1892, moderator of the General Assembly. He was selected Davies lecturer in 1897, and took as his subject, "The Church, its Sacraments and Ministry." He wrote a number of text-books on the Pauline Epistles, which were marked by sound scholarship find exegetieal power ; and contributed several articles to the Traethodydd and other periodicals. A wide and industrious reader, his intellectual interests were not restricted by denominational or other limits ; as a preacher, he clung to the style of the strong men among whom he was brought up ; he was content, whether he spoke in English or in his native Welsh, with nothing but the purest language and the best thinking he could produce. (The Manchester Guardian, 20th October, 1905.) See Y Geninen, March, 1906, p. 1.

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James, Sir William Milbourne, 1807-1881, Lord Justice, was the son of Christopher James, and was born at Merthyr Tydfil. He was called to the Bar in 1831 ; for some time he attended the Welsh Sessions, but afterwards confined his work almost entirely to the Court of Chancery. Although not a brilliant speaker, he was a sound advocate, with a thorough knowledge of law. In 1870, he became a Lord Justice of Appeal and a Privy Councillor. He was a deep student of Indian history, and wrote a book on " The British in India." (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Times, 9th June, 1881 ; Solicitors' Journal, 11th June, 1881 ; Eulogmm by Baron Brarawell in Times, 15th June, 1881. Jeduthyn, see James, Robert. Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826, third President of the United States of America, whose ancestors were from the foot of Snowdon, in Carnarvonshire, was born in Virginia, U.S.A. He always boasted of his ancient British blood. Parton, the biographer, said of him, " Of all the public men who have figured in the United States, he was incomparably the best scholar, and the most variously accomplished man. And he was n Welshman, whose ancestors lived in sight of Mount Snowdon. No man was ever more fond of his Welsh blood than he." " His ancestry was Welsh," says Shepp ; and Duykinick, in his " Gallery of Eminent Men and Women," v. 1., p. 296, says, " His father, Peter Jefferson, belonged to a family originally from Wales." He was admitted to the bar in 1767 ; was elected a member of the famous congress of representatives of the various colonies at Phil adelphia in 177') : and afterwards served as Secretary of State in Washington's cabinet. In 1797 he became Vice-President under John Adams (see ante), and in 1801 he overthrew the Federalists and was elected President. In 1805 he was chosen President for a second term. During his last years he founded the University of Virginia. As the author of the Declaration of Independence, and the founder of the Republican (Democratic) Party, he has probably exerted a greater influence on the institutions of America than any other American, except Washington. (Welshmen as Factors,
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in May, 1752, Mr. Jeffreys succeeded him in his place of Secretary to the Chancellor of the Exchequer. In 1754, he was appointed Warden of the Mint. (The Red Dragon.) Jeffreys, John Gwyn, 1809-1S85, conchologist, was born at Swansea, and was articled to a local solicitor. He was called to the bar in 1856, and retired from practice ten years later, his tastes being rather scientific than legal. He was a Fellow of the Linnean Society, and of the Royal Society ; the University of St. Andrew's bestowed upon him the honorary degree of LL.D., and he did much work in connection with the British Association. He wrote more than a hundred papers on scientific subjects, but he is best known by his work on " British Conchology," in five volumes, which is regarded as the authority on the subject. His numerous scientific papers on conchological subjects have a special value, because of his intimate knowledge of English tertiary shells, and their relation to modem deep sea and littoral forms. His " Synopsis of the Pulmonobranchano Mollusca of Great Britain " was written when he was but nineteen years of age. On several occasions he either conducted or took part in exploring voyages in the North Atlantic and on the North Eastern coast of the United States. (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Bye-Q-ones, 1885, p. 171.) See Proceedings of the Royal Society, 1885, pp. 1-15 ; Nature, 1885, p. 317 ; Royal Society's Catalogue of Scientific Papers, 1865-1878 ; Red Dragon, vol. 7, p. 289. Jenkins, Charles Vanbrugh, 1822-1892, a soldier, was of Welsh parentage, being the son of Mr. Robert B. C. L. Jenkins, of Charlton Hill, Shrewsbury, by his marriage with Elizabeth, second daughter of Mr. Richard Jenkins, of Bicton. He entered the Indian army in August, 1839, and served with the Bengal Light Cavalry in the Afghanistan campaign of 1842, under General Pollock, taking part in the forcing of the Khyber Pass, the relief of Jellalabad, and all the actions leading to the re-occupation of Cabul, including the cavalry charge in the Tezeen Valley, for which services he received the medal. He also took part in the Gwalior campaign of L843-4, including the battle of Maharajpore, for which he had the bronze star ; in the Sutlej campaign of 1846, including the battle of Aliwal, for which he also had the medal ; and in the Punjaub in 1848-9, for which he received a third medal, with two clasps. He became a lieutenantcolonel in 1862, and retired from the 19th Hussars in July, 1877, on an Indian pension. He afterwards resided at Cruckton Hall, near Shrewsbury, where he died. (Bye-Qones, 1892, p. 467.) Jenkins, David Miles, 1837-1901, a Congregational minister and author, was born at Tielyn, Monmouthshire. On his mother's side he was descended from Miles of Olchon, reputed to be the founder of the Strict Baptist denomination in Wales. Commencing to preach in 1856 he went to Newcastle Emlyn for preparation, and thence to Bala College, where he remained until 1861, when he was ordained at Aberhoean. In 1866 he removed to Newtown, Montgomeryshire, and in 1870 to Penmaenmawr, where his work was abundantly blessed. In 1874 he became minister of the English church at Morriston,

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Swansea, and two years later went to Park Road, Liverpool, where for 23 years he laboured with unvarying success. He was among the first to suggest the formation of the Welsh Congregational Union, of which, in 1895, he was elected chairman. His address, in that capacity, on " The Preacher in the Light of the Changing Conditions of the Nation," takes a very high place among the addresses from the chair. It was timely, eloquent, progressive, yet fired with loyalty to the central truths of the Gospel. The prevailing notes of his preaching were intellectuality, earnestness, conviction, and intensity. As a student of theology he had few compeers, and all his compositions shewed evidences of careful preparation. In conjunction with the Rev. D. Rowlands (Dewi Mon), he published a volume of Welsh " Sermons for the Times " (Liverpool : 1870). (Congreg. Year Book, 1902 ; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Y Geninen, March, 1903, p. 45 Jenkins, Ebenezer E., 1820-1905, a Weeleyan minister, was born in South Wales. Having been accepted by the Conference of 1845, he was appointed to work in India. For nearly nineteen years, most of which were spent in the Madras district, he devoted his rare powers to missionary service in its various branches. Profoundly appreciating the value of higher education as a missionary agency, he established the Royapettah College, and in other effective ways laboured for the enlightenment of Hindu youth and the training of the younger members of the Christian community. His missionary zeal was not, however, limited to educational work, though he continued to be its apologist and advocate to the close of his life. In 1863 he was compelled to return to England. His ministry in many of the principal circuits of the connexion was characterised by all his rare qualities of mind and heart, and bore abundant fruit. In 1877, he became one of the general secretaries of the Missionary Society, and, for the remainder of his period of active service, took part in the administration of the missions to which he had been so long devoted. In 1880 he was president of the Conference, a fitting crown of his distinguished career. He graduated LL.D. (Minutes of Conference, 1905.) Jenkins, Herbert, 1721-1772, a Nonconformist preacher, was born at Mynyddislwyn, in Monmouthshire, and after receiving a suitable education at the Baptist College, Bristol, he devoted himself to the work of the ministry. He had joined Howell Harris (see ante), in 1740, and is mentioned in 1742, as an appointed "exhorter" among the Methodists. Mr. Whitefield having met him in Wales, and being struck with his eloquence, induced him to preach at his Tabernacle in London, and for some years afterwards he laboured as an English evangelist in various parts of the country. In 1749, he was ordained minister of the Independent Church at Maidstone, in Kent. (Border Counties' Worthies.) Jenkins, Isaac, 1812-1877, a Wesleyan minister, was born near Abmystwith, and after labouring with zeal and success as a local preacher, he entered the Theological Institution at Hoxton, where he spent two years. He afterwards served the connexion faithfully for 23 years as the financial secretary of a district. As a preacher, his

Rev. D. M. Jenkins.

J. Gwyn Jeffrreys, Ll.D., FRS.

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style was simple and chaste ; and the delivery of his sermons was often accompanied with great power. He also wrote much for the instruction and spiritual welfare of the young. (Rees' Hist.) Jenkins, James, 1829-1896, a Baptist minister, was a native of Llangammarch Wells, Breconshire. As a lad, he assisted his father, who was a farmer. In 1849 he was received into Haverfordwest College, and after a three years' course, he began his successful and long ministry at Bethlehem, Newport, where he spent the whole of his ministerial life. As a preacher, he stood in the front rank. He was powerful and eloquent, and was constantly invited to special services in North and South Wales. He was twice chairman of the Pembroke shire Baptist Association, and in 1890 was elected president of the Baptist Union of Wales. He published " Holwyddoreg ar yr lawn " (a Catechism on the Atonement), Carmarthen : W. M. Evans, about 1890. (Baptist Handbook, 1897 ; Cardiff Catalogue.) Jenkins, John, 1656-1733, a Baptist minister, was a native of Cilmaenllwyd, Carmarthenshire, and served in the ministry for many years at Rhydwilym, South Wales. He took a leading part in the controversy regarding Baptism. He left behind him a volume of sermons in manuscript, and these were published by Wm. Herbert, under the title of " A Golden Grove in a stormy day, or Saint Cordial in persecuting times." (Enwog. C.) Jenkins, John, about 1740who took a prominent part in the American War, was a descendant of one of the Welsh settlers in the Wyoming Valley. In August, 1775, he called a meeting in which it was resolved that those present should join their brethren " in the common cause of defending their liberty." In February, 1781, he set out with his company to join Washington at headquarters on the Hudson, and took part in the battle of King's Bridge. He accompanied the army to Yorktown, and was at the surrender of Cornwallis. ( Welshmen as Factors, &c.) Jenkins, John, 1770-1829, " Ivor Ceri," a clergyman and author, was the second son of Mr. Griffith Jenkins, of Cilbronau, in the parish of Llangoedmor, Cardiganshire His early education he received from a neighbouring school, and at the Academy at Carmarthen, afterwards proceeding to Oxford, where he graduated M.A. He was one of the leading spirits in the revival of the National Eisteddfod at Carmarthen, in 1819, and took a prominent part in several subsequent Eisteddfodau. He was a frequent contributor on antiquarian and other subjects to the Cambrian Quarterly Review, and under the name of '< Hooker " to the Gwyliedydd. One or two sermons and some poetry of his were also published. He was also an accomplished musician, and contributed not a little to rescue some of the old Welsh tunes from oblivion. (Mont. Worthies.) See Cymru, v. 30, p. 41 ; Y Qeninen, 1897, p. 201 ; B. Cerddorion Cymreig ; Enwog. Sir Aberteifl. Jenkins, John, 1779-1853, of Hengoed, a Baptist minister and author, and one of the most remarkable instances of self-educated men,

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was a native of the parish of Llangynider, Breconshire, his father being a labourer with a large family, so that he could not give his children any educational advantages. John Jenkins never spent a day at school, but with assistance he learned to read the Welsh Bible, afterwards joining the Baptists. When 21 years of age, and while working as a miner, he began to preach, and in 1806 he was ordained as minister. In 1811, he published a Body of Divinity, and six years later began to write his Commentary on the Bible, completing it in 1831. He also published a large number of essays on religious subjects. He received the degree of D.D., and he was unquestionably one of the brightest ornaments of the denomination in Wales ; as a preacher he was always acceptable and edifying, and often remarkably affecting. (Rees' Hist.) See Coftant y Parch. John Jones, Talysarn, p. 479 ; Hanes Lien. G. Jenkins, John, 1807-1872, a Baptist minister and missionary, was the third son of Dr. John Jenkins (1779-1853, see ante), and in 1834, he volunteered to serve as a missionary in Brittany. He immedi ately set to work to learn the Breton language, and then published a Breton reading book. At his suggestion the British and Foreign Bible Society entrusted the task of translating the Bible to M. Legonidec, an eminent Breton scholar, and his rendering of the New Testament was published. It proved, however, to be almost unin telligible to the people for whom it was intended, and another translation became necessary. This work fell to the lot of Mr. Jenkins, and his translation proved so acceptable that five editions of the whole Bible were published within a few years, the first in 1847. He also translated " Booth's Bible Stories," and a number of pamphlets, hymns, &o. He was remarkably successful, and his open-air services were frequently attended by thousands of people. (Cymru, v. 9, p. 215.) Jenkins, John, 1808-1884, a Unitarian minister, afterwards a barrister, oldest son of Mr. David Jenkins, builder, was born at Swansea, and completed his education at Glasgow, graduating M.A. He was minister at Rivington, 1832-4 ; Yeovil, 1834-7 ; and Boston, 1837-9. He afterwards became a schoolmaster at Swansea, where he founded the Swansea and Glamorgan Herald, 14th July, 1847. He took a prominent part in public affairs ; was one of the lecturers of the Anti-Corn Law League, and assistant commissioner to the Elementary Education Commission, 1859. He was called to the Bar in 1865, and joined the Midland circuit. In the library of the Royal Institution of South Wales, at Swansea, there are three of his works : " A Sermon preached at Preston in 1847 " ; " Address of the South Wales Counties and Boroughs Ballot Society to the Public, per John Jenkins, secretary, pro. tem." 1851 ; and " The Ballot and Ministerial Reform : What ought to be done ? " 1852. (The Unitarian Students at the Presbyterian College, Carmarthen, Rev. R. Jenkin Jones, M.A., 1901, p. 28 ; Vestiges of Protestant Dissent, George Eyre Evans, 1897 ; Foster's Men at the Bar.) Jenkins, John, 1821 -1896, a solicitor and author, was the. youngest son of Mr. Edward Jenkins, flannel manufacturer, Llanidloes,

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Montgomeryshire. He was articled to Mr. John Owen, solicitor, Newtown, and in 1842 settled in Llanidloes, where he practised for many years with conspicuous success. Early in his career he became impressed with the necessity for a reform of legal procedure, and contributed to the Eclectic Review papers on Law Reform and Local Courts. In 1845, he published a pamphlet on "Law Reform," which obtained the approval of Lord Brougham, who proposed him a member of the Law Amendment Society, in which he advocated principles almost identical with the County Courts Act. On the passing of the first Act in 1846, he was appointed County Court registrar for the district. He was also author of " The Laws relating to Religious Liberty" (1880); "The Laws concerning Religious Worship;" "Mortmain and Charitable Uses "(1885); and his paper on "The Feudal System " was printed in the second edition of " Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Antient Welsh Bards," (Llanidloes : 0. Mills, 1862). In 1873, he edited an interesting work entitled " The Poetry of Wales " (Llanidloes : J. Pryse), containing English translations of Borne of the best known Welsh poetry. (Bye-Gones, 1896, p. 298 ; Cardiff' Catalogue.) Jenkins, Joseph, 1743-1819, a Particular Baptist, was the son of Evan Jenkins, pastor of the Baptist Church at Wrexham, and was born in that town. In his sixteenth year he studied Greek and Hebrew under Mr. Walker in London, and in 1761 secured one of Dr. Ward's exhibitions to King's College, Aberdeen, where he graduated M.A and D.D. in 1765. In the following year he settled in London, but three years later returned to Wrexham, and in 1773 was ordained to the p.istorate of " the old meeting," formerly held by his father. In the same year he published his " Confession of Faith " at Shrewsbury. He also published a number of sermons and tracts, chiefly in defence of his views on baptism. Some of the former were collected, in 1779, in two volumes, and the latter were also issued in volume form. He was also the author of " The Orthodox Dissenting Ministers' Reasons for a further application to Parliament for Relief in the matter of Subscription " (London, 1775) ; " Discourses on Select Passages of Sacred History " (Shrewsbury, 1779) ; and " Reflexions on the Apology of the Rev. Theophilus Lindsay, being a Defence of the Doctrine of the Trinity." (Enwog. C. ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry.) See Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Wilson's Dissenting Churches ; Gent. 1%., vol. 89 ; Baptist Annual Register ; Bunhill Memorials ; Palmer's Noncon. in Wrexham ; Joshua Thomas' Hanes y Bedyddwyr ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; General Baptist Repository ; New Evangelical Mag., vol. 1, p. 118 ; Y Brython, vol. 2, 2nd edition, p. 412. Jenkins, Llewelyn, 1810-1878, a Baptist minister, was the fourth son of the Rev. John Jenkins, D.D. (1779-1853, see ante). He was employed in his father's printing office in Merthyr Tydfil, and afterwards he and his brother John, having removed their printing offices to Cardiff, brought out a Welsh Baptist magazine, Y Great. In 1862, he became the prime mover in the raising of a Baptist building fund for Wales. He wrote numerous articles and letters to *ir up the churches and kindle enthusiasm on the subject, and

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travelled thousands of miles daring four years in collecting the fund. When the fund reached £13,000 he was seized at Llandrindod with heart disease, and died on the 18th September, 1878. He was buried at Maesycymmer, near Cardiff, where he had resided for some years. He was the author of a Welsh " History of the Baptist Cause at Hengoed " (Cardiff : W. Jones, 1861) ; and, with the Rev. Timothy Thomas, wrote a Welsh biography of the Rev. Thomas Morris, Newport (Cardiff : Owen and Roberts, 1847). (Baptist Handbook, 1879.) Jenkins, Nathaniel, 1678, a Nonconformist minister, was born in Wales, but emigrated to America, where he rose to great eminence. He settled at Cape May, New Jersey, and in his capacity as member of the Colonial Legislature of that State, in 1721, he strenuously opposed and defeated a bill " to punish all who denied the Trinity, Christ's Divinity, and the Inspiration of the Scriptures." ( Welshmen as Factors, &c.) Jenkins, Robert, 1825-1894, a naval officer, of Welsh descent, was born near Shrewsbury, and entered the Navy as a cadet in 1838. In 1840, he was engaged in the operations on the east coast of Syria, for which he received the war medal and the Turkish medal and clasp. Two years later he took a stirring part in the China War ; his services were specially mentioned in the " Gazette," and he was awarded the China medal. Later he was engaged on the Buffalo River in South Africa, and for his services in the Kaffir War of 1851 he received the medal. In 1854, he was commander of the " Talbot " in the Arctic expedition, and was awarded the Arctic medal. In 1855-6, he was engaged on the " Comus " in the suppression of piracy, and he took an active part in the subsequent China War, receiving the China clasp. Subsequently he was engaged on an important mission to the king of the Fiji Islands, and succeeded in settling all matters in dispute between Europeans and Fijians without resort to force. He attained the rank of admiral, and in the New Zealand War, in 1863-64, commanded the Thanus, Tauranga, and Maketu Expeditions, being afterwards created a C.B. In 1800, he was placed on the retired list, and took up his residence at Shrewsbury. He was buried at Wroxeter. (Bye-Gones, 1894, p. 429.) Jenkins, Thomas, 1799-1857, a Congregational minister and hymn writer, was the son of a farmer near Llandebie, Carmarthenshire, and was ordained in 1827. He published two collections of hymns, one for use at temperance meetings, and the other, for public worship, under the title of " Ffrydiau o Libanus." Some of his hymns became very popular, in particular those which begin—" Mae gorsedd fawr y nef"; "Mae Duw yn madden pechod" ; and "Ni gofawn y cur dan hoelion o ddur." (Hants Emynwyr.) Jenkins, Titus, 1804-1834, eldest son of the Rev. Dr. John Jenkins (1779-1853, see ante), was born at Blaina, Monmouthshire, and educated for the ministry at Stepney Baptist Auademy. He was ordained at Ramsey, Huntingdonshire, but falling into consumption he had to give up his charge. It is manifest from some things he

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wrote in Welsh, and from manuscripts which he left, that he was a yonng man of great attainments, a good scholar, a bard of excellent promise, and a writer of ability. From an English memoir of him, it appears he was a forcible speaker, and a very worthy man in other respects. (Border Counties' Worthies.) Jenkins, William, about 1779-1860, a Calvinistic Methodist minister and poet, was born at Mynydd Bach, near Neath, Glamorgan shire. He first of all joined the Congregationalists, under the ministry of the Rev. Lewis Rees, father of the well-known Dr. Abraham Rees, but afterwards became a Calvinistic Methodist, and settled at Morriston. He composed several excellent elegies to the Revs. David Jones, Llangan ; John Evans, New Inn ; and Richard Davies, Llansadwrn. The last mentioned elegy was published with the biography of Richard Davies, by the Rev. D. Hughes, Cross Inn. Mr. Jenkins was also the author of a number of hymns and sacred songs. (Enwog. C.) Jenkins, William, 1804-1867, an engineer, was born in Cardiganshire, of poor parents. He commenced life as a joiner, and spent some time in Liverpool and Bolton, afterwards settling down at Miles Platting, Manchester, where he worked his way tip to a responsible position in the engineering department of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway. He introduced several improvements into the works, some of which were patented. (Cymry Manceinion.) Jenkins, William, 1821-1887, a Congregational minister and author, was born at Merthyr Tydfil, and was trained for the ministry by the Rev. John Evans, Three Crosses, near Swansea, a remarkably able and scholarly man. In 1846 he undertook the pastorate of Capel Iwan and Llwyn-yr-hwrdd, near Newcastle Emlyn. Four years later he took charge of the cause at Rehoboth, Brynmawr, where his ministry was pre-eminently successful. In 1866 he accepted a call to Pentre Estyll, Swansea, where he remained till his death. Described by some as the " Whitefield of Wales," he was for thirty years one of the most prominent preachers in the Principality. His contemporaries agree that seldom has there appeared a man whose ministry was more seraphic, who left a deeper influence upon individuals and congregations, who was more honoured in the conversion of sinners to God. He lectured on several subjects, but his " lectures " were akin to sermons. The number of those to whom he gave the right hand of fellowship must have approached 3,000. He had a fine presence ; well-prepared matter ; exquisite diction ; almost perfect elocution ; a beautiful voice full of pathos and tremor ; together with a sanctified imagination, spiritual fervour, and true Welsh fire. In 1884 he published one of his lectures and a number of his sermons (Llanelly : D. Williams & Son). (Congreg. Year Book, 1888.) See Y Dysgedydd, 1887. Jenkyn, Thomas William, 1794-1858, a Congregational minister and author, was born at Merthyr Tydfil. He began to preach in 1808, and served in the ministry at Wem (Salop), and Rochester. He was an excellent scholar ; was elected F.R.G.S. and F.G.S. ; and received the degree of D.D. He delivered a series of English lectures

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on "The Atonement," which were afterwards published, and passed through thirteen editions. This volume was translated into Welsh by the Rev. Richard Parry (Gwalchmai). He also wrote a work on " The Union of the Holy Spirit and the Church in the conversion of the world." (G.B.) See Congreg. Year Book, 1859 ; Y Beirniad, 1866, p. 266. Jeremy, Walter Daniel, 1825-1893, a Unitarian minister, afterwards a lawyer, eldest son of the Rev. John Jeremy, of Caeronen, was born at Cwmbedw, near Lampeter, Cardiganshire. He graduated at Glasgow in 1848 ; settled at Geldeston, Norfolk, as a private tutor to the sons of Henry Dowson, Esq., and for some years afterwards devoted much of his time to educational work. He became minister at Northampton in 1851, but in the following year relinquished the ministry. He was called to the bar in 1859, and resided in London. He published " A Digest of the Proceedings in Chancery of Dr. Williams's Trust," and " History of the Presbyterian Fund and Dr. Williams's Trust," 1885. He never courted publicity, and as a result an obituary notice said of him, " The most distinguished Welshman in London has gone to his grave unsung." (The Unitarian Students at the Presbyterian College, Carmarthen., 1901, p. 44 ; Inquirer, 30 Sept., 1893 ; Yr Ymofynydd, 1893, p. 237.) Job, Thomas, 1825-1898, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was born at Rogerly, Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire. He began to preach in 1842, and afterwards studied for the ministry at David Aaron's School at Carmarthen, and at Trevecca College (1847-61), under Dr. Charles. He served in the pastorate at Llanddarog (1855-60) ; Llanfynydd (1860-65) ; and Cynwyl (1865-98). It may be safely said that he was one of the strongest spiritual factors in his native county for a period of over 40 years, and although a Nonconformist of the most robust type, he was so broad minded as to be held in the highest esteem by those who differed from him most. He was one of the pioneers of the temperance movement in South Wales, and his services on the platform were in constant demand. In 1887-8 he occupied the chair of the South Wales Association. He was an exceedingly popular lecturer, his lively temperament, quaint humour, and sound commonsense combining to make him a special favourite. At the date of his death he was one of the oldest and best known ministers in the connexion. His Biography (Welsh) was written by the Rev. James Morris. (C. & D. Herald, ; Private Information.) John, David, 1840-1904, a Congregational minister, was a native of Swansea, and commenced preaching in connection with Ebenezer church in that town, when the Rev. E. Jacob was minister of that church. After a course of education at the Brecon Memorial College, he was ordained pastor of the churches forming the Llanddeusant pastorate, in Anglesey, in the year 1864. Three years later, he accepted a call to Booth Street East, Manchester, and faithfully ministered there until the end of 1903, when he resigned owing to the state of his health. His preaching was simple, earnest, and decidedly evangelical. He never departed from the " old paths," nor had he a

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grain of sympathy with those who did. (The British Weekly; Congreg. Year Book, 1905.) John, Harry, 1664-1754, "Harri Sion," a poet, was a native of Monmouthshire, and spent the greater part of his life at Pontypool, leaving behind him abiding proofs of his ability. He published a volume of hymns, and a second edition was called for after his death ; (Carmarthen : John Ross, 1773). Other editions appeared in 1775, 1798, and 1817. His poem on " Marriage " was published with a Welsh translation of Seeker's sermon on " The Wedding Ring." (Border Counties' Worthies; Cardiff Catalogue.) Johnes, Arthur James, 1809-1871, County Court Judge and author, was a native of Montgomeryshire, his mother being a daughter of Thomas Davies, of Llifior, Berriew, in that county. He completed his education in London, and in 1829 he secured the chief law-prize of the London University. In 1835, he was called to the har, and in 1847 became a County Court Judge for part of North and South Wales. He held this post until 1870, when he retired on a pension. As a judge he was thoroughly impartial and conscientious, and his decisions were universally respected, very few, if any, being reversed or even appealed against. He understood Welsh thoroughly, and in 1834 published a small volume containing translations of poems by Dafydd ab Gwilym, with a few of his own composition. He is best known for his essay on " The Causes of Dissent in Wales," for which he won a prize offered by the Cymmrodorion Society, and which has passed through several editions. He also published a volume entitled " Philological Proofs of the Original Unity and Recent Origin of the Human Race " (London : 184.'5) ; " Suggestions for a Reform of the Court of Chancery by a Union of the Jurisdiction of Equity and Law ;" and a number of pamphlets. (Y Geninen, 1883, p. 65 ; Mont. Worthies.) See Sunday School, &c, p. 30 ; Y Traethodydd, 1850 ; Thomas' Hist, of the Diocese of St. Asaph, p. 152. Johnes, John Horatio, 1848-1889, a Congregational minister, musician, and poet, was a native of Llanwnog, Montgomeryshire. His early education was received at the village school, where he served an apprenticeship as a pupil teacher. In 1869, he was admitted to the Lancashire Independent College, Manchester, and in the following year he matriculated in the London University. In 1874, he accepted the pastorate of the Congregational Church, Caroline Street, Longton, Staffs., where he laboured for upwards of eleven years. In 1878, he was honoured by his ministerial brethren with the Chairmanship of the North Staffordshire Union, at the annual meeting of which he delivered an address on " Christianity in relation to certain Current Tendencies of Thought," which was generally and deservedly spoken of as masterly, and which, by special request, was afterwards published. In 1885 he removed to Haslingden, where he died four years later. He was joint-editor with Mr. D. Emlyn Evans of a revised edition of the oratorio—" The Storm of Tiberias "—by the Rev. E. Stephen (Tanymarian). He wrote the English words for Mr. Emlyn Evans' song, " The Christian's Prayer." (B. Cerddorion Cymreig ; Congreg. Year Book, 1890.)

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Johnes, Thomas, 1748-1816, a member of Parliament, came of an ancient family in Cardiganshire, and was the son of Thomas Johnes, of Llanfair Clydogau and Croft Castle, Herefordshire, who was member of Parliament for Radnorshire. He was born at Ludlow, and educated at Eton and Jesus College, Oxford, where he graduated M.A. He devoted much of his time and money to the improvement of his estate at Hafod, and did much to improve the condition of agriculture in the district, transferring the peasantry from miserable huts to comfortable dwellings, and finding work for them. He also constructed roads and bridges for public accommodation, and wrote an excellent pamphlet on improved methods of agriculture, entitled " A Cardiganshire Landlord's Advice to his Tenants." This was translated into Welsh by Dr. Wm. Owen Pughe. He was a diligent cultivator of literature, and published elegant editions of Froissart's " Chronicles " and other works. He also translated into English " The Travels of Bertrandon de la Brocquiere ... to Palestine " (1807). He was a diligent collector of Welsh MSS., and to him was dedicated the " Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales, with thanks for the use of his valuable Collection of Ancient Manuscripts towards supplying the contents of it, and as an acknowledgment of his Patriotism." He sat in Parliament for the borough of Cardigan, and afterwards for the county of Radnor. (Diet. Em. W.) See Burke's Hist. of the Landed Gentry or Commoners, 1838, vol. 4, p. 61 ; Johnes of Dolecothy ; Burke's Diet. of the Landed Gentry, 1868, p. 785 ; Smith's Tour to Hafod ; Gent. Mag., 1816, part 1. pp. 469, 563, 564 ; Allibone's Diet. ; Rose's Biog. Diet. ; Nichol's Literary Illus trations, vol. 7, p. 175 ; vol. 8, pp. 285, 303 ; Lewis's Top. Diet. of Wales, s. v. Eglwys Newydd ; Gorton's Top. Diet., vol. 2, s. v. Hafod ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry ; Cardiff Catalogue ; Malkin's South Wales, vol. 2, p. 87 ; Cymru, vol. 32, p. 272. Johns, David, 1794-1843, missionary to Madagascar, was born at Llanarth, Monmouthshire. He was ordained in 1826, and set sail for Madagascar in the same year. With the help of J. Rainison, superintendent of schools, he translated " Pilgrim's Progress" into the Malagasy vernacular, and prepared school books and similar works. He also published a volume in Welsh, giving a history of the persecution of the Christians at Madagascar (Llanelly, 1840), and a dictionary of the Malagasy language. (Diet. Nat. Biog.; Cardiff Catalogue.) Johns, James, 1832-1902, a Congregational minister, was the son of the Rev. David Johns, (1794-1843, see ante), and was born in Madagascar. He received his education at Springhill, and took his degree at the London University. His first pastorate was at Northwich, Cheshire, where he laboured for nearly twenty years, building up a strong and influential church. For some time he was one of the district secretaries of the Union, and in 1873 he was elected to the chairmanship. In 1880, he felt it necessary to resign his charge, and accept a smaller responsibility at Totnes, Devon. Here he speedily proved his power. He was successively elected secretary of the Southern Division of the Union ; editor of the Devon Congregational Magazine, and in 1889

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was appointed to the chairmanship of the county. He spent the last few years of his life at Upper Clapham, London. (Congreg. Year Book, 1904.) Johns, James, 1849- 1896, a Baptist minister and author, was born at St. Clears, Carmarthenshire, and joined the Baptist Church in that place when 11 years of age. Eight years later he began to preach, and at the age of 22 he entered Haverfordwest College. After a three years' course he was ordained to the pastorate of Bethlehem and Salem, near Haverfordwest. In 1876, he removed to Sardis and Honeyborough, in Pembrokeshire, and after eighteen years of faithful service he removed to Blaenavon, where he remained till his death. He made a special study of the history of the Baptists in Wales, and published a book entitled " The Ancient British Church and the Modern Welsh Baptists " (Carmarthen ; W. M. Evans, 1889), which had a very large circulation. He was a frequent contributor to denominational and other magazines, and a welcome lecturer on various subjects. (Baptist Handbook, 1897 ; Cardiff Catalogue.) Johns, William, 1771-1815, Unitarian minister and author, was a native of Pembrokeshire. He was brought up a strict Calvinist, but later on adopted Unitarian views. He became minister at Nantwich, and subsequently at Manchester. In the latter town, he conducted a school with notable success for nearly 30 years. He read a number of papers before the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, which shewed a wide and accurate knowledge both of literary and scientific subjects. He was a prolific writer, and at least nine of his works were published. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) Jones, Arthur, 1776-1860, a Congregational minister and authoi, was born near Llanrwst, Denbighshire. He joined the Calvinistic Methodists at an early age, and soon began to preach. On removing to Denbigh he transferred his membership to the Congregationalists. In January, 1810, he became pastor of the Independent Church at Bangor, and five years later he left there to undertake the care of the United Welsh Churches at Deptford and Woolwich, in Kent. In the spring of 1823 he returned to Bangor, retiring in 1854, and taking up his abode in Chester. He was interred in the burial ground of Caegwigin Chapel, near Bangor. He was undoubtedly one of the bestknown preachers of the day. He wrote a work on theology, entitled, " Pyngciau Athrawiaethol " (Bangor, 1838), and a volume on the Rhetoric of the Scriptures. He translated Fletcher's "Life of Christ " into Welsh, the work being issued in 1856. He also published a number of tracts and sermons. (Enwog. C. ; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Cong. Year Book, 1861 ; Y Geninen, March, 1891, p. 27 ; Y Traethodydtl, 1881, p. 438 ; Y Beirniad, 1866, p. 69, ct seq. Jones, Benjamin, 1756-1823, a Congregational minister and author, was a native of the parish of Llanwinio, Carmarthenshire, his parents being members of the Established Church. He joined the Congregationalists, and spent four years at Abergavenny College. He was ordained at Pencader, in his native county, and remained there as pastor for three years, afterwards removing to Anglesey, and seven

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years later (in 1798), to Pwllheli, where he died. The cause at Pwllheli prospered greatly under his ministry. In 1793, he published three sermons on the Doctrine of the Trinity (Machynlleth : T. Evans) ; and in 1805, an essay on the Doctrine of Election (Carnarvon : T. Roberts). (Enwog. 0. ; Cardiff' Catalogue.) See G.B., v. 2, p. 5 ; Enwog. y Ffydd, v. 4, p. 388 ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry ; Hanes Eglwysi Annibynnol Cymru, v. 3, p. 169. Jones, Benjamin, 1781-1841, " P.A. Mon," a writer of prose and verse, was a native of Angelsey, and spent the greater part of his life at Holyhead. He was an ardent Baptist, and wrote a reply, published in book form in 1830, to the attack of the Rev. David Owen (Brutus) upon that denomination. In 1831 he wrote a further reply to Brutus, and in 1838 there appeared his " Temperance versus Teetotalism : the total overthrow of Teetotalism." He also translated into Welsh a theological work by Rushton. (Enwog. C. ; Cardiff Catalogue.) Several of his poems are to be found in Sercn Qomer for 1819, 1820, and 1821. Jones, Cadwaladr, 1783-1867, a Congregational minister, was born at Llanuwchllyn, near Bala, Merionethshire, and after completing his education at Wrexham, he was ordained in 1811, and became pastor of the cause at Dolgelly and Islawrdre. The churches under his care extended over a tract of country more than fourteen miles in length. He was an excellent theologian, and a very acceptable preacher. For thirty years he edited Y Dysgedydd, the connexional magazine which was started in 1827. He published a pamphlet, entitled " Amddiffyniad yr Ymneillduwyr " (A Defence of Nonconformists), in the form of a letter to the Rev. John Elias (Dolgelly : R. Richards, 1821). (Enwog. Meirion.) See Cong. Year Book, 1868 ; Cardiff Catalogue. Jones, Cadwaladr, 1794-1883, a musician, was a native of Trawsfynydd, Merionethshire, and commenced life as a stone-mason. He had a remarkable talent for music, and spent some time under the tuition of Dr. Pring, organist of Bangor Cathedral. He composed a number of tunes and anthems, and rendered excellent service as a teacher of music in various parts of North Wales. (B. Cerddorion Cymreig.) Jones, Sir Charles Thomas, 1778 -about 1860, a naval officer, was the third son of Charles Thomas Jones, Esq., of Fronfraith, near Abermule, Montgomeryshire. He entered the navy in 1791, and was present in the action of the 1st June, 1794 ; also in that of the 23rd June, 1795, when he was wounded. He was knighted by the Duke of Richmond, when Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 1809, in recognition of his public services. He was a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of Montgomeryshire, and served the office of sheriff in 1832. (Mont. Worthies.) Jones, Daniel, 1788-1862, a Baptist minister, was born near Llanymddyfri, South Wales. He began to preach in 1808, and was ordained six years later, at Cwmsarnddu, a church which originated at that time. In 1818 he settled in Liverpool, where he established a cause, and preached in English and Welsh with much success. In

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1845 he took charge of the church at Felinfoel, and while there he published u volume of sermons. In 1853 he removed to Tongwynlais, where he established a nourishing English cause. He wrote a good deal of poetry, and won many Eisteddfodic prizes. He published a collection of hymns under the title "Crynhodeb o Hymnau Cristionogol idd eu canu mewn addoliad cyhoeddus, perthynol, yn fwyaf neillduol, i'r cyfenwad o Fedyddwyr," (Cardiff ; Owen Roberts, 1845). [Cymru, v. 10, p. 239 ; Baptist Handbook, 1864 ; Cardiff Catalogue.) Jones, Daniel, 1812-1868, a clergyman and hymn writer, was born near Glynarthen, South Wales. He served as pastor of the Congregational cause at Bethesda, Merthyr Tydfil, for some time, but afterwards joined the Established Church. His secession created a great stir : he issued a pamphlet, giving his reasons for the step he had taken, and this was answered by the Rev. W. Morgan, Carmarthen. In 1847 he published a collection of hymns, containing over a hundred of his own composition, under the title, " Caniedydd Israel." He became vicar of Llandudoch. (Hanes Emynwyr.) Jones, Daniel, 1814-1895, a Congregational minister and lecturer, was born at Treboeth, in the parish of Llangyfelach, Glamorganshire. His early school days were spent at Morriston, where he manifested studious habits. After leaving school, he worked for two years at the copper mills at Swansea, but the next four years were spent in study for the ministry at Carmarthen. After this he went to Cheshunt College to finish his training, and accepted, as his first charge, the oversight of the church at Barrington, Cambs. Thence in 1842 he removed to Wickham Market, where his work soon began to tell, and two years later the chapel bad to be enlarged. In 1851 he resigned the pastorate, but continued to preach in many of the pulpits in the county, and to engage in Christian work. His earnestness did not wane ; he was ever studious and imparting to others the stores of knowledge which he himself had accumulated. As a lecturer he was both interesting and instructive. The truths taught, and the precepts enforced, in his lecture on " Samuel Budgett, the successful merchant of Bristol," were long remembered by those who heard them. (Congreg. Year Book, 1896.) Jones, Daniel J., 1841-1899, a Congregational minister, was bom of Welsh parents in Gallia county, Ohio, U.S.A., and when about eighteen years of age he was chosen to preach the Gospel by the church of which he was a member. In 1864 he graduated in the scientific course at the Ohio Wesleyan University, and in the classical course in 1867. In the same year he entered Lane Seminary, graduating in 1870. In 1881 he became editor and publisher of The Cambrian. He was an excellent writer ; a clear, logical, and instructive preacher ; and a most successful pastor. (The Cambrian, 1899, p. 377.) Jones, David, 1663 -about 1724, a clergyman, was the son of Matthew Jones, of Caervallwch, Flintshire. He graduated M.A. at Oxford, and after serving as curate in London, he became vicar of

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Great Budworth, in Cheshire. He gained notoriety by the eccentric violence of his lectures and sermons, and was constantly in trouble. Dr. Smalridge, afterwards bishop of Bristol, writing in December, 1697, mentions that crowds went to hear Jones preach, and refers to " the impetuousness of his voice ; the fantasticalness of his actions, and the ridiculous meanness of his images and expressions." In 1700 Jones quarrelled with a man whom he had reproved for moving hay on a Sunday. The matter came before the court of the vice-chancellor of Oxford University, and Jones's behaviour led to his committal to prison for contempt of court, but the Court of Common Pleas afterwards held that his committal was illegal. He published a number of sermons, in which he denounced social evils with eccentric extravagance. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Nichol's Illustrations of Literature, v. 3, p. 268 ; Wood's Athenae Oxon. iv., 666 ; Hearne's Collections, ii., 305-6, 409; Dunton's Life and Errors, i., 370. Jones, David, about 1670-about 1722, captain in the Horse Guards, historical writer and translator, was born at Llwynrhys, Llanbadarn Odwyn, Cardiganshire ; his father (the Rev. John Jones) was one of the earliest Nonconformist ministers in that part of Wales. David Jones entered the army at an early age, and is said to have been engaged at the battle of the Boyne. He spent much of his time on the Continent, where ho acquired an accurate and extensive knowledge of modern languages. He was a voluminous writer, his chief works being :—" The Secret History of Whitehall from the Restoration of Charles II down to the abdication of the late King James " (London : 1697) ; A Continuation of the same (from 1688 to 1696); "History of the Turks " (1655-1701), 2 v.; "Life of King James II" (1702); 4History of the House of Brunswick" (1715); " History of William III " (1702) ; and " The Wars, and Causes of them, between England and France, with a Treatise of the Salyque Law." (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Y Geninen, 1896, p. 151 ; Notes and Queries, 1st. ser., xii., p. 267 ; Williams' Enwogion Ceredigion. Jones, David, 1708-1785, "Dewi Fardd," or " Dafydd Sion Dafydd," a poet and antiquary, and one of the earliest printers in the Principality, was a native of Trefriw, in Carnarvonshire. He either wrote or edited about fourteen books and pamphlets, a list of which is to be found in " Hanes Llenyddiaeth Gymreig," (Chas. Ashton) p. 186. The work by which he is best known is " Blodeugerdd Cymru," a collection of Welsh poems by various authors, including nine of his own composition, (Shrewsbury : Stafford Prys, 1759). He was a diligent collector of old Welsh manuscripts, and four volumes, compiled by John Davies, Rhiwlas, Llansilin, with notes by David Jones, are to be found at the British Museum. (Additional MSS., 9864-7). (Hanes Lien. G. ; Enwog. G.) See Cymru O.J. ; Y Traethodydd, 1886, p.p. 221 and 273 el seq ; Ibid, 1888, p. 222 ; Llyfrydd. y Cytnry ; Revue Celtique, v. 2, p. 347 ; Cambrian Register, 1795, p. 344 ; Y Cymmrodor, v. 1, p. 143 ; Cymru, v. 25, p. 141 ; It/id, v. 32, pp. 45, 144 and 313; Diet. Em. W.; Poetical Works of Qoronwy Owen (Jones), v. 2, p. 195 ; Cardiff MSS., 8393.

