Encyclopaedia of - Talking about cinema

Encyclopaedia of - Talking about cinema

Indian Cinema Encyclopaedia of Indian Cinema Encyclopaedia ASHISH RAJ A D H YAKS H A / P AU L WILLE ME N BFI PUBLISHING OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS ...

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Indian Cinema Encyclopaedia

of

Indian Cinema Encyclopaedia

ASHISH RAJ A D H YAKS H A / P AU L WILLE ME N

BFI PUBLISHING

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS New Delhi 1998 Produced in association with the National Film Achive of India

of

First published in 1994 by the British Film Institute 21 Stephen Street, London W1P 1PL and Oxford University Press YMCA Library Building, Jai Singh Road Post Box 43, New Delhi 110001

The British Film Institute exists to encourage the development of film, television and video in the United Kingdom, and to promote knowledge, understanding and enjoyment of the culture of the moving image. Its activities include the National Film and Television Archive; the National Film Theatre; the Museum of the Moving Image; the London Film Festival; the production and distribution of film and video; funding and support for regional activities; Library and Information Services; Stills, Posters and Design; Research, Publishing and Education; and the monthly Sight and Sound magazine.

Copyright © Ashish Rajadhyaksha and Paul Willemen 1994 All rights reserved

Cover: From the exhibition Culture of the Streets (1981) by M. F. Husain. Reproduced, with grateful thanks, courtesy of M. F. Husain. The authors respectfully dedicate this book to the memory of D. D. Kosambi.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

ISBN 0-85170-455-7 (UK) 019-563579-5 (India)

US Cataloguing data available from the Library of Congress.

R

Designed and Processed at

CONTENTS

Acknowledgments .................................................................................. 7 Preface to Second Edition ...................................................................... 8 Preface .................................................................................................... 9 Introduction .......................................................................................... 10 Explanatory Notes ................................................................................ 12 Abbreviations ....................................................................................... 15 Chronicle .............................................................................................. 17 National Production Figures ................................................................ 30 Dictionary ............................................................................................. 33 Films ................................................................................................... 243 Bibliography ....................................................................................... 533 Name Index ........................................................................................ 547 Film Index........................................................................................... 572

Blank

Acknowledgements We gratefully acknowledge the financial and institutional assistance of the UNESCO Participation Programme (1989); the Indian Council for Social Science Research, New Delhi; the Charles Wallace (India) Trust; Tata Institute of Social Sciences (Bombay), and Centre for the Study of Culture & Society, Bangalore.

A special thank you, at the end of a long journey, to all the contributors of this book. Most of them worked on it in their spare time, while holding down full-time jobs as bureaucrats, teachers, journalists or researchers in areas other than the cinema, which makes their involvement, their labour and their patience all the more valuable.

A number of people have graciously and generously taken the time to give us advice and to comment on parts of the manuscript. Special thanks go to Nasreen Munni Kabir, M. S. S. Pandian, V. A. K. Ranga Rao, Geeta Kapur, Harish Raghuvanshi, P. K. Nair, Sibaji Bandyopadhyay, Anustup Basu, Shivarama Padikkal, ‘Filmnews’ Anandan, Venkatesh Chakravarthy, V. Chandran, Roma Gibson, B. N. Subramanya and P. G. Srinivasa Murthy.

The already complicated problems of gathering information across the expanse of India, the absence of established networks and the, at times, bewildering logistics of simple communication systems, always and in every instance means that in India, people depend on other people, friends and colleagues, families, associates, relatives, acquaintances, to manage - even to set up - functioning systems in lieu of those that do not work. I could not even begin to list the many friends who extended their hospitality to me, those who sent me books and references or put me in touch with others who could help. A special thank you to colleagues at the Centre for the Study of Culture and Society, Bangalore, in particular to Tejaswini Niranjana for her support and encouragement, Geeta Kapur, Vivan Sundaram, Nasreen Munni Kabir, Prof. Mihir Bhattacharya and the Department of Film Studies Jadavpur University, Nandinee Bandyopadhyay, Jhuma Basak; P. Govinda Pillai, Prof. Hiren Gohain, Dhiru Bhuyan, Pabitra Kumar Deka, Prafulla Dutta, Bobbeeta Sarma; Ashok Dhareshwar, David Windsor; Anjali Monteiro at the TISS, Sudhir Nandgaonkar and the Prabhat Chitra Mandal, S. V. Rajendra Singh, Girish Kasaravalli, Satyamurthy Anandur, Sushant Mishra, T.V. Chandran, K.P. Kumaran. Subbalakshmi Iyer allowed us the use of her bibliography of Indian cinema. A special thanks to Gudipoodi Srihari for his help in Telugu film, ‘Filmnews’ Anandan for the Tamil and Dilip Das for helping us overcome difficulties in researching recent Oriya film. Gerhard Koch kindly advised us on the entry for Franz Osten. M. S. S. Pandian provided a new bibliography of Tamil film for the second edition. Randor Guy graciously reassured us about the accuracy of some of our information on Tamil cinema. Jyoti Bhatt gave us his kind permission to use and also provided the print for the picture illustrating the DMK Film entry. Virchand Dharamsey made available his encyclopaedic memory not only in his area of specialisation, but also to identify hundreds of film stills. Harish Raghuvanshi is largely responsible for whatever degree of accuracy we have achieved in our Hindi filmographies. K. P. R. Nair shot and S. B. Kanhere developed the prints in the NFAI collection for this book. Riyad Vinci Wadia provided new information, including prints of otherwise unavailable Wadia productions to help us correct and update credits, synopses, filmographies and other information on that studio and its personnel. The Films Division Commentary staff gave me access to every Indian language, a unique instance of the unique nature of many of our national institutions. Alaknanda Samarth’s support at all times, and especially in that rainy February of 1992 in London at a particularly critical time for this project, as well as Mrs Ranu Biswas’ hospitality in Calcutta and R. S. Amladi’s for long stretches in Pune, are the kinds of support that, over time, became integral to the logistics of this programme.

Stills: Courtesy National Film Archive of India; BFI Stills, Posters and Designs; Kamat Foto Flash, Syndications Today. We thank the following contributors and consultants: Assamese: Pradip Acharya (Guwahati) Bengali: Moinak Biswas (Calcutta) Bhojpuri and Rajasthani: Murlidhar Soni (Jaipur) Gujarati: Amrit Gangar (Mumbai) Gujarati and Hindi: Harish Raghuvanshi (Surat) Hindi: Nasreen Munni Kabir (London) Kannada: Dr Vijaya (Bangalore), Madhava Prasad (Bangalore) Malayalam: P. K. Nair (Pune), R. Nandakumar (Trivandrum), Neelan (Trichur), Satheesh Poduval (Hyderabad) Oriya: Chandidas Mishra (Mumbai/Bhubhaneshwar), Samarendra Das (Phulbani) Punjabi: B. R. Garg (New Delhi), Anup Singh (London) Silent Film: Virchand Dharamsey (Mumbai) Tamil: S. Theodore Baskaran (Chennai), Preetham Chakravarthy (Chennai) Telugu: K. N. T. Sastry (Hyderabad), I. S. A. Mohana Krishna (Hyderabad), S. V. Srinivas (Hyderabad/Bangalore) Research and editorial assistance were generously contributed by Subhash Chheda, Amrit Gangar and their team at DadaKino, Mumbai, as well as by: Bengali: Amitava Sen (Calcutta), Sanjit Choudhury (Calcutta) Documentary Film: Subhash Chheda, Amrit Gangar (Mumbai) Hindi: Kavita Anand (Mumbai), Ganga Mukhi (Mumbai) Kannada: Pushpamala N. (Mysore/Mumbai), Sandhya Rao (Bangalore), Raghunandan (Mysore) Malayalam: M. G. Radhakrishnan (Trivandrum), Koshy A.V. (Trivandrum), Sreekumar K. (Trivandrum) and Manambur Suresh (London) Marathi: Vasudha Ambiye (Mumbai) Silent Film: Partho Datta (New Delhi) Tamil: M. Ravi Kumar (Mumbai) This book, quite simply, would never have been realised without the assistance of a number of people within the British Film Institute (Richard Paterson, Bridget Kinally and Imdad Hussain), London, and the National Film Archive of India, Pune. In addition, we should like to thank the Nehru Centre in London, the London International Film Festival, Mr R. Advani and Ms Anita Roy of the Oxford University Press, Delhi, for their enthusiasm and support. For support in editing, designing and printing the second edition, we are especially grateful to the Repro-India team, and in particular to Rakesh Pherwani’s assistance in solving often complex problems of computer software. We are particularly grateful to Mr P. K. Nair who, in his former capacity as director of the NFAI, was a major supporter of the project and who later became one of its key contributors and authorities. His successor, Suresh Chabria, extended all the facilities of the NFAI for research and remained a source of encouragement and support. On several occasions the staff, especially the film and library staff, went beyond their official function to extend their belief in, and commitment to, this endeavour. Needless to say, none of this book’s no doubt numerous shortcomings can be blamed on any of the contributors and advisers who have so generously and unselfishly given their time and expertise to this project.

Thanks also to the library staffs, too numerous to name, of the National Centre for Performing Arts, Mumbai Marathi Granthasangrahalaya, the Centre for Education and Documentation (Mumbai); the Kerala Studies section of the Trivandrum University Library; the National Library, Gautam Chattopadhyay at Nandan, the libraries of Chitrabani, Cine Central and Cine Society (Calcutta); the Film and Television Institute of India (Pune); the Suchitra Film Society (Bangalore); the Nehru Memorial Museum and Library (New Delhi); the BFI’s library and the India Office Library (London). Information about the careers of Indian directors in Malaysia was kindly supplied by Mr Dato’ Haji Mohd Zain Haji Hamzah and Ms Shara Abdul Samad of the National Film Development Corporation, Malaysia. And, finally, Pushpamala, who shared with me every moment of the pain and the pleasure, the discoveries and the journeys of realisation we made together these last five years. The complexity these days of values like ‘home’ and ‘belonging’ and ‘memory’, the interrogation and enablement that is the very stuff of her work, makes her place in the world in which this book has been written perhaps the most special of all.

Ashish Rajadhyaksha 7

Preface to Second Edition

I

t is with pleasure that we present before you a revised and updated

did not feature in the book. It must be remembered in this context that

second edition of the Encyclopaedia of Indian Cinema. The book’s

some 23 million Indians go to the movies every day, that a goodly

indices, filmographies and film entries have now been brought up

percentage of these would consider themselves, validly, authorities on

to 1995. We present new entries on stars, directors and composers who

the subject of this book, and further, that certain kinds of actors often

have made their mark in the 1990s, and a vastly expanded section of film

represent an essential constituency, and are crucially implicated in the

entries where we have especially covered mainstream productions from

assertion of their fans’ identities.

the 1970s-90s. These are films that are most likely to be in current circulation, on video, television or in your neighbourhood theatre. We have carried out many thousands of corrections on the first edition, some major, others mostly to do with spellings, dates - many film titles have now been re-dated in terms of their actual completion (rather than their dates of release) - and the identification of dubbed films and multilingual productions. We also include a new feature: an exhaustive index of names other than the ones featuring as independent entries. Although

Many readers responded to our call for this project to become something of a collaborative venture, helped with their knowledge on certain areas, with comments on certain perhaps unduly critical turns of phrase, with otherwise scarce information enabling us to update this project as a whole. To these readers, and to the dozens of reviewers of the first edition in India, Pakistan, Britain, Australia and the USA who also came up with often useful responses, our sincere gratitude.

nowhere near the end, we believe in all this that we have taken a major

Our gratitude especially extends to the team that assembled the first

step towards that elusive category ‘definitive’.

edition, and went to work on the second. We also welcome to the team

When we handed over the first edition to the publishers in mid-1994, all those who had worked on the book were aware of the priorities of its time. Our focus was then on the history of Indian cinema, especially on its relatively less chronicled periods: the silent era, the early years of sound, the major directors, stars, writers and composers who were noted figures in their times but often forgotten by subsequent generations.

several new, younger, contributors and consultants who joined us, notably in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam and Oriya cinemas. Their names feature in our updated acknowledgements list. Many of our senior authorities went through the book in the greatest possible detail, and we must especially reiterate our gratitude to Virchand Dharamsey, Harish Raghuvanshi and V.A.K. Ranga Rao in this regard.