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Jones, David, 1710-1777, a well-known hymn-writer and translator, was born in the parish of Caio, Carmarthenshire. By occupation he was a farmer and cattle-dealer, and he is said to have accumulated a considerable amount of property. In early life he led a somewhat reckless life, but one Sunday morning, when returning from one of his periodical business expeditions into England, he caught the sound of singing in the old Independent Chapel of Troedrhiwdalar, Breconshire, and entered. From that day on he was a changed man,—the minstrel of the public-house became the sweet singer of Zion. The work by which he is best known in Wales is his translation into Welsh of Dr. Watt's Psalms and Hymns. In this he was very successful, and some of his translations even excel the original. Many of his verses are among the most popular and homely of the sacred songs of Wales. He also composed several hymns of permanent merit, touched with the spirit of the great revival of the eighteenth century. The latter were published at Carmarthen, in 1763. (Did. Em. W. ; Sweet Singers of Wales.) See Y Traethodydd, 1849 ; Enwog. C.; Enwog. y Ffydd; Yr Adolygydd, v. 2, p. 475 ; Cymru, v. 15, p, 8 ; Rees' Hist., p. 401 ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry. Jones, David, 1735-1310, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was born in the parish of Llanllueni, Carmarthenshire, and educated at Carmarthen College. He was curate for 10 years, and in 17G8 was appointed rector of Llangan, near Cowbridge, Glamorganshire. His advent to Llangan caused an immediate change throughout the whole parish. It was a change as from death to life. By means of his fervent preaching, the people were aroused, the church became crowded, so much so that the preacher was oft-times compelled to discourse in the chnrchyard. He closely identified himself with the Methodist reformers. He visited their Societies, and attended their Quarterly Meetings or Associations ; even presided over them, and helped in the arrangements made to build chapels in various localities. He was in great demand as a preacher throughout the whole Principality, and also in the leading towns in England. The people flocked to hear him in thousands. It was his privilege to witness no lees thin five revivals during his public life. His funeral sermon on the death of the Countess of Huntingdon was published in 1791, and his biography, by the Rev. T. Levi, appeared in 1889. (Historical Handbook ; Cardiff Catalogs.) See Y Traethodydd, 1850; G. B. ; Enwog. C. ; Methodistiaelh Cymru, pp. 359, 446, 451-4 ; Cofiant John Jones, Talysam, pp. 809-13 ; Life of the Countess of Huntingdon, vol. 2, pp. 118, 501, 504. Jones, David, 1736-1820, a distinguished clergyman, was born in Newcastle County, in the State of Delaware, U.S. America. His ancestors, on his father's and mother's side, came from Wales, and settled, in the eighteenth century, on the " Welsh Tract," in Delaware County. He was educated for (ho Baptist ministry, and for many years had charge of a congregation in New Jersey. He went as a missionary among the 8hawnee and Delaware Indians, in 1772 and 1773. He afterwards espoused the patriot cause, and in 1776 was appointed chaplain to Col. St. Clair's regiment He was with General Wayne in

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the Indian campaign to the north-west territory, and was at the massacre of Paoli, where he narrowly escaped death. He was at the battles of Brandywine, Germantown, and Monmouth, and was with the army at Valley Forge, and in all the subsequent campaigns, up to the rapture of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown. When the war of 1812 broke out, he again took the fieM as chaplain, under Generals Brown and Wilkinson, at the age of 76, an J served to its close. ( Wales and its People.) See Y Brython, vol. 5, p. 15S ; Lossing's Pictorial Field Book of the American Revolution; Wales, vol. 3, p. 19. Jones, David, 1741-1792, a Baptist minister and hymn writer, was a native of Cwmaman, Carmarthenshire. At an early age he came under the influence of Howell Harris, but he decided to throw in his lot with the Baptists, and became pastor of the cause at Dolgoch, Newcastle Emlyn. A number of his hymns appear in a collection published in 1773, under the title " Pigion o Hymnau." (Hanes Emynwyr.) Jones, David, 1765-1816, a barrister and author, was born near Llandovery, Carmarthenshire, where his father farmed his own freehold. He was trained for the ministrj', and in 1783 entered the Dissenters' Academy at Homerton. Soon afterwards he removed to the new college at Hackney, where he remained about nine years, first as student, and then as tutor. He then took charge of the Unitarian congregation in Birmingham, but soon determined to change his profession for the law. About 1794, he entered his name at Lincoln's Inn, and afterwards practised as a barrister in London, and on the Oxford and Carmarthen circuits. He was the author of several publications, which were published anonymously, some of them under the name of a " Welsh Freeholder." Among these may be mentioned :—" A letter to Samuel [Horsley] Bishop of St. David's on the charge he lately delivered to the Clergy," 1790, second edition, 1791 ; "Thoughts on the Riots at Birmingham," 1791 ; "The Welsh Freeholder's Vindication of his letter to . . . Samuel [Horsley] Bishop of St. David's, in reply to a letter from a clergyman of that Diocese," 1791; and "Reasons for Unitarianism," 1792. (Diet. Em. W. ; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Notes and Queries, 3rd series, xi. 292, 409 ; Rutt's Memoirs of Priestley, ii., 176, 177 ; Wreford's Presb. Noncon. in Birmingham, p. 81 ; Jeremy's Presb. Fund, 194. Jones, David, 1769-1837, an antiquary, was a native of Towyn, Merionethshire, and lived nearly all his life-time in London. For many years he held a responsible post in the Engrossing Office of the House of Commons. Everything connected with his native county had a charm for him, and when he died, in 1837, at his residence in the Adelphi, he was said to possess the best library of Welsh books in the metropolis. (Bye-Gones, 1880, p. 37.) Jones, David, 1770-1831, a Congregational minister and hymnwriter, was born in the parish of Llanuwchllyn, near Bala, and was brought up in that town. He began t - preach when 26 years of age, and afterwards went through a very successful collegiate course. In

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1801, he settled as minister at Holywell, remaining there till his death. In 1810, he published a hymn book entitled " Dyfroedd Cysur," which was very popular for years. The volume contained forty-nine of his own hymns. He also published a series of religious tracts, the first, " Gair o Gyngor Efengylaidd," appearing in 1805 (Holywell : E. Carnes). (Hanes Emynwyr; Cardiff Catalogue.) Jones, David, 1788-1859, a Congregational minister and author, was born at Brynblawd, in the parish of Llanfihangel, Carmarthenshire. He joined the Church at Capel Isaac in 1816, and about two years later began to preach. In 1822, he became pastor of the Church at Jerusalem, Gwynfe, in his native county. His influence was largely felt in the neighbourhood of Gwynfe, Crugybar, Tabor, Llansadwrn, Siloam, Capel Isaac, and Salem. He was very well educated, and took a special interest in veterinary matters. He wrote a book on the management and treatment of the horse, which in those days, when veterinary surgeons were few and far between, was exceedingly useful. He contributed a number of able articles to the Efengylydd, Diwygiwr, and Lleuad yr Oes. (Enwog. C.) See Congreg. Year Book, 1860. Jones, David, 1793-1825, a Nonconformist minister and linguist, was a son of the Rev. Thomas Jones, of Carmarthen. He was educated at Carmarthen College, where he greatly distinguished himself. He afterwards entered Cheshunt College, where he became proficient in the Arabic and Persian languages. He was ordained in 1814, and served in the ministry at Swansea. In 1824, he travelled through France, and became acquainted with the people of Brittany ; through his instrumentality the New Testament was translated into the Breton tongue. He made a second visit to the Bretons, and on his return to this country became professor of languages at Cheshunt. He was joint-author of " Principia Hebraica." (Enwog. C"). See Y Brython, vol. 1, second edition, p. 411 ; Lleuad yr Oes, v. 1, p. 158. Jones, David, 1796-1841, missionary to Madagascar, was born near Aberayron, Cardiganshire. He sailed for Madagascar in 1818, and was welcomed there by Fisatra, King of Tamatave, who sent his own son to be educated by him. In 1822, he was joined by David Griffiths, and the two settled the orthography of the Malagasy language on the phonetic system, giving each letter one sound, and using the Roman characters. Towards the end of his life he suffered a good deal of persecution. (Diet. Nat. Biog.). See Eglwysi Annibynol Cymru, vol. 4, p. 105 ; Gwynionydd's Enwogion Ceredigion ; Enwogion Sir Aberteifi ; G. B. Jones, David, 1797-1848, a temperance advocate and author, was born at Llanfyllin, Montgomeryshire. About the year 1836, when the teetotal movement first began in his native county, he became one of its earliest and most zealous adherents and advocates. He travelled, spoke, and wrote much during the remainder of his life on behalf of total abstinence. He was also an earnest promoter of Sunday Schools and other religious movements, and for the last ten years of his life, an acceptable lay preacher with the Independents.

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He was the author of an English tract, entitled " A Teetotaler's Defence." Shortly after his death, a memoir of Mr. Jones was published by the Rev. Hugh James. (Mont. Worthies.) Jones, David, 1805-1868, a younger brother of the great John Jones, Talysarn, was born in the parish of Dolwyddelen, Carnarvon shire. His opportunities of education did not extend beyond the Sunday School, but his thirst for knowledge was great, and he made the most of every possible chance that came in his way. He was foud of preaching from his boyhood, and would often retire to some quiet spot, and become both preacher and audience himself. When twentyone years of age, he began to preach in public, and soon came into note. He was ordained at Bala, and laboured successively at Carnar von, Treborth, and Llanfairfechan, where he died. He published three lengthy poems on " The Prodigal Son," " Christ's Sacrifice," and "Man." He also wrote several hymns. (Sweet Singers of Wales.) See Y Traethodydd, 1903, p. 426 ; Cymru, vol. 14, p. 26. Jones, David, 1813-1849, a Baptist minister, was a native of Merioneth. In 1833, he joined the Baptists, and soon afterwards began to preach. He subsequently spent about three years at Pontypool College, where his progress was rapid. He soon attained a high position as a preacher, and a volume of his sermons was published. (Enwog. Meirion.) Jones, David, 1823-1901, a Congregational minister, was a native of Carmarthenshire, and possessed a proclivity for preaching when but a youth. At the age of sixteen years, he left home for Merthyr Tydfil, where he worked for several years in the iron works. During these years, by exercising a wise economy, he saved enough money to enable him to enter school, so as to equip himself for his life work. He was ordained in 1851, and in 1869 emigrated to America, where he served as pastor at Cambria, Wisconsin ; Gomer and Cincinnati, Ohio. As a preacher, he was vigorous, practical and effective ; he could, with his impetuous eloquence, stir an audience to the highest pitch of emotion. As a pastor, he shone with even greater lustre, aud the lovely goodness of his character, his deep sympathy, his spiritual fervour, and his child-like simplicity, endeared him to his church. (The Cambrian.) Jones, David, 1831-1894, a Congregational minister and author, was born at Dowlais, Glamorganshire ; and removed when young to Maesteg, where he commenced to preach. Shortly afterwards he went to Cardiff, afterwards proceeding to Brecon College, where he graduated B.A. (London). He was ordained in 1856 at Bethesda, r^arnarvunshire. During his two year's stay there he was very successful, and speedily came to the front as a preacher. Iu 1858 he removed to Cardiff to undertake the pastorate of Ebenezer church, and during the revival, which soon afterwards broke out in Wales, he had some noted meetings. For years he kept his place as one of the foremost preachers of Wales. In 1865, he accepted a call to Zoar church, Merthyr, one of the strongest churches in Wales, and in 1877 removed to Swansea. He wrote much for the Beirniad and other

.John Jones (Talhaiarn).

Rev. Joiin Harris Jones, M.A., Ph.D.

Rev. D. Lloyd Jones, Llantmnam.

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periodicals. For some years he was one of the editors of Y Tyst, and South Wales editor of Dyddiadur yr Annibynwyr. He was also a very effective lecturer. (Congreg. Year Book, 1895.) Jones, David, 1833-1869, "Dewi Arfon," a Calvinistio Methodist minister and poet, was born at Ty Du, Llanberis, Car narvonshire. When eleven years of age he was sent to work at a slate quarry, but in his twentieth year ill-health compelled him to abandon this occupation. On his recovery he attended the Dolbadarn British School, Llanberis, and afterwards spent a year in London, in order to qualify himself for the post of schoolmaster. He was appointed master of the British School at Llanrwst, and in 1867 was ordained minister at Clynnog, near Carnarvon, where he also took charge of a Grammar School. He wrote a good deal of poetry of superior merit, and nearly won the chair prize at the Denbigh Eisteddfod for his ode on " The Outpouring of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost." He died at the early age of thirty-three, and was buried at Llanberis. A collection of his poems, with a number of essays and sermons, under the title, " Gweithiau Dewi," edited by his brother, Gutyn Arfon, appeared in 1873. (Carnarvon : John Davies.) (Gweithiau Dewi.) Jones, David Havard, 1842-1902, "Gains," a Baptist minister and author, was born at Cendl, Carmarthenshire. When he was 12 years of age, his parents removed to Aberdare, and identified themselves with the church at Calfaria. Under Dr. Price's ministry, David was received into membership, and immediately became zealous in Christian work. When he was between 18 and 19 years of age, he commenced to preach, and within a few months he began to attend the Grammar School at Newcastle Emlyn. He afterwards studied at the Normal College, Swansea. In 1865, he received a unanimous invitation to the pastorate of the churches at Galltraeth and Rhoshirwaen, Carnarvonshire. After a successful ministry of five years, he became pastor of the church at Nantyffin, Swansea Valley. There he toiled with energy and zeal until his health was impaired, and he retired from the ministry three years before his death. When at Nantyffin, he took the oversight of churches at Pontardawe and Senny Bridge, where his name is revered and honoured. As a contributor to Welsh Baptist periodicals, under the nom-de-plume of "Gaius," his articles were highly appreciated. [Baptist Handbook, 1903.) Jones, David Lloyd, 1843-1905, a Calvinistic Methodist minister and author, was born at Talysarn, in Carnarvonshire, and was the youngest son of the Rev. John Jones, Talysarn (1796-1857, see post). When very young, he was sent to a school kept by Eben Fardd at Clynnog, and afterwards spent some time in one of the best schools in London. When 17 years of age, in 1859—the year of the great revival known as the David Morgan Revival—he commenced to preach, and was popular from the very start Then he went to Bala Theological College, under the tuition of the renowned divines, Dr. Lewis Edwards and Dr. John Parry ;

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and when 20 years of age proceeded to Edinburgh. After four years' successful career he graduated M.A. In 1870 he was installed as pastor of the Welsh and English churches at Llanidloes, and was ordained two years later, when he took another church—the English church at Llandinam—under his charge. But in 1876 he resigned the pastorate of the churches at Llanidloes, and settled at Llandinam as minister of the English church there and that of Caersws—a small town in the vicinity. He had filled all the high offices in the Welsh as well as the English conferences. For two years he was secretary of the general assembly, and was moderator of that body when it met at Cardiff in 1904. In 1900 he filled the same office in North Wales, and the English churches paid him the same tribute in 1904. He was a great geologist and historian, and contributed a series of articles to Cymru on the geology of Great Britain. (The N. W. Observer and Express.) See Y Traethodydd, 1906, p. 97 ; Y Geninen, 1906, p. 165 ; Cymru, vol. 31, p. 13. Jones, David Owen, 1856-1903, a Wesleyan minister and author, was born at Penmachno, Carnarvonshire. He received a good education, and commenced life as a bank clerk. He was ordained in 1875, and fifteen years of his ministry were spent in two circuits, so highly esteemed was he as a preacher and pastor by those who knew him best. His greatest gift and chief delight was preaching,—it was the master passion of his life, and to this he devoted all his attainments and energies, becoming one of the leading preachers of his denomina tion. His sermons were clearly thought out, rich in evangelical truth, delivered with great fervour, and sometimes with overwhelming effect. He was an accomplished writer, and his " Commentary on St. Mark's Gospel " is a distinct acquisition to Welsh literature. His Biography, in Welsh, with a selection of his sermons, edited by the Rev. W. O. Evans, appeared shortly after his death (Bangor : Wesleyan Bookroom). (Minutes of Conference, 1904 ; Manchester Gtuirdian.) See Yr Eurgrawn, 1903. Jones, David P., 1844-1905, " Dafydd o Went," a Con gregational minister and author, was born in Cardiganshire, and when quite young moved with his parents to Rhymney, where he found employment in a coal mine. Step by step, he became foreman, his leisure hours being devoted to self-improvement, and his Sundays to preaching. In 1882 he emigrated to America, and settled at Morris Run, Tioga County, Pennsylvania. There he was ordained to the ministry and took up his first charge. In 1887, he received a call to Scranton, where he remained till his death. At that time the congregation conducted its services over a store, but during his ministry the church grew to be one of the largest and most flourishing in the city. He was a most prolific Welsh writer, and figured prominently in Eisteddfodic circles. He won the chair prize at an Eisteddfod at Granville, New York, held the Christmas before he died. (The Cambrian, 1905, p. 175.) Jones, David Samuel, 1851-1898, a Congregational minister and author, was a native of Eglwysbach, Carnarvonshire. He entered

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Bala College in 1876, and was ordained at Cana, Anglesey, three years later. Here he remained for four years, doing noble work. In 1883 . he received a call to the pastorate of the united churches at Chwilog and Abererch, in South Carnarvonshire. He knew his Bible from beginning to end, and his sermons were always characterised by Scriptural illustrations, in the delivery of which he was both eloquent and powerful. He was the biographer of the Rev. Robert Thomas (Ap Fychan), and shortly before his death had commenced to write a biography of the Rev. Dr. Herber Evans. He was a constant contributor to the Welsh magazines, and wrote an excellent biography of the Rev. William Williams, of Wern, which was published in 1894. (C. & D. Herald ; Cardiff Catalogue Congreg. Year Book, 1899.) Jones, David William, 1832-1905, "Dafydd Morganwg," a poet, was born at Merthyr Tydfil. For thirty years he was in the service of the Compagnie Generate Transatlantique, of Cardiff, as coal inspector, and held a certificate as first-class colliery manager. He was a very successful Eisteddfod competitor, his chief successes being at Machynlleth, 1870; Llanberis, 1878; and Cardiff, 1883. His services as adjudicator at National Eisteddfodau were in great request ; and he was the principal literary adjudicator at the World's Fair Eisteddfod at Chicago. He wrote a number of articles to the Geninen and other magazines, and contributed a large proportion of the articles in Cym™, published by Messrs. Blackie & Son in 1875. In 1874 he published a Welsh history of Glamorganshire, but his best-known work is " Yr Ysgol Farddol " (The School of Bardism), a text-book of Welsh bardism, which was first published in 1869, and afterwards ran into many editions. He also published a very useful Welsh grammar entitled " Yr Ysgol Gymreig." (The Liverpool Daily Post ; Tfie Manchester Guardian ; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Y Geninen, 1905, p. 198. Jones, Dorothea, —1885, "Gwynfryn," an authoress, was the daughter of Mr. W. Tilsley Jones, of Gwynfryn, Cardiganshire, and sister of the Bishop of St. David's. She frequently contributed to the magazines under the nom-de-plume of " Gwynfryn." Her best known work was " Friends in Furs and Feathers " ; which originally appeared in the form of essays and sketches in the Monthly Packet, and Aunt Judy's Magazine. Another work of considerable power and literary finish, entitled " The Other's Story," she inscribed to the Bishop, her brother, between whom and herself there existed the most affectionate relations. (The Red Dragon.) Jones, Ebenezer, 1820-1860, a poet, was born at Canonbury Square, Islington, London, and was the son of Robert Jones, a Welsh man. Under the influence of Shelley and Carlyle, he rapidly developed the strenuous but violently exaggerated style of thinking and writing which long characterised his productions. Lord deTabley said of him: " When Jones writes a bad line, he writes a bad one with a vengeance, . . . and yet, at his best, in organic Tightness, beauty, and above all, spontaneity, we must go among the very highest poetic names to match him." His first volume of poetry, " Studies of Sensation and Event,"

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appeared in 1843, and Browning, in a letter to his friend Alfred Domett, speaks of it in glowing terms. Rossetti refers to him as " nearly the most striking instance of neglected genius in our modern school of poetry "; and Watts-Dunton, says of him : "Among men who have expressed themselves in English verse, I greatly doubt whether a more robust personality has appeared since Byron. Jones wrote in verse simply because feeling so intense as his—passion so fiery, cannot be expressed in prose—must be expressed in some kind of rhythmical form." For his works and accounts of him see papers in the Athenanim by Theodore Watts-Dunton (1878); an edition of "Studies in Sensation" by Shepherd (1879) containing a Memoir by his brother, Sumner Jones, and Reminiscences by W. J. Linton. (Diet. Nat. Biog.; Harmsworth.) See Academy, Nov. 1879 ; The Welsh Review, 1907, p. 82, where six of Jones' poems are given. Jones, Edmund, 1702-1793, an Independent preacher and author, was a native of Monmouthshire, and the only education he received was at a school kept by the curate of his native parish. He commenced to preach at 22 years of age, but was not ordained for about 10 years afterwards. He formed a church in the neighbourhood of Pontypool, and was one of the most active and useful ministers of his age. He was not a popular preacher, for his voice was rather feeble, and his delivery slow, but the thorough evangelical character of his doctrine, his puritanical style of preaching, the ardency of his piety, and the dignity of an apostle which was stamped upon his countenance, demanded attention wherever he went. He was the friend of the Rev. Howell Harris, at whose Trevecca press was printed, in 1779. his "Geographical, Historical, and Religious Account " of his native parish of Aberystruth. He took the trouble to collect narratives of ghosts, fairies, mysterious noises, fire-balls and similar phenomena, arranged under the several parishes in which the events are stated to have happened, which he published under the title " A Relation of Apparitions of Spirits in the Principality of Wales." (Rees' Hist. ; Cardiff Catalogue ; Manchester Guardian, 25 Sept. 1905.) See Llyfrydd. y Cymry ; Hanes Lien. G. ; Traethodau Llenyddol Dr. Edwards, p. 139 ; Enwog. y Ffydd, v. 2, p. 125 ; F Geninen, March, 1905, p 17 ; Yr Adolygydd, v. 1, pp. 100, 277 ; F Geninen, 1895, p. 95. Jones, Edward, 1641-1703, bishop of St. Asaph, was born near Forden, in the county of Montgomery, and was educated at Westminster College and Trinity College, Cambridge. He first became bishop of Cloyne, in Ireland, and was translated to St. Asaph in 1692. His promotion is said to have been due entirely to his being a native, and therefore qualified to be made a plausible competitor, in order to defeat the claims of another clergyman, of great learning and experience, who had, however, given offence by appearing in the Convocation of 1689 against the measures of Dr. Pennison, afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury. About 1699, he was suspended for six months, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, for simoniacal practices, which he is said to have yielded to. He died May 10th, 1703, at Westminster, and was buried in the Parish Church of St. Margaret's.

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(Did. Em. W.; Mont. Worthies.) See Diet. Nat. Biog.; A Short Narrative of the Proceedings against the Bishop of St. Asaph, 1720 ; Thomas' Hist. of St. Asaph, p. 123 ; Montgomeryshire Collections, xi. 251 - 3, xv. 47 ; Willis' Survey of St. Asaph, by Edwards. Jones, Edward, 1749-1779, a musician, was born near Criccieth, Carnarvonshire. He composed a number of tunes and anthems, many of which were published. His best known work is the anthem " Arglwydd, chwiliaist ac adnabuost fi " (" 0 Lord, thou hast searched me and known me "). Some of his compositions are to be found in Y Cerddor Cymreig. (B. Cerddorion Cymreig.) Jones, Edward, 1752-1824, better known sis "Bardd y Brenin" (the King's poet), was born in the parish of Llandderfel, Merioneth shire. His father was a musical genius, and taught his son the Welsh harp. Edward removed to London in 1774, under the patronage of several persons of distinction, and his performance on the harp attracted great attention. He was appointed bard to the Prince of Wales, but this was merely an honorary post. In 1784, he published his " Musical and Poetical Relics of the Welsh Bards," of which a second edition, "doubly augmented,'' appeared 10 years later. In 1802, he published another volume, entitled " The Bardic Museum of Primitive British Literature." Both are most valuable and interesting works, and contain the notes of the most ancient Welsh airs. Shortly before his death an annuity of £50 was granted to him by the Royal Society of Musicians. His printed works, which were the result of 40 years' labour and research, will convey I lis name with honour to posterity. He died in Marylehone, April 18, 1824. (Diet. Em. W.) See Diet. Nat. Biog.; Gent. Mag., 1824, pt. 2, p. 185; Leathart's Origin and Progress of the Gwyneddigion Society, p. 65 ; Brown's Biog. Diet. of Musicians ; Grove's Dictionary of Music, v. 2, p. 39 ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry. Jones, Edward, 1761-1836, a well-known hymn-writer, was born in the parish of Llanrhaiadr, near Denbigh. He lost his father when about 10 years old, and in early youth came under the influence of evil companions. When about 25 years of age, however, he joined the Calvin istic Methodists, with whom he continued a faithful member until his death 50 years later. He was more or less a verse-maker from his childhood, and composed many songs and hymns. One of his carols was a great favourite of the famous Welsh preacher, Christmas Evans, who used at times to repeat portions of it in his sermons with most powerful effect. Several of his hymns are extremely popular. He is generally known as " Edward Jones, Maesyplwm," the latter being the name of a farmhouse in which he resided for 25 years. (Hants Lien. G. ; Sweet Singers of Wales.) See Enwog. y Dydd, v. 1, p. 391 ; Cofiant y Parch. John Jones, Talysam, p. 356 ; Cymru, v. 25, p. 151 ; Seren Gomer, 1820, p. 119 (for one of his poems). Jones, Edward, 1771-1831, "Ned M6n," author, was a native of Anglesey, but lived chiefly in London, and was a prominent member of the London Gwyneddigion Society. He and his brother,

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Owen Jones (see post, fi. 1790), assisted Owen Jones (Myfyr) and Dr. Wm. Owen Pughe in bringing out the poetical works of Dafydd ab Gwilym. He translated Cicero's Brutus, and Dr. Adam Clarke speaks in high terms of it. He also published an " Index to Records called the Originalia and Memoranda, on the Lord Treasurer's Remembrancer's side of the Exchequer, extracted from the Records, and from the MSS. of Mr. Tayleure, Mr. Madox, and Mr. Chapman," London, v. 1, 1793, v. 2, 1795 ; " Cyfreithiau Plwyf " (Parish Laws), a guide to the duties of wardens, overseers of the poor, &c, Bala, 1794. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Llyfrydd. y Cymry. Jones, Edward, 1777-1837, a Wesleyan minister and poet, was born at Bathafarn, near Ruthin. He was educated at the Grammar School in that town, and started life in a cotton warehouse in Manchester. He there attached himself to the Wesleyan congregation in Oldham Street, and on his return toWales, in 1799, he resolved to introduce Wesleyan Methodism into his native country. He invited the ministers from the Chester circuit to preach at Ruthin. The services were at first conducted in English, but later on Edward Jones and John Bryan undertook Welsh services on alternate Sundays. The movement spread rapidly, and in 1800, the Wesleyan Conference constituted Ruthin into a circuit. Jones was ordained in 1802, and for 14 years he was engaged in promoting a religious revival in Wales, and in establishing Wesleyan churches. In 1816 he removed to England, where he remained till his death at Leek, in Staffordshire, in 1837. He wrote a good deal of poetry, which appeared in Yr Eurgrawn and Trysor i Blentyn. (Enwog. Meirion ; Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Methodist Magazine, Sept. 1838 ; Enwog. y Ffydd, v. 4, p. -274 ; Cofiant John Jones, Talysarn, by Dr. Owen Thomas, pp. 276- 81 ; Y Geninen, 1897, p. 55. Jones, Edward, 1782-1855, a Wesleyan minister and author, was born near Llangollen, and was ordained in 1805, his first pastorate being at Merthyr Tydfil. He took a prominent part in the controversy between the respective followers of Calvin and Arminius, and in 1819 wrote a trenchant pamphlet on the subject, in reply to a Calvinistic pamphlet. He also compiled a collection of hymns, and translated into Welsh a theological essay by T. Oliver (1812), and a volume of sermons by John Wesley (1833). He spent the latter part of his life at Llanidloes, Montgomeryshire. (Enwog. Cymru; Cardiff Catalogue.) Jones, Edward, 1825-1868, "Hebog," a poet and musician, was born at Penygarnedd, near Llanfyllin, Montgomeryshire. He competed at the Tremadoc Eisteddfod, in 1851, for the prize offered for an anthem on " Habakkuk's Prayer," and at the Llangollen Eisteddfod, in 1858, for an ode on " The Transfiguration." In 1860 he published an ode of about 7,000 lines on " David, King of Israel." He was also a frequent contributor to the Welsh Wesleyan magazines. (Mont. Worthies.) Jones, Edward, -1892, a clergyman, graduated at Jesus College, Oxford, and was ordained in 1849. Though retiring and

Rev. E. (xUknos Jones, D.D.

Rev. Hugh Jones, D.D., Llangollen.

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unobtrusive in disposition, he was in his day reputed to be a master of the Welsh language and literature, and an exceedingly able writer and brilliant speaker, both in Welsh and English. Until 1881, he was vicar of Llanrhaiadr-yn-Mochnant, Denbighshire. His " Gronovania," an edition and estimate of the writings of Goronwy Owen, was published in 1860, and for some time he edited the Cerihadwr Eglwysig. He was the father of Professor G. Hartwell Jones, of Cardiff. (Bye-Gones, 1892, p. 313.) Jones, Edward, 1827-1905, a Baptist minister and author, was born at Rhandirmwyn, Carmarthen. He had few early advantages, but he had great mental ability. Shortly after joining Zion Church, in the place of his birth, he commenced to preach. He removed to Aberdare, and afterwards entered Haverfordwest College. In 1860, he was ordained pastor of Penuel Chapel, Pentyrch, near Cardiff. At that time he won several Eisteddfodic prizes, and his essays, especially those on philosophical subjects, were considered of high merit. His fame as a preacher was great. In 1866 he published his " Gems of Thought " (Cardiff : D. Duncan), which was very favourably reviewed. In 1872, he removed from Pentyrch to the pastorate of the Tabernacle Church, Maesteg. (Baptist Handbook, 1906 ; Cardiff Catalogue.) Jones, Edward F., about 1820a colonel in the American Army, was of Welsh descent. General Butler wrote of him :—" I was fully content with Col. Jones, of whom I had a very high appreciation. By the 17th April, 1861, he had his regiment on the way to Philadelphia, and, via Baltimore, to Washington. His route to New York was an ovation, his reception there was one of extravagant and tumultuous joy The citizens of Philadelphia encamped them at Girard House, the President met the regiment at the depot in Washington, and, taking Col. Jones by the hand, said, 4 Thank God you have come ! for if you had not, Washington would have been in the hands of the Rebels before morning.' " ( Welshmen as Factors, &c.) Jones, Edwin, 1841-1900, a lawyer, was a son of Mr. Thomas Jones, of Boughrood, Radnorshire, and was born in June, 1841. He was called to the Bar of the Middle Temple in 1875, and in 1889 was appointed Judge of the County Courte Circuit No. 5, which embraces Bolton, Oldham, and other towns in Lancashire. Judge Jones was twice married. His first wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. Richard Ambrose, of The Glediyd, died in 1897. Mr. Ambrose Jones and Mr. Edwin Harold Jones, both well known in legal circles, are his son«. On New Year's Day, 1900, he was married to Miss Hodgkinson, daughter of a former chief constable of Oldham. He was a magistrate for Lancashire and the Isle of Man, where he owned Balla Mona, Port St. Mary. (Bye-Gones, 1900, p. 319.) Jones, Eliezer, 1809-1883, a Congregational minister, born at Denbigh, was the son of Dr. Arthur Jones (1776-1860, see ante). His father having undertaken the oversight of the Welsh Chapel at Deptford, he was able to attend the Lewisham School ; and he was always one of the most faithful friends of that institution. Having decided to enter the ministry, he became a student at Carmarthen

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College. His first church was at Castle Street, Swansea, where he was ordained in 1828. He removed four years later to Rodborough Tabernacle, Gloucestershire. His third pastorate was at Oxford, where he settled in 1840. His preaching soon attracted considerable attention. Newman, Pusey, and Keble were commencing their great revolution, and the eyes of all England were turned to the University city. Mr. Jones threw himself zealously into the contest. He was a staunch Protestant, scornful of all dalliance with meretricious Romanism, and he made his voice heard with force and point. Among his most eloquent utterances are those in which he denounced these innovations. In 1844, he removed to Plymouth, and in 1856 to Ipswich. He was pre-eminently a preacher. An imposing presence, a dignified bearing, a rich full voice of remarkable force and music, together with a vocabulary of vivid language fired by the passion of the orator, made his preaching attractive and impressive. (Congreg. Year Book, 1884.) Jones, Erasmus W., 1817a Calvinistic Methodist minister and author, was born in the parish of Llandd«iniolen, Carnarvonshire. In 1832 he emigrated to America, where he joined his eldest brother John, who had preceded him. In 1838, he settled in Remsen, and ten years later became a fully ordained minister. In 1856 his first book, " The Captive Youths of Judah," was published, of which two editions were sold. In 1864, he was appointed chaplain in the army, where he served for two years. He was a frequent competitor at the Eisteddfod, and won prizes for a story, " The Adopted Son of the Princess ; " a translation of Llew Llwyfo's " Gwenhwyfar ; " and a translation of " An Ode on Sympathy." In 1886, his " Llangobaith " appeared, and was well received ; and in 1890, his " Gold Tinsel and Trash " was published by Hunt and Eaton. He was an exceedingly popular lecturer, and that on " Two Years as Chaplain of a Coloured Regiment " was delivered 75 times. His other lectures include, "The Poetry and Poets of the Bible ; " " Rev. George Whitefield ; " " Rev. Christmas Evans ; " and " Elements of Success." (The Cambrian, 1897, p. 393.) Jones, Ernest Charles, 1819-1868, the chartist, was the son of Charles Jones, a Welsh officer of the 15th Hussars, who accom panied the Duke of Cumberland to Berlin, when the latter was crowned King of Hanover with the title of Ernest I. The subject of this notice was born while his parents were in Hanover, and he was called Ernest in honour of the King, who acted as his god-father. He spent the closing years of his life in Manchester, and was a Parliamentary candidate for Manchester at the time of his death. He was the author of several prose and poetical works. His poems, especially " The Battle Day " (1855), are of considerable merit, as are also his " Song of the Poorer Classes," and other lyrics. He was called to the bar in 1844, and two years later identified himself with the chartist movement, becoming one of its foremost orators. His advocacy of violence led to his imprisonment in 1848. His son, Mr. L. A. Atherley-Jones, K.C., M.P., is recorder of Newcastle-on-Tyne, and represents North-west Durham in Parliament. (Harmsworth;

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Cymry Manceinion.) See Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Gammage's History of the Chartist Movement ; T. Frost's Forty Years Recollections ; Times, 27 and 29 January, and 31 March, 1868 ; English Quarterly, 1851 ; Dublin University Magazine, vol. 3. Jones, Evan, 1771-1821, a distinguished soldier, was born at Gelliwig, Carnarvonshire. He entered the army in 1791, and two years later embarked with his regiment, the 23rd, or Welsh Fusiliers, for the West Indies, under Sir Charles Grey. He took part in several engagements, and he and his regiment greatly distinguished themselves at the Helder in 1799, and in subsequent battles in Holland, under Sir Ralph Abercrombie. He served also under the same general in Egypt. At the memorable battle on the heights of Nicopolis, near Alexandria, on the 21st March, 1801, when the brave Abercrombie fell, the 58th, 42nd, and 23rd regiments charged with the bayonets the " Invincibles " of France, as they had been hitherto called, took their standard, and drove them off the field. Jones rose to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. In 1808, he married Anna Maria Kenyon, a niece of Lord Chief Justice Kenyon, and then quitted the army, retiring to his maternal property at Gelliwig. Mrs. Jones survived her hnsband fifty-three years, and in the " Life of Lord Kenyon," by the Hon. George Kenyon, his great grandson, the author refers to a considerable amount of information given to him by her relating to the Chief Justice's life. (The Cambro-Briton, vol. 2, p. 431.) See Bye-Gones, 1874, p. 45 ; Old Wales, vol. 1, p. 193. Jones, Evan, 1820-1852, "Ieuan Gwynedd," a Congregational minister, poet, and prose writer, was born about eight miles from Dolgelley. He began to preach at an early age, and after spending four years at Brecon College, was ordained, and took charge of the cause at Saron, Tredegar, in 1845. He afterwards spent some time in London as editor of the " Standard of Freedom," but ill-health compelled him to return to Wales. He was editor of the Welsh quarterly, Yr Adolygydd. He had a most facile pen, and rendered his country excellent service in refuting the statements in regard to the morality of the people of Wales contained in the report of the Government Commission of 1846, popularly known as " The Treason of the Blue Books." Several able letters of his on the educational and moral condition of Wales were published in English. He was an excellent poet, and won several eisteddfod prizes, among others, at Merthyr and Liverpool. He also won a prize for an English essay on " The Moral Obligation of Total Abstinence." A volume of his collected works was published at Dolgelley in 1876. (Enwog. C. ; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Hanes Lien. 0. ; Yr Adolygydd, vol. 2, p. 64; Y Traethodydd, 1902, p. 420 ; Cymru, vol. 19, p. 133 ; Wales, vol. 2, p. 500 ; Welsh Lyrics, p. 47 ; Cymru, vol. 16, p. 46 ; Y Traethodydd, 1894, p. 177 ; Congreg. Year Book, 1854 ; Y Bcdyddiior, 1852 ; Gent. Mag., 1852, part 1, p. 423 ; Y Geninen, March, 1895, part 1 ; Cymru, v. 12, p. 69. Jones, Evan Aeron, 1824- 1906, "Ieuan Aeron," a Congrega tional minister and poet, was a native of Cardiganshire. In 1892, he was the chairman of the Congregational Union of Wales. His

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presidential address on " Religious Sectarianism," delivered from the chair at the Holyhead Union meetings, created a great stir at the time owing to its outspokenness. He was a versatile writer, served on the editorial staff of the " Gwyddoniadur," was one of the founders of " Y Beirniad," which flourished for nineteen years, and from 1881 to 1889 was one of the editors of the Welsh Congregational Magazine. During the last few years of his life he resided at Manordeilo, in Carmarthenshire. He was the father of Mr. S. J. Merlin, barrister, and the Rev. E. Griffith Jones, B.A., of Balham. He had been for many years a great force in the religious life of the Principality ; to quote the Rev. Morgan Gibbon, " He was the first of the new order of Welsh preachers, a pioneer of liberal and national views in religion and in everything else." His elegy on the death of the Rev. David Williams, Troedrhiwdalar, which is of superior merit, is published in that divine's biography (Llandilo : D. W. and G. Jones, 1877). (M. Guardian ; Cardiff Catalogue ; The Welsh Review, 1906, p. 50.) Jones, Evan Gurnos, 1840-1903, " Gurnos," a Congregational minister and poet, was born at Gwernogle, Carmarthenshire, and began to preach at Gurnos, Ystalyfera, when about twenty years of age. He afterwards studied for the ministry at Carmarthen Presbyterian College. In 1866, he was ordained pastor of the Congregational Church, at Treorky, removing in 1873, to Talysarn, Carnarvonshire. Some years afterwards he removed to South Wales, and joined the Baptists, but subsequently went back to the Congregationalists, and about three years before his death he accepted a call to their chnrch at Llanbradach. As poet, preacher, orator, adjudicator, lecturer, and eisteddfod conductor, Gurnos was one of the best known Welshmen of his day. He won the chair prize at Bangor in 1874, for an ode on " The Bible " ; Cardiff (1879), " Instinct " : Racine, Wisconsin (1881) ; and Rhyl (1892), " The Missionary " ; and was second for the chair at Pontypridd in 1893. It was in his shorter poems, however, that he excelled, and he had a special gift for composing verse for recitation. Two small volumes of his poems were published, under the title, " Caneuon Gurnos." As a lecturer, he stood in the front rank, and in this capacity he travelled much throughout the Principality. (M. Guardian ; Cardiff Catalogue ; Young Wales, 1904 ; Y Geninen, March, 1904, p. 20.) See Young Wales, 1903, p. 236. Jones, George, 1811-1891, a self-made man, was born at Poultney, Vermont, U.S.A., and was the son of John and Rebecca Jones, of Llanwyddelan, Montgomeryshire, who emigrated to America in 1799. Both parents died when George was but 13 years old, and he found himself thrown upon his own resources. He found employ ment as errand boy in the general country store of Amos Bliss, at Poultney. Mr. Bliss was also an editor, and among his apprentices was Horace Greeley, with whom Jones became very intimate. In 1841, Jones accepted a position in the business office of the Tribune, at New York, under Greeley, but soon afterwards he established a News Agency in Albany, where he amassed a modest capital, which he invested in a banking business. In 1851, in conjunction with Henry J. Raymond, he founded the New York Times, of which paper he

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afterwards became editor. In that capacity he took a leading part in purging the State, at that time, of Tammany corruption, and in securing needful reforms. In 1884, he commenced the erection of the handsome building which is now the home of the Times. He died a very wealthy man, and was succeeded in the newspaper business by his son, Gilbert E. Jones. (The Cambrian, 1894, p. 353.) Jones, Griffith, 1683-1761, of Llanddowror, was a native of Carmarthenshire. At an early age, he was placed under an able master at the Carmarthen Grammar School, where ho made rapid progress. In 1711, he was presented to the living of Llandeilo, Abercowyn, and, five years later, to the vicarage of Llanddowror. In 1730, he first commenced his circulating schools in Wales, which proved an invaluable blessing to many thousands. He was very zealous in collecting subscriptions for these schools, and, as the result of his exertions, one hundred and fifty eight thousand persons were taught to read. Through his instrumentality, thirty thousand copies of the Welsh Bible were printed by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and sold at a cheap rate to the poor. He wrote and circulated extensively small manuals in English and Welsh. He acquired some knowledge of medicine, and was in the habit of dispensing gratuitously to his poor parishioners. He was an able and impressive preacher, and often his churches were quite inadequate to contain the immense crowds that flocked to hear him. (Diet. Em. W.; Imp. Diet. Biog.) See Hanes Lien. G. ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry; Enwog. y Ffydd ; Y Drysorfa Ysbrydol, 1813, p. 11 ; Y Beirniad, 1860, pp. 66 and 269 ; Nodweddiad y Cymry, p. 199 ; Cymru Fydd, v. 2, 1889, p. 408 ; Sunday Schools, 'dc., p. 92 ; Jones' Welsh Piety ; Diet. Nat. Biog.; Enivog. C.; Johnes' Causes of Dissent in Wales; Rees' Hist.; Bevan's St. David's (Diocesan Histories); Y Qeninen, 1895, p. 285. Jones, Griffith, 1722-1786, an author, was of Welsh parentage and was brought up as a printer under Mr. Bowyer, a journalist of repute. For many years he was editor of the Daily Advertiser, in which appeared the " Letters of Junius." He resided at one time in Bolt Court, Fleet Street, London, and was thus a near neighbour of Johnson's. He wrote a small work called "Great Events from Little Causes," which is said to have had a large sale. He was also the author of a number of books for children, published by Mr. John Newbery, among them, "The History of Goody Two-Shoes;" "The History of Giles Gingerbread," and " The Travels of Tommy Trip." In this work he was assisted by his brother, Mr. Giles Jones. (Book of Days, v. 2, pp. 337-9.) He was connected with Dr. Johnson in the Literary Magazine, and with Goldsmith in the British Magazine. In addition to the Daily Advertiser, he edited the London Chronicle and Public Ledger, and translated extensively from the French. (Lippincott.) See Welsh's A Bookseller of the Last Century, p. 44 : Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Nichol's Literary Anecdotes, v. 3, p. 465 ; Gardiner's St. Pauls School Reg., pp. 121, 148 ; Imp. Diet. Biog.

A DICTIONARY OF Jones, Griffith Rhys, 1834-abt. 1897, " Caradog," a noted choir conductor, was born at Trecynon, in Glamorganshire. At an early age he became an accomplished performer on the violin, and, whilst still in his teens, was the conductor of a choir. He was first violinist in the Aberdare Philharmonic Society, and subsequently became the leader of that successful choir. In 1872, he was appointed conductor of the Welsh choir which competed for the one thousand guinea challenge cup, and a prize of £100, offered by the Crystal Palace Company. The choir secured the trophy without a contest, but in the following year, when they had to meet a crack London choir, known as the Paris Prize Choir, under the leadership of Mr. Proudman, they were again successful. During his residence in the Rhondda Valley, he formed a choir for the purpose of performing oratorios and other works, but shortly afterwards he removed to Cardiganshire, and afterwards to Cardiff and Pontypridd. In the latter town, he formed a choir which performed, with much success, at the Pontypridd Eisteddfod in 1893. (Notable Welsh Musicians.) See Y Geninen, 1898, p. 46. Jones, Griffith R., 1850-1892, a barrister and journalist, was born at Llanfairtalhaiarn, Denbighshire, and was apprenticed, at the age of 13, to a chemist at Denbigh. From there he removed to the Chester Training College, and afterwards took charge of a school at Llanarth, in Cardiganshire. Later on, he entered Cambridge University, where he obtained a scholarship on his first entrance, subsequently graduating M.A. Some years afterwards he obtained (by examination) the degree of LI. D. at Dublin University. He was ordained by the Bishop of Winchester, and having officiated for seven years as a clergyman, in London, he read for the law. He acted as editor for several papers and periodicals, including the Shipjnng Gazette, and the Theological Review. He was also the author of two novels and other works. (C. & D. Herald.) Jones, Harry Longueville, 1806-1870, archaeologist, was of Welsh descent, his father (Edward Jones), being the son of Captain Thomas Jones, of Wrexham. He completed his education at Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. In 1849, he was appointed Inspector of Schools for Wales. In 1846, with the assistance of the Rev. John Williams (ab Ithel), he issued the first number of the Archceoh)gia Cambrensis, and in the following year he organised a meeting at Aberystwyth, at which the Cambrian Archaeological Society was founded. He greatly interested himself in the reform of university education, and started a college of his own in Manchester, with the intention that it should be affiliated to the University of London. This did not meet with much success, but it prepared the way for the establishment of Owen's College in 1851. He published a number of works, including—" Illustrations of the Natural Scenery of the Snowdonian Mountains, accompanied by a description of the county of Carnarvon " (London : 1829) ; " Plan of a University for the Town of Manchester " (Manchester : 1836) ; " Memorials of Cambridge, with Historical and Descriptive Accounts " (2 vols., 1841), &c. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Archaeologia Cambrensis, passim ; also an obituary notice

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in Archaeologia Cambrensis, 4th ser. ii., 94-6 ; British Museum Catalogue. Jones, Henry W., 1802-1873, a Baptist minister, was born at a farmhouse named The Court, near Penrhyncoch, Cardiganshire. In 1821, he joined the Baptist Church at Goginan, and soon after was invited to preach, which he did with much acceptance. After spend ing the usual term at Bradford College, he accepted a call to the pastorate at Blaenavon, Monmouthshire. He subsequently became minister of the English cause at Tredegar, and later on he undertook the pastorate of the Welsh cause at Newport. There he soon made his mark as a zealous and popular Welsh preacher, and his ardent ministry was the means of attracting a large and admiring congregation. In 1835, he removed to a more important sphere of work and usefulness at Carmarthen, where he soon became eminent as one of the most popular preachers in the Principality. Possessed of a splendid voice and commanding appearance, he was always a great attraction at the annual Associations. (Baptist Handbook, 1877.) Jones, Herbert Dale, 1881-1902, a most prominent musician, known as "The Chicago Fingerless Pianist," was born of Welsh parents. He was only 21 years of age when he died, but in study, deeds, learning, and artistic accomplishments, he had attained the quota of many years. He was a musician by nature, possessing a baritone voice of great range and power ; had composed exquisite songs ; and as a pianist achioved remarkable success, though he had not a complete finger on either hand. He was so badly deformed that he had to go about on crutches. One of his songs, " Thought Fancies," met with a hearty reception. (The Cambrian, 1902, p. 490.) Jones, Hugh, about 1700 -about 1780, of Llangwm, a poet, was the author of a large number of songs which were very popular in his time. In " Hanes Llenyddiaeth Gymreig " (Charles Ashton), a list is given of as many as thirty-four separate publications of his between the years 1727 and 1779. His best known productions are ;—" Dewisol Ganiadau yr Oes Hon " (17o9), a collection of poems, songs, and carols, by a number of bards ; and " Diddanwch Teuluaidd," the poems of Goronwy Owen, Lewis Morris, Hugh Hughes, and others (London : William Roberts, 1763). (Hanes Lien. G.) See Y Traethodydd, 1886, p. 273 et seq ; Ibid, 1888, p. 433 ; Ibid, 1887, p. 122 : Revue Celtique, v. 1, p. 384 ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry ; The Poetical Works of the Rev. Goronwy Owen (edit. 1876), v. 2, p. 280. Jones, Hugh, 1749-1825, of Maesglasau, an author, was the son of a well-to-do farmer, and was born in the neighbourhood of Dinas Mawddwy, Merionethshire. He spent the life of a literary recluse, devoting his time and losing his money in enriching the literature of his country. In his younger days he composed several Interludes, but he is best known as a translator and hymn-writer. He also interested himself in church psalmody, and wrote several psalm-tunes. One of his hymns—" 0 tyn y gorchudd yn y mynydd hyn "—is a universal favourite, and is found in every collection of Welsh hymns. He was the author of " Gardd y Caniadau " (The Garden of Songs),

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1776 ; a Welsh work on Arithmetic, and other works. He translated into Welsh the works of Josephus, and Buchan's Family Medicine, and began the compilation of a summary of the history of Britain, but this was not published. He had made some progress with the translation of Matthew Henry's " Commentary," and Dr. Watt's " World to Come," when death put an end to his laborious life. He died at Denbigh, and was buried at Henllan, near that town. {Hanes Lien. G. ; Mont. Worthies.) See Y Traethodydd, 1876 ; Y Geninen, v. 1, p. 206 ; Emvog. C.; Cymru, v. 26, p. 18; v. 31, p. 25, et seq; Sweet Singers of Wales, p. 91. Jones, Hugh, 1789 - 1858, " Erfyl," a poet and essayist, was born in the parish of Llanerfyl, Montgomeryshire. Being a cripple, and unable to earn his living by physical labour, his parents gave him a better schooling than their other children to fit him for the calling of a schoolmaster. At the Beaumaris Eisteddfod, in 1832, he gained the prize for an essay on the " Syntax of the Welsh language." He was a good Welsh scholar, a sound critic, and a talented poet. For many years previous to his death, he resided at Chester, where he corrected the press for Mr. Edward Parry, and subsequently for Messrs. John Parry and Son. From 18.35 to 1840, he was the editor of the Gwladgarwr magazine. He also assisted in bringing out several other Welsh works. (Mont. Worthies.) See Y Traethodydd, 1876, p. 281 ; Hanes Lien. G.; Cymru, vol. 27, p. 125. Jones, Hugh, 1815-1897, a clergyman, was educated at Beaumaris Grammar School and Jesus College, Oxford, taking his M.A. degree in 1839. He was fellow of his college from 1839 to 1844, resigning to accept the college living of Holywell. In 1850, he was appointed honorary canon of St. Asaph, and ten years later residentiary canon. For many years he was one of the chief officials of the Church Missionary Society, and travelled much throughout Wales on horseback, preaching on its behalf. In 1868, he accepted the living of Llanrwst, and in 1892 he was appointed archdeacon of St. Asaph. As a preacher he enjoyed much popularity. He was the author of a volume of sermons entitled " The Christian's Example." His work as a parish priest was characterised by faithfulness and devotion, by nnostentatiousness and unselfishness. A church house was erected at Llanrwst to perpetuate his memory. (C. & D. Herald.) See ByeGones, 1897, p. 139. Jones, Hugh, 1831 - 1883, a Baptist minister and Biblical critic, was born at Bodedern, Anglesey, and commenced life as a shoemaker. In 1849, he left the Calvinistic Methodists, with whom he had been brought up, and joined the Baptists. In 1857 he became pastor at Llandudno, removing two years later to Llangollen. When the Baptist College was established in the latter town, in 1862, he was appointed classical tutor, and five years later he was appointed principal. He published a work on Biblical Exposition, and another on Baptism. He also contributed a series of English articles on the last-named subject to " The Baptist," which were afterwards collected and published in book form. The honorary

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degree of D.D. was conferred upon him. He laboured diligently with his pen as editor of " Y Greal," and as a contributor to various magazines. A summary of his book on " Baptism " was published in English, and met with much favour. He was one of the most powerful of preachers, and his knowledge, though extensive, was characterised more by its thoroughness. (Baptist Handbook, 1884.) See T Traethodydd, 1884, p. 364 ; Y Geninen, 1883, p. 241. Jones, Hugh, 1845-1891, " Huw Myfyr," a Calvinistic Methodist minister and poet, was a native of Llanfihangel Glyn Myfyr, Denbigh shire. For some time after leaving school he was in the employ of Dr. Davies, of Cerrig y Drudion, and acquired a considerable know ledge of medicine, but the bent of his mind lay in the direction of the ministry. He entered Bala College in 1867, where he proved to be a most industrious student, and gained the highest position in the annual examinations. After ho had completed his course, he undertook the pastorate of the Church at Llanrhaiadr yn Mochnant, and its sister churches of Elim, Maen Gwynedd, Cwmdy, Pentre-yfelin, and Briihdir. He was ordained at Llangollen in 1873. In May, 1878, he accepted a call from the important church at LlanUechid, Carnarvonshire. Here he laboured with great success, increasing in popularity as a preacher. His contributions in verse to the various publications of the connexion are numerous. His elegy on " Dr. Edwards y Bala " brought him into notice, and marked him as a poet of considerable merit. Perhaps he was best known as one of the authors of the beautiful elegies written after the death of Professor Dr. Pariy, of Bala. In 1887, he published a metrical translation of the Psalms of David, upon the production of which he bestowed great labour. (Iiye-Gones, 1891, p. 225.) See Y Geninen, March. 1892, p. 39 ; Memorial Vol. by Rev. D. Williams, containing 25 sermons ; Cymru, vol. 2, p. 129. Jones, Hugh Valence, -1800, a civil servant, a native of Merionethshire, was for some years one of the under-secretaries of state to the Duke of Newcastle, and when his Grace became First Lord of the Treasury, in 1754, he was appointed his Private Secretary. In 1756, he w;is elected M.P. for Dover, but quitted Parliament three years later, on being appointed one of the Commissioners of tho Revenue in Ireland, which ollice he held till 1772, when he resigned it. A few years afterwards, his reversion in the Customs fell into his possession, and that lucrative position he enjoyed till his decease. (The Red Dragon.) Jones, Humphrey, 1832-1895, a Wesleyan minister, was born at Tre'rddol, Cardiganshire. When he was quite young, his parents emigrated to America, leaving him with an aunt at Tre'rddol. For a time he attended a school kept by one Edward Jones at Aberystwyth, and at sixteen years of age began to preach. In 1856, he visited his parents, who had settled near Oshkosh, Wisconsin. It was a time of revival in many of the American churches, and the spirit seized him with much power. For two years he preached with great acceptance, and organized a Wesleyan church at the Oshkosh Welsh settlement.

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Returning to Wales in 1858, he began a series of revival meetings in his native parish. His intense earnestness and fervid eloquence swept everything before him, and he took a leading part in the great revival of 1858-60. In 1871, he returned to America, and wae pastor at Cambria and South Bend, Minnesota, until 1894. (Cymry Minnesota, Jcc.) Jones, Humphrey B., 1840-1904, "Garmonydd," poet and musician, was born at Rhewl, near Ruthin. He was one of the oldest elementary head teachers in North Wales. He had been headmaster of elementary schools at Amlwch, Bethesda, Llanarmon, Holyhead, and Tregeiriog, near Ruabon. In his early years he was well known in eisteddfodic circles, both as a musician and as a bard. He published a volume of Welsh and English poems about 25 years before his death. He had visited most parts of North Wales as a conductor of local eisteddfodau and literary meetings, or as a lecturer. (The Liverpool Mercury.) See Y Geninen, March, 1905, p. 35 ; Ibid, March, 1904, p. 57. Jones, Irvonwy, -1886, a poet and journalist, was a son of the Rev. Thomas Jones, the poet-preacher, of Swansea (see post). Though young, he had seen a good deal of the world. He accompanied his father to Australia, and afterwards travelled through Mexico and Central America. His literary strength lay more in the direction of magazine work. Some of his sketches of travel, short stories, and poetry—the last mentioned more particularly—stood high above the common order of merit. Some of his poems were quite remarkable for their beauty of thought and style. Of one of them, "A lost Argosy," the editor of the National Magazine relates that a most competent critic wrote him spontaneously, at the time of its appearance, characterizing it as an effort which recalled some of the best things by Dante Rossetti. He wrote the English words for the " Grand Processional March, Hail, Prince of Wales," sung before the Prince and Princess of Wales, at Swansea, in 1881. (The Red Dragon ; Cardiff Catalogue.) Jones, Isaac, 1804-1850, a clergyman and author, was born in the parish of Llanychaiarn, Cardiganshire, and completed his education at St. David's College, Lampeter, where he was elected Eldon Hebrew Scholar, and awarded the prize given by the Bishop of St. David's to the student who attained the highest position in the examination in theology. Alter serving as curate near Aberystwyth, he removed to Llanedwen and Llanddanielfab, in Anglesey, where he laboured with zeal and devotedness until his decease. In 1832, he published a very useful Grammar of the Welsh language, a second edition of which appeared in 1841, but he is best known as a translator, in which capacity he had few equals. He translated Gurney's " Dictionary of the Bible;" Dr. Adam Clarke's "Commentary on the New Testament," and other works ; and prepared the second volume of the " Geirlyfr Cymraeg," commenced by Owen Williams, of Waenfawr. He also assisted in translating Matthew Henry's " Exposition," published by the Rev. E. Griffiths, of Swansea, besides .several tracts and pamphlets.

Principal J. Vibiamc Jones.

Rev. Michael D. Jones.

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(Diet. Em. W.; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Enwog. C; Enwogion Sir Aberteift, p. 84; Hanes Lien. G.; Llyfrydd. y Cymry; Y Geninen, 1897, p. 35. Jones, Ishmael, 1796-1876, a Congregational minister, was born at Rhoa, Denbighshire. He joined the church under the ministry of the celebrated Williams, of Worn, while he was yet a lad, following his occupation in the coal-mines. His minister, discovering that he possessed superior talents, encouraged him to exercise his gifts in preaching. He was ordained in 1822 at Llansanan, removing in 1830 to Hermon, Anglesey, where he continued to labour for 16 years. In 1846 he undertook charge of the cause at Llanrwst. This was his last pastorate, and for the last 20 years of his life he lived at Rhos. Mr. Jones was of a philosophic cast of mind, yet there was a sparkling genius in all he said. He could put his thoughts in a most graphic form, and was regarded as a most profound divine. Many of his quaint sayings will be remembered in the Principality for ages to come. (Congreg. Year Book, 1877.) See Cymru, vol. 2, p. 3. Jones, Jacob, 1770-1850, an American naval officer, born in Kent county, Delaware, U.S.A., was of Welsh descent. He became a lieutenant about 1801, and in October, 1812, commanded the sloop-ofwar, " Wasp," with which he captured the British sloop, " Frolic," which carried more guns than his own vessel. He was promoted to the rank of post-captain in 1813, and obtained command of the frigate " Macedonian." ( Welshmen as Factors, &c, W. R. Evans ; Lippincott.) Jones, James, 1812-1874, a self-made man, was a native of South Wales, where his father worked as a joiner. His parents removed to Hyde, Cheshire, where young Jones was apprenticed to a chemist. He made rapid progress, and when about twenty years of age commenced business on his own account in Manchester. His fame as a "children's doctor" spread for many miles, and people flocked to him from all directions. He carried on a lucrative business for many years, and amassed considerable wealth. His kindness to the poor was proverbial. (Cymry Manceinion.) Jones, James Rhys Kilsby, 1813-1890, a Congregational minister and author, was born at Llandovery, Carmarthenshire. When fifteen years of age he was taken by his father (Rhys Jones) to a preparatory school for young preachers at Neuaddlwyd, near Aberayron, kept by Dr. Phillips. After entering the ministry, he rapidly gained distinction as a brilliant and powerful preacher. He spent some years at Blackburn, where he perfected his knowledge of English, and studied Greek. His first pastorate was at Leominster (1834). He afterwards removed to Kilsby, Northamptonshire, and finally settled at Llandrindod. He was, perhaps, seen to better advantage on the platform rather than in the pulpit, and some of his lectures contain the best character portraits ever drawn. His sermons and lectures were practical rather than dogmatic, and were delivered in an easy, conversational tone. " Kilsby " was certainly one of the most quaint and original characters in modern Welsh Nonconformity.

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He contributed largely to Welsh periodicals, and translated " Brown's Dictionary of the Bible " into Welsh, and the Rev. William Rees' " Memoir of Williams of Wern " into English. He also edited a Welsh edition of Bunyan's " Pilgrim's Progress," and the works of William Williams, Pantycelyn. (C. & D. Herald ; Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Cymru Fydd, v. 2, 1889, p. ) 33 ; Y Qeninen, 1889, p. 148 ; Ibid, 1890, p. 109, and March p. 43 ; Y Diwygiwr, July, 1889 ; Hanes Eglwysi Annibynol Cymni ; Congreg. Year Book, 1890 ; Davies' Echoes from the Welsh Hills, pp. 329, 330, 447-8 ; his Biog. by Dr. Vyrnwy Morgan. Jones, Jenkin, 1700-1742, a Baptist minister and anthor. was a native of Llandyssil, Montgomeryshire, and completed his education at Carmarthen. He married a lady of great wealth, and built a chapel on the estate he acquired from her, becoming its first pastor. He was an eloquent preacher, and of a very benevolent disposition. In 1720 he published a translation of the Confession of Faith of the Baptists ; in 1723 he translated Matthew Mead's work on Agrippa ; he sub sequently translated "The Day of Judgment," by Thomas Vincent (1727), and other works. He composed a number of excellent hymns, which were published some years after his death, under the title " Hymnau Cymmwys i Addoliad Duw " (Carmarthen : 1768). His elegy, by Evan Thomas Rees, was printed in the same volume. (Hanes Lien. G.) See Enwog. y Ffydd ; Enwog. Meirion ; Peter's Hanes Crefydd yn Nghym.ru ; J. Thomas, Hanes y Bedyddwyr ; Rees' Hist. ; Dr. J. R. Beard's Unitarianism in its Actual Condition ; Jeremy's History of the Presbyterian Fund ; Dr. Rees' Eglwysi Annibynnol Cymru ; Gwynionydd's Enwogion Ceredigion ; Glan Menai's Enwogion Sir Aberteift ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry ; Diet. Nat. Biog. Jones, Jenkin, 1841-1905, a Congregational minister and author, was born at Aberayron, Cardiganshire ; received his prepara tory training at the Grammar School, Carmarthen, and afterwards studied at Brecon. He was ordained at St. David's, Pembrokeshire, in 1863, and afterwards successively served as pastor at Dowlais, Uckfield, Falmouth, St. Peter (Guernsey), Offord Road, (London), Hollin's Green (Darwen), Newtown, and Zion's Hill, Pembroke. Mr. Jones was a frequent contributor to The Homilist, and was a great friend of Dr. David Thomas, the editor. His sketches on " Genesis," which appeared in that periodical under the pen name of " Cymro," were much appreciated. He was, besides, the author of several novels and short stories, and wrote a number of tracts and books for children. (Congreg. Year Book, 1906.) Jones, Jeremiah, 1693-1724, an Independent tutor and Biblical critic, was born in Wales, his father being David Jones, of Llangollen. He was minister of the Independent congregation at Market Harborough, in Leicestershire, and afterwards at Nailsworth, in Gloucestershire. His preaching was of a superior order, and attracted the support of persons of considerable station. In 1719, he published "A Vindication of the former part of St. Matthew's Gospel from Mr. Whiston's charge of Dislocations, or an attempt to prove that our present Greek copies of

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that gospel are in the same order wherein they were written by that evangelist ; " a work pronounced by Dr. Harwood to be very valuable, displaying much critical acumen, and abounding with ingenious remarks. But he is best known for his admirable " Investigation of the grounds for attributing canonicity to the received books of the New Testament, to the exclusion of others." The work is referred to by Dr. Angus as " long the best treatise on the canon." (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Handbook English Lit. ; Imp. Diet. Biog.) See Monthly Mag., April, 1803, p. 501 ; Gent. Mag., June, 1803 ; Monthly Repository, 1809, p. 656 ; James' Hist. Presb. Chapels, 1867, p. 664, et seq ; Turner's Noncon. Register, 1881, pp. 221, 329 ; Rees' Hist., p. 231 ; Jeremy's Presb. Fund, 1885, p. 13. Jones, John, 1645-1709, an author, was the son of Matthew Jones, of Pentyrch, Glamorganshire. In his seventeenth year, he entered Jesus College, Oxford, and, after taking some degrees in arts, he studied law. He was admitted doctor of laws in 1677. He practised medicine at Windsor, and in 1691 was made chancellor of Llandaff. He was a man of learning and ingenuity, and in 1683 published a Latin treatise on intermittent fevers. According to Plot's " Natural History of Oxfordshire," he invented a clock which moved by the air, equally expressed out of bellows of a cylindrical form, which fell into folds in its descent. (Diet. Em. W.) See Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Bliss' A thenae Oxon, v. 4, p. 722 ; Clark's Genealogies of Glamorgan, p. 535 ; Willis' Survey of Llandaff, pp. 4, 100 ; Llfyrydd. y Cymry, s.a. 1714 ; Munk's Col. of Phys., p. 438. Jones, John, 1700, about 1770, a clergyman and author, who initiated a controversy respecting the Liturgy, was a native of Carmarthen. He was ordained priest in 1726, and, in 1741, was presented to the vicarage of Alconbury, in Huntingdonshire. In 1759, he became curate to Dr. Young (the poet of " Night Thoughts,") at Welwyn, and continued there until the death of that celebrated poet in 1765. His chief work was entitled : " Free and Candid Disquisitions," which contained observations on the Liturgy of the established church, with proposals for some alterations. Extracts from his literary correspondence with Dr. Birch, have appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine. His other works are :" Catholic Faith and Practice," 1765, and " A Letter to a Friend in the Country." (Diet. Em. W. ; Imp. Diet. Biog.) See Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Autobiography of the Rev. John Jones, preserved among the Jones MSS. at Dr. Williams' Library, B. 101 ; Gent. Mag., 1811, part 1, p. 520 ; Chalmer's Biog. Diet. ; Urwick's Noncon, in Herts, pp. 341, 590, 621 ; Nichol's Lit. Anecdotes, T. 1, p. 585 ; v. 3, 15 ; and v. 8, p. 289. Jones, John, 1725-1796, a musician, who was of Welsh descent, spent most of his time in London, where he died. He was appointed organist at the Middle Temple in 1749, and, six years later, at St. Paul's Cathedral. He was a prolific composer, and in regard to one of hit pieces, " St. Paul," Haydn testified that no musical composition had impressed him bo much. (Diet, of Music.)

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Jones, John, 1728-1791, an American physician, was of Welsh descent, and a great-grandson of Thomas Wynne, of Caerwys, Flint shire. Settling in New York, he soon acquired an extensive practice, and a great reputation as an operator. He was given a post in the medical department of the army in 1780 ; he was the friend and physician of Franklin, and in 1790 attended Washington during his very serious illness in New York City. (Imp. Diet. Biog. ; Welshmen as Factors, Jkc.) Jones, John, 1743-1803, a barrister, familiarly known in his native county as " Counsellor Jones," was born in South Carnarvon shire. He married Mrs. Jones, of Gelliwig, near Pwllheli, where he resided for many years prior to his death. He was an excellent scholar, and graduated M.A. at Queen's College, Oxford. He rendered excellent service to his country in connection with the agitation against the appointment of English-speaking clergymen to Welsh benefices. In 1768, he published his " Considerations on the Illegality and Impropriety of preferring Clergymen who are unacquainted with the Welsh language to Benefices in Wales," and five years later the Society of Cymmrodorion published "The Depositions, Arguments, and Judgment" in the test case brought by the Churchwardens of Trefdraeth, Anglesey, against Dr. Bowles, to which was prefixed an able address by Mr. Jones to the Welsh bishops. setting forth the case on behalf of the monoglot Churchmen of Wales. (Cyfansoddiadau Sam.) See G.B., vol. 2, p. 150 ; Y Brython, v. 3, pp. 370 and 433 ; Ibid, v. 4, p. 107 ; Golud yr Oes, v. 2, p. 376. Jones, John, of Edeyrn, 1761-1822, was a native of Llandwrog, Carnarvonshire, and commenced preaching in 1784. He married the heiress of Penybryn, in South Carnarvonshire, and there lived in good circumstances for the last 35 years of his life. He was tall and of a strong build, of great power and readiness of speech, full of wit and humour, and of the most cutting and sweeping sarcasm. These qualities, at that time of persecution in Wales, often served him in good stead. His sermons were frequently followed by the most remarkable results, and the first time he went to preach in Aberffraw, Anglesey, 189 were added to the church. He travelled much throughout Wales and England, and was instrumental in infusing new life and vigour into many of the churches. A number of his sayings have been preserved in the Drysorfa for 1851. (Great Preachers, &c.) See G. B., v. 2, p. 9 ; Methodistiaeth Cymru, v. 2, p. 207 ; Y Drysorfa, 1851, p. 159. Jones, John, 1767-1821, a poet, of Glanygors, was born in the parish of Cerrygydrudion, Denbighshire, but for the greater part of his life he lived in London. He was endowed with rare poetical genius, and his poems are exceedingly rich in natural wit and humour, in fact, he was one of the best comical and satirical song-writers, not merely of his own day, but that Wales has ever produced. His works display a good deal of originality and knowledge of human nature, as well as vigour of language and skill in versification. He was an active and much-respected member of the Gwyneddigion Society, whose

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meetings were held at his house (the King's Head Inn, Ludgate Hill) ; and he at various times filled the offices of bard, secretary, and vice-president, but always declined the post of president. In 1795, he published a little book called " Seren dan Gwmwl," which favoured Republicanism, and fiercely attacked monarchical government in general. His book was criticised in the Eurgrawn, which was published at Holyhead, in 1796. In the same year, in the same magazine, the author defends himself in a very ably written letter, to which no one seems to have replied. (Golud yr Oes, v. 1, p. 345 ; Y Ci/mmrodor, v. 10.) See 1' Geninen, 1883, p. 275 ; Cyfres y Fit (O. M. Edwards) ; Y Traethodydd, 1886, p. 422 ; Ibid, 1888, p. 429 ; Hants Lien. G.; Seren Gomer, 1821 ; Leathart's Origin and Progress of the Gwi/neddigion Society ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry ; Cymru, vol. 29, p. 133. Jones, John, about 1768-1827, an author, was born near Llandovery, Carmarthenshire. When 14 years of age, he was sent to the College Grammar School at Brecon, and four years later, he was admitted a student in the new Dissenting College at Hackney. He subsequently, for three years, taught classics and mathematics in the Welsh Academy at Swansea. In 1795, he became pastor of the Unitarian congregation at Plymouth Dock, and two years later, he removed to Halifax, in a similar capacity, subsequently settling down in London. In the metropolis, he was mainly occupied in literary work, and in teaching the classics, for which he had a high reputation. The University of Aberdeen conferred upon him the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws, and he was elected a member of the Royal Society of Literature. He was the author of at least nineteen volumes on various subjects, chiefly connected with theology and philosophy. He was a thorough believer in the Socinian system, and wrote with great ardour against the Deists and the orthodox. His most celebrated work is his "Greek and English Lexicon" (1823). Dr. Jones was one of the first who taught Greek through the medium of English. (Diet. Em. W.; Imp. Diet. Biog.) See Diet. Nat. Biog.; Biog. Diet. of Living Authors, 1816, p. 182 ; Monthly Repository, 1827, p. 293 ; Rees' Hist.; Jeremy's Presb. Fund, 1885, p. 71, et seq ; John Walker's Essays and Correspondence, 1846, v. 2, p. 596, et seq. Jones, John, 1772-1837, a barrister and author, was born at Derwydd, Carmarthenshire, and at a very early age became undermaster of a superior school near London. After studying in Germany, where the degree of LL. D. was conferred upon him, he returned to England ; was called to the bar, and joined the Oxford and South Wales Circuits. For some time, he was very successful, but, in pleading the case of a poor client, he made such reflections on those who administered the law, that he gave great offence to the legal profession, and ended his days a briefless barrister. He published a useful work on the Law of Libel, and a translation from the Danish, of Dr. Bugge's Travels in the French Republic. He also published a History of Wales (1824), and a translation of the gospels under the title, "Y Cyfammod Newydd" (London: J. Williams, 1818). The last-named work is almost a worthless performance, the author being

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evidently unacquainted with some of the simplest rules of Welsh construction. (Diet. Em. W.; Imp. Diet. Biog.; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Diet. Nat. Biog.; Qent. Mag., 1837, part 2, p. 323; Jeremy's Presb. Fund. Jones, John, 1782-1831, a Baptist minister, was born at Llandrindod, Radnorshire. He became pastor of the Baptist church at Newtown, where he laboured with eminent success for the remainder of his life—a period of 21 years, during which hundreds of members were added to the church, and the chapel was enlarged several times owing to the increase of the congregation. He was one of the most popular Baptist ministers in Wales. {.Mont. Worthies.) Jones, John, 1786-1863, a clergyman and antiquary, was born at Lledfair Hall, Machynlleth, Montgomeryshire. He was educated at the Grammar School, Bangor, afterwards proceeding to Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated in due course. In 1819, he was inducted to the Rectory of Llanfyllin, which he held up to the time of his death. He was one of the earliest members of the Cambrian Archaeological Association, and a valued contributor to the Archaeoligia Cambrensis. Of his contributions, one, at least, " An Essay on the state of Agriculture and the progress of Arts and Manufactures during the period, and under the influence, of the Druidical system," was republished in a separate form. He left a number of well-written and valuable papers on archaeological subjects, which were placed at the disposal of the Association by his executors. He was an excellent antiquary, and possessed a clear judgment and a well-stored mind. He also published several sermons. (Mont. Worthies.) Jones, John, 1788-1858, a poet, was born at Llanasa, Flintshire. In his eighth year he was apprenticed to a cotton spinner at Holywell, where he learned to read and write. In 1804, he went to sea, and in the following year joined The Barbadoes," an English man-of-war, which cruised in the West Indies. At the end of the Napoleonic War he left the service, and found employment as operative spinner at Holywell. In 1820 he removed to Stalybridge, in Cheshire, where he died. He was buried in the ground attached to the Wesleyan Chapel, Grovenor Square, in that town, and a memorial tablet was placed on the wall of the chapel by public suliscription. He was in the habit of addressing his patrons in panegyrics, which he sold as broadsheets. He wrote a poetical version of iEsop's and other fables, and was the author of two poems, " The Cotton Mill," 1821, and " The Sovereign," 1827. A collection of his works was published in 1856, under the auspices of William Fairbairn, of Manchester. He was commonly known as " The Welsh Bard." (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Enwog. C. ; Sutton's Lancashire Authors, p. 65 ; Gent. Mag., August, 1858, p. 202. Jones, John, 1791 - 1889, archdeacon of Liverpool, was a son of Captain Rice Jones, who was of Welsh descent. He graduated M.A at Cambridge in 1820, and became first incumbent of St. Andrew's Church, Liverpool, his ministry being so successful that the church

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had to be enlarged. In 1855, he was appointed to the archdeaconry of Liverpool, a post which he held until 1887. He was the author of a volume of " Sermons " (London, 1829) ; " Expository Lectures on the Acts of the Apostles," 2 vols. (London, 1841) ; " Lectures on the Types of the Old Testament," 2 vols. (London, 1845) ; " Hints on Preaching" (London, 1861) ; and " The Wedding Gift," of which four editions were printed. A number of sermons preached by him on special occasions were separately published, among them being a sermon preached just after the Battle of Waterloo. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Bye-Gones, 1889, p. 275 ; Liverpool Daily Post, 6th Dec, 1889 ; Pall Mall Gazette, same date ; Guardian, 11th Dec., 1889. Jones, John, 1792-1852, "loan Tegid," a clergyman, poet, and essayist, was born at Bala, and completed his education at Jesus College, Oxford. During his stay at Oxford he edited a new edition of the Welsh Bible, issued by the University Press, but objection being taken to certain changes in the orthograhy, which he had introduced, the edition was destroyed. In 1837, in conjunction with the Rev. Walter Davies (Gwallter Mechain), he edited " The Poetical Works of Lewis Glyn Cothi." In 1841, he was preferred to the vicarage of Nevern, Pembrokeshire, and seven years later was appointed prebendary of St. David's. He was a most able man, and a prolific writer of prose and poetry. Among his works, may be mentioned " A Defence of the reformed System of Welsh Orth ography ; " and a translation of the book of Isaiah, from the Hebrew into English. He was a constant contributor to the Haul and Seren Gomer. His poems were collected and published in 1859. When Bishop Thirlwall heard of his death, he wrote : " I cannot, sufficiently express the concern I feel, whether I consider the qualities of his heart or of his head, his private worth, his usefulness in the Church, or his literary undertakings." (Enwogion Meirion.) See Gwaith Gwallter Mechain, v. 3 ; Hanes Lien. G. ; Y Brython, v. 3, p. 7 ; >' Traethodydd, 1902, p. 416 ; Cymru, v. 17, p. 261 ; Biography in Givaith Barddonol Tegid ; Gent. Mag., 1852, part 2, p. 96 ; Rhys & Evans' Mabinugion, preface, pp. i and ii ; M. Henri Gaidoz in Academy for 28th January, 1888 ; Yr Haul, 1855, p. 376 et seq ; Y Brytkon, v. 5, p. 429 ; Nodweddiad y Cymry, p. 270 ; Adgof uwch Anghof, p. 160; The Cambro-Briton, v. 3, pp. 373, 438 ; Y Geninen, 1897, p. 125. Jones, John, 1796-1857, of Talysarn, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was bom at Tanycastell, near Dolwyddelen, Carnarvonshire, being descended from a family distinguished for intelligence and deep piety. Before he was ten years of age, he manifested a strong disposition to preach, and at the religious revival in 1819, he took a prominent part in the prayer meetings that were held in the houses. He soon afterwards began to preach, and became famous from the very start. In the beginning of 1823, he made his home at Talysarn, near Carnarvon. He had a splendid constitution, being one of the strongest men of his time. The endowments of his head and heart were of a very superior kind ; he was a man of great originality and power of thought. His imagination was creative, and always

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charactised by boldness, grandear, and majesty. He had a t lorough command of language, his sentences rallied forth rounded and finished, and his style was the perfection of good taste. The force and tumult of his eloquence often resembled that of Dr. Ch timers ; in comprehensiveness of grasp, in copiousness of thought, in the power of amplification, wealth of language and imagery, they stood very much on a par. Individual churches profited much by his visits and ministry. He was a musician of considerable merit, and many of his tunes attained great popularity. (Great Preachers, &c. ; Historical Handbook.) See his Welsh Biog. by Dr. Owen Thomas ; B. Cerddorion Cymreig ; Enwog. C. ; Diet Nat. Biog. Jones, John, 1800-1826, "Myllin," a young poet of very great promise was born near Llanfyllin, Montgomeryshire. He wasashoemaker by trade, and for a time practised his calling at Liverpool. Hiu poetic genius soon attracted the attention, and received the encouragement of the Rev. David Richards, Llansilin, and other patriotic Welshmen of his neighbourhood. At the Welshpool Eisteddfod, in 1824, he delivered a poetical address, which by its fervour and eloquence, surprised all who heard it. Had his health permitted it, this would probably have led to his being sent to the university to be educated for the church. He was a thorough master of the Welsh metres, and his " awen " was of the highest order. He wrote a large number of beautiful stanzas, some of which, unfortunately, have been lost, and many excellent songs. Of the latter, perhaps the best known, and certainly one of the most beautiful, is that to " Rhianod Sir Drefaldwyn" (The Maids of Montgomeryshire), suggested by, and worthy of being placed side by side with, Mr. Lewis Morris's famous song to th'3 " Fair Maids of Merioneth." (Mont. Worthies.) See Golud yr Oes, v. 2, p. 155 ; Y Geninen, 1888, p. 136 ; Y Cymmrodor, v. 10, p. 63 ; Y Gwyliedydd, 1823, p. 349 ; Yr Eurgraum Wesleyaidd, 1825, pp. 281 and 353. Jones, John, 1800-1844, a musician, was born at Dolgelley, Merionethshire, and studied music under the tuition of Richard Roberts, Carnarvon. He was an accomplished harpist, and won a silver harp at the Brecon Eisteddfod in 1826. In 1843, he and Thomas Grutfydd (1815-1887, see ante), had the honour of appearing as harpists before Queen Victoria at Buckingham Palace. (B. Cerddorion Cymreig). Jones, John, 1802-1863, of Heol-y-felin, a Unitarian minister and author, was born at Pantlluest, Llanarth, Cardiganshire. He was educated for the ministry by David Davies, Castle Howel, and had charge of the Old Meeting House, Aberdare, from 1833 until his death, 30 years later. His published works include " Llythyr ar y Drindod " (A Letter on the Trinity), 1834 ; " Edifeirwch Gwely Angeu " (Death bed Repentance), 1836 ; " Llyfr Ysgol Sul " (Sunday School Book), 1839 ; " Galwad ar Ieuenctyd i droi at Dduw " (A Call to the Young to turn to God), 1840; "Pechod yn erbyn yr Yspryd Glan" (Sin against the Holy Ghost), 1846 ; " An Essay on the Sabbaths, and Six Sermons," 1865. He also edited the poetical works of his brother,

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Rees Jones (1797-1844). A memoir of Mr. Jones, by the Rev. William Thomas, M.A. (Gwilym Maries), appeared in Yr Athraw, 1867, p. 121. (The Unitarian Students at the Presbyterian College, Carmarthen, Rev. R. Jenkin Jones, M.A., 1901, p. 25.) Jones, John, 1804-1887, "Idrisyn," a clergyman and Biblical commentator, was born near Dolgelly, and is said to have been a descendant of Ellis Wynne, the author of " Y Bardd Cwsg." He was apprenticed to a printer, and for some time carried on business on his own account at Llanidloes, Montgomeryshire. He then became a local preacher, with the Wesleyans, but in 1853, he joined the Church of England, and five years later became vicar of Llandyssilio, Cardigan shire. His best known work is a critical commentary on the Bible written in a popular style. He also wrote (in Welsh), "A Commentary on the five Books of Moses, and the New Testament " ; "A Lecture on the Nature, Object, and Utility of Literary Societies ; " " The Christian Diary ; " "A Lecture on the Millenium ; " a volume of sermons, besides numerous pamphlets, poems and contributions to the Welsh press. He translated Queen Victoria's " Journal of our Life in the High lands," into Welsh. In 1881, he was granted a pension of fifty pounds from the Civil List Fund. (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Mont. Worthies.) See Hanes Lien. G. ; Y Geninen, March, 1889, p. 64 ; Times, 20th August, 1887 ; Yr Haul, September, 1887 ; Bye-Gones, 24th August, 1887 ; Y Geninen, 1897, p. 35. Jones, John, 1806-1869, "Cyfifin Qlan Cynwy," was born near Conway, but spent the greater part of his life in Manchester. By occupation, he was a painter, but had a talent for literary pursuits. He wrote a good deal of poetry, and was a frequent contributor to the periodical press in Wales. He was a good Greek scholar, and in 1839, published a small handbook on Phrenology, the first of its kind in Welsh. (Cymry Manceinion.) Jones, John, 1807-1875, a publisher, was a brother of William Ellis Jones (Gwilym Cawrdaf, 1796-1848, see post), and for some years, in co-partnership with his brother, he kept a printing office in London. The monthly periodical, Y Cymro, published in 1830-1831, was issued from his establishment. He was through life an ardent lover and unflinching advocate of civil and religious liberty. During the great Reform Bill agitation, he, in conjunction with his brother, rendered valuable service to the cause as authors and publishers of numerous productions on political subjects in Welsh, which were disseminated throughout the Principality. He died December 20th, 1875, and was buried at Llanbeblig, Carnarvon. (Bye-Gones, 1902, p. 381.) Jones, John, 1810-1869, " Talhaiarn," a poet, was a native of Llanfair-Talhaiarn, Denbighshire. He received a fairly good education, and after working for some time as a carpenter, he was apprenticed to an architect. In 1851 he entered the employ of Sir Joseph Pazton, and superintended the erection of Baron Rothschild's mansion at Mentmore, and the Crystal Palace. He also spent three years in France, in the discharge of his duties , and during that time

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acquired a knowledge of French. He was passionately fond of everything Welsh, and as an Eisteddfod conductor he was excelled only by Richard Davies (Mynyddog). Talhaiarn was a true lyric poet, of enormous facility, an almost unfailing ear, much emotion, fancy, and imagination. For patriotic songs, he was probably second only to Ceiriog. He was a good musician, and composed many of his songs with the express object of wedding them to old Welsh airs. Partly by his natural quality, and partly by his quickness in acquiring the qualities of other writers, he achieved some effects of a very rare and fine order. His works, English and Welsh, were published in three volumes, in 1855, 1862, and 1869. He wrote much to Y Cymro, a Church of England periodical, and to Yr Haul. He has an excellent translation of " Tam o' Shanter," by Bums. (Hanes Lien. G. ; Manchester Guardian.) See Enwog. C. ; Y Gwyddoniadur ; Y Geninen, March, 1888, p. 51 ; Y Brython, v. 5, p. 110 ; Y Geninen, 1888, p. 282 ; Adgof uwch Anghof, p. 278 ; Welsh Poets, &c, p. 24 ; Y Geninen, 1897, p. 127 ; Y Beirniad, 1864, p. 325 ; Cymru, v. 31, p. 250. Jones, John, 1818-1900, " loan Bryngwyn Bach," an astronomer, was a native of Anglesey. He had but little schooling, and worked for some years as a farm labourer. He became interested in astronomy by reading " The Solar System," by- Dr. Dick, translated into Welsh by Mr. Eleazar Roberts. In his 30th year, he removed to Bangor, and was employed as slate loader at Port Penrhyn. While there, he learnt navigation, and pursued his studies in astronomy. He was too poor to buy a telescope, and set to work to make one, purchasing the glasses from Liverpool for 4s. 6d. He was an expert linguist, and wrote a good deal of poetry of more than average merit. (Men of Invention, &c.) See Y Geninen, March, 1901, p. 42 ; Young Wales, 1898, p. 272. Jones, John, 1820-1886, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was born at Ruthin, but at an early age removed with his parents to Llanrwst. He began to preach when only 18 years of age. After serving as pastor at Mochdre, neiir Conway, for ten years, he removed to Llanllechid, near Bangor, where he spent twelve years. By this time he had attained a leading position as a preacher, and in the great revival of 1858-00 he was a prominent figure. His preaching led to remarkable results at Beddgelert, Carnarvon, Holyhead, and other parts of North Wales, and at the last-named town a testimonial was presented to him in recognition of his services. His next pastorate was at Carnarvon, where he remained twelve years, and where he buried a most promising son, the Rev. John Maurice Jones. In 1874 he accepted a call to Rhos, near Wrexham, where he laboured with conspicuous success for twelve years, no fewer than ISO members being added to the church during the first year of his ministry. Mr. Jones was unquestionably " great among his nation," and by his death Wales lost a man of marked activity, a devoted minister, and a powerful and eloquent preacher. He was buried at Cae Athraw, near Carnarvon. His son, Mr. S. Maurice Jones, A.R.C.A., Carnarvon, is one of the best-known artists in the Principality. (Private

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Information.) See Diwygiadau Crefyddol Cymru, Rev. Henry Hughes (Carnarvon : Welsh National Publishing Co., Ltd.). Jones, John, 1821 - 1878, " Mathetes," a Baptist minister and author, was horn at Aberarad, near Newcastle Einlyn, and educated at the Baptist College, Haverfordwest. During the first 17 years of his ministry, he was pastor at Newport ; Llangollen ; Llanfachraeth, and other places. He then settled at Rhymney, and in 1877 he removed to Briton Ferry, where he remained till his death. He became one of the most celebrated Baptist ministers in Wales, and a leader of opinion among Nonconformists generally. He became known early in life as a writer of great ability, and secured Eisteddfod prises for essays on a great variety of subjects, such as " The South Wales Coal-Fields ; " "The Geology of Wales," "The Mineral Resources of the Principality ; " " Logic ; " " Railways in Wales ; " " Hebrew Prophecy," &c. His chief literary work is his " Biblical and Theological Dictionary," in three volumes. He also published a volume of sermons, which have been very highly recommended for their originality of thought, as well as for their evangelical and pre-eminently practical character. His writings on the distinctive tenets of the Baptists are among the ablest and most explicit declarations of their position in the Welsh language. (Baptist Handbook, 1879.) See Memoir, with portrait, in Y Geiriadur Beiblaidd, v. 3, p. 827 ; Seren Gomer, October, 1882, and January, April, and July, 1883, and January, April, July, and October, 1884 ; Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Welsh Religious Leaders in the Victorian Era. Jones, John, 1822 - 1892, a solicitor and author, was a native of Denbighshire, and lived for the greater part of his life at Wrexham. He was a justice of the peace for the borough, and took a prominent part in public affairs. His published works include : " Wrexham and its Neighbourhood ; being a history of the town, and guide to the principal objects of interest within a circuit of ten or eleven miles," which has gone through several editions ; " Winifred Meredith, and other pieces in verse"; and " Wrexham and thereabouts eighty years ago." (Bye-Gones, 1892, p. 291.) Jones, John, 1825-1887, "Idris Fychan," a celebrated penillion singer, was born near Dolgelly, but spent the last thirty years of his life in Manchester. His family on his mother's side were all noted for their skill in singing, especially with the harp. At the Chester Eisteddfod in 1886, he received a prize for a history of Dolgelly. He also wrote " A history of the derivation and meaning of the names of houses, rivers and places in and around Dolgelly." In 1886, before the Welsh National Society of Manchester, he read : " A critical study of the works of the poet Dafydd Ionawr." He was one of the best penillion singers of the day, and his services were in great request for many years. The Cymmrodorion Society published an essay by him in which he gave the rules for penillion singing, and a selection of the Welsh airs best adapted for the purpose. He was thoroughly acquainted with the bardic, poetic, vocal and antiquarian history of Wales. (Cymry Manceinion ; Bye-Gones, 1887, p. 455 and 464.) See Cymru, v. 2, pp. 57, 123 and 261 ; Ibid, v. 20, p. 325.