Furthermore, we tried to present as far as possible within the pages of a

Most gratifying perhaps, at least partly as a result of the work that went

single book the vast panorama of the six major language industries and

into this book along with the debates its publication has sparked, other

the nine other languages in which films are commonly made, covering

initiatives appear to have received a new burst of energy. In terms of

not only the well known titles but also the key film-making personnel of

research, DataKino’s computerised data bank housed at the National

these regions. This often called for some kind of loose system of

Film Development Corporation is set up on a clearly more

allocating space to all ‘language’ cinemas proportionate to their

comprehensive scale than could have been achieved in one book.

production scale. Finally, we addressed the major problems presented by

Further, the success of the first edition contributed to providing a new

the archives: how to use current concerns of theory to ‘read into’

space for writing on the cinema, and to allied events such as conferences

surviving material in situations where the films themselves haven’t

and workshops in the relatively recent discipline of film studies. It is this

always survived and information is scanty, scattered and often

development, and the nature of demands that theorists and researchers

contradictory.

of the future and arising from the new disciplines that are currently in the

Having put this together, the next stage was to put this material into the public arena, and generate some kind of dialogue with interested readers and authorities. We always expected a controversial response, but never one as

process of formation and stabilisation, that will no doubt determine the future directions this Encyclopaedia project will take. Perhaps future, computerised, and eventually on-line publication will allow both an expansion of the space at our disposal and permit newer search modes suitable both to researchers and cinephiles alike.

overwhelming as we got, especially in India, but also in many other parts of the world where the book is being used by teachers and researchers of Indian film. In India, the commonest response featured extensive, often heated, discussions around why certain names - usually of stars -

8

Ashish Rajadhyaksha/Paul Willemen August 1998

P

roducing a reference work about a national cinema is an uncomfortable project. Both Seamus Deane, an Irish intellectual, and Aijaz Ahmad, a subcontinental intellectual, have produced powerful critiques of the very attempts to provide a history of any particular art-form presented in terms of a nation-state’s achievements. Deane’s ‘Critical Reflections’ in Artforum of December 1993 argue the case in relation to the construction of national art histories. Ahmad’s ‘Indian Literature: Notes Towards the Definition of a Category’, reprinted in his book In Theory (1992, pp. 243-85), examines the (im)possibility of there being a national Indian literary history. Ahmad points out that, even should the legitimacy of a category such as Indian literature be granted, it would have to encompass such diverse histories in so many languages tied to geographical terrains with constantly shifting boundaries that no single scholar can ever claim to practise the discipline of Indian literature. Furthermore, the territorial unity that can readily, though abusively, be imagined for German, French, US or Japanese cinemas and literatures, cannot be fantasised for India without restricting the terrain and the period to an absurdly small fragment of what should be addressed if we are to make any kind of sense of the cultural productions at issue. To restrict an account of Indian cinema to the geotemporal frame constituted by the Indian nation-state since Independence or, more accurately, since Partition, would require us to ignore some of the most admirable cinematic achievements realised in Colonial India. More damagingly, it would also rule out any engagement with the longer-term dynamics which have shaped post-Partition Indian cinema. Even if it were thought to be desirable, a rigorously ‘nation-state’ approach to Indian cinema, or to any other art-form, cannot be sustained. If we put the emphasis on ‘nation’ rather than on ‘state’, the problems only multiply. In other words, there is no sense of Indianness, nor of any other so-called national identity, that precedes the forms of historical and personal experience or expression given shape by particular, geographically and historically bounded institutions of government, by particular state forms providing and enforcing, and always necessarily falling short of doing so homogeneously, both geographical limits and social stratifications. Nations are retroactive, not retrospective constructions to which we are invited, often not very subtly, to adhere. Seamus Deane notes that ‘the most essentialist figurings of history ... depend upon making an intersection between time and space, between chronology and territory. This is a feature of all writings that aim to provide a history of an art-form, of a literature, of a nation-state’s achievement in the arts.’ He goes on to ask: Is it possible to write a history of any form of ‘Art’, is it possible to locate it territorially, and at the same time to be free of any conception of art that is not at least implicitly essentialist and therefore subversive of the very idea and form of history - that is not in some sense either reactionary or ancestral in its longings, and, ultimately, impassive toward all forms of exposition or explanation? In this respect, a reference work is no different from a historical account: both construct what they purport to address. Deane’s questions go to the heart of the matter. It may not be an accident that an Irish intellectual talking about ‘Irish Art’ should ask questions so pertinent to the very desire of producing a book about Indian cinema. As an intellectual marked by the history of the island of Ireland, including the experience of colonialism, post-colonialism and Partition, Deane’s thought has a definite resonance for those who address notions of Indian art-forms. A book purporting to be, however imperfectly, an encyclopaedia of Indian cinema(s) cannot but lay itself open to all the criticisms and strictures formulated by Deane and Ahmad. The very enterprise of compiling such an encyclopaedia is inevitably caught in the tensions, fantasies and, not to put too fine a point on it, the traps they describe. If the category of Indian cinema cannot be restricted to post-Partition India, neither can it be made to coincide with any definition of pre-Partition or of Colonial India. Any such definition would include all or part of Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and various bits and pieces of geography beyond the current borders of the Indian Republic. As even a cursory glance at the Chronicle in this book will make clear, the boundaries and composition of the Indian State have varied a great deal over the years. In addition, the cultural divisions between Indian cinema and other cinemas have been very flexible as well. To give but one example, and the editors of this book have debated the point, the beginnings of Iranian

Preface sound cinema could be seen as part of Indian cinema: Ardeshir Irani, the director of Alam Ara, also made the Persian film, Dokhtar-e-Lor, in 1933 in Bombay, commonly acknowledged as the first Iranian sound feature, a fact celebrated in Mohsen Makhmalbaf’s Nassereddin Shah Actor-eCinema (Once Upon a Time Cinema, 1992). Any account of Indian cinema cannot but run the risk of essentialism as outlined by Deane, including its reactionary aspects and distasteful ancestral longings. To acknowledge, with Ahmad, that the art-form defined under such murky circumstances is always too diverse to fit neatly under any label that could be affixed to it, is small comfort, especially in the context of contemporary India where the risks to life and limb of ancestral longings and essentialism are so gruesomely made real. In such a context, it is not enough simply to point out that India is and always was plural and diverse and that any attempt to essentialise it, to force a coincidence between territory and chronology, or between nation, ethnicity, religion and state, is un-Indian (in the sense that it betrays the struggle which achieved an independent state in the first place) as well as murderous. Deane tries to think his way through the problem of the ‘national’ artform by invoking feminism: ‘It is a crux of feminist theory that essentialism must be both accepted and confronted, cancelled, erased.’ The present work on Indian cinema tries to learn this lesson from feminist theory, especially as formulated by, for example, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, who described the ‘risk of essence’ in terms of the need to acknowledge ‘the dangerousness of something one cannot not use’ (Outside in the Teaching Machine, London and New York: Routledge, 1993, p. 5). On the one hand, essentialism is evoked and confronted in the attempt to offer a fairly comprehensive though no doubt seriously flawed introduction to an All-Indian cinematic history. It is All-Indian not in the sense of stressing a common denominator or in the negative acceptance of the term discussed in our entry on All-Indian Film, but in its attempt to engage with the film cultures that arose in all parts of India, rather than to privilege the Hindi cinema, and to give them space in accordance with their relative weight in Indian cinema as a whole. This strategy necessarily involves making judgments, and equally necessarily means getting some of the judgments wrong. So be it. Other books with similar aims will provide correctives and future, corrected and up-dated editions of this first effort will do likewise. On the other hand, essentialism has been erased both in the critical methodology, which is consciously hybrid and ‘impure’, calling on knowledges, values and conceptual tools which are neither nativist nor rootlessly cosmopolitan, and in the scope of the book which unapologetically includes artists and films that could be claimed by Pakistan, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Singapore or even by Hollywood (Ellis Duncan) or Germany (Franz Osten, Paul Zils). The editors do not wish to suggest that these other national cinemas would be wrong to make such claims. It is just that Indian cinema is incomprehensible without the inclusion of these artists and films in the same way that Pakistani or Bangladeshi cinema cannot be understood without taking into account the work of artists commonly regarded as part of Indian cinema. The editors have taken the risk, described by Deane, of ‘going through essentialism, re-tracing the journey as much as possible against the grain of the received pattern while still accepting that pattern as given, in order ultimately to replace it with something that is not essentialist, univocal, coercive’. In this task, we have been greatly helped by many scholars whose expertise in the many different Indian cinemas and cultures has made the editors acutely aware of the impossibility of mastering, unifying and essentialising Indian cinema as an artform coinciding with both a singular territory and chronology. We have taken ‘India’, not as a fixed entity, but as a socio-cultural process, a changing and contested set of overlapping frameworks (always temporarily) stabilised by governmental institutions, be they the Colonial administration, the Indian government or the various institutions seeking to regulate (or deregulate, which is only a different type of regulation) the interface between culture and economy within, at any given time, specific territorial limits. In the end, our main guideline has been to focus on the works, the artists and the institutions which have addressed Indian cinema as a constituent part of ‘India’ as a sociocultural process. Paul Willemen London, May 1994 9

Introduction The sheer gigantomania of India’s film factories in Mumbai, Chennai, Calcutta, Bangalore and Hyderabad, well known collectively as the world’s largest national film industry, have attracted increasing, if sometimes bemused, attention from film scholars, not least because of the embarrassment of Indian cinema’s near-chronic omission from most global film histories. However, for millions of Indians, wherever they live, a major part of ‘India’ derives from its movies. Here, the cinema has provided, for the better part of this century, the most readily accessible and sometimes the most inventive forms of mass entertainment. In its scale and pervasiveness, film has borne, often unconsciously, several large burdens, such as the provision of influential paradigms for notions of ‘Indianness’, ‘collectivity’ (in the generation of an unprecedented, nationwide, mass-audience), and key terms of reference for the prevailing cultural hegemony. In India, the cinema as apparatus and as industry has spearheaded the development of a culture of indigenous capitalism ‘from below’, and its achievement in doing so continues to influence and determine newer programming and publishing strategies with the proliferation of television channels and mass-circulation fan magazines. So, at least, goes conventional wisdom about an admittedly complex, and at times bewilderingly vast, realm of cultural production. The prime example of a mass-entertainment industry operating in a nation-building context has clearly been, to date, Hollywood. Dozens of books have been devoted to speculation about, and a few to analyses of, the relationship between notions of ‘America’ and the ‘America’ constructed in the minds of people all over the world, including in the USA, by Hollywood’s products. In the early decades of this century, the dime novel, popular journalism and then film provided not only the key narratives for that relationship, but also its most potent archives: a baggage of political fact and cultural revisionism that was accepted, in its entirety, by US television from the 1960s on. The ‘India’ of its movies, like Hollywood’s ‘America’, has spawned its own cinephilia, which at its most basic is animated by a distinctive ‘insiderism’, a buddy-culture of speech and body-language that has now expanded and replicated itself into idioms of popular literature with a dynamic of their own via reviews, gossip columns and magazines, publicity materials, novelisations, autobiographies, interviews and fanclub hagiographies. Unlike Hollywood, however, the dynamic of these idioms has not always intersected with that of official, ‘national’ India in any predictable fashion. To some extent, as Paul Willemen’s Preface shows, this has to do with ‘the national’ itself, as ideology and as institution, as State and as imaginary motherland. India has changed dramatically, and more than once in this century. And, as can be imagined, the Indian state has required at different times different things from its popular culture to shore up, defend and/or perpetuate its realm of political and cultural control. To a much greater extent, and again unlike Hollywood, the ‘Indian’ in Indian cinema has all too often been a realm beyond what the State has been able to claim for itself: a complicit, if not always officially legitimate terrain of belonging, simultaneously envied and resented. Most Indian readers of this book will be familiar with how, in the 1970s, cinephilia relating to mainstream Hindi cinema became an important source for celebrating ‘indigenous’ cultural populism while mounting a free-market attack on the Nehru-Indira Gandhi socialist model of state institutions, and how it influenced a great deal of state policy, especially, of course, policy addressing the Indian film industry itself. They will also recognise this cinephilia’s role over the last two decades in the propagation of a sense of nostalgia, as glossy ‘nostalgia films’ and advertising campaigns invoke genres such as the classic 50s romances, even as political parties create an aggressive new frontier of right-wing ‘Hindutva’ for indigenous populism. Others may recognise the crucial part this and other kinds of nostalgia have played in the rhetoric of an Asian diaspora, which in turn further informed influential literary as well as cinematic fictions, along with, for instance, the Asian music-video industry and other kinds of actual or pretend political counter-cultures. This reference book on Indian film has required of its editors and contributors some sensitivity to both the form and the history of this entire cluster of discourses, not least because an amalgam of them has, on several occasions, provided a stand-in for the history of Indian cinema itself, or at least for the kind of history mobilised by influential sectors of the film industry with its press and institutional support 10

systems to perpetuate their economic and cultural claims and to record their achievements. Indeed, so influential is this amalgam of industrial, institutional and cinephiliac discourses, so thoroughly has it saturated the ‘sources’, that it has become virtually impossible consistently to ascertain historical ‘facts’ even as basic as filmographies or credits. The problem is, of course, not new to India’s historians. From the mid19th century through to the late colonial period, India’s history was virtually the plaything of an extraordinary variety of ideological movements, from Orientalists to Utilitarians, Evangelists, Reformers, Nationalists and religious revivalists, each presenting history as an idea of ‘the past’, choosing the one most suited to the kind of cultural mobilisation they were propagating in their present. Each of these in turn yielded simplified, uncritical but extraordinarily durable versions of their stand, which in turn not only influenced the popular art of its time but the actual process of history-writing itself. Many of the historians whose methods we adopted have been concerned with placing the ‘fact’ as a central question in their analysis, including, and crucially so, the forms and circumstances of the generation of ‘records’. Referring, for instance , to Ranajit Guha’s manifesto statement, ‘On Some Aspects of the Historiography of Colonial India’, and to the work of the Subaltern Studies Group, Edward Said (1988) pointed to the frequent reference to such things as gaps, absences, lapses, ellipses, all of them symbolic of the truths that historical writing is after all writing and not reality ... [which was controlled by] the Indian elite and the British colonizers who ran, as well as wrote the history of, India. In other words, subaltern history in literal fact is a narrative missing from the official story of India. To supply the narrative requires ‘a deeply engaged search for new documents, a ... re-deployment and re-interpretation of old documents, so ... that what emerges is a new knowledge’. One of the first historians to do so was D.D. Kosambi, to whom we dedicate this book. In his celebrated Introduction to the Study of Indian History (1956/80), Kosambi set out to ‘reconstruct a history without episodes ... defined as the presentation, in chronological order, of successive developments in the means and relations of production’, enjoining all historians of India to remember that no single mode [of production] prevailed uniformly over the whole country at any one time: so it is necessary to select for treatment that particular mode which, in any period, was the most vigorous, most likely to dominate production ... no matter how many of the older forms survived in outward appearance. Clearly in India’s 20th-century cultural arena, the mode of production at issue in cinema is capitalism, remembering that ‘no single mode prevailed uniformly’ and that ‘older forms survived’ at the same time. Even if those older forms survived only ‘in appearance’, that still means they must be taken into account since it is fatal to overlook appearances, especially in cinema. The lesson to be learned from D.D. Kosambi in this respect is that we must refuse to reduce a mode of production to either pure capitalism or to some older mode. In each case (film, studio, state) the particular mix of old and new will leave a particular imprint, with the capitalist mode of production in cinema providing a more (or less) dominant determination. When the cinema apparatus came into India, it was a technology and a mode of cultural manufacture and distribution without direct historical precedent in the country. On the other hand, from the earliest features of Phalke’s work and ever since then, film presented its most critical value as being a neo-traditional cultural form par excellence, a gadget that worked at its best in suturing cultural difference and producing an easily consumable homogeneity for an increasingly undifferentiated mass audience. To aid this suturing, several film-makers, producers and institutions went some way in demonstrating the survival of older forms. Phalke himself attempted a theory of film that made it virtually a traditional Indian art in the context of Swadeshi. The studio-era film-makers commonly aspired to the respectability of the reform novel, just as 50s films were later to seek the ‘high-art’ credentials of a Satyajit Ray and other directors promoted as models by the Indian State. New Indian Cinema was born in the context of Indira Gandhi’s developmentalist programmes culminating in the Emergency and the establishment of Doordarshan. Most influential of all, perhaps, was the way the Utopian ‘India’ of the pre-Independence period - the tabula rasa upon which were inscribed some of the most elaborate melodramas in Indian film history - gave way to the idea of regionalism, an idea of