A DICTIONARY OF Jones, John, 1825-1889, "Vulcan," a Wesleyan minister and poet, was born at Llandwrog, in Carnarvonshire. After serving for several years as a local preacher, he was accepted as a candidate for the ministry in 1X54, and appointed to the Mold circuit ; and for thirtythree years he laboured with very great acceptance and honour in the most important circuits in the North Wales district. He had a genial and sympathetic nature, and his mental abilities were of an exceptionally high order : varied, strong, and philosophical. As a writer, he rendered valuable service to the Principality. When occasion required, he very ably defined and defended the fundamental principles of Christianity, and the distinctive doctrines of Wesleyan Methodism. His published works include a poem,"Y Beibl" (The Bible) (Carnarvon : H. Humphreys, 1874) ; " Traethawd ar Resymeg,1' &c. (A Treatise on Logic.) (Llanidloes: J. Mendus Jones, 1857) ; a Welsh work on " The Atonement," being a criticism of a work on the same Hubject by the Rev. Dr. Lewis Edwards ; and a volume of * Expository Sermons." (Minutes of Conference, 1890 ; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Y Qeninen, March, 1891, p. 13 ; Ibid, March, 1893, p. 1 ; Ibid, 1890, p. 73, and Mar., p. 19. Jones, John, -1896, a Calvinistic Methodist minister and author, was a native of Mochdre, near Conway, where he commenced preaching, and after a course of training at Bala College, under Dr. Lewis Edwards, he was ordained to the ministry in 1872. He was for many years pastor of the Welsh and English causes at Runcorn, but owing to the weak state of his health, he had resigned his pastoral charges some years before his death. He was an ardent litterateur, and for some time was joint-editor with the Rev. John Evans, Garston, of Cronicl yr Ysgol Sabbothol. In 1895, he published a work in Welsh on " The Elements of Moral Philosophy " (Liverpool : Isaac Foulkes), which had a large sale ; and at the time of his death, he was preparing another work for publication. (C. & D. Herald.) Jones, John, 1833- 1899, " Eos Bradwen," a musician and poet, was born at Corris, Merionethshire, and for some time worked as a quarryman. He successively resided at Aberystwyth, St. Asaph, Rhyl, and Carnarvon, where he died. His " Bugeiles y Wyddfa " is one of the prettiest and most popular Welsh songs. He also wrote a very superior cantata, " Owen Glyndwr." He won a prize at Llandudno National Eisteddfod, in 1864, for a Welsh cantata, " The Prodigal Son," and in 1885 for an opera, " Dafydd ap Siencyn." A small collection of his poems was published in 1891. (C. & D. Herald.) See Y Qeninen, March, 1901, p. 23 ; Yr Eisteddfod, vol. 1, p. 257, for " The Prodigal Son." Jones, John, 1834 - 1887, a Baptist minister and author, born at Letterstone, Pembrokeshire, manifested at an early age a taste for preaching, and when delivering his trial sermon at Caersalem, Dowlais, gave unmistakeable evidence of his subsequent powers. He went from Dowlais to Haverfordwest College, and in 1858 took charge of the church at Llanuwchllyn and the newly-formed church at Bala. After remaining there about four years, he became pastor of the churches at Brymbo and Moss, near Wrexham, where he laboured

EMINENT WELSHMEN with signal success for eight years. In 1871, he accepted a pressing call from Felinfoel, near Llanelly, a church of nearly 600 members, where he ministered earnestly and faithfully till his death sixteen years later. He was, at his decease, president-elect of the Welsh Baptist Union. As preacher and platform orator, he set many a Cymric heart aglow ; he was a power wherever his voice was heard. His editorship of Seren Cymru, and his frequent letters to other journals, are evidence of his literary and dialectic skill. He was the author of "Y Waldensiaid, eu Hanes, eu Credo, a'u Dyoddefiadau," of which a second edition was published in 1880. (Llanelly : J. Davies.) (Baptist Handbook, 1888 ; Cardiff Catalogue.) Jones, John, 1837-1891, a Baptist minister and author, was a native of Llannefydd, North Wales. He entered Pontypool College in August, 1859, and was ordained at Glynceiriog, Denbighshire, in the following year. Six years later he settled at Talybont, Cardigan shire, and in 1876 accepted a call from Ferndale, Glamorganshire. He was a diligent student, an excellent preacher, and the author of several valuable works, his last and best being "The present Celebrities of the Welsh pulpit." (Baptist Handbook, 1892.) Jones, John, -1900, an astronomer and mathematician, was a native of Rhesycae, Flintshire, and passed his earlier yea/s in the Army. At one time he was engaged in the compilation of the nautical almanacs for the Government, and was a frequent contributor to various journals on mathematical and astronomical subjects. He resided for some time at Holywell, but subsequently erected the Wern Mill at Ysceiflog, in his native county, where he ended his days. (Bye-Qones, 1900, p. 495.) Jones, John, 1837-1906, a Calvinistic Methodist minister and author, was born at Aberkin, Llanystumdwy, South Carnarvonshire. In his early days he served in the drapery trade at Carnarvon, and afterwards removed to London. He there decided to study for the ministry, and subsequently entered Bala College. He was for some time pastor at Graig, near Bangor, and afterwards acted for some jears as manager of Messrs. Pugh Jones and Co.'s Bank at Bethesda. Later on he settled at Pwllheli, and became connected with Penmount chapel, but did not undertake a pastorate. He was an able writer, and contributed a large number of articles to the Traethodydd, among them being :—Coal, 1868 ; Fossils, 1869 ; Geology and the Bible ; The Deluge ; The Divine Books, 1871 ; The Crust of the Earth, 1872 ; Palestine, 1879 ; Man, 1882 ; Four Welshmen in Canaan, 1888 ; The Samaritans, 1890, and the Moon, 1892. He also wrote the biographies of the Rev. Michael Roberts (Pwllheli : R. Owen, 1883), the Rev. John Jones, Brynrodyn, and the Rev. G. Hughes, Gellidara. At the time of his death he was busy preparing for publication a biography of Mr. Robert Davies, the philanthropist (1816-1905, see ante). He was a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. (North Wales Observer & Express, 22 June, 1906 ; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Y Geninen, Mar. 1907, p. 9.

A DICTIONARY OF Jones, John Abel, 1826-1873, a musician, was born at Llanidloes, Montgomeryshire, afterwards removing to Aberdare, and thence to Merthyr Tydfil. About the year 1850, he emigrated to America, where he died. He greatly distinguished himself as a musician, and in America he became a very successful teacher of music, Dr. Joseph Parry (see post) being one of his pupils. (B. Cerddorion Cymreig.) Jones, John Bowen, 1829-1905, a Congregational minister and author, was a native of Llanwenog, Carmarthenshire. He was the first Welshman to graduate at the London University, taking his B.A. degree there in 1847. He was ordained at Hermon in 1851, and eight years later removed to Bridgend, Glamorganshire. In 1874, he became pastor at Brecon, retiring from the active ministry in 1901, on the completion of fifty years' service. For twenty-one years he was editor of Y Beirniad, and he took over the editorship of Y Cenad Hedd on the death of the Rev. William Nicholson. He edited a collection of hymns under the title, " Hen Emynau " (Merthyr Tydfil : J. Williams, 1877 ) ; second edition (Brecon : H. B. Wheeler, 1883). (Liverpool Daily Post; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Y Geninen, March, 1906, p. 13 ; Cymru, vol. 30, p. 107. Jones, John Emlyn, 1820-1873, "loan Emlyn," a Baptist minister, author and poet, was born at Newcastle Emlyn, and when 12 years of age was apprenticed to a watchmaker. He was after wards employed in The Principality office at Cardiff. In his twentieth year he commenced to preach, and was ordained, in 1852, at Pontypridd. In 1854, he removed to Ebbw Vale, afterwards serving in the ministry at Cardiff, Merthyr, Llandudno, and finally returning to Ebbw Vale. He was twice the editor of Y Bedyddiwr, Seren Cymru, and Y Winllan; and was a constant contributor to the periodicals of the day. He trans lated into Welsh Gill's " Commentary," and Hamilton's "Grammar"; and wrote a Welsh "History of Great Britain for the Past Halfcentury," editing at the same time " Hanes Prydain Fawr " (History of Great Britain) by the Rev. Titus Lewis, to which he made many valuable additions. During the last few years of his life he was busily engaged with " Y Parthsyllydd : sef Hanes yr Holl Fyd" (The History of the Whole World). One volume was published. He won the chair prize at Denbigh, in 1860, for an ode on "The Pentecost," and at Llanerchymedd for an ode on " Time." His " Bedd y Dyn Tlawd " (The Poor Man's Grave) will remain memorable among the poems of Wales for its pathos, simplicity, and heart-touching effect. In 1863, he received the degree of LL.D. from the Glasgow University. (Baptist Handbook, 1874 ; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Y Geninen, March, 1893, p. 70 ; Welsh Lyrics, p. 27 ; Y Traethodydd, 1903, p. 434 ; Y Gtninen, March, 1888, pp. 24, 64 ; Golud yr Oes, v. 1, p. 307. Jones, John Evans, 1839-1893, a journalist, was born near Bagillt, Flintshire. His early education was on a very modest scale. He entered the employ of Mr. P. M. Evans, printer and publisher, Holywell, where he received an excellent training in business, as well as in literary matters. He spent about three years at Bala College with a view of entering the ministry, but his bent was more after

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literature, and in 1872 he was appointed editor of the Carnarvon & Denbigh Herald. For some years he also held the editorship of the Herald Cymraeg, but, in 1879, he gave up the latter and devoted himself exclusively to the former. He did not concern himself much in public affairs, but in all movements of a literary or educational nature he took part with enthusiasm. He was an ardent Eisteddfodwr, and also proved himself an excellent conductor at local Eisteddfodau. (C&D. Herald.) See Trans. Nat. Eist. Carnarvon, 1894, p. 112 ; Y Geninen, March, 1904, p. 36. Jones, John Foulkes, 1826-1880, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was the eldest son of John Foulkes Jones, of Machynlleth. Having, at an early age, shown an inclination to join the ministry, he studied for some years at the Calvinistic College at Bala, afterwards proceeding to the Edinburgh University, where he graduated B.A. He was ordained in 1856, and settled down at Machynlleth. In 1855 he visited the Holy Land and Egypt, and upon returning from there he published an account of his travels under the title " Egypt in its Biblical Relations and Moral Aspects." He also contributed several essays to the Traethodydd, and other periodicals. (Mont. Worthies.) Jones, John Foulkes, 1837-1889, "loan Ddu," a Baptist preacher and poet, was born at Y Castell, near Bodafon, Llandudno. He completed his eduoation in Liverpool, and when he was about 15 years of age he was apprenticed to Mr. Evan Jones, chemist, Conway. He was afterwards employed as chemist's assistant at St. Asaph, but afterwards commenced business on his own account at Llandudno, removing later to Leeswood, near Mold, where he died. He was a frequent Eisteddfodic competitor, his successes inoluding a prize for stanzas on " Deganwy Castle " at the Llandudno National Eisteddfod, 1865, and for a translation of " The Lark," by Shelley, at the London National Eisteddfod, 1887. His descriptive song on " The Ascent of Snowdon." is of very great merit. He also translated Shakespeare's " As you like it," and the greater part of " Alcestis." ( Y Geninen, March, 1896, p. 22.) Jones, John Harris, 1827-1885, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was born at Llangeler, Carmarthenshire, and after spending some years at local grammar schools, he proceeded to the University of Glasgow, and the Universities of Goettingen and Halle, in Germany. He was the winner of the Dr. Williams' scholarship at Glasgow in 1848 ; gold medallist and M.A. in 1853, and doctor of philosophy (Germany) in 1857. In 1865, he was appointed classical tutor at Trevecca College, a position he occupied with credit and acceptance to all concerned until the day of his death. All with whom he came in contact testified not only to his high scholastic attainments, but also to his genial temperament, humbleness of mind, transparency of character, and the child-like simplicity and innocency, which characterised all that he did. His biography, by the Revs. E. Matthews and J. Cynddylan Jones, was published in 1886. (Historical Handbook ; Cardiff Catalogue.) See F Geninen, 1886, p. 4, et seq.



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Jones, John Mather, about 1820-1864, an American general, of Welsh descent, was born in Virginia, U.S.A., and graduated at West Point in 1841. He became a captain in 1853, and resigned his com mission in 1861. He served as a brigadier-general in the army of General Lee, and was killed near Spottsylvania, May 10, 1864. (Lippincott ; Munsey's Magazine, 1906,. p. 750.) Jones, John Morlais, 1843-1905, a Congregational minister, was born at Llangennech, Carmarthenshire, and whs a nephew of the Rev. Thomas Jones, of Swansea, "the poet-preacher." He was educated at Brecon College, and began his ministry at Narberth, Pembrokeshire, in 1865. He afterwards accepted the pastorate at Lewisham, London, where he laboured for 30 years. In 1895 and 1896, he received the highest honours which the connexion could give him, becoming successively chairman of the London Congregational Union, and of the Congregational Union of England and Wales. He was, in many ways, the most notable of all the Welsh preachers who settled in London during the latter half of the nineteenth century, and as a public speaker, and especially as a master of emotion, it would be difficult to find his equal. The pulpit was his throne, and he spared no pains to occupy it with dignity and strength. He was opposed to the publication of his sermons, and he had been in the ministry a quarter of a century before he could be induced to send one out to the printers, fearing lest it might prove unworthy. The publication of that one sermon brought him letters of kindly acknowledgment from all parts of the world, and thus he was the more easily led to consent to the publication of the volume entitled, " The Cup of Cold Water," which appeared in the " Preachers of the Age " series, and which had a large circulation. (The British Weekly.) See Congreg. Year Book, 1906. Jones, John Ogwen, 1829-1884, Calvinistic Methodist preacher and Biblical scholar, was born at Llanllechid, near Bangor. He was employed for five years as a merchant's clerk in Liverpool, but decided to enter the ministry, and spent four years at Bala College, graduating B.A. He had ministerial charges at Birkenhead and Liverpool, Oswestry, and Rhyl. He was practically the founder of the county examinations of Sunday Schools in North Wales, and he pre pared several small handbooks for the use of the scholars. He delivered a series of Welsh lectures on science and Biblical history (afterwards published), in which he shewed acquaintance not only with biology and geology, but also with oriental archeology. He also wrote Commentaries on St. Luke, St. John, and the Epistles to the Ephesians and the Hebrews for " Testament yr Ysgol Sabbothol " (Gee), which he edited, and other works. He edited a supplement to the Gwyddoniadur, besides which he was a frequent contributor to the principal Welsh magazines. He was among the leading writers of Wales, and was in all respects an exemplary minister, of the Gospel. (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Bye-Gones, 1884, p. 114 ) See Y Geninen, 1885, p. 81 ; Rhyl Advertiser, September 27th, 1884 ; Y Genedl Gymreig, October 1st, 1884.

Rev. Robert Jones, Llanllyfoi.

Rev. Thomas Tudno Jones.

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Jones, John Owen, 1861-1899, "Ap Ffarmwr," a journalist and essayist, was born at Trefdraeth, Anglesey, and was apprenticed at the age of fourteen to a draper. The literary instinct proving strong within him, he became a student at the University College at Aberystwyth, afterwards studying at Owen's College, Manchester, and in London. In 1891, he joined the staff of Y Genedl Gymreig, and in 1895 was appointed editor to the Merthyr Times. He afterwards accepted the post of leader writer on the Nottingham Times, being afterwards promoted to the position of literary editor. His articles, whether editorial or otherwise, always bore a strong literary flavour. He contributed largely to the magazines, writing with equal facility in Welsh and English. He took the leading part in an agitation on behalf of the farm labourers of his native county, the immediate result being a reduction of two hours per day in their hours of labour. (C. & D. Herald.) Jones, John Powell, 1823-1883, a clergyman, was born at Goiseinion, near Swansea. When he was twelve years of age, the family removed to Conrt-y-Carne, a house of considerable celebrity in the history of West Glamorganshire. In 1841, they again removed to Pontardulais. Jones received his education at Loughor National School, Eowen's Academy (Swansea), and Lampeter, where he had a brilliant career, being appointed assistant tutor before he was twentytwo. He was ordained deacon in 1846, and priest in 1847. In 1846, he became curate of Loughor, and four years later was offered and accepted the living. He became rector of Llantrisant in 1865, and afterwards wa6 appointed canon of Llandaff. By common consent he was recognised as one of the best Hebrew and Greek scholars in the Principality. In 1858-9, he wrote eleven long and able letters to Yr Bavl, in which he strenuously controverted the opinions set forth in the " Dialogue." He earned for himself a name in the theo logical world by the admirable manner in which he defended the teachings of the Church. In his death the Established Church in Wales lost one of its ablest defenders and brightest ornaments, and education one of its truest friends. (The Red Dragon, 1884, p. 482 ; Clergy List, 1884.) Jones, John Richard, 1765-1822, a Baptist minister, known as " J. R. Jones of Ramoth," was born near Bala, his parents being Congregationalists, but when 23 years of age he joined the Baptists, and soon afterwards began to preach. He was an exceedingly able and popular preacher, but after being in the ministry for some years he publicly announced his withdrawal from the connexion, and founded a small sect on the lines of the doctrines taught by McLean, of Edin burgh. He wrote " Notes on the Works of Andrew Fuller " (1804) ; a pamphlet explaining the principles of the section of the Baptist church he himself had founded ; and a number of hymns, published in 1822. These hymns, generally speaking, display more of the theo logian than of the poet. A brief sketch of his life appeared in the New Evangelic Magazine for 1823, and an ode was composed in his memory by his friend, Robert Williams (Robert ap Gwilym Ddu). (Enwog. C. ; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Y Traethodydd, 1851 ; Cymru,

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v. 4, pp. 63 and 157 ; Ibid, v. 5, p. 215 et seq. ; Ibid, v. 24, p. 54 ; Adgof uwch Anghof, p. 123 ; Y Geninen, 1897, p. 224. Jones, John R., 1844-1893, a self-made man, was born at Strat ford, Fulton County, New York, his father, Richard P. Jones, having emigrated from Treflys, Carnarvonshire. After attending school for a time at Dolgeville, Herkimer County, New York, he removed with his parents to Columbus, Winconsin, in 1856. There he spent three y«ars in the village school, and was then apprenticed to the drug business. During the Rebellion he enlisted in the Forty-first Wisconsin. He afterwards spent a year in the employ of a railroad company, and then returned to his favourite occupation of pharmacy. In 1881, he opened a drug store at Mankato. He started a similar business at Burlington (Wisconsin) and Little Rock (Arkansas), but these he soon closed to concentrate his business at Mankato, and in a short time he had the largest drug house in Southern Minnesota. In 1886, he was elected president of the Minnesota State Pharmaceu tical Association. He was a man of splendid business ability, was largely interested in various undertakings at Mankato, and acquired considerable wealth. (Cymry Minnesota.) Jones, Sir John Thomas, Bart., 1783-1843, a soldier, was the eldest son of John Jones, Esq., a descendant of Daniel Jones, Esq., of Sunny Hill, Carmarthenshire. He was A.D.C. to Queen Victoria, and, after a long course of active and confidential service as an officer in the corps of Royal Engineers, being considered by the Duke of Wellington as meriting some public mark of distinction, was created K.C.B. in 1831. He was succeeded by his son, Sir Lawrence (born 1817), who was murdered by brigands, at Macri, in Turkey, in 1845. (Burke's Peerage, Baronetage, &c, 1882, p. 721.) Jones, John Viriamu, 1856-1901, principal of Cardiff Uni versity College, was the son of Thomas Jones, the poet-preacher (1819-1882, see post), and at the early age of 16 matriculated at the University of London, being placed first in the honours division. In 1873, he won the highest medal in chemistry and zoology at the London University, and the Andrew's Prize, awarded to "the most distinguished student of the first year." Gaining the Brackenbury Scholarship in natural science, he proceeded to Oxford, where he had a brilliant career, being placed in the first class in the honours school in mathematics and natural science. In 1881, he was appointed principal of Firth College, Sheffield, where, in a few months, the number of students was nearly quadrupled. In 1883, he was elected principal of the University College at Cardiff, and under his wise guidance the college speedily developed into one of the leading and most successful educational institutions in the kingdom. Entering into an alliance with Sir Isambard Owen and other patriotic Welsh men, he gave definite shape and form and energy to the demand for a Welsh National University, and as the result of their wise advocacy and diplomacy Wales is in possession of a University which is symbolical of its distinctively national features. ( Young Wales, 1901, p. 167.) See Young Wales, 1896 p. 61, 1902, p. 108, 1903, p. 19. ; Cymru, v. 21, p. 55.

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Jones, John Watkin, 1835-1874, "Watcyn Fardd," a poet, was born at Gardden, Llanerfyl, near Welshpool. He was the eldest son of Thomas and Jane Jones, of Cae'rbachan, Llanerfyl, and grand son of the eminent Welsh harpist, Evan Jones, commonly called " Ifan Waenoer." In the year 1865, he went to London, where he remained till his death. He was a noted poet in his day, and took several prizes at eisteddfodau. He also possessed an excellent bass voice. When in London he was a member of the Welsh Choral Union, and at the time of his death he was the honorary secretary of that union. He was also a good linguist, having learnt the Latin, French, and German languages. (Bye-Gones, 1896, p. 305.) Jones, John William, 1827-1884, a journalist, was a native of Llanaelhaiarn, Carnarvonshire. On his mother's side he was related to the Rev. Morris Williams (Nicander), and on his father's to Sir Hugh Owen. In 1835, he emigrated to America, settling at Racine, Wisconsin, where for some time he worked on a farm. In 1846, he went to New York, where he was employed as cabinet maker. He used every opportunity that came in his way to improve his education, and, having saved a little money, he entered Chirton College, and subsequently opened a day school at Utica. In 1851, the Welsh newspaper, Y Drych, was established in Utica by Mr. J. M. Jones, and two years later J. W. Jones was appointed editor. In 1858, he became proprietor of the paper ; in 1865, he sold part of his interest to Mr. J. Mather Jones, but continued as editor until his death. In conjunction with Owen Bromley (of Holywell), he wrote a Welsh " Handbook for Emigrants " (Denbigh : Gee & Son, 1866), and won prizes at the Utica Eisteddfod for essays on "Geology," " The Evils of Slavery," and other subjects. His chief work, however, is a Welsh " History of the American Civil War," which he produced jointly with T. B. Morris. (Utica, N.Y. : T. J. Griffiths, 1866.) (C & D. Herald; Y Geninen, 1886, p. 131 ; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Cymru, v. 29. p. 274 Jones, John William, 1835-1895, was the son of William Jones, Henry Street, Manchester, and rose to a responsible position in that city. He carried on business as a shipping agent, and acted as consul for Costa Rica. He was a staunch Churchman, and a liberal supporter of philanthropic movements ; the Deaf and Dumb Institution, in particular, owed much to his generosity. (Cymry Manceinion.) Jones, John William, 1840-1896, a self-made man, was a son of Owen Jones, Beuno Villa, Carnarvon, and was educated at the British school in that town. While very young he was apprenticed to a draper in his native town. After spending some time at a shop in Chester, he made his way—in March, 1862—to London, where he was engaged by a Mr. Williams, Bayswater. He afterwards entered the employ of Messrs. Spencer, Turner, and Boldero, where he became head salesman in the dress department. In 1867, he opened a little shop on his own account in Holloway Road. His business increased to such an extent that he was obliged to take his brother William, who was in business in another part of the Metropolis, into partner

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ship. The business tact and energy of " Jones Brothers " resulted in the rapid increase of their business, until finally their establishment was looked upon as one of the finest in London, close upon 500 hands being employed. He spent the last four years of his life at Plasybryn, Carnarvon. He was noted for his generosity and liberal disposition. He left a fortune of £66,000. (C. & D. Herald ; Liverpool Echo.) Jones, John Winter, 1805-1881, principal librarian of the British Museum, was born at L mbeth, but his family originally came from Carmarthenshire. His father, John Jones, was editor of The Naval Chronicle and The European Magazine, and his grandfather, Giles Jones, was the author of "Goody Two-Shoes." He intended to join the Chancery bar, but owing to illness he had to give up the idea. He became an assistant in the library of the British Museum, and 1866, he succeeded Panizzi as principal librarian. He edited and translated several books for the Hakluyt Society, and contributed valuable articles to the principal magazines. He also wrote a number of articles for the " Biographical Dictionary " of the "Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge." He pub lished a lecture, full of research, on "The Assyrian Excavations." He was a vice-president of the Society of Antiquaries, and contributed valuable articles on archaeology, and bibliography to the Transactions of the Society. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See North British Review, May, 1851, and the Quarterly Review, July, 1858, for articles by him ; R. Garnett, in the Transactions of the Library Association, 1882. Jones, John Wynne, 1804-1888, a clergyman, was a native of Anglesey, He was a scholar of Jesus College, Oxford ; graduated, 1827 ; ordained deacon, 1827 ; and priest, 1828. He held the curacy of Llechylched, Anglesey, from 1827 to 1833 ; the perpetual curacy of Holyhead from 1833 to 1844 ; was rector of Heneglwys with Trewalchmai from 1844 to 1868 ; and vicar of Bodedern from 1868 till his death. He became archdeacon of Bangor and canon residentiary of the cathedral in 1863. The archdeacon, who was a justice of the peace and deputy lieutenant of Anglesey, came from an old and highly respected Welsh family, and was squire as well as parson of his parish. He was one of the kindest of men,—full of quiet humour,—and was beloved and respected by all who knew him. (Recollections, &c.) Jones, Joseph Alun, 1843-1885, a barrister, was the son of Mr. John Jones, a prominent Welsh tradesman in Liverpool, and was born in that city. He was called to the bar in 1870, and practised for some time on the Northern Circuit. In 1875, he went to Alexandria, in Egypt, where he rapidly came to the front as an advocate in the Consular and International Courts. His health broke down, and he afterwards took up his residence at Kimberley, in Griqualand. There he enjoyed an extensive practice, and his industry and acumen were so much regarded that he was offered a judgeship, which he declined to accept. His health again gave way, and he returned to Liverpool in 1882. A master of the principles of national taxation and expenditure, he often lectured on these subjects on behalf of the Financial Reform Association, and as his style of delivery was fluent and attractive, he

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achieved much success in the dissemination of useful knowledge relating to the finances of the country. As honorary local secretary of the movement which led to the establishment of the University College of North Wales he rendered excellent service. (C. & D. Herald.) Jones, Joseph David, 1827-1870, musical composer, was born at Bryngrugog, near Llanfair Caereinion, Montgomeryshire, but for the last thirteen years of his life he resided at Ruthin. He had no more than a year's schooling, but he persevered with his books, and before he was twenty, he published, under the title of " Y Perganiedydd " (The Sweet Singer), a small collection of Psalm tunes, which met with a ready sale, the proceeds enabling him to enter the Training College, in London, to prepare himself for the office of schoolmaster. He followed that occupation at Towyn, and also at Ruthin. His published music found great favour with his countrymen ; his cantata, " Llys Arthur " (Arthur's Court), includes the Queen's Song, one of his best composi tions. He prepared a collection of hymns and tunes with the Rev. E. Stephen (Tanymarian), and his other works include "Cydymaith y Cerddor " (The Singer's Companion) ; " Y Delyn Gymreig " (The Welsh Harp) ; " Alawon y Bryniau " (Melodies of the Hills) ; and a collection of Chorales. He also arranged a volume of music for the use of the Wesleyans, which was published after his death. His son, the Rev. J. D. Jones, Bournemouth, is one of the leading ministers in the Congregational body. (Diet. Nat. Biog.; Mont. Worthies; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Y Geninen, March, 1893, p. 9 ; Cymru, v. 30, p. 40 ; Ibid, v. 29, p. 65. Jones, Josiah, 1807-1887, " Josiah Brynmair," a poet, was born at Braichodnant, Llanbryumair, Montgomeryshire. In August, 1850, he and his family emigrated to America, and settled at Gomer, in the State of Ohio, where he died. Both in Wales and in America, he was a frequent contributor, chiefly of poetry, to the Welsh magazines, and some of his hymns are deservedly esteemed. (Mont. Worthies.) Jones, Josiah Thomas, 1799-1873, a Congregational minister and author, was born at Cwmhir farm, in the parish of Clydau, Pembrokeshire. At the close of his college career at Newport-Pagnell, Bucks, he became pastor of the Welsh cause at Carnarvon, where he laboured for several years with great success. Whilst there he trans lated into Welsh Burkitt's " Exposition of the New Testament," but finding a difficulty in getting it issued through the press, he purchased a printing office of his own. He afterwards removed to Aberdare, where he established several newspapers, viz., Y Gwron, Y Gweithiivr, and The Aberdare Times, the last named being still in existence. He also began to publish a Welsh newspaper, bearing the title of Figaro, which he had to discontinue because he ventured to express extreme opinions. His principal works are :—" Geiriadur Bywgraffyddol o Enwogion Cymru" (A Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Welshmen), in 2 vols. (1867-70) ; and a Welsh "Biography of John Williams, the Missionary " (Carmarthen : J. T. Jones, 1813). (The Red Dragon; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Bye-Qones, 1891, p. 215 ; Congreg. Year Book, 1874 ; Y Geninen, 1907, p. 26.

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Jones, Lewis, 1793-1866, a clergyman, was born near Aberystwyth, and educated at Ystradmeurig. After serving for some time as assistant master at the Clitheroe Grammar School, he received the offer of the vicarage of Almondbury, near Huddersfield, where he settled in 1822. Soon afterwards he was appointed to the living of Llandefand, Monmouthshire, the church buildings at that time being in a very dilapidated state. Mr. Jones spent the whole of his income from the living in restoring the church and building a schoolroom, etc. He was a most popular clergyman, and rendered invaluable service to the Established Church. (Enwog. G.) Jones, Lewis, 1807 - 1854, a Calvinistic Methodist minister and author, was a native of Llanfihangel-y-Pennant, Merioneth. He began life as a bookbinder at Bala, and later on commenced to preach. He spent some time at Wrexham, at the school kept by the Rev. John Hughes (afterwards of Liverpool), and was ordained at Bala in 1838. Many of his sermons were published, and he wrote several excellent articles to the Traetliodydd and other periodicals. He was also the author of the biography of the Rev. Richard Jones, Bala. (Enwog. C.) See Y Traethodydd, 1845, 1846, 1847, 1849, 1851, for articles by him. Jones, Lewis, 1825-1883, a Baptist minister and author, was born in the Rhondda Valley, South Wales, and received but scanty educational advantages. He entered the College at Brecon, in order to qualify himself for the calling of a schoolmaster, but only remained at that institution for twelve months. In 1847, he undertook the superintendence of a small day school. In 1850, he made his way to Haverfordwest College, and after the usual course of training he was invited to the pastorate of the church at Argoed, Monmouthshire, where he was ordained in 1853. Four years later he took charge of the cause at Brynhyfryd, Ebbw Vale ; in 1862, he went to Pwllheli, North Wales, where he remained till 1868, when he removed to Treherbert, and there he ended his days. He competed often at the Eisteddfod, and carried off the chief prize for poetry more than once. He also won a prize for an essay on " Religious Activity." He published a biography of his brother, the Rev. Simon P. Jones, Cilgerran, Pembrokeshire. He was a constant contributor to the Bedyddiwr, and published a selection of hymns, which passed through three editions, and a selection of tunes, which is in use in many Baptist churches. He left materials for a " Harmony of the Gospels." (Baptist Handbook, 1 883.) Jones, Lewis, 1836-1905, one of the founders of the Welsh Colony at Patagonia, was born at Carnarvon, where he served an apprenticeship of seven years as printer at the Herald Office. In 1857, he removed to Holyhead, where he established a printing office, and published the Pwnsh Cymreig and the Sylwedydd. He afterwards lived for some time in Liverpool, and as the result of a visit paid by him to Patagonia, in company with Sir Love Jones Parry, he set about forming a Welsh Colony there, being assisted in the task by the Rev. Michael D. Jones, Bala. He established a local newspaper known as Y Dravod. He was the first president of the colony, and acted as chief magistrate until his death. He was an excellent linguist, and in

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addition to Welsh and English, he could speak and write French, Spanish, and Italian. (Herald Cymraeg.) See Y Geninen, March, 1906, p. 21. Jones, Maria, -about 1840, a poetess, is described as " a poor Welsh girl and self-educated," but the date and place of her birth are not known. She emigrated to America when a child seven or eight years old, and went as domestic " help " into several families. She had poetic genius of a high order, and her poems were collected in a volume and edited by the Rev. Alonzo Potter, D.D., bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Diocese of Pennsylvania, to which he added an introduction and a brief sketch of the life of Maria Jones, written by herself. The poems were published by John Taylor, New York, in 1839, and attracted attention by the high order of poetical genius and religious sentiment they exhibited. They are entitled " Wales, and other Poems," and contain 170 pages. (Bye-Gones, 1884, p. 45.) Jones, Mary, see Lewis, Mary. Jones, Matthew, 1654-1717, a clergyman, was a younger brother of Edward Jones, bishop of St. Asaph (see ante), and was a native of Montgomeryshire. He accompanied his brother to Ireland, and became prebendary of Donoughmore in 1687. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) Jones, Michael, 1785-1853, a Congregational minister, was born near Neuaddlwyd, Cardiganshire. After spending some time at the school kept by the Rev. David Davies, Castle Howel, he entered the college at Wrexham. In 1814, he succeeded the Rev. George Lewis as pastor at Llanuwchllyn, near Bala, but afterwards removed to Bala, to take charge of the Congregational College. He was a most able man, an excellent scholar, and a very successful teacher. He was one of the joint translators of vol. 1 of the Welsh edition of Matthew Henry's Commentary, published at Swansea in 1828-31. (Enwog. C. ; Cardiff Catalogue.) Jones, Michael Daniel, 1822-1898, a Congregational minister and author, was a native of Bala. In 1841, he entered Carmarthen College, and after four years went for his theological studies to Highbury, remaining there for three years. He then visited the United States, and was persuaded to settle for a while at Cincinnati, where he was ordained in 1848. He returned to Wales in 1850, and became pastor at Bwlchnewydd, Carmarthenshire. In 1854, he succeeded his father, the Rev. Michael Jones (1785-1853 see ante), ai head of the Independent College, Bala. He was a splendid teacher, a powerful preacher, and a very able theologian. He was one of the staunchest Welsh Nationalists of the day, being one of the first to entertain the idea of a Welsh colony abroad ; he may fairly be called the father of the movement which culminated in the Welsh settlement on the Chubat, in the Argentine Republic. He was the author of several works, and was joint-editor of the Welsh " Biography and Theological Essays " of the Rev. Robert Thomas (Ap Vychan), Bala (Dolgellau : W. Hughes, 1882). His influence in his denomination was very considerable, and he did more probably than any man of the century to preserve its ideals, and hold out before its view the standard

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of a past age. (Congreg. Year Book, 1900.) See Cymru, v. 5, p. 37 ; Young Wales, 1898, p. 280 ; Cymru, v. 9, p. 253 ; Y Geninen, 1895, p. 210 ; Ibid, 1899, p. 166, et seq ; Ibid, 1900, p. 33 ; Cardiff Catalogue. Jones, Morgan, 1768-1835, a Congregational minister and poet, was a native of Breconshire, and at the age of fourteen he was adopted by one Morgan Davies, who gave him a liberal education, and be queathed a large sum to him. He was ordained to the ministry in 1789, and settled at Trelech, where he was remarkably succesful, hundreds being added to the church under his pastorate. In 1798, he published a hymn-book in two sections, the first being original, and the second a selection from the hymns of others. (Hanes Emynwyr ; Cardiff Catalogue.) Jones, Morris Charles, 1819-1893, a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, to whom Montgomeryshire history and archaeology owe probably more than to anyone else, was a native of Welshpool. He was admitted a solicitor in 1841, and retired from practice in 1880. For many years he took a deep interest in the history and archaeology of his native county, and in 1867 he succeeded in forming the Powysland Club "for the collecting and printing, for the use of its members, of the historical, ecclesiastical, genealogical, topographical, and literary remains of Montgomeryshire." As secretary of the club and the editor of its " Transactions " his enthusiasm, energy, tact, and courtesy enlisted the co-operation of quite a host of others in the work he had so much at heart, the result being that the publications of the club contain a mass of information on the history and archaeology of the county which its future historian will find to be invaluable. (Mont. Worthies.) See Y Geninen, March, 1893, p. 54. Jones, Nathaniel Cynhafal, 1832-1906, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, poet and prose writer, was born in the parish of Llangynhafal, Denbighshire, and removed at au early age to Mold, and afterwards to Holywell. He began to preach in 1859, and later on spent four years at Bala College. After serving in the pastorate at Penrhyndeudraeth, he accepted, in 1875, a call to Llanidloes, where he remained 18 years. He stood in the front rank as a preacher. He was frequently successful as an Eisteddfod competitor, and was placed second in order of merit for the chair prize at the Bangor Eisteddfod, in 1874, for his ode on "The Bible." For many y«ars he acted as editor of the " Drysorfa," and in his younger days edited a periodical known as " Charles o'r Bala." His published works include a volume of poems entitled "Fy Awenydd" (1857) ; "Elias y Thesbiad" (1869) ; and " Y Messiah," a volutns of originil songs and hymns, published in 1895. He also edited the works of William Williams, Pantycelyn (1887-1891). He had the degree of D.D. conferred upon him by one of the American Universities. (Yr Herald Cymraeg ; Y Cymro; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Y Geninen, March, 1906, p, 36. Jones, Owen, 1741-1814, "Owain Myfyr," the distinguished antiquary, was born at Llanfihangel-glyn-Myfyr, Denbighshire. In early life he entered the employment of a firm of furriers in London, and eventually succeeded to the business. Being impressed by the

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neglected state of the literature of his country, he set to work to make a collection of its remains, which he afterwards published under the title of " The Myfyrian Archaiology of Wales," in three large volumes. He also procured transcripte of ancient Welsh poetry, amounting to 50 quarto volumes, which are now deposited in the British Museum. In 1772, he founded the Gwyneddigion Society in London, for the purpose of patronising the bards of Wales and promoting the study of the Welsh language. He published, at his own expense, the poems of Dafydd ab Gwilym, with a preface by Dr. W. Owen Pughe, and commenced a miscellany called the " Greal," one volume of which was completed. He also published a new edition of the Welsh translation, by Dr. John Davies, of " The Christian's Resolution." He was buried in the graveyard of the Church of All Hallows the Great and Less, in Upper Thames Street, London. (Did. Em. W. ; Bye-Gones, 1889, p. 281 .) See Enwog. C. ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry ; Hanes Lien. G. ; Y Geninen, March 1888, p. 66 ; Memoir, with portrait, in Gwladgarwr, 1838, p. 33 ; Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Leathart's Origin and Progress of the Gwyneddigion Society; Cambro-Briton, v. 1, p. 19; Gent. Mag., 1814, part 2, p. 499 ; Cam. Reg., v. 3, p. 188. Jones, Owen, 1787-1828, a Calvinistic Methodist minister and author, of Gelli, Llanfair, Montgomeryshire, was a native of Towyn, Merionethshire. He spent his early days at Aberystwyth, where he closely identified himself with religions work, and shewed that rare excellence as a catechise, for which he became distinguished in after life. He afterwards spent two years at Llanidloes, where he threw himself heart and soul into similar work. He then proceeded to London, where for some time he assisted Dr. William Owen Pughe in correcting for the press the first edition of the Welsh Bible published by the Bible Society. In 1808, he was accepted as a preacher, and eleven years later was fully ordained. As a preacher, he was earnest, impressive, and eloquent ; as a catechist, unrivalled. In 1830, he published a small catechism under the the title, " Arweinydd i Wybodaeth ; neu y Catecism cyntaf, i hen bobl, a'r ail, i bobl ieuainc " (The Guide to Knowledge ; or, the first Catechism for old people, and the second for the young), which long continued in use. His Biography (with an elegy) by the Rev. John Hughes, Pontrobert, appeared in 1830 (Chester : John Parry). (Mont. Worthies.) See Sunday Schools, &c, p. 193, with portrait ; Cymru, v. 31, p. 117. Jones, Owen, fl. 1790, a lawyer, was a native of Anglesey, and brother of Edward Jones (1771-1831, see ante). He was sometimes called " Cur y Cyrtie," probably because he was a lawyer, and acted as secretary to the Gwyneddigion Society in London in 1789, vice-president in 1792, and president in 1793. He and his brother Edward assisted Owen Jones (Owain Myfyr), and Dr. Wm. Owen Pughe, in bringing out the poetical works of Dafydd ab Gwilym. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) Jones, Owen, 1806-1889, "Meudwy M6n," a Calvinistic Methodist minister and author, was a native of Anglesey. He com menced life as a joiner, but in 1828 he commenced to preach with the Calvinistic Methodists. In 1842, he took charge of the

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cause at Mold, removing two years later to Manchester, where he remained for 22 years. He spent the remainder of his life at Llandndno. He was a voluminous writer, and translated a number of theological books into Welsh. He was the compiler of " Ceinion Llenyddiaeth Cymru " (Gems of Welsh Literature) ; the editor of " Cymru : yn hanesyddol, parthedegol, a bywgraphyddol " (Wales : historically, geographically, and biographically), 2 vols. (Glasgow : Blackie & Son, 1875) ; and published a volume of lectures (in Welsh) on the history of Wales. Altogether he was responsible, either as author, compiler, or translator, for about 40 volumes. (Cymry Manceinion.) See Hemes Lien. G.; Y Traethodydd, 1893, p. 28, 1901, p. 401 ; Ibid, 1902, p. 161, 1907, p. 373 ; Cymru, v. 3, p. 9 ; Y Qeninen, 1890, p. 243, and March, p. 33 ; Bye-Qones, October, 16, 1889. Jones, Owen, 1809 - 1874, the celebrated architect and designer, was the son of Owen Jones (Owain Myfyr), see ante. He received his professional training in the office of Mr. Vulliamy, and afterwards travelled in France and other parts of Europe, and in Egypt ; but his principal stay was at Granada, where he was occupied, with M. J. Goury, in making drawings, &c, of the Alhatnbra. He designed and superintended the printing of various illuminated books, including the Song of Solomon, the Sermon on the Mount, &c. His most important publications are the " Grammar of Ornament," " Examples of Chinese Ornament," " Designs for Mosaic and Tesselated Pavements," and "The Polychromatic Ornament of Italy." He was appointed superintendent of the great exhibition building of 1861, and director of the decorations at the Crystal Palace. During the latter period of his life he was engaged more directly as an architect, his principal buildings being the St. James' Hall, the most splendid and com modious, and in its decorations the most novel, music hall in the metropolis; and the bazaar called the London Crystal Palace in Oxford Street, to which he imparted considerable novelty of effect by making the light pass through a skylight of coloured glass arranged in a sort of Saracenic framework. (Imp. Diet. Biog.) See Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists of English School ; Encycl. Brit. ; Athenaeum, 25 April, 1874, p. 569. Jones, Owen, 1833-1899, a Calvinistic Methodist minister and author, was born at Llanuwchllyn, near Bala. His education was of the best, and when about 13 years of age he was under the tuition of Dr. Lewis Edwards and Dr. John Parry. He graduated B.A. at London, and was ordained in 1864, becoming pastor of the Tabernacle and Bethesda churches, Festiniog. He remained there until 1872, and in that year accepted a call to Chatham Street, Liverpool, as successor to the Rev. Henry Reee. He ministered there for twenty years with very considerable success, afterwards retiring to Llansantffraid, where he spent much of his time in literary pursuits. As a Welsh scholar he had few equals ; he was not only a man of sound judgment and high moral character, but an eloquent preacher and an excellent writer, as his popular and interesting memoirs of " Robert Tomos " (Wrexham : Hughes and Son, 1869) and "Dafydd Rolant" testify. He edited, in

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1889, a new edition of " Llyfr y Tri Aderyn " (The Book of the Three Birds) (Liverpool : Isaac Foulkes), to which he wrote a valuable introduction. He was a frequent contributor to the Welsh magazines, and his services as Eisteddfod adjudicator were constantly called for. (F Cymroi Cardiff Catalogue.) See Bye-Gones, 1899, p. 24; F Geninen, March, 1899, p. 1 ; Cymru, v. 16, p. 105. Jones, Owen Wynne, 1828-1870, "Glasynys," a clergyman and poet, was born at Rhostryfan, near Carnarvon. As a youth he worked with his father in a slate quarry, and when about 15 years of age joined the Calvinistic Methodists. Having saved a little money he attended Bronyfoel school, but he soon had to return to work. He then removed to Festiniog, and joined the Established Church. His desire for knowledge was intense, and after spending some time at Clynnog, under Eben Fardd, he entered the Carnarvon Training College. He afterwards placed himself under the tuition of the Rev. John Williams (Ab Ithel), who also taught him the rules of Welsh poetry. He was ordained in 1860, and served as curate at Llangristiolus (Anglesey) and Pontlottyn (Monmouth). He afterwards resided at Portmadoc, and later at Towyn, Merioneth, where he died. He was buried at Llandwrog, near Carnarvon. As a poet he stood in the front rank, and as a prose writer he had few equals, being noted for his pure, idiomatic Welsh. He was exceedingly well versed in Welsh folk-lore and antiquities. He won a number of Eisteddfod prizes for prose and verse. He was a constant contributor to the Brython, under the name of " Salmon Llwyd," and many of his poems also appear in that magazine. His essay (Welsh) on " The Truth Against the World" appears in Yr Eisteddfod, vol. 1, p. 327. An almost complete collection of his poetry was published by Mr. 0. M. Edwards in books 13 and 14 of " Y Lienor," Jan. and April, 1898. (F Geninen, March, 1888, p. 72.) See Cymru, vol. 15, p. 222 ; Ibid, vol. 20, p. 103 ; Ibid, vol. 27, p. 77 et seq. ; Ibid, v. 6, p. 44 et seq. ; Y Geninen, March, 1887, p. 1 : 1897, p. 128, and March, p. 58 ; Welsh Lyrics, p. 21 ; Welsh Poets, &c, p. 21. Jones, Peter, 1775-1845, "Pedr Fardd," was born at Brynengan, in the parish of Dolbenmaen, Carnarvonshire. He removed, in early youth, to Liverpool, where he spent the remainder of his days. He attached himself to the Calvinistic Methodists, and exercised great power for good among his countrymen. He was especially a friend and teacher of young men, both in literature and religion. He won the chair prize at Brecon, in 1826, for a poem on "The Giving of the Law on Sinai." He prepared a very useful catechism for use in Sunday schools, and in 1823 published a volume of his poems. He also contributed several articles to the Welsh magazines of the day. Some of his hymns are very popular, and they are all of very great merit. The best-known are those beginning " Mae'r Iachawdriaeth rad," " Daw tyrfa rif y gwlith," " Cysegrwn fiaenffrwyth ddyddiau'n hoes," " Daw miloedd ar ddarfod am danynt." His daughter, Mrs. Eunice Jones, wrote a good deal of poetry, and an English novel, entitled " The Massacre of Glencoe." (Hanes Lien. G. ; Sweet Singers of Wales.) See F Traethodydd, 1854, p. 257 ; Ibid,

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1900, p. 278 ; Nodweddiad y Cymry, p. 268 ; Y Geninen, 1886, p. 65 ; Trans. Nat. Eist., Liverpool, 1884, p. 592. Jones, Rhys, 1713-1801, poet and compiler, was the eldest son of John Jones, of Blaenau, Llanfachraeth, Merionethshire. He was educated at Dolgelley and Shrewsbury, and afterwards lived as a country gentleman on his own freehold. He wrote a good deal of poetry, and has been described as the greatest living poet in 1770. His name, however, is best known as a compiler. In 1773, he published a valuable selection of Welsh poetry of different periods, under the title, " Gorchestion Beirdd Cymru, neu Flodau Godidowgrwydd Awen." A revised edition of this work, edited by the Rev. Robert Ellis (Cynddelw), appeared in 1861 (Carnarvon: H. Humphreys). He also published "Flangell i'r Methodistiaid " (A Whip for the Methodists), in which he displays very narrow religious sympathies ; and a collection of poems entitled " Pigiadiau Dewisol o Waith y Prydyddion o'r amrywiol Oesoedd " (1770). A selection of his poems was published by his grandson, Rice Jones Owen, in 1818. (Diet. Nat. Bioff.) See Diet. Em. W. ; Cardiff Catalogue ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry ; Enwog. G- ; G.B. ; Cymru, vol. 1, p. 37 ; Ibid, vol. 32, p. 91 ; Golud yr Oes, vol. 2, p. 81. Jones, Rhys Gwesyn, 1826-1901, a Congregational minister and author, was a native of Abergwesyn, South Wales, and was educated for the ministry at the Ffrwdyfal Grammar School and the Brecon Memorial College. For some time he was pastor at Bethesda chapel, Merthyr Tydfil, but in 1867 he emigrated to America, where he spent the remainder of his life,serving as pastor of Bethesda, the Welsh Congrega tional Church of Utica, for many years. He occupied a prominent position as preacher, lecturer, and essayist. He received the honorary degree of D.D. from an American University. His work on "The World before Adam," being an essay on geology and the Bible, published in 1858, excited much curiosity, inasmuch as it was about the first Welsh book of its kind. His " Courting, Marrying, and Living," issued in Welsh in 1867, and in English two years later, had a very large circula tion. His " Biography and Works," in Welsh, edited by the Rev. W. R. Edwards, Granville, New York, appeared in 1902 (Utica : T. J. Griffiths, Drych Office). (C. & D. Herald; The Cambrian, 1901, p. 473, and 1902, p. 454.) See Y Geninen, March, 1903, p. 21. Jones, Richard, 1773-1833, one of the leading Calvinistic Methodist ministers of his day, was born at Coed Cae Du, Brynengan, Carnarvonshire. He received his education at a school kept at Car narvonshire by the Rev. Evan Richardson, and, declining the proffered assistance of a gentleman to bring him up as a barrister, he returned to help his father on the farm. He began to preach in 1794, and soon attained a prominent position in the connexion. The greater part of his life was spent at Wern, Llanfrothen, in Merionethshire. He wrote a good deal to the Welsh periodicals under the pen-name " Cymro Gwyllt." Among his contributions may be mentioned a series of articles on " The French Civil War " to Seren Gomer ; " A Warning to Preachers and Hearers of the Gospel ; " " Remarks on the Mammon

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of Unrighteousness " and " Burial Offerings " to Goleuad Cymru ; and " The Power and Powerlessness of Man " to the Drysorfa for 1825. He also prepared two catechisms and published a collection of hymns. His principal work is " Drych y Dadleuwr " (The Debater's Mirror), (Bala : R. Saunderson, 1829), in which he severely reproves those engaged in the theological disputes then so prevalent in Wales. He wrote a number of hymns, many of which are to be found in the Welsh hymnals of to-day. His biography was written by the Rev. John Jones, Tremadoc (Chester : J. Parry, 1834), and also by the Rev. John Jones, Penyparc (1835;. (Enwog. C. ; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Great Preachers, &c. ; Cymru, vol. 7, p. 41 ; Y Traethodydd, 1906, p. 223. Jones, Richard, 1786-1848, " Gwyndaf Eryri," a poet, was born at Erw Ystyffylau, in the parish of Llanwnda, Carnarvonshire, and followed the occupation of stonemason. He was a very successful Eisteddfod competitor, and was awarded the chair prize at the Carnarvon Eisteddfod, 1821, for an ode on " Music." though a good deal of discus sion took place at the time as to the accuracy of the award. He also received a medal at the Gwyneddigion Eisteddfod, Llanwrtyd, 1823, for an ode on " Knowledge," and secured prizes at the Eisteddfodau of 183U and 1837. In 1818, a collection of his poems was published under the title " Peroriaeth Awen " (Carnarvon : P. Evans). His ode on " The Death of Sir Thomas Picton " was published under the penname '< Eidiol " in the volume entitled " Awen Dyfed." His other •ompositions include odes on " The Feast of Belshazzar " and " The Wreck of the Rothsay Castle." He died June 21st, 1848, and was buried at Llanbeblig, Carnarvon. (Hanes Lien. G.) See Origin and Progress of the Gwyneddigion Society, pp. 66 and 93 : Adgof uwch Anghof, p. 112 ; Y Geninen, 1883, p. 55 ; Nodweddiad y Cymry, p. 274 ; Cymru, vol. 23, p. 167 ; Y Traethodydd, 1900, p. 280 ; F Geninen, 1893, p. 48. Jones, Richard, 1813-1841, a Congregational minister, was born at Bala. He joined the church in that town of which the Rev. Michael Jones was pastor, and at an early age he was the means of forming a young men's debating society. He and five other members of this society were invited to devote themselves to preaching. He settled down at Aberhosan, near Machynlleth, in 1837, and during the remaining four years of his life the cause prospered exceedingly under his charge. His memoir, by the Rev. Hugh Pugh, Mostyn, and a collection of his sermons, were published in 1843. (Enwogion Meirion.) Jones, Richard, 1816-1892, a self-made man, was born in Liverpool of Welsh parents. He emigrated to New South Wales in 1838, and worked at his trade as a printer in 1842, when he started a newspaper. He was elected to the first Assembly in 1856, acted as Colonial Treasurer in 1857-8, and in the following year refused an invitation to form a ministry. He was one of the oldest and most respected colonists of New South Wales, and at the date of his death was chairman of the Commercial Bank at Sydney. (Bye-Gones, 1892, p. 376.)

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A DICTIONARY OF

Jones, Richard Robert, 1780-1843, "Dick Aberdaron," a linguist, was born in South Carnarvonshire. He was one of a large family, his parents being very poor, so that he received little or no education. He was a most eccentric character, and had a remark able talent for acquiring languages. He travelled much throughout England and Wales, contriving to work as little as possible, his sole purpose in life being to extend his linguistic acquirements. His chief object was to study the form and construction of the language, so that he was as ignorant of the contents of a book after going through it as he was before he began to read it. He spent many years of his life in Liverpool, where he was occupied most of his time in walking along the docks conversing with foreigners, and learning their languages. While there he attracted the notice of Mr. Roscoe, who wrote an account of his life. He was conversant with fourteen or fifteen languages. He left behind him a number of valuable MSS., among them being a Hebrew, Greek and Welsh dictionary. He died in great poverty, and was buried at St. Asaph. (G.B. ; Bye-Gones, 1889, p. 125). See Cymru O.J., p. 713 ; Y Brython, vol. 3, p. 170 ; Coflant Die Aberdaron (Carnarvon : H. Humphreys) ; Memoir, by W. Roscoe, 1822, second edition 1859 ; Y Gwladgarwr, vol. 4, p. 223, and vol. 5, p. 29 (with portrait) ; Chester Chronicle, December 23rd, 1843 ; Y Beirniadur Cymreig, 1845 ; Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Bye-Gones, 1889, pp. 16, 20, 112, 130, and 164 ; Y Geninen, 1906, p. 207. Jones, Robert, 1745-1829, a Calvinistic Methodist minister and author, popularly known as " Robert Jones, Rhoslan," was born in the parish of Llanystumdwy, Carnarvonshire. He became connected, at an early age, with the circulating schools established through the generosity of Madam fievan, and rendered excellent service in that connection in various parts of North Wales. As one of Madam Bevan's masters, he began his circulating school at Capel Curig, Carmarthenshire, then removed to Brynsiencyn, Anglesey, and was afterwards at Llangybi and other places in South Carnarvonshire. Being a preacher as well as schoolmaster, he came by his full share of the persecutions of the times. He published an edition of the hymns of William Williams, Pantycelyn, to which he added a few of his own composition. In 1820, there appeared his " Drych yr Amseroedd " (the Mirror of the Times), containing an account of the principal events of the two preceding centuries in Wales, which met with a ready sale. In 1834, his biography, with a selection from his letters and poems, edited by the Rev. John Elias, was published by J. Jones, Llanrwst. (Hanes Emynwyr ; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Llyfrydd. y Cymry ; Enwog. C. ; Banes Lien. G. ; Y Lienor (O.M.E.) ; G.B., vol. 2, p. 92 ; Enwog. y Ffydd, vol. 4, p. 354 ; Methodistiaeth Cymru, vol. 2, p. 186 ; Sunday Schools, tkc, p. 164 ; Cymru, vol. 12, p. 227. Jones, Robert, about 1800, known as " Robert Tecwyn Meirion," a poet, was born in the parish of Llandecwyn, Merioneth. He spent the latter years of his life in Liverpool, where he carried on business as a coal merchant. He wrote a good deal of prose and poetry. Two small volumes of his poems were published—the first

EMINENT WELSHMEN at Pwllheli in 1829, and the second at Liverpool in 1835. Meirion.)

271 (Enwogion

Jones, Robert, 1806-1896, a Baptist minister and author, was born at Llanllyfni, Carnarvonshire. He was not favoured with many educational advantages in his youth, but made the most of what came in his way. In his early days he attended the services of the Calvinistic Methodists, but afterwards joined the Baptists, being baptised in 1833. Shortly afterwards he commenced to preach, and in 1836 he was recognised as the pastor of the churches at Llanllyfni, Qarn, and Pontllyfni. His fame as a sound evangelical preacher and a denominationalist of the most aggressive type soon spread throughout the churches. His " Gemau Duwinyddol " (Gems of Theology) (Denbigh : T. Gee, 1882), a collection of the sayingi) of eminent men on all branches of religious thought, bears traces of his familiarity with the Puritans and his fondness for them. His individuality of character was manifest in his modes of thought and expression and in his per sonal appearance. Probably his best known work is his Welsh essay on " Popery," which displays unwearied labour, patient research, and delightful power of expression. In 1851, he published a collection of hymns, including a number of his own composition. He was a Free Churchman of a pronounced type, and many witty sayings of his are recorded as having been spoken in meetings of the Liberation Society. He was chairman of the Welsh Baptist Union in 1880. (Baptist Handbook, 1897 ; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Y Geninen, 1895, p. 104 ; Ibid, 1897, p. 37; his Biography, by the Rev. Owen Davies, D.D., Carnarvon. Jones, Robert, 1810-1879, a clergyman and author, for 37 years vicar of All Saints, Rotherhithe, was born at Llanfyllin, Montgomery shire. He completed his education at Jesus College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. On leaving the university, he was licensed to a curacy at Connah's Quay, Flintshire ; subsequently he was curate at Barmouth, and in 1842 removed to Rotherhithe. During the severe visitation of cholera in 1853-4, he worked hard, fearless of danger, administering medicine to the poor and visiting the dying. He was himself struck down by the malady, but recovered. He was an occasional contributor to the Shrewsbury Chronicle and Jiddawes's Journal, under the pen-name of " Rob Roy." In 1864, he published a reprint of the " Flores Poetarnm Brittannicorum " by Dr. John Davies, of Mallwyd ; and, in 1876, brought out an excellent edition of the " Poetical Works, Life, &a, of Goronwy Owen," enriched with valuable notes from his own pen. In 1877, he edited another most rare and curious work, Salesbury'a " Welsh-English Dictionary," being a reprint of the original edition of 1547. His hospitable board was the meeting-point of numbers of the Welsh literati who visited the metro polis, and he himself was ever foremost in promoting every movement for the social and moral well-being of his fellow-countrymen, regard less of creed or sect. He was an ardent eisteddfodwr. (Mont. Worthies ; Cardiff Catalogue.) See T Cymmrodor, vol. 3, p. 126 ; Bve-Qones, April 2nd, 1879 ; Athenaeum, April 5th, 1879, p. 438.

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A DICTIONARY OF

Jones, Robert Albert, -1892, a barrister and educationist, was a son of the Rev. John Jones, of Penybryn, Wrexham, and a great-grandson of Robert Jones, Rhoslan (see ante). He was an exceedingly bright scholar, his university career at Oxford being remarkably brilliant. Possessing independent means, he devoted his energies chiefly to the cause of education in North Wales. He acted as secretary of the committee appointed to prepare a scheme for a national university for Wales ; was a member of the Council of the Bangor University College, and joint author with Principal Reichel of a report on technical education, made as the result of exhaustive inquiries in this and other countries. He was one of the secretaries of the conference of Joint Education Committees for Wales, which, under the presidency of Mr. A. H. D. Acland, M.P., was engaged for two or three years in preparing schemes for the uniform administration of the Welsh Intermediate Education Act. He took a keen interest in the Welsh land question, and in 1887 wrote a work on " The Land Question and a Land Bill, with special reference to Wales." (C. & D. Herald ; Cardiff Catalogue ; Bye-Gonea, 1892, p. 429.) See Cymru, vol. 5, p. 40. Jones, Robert Ambrose, 1851-1906, "Emrys ap Iwan," a Calvinistic Methodist minister and author, was born at Bryn Aber, near Abergele. When quite a lad he assisted his father, who was employed as a gardener, and in his thirteenth year he left home for Liverpool, where he found employment with a draper. In 1868 he entered Bala College, and afterwards spent a considerable time at Lausanne, Switzerland. He then entered the office of the Barter newspaper at Denbigh, and in 1883 was ordained pastor of the Tabernacle Church at Ruthin. He was afterwards at Abergele, and later on at Rhewl, near Ruthin, where he had charge of the churches at Rhydycilgwyn and Llanbedr. He was well known as a preacher, but was still better known as a literary man. He was a frequent contributor to the Geninen and other periodicals, and was the author of a Welsh Grammar, entitled " Camrau mewn Gramadeg," published by Gee of Denbigh. He also prepared a volume ef sermons, under the title of " Hoiniliau," which was in the press at the time of his death. He was an excellent linguist, and could speak French and German with perfect ease. His sermons abound in original thought, and they are clothed with a rare charm of expression, at times rising into true eloquence and poetic beauty, and always in pure and strictly idiomatic Welsh. They are the product ot a man of rich endowments both of spirit and mind, with wide sympathies and intense earnestness, who was an independent thinker and a master of Welsh prose. (C. & D. Herald.) See F Geninen, 1906, p. 132 ; Manchester Guardian, January 18th, 1907 ; Y Traethodydd 1907, p. 290. Jones, R Evan, 1837-1897, an American civil servant, was born at Carnarvon, and early in life went over to America, settling in the State of Louis in 1855. In 1858, he moved to Mobile, Alabama, and there resided until 1887, when he removed to Birmingham. When the war broke out he enlisted in the cause of the Confederacy, and afterwards served with the Alabama Artillery, being wounded in

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the leg in the battle of Shiloh. A few months before his death he was elected coroner of Jefferson County, by the Democratic party, by a large majority. He was a man of sterling character, and scrupulously exact in his dealings with his fellow-men. (C. & D. Herald.) Jones, Robert Isaac, 1813-1904, "Alltud Eifion," a poet and publisher, was born at Tyddyn Islyn, Pentrefelin, near Tremadoc. By profession he was a chemist, and was well known in every part of the Principality on account of the patent medicines he manufactured. He was the author of many works on Welsh folk-lore, and articles from his pen appeared very often in the Welsh press. For many years he edited and published the popular Welsh magazine, Y Brython, and Baner y Groes, another Welsh journal which had a host of supporters. He excelled as a writer of " englynion," and to his last days he was ready with his " cynghaneddion." Although he was descended from an old Methodist stock he became a devoted Church man and a staunch Conservative. In 1889, he published a collection of hymns, and in 1892 a volume entitled " Y Gestiana," containing antiquarian notes on Portmadoc and district. He also edited the poems of Ellis Owen and John Thomas (Sion Wyn o Eifion). (C. & D. Herald ; Cardiff Catalogue.) Jones, Rowland, 1722-1774, a philologist, was the second son (according to Rowlands) of John Williams, but according to the " Roll of the Inner Temple," of William Jones, of Bachellyn, Llanbedrog, Carnarvonshire. He was educated first of all at Llannor School, and afterwards at Bottwnog. He spent some time as clerk in his father's office (a solicitor), and soon obtained a similar situation in London. He married a young Welsh heiress, and was enrolled a member of the Inner Temple. He purchased Y Weirgloddfawr, in the parish of Abererch, near Pwllheli, where the residence now known as Broom Hall was erected. He wrote " The Origin of Languages and Nations," in which he attempts to prove that Welsh was the primeval language ; a " Postscript " to the last work, which was afterwards bound with it (London, 1767) ; " Hieroglyphic, or a Grammatical Introduction to an Universal Hieroglyphic and Language ; " " The Philosophy of Words " (London, 1769) ; " The Circles of Gomer, or an Essay towards the Investigation of the English as a Universal Language " (London, 1771). (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Bye-Gones, 1897, p. 68 ; Y Brython, vol. 1, second edition, p. 20 ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry ; Herald Cymraeg, 1856-7. Jones, Samuel, 1680-1719, a Nonconformist tutor, was probably born at Pennsylvania. His father, Malachi Jones, who died in 1728, was a Welsh minister who had emigrated to America, and at the time of his death was pastor at Pennsylvania. Samuel Jones settled at Glou cester, and opened a Nonconformist academy, which had attained great repute by 1710, when Thomas Seeker, afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, entered it as student. Among his other pupils were Bishop Butler, Dr. Nathaniel Lardner, and Dr. Samuel Chandler. A manuscript copy, in two octavo volumes, of his Latin lectures on Jewish antiquities, is to be found in Dr. Williams' Library, Gordon Square. Some identify the tutor with the Welsh poet, Samuel Jones

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(1680-1720), who is stated in Williams' Eminent Welshmen to have been a clergyman by profession, and to have presided at the Glamorgan Eisteddfod in 1700. Professor Fitzgerald, of Dublin, in a " Life of Butler," prefixed to a very valuable edition of the " Analogy," says :— 4. Jones was a man of no mean ability or erudition, and could number among his scholars many names that might confer honour on any university in Christendom." (Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Bye-Gones, 1X72, p. 48.) See Monthly Repository, 1809, p. 651 ; Gibbon's Memoirs of Isaac Watts, 1780, p. 346 ; Bogue and Bennett's Hist, of Dissenters, 1833, vol. 2, p. 225 ; Rees' Hist. ; Jeremy's Presb. Fund, 1885, pp. 13, 39. Jones, Samuel, 1735-1814, a Baptist minister and author, was a native of Glamorganshire, but when he was two years of age his parents emigrated to America. He was educated at Philadelphia College, where he graduated M.A., afterwards receiving the degree of D.D. He served as pastor at Southampton and Penypeg, his ministry extending over a period of 51 years. As a preacher he occupied a leading posi tion. He published an essay on " Discipline," and a collection of hymns, which proved him to be a poet of great merit. (G.B.) Jones, Samuel, 1746- 1819, banker and philanthropist, was the son of John Jones, a Welsh tea salesman in very ordinary circum stances. Samuel Jones was most diligent and persevering in business, and acquired considerable wealth. In his will he bequeathed £5,000 to the Manchester University College. (Cymry Manceinion.) Jones, Samuel Benjamin, 1830-1900, a self-made man, was the last surviving son of Mr. Benjamin Jones, the Welsh litterateur, who was widely known among his countrymen as " P. A. Mon," and was born at Holyhead. He went to America in 1851, when he entered the employ of R. H. Macy, and later went to Lord and Taylor's, subse quently becoming a partner in a branch of the dry goods store of Lyons, Jones and Co., of " Columbia Hall," Grand Street, New York City. In 1865, he formed a partnership with Mr. William Johnson in Brooklyn as dealers in fine trimmings and laces, &c. At this time he was carrying a burden of debt due to the failure of Lyons, Jones and Co., and it was not until 1867 that he was able to meet these obliga tions. On the death of Mr. Johnson he went into business on his own account, in a much larger store. All these old debts, even those for which he could not have been legally held liable,were paid in full, and as his business grew under his wise and able management he was twice again enabled to move to more commodious quarters, finally retiring in 1887. (The Cambrian.) Jones, Samuel Milton, 1846-1904, inventor and author, was a native of Beddgelert, but emigrated to Pennsylvania. After starting in business in Toledo, he became dissatisfied with the general wage system, and adopted a system of profit-sharing on an extensive scale. As mayor of Toledo for several years he became exceedingly popular, being known as " Golden Rule Jones," from the fact that he had for many years conducted his vast establishment on the principle of doing unto others as he would be done by. He was the inventor and manu

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facturer of the Acme Sucker-Rod and other oil-well machinery. He was a musician and poet, and in the various elections which he fought he composed his own election songs. His published works include " The New Right," and " Letters of Love and Labour." A writer in Munsey's Magazine for September, 1906, p. 750, thus refers to Mr. Jones :—" The 4 Golden Rule Mayor ' was for years one of the most picturesque figures in American public life. As a boy of 18, he went into the oil country with 15 cents in his pocket, and worked up to riches. Then he became a politician, but such a one as Ohio had never seen. He declared himself independent of all the political parties, and all the newspapers, and, with nothing but his own personal magnetism to aid him, persuaded more than three-fourths of the Toledo citizens to indorse his platform of equality and brotherhood. As long as Toledo stands, its patron saint will be ' Golden Rule Jones,' the man without a party." (F Drych.) See Young Wales, 1899, p. 99. Jones, Stephen, 1763 -1827, an author, was the eldest son of Giles Jones, secretary to the York Buildings Water Co. (a native of Carmar thenshire), was born in London. He was a brother of John Jones, editor of the Naval Chronicle and the European Magazine ; a nephew of Griffith Jones (1722-1780, see ante ; and an uncle of John Winter Jones (1805-1881, see ante). He was educated at St. Paul's School, and apprenticed to a printer in Fetter Lane. In 1797, he became editor of the Whitehall Evening Post, and afterwards manager and part proprietor of the General Evening Post, which was subse quently merged in the St. James' Chronicle. From 1797 to 1814, he compiled from the newspapers, &c, an amusing annual volume entitled " The Spirit of the Public Journals." His other works include Monthly Beauties," 1793 ; " The History of Poland," 1795 ; " A New Biographical Dictionary in Miniature," of which several editions appeared ; " Masonic Miscellanies in Poetry and Prose," 1797 ; " Biographia Dramatica, or A Companion to the Playhouse," 3 vols., 1812 ; he also edited an edition of " Gray's Poetical Works," 1800 ; and issued a new edition of Davies's " Life of Garrick," 1808. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Imp. Diet. Biog.; Biog. Diet, of Living Authors, p. 183 ; Gardiner's Registers of St. Paul's School, p. 160 ; Gent. Mag., vol. 98 ; Lowndes' Bibl. Man. (Bohn) pp. 100, 1227, 2481 ; Quarterly Review, vol. 7, p. 282. Jones, TheophilUs, 1758-1812, the historian of Breconshire, was a native of that county, and a grandson of Theophilus Evans, with whom he spent much of his early life. Being intended for the law, he was placed under the care of a Brecon attorney, and afterwards prac tised in that town for many years. He also held the deputy-registrarship of the archdeaconry of Brecon, and in that capacity derived much valuable information connected with the parochial history of the county. He afterwards disposed of his business, and devoted himself almost entirely to the collection of materials for his well-known " History of Brecknockshire," which was published in two volumes— the first in 1S05, and the second in 1809. There was no part of the county into which he did not extend his personal researches, inquiring

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A DICTIONARY OF

most minutely into the natural history and antiquities of every place and parish. He contributed two papers to the Cambrian Register, and his last literary attempt was a translation into English of " The Visions of the Sleeping Bard," by Ellis Wynn. He had intended pub lishing a history of Radnorshire, but ill-health compelled him to abandon the idea. His "Life, Letters, and Literary Remains" appeared in 1905 (Brecon : Davies & Co.). (Diet. Em. W.) See Y Traethodydd, 1846; his biography in second edition of History of Brecknockshire (Brecknock : Edwin Davies, 1898). Jones, Theophillls, 1810-1896, a Baptist minister, was a native of Glamorganshire, and in his early youth worked as a weaver at Pontmorlais, Merthyr Tydfil, in that county. Being of a religious turn of mind he studied hard with a view to entering the ministry. He began to preach when 17 years of age, and three years later was ordained. In 1843, he went to the United States, and took charge of the Welsh Baptist Church in New York, where he laboured for several years. In 1870, he removed to Wilkesbarre, where he became pastor of the first Welsh Baptist comgregation, which then worshipped in a small hall. His eloquence as a preacher soon filled the hall with hearers, and a larger building was provided. In a few years, this again became too small, and a handsome church was built in Sheridan Street. He was remarkably fearless and outspoken, and one of the most popular preachers of his day. (The Cambrian, 1896, p. 125.) Jones, Thomas, 1647-1713, an author, popularly known as " Thomas Jones of Shrewsbury," was born at Tre'rddol, near Coi wen, Merionethshire. A tailor by trade, he carried on business for some time in London, but eventually turned his attention to literature. About the year 1685, he opened a bookseller's shop in Shrewsbury, and here he published several books. In 1688, he published a WelshEnglish dictionary under the title " Y Gymraeg yn ei Disgleirdeb," which met with considerable success, three editions being called for. In 1699 he published a Welsh version from his own pen of Bunyan's " Pilgrim's Progress," and a little later he brought out a Welsh edition of the Book of Common Prayer and of the metrical version of the Psalms by Edmund Prys. Thomas Jones, too, was the first publisher of the Welsh Almanac, w hich afterwards proved so popular, the first of the series being that for the year 1680. Either as publisher, printer, editor, translator, or author he was responsible for over 30 volumes. Few men rendered greater service to Welsh literature in the latter part of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the eighteenth than Thomas Jones. (Hanes Lien. G.; Llyfrydd. y Cymry.) See Cymru O.J. Jones, Thomas, about 1720-1790, a clergyman, was vicar of Pennant from 1757 to 1762, rector of Llangynog from 1762 to 1782, and rector of Hirnant from the latter year to 1790. In 1761, he pub lished " Rheol o Addoliad ac Ymarfer Duwioldeb i'r Hwsmon " (a translation of Archbishop Seeker's lectures on the " Rule of Worship and Practice of Piety for the Husbandman ") ; " Traethiadau ar Gatecism Eglwys Loegr, gyda Phregeth ar Gonffirmasiwn ; " and in 1779 " Pregeth ar Salm cxix., v. 165 " (a Sermon on Psalm 119, v. 165). The Parochial Register of Hirnant also records that in 1784 he translated

Rev. Owen Wynne Jones ( (ilasynys).

Rev. T. G. Jones. D.D. (Tafalaw).

John R. Jones, 1844-1893.

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into English " Drych y Prif Oesoedd " by the Rev. Theophilas Evans, which, however, does not seem to have ever been published. (Mont. Worthies.) See Hanes Lien. G. Jones, Thomas, 1743-1803, a painter, was a native of Aberedw, in Radnorshire, and was the second son of Thomas Jones, of Trefonnen and Pencerrig, in that county. He was educated for the church, but owing to lack of means, he had to abandon the intention of taking holy orders. Having a great talent for painting, he became a pupil of his countryman, Richard Wilson, with whom he became a great favourite. He afterwards studied under the great Mortimer, and numbered Durno Wheatley and many other artists of high repute among his friends. He went on improving in his art, and painted several pictures which were very well received by the public. He went to Rome in 1776, and afterwards visited Naples, where he met a German lady whom he subsequently married. In both these cities he exercised his talent with considerable eclat. At Naples particularly he is said to have left behind him several very honourable specimens of English art. After his return to England, he practised in London for many years, and was extensively patronised, many of his works finding their way into the numerous collections of the metropolis. (Diet. Em. W.) See Enwog. C.\ Malkin's South Wales ; Redgrave's Diet, of Artiste ; Farm's Catalogue of WoolletVs Works; Nagler's Catalogues of Society of Artists and Royal Academy ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. II., p. 722 ; History of Radnorshire, 1905, p. 422. Jones, Thomas, 1752-1845, of Creaton, a clergyman and author, was born at Hafod, Aberystwyth, and was trained for holy orders at Ystradmeurig, under Edward Richard. After holding various curacies, he removed, in 1781, to Oswestry, where he distinguished himself by his zeal, but his preaching was so unpalatable that he was deprived of his curacy in 1782. Three years later he accepted the curacy of Creaton, in Northamptonshire, and his connection with that parish continued for over 47 years. He was engaged in a controversy with Christmas Evans, and assisted Thomas Charles in founding the Bible Society. He acquired great eminence as an evangelical preacher, and was the author of several works in English which have been widely read, his "Scriptural Directory" having passed through at least ten e litions. He also published a Welsh book, entitled, "The Sinner's Friend," and translated into Welsh Baxter's "Saints' Rest," and other works. His other publications include "The Prodigal's Pilgrimage," "Family Prayers," "The True Christian," "An Essay on Infant .Baptism," "Tha Christian Warrior," and "The Fountain of Life." His memoir, by the Rev. John Owen, vicar of Thrussington (with portrait), appeared in 1851. (Diet. Em. W.) See Enwog. C. ; Enwog. y Ffydd, v. 2, p. 364, et seq ; Hanes Lien. G. ; Sunday Schools, &c. ; Phillips' Jubilee Memorial of the Bible Society ; Enwogion Ceredigion ; Y Geninen, 1897, p. 34 ; Y Traethodydd, 1907, p. 69. Jones, Thomas, 1756-1807, a very eminent lecturer at Trinity College, Cambridge, was born at Berriew, in Montgomeryshire. He was admitted to St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1774, and two years later removed to Trinity College, taking his B.A. degree in 1779. His

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superiority as a scholar was such that the honour of senior wrangler was conceded to him before the examination began. In 1781, he was elected Fellow of Trinity College, and six years later was appointed head-tutor, an office which he held to the day of his death. He displayed an ability as tutor which was rarely excelled, and an integrity which was never surpassed. He was so perfect a master of his subjects that his lectures attracted more than usual attention, which were made interesting even for those who had no taste for mathematical inquiries. Though frequently urged to do so, he declined to publish any of his lectures. His only published works were a sermon on duelling, and an address to the Volunteers of Montgomeryshire. An affectionate memoir of him, from the pen of Bishop Marsh, of Peterborough, to whom he had been tutor, appears in the Encyclopcedia Londinensis. (Diet. Em. W.) See Diet. Nat. Biog. Jones, Thomas, 1756-1820, a Calvinistic Methodist minister and author, popularly known as "Thomas Jones of Denbigh," was born near Caerwys, Flintshire, and received a classical education. He was intended for the Established Church, but joined the Calvinistic Methodists, labouring successively at Mold, Ruthin, and Denbigh. He published a treatise against Arminianism, being a translation of the fourth part of Gurnal's " Complete Armour," but his principal work was a Welsh History of the Reformers, Martyrs, and Confessors of the Church of England. Both in prose and poetry he published no less than twenty-four books and pamphlets. He was a voluminous reader, and a deep thinker ; a great preacher ; a celebrated author, and a theologian of the first rank. He seemed to have taxed to the utmost degree both his physical and mental energies with a view to build up the denomination upon the foundations already laid, and to bring it into line with the New Testament teaching as regards evangelical doctrine and church government. To him also Wales is indebted for the initial steps which led to the publishing of such a variety of Welsh literature at the opening of the nineteenth century. He com posed a number of excellent hymns, the most popular being " Ar aur delynau'r nef," " Mi wn fod fy Mhrynwr yn fyw," and " 0 ! arwain fy enaid i'r dyfroedd." His widow wrote the favourite hymn, " Mae arnaf eisieu beunydd, Cyn fy medd." (Diet. Em. W. ; Historical Handbook.) See his Welsh Biography, 1820 ; Llyfrydd.y Cymry ; Trans. Cardiff Eist., 1883, p. 217 ; Enwog. C. ; Enwogion y Ffydd, v. 2, p. 383 ; Yr Eurgrawn Wesleyaidd, 1886, p. 31 ; Hanes Lien. G. ; Nodweddiad y Cymry, p. 259 ; Wales, v. 3, p. 90 ; Sunday Schools, &c, p. 162 ; Y Traethodydd, 1897, p. 321 ; Cymru, v. 13, p. 42 ; his Biography, by the Rev. Jonathan Jones (Denbigh: Gee & Son). Jones, Thomas, 1761-1831, a Calvinistic Methodist minister and author, was born at Escair, in the parish of Llanpumpsaint, Carmarthenshire. He joined the Calvinistic Methodist connexion, and became a very acceptable preacher with that body. He wrote expository volumes on various parts of Scripture (including the Pentateuch, the Book of Job, the Song of Solomon, and the Epistle to the Hebrews), which were widely circulated, and are lasting

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monuments of his penetration, discrimination, and industry. He died at Carmarthen, and was buried near the Calvinistic Methodist chapel in that town. (Diet. Em. W.) Jones, Thomas, 1768-1828, " Y Bardd Cloff," a poet, was born at Llandysilio, Denbighshire. At the age of twelve, he entered the counting house of a very large establishment in the coach and military lace line, in Long Acre, London. He was fond of reading, and devoted some of his leisure to the cultivation of the muse. In 1789, he joined the Gwyneddigion Society, of which he afterwards became secretary. He was three times elected president, and in 1821, at the Jubilee Anniversary dinner, was presented with the society's silver medal to commemorate the event. He subsequently became partner in the business in Long Acre, and was noted for his generosity and benevolence. In 1802, he published an " Ode of St. David's Day." In 1820, he assisted in the formation of the Metropolitan Cambrian Institution, of which he was elected treasurer. He gained a gold medal offered by that Institution for a Welsh poem, and also won several Eisteddfodic prizes. The Cymmrodorion medal, offered for the best elegy on his demise, was awarded to Robert Davies (Bardd Nantglyn.) (Diet. Em. W.) See Diet. Nat. Biog. ; LeatharVs History of the Gwyneddigion Society, pp. 23, 30, 49, 59, 73. Jones, Thomas, 1777-1847, a Calvinistic Methodist minister and author, was born at Llanfwrog, Anglesey, and began to preach in 1808, eventually settling at Amlwch, where he died. He translated a number of standard English works into Welsh, among them " Scott on the Prophets," '4 Redemption ; " Dick's " Christian Philosopher," a work by Jonathan Edwards, &c. He also translated a Concordance to the Bible. (Enwog. C. ; Cardiff Catalogue.) Jones, Thomas, 1782-1869, a hymn-writer, was born near Newcastle-Emlyn, South Wales, and at an early age joined the Congregationalists. He wrote a number of hymns, a small collection of which was published, in 1837, by Isaac Thomas, of Cardigan. Some of these afterwards appeared in the collection of the Rev. E. Stephen and Mr. J. D. Jones. His best known hymns are : " Nac aed Calfaria fynydd, byth o'm cof ; " " Yr Adgyfodiad mawr'a'r Bywyd ; " and " Af i'r afon ar fyr enyd." (Hanes Emynwyr.) Jones, Thomas, 1803-1891, a Wesleyan minister and author, was born in the parish of Llanarth, Cardiganshire. He began to preach when about 18 years of age, and afterwards underwent a course of training at Neuaddlwyd Academy, then under the care of Dr. Phillips. He was ordained in 1826, and spent the greater part of his ministerial career in the Cardiff, Carmarthen, and other South Wales circuits. Owing to ill-health, he retired from the ministry in 1866, residing afterwards at St. David's, where he died. He attained a leading position as a preacher, but it was perhaps in connection with the literature of the denomination that he rendered the greatest service. About 1834, he was appointed editor of Yr Eurgrawn. In conjunction with the Rev. Samuel Davies, he published a theological work, entitled, " Y Drysorgell Efengylaidd" (The Evangelical

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Treasury), which was issued in thirteen shilling parts. He was one of the founders of the Wesleyan magazine, Y Winllan, and he also wrote a Sunday School Catechism, " Elfenau Duwinyddiaeth " (The Elements of Theology), Llanidloes : J. M. Jones, 1839 ; another edition being published in 1857 ; a pamphlet on " Drunkenness," 1835 ; and another on " The Christian Ministry " (Haverfordwest ; E. Joseph, 1852.) He received the degree of D.D. He was a very popular lecturer on general subjects, such as " Education," " Druidism," " Lady Huntingdon," and " The Soul." ( Y Geninen, March, 1893, p. 27 ; Cardiff Catalogue.) Jones, Thomas, 1810 - 1849, the first missionary to the Khassia Hills, north-eastern Bengal, was born near Tanyffridd, between Llanfair and Meifod, Montgomeryshire. He learned his father's trade of wheelwright and carpenter, but at an early age entered the Calvinistic Methodist College at Bala for the necessary training for the missionary field. He was ordained in 1840, and offered himself to the London Missionary Society for service in India. That Society, acting on the report of ita medical officer, accepted him on condition that he would labour in South Africa. This he declined, and the result was that the Calvinistic Methodists established a Missionary Society of their own, and sent Mr. Jones as their first missionary. His first task was to learn the native language, and it turned out to be one of no small difficulty. By dint of patience and perseverance, however, he succeeded in accomplishing it, and subsequently translated the gospel of St. Matthew and some other works into that language. He laboured zealously and earnestly in the mission field for some years, but his health failed him, and he died in his fortieth year, being buried in the Scotch burial ground at Calcutta. (Mont. Worthies.) Jones, Thomas, 1810-1875, librarian of the Cheetham Library, Manchester, was born at Underhill, Margam, near Neath. He was educated at Cowbridge Grammar School, and Jesus College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. in 1832. In 1842, he was engaged to compile a catalogue of Neath Library, and three years later was appointed librarian of the Cheetham Library. Under his care the library was increased from 19,000 to 40,000 volumes. He compiled an admirably annotated " Catalogue of the Collection of Tracts for and against Popery (published in and about the reign of James II.) in the Manchester Library founded by Humphrey Cheetham," 1859 - 65, 2 vols. He issued a prospectus of a general literary index, and specimens of the intended work appeared in " Notes and Queries," but the project was not carried out. He also began extensive collections of material for a biography of Dr. Dee, a fellow-countryman of his. He was a regular contributor to " Notes and Queries,"usually under the signature of "Bibliothecarius Cheethamensis." He was a witness before the House of Commons Committee on Public Libraries in 1849, and was elected F.S.A. in 1866. He died at Southport, and was buried at St Mark's Church, Cheetham Hill, Manchester. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Memoir by W. E. A. Axon in Papers of the Manchester Library Club, v. 2, p. 59 ; App. to Cheitham Soc. Publications, v. 96 ; Cymry Manceinion ; Bye-Gones, 1875, p. 337, and 1876, p. 70.