ethnic rootedness that effectively divided the nation into its constituent linguistic units. All these areas inevitably came to be inscribed into the records of Indian cinema’s history, as film-makers, using the technology uniquely equipped to celebrate, intervene in and record the rise of such epochal achievements as the emergence of an Indian working class and the birth of an independent nation, assimilated local political imperatives and the languages of the ‘official’ and the neo-traditional. From its earliest years, Indian film found its archive in the popular press and the publicity outlets of the industry. The problem of facts took an ideological turn when Indian cinema institutionalised itself, and, in the process, also institutionalised its several factions, their claims and their conflicts. Institutions representing the film industry and those managing the relations between state and industry, such as the various State Film Chambers of Commerce, the Film Federation of India, the various Film Development Corporations and the trade unions led by the Indian Motion Pictures Producers Association, have, over the years, expanded their ambit to include the authority to represent the ‘official’ history of whatever sector, region or special interest they represent politically. These histories, usually published on occasions commemorating the anniversaries of various cinema industries in India, accompanied by the felicitations of their pioneers and the valorisation of independent archivists and the private collections of individual cinephiles, are entirely susceptible to the critique Gyanendra Pandey (1991) mounts against contemporary historians’ acceptance of the view that the ‘centre’ remains the recognised vantage point for a meaningful reconstruction of “Indian” history, and the ‘official’ archive ... the primary source for its construction. By attributing a ‘natural’ quality to a particular unity, such as ‘India’, and adopting its ‘official’ archive as the primary source of historical knowledge ... the history of India since the early 19th century has tended to become the biography of the emerging nation-state. It has also become the history in which the story of Partition, and the accompanying Hindu-Muslim and Muslim-Sikh riots ... is written up as a secondary story ... one that, for all its consequences, miraculously left the course of Indian history unaltered, [as] ‘India’ ... started firmly and ‘naturally’ on its secular, democratic, non-violent course. Nevertheless, if today we accept that, far from being a straightforward move towards nationalism, secularism and democracy, India’s history represents an extraordinarily chequered growth with its own share of conflicts and compromises, at least one reason for it would be the evidence provided by Indian cinema. When we started this encyclopaedic project, the aim was to provide a reference work on Indian film. In the process of its compilation, however, it developed a variety of more complex and less easily defined ambitions, a crucial one was to chronicle a sense of India that could move beyond its most obviously available nationalist construct, even as we chronicle the formation of that construct and its history through its cinematic product. Indian films are and always were read, and implicated in social transformations, in ways infinitely more complex than plot summaries or ‘official’ histories can claim or suggest. Attempts to ‘locate’ individual films or film-makers required constant cross-referencing between technological, economic, political and cultural chronologies, trying to read any one of these ‘series’ in terms of their intersections with all the others. The task was made all the harder by the simple, frustrating ‘fact’ that only a handful of India’s silent films appear to have survived and that many of the key sound films are not readily available for consultation. This has meant that we have had to rely on contemporary (whenever possible) or subsequent accounts, surviving publicity materials and so on, all of them deeply enmeshed in the rhetorical amalgam of discourses mentioned earlier. Consequently, when approaching a film, the discourses ‘placing’ it would first have to be negotiated and ‘placed’ in their turn. Of course, that way madness lies as the critic-historian is relentlessly driven further and further away from the ‘object’, the ‘source’, the film. But it is a madness that must be faced, even risked, within limits which we have endeavoured not to overstep. For instance, many of the films have come to us via plot synopses which

cry out (or was it the films that cried out?) for a psychoanalytic reading. Except in a few obvious instances, this is a temptation we have resisted. Similarly, we often had to contend with flagrantly partisan synopses presenting political and, most frequently, gender oppression as the ‘natural’ order of things. These we have tried to read against the grain in the hope that the partisan version, familiar to and internalised by most film publicists and their readers, will, when juxtaposed to our less familiar perspective, spark autonomous critical thought in our readers. On the other hand, although it may seem that the actual film might get lost in this process, the amalgam of discourses surrounding a film, usually qualified as ‘secondary’, are not totally separate from the film either. They form part of the intertextual network that gave rise to and accompanied the film in its attempt to reshape parts of the very public sphere which engendered the film in the first place. It is true that nothing can substitute for a viewing of the ‘original’ film and that the scarcity of prints preserved in a decent condition (not to mention prints uncontaminated by censors or other vandals) is a severe drawback when attempting to describe and ‘place’ it. However, it is equally true that any encounter with a film is always already pre-structured, given that people are never utterly empty-headed when watching it. Reliance on the film alone is as misguided as an overestimation of the secondary discourses. As always, we have to see the one in terms of the other. Most of the facts in this book are gleaned from available sources, representing the most reliable ones we could find for each of India’s cinemas (the sources are listed below). Many of these are what we earlier called, somewhat dismissively, ‘official’. Given the nature of the Indian film industry, however, there were compelling reasons for drawing on this material alongside other, not always less ‘reliable’ sources. The editors of this book, quite deliberately and as a matter of policy, have refused to accept any single ‘authoritative’ source on any of India’s cinemas. On the contrary, we have endeavoured to produce a book providing the ‘most likely’ truth on the basis of often deeply conflicting sources. In this respect, what we offer here is not an authoritative source either (although these things are relative: we believe ours to be more authoritative than others simply because we were able to stand on the shoulders, so to speak, of the scholars who went before, even though none ever ventured to encompass as wide a field as we do in this project). Although this book will inevitably bear the scars inflicted by the unreliability of the sources used, we should like to believe that in consistently mapping India’s film histories on to a national canvas, we also present several new discoveries, such as the sheer contiguity of historical processes nationwide that most Indian regions persist in viewing as unique, the influences of film-makers from one region onto another, or even the trajectories of individual careers that transgressed boundaries sometimes decades before these boundaries came to be asserted. This book shares all the problems, and some of the credit, of any endeavour that is the ‘first of its kind’. There are encouraging signs in India that several agencies, such as the National Film Archive of India, are gradually introducing sophisticated records, not only of their actual holdings but also of Indian cinema in general. Amrit Gangar and Subhash Chheda’s recently completed computerised cross-indexing of the entire output of the Films Division means that the bulk of India’s documentary cinema is now available for various kinds of research. India’s Central Board of Film Certification may well take on board the need to compile their vast data in readily accessible form, a source that has not been available for this book except for the work of B.V. Dharap. Future editions of this Encyclopaedia will no doubt benefit substantially when that work becomes available. To sum up: this book is very much designed as a research tool, a kind of baseline for others to amplify and correct, so that it may grow into a work of collective, constantly retuned scholarship.

Ashish Rajadhyaksha Bombay, April 1994

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Explanatory Notes FILMOGRAPHIES AND INDEX: The biographical section of this volume addresses only some aspects of the film-making process: directors, actors, composers, scenarists and lyric writers, alongside brief entries on most of the major film studios, genres and art movements. Due to lack of space and the complexities involved, we were unable to include entries for producers, cinematographers, set designers, art directors, editors, choreographers, sound specialists, and so on. Filmographies have been provided for directors, actors and composers only, and for the second edition have been extended to 1995. The filmographies, which have been listed by title and year of production (or release or censorship; often we could not be sure whether there was a difference), have to be checked against the Index for fuller information about individual titles. The Index lists titles alphabetically, providing the name of the director, the language and the year of production (release or censorship). A major effort has been made to provide also alternative and English titles whenever this seemed relevant, for example, commonly used translations and those used for other than local releases. Because of the extreme difficulties involved in the romanisation of Indian languages, readers may well experience problems locating a particular title (see below under ‘spelling’).

Gujarati cinema: Manilal Gala and Amrit Gangar (eds), Gujarati Chalachitron: 1982 Na Aare (1982, Gujarati) provide information for 1932-82; thereafter we relied on Harish Raghuvanshi (ed.), Gujarati Film Geet Kosh (Surat, 1995, Gujarati). Hindi cinema: We consulted the pioneering work of Firoze Rangoonwala (ed.), Indian Filmography, Silent and Hindi Film: 1897-1969 (1970) and its updated version, Rajendra Ojha (ed.), 75 Glorious Years of Indian Cinema: 1913-1988 (1988). For 1988-90, we used annual listings by Film Information (Bombay). This information was collated with Har Mandir Singh (ed.), Hindi Film Geet Kosh, vols 1-4, and Bishwanath Chatterjee (ed.), Hindi Film Geet Kosh, vol. 5. We also consulted annual listings by Filmfare (Bombay) 1953-71. Kannada cinema: 1934-84 is covered in Vijaya et. al. (eds), Kannada Vakchitra Suvarna Mahotsava 1934-1984 Smarana Sanchike (1984, Kannada), updated (1985-91) from the records of the Karnataka Film Chamber of Commerce, Bangalore (Golden Jubilee Souvenir 1995). Malayalam cinema: 1938-70 is covered in the Malayala Cinema Directory (1970, Malayalam), which gives film credits and synopses, and in ‘Malayalam Cinema from Vigathakumaran to Manjil Virinja Pookkal’ in the journal Nana (Special Issue, 1982), which provides film titles and directors up to 1980. Titles only are listed in M. Saraswathy (ed.), Malayala Cinema-Aranoottandu (1987, Malayalam) and in M.G. Radhakrishnan (ed.), Malayalam Cinema: 50 Years (1989). Actor and composer credits for the years 1971, 1981 and 1986 (for the latter two, titles as well) are compiled from the records of the Journal of the Film Chamber (Madras), and thereafter from the Journal of Kerala State Film Chamber of Commerce.

The Index, and several individual filmographies, have been compiled largely from the following sources: 1.

B.V. Dharap’s Indian Film annuals. Dharap’s original project of compiling the entire record of the Central Board of Film Certification under the aegis of the National Film Archive of India, is now unevenly available in five different sets: 1920-33: India’s silent cinema, unpublished (available at the NFAI). This problematic volume lists titles by the year in which they were censored. This means that all films made before 1920 (the year from which Censor Board records were maintained) had to be separately dated. Virchand Dharamsey’s new filmography, in Paolo Cherchi Usai/Suresh Chabria (eds.) Light of Asia (1994), published after our last edition, constitutes a major advance of scholarship on this period, and its definitive listings.

Marathi cinema: 1931-89 is covered in Vasant Sathe (ed.), Chitrasampada (1989, Marathi). Between 1989-1993 we used D.B. Samant (ed.) Marathi Chitrapat Samagra Suchi in Rupavani (Diwali special issue, 1993), and thereafter the records of DataKino, Bombay.

1931-50: In four volumes, unpublished (available at the NFAI).

Oriya cinema: 1934-84 is in Kartick Kumar Ghosh (ed.), Oriya Chalachitrara Itihas (1984, Oriya). Information after 1986 was compiled by Samarendra Das.

1972-78: Published annually as Indian Films by Motion Picture Enterprises, Pune.

Punjabi cinema: 1935-92 was compiled by B.R. Garg (unpublished).

1979-82: Unpublished but lodged at the NFAI. 1983-85: Three volumes published by NFAI.

Rajasthani cinema: 1942-92 is available in Murlidhar Soni (ed.), Rajasthani Film Geet Kosh (forthcoming) and in Jugal Parihar (ed.) Maruranjani: Rajasthani Film Mahotsav Smarika (1993, Hindi), and was thereafter provided by DataKino.

This material represents the only publicly available record of the CBFC and is by and large the best filmographic source for the years covered. The periods 1920-50, 1972-85 are referred to as the Dharap Years. 2.

Tamil cinema: The only major Indian film industry whose filmography remains uncompiled. There is a list of Tamil titles from 1931 to 1985 in ‘Filmnews’ Anandan’s 1931 Mudal 1985 Varai Veliyana Padamgal (1985, Tamil), updated to 1990 in Randor Guy (ed.), History of Tamil Cinema (1991). This list has been collated with the monthly listings of the Journal of the Film Chamber (Madras) for the Index and directors’ filmographies, supported by reviews, advertising and publicity pamphlets. Filmographies were built from available listings, such as the Manimekalai series on Tamil directors and stars. Wherever such listings were not available and filmographies have been compiled especially for this project, including the Tamil work of non-Tamil biographical entries, these are likely to be less comprehensive. Listings for the years 1991-95 were compiled specially for this book by ‘Filmnews’ Anandan.

To cover the gaps in Dharap’s work, we have used the following sources: Assamese cinema: T.M. Ramachandran (ed.), 70 Years of Indian Cinema (1985: Assamese Cinema section) for the period 1935-83; Pradip Acharya and Bobbeeta Sharma provided us with information for the subsequent years. Bengali cinema: ‘Filmography of Bengali Cinema (1897-1981)’ in B. Jha (ed.), Indian Motion Picture Almanac (1986). Rathish Saha compiled the years 1984-90 for us. For the period 1942-52, Jha inexplicably eliminates all credits except the director’s name. These have been collated with Kalish Mukhopadhyay’s history (1962) until 1948, and for 1949-50 by the Dharap years. Actor and composer credits for the years 1951-52 and 1982 have been compiled from reviews and publicity material. The update to 1995 is from Tapan Roy (ed.) Shattatar Basharer Bangla Chhabi, Calcutta: Bapi Prakashan, 1996 (Bengali). Bhojpuri cinema: 1962-92 was compiled by M.D. Soni for this book, collated with listings in Har Mandir Singh (ed.), Hindi Film Geet Kosh, vols 1-4 (Hindi) and thereafter from the records of DataKino.