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Jones, Thomas, 1810-1889, a clergyman and musician, was a native of Llanbadarnfawr, Cardiganshire, and completed his education at Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. He was an excellent Hebrew scholar. After serving various curacies, he was appointed rector of Llanengan, near Pwllheli, Carnarvonshire, and here he resided till his death. In 1859, he published a collection of tunes and chants under the title, " Welsh Church Tune and Chant Book," which was dedicated to the Prince and Princess of Wales, and the four Welsh bishops, and which passed through many editions. He was the composer of many of the tunes contained in the volume. He was a very ardent musician, and took a leading part in the improvement of choral singing in South Carnarvonshire. (B. Cerddorion Cymreiq ; C. and D. Herald.) Jones, Thomas, 1811-1866, 4'Glan Alun," a Calvinistic Methodist minister and poet, was born at Mold, and spent his early days as apprentice to a chemist at Chester. During his stay there he was a frequent contributor to Golevad Cymru, a magazine published in that city, some of his articles dealing with the vexed question of Welsh orthography. He afterwards removed to Wrexham, and later on to Mold, where he carried on business as a chemist. He was fully ordained in 1850. He was a prolific writer of prose and poetry, and had a particularly fascinating style. He translated ^Esop's Fables into Welsh, and a second edition was called for in 1880. In 1863, he issued nine numbers of a magazine called Y Wenynen, which consisted chiefly of his own articles and poems. In 1844, he won a prize at the Llanrwst Eisteddfod for a poem on " Esther." His memoir of his sister, under the title " Fy Chwaer " (1844), was very widely read. His poems, under the title " Ehediadau Byrion," appeared in 1862. (G. & D. Herald ; Cardiff Catalogue). See his articles and poems in Y Traethodydd for 1845, 1846, 1848, 1856, 1859, 1862, 1863, and 1864 ; Y Geninen, 1886, p. 108 ; Ceinion Lien. G., vol. 2, p. 248. Jones, Thomas, 1819-1882, a Congregational minister, popularly known as the " poet-preacher," was born at Rhayader, Radnorshire. Originally a collier boy, he was ordained minister of Bryn Chapel, Llanelly, which he left for the pastorate of the United Churches of Hermon and Tabor, near Llandilo. He afterwards removed to Morriston, whence, in 1858, he went to London to become minister of Albany Chapel, Regent's Park. He subsequently accepted a call to Bedford Chapel, Camden Town, to which his eloquence attracted over flowing congregations, amongst whom might have been discovered such men as the venerable Dr. Leifchild, James Stratten, Professor Godwin, Dr. Young (author of " The Christ of History "), and some of the principal literary people of the day, including Robert Browning, the poet. In an introductory note to a volume of Mr. Jones' sermons and addresses, Robert Browning wrote : "The clean-cut Celtic features, the lips compressed as with the retention of a discovered prize in thought or feeling, the triumph of the eyes, brimful of conviction and confidence—these, no less than the fervency of faith and hope, were the orator's own." In 1871, he was elected chairman of the Congrega tional Union of England and Wales. He was certainly one of the most popular preachers of the age: he gloried in the work of the

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ministry. (The Red Dragon ; Rees' Hist. ; Bye-Gonea, 1884, p. 42.) See Congregational Year Book, 1883 ; Times, 27th June 1882 ; Hants Eglwysi Annibynol Cymru, vol. 5 ; Great Modern Preachers (Darling, 1875) ; Life of Robert Browning, by Mrs. Sutherland Orr. Jones, Thomas, about 1820, a musician, was a native of Brecknockshire. In 1843, he settled at Crickhowell, where he engaged in business. He composed several excellent tunes, two of which— " Trefcastell " and " Ffydd y Cristion "—were published in " Caniadau Seion," and others in " Yr Arweinydd Cerddorol " and " Y Salmydd Cenedlaethol." (B. Cerddorion Cymreig.) Jones, Thomas, 1822-1854, "Gogrynwr," a musician, was born at Dolgelly, and practised as a surgeon at Wrexham and Corwen. He died at the early age of 32. He composed a number of musical pieces of considerable merit, containing among them a cantata, " The Prayer of Habakkuk." He wrote a series of letters to the Amserau in 1851, criticising the adjudications of the Rev. E. Stephen (Tanymarian) at the Bethesda Eisteddfod, which attracted much attention in musical circles. (B. Cerddorion Cymreig.) Jones, Thomas, 1823-1904, " Canrhawdfardd," a musician, was born near Nannerch, Flintshire, and spent the latter part of his life at Coedpoeth, near Wrexham. He was a talented musician, and composed many anthems and congregational tunes, several of which are found in the tune books of the various denominations in Wales. His beetknown published works are " Cerddor y Bobl," " YCerddor Gwreiddiol," "Organ y Plant," "Y Cerbyd Cerddorol," and "The Elements of Music, in Easy Lessons." (B. Cerddorion Cymreig ; Manchester Guardian.) See Y Geninen, Mar. 1905. Jones, Thomas D., 1811-1881, a sculptor, was born of Welsh parents near Remsen village, Oneida County, New York, and there, on his father's farm, he spent the first eighteen years of his life. In 1829, he apprenticed himself to a tanner and currier, and afterwards served three years at his trade at Newark, New Jersey. In 1839, he removed with his father to Granville, and settled among the Welsh hills. The father, besides being a farmer, grew to be a stone-cutter of some local repute, and the young sculptor found his great enjoyment in helping his father in his work. A few years later, he became so skilful in his art that he was commissioned by the Ohio Monument Association to make what proved to be his first work of note. This was a piece of sculpture representing " Pemberton's Surrender to Grant at Vicksburg," which was placed in the State House at Columbus, and unveiled Jan. 19, 1870. This work brought him fame, and later on he carved the angels in the Catholic Cathedral in Cincinnati, receiving £1000 for the work. Afterwards he went to Washington, but being of a generous nature and luxurious tastes, his money soon disappeared, and he settled in Columbus in greatly reduced circumstances. He was voted a sum of money by the State Legislature, and was given the use of a room in the Capitol building, where he spent his time carving busts of the Presidents and other famous men. (The Cambrian, 1905, p. 341.)

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Jones, Thomas Dennis, 1849-1904, a Congregational minister and author, was born at Cwm-rhyd-y-bedd, Dowlais, Glamorgan shire, and began life as a collier (as was his father also) at Dowlais Collieries. He commenced to preach at Fochriw, near Dowlais, entered Bala College in 1873, and was ordained three years later to take charge of Llanaelhaiarn, Sardis, and Llangybi churches, in South Carnarvonshire, where he laboured with success. He was the chief instrument in forming an English church for the hundreds of English workmen employed in the Sett quarries. In 1879, he removed to Plasmarl, near Swansea, and in 1888, to Llanllechid, near Bangor. He was a successful competitor at the National Eisteddfod on several occasions, and published one or two volumes of poetry, besides prose, all of con siderable merit. His works include a volume of sermons on the 111th Psalm, and he left a manuscript of his researches. (North Wales Observer and Express ; The British Weekly ; Congreg. Year Book, 1905.) Jones, Thomas Griffiths, 1834-1884, "Cyffin," an antiquary, was a native of Llansantffraid, Montgomeryshire. At a comparatively early age he was called upon to undertake his father's business as a shopkeeper at Llansantffraid, where he spent the whole of his life. His tastes were decidedly archaeological, and he took great delight in collecting books, manuscripts, and every scrap he could lay hold on of folk-lore, or local tradition relating to Wales and Welsh literature or antiquities, and especially such as had relation to his own native parish. In 1861, he succeeded in founding the Powys Cymreigyddion Society, of which he was first president. He joined in the operations of the Powysland Club soon after its formation, and contributed to the Montgomeryshire Collections a valuable and interesting "History of Llansantffraid." He had collected a mass of material for the history of the Quakers, and their meeting-houses and burial-places in Mont gomeryshire. He was a keen observer of local idioms, habits, and . customs, and on these, and kindred topics, was a frequent contributor to the Welsh magazines. (Mont. Worthies.) See Y Geninen, 1885, p. 62. Jones, Thomas Gruffydd, 1832-1898, "Tafalaw," a Congrega tional minister, author, and musician, was a native of Ebbw Vale, Monmouthshire, his father being the Rev. Griffith Jones, afterwards of Cowbridge. He started life as a joiner, but soon devoted himself to music, for which he had a special talent. He won many Eisteddfodic prizes for musical compositions, many of which were published in Great y Corau and Y Gerddorfa. He acted as editor of Greal y Corau, and was for some time engaged in literary work for Mr. Thomas Gee, of Denbigh. In 1866, he emigrated to America, and settled in Kansas, where he held the pastorate of a Congregational church. He also occupied the chairs of Fine Arts and Classics at the State Normal School of Emporia, until compelled by ill-health to resign. His best known literary efforts are : " A Critical Commentary upon the American Constitution," and his " Analogy of Mythology and the Bible." His musical compositions are numerous, and have drawn praise from the best critics. He received the honorary degree of D.D.

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from an American University. He was an eloqnent speaker, a popular lecturer, and a poet of some merit. (B. Ceridorion Cymreig ; The Cambrian, 1898, p. 184 ; Cytnry Minnesota.) Jones, Thomas Hamer, 1847-1901, a musician and author, was liorn at Pant Mawr, Bettws, Montgomeryshire. From his earliest years he had a keen taste for books and music, and on returning from school at the Liverpool Institute, in 1862, he applied himself thoroughly to music. For 15 years, he spared neither time nor labour to raise the standard of music in his native parish. After his marriage he became tenant, in 1878, of Ty'n-y-banadle Farm, in the parish of Tregynon, remaining there until 1897, when he removed to London. He there devoted himself to literary work, and amongst his many literary labours may be mentioned the compilation of a Bibliography of Welsh Music, for which he received the £25 prize, with a gold medal, at the Cardiff National Eisteddfod, 1899 ; the translation of Welsh manuscripts at the British Museum for Welsh Societies in London ; the arranging and cataloguing of Welsh libraries in Montgomeryshire and in London ; and the compilation of the history of the several churches of the Calvinistic Methodists in the Montgomery and Salop Presbytery. (Bye-Gones, 1902, p. 260.) Jones, Thomas Jerman, -1890, a missionary, was a native of Llangriatiolus, Anglesey. In early life he worked as a quarryman at Bethesda, where he met with an accident which incapacitated him from all physical labour. After a stay of nearly 30 years on the Khassia Hills, Assam, India, his health broke down, and he left India for his native land to recruit. He was very ill when leaving Calcutta, and died the day before the steamer on which he was a passenger reached London. Daring an outbreak of cholera on the Khassia Hills, when the natives were seized with panic and neglected the sick and dying, Mr. Jones, with untiring zeal and energy, rendered invaluable service. (C & D. Herald.) Jones, Thomas Lloyd, i810- 1834, " Gwenffrwd," a very pro mising poet, was a native of Holywell. When quite young he removed to Denbigh, and Dr. W. 0. Pughe instilled into him an enthusiasm for Welsh literature. In 1832, he received the silver medal at the Beaumarie Eisteddfod from the hands of the late Queen, then Princess Victoria. In the same year he published his " Beauties of the Welsh Muse," in Welsh. His own poetry is melodious and touching, and he did good service by translating Gray's " Elegy," Goldsmith's "Deserted Village," and Thomson's " Seasons." The mystery connected with the death of Goronwy Owen attracted him to America. He reached Mobile, Alabama, before the end of 1833, an I died there of yellow fever in the following year. ( Wales, 0. M. Edwards, v. 1, p. 64.) See Y Geninen, 1896, p. 223 ; Nodweddiad y Cymry, p. 256 ; Welsh Poets, &C, p. 26 ; Cymrti, v. 8, p. 19 ; Ibid, v. 9, p. 68 ; Adgof uwch Anghof, p. 226 ; Enwog. C- ; Y Drych, 5th April, 1855. Jones, Thomas Tudno, 1846-1895, a clergyman and poet, was born at L'andudno, Carnarvonshire. Before even his parents suspected his poetical turn of mind, and when only about 14 years

Tom Jones, F.R.C.S.

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of age, he surprised them by taking the prize of £5 at the Llandudno annual Eisteddfod for a poem on " Baban y Gaethferch " (The Slave's Babe). He commenced life as a shopkeeper, l'ut afterwards turned his attention to journalism. He became sub-editor of the Herald Cymraeg and the Carnarvon and Denbigh Herald, after which he was appointed editor of Llais y Wlad, a North Wales Conservative newspaper. At the suggestion of Dean Edwards, he prepared for holy orders, and was ordained in 1883. He served as curate of St. David's, Liverpool ; Llanyblodwell, near Oswestry, and Llanrwst, Denbighshire. He took an active part in literary matters, and won several bardic chairs, including those of the National Eisteddfod held at Pwllheli in 1875 ; Carnarvon, 1877 ; Wrexham, 1888 ; and Bangor, 1890. In 1869, he won the hardic chair of the Bethesda Cymreigyddion for the best ode on the death of the Rev. John Phillips, Bangor. As an adjudicator of poetry and prose, he was held in the highest esteem. (O. & D. Herald; Bye-Qones, 1888, p. 22.) See Y Geninen, 1901, p. 202 ; Ibid, 1895, p. 216 ; Ibid, 1897, p. 128 : Telyn Tudno, a collection of hie poems, with biography, edited by his brother-in-law, the Rev. David Rowlands, B.A. (Dewi Mon) (Wrexham : Hughes & Son). Jones, Tom, 1848-1900, a surgeon and author, was born at Derlwyn, Carmarthenshire, and at an early age entered the Normal College, Swansea. He then spent a year as resident pupil at the Northern Hospital, Liverpool, under Dr. Frederick Roberts, afterwards proceeding to Guy's Hospital, London. In the first M.B. examination he secured the gold medal in chemistry, and honours in anatomy. In 1875, he graduated F.R.C.S. (England), and four years later took the B.Sc. degree, first in honours. He settled in Manchester in 1873, and for three years acted as pathological registrar at the Royal Infirmary. In 1879, he was appointed assistant surgeon, and in the following year surgeon. He acquired a very high reputation as an operator, and in 1874 was appointed operating surgeon to the Children's Hospital, Pendlebury. In 1880, he had conferred upon him the post of lecturer on surgery at Owen's College, and in 1890 that of professor of surgery at the Victoria University. In 1899, he volunteered for service in connection with, and was placed in charge of, the Welsh Hospital during the South African war, and died of fever at Bloemfontein in the following year. He contributed a number of articles to the Medical Chronicle and the British Medical Journal, and wrote a valuable work on " Diseases of the Bones." (Cymru, v. 22, p. 93.) Jones, William, 1675-1749, the eminent mathematician, was born in the parish of Llanfihangel-tre'r-beirdd, Anglesey, and received but a moderate education. He had an extraordinary taste for mathematics, and soon made up for the defects of inadequate instruction. He began his career as a teacher of mathematics on a man-of-war, and afterwards established himself in London. In his twenty-second year, he published " A New Compendium of the whole Art of Navigation," which met with great approbation, and in 1706, there appeared his " Synopsis Palmariorum Mattheseos, or New Introduction to the Mathematics," containing a useful compendium

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of all the mathematical sciences, and affording clear proof of his early proficiency in his favourite studies. He secured the attachment of many influential friends, among them Lord Parker, Sir Isaac Newton, Halley, Mead, and Dr. Johnson. By Sir Isaac Newton he was treated with particular regard and confidence. He was elected a member, and afterwards a vice-president, of the Royal Society. Through the influence of Lords Hardwicke and Macclesfield, whom he had instructed in the sciences, he obtained some offices under Government, which brought him a considerable income. The Welsh Bible of 1746 contains maps, shewing the journeyings of the Israelites and of the Apostles, which are described as " the gift of William Jones, F.RS., to the Welsh people." He is said to have possessed the best mathematical library in England, which he beqeathed in his will to the Earl of Macclesfield. (Diet. Em. W.) See Diet. Nat. Biog.; Nichol's Lit. Anecd., 1, 463 ; Hutton's Phil. & Math. Diet. ; Lord Teignmouth's Life of Sir Wm. Jones ; Brewster's Life of Sir Isaac Newton, v. 1, 226, v. 2, 421 ; Imp. Diet. Biog. ; Lhjfrydd. y Cymry. Jones, William, about 1729-1795, an author, was born in the parish of Llangadfan, Montgomeryshire. His education at school was of the scantiest kind, but in his leisure time he acquired a sufficient mastery of English to write in that language with ease and elegance. He also became proficient in music and poetry, and translated some of the Ddes of Horace and Ovid's Metamorphoses into excellent Welsh verse. He was much afflicted in his youth with an inveterate scrofula, and this turned his attention to the study of medicine. He succeeded in curing himself, and afterwards earned his living chiefly by practising medicine. His " Statistical Account of the Parishes of Llanerfyl, Llangadfan, and Oarth-beibio," published with valuable notes by the Rev. Walter Davies in the Cambrian Register for 1796, proves him to have been a man of some learning, and considerable natural abilities. His portrait and an interesting sketch of his life, by the Rev. Walter Davies, appear in the second volume of the Cambrian Register. (Mont. Worthies.) See P. C. Collections, 1868 ; Bye-Gones, 1905, pp. 26, 38, 46, 65. Jones, Sir William, 1746-1794, the eminent Indian judge and Oriental scholar, was the son of William Jones, the mathematician (1675-1749, see ante.) In his eighth year, he was sent to Harrow ; ten years later he entered University College, Oxford, and in 1770, he became a law student at the Temple. In 1776, he was appointed a Commissioner of Bankrupts, and rose rapidly in his profession. He was unsuccessful at Oxford as a candidate for Parliamentary honours. In 1783, he was appointed a judge of the Supreme Court in Bengal, and was knighted. He established the Royal Asiatic Society, and planned the compilation of a complete digest of the Hindoo and Mohammedan laws. He published several works, chiefly in Oriental literature, which excited the admiration of the world. He was, perhaps, the greatest linguist who had ever lived up to that period, for he knew no less than twenty-nine languages, and most of them critically. By his tact and taste, the judgment of his selections, and the eloquence of his style, he was the first to popularise in Europe

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the literature of the East, and to help in bridging over the chasm which formerly separated the mind of England from that of her great Indian dependency. There is a monument to his memory in St. Paul's Cathedral, a marble statue in Oxford, and another in Bengal. He was a pure, elevated, and harmonious character ; and, in all the relations of life, he was irreproachable. (Diet. Em. W. ; Imp. Diet, of Universal Biog. ; Memorable Unitarians, 1905.) See Lord Teignmouth's Life of Sir William Jones, 1804 ; Autobiography of William Jones, published by his son, 1846 ; Edinburgh Review for January, 1805 ; and Cary's Lives of English Poets from Johnson to Kirke White ; Y Cymmrodor, vol. 8. p. 62 : v. 9, p. 304, and v. 10, p. 67 ; Y Traethodydd, 1881, p. 319 ; Young Wales, 1895, p. 82 ; Y Lienor, 1861, p. 186. Jones, William, 1784-1847, a Congregational minister and author, was a native of Bala, Merionethshire. In 1806, he entered the Congregational Academy, which was then at Wrexham, and four years later he settled as minister at Bridgend, in Glamorganshire, where he remained until his death. His " Geiriadur Duwinyddol " (Theological Dictionary), in two volumes, is a work of great merit. A second edition, with a memoir of the author, by the Rev. J. T. Jones, was published in 1864. He also published a number of sermons, and translated Morison's Family Prayers into Welsh (1847.) For some time, he edited Y Drysorfa Cfynnulleidfaol, a monthly magazine, published then at Swansea. A Welsh biography, by the Rev. E. Griffiths, appeared in 1848. (Diet. Em. W. ; Lien, fy Ngwlad.) See Enwog. y Ffydd, vol. 2, p. 454 ; Hanes Lien. G. ; Enwog. C. ; Cardiff Catalogue. Jones, William, 1790-1855, a Baptist minister and author, was a native of Llangattock, Carmarthenshire, and when 13 years of age was employed at the Dowlais Ironworks. He began to preach at an early age, and in his twentieth year devoted himself entirely to pre paring for the ministry. After spending 18 months at Abergavenny College, he settled as minister at Peniel, Monmouthshire, but removed in 1816 to Cardiff, to take charge of the English cause at Bethany, where he remained until his death, 39 years later. He contributed a series of able articles on "The History of the Christian Church" to the Bedyddiwr, and translated a large portion of Dr. Gill's "Com mentary on the New Testament." He also wrote a "Welsh History of the Baptists" (1831), of which a second edition was called for in 1889. (Enwog. C. ; Cardiff Catalogue.) Jones, William, 1803-1886, "Gwrgant," was born at Brwynog, in the parish of Llanfihangel, Montgomeryshire. Having attended the village school of that parish for some time, and afterwards that at Meifod, he found a situation in the office of a solicitor. In due course he was admitted a solicitor, and practised for some years at St. Asaph, proceeding from there to London, where for many years he carried on an extensive practice. He was a zealous and patriotic Welshman, and an excellent critic of Welsh poetry, but wrote comparatively little himself. He published a work entitled " Gwreiddiau yr Iaith Gymraeg" (The Roots of the Welsh Language). He married a lady

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who owned some property at Greenwich, where he resided at the time of his death. He was one of the three adjudicators on the chair prize at the Khuddlan Eisteddfod in 1850, and read the adjudication awarding the prize to the Rev. Evan Evans (Ieuan Glan Geirionydd). He was familiar with the intricacies of the Welsh metres from an early age, and was a constant contributor to the Welsh magazines. (Mont. Worthies ; Geirionydd.) Jones, William, - 1885, an architect, was born at Brithdir, in Merionethshire, and for many years resided at Maescaled, Dolgelly, where he died. When very young he was apprenticed to the joinery trade with the well-known bard, Meurig Ebrill. He shewed literary tastes early in life, Biblical criticism, philosophy, mechanics, and politics being his favourite subjects of study. He acquired a con siderable reputation as a wood-carver, and many mansions in the kingdom contain specimens of his skill. Late in life he turned his attention to architecture, and some of the finest buildings in Dolgelly, Barmouth, and other parts of the county of Merioneth were designed by him. He had an extraordinary talent for mechanics, and many a piece of intricate machinery which he had never before seen was set up under his superintendence, after having baffled, it is said, the ingenuity of practical men. (Bye-Gones, 1885, p. 291.) Jones, Sir William, 1808-1890, a soldier, was the only son of William Jones, of Glen Helen, Carnarvonshire, and was educated at Sandhurst. He was gazetted Colonel in 1854 ; major-general in 1863 ; lieutenant-general in 1871 ; and general in 1877. He was with the 61st throughout the Punjab Campaign ; took part in the passage of the Cherab, and the battles of Sadocpore, Chillianwallah, and Goojerat. After Goojerat (March, 1849), he went in pursuit of the enemy as far as Khyber Pass, in command of his regiment and a troop of Bengal Horse Artillery, and for these services he was made a C.B. During the Mutiny, he commanded the 3rd Infantry Brigade in the Siege of Delhi, and was one of the five distinguished officers selected to lead storming parties. From 1871 till his death, he was colonel of the Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry. His seat was Kilmore House, Kilmallock, co. Limerick. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Timet, 11th April, 1890 ; Broad Arrow, 12th April, 1890 ; Kaye and Malleson's History of the Indian Mutiny, v. 4, p. 20 ; Thackwell's Second Sikh War ; Burke's Peerage, Baronetage, &c, 1882, p. 1472. Jones, William, 1815-1899, "Ehedydd Ial," a poet, was a native of Derwen, Denbighshire, and in his early days was employed as a farm labourer. In 1850, he took a farm on his own account at Llandegla, about half-way between Ruthin and Wrexham, and here he died forty-nine years later. He was a poet of great merit, and a volume of his poems, published a year before his death, met with a very favourable reception. He wrote several excellent hymns, one of which, "Er nad yw'm cnawd ond gwellt," is a special favourite. (Y Cymro.) See Bye-Gones, 1899, p, 45; Cymru, vol. 19, p. 165; Y Geninen, Mar. 1905, p. 68 ; Ibid, Mar. 1900, p. 50.

Rev. David Jones, Llangan.

Rev. Humphrey Jones. 1S32 1895.

William R. Jones, 1839-1889,

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Jones, William, 1822-1905, a Wesleyan minister, was born at Plas, Llanelian-yn-Rhos, Denbighshire. He delivered his first sermon at a small place called Bronynant in 1838, and entered the Wesleyan ministry in 1843, so that he was by many years the senior minister of the denomination in Wales. After labouring for forty-one years in the regular ministry, he in 1882 became a supernumerary, and for many years afterwards resided in Liscard, Cheshire, taking the pastoral charge of the church in that place. In the zenith of his power Mr. Jones was acknowledged to be one of the most popular preachers of his connexion. His strength lay not so much in his scholarship or his profundity of thought as in his earnest evangelicalism, his tender pastorship, and his untiring energy in fulfilling the details of a Wesleyan minister's task. It is asserted that he did at least as much as any single minister of his denomination to build and liquidate the debt upon Wesleyan places of worship. (Liverpool Daily Post.) Jones, William, 1829-1903, "Bleddyn," an antiquary and essayist, was a native of Beddgelert. He was apprenticed to a draper at Carnarvon, and was afterwards employed at Festiniog. He then removed to Llangollen, and subsequently started business on his own account at Portmadoc, but this was not a success, and he afterwards returned to Llangollen, where he ended his days. When quite a young man he turned his attention to the study of geology, more especially in relation to his native county of Carnarvon. Welsh antiquity was also a favourite study of his, and his prize essay on the history of Beddgelert contains much valuable information. He was a frequent contributor to the Brython, and other magazines, and was a very successful Eisteddfod competitor. He was a recognised authority on antiquarian subjects, and Sir John Rhys publicly acknowledged Mb indebtedness to him for much information in regard to the folk-lore, &c, of Carnarvonshire. The Rev. D. E. Jenkins was also indebted to him for most of the material for his English volume on " Beddgelert." (C. & D. Herald.) See Bye-Gones, 1903, p. 21 ; Cymru, vol. 24, p. 173. Jones, William, 1840-1886, a Congregational minister and author, was born at Wrexham, Denbighshire. In quite early man hood he felt that the work of the ministry was to be the work of his life. For some eighteen months he was stationed in the Wellington circuit as a minister of the United Methodist Free Church, and in 1861 he was removed to the first London circuit, where for two years he assisted the Rev. Robert Eckett, a former president of conference, marrying that gentleman's daughter in 1866. During this period of his life his views on ecclesiastical polity underwent a change, the result of which was that he joined the Congregationalists, and entered Cheshunt College in 1863. At the close of his three years term of study, he accepted, in 1866, an invitation to the pastorate of Highbury Chapel, Portsmouth. At the end of seven years and a half, he was induced to make a change, and took charge of the Con gregational Church at Harrold, in Bedfordshire—a church that had been favoured by a succession of ministers of more than average power and influence. While there he actively engaged in literary work, taking part in the preparation of the " Pulpit Commentary,"

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and other works of permanent interest and value. (Congreg. Year Book, 1887.) Jones, William Arthur, 1818-1873, a Unitarian minister, was born at Carmarthen, and educated at Carmarthen College and Glasgow University, where he graduated M.A., with honours. He first settled as minister at Northampton, where he remained from 1841 to 1849, when he removed to Bridgewater, Somerset, and in 1852, became minister to the Unitarian Congregation meeting in Mary Street Chapel, Taunton. He was honorary secretary of the Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society, and held the office till his death, contributing to its " Proceedings " many papers on the Geology, Archaeology and History of the county. He was a Fellow of the Geographical Society, and compiled with the Rev. Wadham P. Williams, vicar of Bishop's-Hull, a Glossary of the Somersetshire dialect. A monument has been erected to his memory in the grounds of Taunton Castle. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Murch's Western Churches. Jones, William Basil, 1822-1897, whose surname was originally " Tickell," bishop of St. David's, was born at Cheltenham, and was the only son of William Tilsey Jones, of Gwynfryn, Llangynfelyn, near Aberystwyth. He was educated at Shrewsbury School and Trinity College, Oxford, and had a distinguished career as a scholar. He was for many years examining chaplain to the Archbishop of York ; vicar of Bishopthorpe from 1865 to 1874 ; archdeacon of York from 1867 to 1874 ; chancellor of York cathedral from 1871 to 1874 ; canon residentiary of York from 1873 to 1874 ; and prebendary of St David's from 1859 to 1865. He was selected 118th bishop of St. David's in 1874. Apart from his distinction as a scholar, and his exceptional experience of organisation and administration in church work, he had the special qualification of possessing intimate associations with the diocese and of being a Welshman who spoke Welsh, and who had made no mean contributions to Welsh antiquarian research. He was the author of several works, among them being " An Inquiry into the History of certain terms of Celtic Ethnology " (1858), and "Vestiges of the Gael in Gwynedd" (1851). Jointly with Mr. E. A. Freeman he wrote "The History and Antiquities of St. David's." He also published, in 1869, a volume of sermons, under the title, " The Peace of God." (Diet. Nat. Biog.; C. and D. Herald ; Cardiff Catalogue ; Allibone's Diet. Eng. Lit., p. 995 ; Times, 15 Jan., 1897 ; Guardian, 20 and 27 Jan., 1897 ; Church Times, 22 Jan., 1897 ; Y Geninen, March, 1897, p. 39. Jones, William Ellis, 1795-1847, " Gwilym Cawrdaf," a poet, was born at Tyddyn Sion, in the parish of Abererch, Carnarvon shire. He was a printer by trade, but also studied painting, and he once accompanied a gentleman to France in the capacity of draughts man. He afterwards removed to Carnarvon, where he came into contact with Dafydd Ddu Eryri, who taught him the rules of Welsh poetry. The last few years of his life were spent at Cardiff, where he worked as a printer. He won the bardic chair at the Brecon Eisteddfod in 1822. His best known poems are his odea on " God,"

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" Job," " The Druids of Britain, " The Resurrection," and " Music " ; and his elegies on the death of Baron Richards and Edward Williams (Iolo Morganwg). A collection of his poems, edited by Ellis Jones, appeared in 1851 (Carnarvon : H. Humphreys). He also wrote a Welsh novel—probably the first ever published—entitled " Y Bardd, neu Y Meudwy Cymreig " (The Poet, or the Welsh Hermit) (Carmarthen : J. L. Brickstoke, 1830), which is a work of considerable merit. For a short time he edited a monthly magazine, called 7 Gwron Odyddol, and translated into Welsh one of Dr. Watt's works. [Diet. Em. W. ; Hemes Lien. G.) See Gwaith Owallter Mechain, vol. 3, p. 330 ; G.B., vol. 2, p. 146 ; Ct)mru O.J., p. 726 ; Y Traethodydd, 1900, p. 278 ; Nodweddiad y Cymry, p. 270 ; Adgof uwch Anghof, p. 118 ; Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Memoir prefixed to Gweithoedd Cawrdaf; Enwog. C. ; Y Geninen, 1897, p. 43. Jones, William Griffith, 1838-1900, a well-known linguist, who was of Welsh parentage, spent most of his life in Liverpool and Birkenhead. He was a hearty supporter of all Welsh institutions, and a prominent member of the Peace Society. He was an earnest student of Celtic literature and customs, and was closely associated with Welsh missions in Brittany. He was an exceedingly accom plished linguist, being conversant with English, Greek, Spanish, Italian, Breton, German, and Dutch, as well as Welsh. (C. & D. Herald.) Jones, William Hinton, 1837-1899, a Calvinistic Methodist minister and lecturer, was born at Mold. On the completion of his school days, he began life as a teacher in a day school at Llangefni, but afterwards proceeded to Bala College, with a view to entering the ministry. In 1865, he was chosen the first pastor of the English Church at Frankwell, Shrewsbury, a charge which he held until within eighteen months of his death. He had a style of preaching of his own, and this, combined with a rare fund of humour and anec dote, made him one of the most acceptable preachers of his denomina tion. He declined an invitation to the pastorate of an American church, as well as from several churches in England. Mr. Jones was one of the most acceptable deputations of the British and Foreign Bible Society, and in that capacity was well known in North and South Wales. It was in his popular lectures, however, that the flow of hia rich humcur was heard at its best. (Bye-Gones, 1899, p. 123.) Jones, William Pearce, 1841 - 1905, a self-made man, was born in Merioneth, and was a brother of John William Jones (1840-1896, see ante). At an early age he removed with his parents (Mr. and Mrs. Owen Jones) to Carnarvon. In 1858, he was apprenticed to Edward Williams, draper, Carnarvon, and in 1862 he found employment with his cousin, T. J. Williams, Denbigh. About 1866, he started business on his own account at Hampstead, London, but soon afterwards joined his brother, J. W. Jones, at Holloway Road. The first day on which they started business was October 30th, 1867, and the takings on that day amounted to £3 7s. From that day the business steadily progressed until it became one of the largest in London. He worked for 40 years for early closing, and in 1886 gave useful evidence before

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a Select Committee of the House of Commons on the subject. He was treasurer of the Early Closing Association, and of the Drapers' Chamber of Trade, which body he was mainly instrumental in forming. He was one of the most commanding personalities in the London drapery trade. The story of his life conveys an inspiring lesson of success achieved by energy and perseverance, combined with honesty and intelligence. His net personalty was sworn at over £140,000. (N. W. Observer & Express.) Jones, William R., about 1839-1889, the famous manager of the Braddock Ironworks, in Pennsylvania, whose mechanical skill and wonderful gift of management first brought to the United States supremacy as a steel-making country, was the son of a poor Welsh pattern-maker, the religious and intellectual leader of the Welsh in the village of Catasauqua, Pennsylvania. At ten years of age, he entered the employ of William Kelly, the American ironmaster, and at eighteen he ran away from Catasauqua, and went to Chattanooga, where he married Miss Harriet Lloyd. He found employment at the Cambria Works, Johnstown, at two dollars a day, and was soon pro moted. Sixteen years later Mr. Carnegie engaged him as super intendent of the new works at Braddock, near Pittsburgh. Jones thereupon took the invention of Kelly and Bessemer into his strong hands, and developed it into one of the wonders of the world. In his first fifteen weeks of steel-making, he turned out nearly twice as much as any one had made before with a similar equipment. The output increased by leaps and bounds, and the profits were immense. In 1876 the annual profit amounted to £36,000 ; and by 1880 it had reached £325,000. In these figures we have the beginning of the Carnegie fortune. Among all the partners and employees of the Carnegie Company, Jones earned the most and received the least. This was largely his own fault, for he refused to be a shareholder on the ground that he knew nothing about business, When he made this decision known to Mr. Carnegie, his salary was advanced to £5,000 per annum. Gayley, the first vice-president of the Steel Trust, said that Jones " through his mechanical contributions to the development of the steel-making industry, accomplished fully as much as Mushet or Sir Henry Bessemer." His greatest invention is known by the name of " the Jones Mixer." He was of a most benevolent disposition, scattering his thousands with a free hand among his men and their families. (Munsey's Magazine, April, 1906, p. 17.) Jones, William R., 1840-1898, "Goleufryn," a Calvinistic Methodist minister and author, was born at Llanfrothen, Merioneth shire, and began life as a joiner. Having spent some time at Clynnog School, he entered Bala College, where he remained for three or four years. His first pastorate was at Tymawr, South Carnarvonshire, where he successfully laboured for some years. He then removed to Llanrwst, afterwards to Holyhead, and finally to Carnarvon. He was a very powerful preacher, and an able writer. He published a Commentary on the Book of Judges, and afterwards a small volume of temperance tales. He was also the author of an interesting introduction to the biography of the Rev. John Prichard, Amlwch.