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Telugu cinema: 1931-76 is covered in the Andhra Film Chamber Journal (December 1976, Telugu), and updated by K.N.T. Sastry for this book. 3.

DOCUMENTARIES: Until the mid-70s when independent Indian documentary cinema came of age, the genre was monopolised by the Films Division. Amrit Gangar and Subhash Chheda’s computerised list and index updates with vital new information the Films Division Catalogue of Films: 1949-1972 edited by

V.N. Gulavani. Information about independent documentaries was in most cases compiled from information provided by the filmmakers themselves or from the annual Indian Panorama catalogues (1977-92). 4.

For all FTII student films, the FTII Films 1964-1987 (1987) catalogue was used.

5.

All-India quarterly listings of releases can be found in issues of Mangala Chandran (ed.), Cinema in India (April 1987-January/ March 1990).

6.

The above languages constitute all the major cinemas of India; minor cinemas such as Kashmiri, Tulu, Konkani, Haryanvi, Khasi and Maithili have been covered mainly through Dharap’s listings and reviews. Under current conditions, no claim towards exhaustiveness can be made for these languages.

7.

For non-Indian film titles we relied mostly on Markku Salmi’s compilation published as the National Film Archive (London) Catalogue of Stills, Posters and Designs, London: British Film Institute, 1982.

BOLD: Items in bold in the text indicate that there is a specific entry on the title or name (or institution, etc.) elsewhere in the volume. DATES: Indian sources (like many sources throughout the world) often do not specify which date is being used: the year when production was completed, when the director’s cut was completed, when the film passed the Censor Board, when it was first screened to the trade or to the press or when it was first released to the public. Dates in Indian sources tend to be either the production date, the Censor Board date or the release date. We have given priority to the production date (when known); our second priority was the Censor Board date. When neither of these was available to us, we have relied on the release date. In most mainstream productions, these dates fall fairly closely together. However, there can be significant differences for independent productions which may have received a delayed release, remain unreleased or even refused a Censor Board certificate (and therefore unrepresented in listings by industry sources). There are also several instances of productions being certified by the Censor Board several years after they were made. Dharap’s compilations usually provide the censor year, while, for instance, Jha’s Almanac in Bengal, Rangoonwala and Ojha or Film Information refer to release dates. We have attempted on all occasions (especially in entries on individual films) to provide dates closest to the completion of the first release print. However, the absence of reliable information on every title in the Index has prevented any uniform principle on dating, and we have adhered to the records listed above except in instances where more reliable information to the contrary was available. FILMS: The editors have endeavoured to provide individual entries on the most ‘important’ films in India’s rich and varied film history; by ‘important’ we mean Indian films which have made a significant contribution to the development of Indian cinema from a number of points of view: economic, technological, aesthetic, intellectual, political and sociological (not necessarily in that order). Inevitably, many films which could legitimately have claimed an entry have been omitted, primarily because of lack of space. Other reasons for omissions include: the unavailability of the prints, which meant we were not able to check whether a particular film warranted inclusion or not; absence of relevant commentaries suggesting that a particular film needed to be included; the editorial decision to end the film section in 1990, later extended to 1992 in view of the time required to compile this reference work; the editorial decision to concentrate on ‘typical’ items representative of an artist’s work or of a genre rather than making vain attempts, in the light of space restrictions, to include all of an artist’s good and significant work, and so on. The films have been organised according to their date and, within the production years, in alphabetical order. GAUGE: The gauge used is hardly ever recorded in any Indian filmographies and has therefore been omitted. Wherever possible, ‘scope’, has been used to indicate CinemaScope-type formats.

GENERAL ENTRIES: In the Dictionary section of this book, the reader will find a number of entries referring to art movements (the Indian People’s Theatre Association, the Kallol Group, the Progressive Artists Group, the Progressive Writers Association, the Navya Movement and others), techniques and art genres (Company School Painting, Photography, Sangeet Natak, Stage Backdrops, Pat Painting, Parsee Theatre and others), traditions (Art Schools, Music Schools) and political issues (Naxalite, Swadeshi). To some extent, these entries reflect the historical approach taken by the editors. Other items could have been added, such as Modernism, Reform Literature, various styles of poetry which have left their trace on film lyrics, and many others. Shortage of space and the need to concentrate on people, studios and films meant that we were able to include only a few such entries. Those selected for inclusion are intended to give readers a glimpse of the range of issues that must be taken into consideration when addressing Indian cinemas, as we attempt to make clear via elaborate cross-references to other, more directly ‘cinematic’ entries. While supplying basic information about such ‘general’ matters, we also intended signalling the need for cinema to be seen as a specific discursive form inextricably intertwined with a wide and complex network of industrial, institutional and cultural histories. GENRES: A great deal more work needs to be done on the problems of defining, analysing and periodising genres in Indian cinema. Given that many films deliberately combine, as in a menu, elements from what in the West would be regarded as different genres (comedy, thriller, horror, action, musical and so on), we have attempted to provide a rough outline of the main Indian genres in the full knowledge that any such attempt must at this stage be rudimentary and impressionistic. The genre entries will be found in the alphabetically arranged Dictionary section of the Encyclopaedia. There are entries for: All-India Film, Historicals, Melodrama, Mythologicals, New Indian Cinema, Saint Films and Social. The ‘devotional’ is in some respects a cross between the Saint Film and the Mythological, often closer to the former than to the latter. The ‘Stunt Film’ is a self-explanatory subcategory of the internationally known ‘Action Film’. Neither of these two genres have been given separate treatment in this book. HINDI-URDU: The indication ‘Hindi-Urdu’ in the credits is meant to suggest that we are dealing with a Hindi film making extensive use of Urdu, usually for the lyrics. MULTILINGUALS: In its most precise form, a bilingual or a trilingual was the kind of film made in the 1930s in the studio era, when different but identical takes were made of every shot in different languages, often with different leading stars but identical technical crew and music. The classic example would be V. Shantaram’s Kunku (Marathi)/Duniya Na Mane (Hindi), 1937. However, it becomes extremely difficult to distinguish multilinguals in this original sense from dubbed versions, remakes, reissues or, in some cases, the same film listed with different titles, presented as separate versions in different languages. In this respect, Har Mandir Singh’s work has substantially contained the problem in Hindi film, but it remains in most other languages. Wherever we found clear evidence that a title referred to a dubbed version, the secondary version has been dropped from the Index. When titles are divided by /, they are usually multilinguals in which each version counts as an original version. In all other instances, other versions are listed as ‘aka’ (‘also known as’). Nevertheless, it will take years of scholarly work to establish definitive data in this respect. In some filmographies, a title may be followed, in brackets, by an indication of the language. This is to avoid confusion when films with identical titles were made in the same year in different languages. PLOT SYNOPSES: Readers will notice very quickly that the plot outlines provided are extremely compressed, especially when we remember that most Indian films take many detours and mobilise multiple plot-lines in any given narrative. There may be two or three main plot-lines accompanied by a comedy plot and interspersed with song sequences which may or may not advance or impact upon any of the other plots, each of them intersecting with the others in ways not always easily 13

integrated into a single, linear account of events. We have opted for an outline of the overall shape of the story, privileging a few narrative knots which we consider more important at this stage of Indian film scholarship. Such a procedure is risky, invites argument and should not be mistaken for an attempt to ‘fix’ what the film is about. RUNNING TIMES: Are based on footage recorded by the censors. Sources for footage include Dharap’s compilations; the Madras Film Diary (1957) for South Indian films 1951-56, thereafter the monthly and annual listings of the Journal of the Film Chamber (Madras); the Journal of the Kerala Film Chamber (Cochin) for post-1970 Malayalam films; the annual listings of 80s and 90s North Indian films in Film Information (Bombay); the collections of censorship data in the National Film Archive of India, and the prints struck from original negatives in the NFAI’s holdings. Wherever these have not been available, the footage recorded on the Censor Certificate of available prints has been used. In instances where films with running times noticeably different from the original censored length have been in common circulation, these have been separately indicated in brackets. In several titles produced especially during WW2, Dharap’s running times are either missing or have been given in round figures: in these cases, we have indicated that the running time is an approximate figure. For silent films, we have provided only the footage to allow for variable projection speeds. SPELLING: As indicated earlier, spelling problems have proved intractable. Given the general lack of standardisation in transliterations of Indian languages into English, as well as the extensive linguistic variations of languages like Tamil (e.g. the syllable ‘zh’) and Bengali (the syllable ‘o’) and complicated syllables like ‘chch’, the decision to include an all-India Index presented problems which a listing by language would have only partially overcome. In the end, we felt that an alphabetical Index would be of greater benefit to international users. Since most film-

14

publicity outlets provide their own, often eccentric, transliterations, several films are already well known by a particular ‘graphic image’. These titles have generally been retained, except where idiosyncratic diversions (e.g. Ramesh Sippy’s recent Akayla, 1991) have forced a respelling in the more conventional form (Akela, aka Akayla). However, certain common proper nouns have been standardised for all languages, such as Seeta (not Sita or Seetha), Gauri (not Gowri), Ganga (not Gunga). In general, following the practice of popular film literature, ‘common-sense’ solutions have been used rather than any rigidly standardised notation, with extensive uses of the ‘aka’ and ‘see’ wherever alphabetical discrepancies are likely to cause serious difficulties in finding the title. In some cases, all we can suggest is that the reader make an imaginative effort and check other possible romanised spellings. For instance, the ‘u’ sound may be rendered as ‘u’ or as ‘oo’; often ‘a’ and ‘u’ are used for the same sound, as in Ganga Jumna or Gunga Jumna; the sequence ‘eni’ at the beginning of a word may be rendered as ‘ini’; a double ‘aa’ may appear as a single ‘a’, ‘g’ as ‘k’, and so on. SQUARE BRACKETS: Around a letter or a word in a quote designate the omission of a portion of the text or the interpolation of text not in the original; elsewhere, their use is self-explanatory. Finally, we should like to repeat that we would be extremely grateful if readers could send us their corrections together with an indication of their evidence. Only continuous collective scholarship can hope to establish a more solid basis for further work in chronicling the immensely rich but still grievously under-documented and underanalysed Indian cinemas.

Ashish Rajadhyaksha and Paul Willemen

Abbreviations A

Assamese

ICC

Report of the Indian Cinematograph Committee 1927-28.

act

actor/actress/acting

i.e.

that is to say

AIR

All India Radio

Int.

International

aka

also known as

IPTA

Indian Peoples’ Theatre Association

anim

animation

ISRO

Indian Space Research Organisation

a.o.

among others

K

Kannada

AP

Andhra Pradesh

lp

leading players

B

Bengal/Bengali

lyr

lyrics/lyricist

b&w

black and white

Mal

Malayalam

BBC

British Broadcasting Corporation

Mar

Marathi

Bh

Bhojpuri

MGR

Ramachandran, Marudur Gopalamenon

BJP

Bharatiya Janata Party

MP

Member of Parliament/Madhya Pradesh

c

cinematography

MPEAA

Motion Picture Export Association of America

c.

circa

MUKT

Marketing Union of Kinematograph Technicians

cf

compare/see also

m

music

CFS

Children’s Film Society

NFDC

National Film Development Corporation

CIRCO

Cine Industries & Recording Company

NTR

Rama Rao, Nandamuri Taraka

O

Oriya

Co.

Company P

Punjabi

co-d/s

co-director/scenarist PAG

Progressive Artists Group

col

colour pc

production company

Corp.

Corporation Pics

pictures

CP

Communist Party

p

producer

CPI

Communist Party of India

pov

point of view

CPI(M)

Communist Party of India (Marxist)

Prod.

production(s)

CPI(ML)

Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist)

PWA

Progressive Writers’ Association

d

director/directed

R

Rajasthani

dial

dialogues/dialogue writer

s

script and story

Dist.

District

sc

script

Distr.

distribution/distributors

Sh

short film

DMK

Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

SITE

Satellite Instructional Television Experiment

Doc

documentary

St

Silent

E

English

st

story

e.g.

for instance

Tam

Tamil

Ents

Enterprises

Tel

Telugu

esp.

especially

TN

Tamil Nadu

Est:

established

TV

television

et al.

and others

U

Urdu

FFC

Film Finance Corporation

UCLA

University of California at Los Angeles

FTII

Film and Television Institute of India (Pune)

UP

Uttar Pradesh

G

Gujarati

USC

University of Southern California

H

Hindi

WW1/2

World War 1/2 15

Balraj Sahni and Nirupa Roy in Do Bigha Zameen

16

Chronicle 1896 Plague in Bombay and Pune; national famine until 1897. E. B. Havell, one of the figureheads of the Bengal School of Painting, is appointed Superintendent of the Government School of Art, Calcutta. Bankimchandra Chatterjee’s Vande Mataram (Hail to the Mother), one of India’s national anthems later appropriated by Hindu chauvinists, is recited for the very first time at the Indian National Congress. Bal Gangadhar Tilak inaugurates a festival around the figure of the 17th C. Maratha emperor Shivaji to generate nationalist sentiment. B. R. Rajam Aiyer publishes the social reform novel, Kamalampal Charitram, in Tamil. The singer Vishnu Digambar Paluskar leaves the Miraj court to popularise classical music. First film screening at Watson’s Hotel, Bombay, on 7 July, by the Lumière cameraman Marius Sestier. The Madras Photographic Stores advertises imported ‘animated photographs’, reviewed in the Journal of the Amateur Photographic Society of Madras.

1897 Damodar Hari Chaphekar assassinates Charles Rand, the ‘Plague Commissioner’, and Ayres, the district magistrate, for their handling of plague relief measures; he is hanged with his two brothers in 1898. First films shown in Calcutta and Madras. Clifton & Co. announce daily screenings at their Meadows Street photography studio, Bombay.

1898 The first gramophone record is released by Gramophone & Typewriter Ltd., Belgatchia. Bhai Vir Singh’s Punjabi novel, Sundri is published. Two Italians, Colorello and Cornaglia, organise film shows in tents at the Azad Maidan, Bombay. Hiralal Sen starts making films. Amritlal Bose screens a package of ‘actualities’ and ‘fakes’ at the Star Theatre, Calcutta, with plays and variety entertainments. The multinational Warwick Trading Co. commissions Panorama of Calcutta newsreel. Other films include Poona Races and Train Arriving at the Churchgate Station (by Andersonoscopograph).

and raises income tax thresholds. He also sets up a Railway Board, and opens 6100 miles of new rail track. Major Warwick establishes a cinema in Madras. F. B. Thanawala’s Grand Kinetoscope newsreels establish the genre’s commercial possibilities. Footage of the Boer War is released at the Novelty Cinema, Bombay.

1901 The reformist leader Mahadev Govind Ranade dies. Tagore establishes the Brahmacharya Ashram, the nucleus of the Vishwabharati University of Shantiniketan. Fakir Mohan Senapati publishes his Oriya historical novel, Lachama. Vishnu Digambar Paluskar sets up the first music school, the Gandharva Mahavidyalaya in Lahore. Edward VII is crowned following the death of Queen Victoria. The North West Frontier Province is created. Ramananda Chattopadhyay starts editing Prabasi, a high-profile, extensively illustrated Bengali literary monthly which pioneers the popular mix of book excerpts, poetry and one-act plays alongside reviews and essays (occasionally on film); its serialised fiction includes Rabindranath Tagore’s Gora (1907-1909). Hiralal Sen’s Royal Bioscope establishes film exhibition alongside the commercial theatre in Calcutta, filming extracts from plays. Bhatavdekar films the landing of Sir M. M. Bhownuggree and the arrival (returning from Cambridge University) of Sir Wrangler Mr R. P. Paranjpye.

1902 Kakuzo Okakura, a Japanese artist and a militant proponent of a pan-Asian ideology, arrives in Calcutta as a guest of Surendranath Tagore. His ideas influence the Bengal School of Painting and are given a nationalist gloss by Sister Nivedita. The first Indian to record a song on gramophone disc is Sashi Mukhi of Classic Theatres, Calcutta. J. F. Madan launches his bioscope show in a tent on Calcutta’s Maidan, the foundation of a massive exhibition and distribution empire which dominated silent Indian, Burmese and Sri Lankan cinemas.

1903 1899 Calcutta receives electricity supply, although earlier that year the Maharaja of Bikaner had apparently been the first Indian to switch on an electric light bulb. Lord Curzon becomes Viceroy and Governor-General of India. The seminal work of Urdu literature, Ruswa Mohammed Hadi Mirza’s Umrao Jaan Ada is published. Performance of G. B. Deval’s Marathi play, Sangeet Sharada, sometimes cited as the first reform ‘social’. H.S. Bhatavdekar films a wrestling match in Bombay’s hanging gardens.

1900 Lord Curzon rejects the Congress Party’s pleas for permanent land settlements, alleging that the weather, rather than excessive taxes, had caused the famine, but he later reduces salt tax

Bhatavdekar and American Biograph film Lord Curzon’s Delhi Durbar, marking the enthronement of Edward VII.

1904 Madhav Prasad Mishra’s short story, Ladki Ki Bahaduri, appears in the journal Sudarshan. It is sometimes cited as the first work of short fiction in the still-evolving Hindustani language. Veer Savarkar, later associated with the right-wing Hindu Mahasabha, starts the Abhinav Bharat as a secret society of revolutionary terrorists. The Maharashtra Natak Mandali introduces naturalist prose theatre, later associated with the stage/film star Keshavrao Date. Manek D. Sethna starts the Touring Cinema Co. in Bombay, showing The Life of Christ (two reels).

1905 Lord Curzon and the new Governor of Bengal, Andrew Fraser, announces the Partition of Bengal, ostensibly for the development of Assam. Partly in response, the Indian National Congress launches the Swadeshi Movement on 7 August, calling for the boycott of all foreign-manufactured goods. Lord Minto becomes Viceroy. J. F. Madan turns producer with Jyotish Sarkar’s film of a protest rally against Partition.

1906 Dadabhai Naoroji, President of the Congress, announces that the Party’s aim is full ‘selfgovernment or Swaraj’. The artist Raja Ravi Varma dies. Madan’s Elphinstone Bioscope Co. dominates indigenous film production.

1907 The All-India Muslim League is formed in Dacca by a group of big landlords including the Aga Khan, the Nawab of Dacca and Nawab Mohsin-uk-Mulk, supporting the Partition of Bengal and calling for separate Muslim electorates and other safeguards for Muslims. Ramananda Chattopadhyay starts The Modern Review in Allahabad, discussing modernism in Indian art. It later published Tagore’s debate with Gandhi about culture. J. F. Madan opens the Elphinstone Picture Palace in Calcutta, the first of his cinema chain. Pathé establishes an Indian office.

1908 Establishment of The Tata Iron & Steel Co. India’s largest private-sector corporation. Terrorist movements in Bengal, active since 1902, reach their peak with organisations such as the Anushilan Samiti of Calcutta and Dacca, the return of Hemchandra Kanungo from Paris and raids such as the Barrah dacoity by Pulin Das’s group. The movement, often led by upper-caste men proclaiming a communal Hindu or casteist ideology, dominated the romantic imagination of Bengali nationalism for decades. Khudiram Bose, a former Swadeshi activist and member of the Revolutionary Party, is hanged on 11 August. Bal Gangadhar Tilak is convicted of sedition and deported to Mandalay. Keshavrao Bhosle starts the Sangeet Natak troupe, Lalitkaladarsh. Abdulally Esoofally, a South Asian and Singaporean travelling showman, starts exhibiting in India.

1909 The Indian Councils Act 1909 (Morley-Minto Reforms) is announced, introducing elections while trying to split the nationalist movement along communal lines by introducing separate Muslim electorates. Ananda Coomaraswamy publishes Essays in Nationalist Idealism. The Amateur Dramatic Association is started in Bangalore, associated with playwright T. P. Kailasam and stage actor-director Ballari Raghava, bringing modernism to Kannada theatre. Performance in Bengal of Dwijendralal Roy’s historical, Shah Jehan. Together with 17

Rana Pratapsingha (1904), Durgadas (1906), Noor Jehan (1907) and Mewar Patan (1908), Shah Jehan anchors the stage historical in communal and nationalist politics.

1910 Rabindranath Tagore publishes Geetanjali. The All-India Hindu Mahasabha is launched at Allahabad, allegedly in response to the Muslim League, intensifying communal hostilities in Indian politics. Dadasaheb Phalke attends a screening of The Life of Christ at P. B. Mehta’s America-India Cinema.

1911 George V visits Delhi. The grand Durbar is India’s first extensively filmed public event, shot by Hiralal Sen, Bourne & Shepherd, Gaumont, Imperial Bioscope, S. N. Patankar and Madan. The Partition of Bengal is modified, followed in 1912 by the separation of Bihar and Orissa from Bengal. Tilak yokes Hindu chauvinism to the nationalist movement with his Geeta Rahasya. Jana Gana Mana is adopted as the second national anthem by the Congress Party. Anadi Bose, Debi Ghosh and others start the Aurora Cinema Co. showing films in tents as part of a variety bill.

General Smuts in South Africa on immigration and taxation laws for Indians is the first political success of his Satyagraha (non-violent) ‘experiments with truth’. The Komagata Maru sails from Hong Kong to Vancouver carrying 376 passengers including several Sikh Ghadar activists, and is refused entry by Canadian authorities. The MacMahon Line fixes the border between India and China, leading to disputes erupting in the 1962 war. Phalke shows his first three features, Raja Harishchandra, Mohini Bhasmasur and Satyavan Savitri, in London. R. Venkaiah and R. S. Prakash build Madras’s first permanent cinema, the Gaiety.

1915 The Defence of India Act. Gopal Krishna Gokhale dies. Aga Hashr Kashmiri writes his best-known and most often filmed play, Yahudi Ki Ladki. Govindrao Tembe starts the Shivraj Natak Mandali. First South Indian feature: R. Nataraja Mudaliar’s Gopal Krishna.

1916

British government transfers its Indian headquarters from Calcutta to Delhi. Ananda Coomaraswamy publishes his second text on an aesthetic theory for Indian nationalism, Art and Swadeshi.

Annie Besant and B. G. Tilak start their Home Rule Leagues on the lines of the Irish Home Rulers. Coomaraswamy’s entire collection of South Asian art is moved to the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, and he becomes its curator: this move influences his subsequent opposition to progressive Indian nationalism and its modernising aspects. The South Indian Liberation Federation, aka Justice Party, is formed in Madras.

Pundalik, probably the first Indian feature film.

Universal Pictures sets up Hollywood’s first Indian agency.

1912

1913 The first telephone service in India begins in Simla; the first carrier system is between Delhi and Agra in 1930. The militant Ghadar Movement, calling for the violent overthrow of British rule, is started by US-based Indians in San Francisco. Pherozeshah Mehta starts the Bombay Chronicle. Jaladhar Sen and Amulyacharan Bidyabhushan start the popular Bengali literary monthly Bharatbarsha; early essays on film include Pramathanath Bhattacharya’s ‘Bioscope’ in the inaugural issue and Narendra Dev’s ‘Chhayay Mayay Bichitra Rahasya’ on film-making techniques, later published as a book in 1934; the monthly also publishes Saradindu Bandyopadhyay’s screenplay of Kalidasa. Rabindranath Tagore receives Nobel Prize for literature. Bal Gandharva starts the Gandharva Natak Mandali, the most famous of the Marathi Sangeet Natak repertories. The Parsee Theatre group, Khatau-Alfred, performs Narayan Prasad Betaab’s Mahabharata play. Phalke’s Raja Harishchandra opens on 21st April to a select audience; on 3 May it opens commercially in Bombay’s Coronation Cinematograph.

1914 Start of WW1. Indian soldiers fight with British forces at Kut-al-Amara in Turkey and in Mesopotamia. Gandhi’s agreement with 18

1917 Gandhi’s participation in the Champaran indigo planters’ agitation against iniquitous local taxes by European thikadars, followed by the Kheda movement in 1918, introduces his philosophy of Satyagraha to India and again places revolutionary peasant movements at the forefront of Indian nationalism. Patankar-Friends & Co. is started, the predecessor of the Kohinoor Studio. J. F. Madan’s Satyavadi Raja Harishchandra is the first feature made in Calcutta. Phalke makes How Films are Prepared, a short film about film-making.

1918 WW1 ends. The first modern trade union, the Madras Labour Union, is founded. Baburao Painter starts the Maharashtra Film Co. at Kolhapur. The Indian Cinematograph Act, modelled on that of Britain, defines the terms of censorship and cinema licensing. Phalke’s Hindustan Cinema Films Co. is established. Patankar’s Ram Vanvas is the first serial.

1919 The Government of India Act 1919 aka the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms, transfers selected areas of administration to Indian control. The Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act, aka the Rowlatt Act, is designed to

suppress all forms of nationalist protest. The massacre at Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, commanded by General R. E. H. Dyer on 13 April. Rabindranath Tagore, knighted in 1915, returns his knighthood in protest following Jallianwala Bagh. The All-India Khilafat Conference, uniting conservative Muslims in support of the defeated Caliph of Turkey, is supported by the Congress Party. It influences the non-co-operation movement the following year as well as the Moplah rebellion of 1921. Modern Indian shipping launched with the Scindia Steam Navigation Co.’s Liberty. The Kohinoor Film Co. is founded. Release of the Maharashtra Film Co.’s début film, Sairandhri. Bilwamangal aka Bhagat Surdas, sometimes presented as the first Bengali feature, by Rustomji Dotiwala for Madan Theatres.

1920 Non-co-operation movement launched by Gandhi calling for the defiance of ‘every single state-made law’, and Muslim theologians announce that Muslims have only two alternatives before them: to declare a jihad (holy war) against the foreign infidels, or hijrat (emigration). M. N. Roy, who had formed the Communist Party in Mexico in 1919, the first outside the Soviet Union, starts the CP of India (CPI) in Tashkent on 17 October with six other members. The Bengali film weekly Bijoli starts, edited throughout the 20s by Nalinikanta Sarkar, Barindrakumar Ghosh, Sachindranath Sengupta, Arun Sinha and writer-film-maker Dinesh Ranjan Das. Film censor boards set up in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. The American-trained Suchet Singh releases Shakuntala with Dorothy Kingdom and other imported actors. Ardeshir Irani starts his first studio, Star Film Co. Nala Damayanti is the first international co-production (with Italy).

1921 The Moplah (or Mapilla) rebellion in Malabar, in which Muslim peasants kill or ‘convert’ Hindus, leads to bloody confrontations with the police and is a major setback to the non-cooperation movement’s efforts to make a nationalist alliance between Hindus and Muslims. Tagore’s Vishwabharati University is officially recognised. The Bengali Theatrical Company stages Khirode Prasad Vidyavinode’s Alamgir, introducing Sisir Bhaduri, and transforms the Bengali public theatre. Lalitkaladarsh stages its famous one-off production of Sangeet Manapmaan, featuring the reigning stars of Marathi theatre, Bal Gandharva and Keshavrao Bhosle, to raise funds for Gandhi’s Tilak Swarajya Fund. Abanindranath Tagore’s seminal Calcutta lectures, the Bageshwari Shilpa Prabhandavali (loosely translated as Some Notes on the Indian Artistic Anatomy and Sadanga, or The Six Limbs of Indian Painting), defines an aesthetic theory for the ‘New School’ or the ‘Bengal School’ of Indian painting. The artist Jamini Roy abandons his Post-Impressionist landscapes in favour of a modernist, urban assimilation of popular and folk influences. His atelier of mass-produced paintings, opposing

the dominant primitivist emphasis on tradition, becomes a major influence on contemporary Indian, especially Bengali art. Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande publishes Hindustan Sangeet Paddhati, making classical music compositions available to the public in the form of a textbook. Gandhi visits Gorakhpur campaigning for the non-co-operation movement. According to Shahid Amin (1984), the occasion marked the launch of the Messianic ‘Mahatma’ image. Novelist Premchand surrenders his government post to contribute pamphlets in support of the movement. Kohinoor’s Bhakta Vidur, banned in Madras and Sind, becomes Indian cinema’s first censorship controversy. Dhiren Ganguly’s anti-Western satire, Bilet Pherat, produced by the Indo-British Film Co. (Est: 1918). R. S. Prakash starts the Star of the East film company in Madras.