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(C. & D. Herald; Cardiff Catalogue). See Gweithiau Goleufryn (Carnarvon : W. Gwenlyn Evans) ; Y Gcninen, March, 1900, p. 30 ; 7 Traethodi)dd, 1905, p. 129 ; Y Geninen, 1899, p. 18. Jones-Brydge, Sir Harford, Bart., 1764-1847, a civil ser vant, was the only son of Harford Jones, Esq., Presteign, Radnorshire. In 1798, he was a senior merchant on the Bombay establishment, and also joint factor at Bussorah. From 1807 to 1811, he was ambassador to the Court of Persia. He was created a baronet in 1807, and sworn a member of the Privy Council in 1835. By royal license, dated 4th May, 1826, Sir Harford Jones, Bart., and his issue were authorised to take the surname of Brydges, in addition to and after that of Jones, and to bear the arms of Brydges only. His seat was at Boultibrook, Presteign. His great grandfather, Col. James Jones, of Kington, Hereford, greatly distinguished himself in the wars of Queen Anne, particularly at the Battle of Blenheim, where he lost an arm. He was afterwards presented by Her Majesty in person with an elegant sword, inscribed " The Gift of Queen Anne." {Burke's Peerage, Baronetage, &c., 1882, p. 179 ; Old Wales, v. 3, pp. 92 and 157.) Jones-Parry, Sir Love Parry, 1772-1843, a Member of Parliament and philanthropist, was the son of Thomas Jones-Parry, Madryn, South Carnarvonshire. At an early age he joined the army, and served for some time in America. He sat in Parliament as the representative, first, of Horsham, and afterwards of the Carnarvon Boroughs. His generosity was proverbial, and he was known far and wide as " the poor man's friend." (Enwog. C.) Jones -Parry, Mrs. Sarah Elizabeth Margaret Williams, - 1899, was born at Llanbedrog, South Carnar vonshire, and was a sister of Sir T. D. Love Jones-Parry, once M.P. for the county and boroughs of Carnarvon. She was a cultured lady, and an excellent linguist. Among the languages in which she could fluently converse were Welsh, English, French, German, Italian, Portugese, Spanish and Arabic. Though her failing health compelled her to spend most of her time in warmer climates she made it a point of spending a portion of every year in her Welsh home at Madryn, near Pwllheli, and during her stay there she was exceedingly generous and hospitable. (C. and D. Herald.) Jones-Parry, Sir Thomas Duticombe Love, 1832-1891, a member of Parliament, was the son of Sir Love Parry Jones-Parry, (1772-1843, see ante) to whose estates he succeeded in 1863. He was educated at Rugby and at Oxford University, and was High Sheriff of Carnarvonshire in 1854, and Justice of the Peace and DeputyLieutenant for the same county. He was a prominent member of the masonic fraternity, and in eisteddfodic circles he was known by his bardic title of " Elphin." He had been very intimately associated with the Liberal movement in North Wales. His return for Carnarvonshire against Lord Penrhyn (then the Hon. Douglas Pennant) in 1868, was one of the greatest surprises of that election. At the next election, Mr. Douglas Pennant was returned, but when a contest came round again Mr. Watkin Williams defeated him. In 1882, Mr. Love Jones-Parry

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as he then was, was elected for the Carnarvon Boroughs, and in 1885 he was returned by a majority of 64 over Mr. Swetenham ; but, in 1886, he was defeated by one hundred and thirty-six. For his services to the Liberal party in Wales, he was rewarded by Mr. Gladstone with a baronetcy, which expired at his death. (Bye-Gones, 1891, p. 224.) See Y Traethodydd, 1902, p. 204. Jordan, Dorothea, 1762-1816, a celebrated actress, whose real name was Dorothy Bland, was bora at Waterford. Her mother's maiden name was Grace Phillips, and she was the daughter of a clergy man in South Wales. In 1777, the young player appeared on the stage for the first time at Dublin, under the name of Miss Francis. After an engagement at Cork, she proceeded, in 1782, to Leeds, and making an engagement with Tate Wilkinson, once a fellow-player with her mother, she achieved great success at Leeds, York, Sheffield, Hull, and Wakefield. In 1785, she quitted Wilkinson's company for an engagement at Drury Lane, London, where her admirable playing and agreeable appearance won great applause. She played both in tragedy and comedy, appearing one day as Viola in " Twelfth Night," and on the next as Imogen in "Cymbeline"; but unquestionably she excelled in comic parts, in which she showed real genius. Her style of playing was emphatically natural, and yet it was the result of consummate art. (Imp. Diet. Biog. ; Bye-Gones, 1903, p. 250.) See Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Personal Sketches of his Own Time, by Sir Jonah Barrington ; Personal Memoirs of P. L. Gordon ; Georgian Era ; Genest's Account of the Stage ; Boaden's Life of Mrs. Jordan, 2 vols., 1831. Joseph, Watkin Bronfryn, 1832-1883, "Y Myfyr," a Congregational minister and poet, was the son of John Joseph, a shoemaker, and was born at Llechfaen, near Brecknock, but he removed when very young to Talybont. He began to preach when quite a youth, and was trained at Trevecca College and Glasgow University. He first took charge of the English Calvinistic Methodist Church at Pyle, where he laboured for a few years, when he accepted a call to an English Congregational Church at Cardiff, and subsequently removed to Ruabon and Colwyn Bay, Carnarvonshire. He was the chaired bard at the Conway National Eisteddfod, 1879, for an ode on " The Mind," and at the Carnarvon National Eisteddfod in 1880, the subject being "Genius." He received a call from the Congregational Church at Utica, U.S.A., and here his health, which had never been strong, gave way, and he died suddenly, leaving a wife and seven young children. (Poole's Brecknockshire.) See Y Traethodydd, 1903, p. 435 ; Y Geninen, 1895, March, p. 25 ; Ibid, March, 1897, p. 11, and July, p. 185. Josey, Mrs. Margaret, -1902, formerly Miss Jones, better known as "Y Gymraes o Ganaan," was a native of Rhos, near Wrexham. She was a great traveller, and first came into notice by publishing her impressions of Canada and Morocco, in a series of letters to the Welsh papers. Later on she issued them in book form, under the title " Llythyrau y Gymraes o Ganaan." After travelling again for some years she returned to Wales, and delivered a series of

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Welsh lectures on her travels. She afterwards married, and settled at Queensland, Autsralia, where she died. (C. & D. Herald.) Josiah Brynmair, see Jones, Josiah. Kemble, Adelaide, 1814 (?)- 1879, afterwards Mrs. Sartoris, vocalist and author, born in London, was the younger daughter of Charles Kemble (1775-1854, see post.) Her first appearance in public was at a concert of ancient music in May, 1835, and on that occasion, as at the York Festival in the September following, her nervousness interfered somewhat with her rendering of Handel's music. She visited Germany in 1837, and sang at Prague in that and the following year : in 1838, she was also heard in Paris. Her first appearance in opera, in Venice, as " Norma," was a brilliant success, and was followed by equally satisfactory performances in other Italian cities, as well as in London. Her " Week in a French Country House," was published in 1867. " Medusa, and other Tales," 1868, were re-published in two volumes with a few additions and a preface, by her daughter, Mrs. Gordon, uuler the title of "Past Hours," London, 1880. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Mrs. Butler's (i.e. Fanny Kemble's) Records of a Girlhood ; her Records of Later Life ; her Further Records ; Chorley's Thirty Years of Musical Recollections, v. 1, p. 112 ; Morning Post, 14th May, 1835 ; 3rd Nov., 1841 ; 14th Jany., 16th March, 8th April, 3rd Oct., 30th Nov., and 23rd Dec, 1842 ; Athenaeum. 16th August, 1879 ; Era, 17th Aug., 1879 ; Weekly Hampshire Independent, 16th Aug., 1879 ; Grove's Diet, of Music, v. 2, pp. 50, 699, and v. 3, p. 229. Kemble, Charles, 1775-1854, an actor, was born at Brecknock. He received a good education, and obtained a situation in the general post office. He quitted this for the stage, and, after spending some time in the provinces, made his appearance at Drury Lane in 1794. For some time he personated characters of a secondary kind only, but gradually he took a high rank in his profession, and with the exception of David Garrick, he had the widest range of characters on record. It included comedy and tragedy, though it was in the more dignified section of the former that he chiefly shone. His face and figure were handsome, and his voice a fine one. He quitted the stage in 1840, after receiving the appointment of examiner of plays. During his later years he gave some public Shakesperian readings. (Poole's Brecknock shire ; Imp. Diet. Biog. ; See Genest's Account of the Stage ; Records of a Girlhood (F. A. Kemble). 1878 ; Records of a Later Life, 1882 ; Biog. Dramatica ; Gent. Mag., Jany., 1855 ; Campbell's Life of Mrs. Siddons; Fitzgerald's Ljuss of the Kembles ; Leslie's Autobiography; Diet. Nat. Biog. Kemble, Frances Anne, 1811 - 1893, afterwards Butler, better known as Fanny Kemble, an actress, was the eldest daughter of Charles Kemble (see ante.) She was not intended for the stage ; and it was suddenly, and from motives of filial duty, to aid her father, who was struggling with embarrassments as the manager of Covent Garden, that in 1829 she made her debut there as " Juliet." Her success was great, and after a triumphant career of three years she accompanied her father on a histrionic tour through the United States. She

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recorded her American experiences in her " Journal of a Residence in America," published 1835. Two years later, she published " The Star of Seville," a drama, and in 1842, a volume of poems. In 1847, she returned to the English stage, making her new debut as " Lady Teazle " at the Theatre Royal, Manchester, but soon afterwards she left the boards, and went on tour as a reader of Shakespeare's plays. In 1847, she published her " Year of Consolation," descriptive of Italian life and scenery ; and, in 1863, her " Journal of a Residence on a Georgian Plantation," being a representation of slavery as it then existed in America. She also published a collection of '' Plays " in 1864. (Imp. Diet. Biog. ; Lippincott.) See Clark Russell's Repre sentative Actors ; Whyte's Actors of the Century ; Notes & Queries, 7th series, xi., 109 ; Letters of Edward Fitzgerald to Fanny Kemble, 1895 ; Theatrical Times, v. 2 ; Dramatical and Musical Review, v. 6 ; Theatre, March, 1893 ; Leigh Hunt's Dramatic Essays. Kemble, John Mitchell, 1807-1857, an Anglo-Saxon scholar and historian, was a son of Charles Kemble, the actor (1775-1854, see ante.) He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. For several years he was the editor of the British and Foreign Quarterly Review. He became a member of various foreign scientific and historical societies. His chief work is entitled " The Saxons in England : a History of the English Commonwealth till the period of the Norman Conquest " (2 vols., 1849.) (Lippincott.) See Fraser^s Magazine for March and May, 1857 ; F. A Kemble's Records of a Girlhood, 1878 ; The Records of a Later Life, 1882 ; Athenaeum, 28th March and 4th April, 1857 ; Hale's Antiquity of Church Rates. Kenrick, George, 1792 - 1874, a Unitarian minister and author, was the fourth son of Timothy Kenrick (1759 - 1804, see post), and was born at Exeter. After studying under Dr. L. Carpenter, he spent two years at Glasgow College, and three years at Manchester College, York, completing his course there in 1813. He then became Unitarian minister at Chesterfield, serving subsequently at Hull (1815-21), Maidstone (1822-26), Hampstead (1829-45), and Battle (1845-7). From 1833 to 1860 he was a trustee of Dr. Williams' Foundations, retiring in the latter year owing to ill-health. He died at Tunbridge Wells, where he had resided for fourteen years. He published a number of sermons, and was a frequent contributor to the Monthly Repository, and other periodicals. (Diet. Nat. Biog., s.n. Timothy Kenrick.) Kenrick, Timothy, 1759-1804, was the third son of John Kenrick, Unitarian commentator, of Wynne Hall, Ruabon, Denbigh shire. In 1774, he entered Daventry Academy, under Caleb Ashworth, D.D., and was afterwards chosen assistant tutor in Classics. He was ordained in 1785, and in 1799 he opened a Nonconformist Academy at Exeter. He published four single sermons (1788-1795), and there appeared posthumously :—1, Discourses on various topics, &c. (1805) ; 2, An Exposition of the Historical Writings of the New Testament, &c. (1807), with memoir by John Kenrick, a work of great ability, which well represents the exegeses of the older Unitarian School. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Monthly Repository, 1808, p. 87 ; Ibid, 1818, p. 230 ;

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Ibid, 1822, pp. 197, 557 ; Murch's History Presb. and Gen. Baptist Churches in West of England, 1835, pp. 406, 507 ; Inquirer, 12th December, 1874 ; Jeremy's Presb. Fund, 1885, p. 202 ; Palmer's Older Nonconformity in Wrexham, 1889, p. 76. Kenrick, W. Wynn, 1838-1892, a geologist, was a native of Raabon, Denbighshire. He left England for British Guiana, and was appointed by Lord Knutsford to be Gold Commissioner of the Colony, an office which subsequently came to be known by the title of Commissioner of Mines. He was closely concerned with the framing of the new mining regulations for the Colony, having had large experience of the industry in South Africa and California. He made several expeditions into the interior with the object of reporting upon the wealth of the Colony, and while engaged in the inspection of the goldfields of the north-western portion of the Colony, he was stricken with fever, and died at the Government Agent's house at Morawhama. (Bye-Gones, 1892, p. 422.) Kensington, William, Lord, 1777-1852, a politician, before his elevation to the peerage was William Edwardes, and was a grandson of Francis Edwardes, M.P. for Haverfordwest, who married the daughter of William Warren, of Longridge, Pembrokeshire. The family traces its pedigree to Ynyr ap Cadfarch lord, of both Maelors, Oswestry, and Whittington in Powys, one of the barons of that kingdom. The subject of this sketch succeeded his father to the title (an Irish peerage) in 1801, and in the following year was returned M.P. for Haverfordwest. He appears to have deserted the Tory principles of his ancestors for Whiggism, and in February, 1806, Lord Grenville appointed him a (Junior Civil) Lord Commis sioner for executing the office of Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom, and of the seas and admiralties thereof. He was succeeded by his son William (1801-72). His third son, George Warren Edwardes (1602 - 79), was governor of Labuan ; and his fourth son, Richard (1807-66), acted as minister-plenipotentiary to the Argentine Republic. (The lied Dragon ; Burke's Peerage, Baronetage, &c, 1882.) Keny on, John Robert, 1807 - 1880, a barrister, was the third son of the Hon. Thomas Kenyon, by Louisa Charlotte, second daughter of the Rev. John Robert Lloyd, and was a grandson of the eminent lawyer, Lord Kenyon (1732-1802), see post). He graduated B.A. at Oxford in 1828, afterwards taking the degrees of B.C.L. and D.C.L. He was called to the Bar in 1834, and became Q.C. in 1862. In 1842 he was appointed recorder of Oswestry, and he also held the chairman ship of the Shropshire Quarter Sessions. (Bye-Gones, 1880, p. 47.) Kenyon, Lloyd, Lord, 1732-1802, an eminent lawyer, was the second son of Lloyd Kenyon, Esq., and was born at Gredington, Flintshire. He was intended for the law, but it was never thought he would be anything more than a country attorney. He was advised, however, to aspire to the superior grade of the profession, and in 1750 he became a student at the Middle Temple. For ten years after he was called to the Bar he practically did nothing, and he endeavoured to give up the law for the Gospel, but failed. He was afterwards

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employed as a fag by his old friend Dunning, who had a large practice, but when it became known that Kenyon wrote the opinions, hundreds of cases soon came to him. In 1789, he was appointed Chief Justice of Chester, two years later he became Attorney-General, and in 1784 he became a baronet and Master of the Rolls. In May, 1788, he succeeded Lord Mansfield as Lord Chief Justice, and was raised to the peerage. The inscription upon his monument at Hanmer, in Flint shire, truly states that " he has left a name to which his family will look up with affectiomte and honest pride, and which his country will remember with gratitude and veneration, so long as they shall continue duly to estimate the great and united principles of religion, law, and social order." (Diet. Em. W.) See Lord Campbell's Lives of the Chief Justices ; Sketch of the Life, Jcc.of Lord Kenyon (London, 1802) ; The Judges of England, by Foss ; Young Wales, 1895, p. 83. Kiffin, William (or Kiffen), 1616-1701, a merchant and Baptist minister, was born in London, and his family appears to be of Welsh descent. He was apprenticed in 1629 to John Lilburne, brewer, leaving two years later, when he was apprenticed to a glover. He afterwards began business in the woollen cloth trade ; in 1647, he was Parliament ary assessor of taxes for Middlesex, and two years later, Parliament, in response to a petition, gave him liberty to preach in any part of Suffolk. He wrote " Glimpse of Zion's Glory," " The Christian Man's Trials," " Observations on Hosea," and other works. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See his Autobiography ; Burnet's Own Time, 1724, vol. 1, p. 599 ; Engl. Presb. Eloquence, 1720, p. 141 ; Pike's Ancient Meeting Houses, 1870, p. 689; Crosby's Hist, of Engl. Baptists, 1738-40, vol. 1, p. 215; Angus' Early Baptist Authors, 1886. Kilsby, see Jones, James Rhys. Kinsey, William Morgan, 1788-1851, divine and traveller, was born at Abergavenny, Monmouthshire. He matriculated at Oxford, graduated M.A. in 1813, and in 1822 proceeded to the degree of B.DIn 1827, he made a tour to Portugal, to make that country better known to English people. In 1828, appeared his " Portugal Illustrated," a second edition of which was published in the following year. In 1830, he travelled with Vicount Alford in Belgium, and, in 1843, was appointed Rector of Rotherfield-Greys, Oxfordshire, where he resided till his death. He was the author of a number of pamphlets, and in 1848 contributed ;i paper to the Gentleman's Magazine, entitled " Random Recollections of a Visit to Walton Hall." (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Gent. Mag., 1851, new series, 36, p. 95 ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Kinsey 's Portugal Illustrated. Kirkham, John William, 1818-1894, a clergyman, was born in the neighbourhood of Mold, his maternal uncle being the Rev. John Blackwell (Alun). He was educated at Jesus College, Oxford, graduat ing M.A. in 1844. He was ordained priest in 1843, his first curacy being at Llantysilio, near Llangollen, Denbighshire. In 1851, he accepted the curacy of Llanbrynmair, and five years later was constituted rector of the same parish by an Order of Council, on the formation of the Dylife Ecclesiastical District. His gentlemanly

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demeanour, his exemplary life, and his readiness to assist in every good cause endeared him to all sections of the community. Among his many services to the Church were his efforts in raising funds for the renovation of the parish church, and the erection of the National school, as well as of the building of St. John's Church at a cost of £1000. (Bye-Qones, 1894, p. 302.) Knight, Wilbur Clinton, 1858 -1903, geologist at the University of Wyoming, U.S.A., was born at Rochelle, Illinois, his mother being Cornelia, daughter of David Jones, Lansing Street, Utica, N.Y. In 1873, he moved with his parents to Nebraska, and entered the University there in 1881. He graduated five years later, and afterwards became assistant geologist at Wyoming. After studying in Europe, he returned to America, graduating M.A. and Ph.D. In 1893, he was elected to the chair of geology at Wyoming. During his occupation of that post he gained an enviable reputation in scientific circles, being regarded as one of the best geologists in the country. He was well known as an author, and wrote much to various technical and scientific publications. One of the most valuable contributions of his facile pen to scientific literature was his "Birds of Wyoming," containing descriptions of over three hundred of the birds of that State. He married a Welsh lady. Miss E. Emma Howell, who survived him. (The Cambrian, 1103 p. 387.) Kyffin, Thomas, 1679 -about 1755, a lawyer, was the son of Richard Kyffin, of Margam, Carnarvonshire, and was called to the bar in 1702. In 1713, he was appointed attorney-general for the counties of Carnarvon, Anglesey, and Merioneth, being re-appointed in 1715 and 1727. (The Welsh Judges.) Lee, Arthur, 1740-1792, an American statesman and revolwtiraist, born in Westmoreland county, Virginia, U.S.A., was a brother of Richard Henry Lee, (1732-1794, see post.) He studied medicine in Edinburgh, and subsequently became law student in London. He there published a number of eloquent political essays, under the name of " Junius Americanus," in which he advocated the cause of the American people. He was sent as a minister to France in 1776 ; and, in conjunction with Franklin and Deane, he negotiated a treaty with the French. He was recalled in 1779. After his return he was elected to Congress in 1782, and was subsequently made a counsellor of the supreme court of the United States, and a member of the Board of Treasury in 1784. About the same time he was appointed one of the commissioners for negotiating a treaty with the Indians of the six nations, and performed the duty with credit. He was the author of "Monitor's Letters," and of the "Letters of Junius Americanus." He was never married. He was a good classical scholar, and an intimate friend of Sir William Jones. (Lippincott.) See R. H. Lee's Life of Arthur Lee, 2 vols. (1829) ; North Amerian Review for April, 1830 ; Encyclopaedia Americana ; Imp. Diet. Biog. Lee, Charles, 1731-1781, a distinguished officer in the American Revolutionary war, was a native of Wales. Having served for a time in the British Army, he removed in 1756 to America. He was

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appointed major-general by Congress in 1775. In the following year he was appointed to the chief command of the Southern Colonies. He was surprised and taken prisoner by the English while marching through New Jersey to join Washington in Pennsylvannia (December, 1776) ; but after the surrender of Burgoyne, in October, 1777, he was exchanged. Having disobeyed General Washington's orders at the battle of Monmouth, in 1778, he was tried by court-martial, and suspended from service for a year. He retired to his farm in Berkeley, Virginia, in 1780, and lived alone amid his books until 1782, when he removed to Philadelphia. He was the author of several political works. His Memoirs were published in 1792. (Wales and its People; Lippincott.) See Encyclopcedia Americana; Y Brython, vol. 5, p. 258 ; Wales, vol. 3, p. 19; Appleton's Encycl. Amer. Biog. ; Banbury's Life of Sir Thomas Eanmer ; Harcourt Papers, xi., 184-202 ; B. F. Stevens' Facismiles of Manuscripts relating to America; G. H. Moore's Treason of Charles Lee (New York, 1860) ; Imp. Diet. Biog. Lee, Fitzhugh, 1835an American general, was a nephew of General Robert Edward Lee, (1807 - 1870, see post), and a grandson of General Henry Lee (1756-1818, see post), and was born in Virginia, U.S.A. He graduated at West Point in 1856, and at the outbreak of the civil war became general of cavalry in the Confederate army. In 1865, he and his troops were forced to surrender to Grant. He was elected governor of Virginia in 1885, and was United States consul at Havana from 1893 till the war with Spain in 1898. He was then appointed major-general, commanding the Seventh Army Corps, and after the war was made military governor of Havana province. He wrote a life of his uncle, General Robert Edward Lee (1894). (Lippincott.) Lee, Francis Lightfoot, 1734-1797, an American statesman and patriot, born in Westmoreland County, Virginia, U.S.A., was a younger brother of Richard Henry Lee (1732-1794, see post). He inherited a large estate, and married a daughter of Colonel John Tayloe, in 1772. He was elected to the General Congress three years later, and signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Having been re-elected, he continued to serve in Congress until 1779. He was too diffident to gain distinction as a debater, but took an active part in legislative business. He died without issue at Richmond, U.S.A. He was eminent for conversational powers, and was a general favourite in society. (Wales and its People; Lippincott.) See Wales, v. 1, p. 282. Lee, George Washington Curtis, 1832an American general, a son of General Robert Edward Lee (1807-1870), see post), was born at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, U.S.A. He graduated at West Point Military Academy in J 854 : served in the United States Army, 1854-61; and, 1861-65, in the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, attaining the rank of general. He was professor of military engineering at the Virginia Military Institute 1865-71, and from the latter date to 1897 was president of Washington and Lee University. (Lippincott.)

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Lee, Henry, 1756-1818, an American general, born in West moreland County, Virginia, U.S.A., was of Welsh descent, and a nephew of Richard Henry Lee (1732-1794, see post). He became a captain of cavalry in 1776, and performed several daring exploits. He captured a British fort at Paulus Hook in July, 1779. He was raised to the rank of lieutenant-colonel about 1780, after which year he served in the army of General Greene as an officer of cavalry. He rendered important services at Guilford Court-House, March 1781, and at the attack on Fort Ninety-Six. His legion of cavalry also contributed to the victory at Eutaw Springs, in 1781. In 1786, he was appointed a delegate to the General Congress, and elected Governor of Virginia in 1791 or 1792. He was again a member of Congress in 1799, and was selected by Congress to pronounce a eulogy on Washington, whom he characterised as " first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen." He wrote about the year 1809 valuable " Memoirs of the War in the Southern States." He was often called "Light-Horse Harry." (Lippincott; Welshmen as Factors, &c.) See Duyckinck's Cyclopaedia of American Literature, v. 1 ; Encyclopaedia Americana. Lee, Richard Henry, 1732-1794, an American statesman and orator, and one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, was born in the county of Westmoreland, Virginia, U.S.A., and came of a Welsh family. He was educated in England, and, after his return, was elected about 1757 to the House of Burgesses in Virginia. In 1765, he eloquently defended the resolutions against the Stamp Act, introduced by Patrick Henry. He was a delegate from Virginia, in 1774, to the Continental Congress, and took a prominent part in the proceedings of that body. The memorial to the people of British America, authorized by the Continental Congress, is attributed to his pen. In June, 1776, he introduced into Congress the measure declaring the Colonies free and independent States, which motion he supported by a most powerful and eloquent speech. He was again elected to Congress in 1778, he became president of that body in 1784, and was elected a United States senator from Virginia in 1789. {Wales and its People; Lippincott.) See Goodrich's Lives of the Signers to the Declaration of Independence; Memoirs of the Life of R. H. Lee, by his grandson, R. H. Lee, 2 vols (1825) ; North American Review for April, 1826 (by Edward Everett) ; Y Brython, vol. 5, p. 270 ; Wales, vol. 3, p. 18 ; Ibid, v. 1, p. 282. Lee, Robert Edward, 1807-1870, a distinguished American general, was the son of General Henry Lee (1756-1818, see ante), and was born at Stratford, Westmoreland county, Virginia, U.S.A. He graduated at the head of the class at West Point in 1829, and soon afterwards joined the army. He obtained the rank of captain in 1838, and served in the Mexican war (1846-47), as chief engineer of the army of General Scott, by whom his conduct was highly commended. For his services in Mexico he was raised to the rank of brevet colonel. In 1861, he was appointed major-general in command of all the forces of Virginia. He became one of the most distinguished Confederate generals in the Civil war, but was eventually compelled to

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capitulate by the combined forces of Generals Sherman and Grant in 1865. General Lee survived until 1870, by no one more respected than by his distinguished adversary, General Grant, who regarded him as one of the greatest soldiers of the nineteenth century. (Lippincott.) See Harmsworth; Fitzhugh Lee's General Lee (1894) ; Recollections and Letters of General Lee (1905). Lee, William Henry Fitzhugh, 1837-1891, an American soldier, son of General Robert Edward Lee (1807-1870, see ante), and was born at Arlington, Virginia, U.S.A. He entered the army in 1857, and became a Confederate cavalry leader in the Civil war, advancing from captain to major-general. He was elected to the senate of Virginia in 1875, and was in Congress from 1886 till his death. (Lippincott.) Lewes, Charles Lee, 1740-1803, actor, was born in New Bond Street, his father, who was first a hosier and afterwards a letter carrier, being of Welsh descent. He spent about seven years at school in Amble side, Westmoreland, and in his fourteenth year returned to London, where he appears to have assisted his father in his work as letter carrier. His first appearance on the stage, probably as an amateur, was about 1760, at the Haymarket, as Cash, in "Every Man in his Humour." He afterwards appeared as Matthew Mug, in the " Mayor of Garrett," at Chelsea. After playing at Chesterfield and other provincial towns, he met with an accident at Sheffield, which disabled him from playing as harlequin. He was afterwards engaged at Covent Garden as second harlequin to Woodward. In 1773, in the first production of " She Stoops to Conquer," he played the part of Young Marlow so well, that he secured the position of leading comedian. Goldsmith was so pleased with his performance that he wrote him an epilogue which, in the character of harlequin, he spoke at his benefit. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Clark Russell's Representative Actors ; Genest's Account of the English Stage ; Gilliland's Dramatic Mirror ; Lowndes' Biblio grapher's Manual. Lewes, George Henry, 1817-1878, a man of science, and miscellaneous writer, born in London, was a grandson of the actor, Charles Lee Lewes (1740-1803, see ante.) He received his early education partly in Jersey, partly at the well-known school of Dr. Burney, at Greenwich. He entered the office of a Russian merchant, and afterwards studied medicine, but soon abandoned it for literature. To the British and Foreign Review, he was for many years a leading contributor, publishing in it, among other papers, a striking criticism on Goethe, whose biographer he afterwards became. His articles on the Drama were re-published as "Actors and the Art of Acting" (1875). He was editor of the Leader (1849-54), founded the Fortnightly Review (1865), and was for a time its editor. His connection with George Eliot (q.v.) which commenced in 1854, ended only with his death. The most important of his later works are : " Seaside Studies " (1858) ; " Physiology of Common Life " (1859) ; " Studies in Animal Life " (1862) ; " Problems of Life and Mind " (1874-9) ; " The Study of Psychology " (1879). (Imp. Diet. Biog. ;

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Harmsworth.) See Diet. Nat. Biog. ; New Quarterly, October, 1879 ; Cross' Life of George Eliot. Lewes, Sir Watkin, about 1737-1821, a member of Parliament, who was for many years one of the leading London Welsh, was the second son of the Rev. Watkin Lewes, of Penbenglog, Cardiganshire. He matriculated from Magdalen College, Cambridge, and took his B.A. degree in 1763. After four unsuccessful attempts to enter Parliament as member for Worcester, he was, in 1781, elected one of the four members for the City of London. He was re-elected in 1784 and 1790, but in 1796 he lost his seat. When in the House he was known as a frequent debater. Some time before 1778 he was elected treasurer of the Society of Ancient Britons. He was alderman for Lime Street Ward for thirty-two years, and only resigned it, at the invitation of his official brethren, to assume the position of " Father of the City of London," and he accordingly became alderman of the Ward of Bridge Without in 1804, and so continued until his decease. (Old Wales, vol. 1, p. 33 et seq.) Lewis, Andrew, 1730 -about 1780, a general in the American Army, was from a Welsh family, and was born in Virginia, U.S., America. He and his five brothers were with Washington when General Braddock was defeated by the French and Indians, and afterwards served during the war of the American Revolution. He was a major in Washington's Virginia regiment, and was highly esteemed by his commander for his skill and bravery. When Washington was appointed commander-in-chief, he recommended Col. Lewis for the office of major-general, but he was by some means overlooked at the time, and accepted the office of Brigadier-General. He drove Dunsmore from Gwynn's Island in 1776. He resigned his commission in 1780, on account of ill-health, and died soon afterwards. (Wales and its People.) See Y Brython, vol. 5, p. 269. Lewis, Benjamin F., 1831-1897, a journalist, was born at Llanidloes, Montgomeryshire. He emigrated to America in 1847, and found employment in the printing office of Baker & Godwin, at New York. In 1859, he removed to Utica, and secured a post in the printing department of the Utica Morning Herald. Six years later he was appointed foreman, a post which he tilled for nearly thirty years. In 1893, he became editor of Y Drych, the leading Welsh publication of the United States. His literary ability was of a high order, and his writings attracted much attention. Few were better versed than he in the history and literature of Wales. His patriotism was unbounded, and he took a leading part in every effort to perpetuate the good customs of his native land. During the last year of his life he prepared a series of sketches of the annual Eisteddfodau held in Utica from their beginning, before the war. He possessed much material of local Welsh history, part of which is preserved in the sketches referred to. He was a member of the Oneida Historical Society. (The Cambrian, 1897, p. 297.} Lewis, Charles James, 1830-1892, painter, who was born in London, was of Welsh extraction on his father's side. At the age of

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17 he was an exhibitor at the Royal Academy. He was very successful in water-colour, and, in 1882, was elected a member of the Royal Institute of Painters in Water-colours. A portrait of Lewis appeared in "The Year's Art" for 1892. He resided at Chelsea, where he died. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Daily Graphic, 8th February, 1892. Lewis, David, 1683-1760, a poet, born in Wales, seems identical with David Lewis, son of Roger Lewis, Pembroke, who matriculated at Jesus College in 1698, and graduated B.A. in 1702. In 1727, he published "Philip of Macedon," a tragedy, and a second edition appeared in the same year. In 1730, he brought out a collection of miscellaneous poems. He died at Low Leyton, and was buried at Leyton Church, where there is an inscription which tells of his excellent poetry. In the British Museum Catalogue the author of "Philip of Macedon," is confused with David Lewis, poet, of New York. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Baker's Biog. Dram., vol. 1, p. 452 ; Malone's Boswell, vol. 4, p. 330 ; Notes & Queries, 2nd series, vol. 8, p. 497 ; Thome's Environs of London, p. 418. Lewis, David, - 1884, a professor in the National College at Buenos Ayres, was a native of Glamorganshire. He completed his education at Oxford, where he graduated M.A. In 1863, he left for Buenos Ayres, and in April of the following year he was appointed professor of languages in the National College there. He occupied that post with marked ability until his death twenty years later. He was regarded as one of the best scholars and most successful teachers in the Republic. A statue was erected to his memory, at the expense of the Government, in the National College. (C. & D. Herald.) Lewis, David, 1812-1886, a Congregational minister, was a native of Llangyfelach, Glamorganshire. He studied at Swansea, at Barham, and subsequently at Penywaun and Pontypool, and during the college intervals he taught as a schoolmaster at Gorseinion and in other parte of the district. He soon afterwards began to preach with great effect and approval, and after a lengthened evangelical tour through Wales he accepted a call to Llanvapley, Monmouthshire, where he laboured for nearly half a century. In his earlier years he was a well and widely known preacher at the association meetings and conferences of his denomination. He contributed frequently to Seren Gomer, Yr Haul, and other periodicals, and wrote a series of able articles against such popular superstitions as corpse-candles, &c, which were then very prevalent in the neighbourhood. (Congreg. Tear Book, 1888.) Lewis, David, 1848-1897, a lawyer, was a native of Swansea. After being educated at Swansea and Llandovery, he proceeded, in 1886, to Caius College, Cambridge, and at the end of his course there came out as 12th senior optime in the mathematical tripos. He was called to the bar in 1873, and joined the South Wales circuit. In 1884, he edited, jointly with the original author, the fourth edition of Mr. Coke Fowler's work on " The Law of Collieries." In 1888, he was appointed assistant commissioner to conduct inquiries into the charities of Denbighshire. This was the first systematic inquiry,

Benjamin F. Lewis,

Judge David Lewis.

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relating to a large area, since the time of Lord Brougham's commission, and Mr. Lewis' reports settled, in a large degree, the lines on which most similar inquiries were subsequently carried out. In 1891, the honour was conferred upon him of being appointed the first recorder of his native borough of Swansea, an office which he vacated two years later, on being made County Court Judge for the Mid-Wales circuit. He was a frequent contributor to the historical literature of Wales, among his best articles being those on " The Welshmen of English Literature " (Red Dragon, 1886), " The Charters of Neath Abbey,'' and the "English Statutes relating to Wales." (Y Cymmrodor, v. 11.) See Cymru, v. 13, p. 205. Lewis, Edward, 1701-1784, a miscellaneous writer, was probably a son of John Lewis (a Welshman), of Alderley, Cheshire. He was educated at Wrexham, and admitted subsizar of St. John's Chapel, Cambridge, in 1719. He graduated M.A. in 1726, and became rector of Waterstock. His chief works are : " Sinners saved by Jesus Christ, and Clergy are no sure guides to Heaven ; " and the "Patriot King." He translated two sermons by Chrysostum, under the title of "The Sin of Sodom reproved." (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Baker's Biog. Dram. Lewis, Enoch, 1776-1856, a distinguished mathematician, of Welsh descent, was born in Chester County, Pennsylvania, and educated at the West-town Boarding School, established by the Society of Friends. He became teacher of mathematics in the Friends' Academy, Philadelphia, in 1799, and subsequently at the West-town Boarding School. He was the author of treatises on algebra, trigonometry, &c, a "Life of William Penn," and other valuable works. In 1847, he became editor of the Friends' Review, Philadelphia. (Welshmen as Factors, &c.\ Lippincott.) Lewis, Erasmus, 1670-1754, was born at Abercathy, in the vale of Towy, South Wales. In 1686, he was admitted a King's scholar at Westminster. Four years later he was elected to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. In 1699, he went to Hamburg, Brussels and Paris, and in 1701, was appointed secretary to the Earl of Manchester, the British Ambassador to France. On his return to England he was, in 1713, elected M.P. for Lostwithiel, Cornwall. He was highly spoken of by the greatest men of his day, including Prior, Arbuthnot, Pope and Gay. He was buried in the east cloister at Westminster Abbey. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Pope's Works ; Swift's Works ; Atken's Life and Works of Arbuthnot ; Welsh's Alumni West \ Wheatley and Cunningham's London, v. 1, p. 455. Lewis, Evan, 1813-1896, a Congregational minister and author, was born at a farmhouse called Pant, in the parish of Abergorlech, Carmarthenshire. After spending some time at Ffrwdyfal Grammar School he entered Brecon College, and in 1843 was ordained pastor of Brynberian and Velindre churches, in Pembrokeshire, and from that time to the close of his long ministerial life of 47 years, his services there were crowned with evident success. As a preacher he was thoroughly conscientious in preparation, thoughtful, deeply in earnest, and persuasive. At times he reached heights of impassioned and

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A DICTIONARY OF

genuine eloquence. He was always a diligent student, and the con firmed habit of his life kept him in touch with current theological literature to the end of his days. His latest contribution to the press was an interesting history of the Cymanfaoedd at Brynberian. (Cong. Year Book, 1897.) Lewis, Evan, 1818-1901, a clergyman, was born in Cardigan shire, and educated at Jesus College, Oxford, and was ordained priest in 1842. His preferments were :—Vicar of Aberdare, 1859-66 ; rector of Dolgelly, 1866-84 ; dean of Bangor, 1884. In his attempt to check the liberties taken with the services of the Prayer Book he encountered some opposition, but he carried his point. The effects of his teaching were felt outside his own immediate sphere : and baing more or less of an aggressive character, created a commotion in the ranks of dissent, involving him and his flock in discussion, in the press and on the platform, on the relations of Church and dissent. The publication of his treatise on " The Apostolic Succession " (1851), was the outcome of these discussions. In his younger days he was one of the pioneers of the Welsh Church press, and a constant and able contributor. He also wrote several Welsh hymns of considerable merit, and translated into Welsh the well-known Latin Christmas hymn, Adeste Fideles, and also Faber's Good Friday hymn. He was the author of : " The Church in Wales"; "Bi- Lingual Difficulties"; "Llythyrau gan Aelod o'r Eglwys" (Letters by a Member of the Church). (Bye-Gones, 1901, p. 239.) See Y Geninen, March, 1902, p. 37 ; Ibid, March, 1903, p. 23. Recollections, &c. ; Cardiff Catalogue. Lewis, Evan, 1825-1869, a Congregational minister and author, was born at Cefn-y-bryn, Newtown. Having studied a year with the Rev. Isaac Watts, of Boston, he, entered Airedale College, and graduated B.A. of London University in 1852. In the following year he was ordained pastor at Barton-on-Humber ; and his subsequent pastorates were Rothwell, 1858 ; Accrington, 1863 ; Preston, and Oxford Road, London, 1868. A man of great natural endowments, of large and varied culture, he was also a very careful expounder of Divine truth. As a preacher, there was a striking combination of earnestness and tenderness in his manner. His literary works include : " Independency : a Deduction from the Laws of the Universe ; " " God's Week of Work : an Examination of the Mosaic Six Days ; " " Seeking Jesus : or First Lessons in Religion ; " " The Grimshaw Street Chapel Pulpit ; " " Dialogues for Bands of Hope ; " besides many articles on scientific subjects in various papers and magazines. He was elected F.R.G.S. (Congreg. Year Book, 1870.) Lewis, Evan, 1828 - 1869, a Congregational minister, was born at Carmarthen, and was the son of an architect. He studied at Airedale College to prepare for the ministry, and graduated B.A. at the London University. He served in the pastorate at Barton-on-Humber, Rothwell, Accrington, Preston and Islington. He lectured frequently at Accrington on literary and scientific topics. He was a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, and also of the Ethnological Society. His writings were : " The Wines the Saviour made " ; "A plea for the

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people, or the force and the fate of England " ; " The Two Twilights " ; " Independency " ; and " God's Week of Works," all written between 1856 and 1865. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Preston Chmrdian, 24th Feb., 1869, p. 2; Preston Chronicle, 27th Feb., 1869, p. 5; Sutton's Lancashire Authors, p. 72. Lewis, Francis, 1713-1803, one of the four New York delegates to the Continental Congress in 1776, was born at Llandaff, Glamorgan shire, and educated in Scotland, and afterwards at Westminister. He en tered upon a mercantile life in London, and subsequently went to New York, where he conducted business for English merchants. He there entered into partnership with a Mr. Edward Annesley, whose sister he eventually married. In his various enterprises, he accumulated great wealth, which he as readily sacrificed for the land of his adoption. He joined the army, and was taken prisoner in the French war and carried to France. He afterwards returned to New York, took an active part on the patriot side, and signed the Declaration of Independence. The British devastated his property, and made him their prisoner. ( Wales and its people; Welshmen as Factors, &c.; The Cambrian, 1895, p. 289.) See T Brython, v. 5, p. 270 ; Wales, v. 3, p. 18 ; Ibid, v. 1, p. 282. Lewis, George, 1763-1822, a Congregational minister and author, was a native of Carmarthenshire. In 1786, he became pastor of a congregation at Carnarvon, where he remained nine years. From 1795 to 1812 he laboured in Merionethshire, and in the latter year was chosen tutor of the Congregational Theological College, which was then located at Wrexham. He was greatly esteemed for the able and conscientious manner in which he discharged his pastoral and collegiate duties. In 1810, he received the honorary degree of D.D. from an American University. He wrote a number of excellent hymns, the best known being " Rhyfedd na buaswn 'nawr, Yn y fflamau." In 1796, he published a Manual of Divinity, under the title of " Drych Ysgrythyrol, neu Gorph o Dduwinyddiaeth," which attained much popularity, a second edition being called for in 1812. His principal work is a Welsh Commentary on the New Testament, in seven volumes, to which he devoted 20 years. He also wrote several treatises on religious subjects. His works, which are distinguished for simplicity of style, are ample proofs of his literary abilities and extensive reading. He was a good scholar, and was well acquainted with the Latin, Greek and Hebrew languages. (Diet. Em. W. ; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Enwog. C. ; Enwog. y Ffydd, v. 2, p. 397 ; Revue Celtique, v. 2, p. 43 ; Hanes Lien. 0. ; Nodweddiad y Cymry, p. 217 ; Y Geninen, 1895, p. 167 : Evangelical Mag., v. 30, p. 277 ; Gent. Mag., 1822, part 2, p. 94 ; Rees' Hist., p. 499 ; Diet. Nat. Biog. Lewis, Sir George Cornewall, Bart., 1806-1863, was the eldest son of Sir Thomas Frankland Lewis (1780-1855, see post), of Harpton Court, Radnorshire. He received his earlier education at Eton School, and there won many prizes. From thence he proceeded to Oxford, graduating B.A., with high honours, in 1828. He then

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studied under a special pleader, Mr. Barnes Peacock (afterwards Chief Justice of India), and in 1831 he was called to the bar. But the legal profession had no charms for him, and he hardly, if ever, practised. In 1835, he became an assistant commissioner, to report on the working of the relief of the poor in Ireland. He afterwards became secretary to the Poor Law Commission, and his conduct gave such satisfaction that, in January, 1839, he was appointed to succeed his father aa one of the Commissioners. In 1847, he entered Parliament as member for the count}- of Hereford, which he contined to represent for five years. He then became editor of the Edinburgh Review, and after wards re-entered Parliament for New Radnor. In 1855, Mr. Gladstone had resigned his office of Chancellor of the Exchequer, and the following month he was succeeded in that important position by the subject of this sketch, who was then sworn of the Privy Council. While in this position ho displayed great financial capacity. He was no less distinguished as an author. His best-known works are :— " Essays on the Administrations of Great Britain from 1783-1830 " (1864) ; " Remarks on the Use and Abuse of some Political Terms " (1832) ; " The Government of Dependencies " (1841) ; and " The Influence of Authority in Matters of Opinion" (1849). (The Red Dragon.) See His Letters edited by Sir Gilbert F. Lewis ; Frazer's Mag., 1863, p. 684 ; Encyclo. Brit. ; Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Times, 15th and 20th April, 1863 ; Gent. Mag., 1845 ; Hist, of Radnorshire, 1905, p. 423 ; Bagshot's Literary Studies, 1879. Lewis, Sir Gilbert Frankland, Bart., 1808a clergy man and author, was the second son of Sir Thomas Frankland Lewis (1780-1855, see post), and was born at Tiberton Court, Herefordshire, and educated at Magdalen College, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. in 1833. He entered Holy Orders, and was appointed to the rectory of Gladestry, Radnorshire ; afterwards being preferred to the living of Monnington-on-Wye, Herefordshire ; and, later, to a prebend at Hereford, and a canonry at Worcester. He succeeded to his father's estates on the death of his elder brother, Sir George Cornewall Lewis (1806-1863, see ante), and afterwards edited and published a volume of that statesman's correspondence. (Bye-Gones, 1874, p. 288.) Lewis, James, 1674-1747, a Baptist minister and author, was born in the parish of Llandyssil, Cardiganshire, and was a good seholar. In 1706, he became pastor of the cause at Pencader, where he ministered, with great success, for forty-one years. He assisted in the publication of several useful works in Welsh, and wrote a pamphlet controverting the views of Mr. Jenkin Jones, the first Arminian teacher in Wales. This was published in 1730, under the title, " Y Cyfrif Cywiraf o'r Pechod Gwreiddiol " (Carmarthen : Isaac Carter). (Rees' Hist. ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry.) Lewis, Jenkin, 1760- 1^31, a Congregational minister and author, was born at Brithdir Uchaf, in the parish of Gelligaer, near Merthyr Tydfil. He was educated at the Independent College at Abergavenny, an institution which was afterwards removed to

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Brecon, where it still remains. He became assistant master at the college, and on its removal to Oswestry, continued there from June, 1782, to November, 1783, when he became minister of the Congrega tional church at Wrexham (1783- 1811), subsequently removing to Manchester. From 1791 to 1811, he was principal of the Independent College, which, for his convenience, was removed from Oswestry to Wrexham. In 1815, he removed to Newport, Monmouthshire, to take charge of Hope Chapel, remaining there till his death. In 1793, he published a volume entitled, " Natural Evil from God ; Being the Substance of a discourse delivered at Pen-y-bryn Meeting House, in Wrexham, on the General Fast Day, April 19th, 1793." He received the degree of D.D. (Bye-Gomts, 1899, pp. 218 and 230.) See Palmer's History of the Older Nonconformity of Wrexham, pp. 115-117; D. Peter's Hanes Crefydd yn Nghymru, p. 687 ; The Quarterly Magazine, 1831, p. 528 ; Hanes Eglwysi Annibynol Cymru, v. 1, pp. 121-3; Album Aberhonddu, p. 39 ; G.B., v. 2, p. 158. Lewis, John Wyndam, 1837-1895, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was a native of South Wales, and was educated at the National School, Loughor, Swansea ; the Tydfil Grammar School, and at Trevecca College. After leaving college, he was ordained in 1866. He held pastorates at Penarth ami Gower, settling, in 1870, at Carmar then, where he remained till his death. He was a very fluent preacher, both in English and Welsh, took a great interest in educational matters, and was a frequent contributor to the magazines. He was known locally as " The Nonconformist Bishop of Carmarthen." He contributed a chapter to the biography of Edward Matthews, published in 1893. (C. & D. Herald ; Bye-Gones, 1895, p. 27.) See Y Geninen, 1895, p. 99. Lewis, Joseph, - 1894, a Baptist minister, was born in the neighbourhood of Glascoed, near Pontypool. In January, 1852, he ent -red Pontypool College, and about three years later was ordained at Usk. In 1856, he settled at Raglan, removing, in 1858, to Tredegar, to take charge of the English cause in Church Street. There he continued for 29 years, until the failure of his sight compelled him to resign the pastorate. He was a powerful preacher and a faithful pastor, and contributed some able articles, in Welsh and English, to the magazines. (Baptist Handbook, 1895.) Lewis, Joshua, 1815-1879, a Congregational minister and author, was born of poor but respectable parents at Llanybyther, Carmarthenshire. In his sixteenth year, he left home to open a school at Gwernogle, removing afterwards to Trelech, in the same county, as assistant teacher at a school kept by the Rev. E. Jones, and there he preached his first sermon. In 1834, he entered the Presbyterian College, Carmarthen, and four years later was ordained at Henllan, becoming co-pastor with the Rev. J. Lloyd. On the latter's death he became sole pastor, and there spent the remainder of his life. He was a hard and systematic student through life ; and as a preacher he was instructive, fresh, and illustrative, his services being much in request for special occasions far and near. His pen also was fruitful, and

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many and varied were his contributions to the Diwygiwr, Beirniad, and other magazines. He also commenced a series of tracts, in 1852, called "Amserau Presennol" (Present Times), in which he aimed at giving a true picture of the state of religion in the churches of Wales, and rousing them to a more earnest spiritual life, but for various reasons only three numbers ever saw the light. Some years afterwards he conceived the idea of publishing a Welsh history of the Christian Church. He published one number, which he called Y Ganwyll (The Candle), but before the second number appeared, paralysis had sealed his hand for ever. (Congreg. Year Book, 1881.) Lewis, Lewis William, 1831-1901, "Llew Llwyfo," poet, musician, and prose writer, was born at Pensarn, in the parish of Llanwenllwyfo, near Amlwch, Anglesey, and as a boy worked at the celebrated Parys Copper Mines. He afterwards kept a shop at Pensarn, but soon abandoned that for a literary and musical career. In 1852, he became assistant editor of Y Cymro at Holywell, removing three years later to Liverpool as editor of Yr Amserau. In 1858, he and others started Y Gwladgarwr at Aberdare. He afterwards joined the staff of the Baner at Denbigh, and, later, of the Herald at Carnarvon. His success as a composer of Welsh songs was very marked. Possessing a powerful baritone voice, he was generally the first to introduce his own productions. His services were frequently called for as adjudicator and conductor. He wrote much to the Geninen, and to the Welsh periodical press in Wales and America. His Eisteddfodic successes include prizes for poems on " Gwenhwyfar," Merthyr, 1859 ; " Caradog," Aberdare, 1861 ; " Llewelyn," Rhyl, 1863 ; " Golyddan," Swansea, 1863 ; " David," Aberystwyth, 1865 ; " Arthur y Ford Gron," Chester, 1866 ; " Elias y Thesbiad," Ruthin, 1868 ; " Gruffydd ap Cynan," Wrexham, 1888 ; and " loan y Disgybl Anwyl," Llanelly, 1895. A selection of his poems, under the title, " Gemau Llwyfo," appeared in 1868 (Liverpool : T. Hughes). His elegy on " Golyddan appears in Yr Eisteddfod, vol. 2, p. 69 ; and his poem on " David " in the same volume, at p. 281. He also wrote several novels, among them " Cydymaith yr Herwheliwr" (The Poacher's Companion), and " Llewelyn Parry, neu y Meddwyn Diwygiedig" (Llewelyn Parry, or the Reformed Drunkard.) He died at Rhyl, and was buried at Carnarvon, where a monument has been erected to his memory. (C & D. Herald; Y Geninen, 1901, p. 161.) See Cardiff Catalogue ; Y Geninen, March, 1902, p. 48 ; Ibid, 1893, p. 132 ; Ibid, 1907, p. 241. Lewis, Mary, 1784-1864, better known by her maiden name of Mary Jones, deserves to have her memory preserved for the important, if humble, part she took in the founding of the great work of the British and Foreign Bible Society. The story is thus told on her grave stone in the little churchyard at Bryncrug, in Merionethshire : "Mary, widow of Thomas Lewis, weaver, Bryncrug, who died Dec. 28, 1864, aged 82 ; this tombstone was erected by contributions of the Calvinistic Methodists in the district, and other friends, in respect to her memory as the Welsh girl Mary Jones, who walked from Abergynolwyn to Bala in the year 1800, when 16 years of age, *o procure a Bible of the Rev.

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Thos. Charles, B.A., a circumstance which led to the establishment of the British and Foreign Bible Society." The distance between the two towns referred to is 25 miles. (The Story of Mary Jones and her Bible, 1888.) See The Bible in Wales (Loudon : Henry Sotheran and Co., 190ti)Lewis, Matthew, -1803, a native of South Wales, was appointed Deputy-Secretary at War, and for twenty-eight ye.irs, in times of peril, he retained his position, and was the faithful guide and aid of many successive War Ministers. Originally appointed by Lord Barrington in 177'>, he served under the lit. Hon. Charles Jenkinson, Thomas Townshend, Sir George Yonge, lit. Hon. Richard Fitzpatrick, Rt. Hon. William Windham, and the Rt. Hon. Charles Yorke, and only resigned on account of his increasing age and infirmities, in August 1803, when his long services were rewarded with a pension. He died soon afterwards, leaving a son, Matthew Gregory Lewis, who became known as the author of a work called "The Monk" (1775-1818, see post). (The Red Dragon.) Lewis, Matthew, about 1817-1860, a Congregational minister and essayist, was born at Llanidloes, Montgomeryshire. He was a weaver by trade, but at1 racted attention by his gifts as a speaker, and was induced to enter the ministry. After a few years residence in Anglesey in the double capacity of a schoolmaster and pastor of a small church, he removed to Bangor, and soon gained a high reputation for eloquence and a peculiarly charming manner. In a few years he removed to Holywell, where his chapel was constantly crowded an I his fame rapidly increased. He suddenly gave up his charge, and went over to Liverpool, where he became sub-editor of the Amserau. To this newspaper he contribute 1 two original tales of great merit, entitled "Rhydderch Prydderch" and " Y Ddwy Lili " (The Two Lilies). He also wrote several able articles to the Traethodydd, one—"Gwyr Ieuainc Lla;dlenorion"—being a descriptive account of the literary efforts and aspirations of the Llanidloes youth in his younger days. (Mont. Worthies.) Lewis, Matthew Gregory, 1775-1818, familiarly called " Monk Lewis," from his chief literary production, the novel of " The Monk," was born in London, and was the son of Matthew Lewis ( -1803, see ante). He was educated for a diplomatic career, and, in 1794, went to the Hague as attache to the British Embassy. His first literary attempts were dramatic, but his earliest work of note was his novel " The Monk," written when he was only nineteen years old, which was published in 1795. His ballads, such as " Alonzo the Brave," produced a great effect on young Walter Scott, the publication of whose version of Goethe's " Goetz von Berlichingen," 'was negotiated by their author, who contributed to the " Tales of Wonder, a miscellany original and translated," published by Lewis in 1801. His " Journal of a West Indian Proprietor," which was published after his death, is full of lively pictures of life and nature in Jamaica in the old slavery times, and portrays its author in a very favourable light. (Imp. Diet. Biog. ; The lied Dragim.) See

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Lippincott ; Life and Correspondence of Matthew Gregory Lewis, Loudon, 1839 ; Edinburgh Review for Jan. 1803, article by Sydney Smith ; Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Scott's Journal, 1890, pp. 7, 95, 171 ; Moore's Diaries, vol. 2, pp. 56, 183, 301 ; vol. 4, p. 324 ; vol. 8, pp. 43, 46, 54 ; Genest's Account of the Stage, vols. 7 & 8. Lewis, Meriwether, 1774-1809, an enterprising traveller, of Welsh descent, was born in Virginia, U.S.A. About 1801 he became private secretary to President Jefferson, and was afterwards employed by the United States Government, conjointly with Captain Clarke, to explore the north-west part of the American Continent. They gave the names of Jefferson, Gallatin, and Madison to the three streams which form the Missouri. They also explored the Columbia River to its mouth. After, his return, in 1806, Captain Lewis was made Governor of Missouri Territory. One of the principal affluents of the Columbia River was named in his honour. (Lippincott ; Munsey's Magazine, 1906. p. 753.) See his Memoir, by Jefferson ; Quarterly Review, January, 1815 ; Edinburgh Review, February, 1815 ; Monthly Review, July August, and September, 1815. Lewis, Morgan, 1754-1844, major-general and governor of the State of New York, was the son of Francis Lewis (1713-1803, see ante), and was born in New York. He was placed in a grammar school at Elizabethtown, afterwards entering Princeton College. He graduated with distinction, and was appointed to deliver one of the honorary orations. After a course of military training, he joined the army, and, in 1776, as Major Lewis, he accompanied Gates to Canada, as the chief of his staff. He took a very prominent part in the war, and afterwards studied for the bar. When he was admitted, clients flocked around him. Soon afterwards he was elected a member of the Assembly, subsequently being appointed one of the Judges of the Common Pleas. In 1791, he was appointed Attorney-General ; in 1792, he was raised to the Bench of the Supreme Court ; in 1793, he became Chief Justice, and in 1804 was elected governor of the State of New York. He introduced the horse artillery into the service, which in the war of 1812-14 was found of immense service. In 1813, he was promoted to the rank of major-general, and the expedition to the Niagara frontier was entrusted to him. Under his command the capture of Fort George—the only territory taken from the English— was effected. He was a thoroughly patriotic Welshman, and was first president of the New York St. David's Society. (The Cambrian, 1895, p. 289.) See National Portrait Gallery of Distinguished Americans, v. 3 ; Y Brythun, v. 5, p. 269 ; Dr. Jones' Cymry of the '76, p. 24 ; Wales, v. 3, p. 20. Lewis, Morgan John, -1758, was born at Ebbw Vale, Monmouthshire, and is mentioned by Mr. Edmund Jones, as "one of five who were converted in the Vale under the preaching of Mr. Howell Harris." He afterwards became a preacher with the South Walian Methodists, and subsequently minister of an Independent church near Fontypool, in his native county. " He was a very great preacher," is the testimony of one writer who refers to him, and, from

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other accounts, it would seem that he was earnest and effective in the work of the ministry. (Border Counties' Worthies.) Lewis, Percival, 1758-1822, a lawyer, was the son of Mr. Edward Lewis, M.P., of Downton, Radnorshire. He studied for the bar, was called at Lincoln's Inn, and joined the Welsh Sessions Courts. He married Miss Clay, a very wealthy lady, and soon afterwards retired from the bar, devoting his time to the furtherance of the volunteer movement. He was for some time stipendiary of St. Alban's, and was the author of " Historical Inquiries concerning Forests and Forest Laws." (Enwog. C.) See Y Brython, v. 5, p. 271 ; Old Wales, v. 2, p. 33. Lewis, Rees, 1828-1880, " Eos Ebrill," a musician, was a native of Brynmawr, Monmouthshire, and came of a musical family. He spent the greater part of his life as schoolmaster at Cardiff. He did much to cultivate a taste for classical music, and was the means of forming the Cardiff Philharmonic Society, of which he was conductor for many years. He was frequently engaged as musical adjudicator, and composed several songs of considerable merit. (B. Cerddorion Cymreig.) Lewis, Richard, 1813-1895, a schoolmaster and author, was born in Liverpool of Welsh parents. He made his home in Canada, and for some years prior to his death resided at Toronto. He was the author of "The Dominion Elocutionist," anil "How to Read." (ByeGones, 1895, p. 165.) Lewis, Richard, 1820-1905, bishop of Llandaff (93rd) was the second son of Mr. John Lewis, barrister, of Henllan, Pembroke, and was educated at Broomsgrove School and Worcester College, Oxford, where he secured high honours. He obtained his B.A. degree in 1843, and his M.A. degree three years later. He was ordained deacon in 1844, and priest in 1846. He became rector of Lampeter Velfry, Pembrokeshire, in 1851, and remained there until 1883, in which year he was consecrated bishop of Llandaff. His appointment to the bishopric came as something of a surprise, and arose out of the agitation against English-speaking bishops. At that time Welshspeaking clergymen who were eligible for the episcopacy were very few, and it was on the suggestion of Lord Aberdare that Mr. Gladstone offered Dr. Lewis the bishopric vacant by the death of Dr. Ollivant. The appointment was fully justified. In the early days of his episcopate Bishop Lewis refused to institute two English clergymen preferred by the Marquis of Abergavenny to Welsh districts, the Bishop declaring that none but Welsh -speaking ministers could adequately carry out the duties. The Marquis brought a suit against the Bishop, but Baron Huddleston decided in the latter's favour. (The Liverpool Courier ; The Daily News.) See Y Geninen, 1906, p. 1. Lewis, Thomas, 1823- 1900, a Baptist minister and author, was born in the parish of Llandilo'r-fan, Brecknockshire. He spent about ten yearn in a wool factory at Cwmdwr, and Llanwrtyd. From his boyhood he manifested a strong desire for preaching, and often did so in the woods, quarries, &c. Having received some preparatory

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training, he entered the college at Pontypool in 1845, and during the three years he spent there he shewed special ability in acquiring a knowledge of Hebrew, Greek, Latin, &c, which he continued to study throughout his ministerial career. On leaving college, he settled as pastor at Llanthony, near Abergavenny, and remained there for more than eight years. Thence he removed in 1856, to Bethlehem, Llanelly where he laboured to the end of 1859, when he undertook the pastorate of Jerusalem, Rhymncy. From there he went to Carmarthen, in 1863. In the following year he returned to Monmouthshire, and until the end of May, 1880, was pastor at Moriah, Risca, where he finally retired from pastoral work, and went to reside at Newport. His "Commentary on the Old and New Testaments," must have cost him enormous labour, and he wrote it all himself, i xcept the notes on the four Gospels, which were written by Dr. Roberts, of Pontypridd, and those on the Book of Revelation by the Rev. W. Jones. He also translated a volume of Spurgeon's sermons. (Baptist Handbook, 1902.) Lewis, Thomas, 1837-1892, principal of the Bangor Congrega tional College, was a native of Aberayron, Cardiganshire, and was educated at Carmarthen College, graduating B.A. in London. He then undertook the mastership of a preparatory school at Cardiff. From 1874 till his death, he was engaged as tutor at Bala Congregational College, becoming principal in 1879, and accompanying the college to Bangor in 188!i. Year after year he won the enthusiastic devotion of his students. Himself a painstaking, accurate, thorough, and notably independent scholar, he induced in others a contempt for superficial or careless work. A paper read by him before the Congregational Union of North Wales on " The Present Aspects of Theology," was recognised as a valuable and timely contribution. He was widely read, not only in theology, but also in scientific subjects, and several articles from his pen appeared in the Welsh magazines. He also published " A Com mentary on the First Epistle to the Corinthians," and a volume on the Second Corinthians was in the press when he died. (C. & D. Herald; Congreg. Year Book, 1894.) See Cymru, v. 2, p. 169 ; Y Geninen, March, 1902, p. 13. Lewis, Sir Thomas Frankland, 1780-1855, was the only son of John Lewis, Esq., of Harpton Court, Radnorshire (1738-1797). At the usual age he was sent to Eton, and thence he proceeded to Oxford. When the designs of Napoleon sent a thrill through every British heait, Mr. Lewis threw himself with great ardour into the preparations for the defend of his country, and in 1806, was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel of the Radnorshire (local) Militia, which he held till the end of the war, in 1815, when his regiment was disbanded. His loyalty had, however, gained the attention of Lord Liverpool's Government, and being possessed of great tact and discrimination, hn was n;imed one of a commission, appointed in 1821, for inquiry into the revenue in Ireland, and, from 1822 to 1825, he sat on a similar commission for the whole of the United Kingdom, the result of which inquiries was the consolidation of the three boards (in England, Scotland, and Ireland) of Customs and Excise into one. He afterwards became Treasurer of the Navy, and in 1834, was placed at the head of

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the celebrated Commission for inquiry into the working of the Poor Laws. He was made Knight in 1828, and Baronet in 1846. He represented Beaumaris in Parliament from 1812 to 1826; Ennis, 1826-8 ; Radnorshire, 1828-35 ; and afterwards sat for Radnor borough. (The Red Dragon.) See Diet. Nat Biog. ; Spencer Walpole's History of England, v. 2, p. 540, v. 3 p. 449 ; Letters of Madam de Lieven and Earl Grey, v. 1, p. 306 ; Times, 24th January, 1855 ; Qent. Mag., 1834 and 1855 ; Moore's Memoirs. Lewis, Thomas Palestina, 1821-1897, a self-made man, was a native of Cemaes, Anglesey. From a very small beginning he acquired an extensive business as flour merchant, from the active management of which he withdrew in 1866. He travelled considerably, and visited the Holy Land, the United States, and the Calvinistic Methodist mission field on the Khasia Hills, in India, and afterwards delivered a series of lectures on his travels. He was one of the leading laymen of the Calvinistic Methodists. In 1886 he succeeded Mr. Richard Davies as Liberal member for Anglesey, and retained the seat until his resigna tion, owing to failing health, in 1894. He was buried at Glanadda Cemetery, Bangor. (Bye-Gones, 1897, p. 245.) Lewis, Titus, 1773-1811, a Baptist minister and author, was born at Cilgeran, Pembrokeshire, and was the son of the Rev. Thomas Lewis, Baptist minister at Cilvowydd, in that county. He decided to enter the ministry, and, in 1796, settled with the Baptists at Blaenywyn, near Cardigan, removing, in 1800, to Carmarthen, where he died. He published several pamphlets, chiefly on religious subjects, and had a share, with Christmas Evans and Joseph Harris, in translating into Welsh the first five books of Dr. Gill's Commentary on the New Testament. His principal works, however, are a Welsh " Civil and Religious History of Great Britain" (Carmarthen: 1810), and a " Welsh-English Dictionary " (Carmarthen, 1805.) A second edition of the last-named work appeared in 1815. A poem to his memory, by Joseph Harris (Gomer), was published in 1811. (Diet. Em. W.; Cardiff Catalogue.) See Enwog. C. ; Enwog. y Ffydd, v. 2, p. 408 ; Seren Gomer, 1825, p. 127 ; Transactions of the Cardiff National Eisteddfod, 1883, p. 218 ; Seren Gomer, 1857, p. 102 : Hanes Llen.G.\ G.B.,\. 2, p. 161 ; Spurrell's Carmarthen, p. 136; Diet. Nat. Biog. Lewis, William, about 1735, an American Welshman, of Chester County, was a member of the Philadelphia bar before the adoption of the State Constitution of 1776, and was engaged in nearly all the important cases, particularly high treason, for which he had a special capacity. He was district judge of Pennsylvania in 1791 and 1792. ( Welshmen as Factors, &c.) Lewis, William, -1794, a kynm-writer, was a native of South Wales, and for some years prior to his death was a deacon with the Baptists at Llangloffan. In 1796, there appeared a small volume from his pen entitled "Galar a Gorfoledd y Saint" (Trevecca) ; and in 1798,four years after his death, a collection of his hymns was published by Evan Rees (Carmarthen: J. Evans). (Hanes Emynwyr ; Llyfrydd. y Cymry.)

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Lewis, William Dickens, 1838-1895, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, was born in Liverpool, his father being Mr. David Lewis, chief cishier in the Liverpool branch of the Bank of England. He received his early education in the Liverpool College, afterwards proceeding to King's College. For some time he held a lucrative appointment in the Bank of England, London, but relinquished this in order to study for the ministry. He then went to Oxford, where he graduated M.A. In 1869, he was appointed district secretary of the British and Foreign Bible Society. In 1885, he received the degree of D.D. from the Princeton University, after reading a Hebrew thesis before the Faculty of that University. He was ordained in 1870, and in 1890 was elected Moderator of the North Wales Association. He was one of the best bilingual speakers in the country, being equally eloquent in English and Welsh, and had the rare ability of always saying the right thing in the right way. Personally he was a most delightful friend and acquaintance, and his personality was what might be termed " racy and genial," being full of fun and humour, an admirable raconteur, and brilliant conversationalist. (Private information.) Lewis, William Mortimer, 1840-1880, a Baptist minister and principal of Pontypool College, was born at Mydrim, Carmarthen shire. His parents belonged to the Calvinistic Methodist persuasion, but when he was about 18 years of age he became deeply agitated by doubts respecting infant baptism, and decided to join the Baptists. After receiving private tuition he entered Glasgow University, where he remained seven years, taking his M.A. degree, with special distinc tion. He excelled as a mathematician and logican, and in philosophy ranked high at the university. While there he won Dr. Williams' scholarship, and was afterwards offered Dr. Williams' Divinity scholar ship, which, owing to the state of his health, he declined. He then entered Regent's Park College, London, where he continued the study of theology. While there, the classical and mathematical chair at Pontypool became vacant, and he accepted the post. Six years later, on the resignation of Dr. Thomas, he became principal. Among his students he was not only admired for his wide knowledge, his high culture, and his splendid intellectual powers, but he was loved as a father and consulted as a trusted friend, whose chief pleasure it was to aid them in all their difficulties. (Baptist Handbook, 1881.) Lewis, William Thomas, 1748-1811, called "Gentleman" Lewis, an actor, was of Welsh descent, and was born at Ormskirk, Lancashire. In 1773, he made his first appearance at Covent Garden, where he soon attained a leading position. He created many characters of high, and some of primary, importance. His farewell appearance was at the Haymarket, in 1809, when he played "Roger" in "The Ghost," and "The Copper Captain" in "Rule a Wife and have a Wife." The qualification " Gentleman " associated with his name (from the absence of vulgarity in his style) was subsequently, with far less justice, assigned to Richard Jones (1779-1851), and other actors. Three of his portraits are to be found in the Matthew's Collection at the Garrick Club. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Literary Panorama, February,

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1811, p. 402 ; Y Brython, v. 1, second edition, p. 424 ; Hitchcock's View of the Irish Stage ; Genest's Account of the English Stage, ; Gilliland's Dramatic Mirror; Doran's Annals of the Stage ; Hazlitt's Dramatic Essays ; Bernhardt Recollections ; Boaden's Memoirs of J. P. Kemble. Lewis, William W., 1828-1900, one of the pioneer Welshmen of the city of Cincinnati, U.S.A., was a man of rare genius, and of an inventive turn of mind. In the seventies he invented the horse shoe machine, which he built and worked in co-operation with some of the largest rolling mills in that part of the United States. For the last twenty years of his life, he had been concentrating his thought upon the balance valve movement of locomotives and marine engines, and had invented an ingenious device called the automatic gear valve. (The Cambrian, 1900, p. 185.) Lewys Glyn Dyfi, see Meredith, Lewis. Llallawg, see James, Thomas. Llanover, Lord, see Hall, Benjamin. Llawdden, see Howell, David. Llechidon, see Parry, William. Lleurwg, see Morgan, John Rhys. Llew Bowydd, see Thomas, David. Llew Llwyfo, see Lewis, Lewis William. Llewelyn Ddu O F6n, see Morris, Lewis. Llewelyn, John, or "Sion Llewelyn," 1690-1776, a hymnwriter, was bora near Merthyr Tydfil, and resided during the greater part of his life at Cwmyglo, in that district. He published a volume called "Caniadau ar Amrywiol Destynau," containing poems and hymns. A fourth edition appeared in 1791 (Carmarthen : J. Ross). (Hants Emynwyr ; Cardiff Catalogue.) Llewellyn, Thomas, 1720 (?)- 1783, a Baptist minister and author, was born in the parish of Gelligaer, Glamorganshire. Having joined the Baptist Church at Hengoed, near his home, he was induced to enter the ministry. By way of preparation, he spent a short time at Trosnant, near Pontypool, from whence he went to Bristol College. He afterwards settled in London, where he also became an instructor of young men intended for the ministry. When following this pro fession, he was made a doctor of laws. He was very partial to his native land, and in his latter years divided his time pretty equally between London and Wales. With the object of strengthening his appeal for subscriptions to bring out a new edition of the Bible, he wrote an account of the former editions of the Welsh Bible, under the title, " A Historical Account of British or Welsh Versions and Editions of the Bible " (London : R. Hett, 1768), which is still a standard work on the subject. He also wrote " Historical and Critical Remarks on the British Tongue, and its connection with other languages, founded on its state in the Welsh Bible" (London : 1769). (Richards' Life of Dr. Llewellyn.) See Seren Qomer, 1855, pp. 385, 433 ; Diet. Nat.

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Biog. ; Josiah Thomas' Hanes y Bedyddwyr ; Diet. Em. W. ; Enwog. C. ; Leath art's History of the Qwyneddigion ; Cardiff Catalogue. Llewelyn Twrog, see Edwards, Lewis. Llewelyn, William, 1735-1803, a Nonconformist minister and author, was the son of Thomas Llewelyn, of Bridgend, Glamorgan shire, ami received his education at Abergavenny College. He wrote : " An Exposition of the beginning of Genesis ; " " An Exposition of the Epistle to the Romans ; " "A Treatise on the Sabbath ; " " The Inspiration of the Bible nsserted and explained ; " " The Doctrine of Baptism ; " an extraordinary work entitled, " Morphe Theus " (The Form of God), and other volumes. (Enwog. C.) Llinos, see Williams, Maria Jane. Lloyd, Albany Rosendale, 1817-1895, a clergyman and author, of Welsh descent, was the son of the Rev. Charles Arthur Albany Lloyd, rector of Whittington, Salop. He was educated by private tutors, and subsequently proceeded to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. Entering the clerical profession, he was appointed to a curacy in a manufacturing district in 1840, and afterwards served other curacies in Liverpool, and in 1846, when his father succeeded to the valuable family living of Selattyn, in addition to the rectory of Whittington, he appointed his son Albany as his locum tenens, surrendering to him the whole of his stipend. He was afterwards preferred to the living of Hengoed, near Oswestry. He was a frequent writer, and occasionally addressed communications to the Advertiser, and was a regular contributor to the Oswestry Commercial Circular. He also wrote a History of England in verse, and several other books of verse, and re-publiphed Mrs. Hannah Moore's " Parley the Potter," deeming it suitable for his own times. (Bye-Qones, 1895, p. 59.) Lloyd, Bartholomew, 1772-1837, provost of Trinity College, Dublin, was born at New Ross, County Wexford, but was descended from a Welsh family which settled in that county at the end of the seventeenth century. He entered Trinity College, Dublin, in 1787, as a pensioner, graduating M.A. in 1796 ; B.D. in 1805, and D.D. in 1808. In 1813, he was appointed Eras Smith's professor of Mathe matics. He introduced a radical change in the methods of teaching, and raised the study of mathematics to the highest position reached in the University. He was the first to introduce French Mathematics into that College. In 1825, he was elected professor of Greek, and, six years later, professor of the College. The " Lloyd's Exhibitions " were founded by subscription in 1838, in his memory. A marble bust of him stands in the library of Trinity College, and a portrait in the provost's house. He was the author of " A Treatise on Analytic Geometry ; " " Discourses, chiefly doctrinal, delivered at the Chapel, Trinity College, Dublin," and " An Elementary Treatise of Mechanical Philosophy." (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Dublin University Magazine, 1838, xi. ; Qent. Mag., 1838 ; Memoir by the Rev. J. H. Singer, D.D., in Proceedings of Royal Irish Academy for 1837 ; Taylor's History of Trinity- College^Dublin,

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Lloyd, Charles, 1748-1828, a philanthropist, born in Birming ham, was the second son of Sampson Lloyd, banker, of Birmingham, a descendant of an old Montgomeryshire family, and a member of the Society of Friends. He was educated at a private school, where he became a good classical scholar. He then entered his father's bank, and after the latter's death carried on the business with considerable success. He became a man of great influence with the Society of Friends. In 1807, he published anonymously, " A Translation of the Twenty-fourth Book of the Iliad of Homer," in the heroic couplet, after the manner of Cowper. He also translated seven books of the Odyssey, which does not appear to have been published. His translation of portions of Horace was published in the Gentleman's Magazine for the years 1808 to 1812. In the latter year, he printed, for private circulation, " The Epistles of Horace," translated into English verse. His translation of an alcaic ode on the death of Dr. Parr, by his grandson, Bishop Wordsworth, is printed, with one of his letters, in the Bishop's " Annals of my early Life," London, 1891. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Gent. Mag., 1809, pt.*2, p. 225 ; Ibid, 1810, pt. 1 pp. 63, 253, 358, pt. 2, p. 159 ; Ibid, 1811, pt. 2, p. 62; Ibid, 1828, pt. 1, pp. 279, 281 : Martin's Privately Printed Books, p. 203 ; Wordsworth's Annals of my early Life. Lloyd, Charles, 1766-1829, dissenting minister and school master, was the third son of David Lloyd, Presbyterian minister at Llwynrhydonen, Cardiganshire. He was educated for the ministry by his uncle, John Lloyd, of Coedlanau, and afterwards at the Presbyterian Academy, at Swansea. In 1788, he was elected minister of Oak Street Chapel, Evesham. Shortly afterwards (in 1790), he resigned his pastorate owing to his doubts about infant baptism. He then took charge of a Baptist cause at Ditchling, Sussex. In 1792, he started a boarding-school, and in the following year left the ministry, and removed his school to Exeter. In 1809, he removed to Pulgrave, Suffolk, and later on to London. In 1803, he received the diploma of D.D. from Glasgow University. He died at Lampeter, and was buried at Llanwenog. His works include : " Travels at home," &c (1814) ; " The Monthly Repository Extraordinary," &c. (1819) ; " The Epistles (six) of St. Paul and St. James, a new version " (1819) ; Two Sermons on Christian Zeal " (1808) ; " Observations on the Choice of School " (1812) ; " Particulars of the Life of a Dissenting Minister " (1813.) (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See his Particulars of the Life, &c., 1813 ; Monthly Repository, 1809, pp. 51, 698 ; 1819, pp. 569, et seq., and 1829, p. 443 ; Christian Reformer, 1831, p. 337, and 1852, p. 618 et seq. Lloyd, Charles, 1775-1839, a poet, the intimate friend of Charles Lamb, the essayist, and so often mentioned in his early letters, and also the friend of S. T. Coleridge, Southey, and Wilson, was the eldest son of Charles Lloyd, a wealthy Birmingham banker (1748-1828, see ante), and the great-great grandson of Charles Lloyd, the Quaker, who was a native of Montgomeryshire. De Quincey thus notices Mr. Lloyd :—4' He was a man never to be forgotten. ... He had in conversation the most extraordinary power for analysis of a certain kind applied to philosophy of manners, . . . and his translation

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of 4 Alfieri,' together with his own poems, show him to have been an accomplished scholar." He published a volume of poems, and several other volumes. His merits as a poet are thus summed up by Talfourd :— " He wrote, indeed, pleasing verses, and with great facility,—a facility fatal to excellence ; but his mind was chiefly remarkable for the fine power of analysis which distinguishes his 4London,' and other of his later compositions." (Mont. Worthies.) Lloyd, Daniel Lewis, 1843-1899, "Llwyd o Lan Llethi," Bishop of Bangor, was born in the parish of Llanarth, Cardiganshire, and his early education was obtained at Carmarthen Grammar School, where he secured a scholarship tenable at Jesus College, Oxford. On leaving the University he became headmaster of Dolgelley Grammar School, and simultaneously he was licensed to the curacy of the parish. In 1873, he accepted the headmastership of Friars School, Bangor, and under his guidance the school made rapid strides. In 1878, he became headmaster of Christ College, Brecon, and here again extraordinary success attended his efforts. In June, 1890, he was consecrated Bishop of Bangor, and his appointment did much to conciliate many whose hostility to the Church was due mainly to the feeling that the Church in Wales was being more and more Anglicised. He took the keenest interest in all educational movements, and until his health failed he was most assiduous in the discharge of his episcopal duties. Bishop Lloyd was the compiler of a Welsh Hymnal entitled " Emyniadur yr Eglwys yng Nghymru " (Bangor : Jarvis & Foster, 1897), upon which he bestowed anxious care, and which is a valuable contribution to Welsh hymnology. It contains a number of his own hymns—original and translations. (C. & D. Herald; Cardiff Catalogue.) See ByeGones, 1899, p. 183 ; Y Geninen, 1900, p. 170, and March, p. 33; Ibid, 1899, p. 278. Lloyd, David, about 1650, an American lawyer, who was of Welsh descent, was, in 1682, Attorney-General in Penn's Province— the first in the history of the province ; and, in 1705, he was supreme judge. Under the Provincial Government, he was made Keeper of the Great Seal ; and, in 1683, and again in 1690, he was Master of the Rolls. The author of "The Courts of Pennsylvania in the 17th. Century" says : "Few of the early colonists of this province deserve the thanks and remembrance of posterity more than David Lloyd." ( Welshmen as Factors, &c.) See Wales, v. 3, p. 18. Lloyd, David, 1725-1779, a preacher and hymn writer, was born at Llandyseul, Carmarthenshire, and received an excellent education. He was ordained at Llwyn in 1745. A volume of his poetry was published by Ross, Carmarthen, and several of his productions are also to be found in " Blodau Dyfed." (Hanes Emynwyr.) Lloyd, David, 1752-1838, a clergyman and author, was born in the parish of Llanbister, Radnorshire. He studied for holy ordera, and in 1789 was preferred to the vicarage of his native parish, and there he resided until the close of his long life. He was a man of great natural abilities. He was fond of mechanics, and constructed engines for various purposes. He was also a good musician, and a march which he

Lewis William Lewis, (Llew Llwyfo).

Rev. William Dickens Lewis, D.D.

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composed, entitled " The Loyal Cambrian Volunteers," was very favourably received. In 1792, he published " The Voyage of Life," a poem in nine books, of considerable merit, and in 1812 a second edition in ten books, with an additional title of " Characteristics of Men, Manners, and Sentiments," was issued. His other publications were a a sermon on " England's Privileges," preached on a day appointed for a general thanksgiving (1797), and " A Series of Essays on Subjects Interesting and Important, embracing Physics, Morals, and The ology " (1823). (History of Radnorshire, 1905, p. 424.) See Diet. Nat. Biog. ; Gent. Mag., 1838, pt. 1, p. 662. Lloyd, David, 1805-1863, a Unitarian minister, was a son of John Lloyd, of Llandyssul, and a grandson of the Rev. David Lloyd, (1725-1779, see ante.) He was educated at Glasgow, graduating M.A. in 1833, and the degree of Ll.D. was conferred upon him in 1852. He was tutor at the Presbyterian College, Carmarthen, from 1833 to 1835, when he became principal. He sacrificed much time and money in connection with philanthropic movements in the town ; the Infirm ary owes its existence almost entirely to his efforts. He crossed swords, on the education question, with Bishop Thirlwall ; and he was also engaged in a controversy on religious liberty, with the Rev. D. A. Williams, incumbent of Carmarthen, and his pamphlets were published. His memoir, with portrait appeared in " Yr Ymofynydd, 1895, p. 242. (Hie Unitarian Students at the Presbyterian College, Camarthen, Rev. R. Jenkin Jones, M.A., 1901, p. 31 ; The Christian Reformer, 1863, p.p. 639, 679 ; Yr Ymofynydd, 1863, p. 243.) Lloyd, Sir Edward, -1795, a civil servant, came of an ancient family in North Wales, of whom mention is made in the eighth century. He was the youngest son of John Lloyd, Esq., of Pontriffith (or Pontruffydd), Denbighshire. When but a youth, he entered the office of the Secretary at War as junior clerk, eventually attaining to a senior clerkship, and finally that of first clerk in the War Office. In 1755, he was appointed Secretary at War for Scotland, and three years later was created a baronet. Dying without issue, the baronetcy descended under limitation of the patent to his grand-nephew, Edward Pryce Lloyd, who was elevated to the peerage in 1831, as Baron Mostyn. (The Red Dragon.) Lloyd, Edward, 1818-1901, a well-known animal painter, who was born of Welsh parents, spent the greater part of his life in Manchester, afterwards removing to Ellesmere. As a lad he had a taste for the fine arts, and in early youth travelled to Manchester for the purpose of studying picture-painting under Calvert. As a horse-painter he was very successful, and in consequence was much sought after by the nobility and others. Many portraits of celebrated race-horses were painted by him, notably Newminster, Leamington, and Marengo. His works were shown at the Royal Academy, as well as at Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool, York, and elsewhere. His leading patrons included Lords Combermere, Hill, Kenyon, Hanmer, Kerr, and Dungannon, Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, Bart., M.P., and Sir Charles Slingsby. He died while on a visit to his son at Manchester, and was buried at Ellesmere Cemetery. (Bye-Gones, 1901, p. 70.)

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Lloyd, Evan, 1734-1776, a poet of very great merit, was the second son of John Lloyd, of Frondderw, near Bala, and completed his education at Jesus College, Oxford, where he graduated M.A. He entered Holy Orders, and for some time served a church in London, and afterwards became vicar of Llanfair, in the Vale of Clwyd. He is known as the author of "The Powers of the Pen," "The Curate," "The Methodist," "The Conversation," and an "Epistle to David Garrick, Esq." He was on intimate terms with Churchill, Garrick, Wilkes, Colman, and other eminent men. His satirical remarks upon a neighbouring squire, in his poem, " The Methodist," led to an action for libel against him, for which he was imprisoned. He was buried in the family vault at Llanycil,near Bala, Merionethshire, a monument being erected to his memory, with the following inscription by his friend Wilkes :—

(Diet. Em. W.) See Bye-Gones, 1898, p. 528; Y Geninen, 1893, p. 95; Diet. Nat. Biog.; Foster's Alumni Oxon.; Notes & Queries, 5th series, iii., p. 108 ; Watts' Bibl. Brit., p. 611. Lloyd, Sir Evan, 1768-1846, a soldier, was the eldest son of Evan Lloyd, Esq., of Cefndyrus, Breconshire, and a descendant of Thomas Lloyd, who led a band of Welshmen to the battle of Bosworth, and who was rewarded by Henry VII. with substantial marks of his favour. At the early age of 12, Evan Lloyd received a commission as cornet in the 17th Light Dragoons. He subsequently attained to the rank of colonel, and was present with the gallant 17th in nearly all the actions and sieges in which it was engaged in India. He also served under Sir Samuel Auchmuty, in South America, in 1806 and 1807. He attained to the rank of general in 1841, being also created a Knight Bachelor, and a Knight Commander of the Order of the Guelphs of Hanover. During the latter portion of his life, his English country seat was at Ferney Hall, near Ludlow. (Old Wales, v. 1, p. 161.) Lloyd, Evan, 1800-1879, a printer, was a native of Flintshire' and for many years held a position of importance in the Inland Revenue Department in London. He died in the metropolis on the 2nd May, 1879. He was the original publisher of the Commentary of the Rev. James Hughes, of London, and also the publisher of a Welsh newspaper called Croniel yr Oes, which appeared at Mold in 1835 ; and which was discontinued about four years later. (Bye-Gones, 1879, p. 211 : Llenyddiaeth fy Ngwlad.) Lloyd, Francis, 1655-1704, a lawyer, was the son of Marmadnke Lloyd, of Crug-cadarn, Breconshire. He was called to the bar in 1678, and was appointed attorney-general of Glamorgan, Brecknock, and Radnor, in 1689. In the following year he made an unsuccessful attempt to enter Parliament, as member for Ludlow ; but, on petition, his rival was unseated, and he was returned in 1691, and sat till 1695.

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In the latter year, he was appointed pnisne justice of Anglesey Carnarvon and Merioneth. He also acted as recorder of Ludlow from 1692 until his death. (The Welsh Judges). Lloyd, Hannibal Evans, 1771-1844, philologist and translator* who was of Welsh descent, was born in London. In 1300, he settled in Hamburg, where he took up arms with the inhabitants during the occupation by the French army. He escaped, having lost all his property, and arrived in England in 1813. At the suggestion of the Foreign Secretary he published an account of his experiences, and afterwards received an appointment at the Foreign Office. He wrote Italian verses with much elegance. Besides his volume on Hamburg, he wrote " Alexander I., Emperor of Russia," " George IV.—Memoirs of his life and reign " ; two volumes dealing with the Description and Historical features of Europe ; and edited various other books. His translations were very numerous, and he was a constant contributor to the Literary Gazette. (Diet. Nat. Biog.) See Gent. Mag., 1847, part ii., p. 324. Lloyd, Henry, 1729-1783, a distinguished soldier and writer on military subjects, was the son of a clergyman in Merionethshire. Being intended for the army, he was sent abroad, and was at the Battle of Fontenoy. In 1760, he commanded a large detachment of cavalry and infantry, which was intended to observe the motions of the Prussians, a service which he performed with great success. In the war between the Turks and Russians, he offered his services to Catherine the Second, who made him a major-general, and in that capacity he greatly distinguished himself. Subsequently, he had the command of thirty thousand men in the war with Sweden. He afterwards returned to England, and wrote several works on military affairs, which placed him in a high rank as a military writer. His " History of the Seven Years' War," in two volumes, is a model of what such a work should be. He also wrote "A Treatise on the composition of the different armies, ancient and modern," and " A Treatise on the Invasion and Defence of England." The latter, printed at London in 1779, was suppressed, it is believed at the instance of the Government. (Diet. Em. W.; Imp. Diet. Biog.) Lloyd, Howel William, 1816-1893, an antiquary, was born at Rhaggatt, near Corwen, Merionethshire, and educated at Rugby and Oxford. Having subsequently taken orders, he became perpetual curate of Pentrevoelas, but on the 6th April, 1846, he was received into the Roman Catholic Church at Oscott, near Birmingham, and for the sake of his religious convictions entered upon a life of hardship and self-denial. During the time of the Crimean war he held a post as supernumerary in the War Office. He wrote many articles upon subjects connected with Wales and Welsh lore to Bye-Gones and other publications, and the elegance of his mind is shown in many poems which he translated from our ancient poets. For many years he was the intimate friend of the Chevalier Lloyd, whom he assisted with transla tions of poems for his " History of Powys Fadog." He was a member of several archaeological societies, and took an interest in every attempt to promote the study of the past. One of his most useful labours was

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a " History of the Parish of Llangurig " (written in collaboration with Mr. E. Hamer), contributed to the " Montgomeryshire Col lections." 'm which much light is thrown upon the traditions and superstitions of Wales and the antiquities of the locality. (Bye-Qones, 1893,.p. 204.) Lloyd, Humphrey, 1800-1881, provost of Trinity College, Dublin, and scientist, was the eldest son of the Rev. Bartholomew Lloyd (1772-1837, see ante), and was born in Dublin. He took first place at his entrance examinations in Trinity College, Dublin, in 1815, obtained a scholarship in 1818, and the science gold medal at his graduation in 1820. In 1824, he was elected to a fellowship, but resigned it seven years later for the chair of natural phil