1922 The Chauri Chaura episode (4 February): a group of Congress and Khilafat protestors attack a police station and kill 22 policemen, causing Gandhi to call off the non-co-operation movement. The artist Nandalal Bose, later Satyajit Ray’s teacher, takes over the Kala Bhavan at Shantiniketan. Hemendraprasad Ghosh starts the Bengali literary monthly Masik Basumati (later the fortnightly Basumati) for the Basumati literary house, publishing literary fiction and theatre, book and film reviews; it also publishes essays on film by Hemendrakumar Roy and Atorthy’s seminal writings on silent Bengali cinema. Mama Warerkar writes the play Satteche Gulam. Entertainment tax on film exhibition is levied in Calcutta. Sisir Bhaduri, supported by a group of lawyers, starts the short-lived Taj Mahal Film Co. to adapt well-known literary works to film. The trend is later continued by other studios in Bengal. Rewashankar Pancholi starts Empire Film Distributors in Karachi and Lahore, importing American films.

1923 C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru start the Swaraj Party to enter legislative assemblies. It achieves wider Muslim and Hindu support than the Congress, but by 1928 the Party represents mainly conservative Hindu landlord interests in the communally charged Bengal. Aparesh Chandra Mukherjee’s Karnarjun at Calcutta’s Star Theatre confirms the commercial theatre’s dominant language, influencing much of the early Bengali cinema. The Hindustan Times is launched. The Bengali literary journal Kallol, edited by Dinesh Ranjan Das, is first published and becomes the foremost literary journal of its time, lending its name to the Kallol Group. One of the early Bengali film weeklies, Sachitra Sisir, edited by Bijoyratna Majumdar, contains film and theatre reviews as well as production news. The élite literary journal Bharati (founded in 1877 and regarded as the journal of the Tagore clan) carries a serialised history of Bengali cinema. Entertainment tax of 1_ 122 % is levied in Bombay. The Saurashtra Kinematograph is set up in Rajkot.

1924 First radio programme, broadcast privately with a 40w transmitter, by the Madras Presidency Club Radio. The station ran for three years. Dhiren Ganguly exhibits Nanubhai Desai and B. P. Mishra’s Razia Begum in Hyderabad; the story of a Muslim princess falling in love with a Hindu leads to Ganguly’s expulsion by the Nizam and the closure of his Lotus Film Co. Nanubhai Desai and others start Saraswati Film. Maneklal Patel starts Krishna Film. Kamala Movietone is started in Lahore. India’s first periodical exclusively devoted to cinema, Mouj Majah (Gujarati), is launched in Bombay by J. K. Dwivedi. Hemendrakumar Roy and Premankur Atorthy start Nachghar, a weekly Bengali theatre and performing arts journal also publishing essays on film.

1925 In Amravati, K. B. Hedgewar founds the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), a militant cadre-based civilian army, to establish a Hindu rashtra (state). One of its members later assassinated Gandhi and the group has been involved in communal confrontations ever since. A Puss Moth carrying mail from Karachi to Bombay inaugurates a civilian air service. The Gurdwara Law in Punjab vests the responsibility for the running of all major gurdwaras in the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee (SGPC) which, with the Akali Dal, has controlled Punjab politics ever since. The first major film adaptation of the social reform novel: Painter’s Savkari Pash; the Indo-German co-production Prem Sanyas aka The Light of Asia. Fatma Begum, probably the first Indian woman producer and director, starts her production company and débuts as director with Bulbul-e-Parastan, released in 1926. N. D. Sarpotdar and Pandurang Talegiri start United Pictures Syndicate (formerly Deccan Pictures) in Pune; Sharda Film is started and formalises the stunt film genre. The Madurai Bala Shanmughananda Sabha, later known as the TKS Brothers troupe, is started, dominating pre-Independence Tamil theatre and film.

1926 The Arya Samaj leader Swami Shraddhanand is assassinated. Periyar E. V. Ramaswamy Naicker starts the Self-Respect Movement, propagating atheism to oppose caste discrimination. The Imperial Conference redefines Dominions as ‘autonomous communities within the British Empire’. India is not offered Dominion Status until 1942, when the offer is rejected. The Conference also launches the notion of Empire Films. The Bengali literary monthly Kalikalam, edited by Murlidhar Basu, Sailajananda Mukherjee and Premendra Mitra, starts in the wake of Kallol’s success; indicted repeatedly by the conservative literary establishment for obscenity, it serialised Mitra’s controversial Pank. Foundation of the Punjab Film Corp. in Lahore, inaugurating the Punjabi film industry. Ardeshir Irani starts Imperial Films, eventually making India’s first sound film.

Vande Mataram Ashram, the first Vande Mataram Film Co. production, is censored and briefly banned. The journal Photoplay starts in Calcutta.

1927 The Indian Trade Union Act comes into force on 1 June, defining the terms for union recognition and their frame of reference. Industrialists set up the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI). The Indian Broadcasting Company starts operations in Bombay and Calcutta, inaugurating professional radio in India. Modhu Bose starts the Calcutta Amateur Players theatre group. Indian Kinema Arts Studio starts in Calcutta, one of the predecessors of New Theatres. Film journals the Movie Mirror (Madras) and Kinema (Bombay) are started.

1928 Gandhi resumes Satyagraha, suspended after the Chauri Chaura violence, with the Bardoli peasant movement protesting against the 22% rise in land revenue collections. The movement also makes Vallabhbhai Patel a national leader. The Simon Commission, consisting of Sir John Simon and seven British MPs, arrives in India. It is boycotted by all major Indian Parties. Its 1930 report recommends abolition of diarchy and provincial autonomy, falling far short of Indian demands for autonomy. Lala Lajpat Rai is killed in a police charge on a demonstration in Lahore against the Simon Commission. Bhagat Singh and two other members of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army retaliate by assassinating a British police officer. The first major textile strike in Bombay, led by the Girni Kamgar Union, lasts for six months and establishes the CPI as a political force. The Indian Cinematograph Committee (1927-8) publishes its report. Appointed to counteract American imports with censorship regulations, the Report refused to give British films preferential treatment and recommended a series of measures to promote Indian films instead, with measures such as financial incentives to producers, the abolition of raw stock duty and the reduction of entertainment tax. The British administration ignores the report. A. R. Kardar starts the United Players Corporation in Lahore, the origin of Playart Phototone. R. Padmanabhan founds the Associated Films Studio in Madras, presiding over K. Subramanyam’s entry into the cinema and Raja Sandow’s directorial début. First Malayalam feature: J. C. Daniel’s Vigathakumaran.

1929 The defeat of the Public Safety Bill (1928), intended to deport socialist activists, leads to the Meerut Conspiracy when 31 CPI members, including three English CP representatives, are put on trial. The Devdasi Bill, combating prostitution in the name of religion and introduced by Muthulakshmi Reddy in the Madras legislature in 1926, is partially passed against conservative male opposition. It is passed in its full form only in 1947. The first commercial aviation service is offered by 19

Imperial Airways, extending its weekly London-Cairo flight to Karachi.

designed by the Orientalist architect Edwin Lutyens, becomes India’s capital.

Wall Street crashes, ending negotiations about a major Hollywood expansion into India. Several important studios are founded: Prabhat Film Co. in Kolhapur; Ranjit Movietone in Bombay; British Dominion Films Studio and Aurora Film Corp. in Calcutta; General Pictures Corp. in Madras. The influential Gujarati film periodical Chitrapat, edited by Naginlal Shah, and the Moving Picture Monthly are launched in Bombay. Universal’s Melody of Love is the first sound feature released in India, at the Elphinstone Picture Palace. Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay (not the famous novelist) launches the Bengali monthly Deepali containing mainly film-news, reviews, memoirs and serialised fiction; the journal also produced an English weekly under the same title, edited by Manujendra Bhanja and addressing a ‘highbrow’ audience.

Alam Ara is India’s first sound film. Kalidas is the first Tamil sound feature; in Telugu it is Bhakta Prahlada and in Bengali Jamai Sasthi. B. N. Sircar founds New Theatres, a sound film expansion of International Filmcraft (Est: 1930). Pancholi’s Empire Talkie Distributors acquires rights to RKO-Radio productions and RCA-Photophone sound equipment. The Bengali film weeklies Batayan (edited by Abinashchandra Ghoshal) and Chitralekha (edited by Bibhutibhushan Bannerjee) are launched. The Bengali literary quarterly Parichay (edited by Sudhindranath Datta) starts, arguably the most influential journal of cultural theory in pre-Independence Bengal.

1930 The former Congress Party activist Surya Sen leads an Indian Republican Army raid on the police and auxiliary force armouries at Chittagong. The group launched a sustained guerrilla action against the British, triggering several terrorist movements in and around Midnapore, and brutal state reprisals against the entire nationalist movement. The poet Mohammed Iqbal suggests a merging of the North West Frontier Province, Punjab, Sind and Baluchistan into a single state, the ancestor of Pakistan. Gandhi inaugurates the civil disobedience movement with his epic march from Ahmedabad to Dandi to defy the Salt Act. The Department of Industries and Labour takes over radio operations and starts the Indian Broadcasting Service in Bombay and Calcutta. Physicist C. V. Raman wins the Nobel Prize for his theory of the ‘Raman Effect’ of scattered light. Rabindranath Tagore, who started painting aged 67, has his first exhibition at the Galerie Pigalle, Paris; the show travels through Europe and opens at the Town Hall, Calcutta, in 1931. Abanindranath Tagore paints his definitive work, the Arabian Nights series. Munshi Premchand publishes the first number of his journal Hans. Sailajananda Mukherjee starts the Bengali film weekly Bioscope reporting the Hollywood, Bombay and Calcutta film industries and publishing reviews, pre-release synopses of films, industrial surveys and, occasionally, essays about technical and aesthetic issues. Ambalal Patel and Chimanlal Desai start Sagar Film. Gubbi Veeranna starts production with the Gubbi-Karnataka Films Corp. at the Malleshwaram Studios in Bangalore.

1931 Bhagat Singh is hanged, after throwing a bomb at the Central Legislative Assembly ‘to make the deaf hear’. He becomes India’s first nationally renowned socialist martyr. The Gandhi-Lord Irwin Pact is signed, leading to the temporary suspension of the civil disobedience movement. It is resumed after the failure of the second Round Table Conference in London, where Winston Churchill refers to Gandhi as a ‘half-naked seditious fakir’. New Delhi, 20

1932 Within three days of the Congress Party’s decision to resume the civil disobedience movement, the entire leadership is jailed and all civil liberties suspended. Over 80,000 nonviolent protesters court arrest. Ramsay MacDonald’s ‘Communal Award’, creating separate electorates in the provincial legislatures for Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, Anglo-Indians, Europeans, Depressed Classes, Women, Marathas and ‘Others’, further emphasises British efforts to communalise the nationalist movement and gives a new lease of life to the Hindu Mahasabha, which becomes its most strident opponent. First sound features in Gujarati (Narasinh Mehta) and Marathi (Sant Tukaram). The East India Film Co. starts in Calcutta, pioneering Bengali, Tamil and Telugu film-making. The Motion Picture Society of India is set up to represent the Indian film industry (in 1951, the Film Federation of India takes over). Hindi weekly Cinema Sansar, edited by Radhakrishna Sharma and featuring screenplays, lyrics, stories and film news, is launched in Bombay. In Bengal, the monthly Chitrapanji edited by Abani Basu includes serious essays by film-makers.

1933 The Indian Air Force is formed, named ‘Royal’ during WW2. The Indian Military Academy is started at Dehra Dun on the lines of the Sandhurst academy. The government of India nationalises radio broadcasting. Choudhury Rehmat Ali’s note of 28 January is the first time the word ‘Pakistan’ (Land of the Pure) is used: it is also a loose acronym for ‘Punjab, Afghanistan, Kashmir, Sind, Baluchistan’. In Calcutta, Bengal Lamps is India’s first manufacturer of light bulbs and electrical equipment. Natyamanwantar stages its landmark Marathi stage production, Andhalyanchi Shala. Prabhat Studio moves to Pune; its Sairandhri, processsed and printed in Germany, becomes India’s first colour film. Kolhapur Cinetone is started. Wadia Movietone is founded, establishing the stunt film as a respectable, bigbudget genre, with Hunterwali (1935). Vijay Bhatt and others start Prakash Pictures. Vel Pictures and Tamil Nadu Talkies are launched in Madras. Himansu Rai’s fourth international

venture, Karma, is premièred in London. The air-conditioned Regal Cinema opens in Bombay.

1934 The Congress Socialist Party is founded in Bombay, consisting of a group of Marxists, including Jayaprakash Narayan, Achyut Patwardhan and Yusuf Meherally; it later reestablished links with the A. P. Kisan Sabhas and emphasised land reform as an integral part of the nationalist agenda. The CPI is banned. Jinnah returns from England to head the Muslim League. Major earthquake in Bihar, destroying the city of Monghyr. The Royal Indian Navy is set up. Bengal’s ‘establishment’ literary weekly Desh starts. Bombay Talkies is established. Zubeida and Nanubhai Vakil start Mahalaxmi Cinetone. First sound features in Oriya (Seeta Bibaha) and Kannada (Bhakta Dhruva). Ch. Narasimha Rao’s Seeta Kalyanam, for Vel Pictures, is the first sound feature made in Madras. Meenakshi Cinetone is founded with K. Subramanyam’s Pavalakkodi. Priyanath Ganguly helps start Kali Films in Calcutta. Rajit studio’s Toofan Mail is the Hindi cinema’s first major success in the ‘stunt’ film genre, leading to Wadia’s Hunterwali (1935).The Hindi film periodical Chitrapat, edited by Hrishamcharan Jain, is launched in Delhi; it publishes scripts, fiction serials, poetry and news about international cinema. Bengali film weekly Ruprekha, edited by Jyotishchandra Ghosh, starts. The Urdu novelist Munshi Premchand is hired as a scenarist by Ajanta Cinetone at Rs 8000 per year.

1935 Buddhadev Bose and Samar Sen start the leading poetry quarterly Kavita in Bengal, introducing major writers such as Jibanananda Das and Bishnu Dey. The Indian Broadcasting Service starts its Delhi station. The Government of India Act (1935) provides provincial autonomy for elected ministers. Debates over participation in elections divide Congress. The Act defines an Anglo-Indian as a ‘European with a male progenitor, but the female is a native Indian’. The Seventh Congress of the Communist International (1935) calls for united anti-Fascist fronts. The CPI, regrouped under P. C. Joshi, abandons its critique of the Congress as a ‘party of the bourgeoisie’ to make common cause with several left groups, including the Congress Socialists, the Royists and the AllIndia Kisan Sabha (founded in 1936). The broad socialist front is supported by Nehru. India produces 228 features. In a booming South India, studios are started in Madras (K. Subramanyam’s Madras United Artists), Salem (Angel Films, 1934) and Coimbatore. The first All-India Motion Picture Convention is held. First films in Punjabi (Sheila) and Assamese (Joymati). Dhoop Chaon establishes playback singing as a standard practice. Launch of the seminal film monthly Filmindia; initially edited by D. K. Parker, it was later taken over by its proprietor Baburao Patel and lasted until 1961. The Quetta earthquake on 21 May; its after-effects are filmed by P. V. Pathy.

1936 The Progressive Writers Association conference, started in London in 1935, has its first all-India conference at Lucknow. The AllIndia Kisan Sabha, founded alongside the Congress session in Lucknow, publishes N. G. Ranga’s Kisan Manifesto making a series of ‘minimum demands’ on behalf of small landowners, tenants and landless labourers. All-India Radio is started. Orissa and Bihar become independent states of India. Amar Jyoti is shown in Venice. Master Vinayak and cameraman Pandurang Naik cofound Huns Pictures; the Telugu company Saraswati Talkies debuts with Draupadi Vastrapaharanam. Sarathi Films, started the same year, presided over Gudavalli Ramabrahmam’s early work in the reform genre (e. g. Raitu Bidda, 1939). Raja Sandow’s Vasantsena launches the prolific career of the Tamil comedy duo N. S. Krishnan and T. A. Mathuram. Franz Osten joins the Nazi Party. Jaddanbai starts Sangeet Film with films featuring her daughter Nargis as a child actress. Sohrab Modi and Rustom Modi start Minerva Movietone. The Bengal Motion Picture Association is founded in Calcutta. The second All-India Motion Picture Convention (Madras).

1937 Elections under the 1935 Act, when several political veterans contest for governmental office for the first time in their lives, leads to a Congress triumph in 8 of the 11 British-ruled provinces. C. P. Ramaswamy Aiyer, the dewan of Travancore, announces the Temple Entry proclamation and later concedes communal representation to keep the Christian, Ezhava and Muslim communities from becoming a joint opposition to Nair and caste-Hindu domination. Amrita Sher-Gil, who returned to India in 1934, visits the Ajanta and Mattancheri murals (1936-7), and paints her major works, Brahmacharis and Bride’s Toilet. First ‘songless’ film, J. B. H. Wadia’s Naujawan. The first indigenously made colour film is Gidwani’s Kisan Kanya, using the Cinecolor process acquired by Imperial. T. R. Sundaram starts Modern Theatres in Salem; Newtone Studio starts in Madras. The Indian Motion Picture Producers’ Association (IMPPA) is formed in Bombay, the first and for several years the most influential trade union in the film industry. Sant Tukaram receives a special jury mention in Venice. The Amateur Cine Society of India is formed in Bombay by, a. o. , P. V. Pathy, Stanley Jepson and Rudi Van Leyden. Jogjiban Bandyopadhyay sets up the Bengali film weekly Kheyali.

1938 The Haripura Congress is marked by ideological rifts between the Right and the Left factions of Congress; it also exhibits Nandalal Bose’s famous Haripura posters, showing India’s working people and evoking Pat figurations and reliefs from Bengal’s terracotta temples. The modernist sculptor Ram Kinker Baij makes his monumental Santhal Family cement sculpture at Shantiniketan. K. M. Munshi starts the Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan.

Short-wave radio broadcasts are introduced. Veer Savarkar becomes president of the Hindu Mahasabha. Duniya Na Mane is shown in Venice; none of the four Indian films shown in Venice in the 30s were bought for Western distribution. Bombay Talkies makes what is probably the first officially commissioned advertising film, on Lever’s Dalda cooking oil, for the Lintas advertising agency (although Niranjan Pal is supposed to have made some ads in the early 30s). The South Indian Film Chamber of Commerce and the Indian Motion Picture Distributors’ Association (IMPDA) are set up. The silver jubilee of the Indian film industry (usually dated from Phalke’s Raja Harishchandra) is celebrated with ‘official’ versions of India’s film history. The first Malayalam sound feature: Balan. The Indian Screen Gazette is started by Wadia Movietone, sponsored by the Film Advisory Board; P. V. Pathy films a three-reeler on the Haripura Congress for the Gazette.

1939 The British government declares war on Germany in the name of India. Nehru protests, declaring himself equally opposed to Fascism and imperialism, and pledges that an independent India, fighting Fascism alongside other free nations, would freely make its resources available for the war. Congress ministers, elected in 1937, resign. Vauhini Pictures is started by B. N. Reddi and Gemini by S. S. Vasan. Both companies expanded into studios in Madras in the 40s. Film Industry, a trade newspaper, is started in Bombay.

1940 The All-India Muslim League adopts the ‘Pakistan resolution’ at Lahore. The harmonium is banned from All-India Radio: its tempered scale, adapted from the organ, is considered antithetical to the shruti or the microtones that give Indian music its continuous scale. Only decades later would this commonly used musical instrument be allowed on radio again. Film Advisory Board is set up by the government and is granted monopoly over raw stock. Intensification of censorship of films likely to support the independence movement with images or words. P. K. Atre, Master Vinayak and others start Navyug Chitrapat with public finance. Mehboob makes Aurat, the original version of Mother India. Himansu Rai dies, and Devika Rani takes over Bombay Talkies.

1941 Subhash Chandra Bose escapes from house arrest, travels to Berlin and meets Hitler (1942), who approves a plan to raise an army in SouthEast Asia. All-India Radio becomes part of the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting. Rabindranath Tagore dies. The first modern shipyard in India, at Vishakapatnam, comes on stream. Its first ship, Jala Usha, is commissioned in 1948. Churchill announces that the Atlantic Charter does not apply to India. The Lahore-based film industry breaks into the

national market with Khazanchi. First Pushtu film: Sarhad Pictures’ Laila Majnu. Kadaru Nagabhushanam and P. Kannamba start Rajarajeshwari Film. The Motion Picture Association is founded in Delhi, after similar regional bodies in Bengal and Madras.

1942 Sir Stafford Cripps arrives in India amid increasing fears that India might fall to Japan, which bombs the east coast and Calcutta. His proposals to frame a Dominion Constitution and a promise of independence after the war are rejected, especially since they imply Partition. Congress launches the ‘Quit India’ movement in August. Violent confrontations lead to massive reprisals as eight British brigades and 57 Indian battalions are used to quell what the viceroy describes as ‘by far the most serious rebellion since that of 1857’. Matangini Hazra, a 72-year-old widow, leads a demonstration braving police bullets in Tamluk, Midnapore, becoming one of the icons of the August Kranti movement. The Japanese bomb Rangoon and Singapore. Representatives of Indian organisations from Japaneseoccupied territories meet in Tokyo and Bangkok, and resolve to raise an Indian National Army (aka Azad Hind Fauj) with Japanese support, consisting mainly of Indian prisoners of war. The CPI collaborates with the British following Hitler’s invasion of the USSR and opposes the Quit India movement. It concentrates on organising the Telangana peasantry against the Nizam of Hyderabad and on the Travancore movement against Dewan Ramaswamy Aiyer’s rule. Dr Dwarkanath Kotnis, head of a medical team sent to China, dies. Four years later, V. Shantaram films his story (Dr Kotnis Ki Amar Kahani) as a nationalist fable. Hindustan Motors is the first indigenous car-manufacturing company. The Bombay Film Society is formed. Major shortages in raw stock; only recognised producers receive a maximum of 11,000 feet for features and 400 feet for publicity trailers. Priority is given to films supporting the war effort, leading to a rash of war movies. Filmistan is founded by a breakaway group from Bombay Talkies led by S. Mukherjee and Ashok Kumar. A. R. Kardar founds the Kardar Studio. First films in Sindhi (Homi Wadia’s Ekta) and Marwari (G. P. Kapoor’s Nazrana). V. Shantaram starts the Rajkamal Kalamandir Studio on the former Wadia Movietone premises; Homi Wadia starts Basant Pictures. Mehboob starts his own production company (becoming a studio in 1952) with the hammer-and-sickle logo. K. A. Abbas, V. P. Sathe and others start the journal Sound, featuring politics, fiction, reviews and essays on Indian film.

1943 The Bengal famine (1943-4), a direct consequence of war profiteering and speculation, leaves five million dead. The bestknown work of art dealing with the issues involved is Bijon Bhattacharya’s play Nabanna, the inaugural production of the Indian Peoples’ Theatre Association. Subhash Chandra Bose arrives in Singapore by submarine from Kiel and becomes Supreme 21

Commander of the Indian National Army. He proclaims a ‘Provisional Government of Azad Hind’ (Free India). His government in exile is immediately recognised by Germany and Japan. The Muslim League amends the ‘Quit India’ resolution to ‘Divide And Quit’. The Calcutta Group of painters, including Gopal Ghosh, Prodosh Dasgupta and Nirode Majumdar, has its first show. Kismet, one of the biggest hits in Indian film history, is released. Rajkamal Kalamandir’s début feature, Shakuntala, is a major hit. Information Films of India is started; the Defence of India Act is amended to force all distributors to pay for and to show the Indian News Parade. K. Ramnoth starts the Cine Technicians Association of South India. Court Dancer, the English version of Raj Nartaki, is released in the USA in a few provincial theatres. Kalish Mukhopadhyay starts the seminal Bengali film monthly Rupamancha, with extensive film and performing arts reviews, committed to film education and to the reorganisation of the industry.

1944 The Indian National Army fights the British at Arakan, near Mandalay, and on Assam’s northeast frontier. They ‘liberate’ 15,000 square miles including Japanese-occupied Andaman and Nicobar islands. The Dravidar Kazhagam Party is founded by Periyar E. V. Ramaswamy Naicker in Madras. The Bombay Plan, presented by a group of industrialists, commits the Indian private sector to nationalist responsibilities, envisaging the possibilities of a free-market economy coalescing into the socialist ideal of a planned economy. K. C. S. Panicker starts the Progressive Painters Association in Madras, later institutionalised into the Cholamandal artists’ village (1966). Prithviraj Kapoor launches the Prithvi Theatres in Bombay. War profiteers increasingly launder their gains through the film industry, inflating star salaries and budgets, speeding up the shift away from studios towards independent production. The Navajyothi Studio is started in Mysore. The government appoints a Film Advisory Committee. Entertainment tax is increased in UP, Central Provinces, Bombay and Madras.

1945 The Indian National Army, hit by desertions and disease, surrenders, and several members are publicly tried. Bose is believed to have been killed in an air crash over Taipei. Central and provincial legislature elections: Congress wins majority but loses to the Muslim League in all Muslim-dominated provinces except the North West Frontier Province. A pact between Bhulabhai Desai of the Congress and Liaqat Ali of the Muslim League envisages joint control of an interim government, but both parties quickly repudiate any such understanding. Labour comes to power in Britain. C. R. Attlee sponsors a new initiative to break the HinduMuslim deadlock with the Simla Conference chaired by Lord Wavell. Jinnah rejects all compromise offers. The Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) is inaugurated (it became operational only in 1954); it later 22

pioneered India’s nuclear and space research programmes. The best known Prithvi Theatres play, Inder Raj Anand’s Deewar, addresses the communal divide in the context of India’s impending Partition. M. K. Thyagaraja Bhagavathar and N. S. Krishnan are arrested on murder charges and imprisoned. Film trade representatives resign from the Film Advisory Committee. The government withdraws state control on raw stock distribution (imposed in July 1943).

1946 The Muslim League’s call for a Direct Action Day (16 August) leads to the worst 20th C. communal riots in Bengal (Calcutta, Dacca, Noakhali and Tipperah). Riots in Bihar following the observance of 25 October as Noakhali Day. Nehru becomes vice-president of the Viceroy’s Executive Council, heading the Interim Government of an undivided India. Jinnah declares the day (2 September) as a day of mourning for Muslims; the Muslim League joins the government on 13 October and Jinnah accompanies Lord Wavell, Nehru and others to London to try to break the political impasse over Partition. Mutiny by Royal Indian Navy ratings (18 February). The CPI-led Telangana peasant insurrection reaches its peak, fighting the feudal zamindar system and bonded labour, forced levies and illegal land seizures. In Travancore, a general strike against Dewan Ramaswamy Aiyer’s insistence on continuing a despotic independence escalates into the CPIled Punnapra-Vyalar uprising. India recalls its South African High Commission, repudiating the India-South Africa treaty of 1927. The privately owned Tata Airlines becomes the country’s official international airline, Air India. Binode Behari Mukherjee paints his major mural, Medieval Hindi Saints, at the Hindi Bhavan, Shantiniketan (1946-8). Nehru publishes The Discovery of India. IPTA’s debut feature, Dharti Ke Lal, with Neecha Nagar and Dr. Kotnis Ki Amar Kahani, are made as war-effort films. Ranakdevi establishes the Gujarati cinema as a financially viable industry. MGM introduces commercial 16mm distribution, mainly for mobile cinemas. Information Films of India is dissolved; the Defence of India Rules on compulsory documentary screenings as well as footage restrictions are withdrawn.

1947 Lord Mountbatten becomes the last Viceroy and Governor General of India; he presents his plan for Partition (3 June), and announces the schedule for the transfer of power (14-15 August). The Indian Independence Bill is passed 15-16 July. Pakistan’s Constituent Assembly meets (11 August) and elects Jinnah as its first President. Nehru becomes India’s first Prime Minister (15 August), making his famous speech, ‘A Tryst with Destiny’, to the Constituent Assembly. In Punjab, the fall of Khizar Hayat Khan’s Congress- and Sikhsupported ministry is followed by massive rioting in Lahore, Amritsar, Multan, Attock and Rawalpindi. Nearly 200,000 people are killed as six million Muslims from the East and over four million Hindus and Sikhs from the West

become refugees in an exchange of populations. Communal attitudes merge with attitudes to sexual conquest and to property in a virtual war of extermination, as refugee trains carry more corpses than living people. The nizam of Hyderabad refuses to accede to the Indian Union and encourages the razakars, members of the Ittehad-ul-Muslimeen, to terrorise the peasantry. Pakistan attacks Kashmir; India signs a treaty of accession with Maharaja Hari Singh of Kashmir. Udaya Studios, the first film studio in Kerala. The AVM Film Co. starts, adapting S. V. Sahasranamam’s stage hit, Nam Iruvar; Master Bhagwan’s Jagriti Studios is established near Bombay. Paul Zils and Fali Bilimoria start the Documentary Unit - India. Satyajit Ray, Chidananda Das Gupta and others start the Calcutta Film Society. Foundation of the Bengali film weekly Rupanjali, edited by Sudhangshu Basu.

1948 Gandhi is assassinated by an RSS member. Limited India-Pakistan war over Kashmir, as India complains to the UN Security Council. The Indian Army occupies Hyderabad, forcing the Nizam to surrender. The CPI, which had fought the Razakars, refuses to call off the Telangana insurrection, raising hopes of spearheading a nationwide revolution. The peasantry fights the army until the insurrection is called off in 1951. The Press Trust of India is formed as a news agency under an agreement with Reuter and the Indian & Eastern Newspaper Society. The Progressive Artists Group, formed in 1947 in Bombay, has its first show. Sombhu Mitra starts the theatre group Bohurupee. The Atomic Energy Act is passed. Uday Shankar makes his nationalist dance spectacular Kalpana; S. S. Vasan’s Chandralekha is the first Madras production to become an all-India hit; both films are made at the Gemini Studio. Bhavnani’s Ajit is made on 16mm Kodachrome and blown up to 35mm in the USA. Nirmala is the first Malayalam film made in Kerala. Raj Kapoor starts his R. K. Films, building his studio in 1950. Nehru announces a freeze on the construction of movie theatres. Gour Chattopadhyay initiates the Bengali film monthly Chitrabani, the most reliable record of 40s-50s Bengali cinema together with Rupamancha.

1949 The Indian constitution is drawn up, adopting the British model. Universal suffrage and equal rights for all are among its radical measures, but it also includes Articles 352-5, empowering the president to declare a State of Emergency and providing central government with virtually unlimited authority. Manipur becomes an Indian Territory. The State of Rajasthan is formed, merging the old state with the Rajput Princely States of Bikaner, Jaipur, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer. Ceasefire in Kashmir, as the Indian Constituent Assembly recognises Kashmir’s independent status and its decision to become part of the Indian Union. This decision becomes a major rallying point for the Hindu Right which claims that Kashmiri Muslims have ‘special status’ in India. Ban on the RSS is

withdrawn, after a pledge to eschew violence. Trade agreement to export jute, tea and castor oil to the USSR in return for wheat. The USSR becomes India’s biggest trading partner and the only country to accept rupees as a currency for international trade. Athreya’s play, N. G. O. , pioneers realism on the Telugu stage. Films Division is set up. The DMK (Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam) is founded by C. N. Annadurai. The Party launches its use of film as propaganda with Velaikkari and Nallathambi. Dharti Ke Lal becomes the first Indian film to receive widespread distribution in the USSR. The Cinematograph Act of 1918 is amended; a new censorship classification is introduced. Entertainment tax for film is raised to 50% in the Central Provinces, going up to 75% in West Bengal. The Central Circuit Cine Conference, under Raibahadur Chunilal, protests at the increases and theatres go on strike. Dev Anand and Chetan Anand start Navketan Productions in Bombay, one of the independent producers through which IPTA members enter Hindi cinema. Movie Times is launched in Bombay, edited by B. K. Karanjia. Indian Documentary is launched by Paul Zils and others.

1950 India declares itself a sovereign democratic republic (26 January): population 350 million. The Republic is elected member of the UN Security Council for two years. The Assam earthquake (1 August). The Faculty of Fine Arts, Baroda, starts; ten years later, it becomes the pre-eminent centre for contemporary Indian art. Jean Renoir and Satyajit Ray meet on the shoot of The River in Bengal. Nemai Ghosh makes Chinnamul in Calcutta. The celebrated Tamil film Ezhai Padum Padu establishes Ramnoth, Nagaiah and Arudra. C. R. Subburaman, Samudrala Raghavacharya, Vedantam Raghavaiah and others start the Vinoda Studio. Vijaya Pictures starts with Shavukaru. The Pakistan government levies a tax of Re 1 per foot on all imported Indian films.

1951 The First Five-Year Plan is announced, with an outlay of Rs 2069 crore. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee starts the Bhartiya Jan Sangh on 2 October, an earlier version of the BJP, as the political wing of the RSS. The S. K. Patil Film Enquiry Committee, appointed in 1949, reports on all aspects of cinema, noting the shift from the studio system to independent entrepreneurship. Its critique of the mass-cultural idiom, including black market money and the star system, is accompanied by recommendations for major state investment in film production, the setting up of a film finance corporation, a film institute and film archives. The report is ignored for a decade. Film Censorship is centralised under a Central Board located in Bombay. The Film Federation of India is formed, joining up all sectors of the industry, with Chandulal Shah as president. Anjali Devi and Adi Narayana Rao start the Anjali Pictures Studio. The success of Patala Bhairavi transforms Telugu cinema. P. Subramanyam starts the Merryland Studio in

Kerala. The weekly newspaper Screen is set up by the Indian Express group. Pudovkin and Cherkassov tour India with a major Soviet film programme.

1952 Nehru forms a government in May after independent India’s first general elections. Gopalakrishna Adiga’s poetry anthology, Nadedu Banda Dari, is published; together with his Bhumigita (1959), these are considered the beginnings of the Navya Movement. The first International Film Festival of India, held in Bombay, Madras and Calcutta, by Films Division. The films of De Sica make a tremendous impact. Bimal Roy moves to Bombay and sets up his production company. Parasakthi, the most famous DMK Film, is released. The Indian Cinematograph Act 1952 is passed, replacing the 1918 Act, but makes few changes. The key section, banning films ‘against the interests of the security of the State, friendly relations with other foreign states, public order, decency or morality’, is retained. Film producers terminate their agreement with All-India Radio to broadcast film songs, when the radio refuses to credit producers or film titles. The radio starts its National Programme on music and its National Orchestra, conducted initially by Ravi Shankar. Colour films Aan and Jhansi Ki Rani (released in 1953) are made. Bombay Talkies ceases production. Ritwik Ghatak débuts with Nagarik. The fortnightly journal Filmfare is launched, claiming to be the ‘first serious effort in film journalism in India’. The Indore-based Hindi tabloid Cinema, edited by Manohar Prasad Gupta, starts publication. With the failure of protracted negotiations, West Pakistan finally bans the import of Indian films. An Indian film delegation visits Hollywood on invitation from the Motion Picture Association of America.

1953 The state of Andhra Pradesh, merging the former Central Provinces and Telangana, is formed, with the cessation of the CPI-led insurrection. Sheikh Abdullah, former Prime Minister of Kashmir, is arrested and imprisoned. Until 1975, Kashmir’s politics are largely determined by the central government. The Sangeet Natak Akademi is launched to support and fund music and theatre; it is the first of the three autonomous institutions intended to channel government spending on the arts. Do Bigha Zameen, showing the influence of Italian neo-realism, receives a special mention at Cannes (1954) and the Social Progress Award at Karlovy Vary. Prabhat Studio ceases production. Sharey Chuattar, the first film starring Uttam Kumar and Suchitra Sen. The Cinematograph Act is amended, extending the powers of various authorities to suspend exhibition of certificated films. The Film Federation of India accepts an Advertisement Code. The trade weekly Trade Guide (edited B. K. Adarsh) is started; it remains the main Hindi film trade paper. Filmfare inaugurates its annual awards.

1954 Zhou Enlai visits India, and Nehru goes to Beijing where he signs the ‘Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence’ with Mao Zedong. The National Gallery of Modern Art opens in New Delhi. The Lalit Kala (Fine Arts) Akademi and Sahitya (Literature) Akademi open. The first national film awards go to Shyamchi Aai and Jagat Murari’s short, Mahabalipuram. Awara is a major hit in the USSR. Abbas’s Munna is the second ‘songless’ film; it was shown at the Edinburgh Film Festival in 1955. Indian film delegations visit the Middle East and the USSR. Talks between the Film Federation of India and the government fail over All-India Radio’s policy of broadcasting film songs without crediting sources, driving producers into using Radio Ceylon. The compulsory exhibition of ‘approved films’ (i. e. government propaganda films) in Madras is declared unlawful by the Supreme Court. The Premier Studio, Mysore’s second studio premises, is started by M. N. Basavarajaiah.

1955 Nehru’s celebrated speech at the Avadi Congress calls for a ‘Socialistic Pattern of Society’. Khrushchev and Bulganin come to India. Nehru attends the Bandung Afro-Asian Conference, which inaugurates the NonAligned Movement in a cold war context. The leaders of the movement, Nehru, Nasser and Tito, meet again at Briony in 1956. Cow slaughter is banned in Andhra Pradesh. The National Defence Academy is set up at Khadakvasla. The Hindu Marriage Act is amended, making the minimum marriageable age for women 15 and for men 18; it also provides for divorces and individual separations. Dharamvir Bharati writes his Hindi verse play, Andha Yug; staged by Satyadev Dubey for Theatre Unit in 1960, it is one of the inaugural productions of a modern, postIndependence Indian theatre. Pather Panchali has its world première at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, coinciding with the official opening of the Textiles and Ornamental Arts of India Exhibition; in India, the film makes money for the West Bengal State Government, a significant factor in persuading the central government to set up the Film Finance Corporation in 1960, long after it had rejected the 1951 Enquiry Committee’s recommendation as financially impracticable. Festivals of Indian cinema in Beijing and London. The Children’s Film Society is set up. The South Indian Film Chamber of Commerce starts the Journal of the Film Chamber. The High Court at Andhra Pradesh grants an interim stay on the law of compulsory exhibition of ‘approved’ films and on the show tax.

1956 The Second Five-Year Plan, with a plan outlay of Rs 4800 crores. The government signs the controversial PL 480 agreement with the USA on foodgrain imports: India pays for the food in the form of loans to US multinationals in India and to private enterprises marketing American goods. The States Reorganisation Bill 23

is passed; the State of Madhya Pradesh and the Union Territories of Delhi and Andaman and Nicobar Islands come into being. Language riots in Ahmedabad over the proposed division of Bombay into Maharashtra and Gujarat. Kerala State is formed, combining Malabar, Kasergod and most of Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State (later Karnataka) is formed, extending the old Mysore kingdom with parts of Madras and Bombay Presidencies and Hyderabad. On 14 October, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar and 200,000 ‘scheduled caste’ Hindus convert to Buddhism in Nagpur to overcome the iniquities of caste oppression. The first Indian newsprint factory at Nepanagar is started. APSARA, the first nuclear reactor in Asia outside the USSR, is commissioned at Turbhe, just outside Bombay city. The artist M. F. Husain paints his seminal works Zameen (1955) and Between the Spider and the Lamp, presenting an emblematic cultural amalgam for independent India. UNESCO gives a $20,000 grant to study the use of television as a medium for education and ‘rural uplift’. The USA donates equipment and Philips sells a 500w transmitter at a nominal price. Indian films are shown at Edinburgh, Karlovy Vary and Berlin. The government refuses to make its ‘approved’, compulsory propaganda films available free of charge to exhibitors. The freeze on construction of new cinemas in Bombay is lifted. The Kerala Film Chamber is started in Cochin. The Andhra Film Chamber Journal is launched in Vijaywada. Rossellini starts work on India ‘57. Despite major government support and funds, his visa is allowed to expire after a variety of controversies including allegations that he infringed local moral codes (by having an affair with a married Indian woman). The Hindi journal Film Sangeet, published by the Sangeet Karyalaya, Hathras (which had earlier published Bhatkhande’s pathbreaking textbook on North Indian classical music). Bhatkhande’s influence is extended to written musical scores for film songs, in addition to essays on film music aesthetics and interviews with musicians.

1957 The first Communist ministry is formed in Kerala, led by E. M. S. Namboodiripad. Food prices increase by 50% since 1955, forcing the government to import wheat commercially from Australia and to accept aid under the controversial PL 480 agreement with the USA. The Indian Navy purchases the British aircraft carrier Hercules. All-India Radio starts its ‘light entertainment’ Vividh Bharati channel, later becoming its commercial channel, emphasising film-based entertainment. Jagte Raho wins first prize in Karlovy Vary and Aparajito in Venice; Kabuliwala receives a special mention for music in Berlin. Mother India is released. Pardesi is the first Indo-Soviet co-production. Raw stock is declared an essential commodity and its import is centrally controlled. Dealers are forced to declare their stocks. The Cinematograph Bill, intended to start a national film board, production bureau and film institute, is withdrawn. Chidananda Das Gupta, Satyajit Ray, Mrinal Sen and others start the Indian Film Quarterly. 24

1958 The first phase of the Bhakra Nangal dam, the showpiece of Nehru’s government, is completed. The dramatic deterioration in India’s foreign exchange reserves, increased spending on imported arms and the need to double the envisaged foodgrain imports, force the government to adopt a radical development strategy emphasising agrarian reform, land ceilings and (following the Chinese model) the organisation of co-operatives. The Indian Copyright Act comes into force. Hindi playwright Mohan Rakesh writes his Ashad Ka Ek Din. The first documentary film festival is held in Bombay. Ajantrik is shown in Cannes, out of competition. D. N. Sampat, founder of the Kohinoor Studio, dies.

1959 The government-sponsored steel plants at Rourkela and Bhilai are inaugurated; like the Bhakra Nangal dam, they exemplify Nehru’s ‘temples of the future’. In September, television arrives in India as a half-hour weekly service with a range of 40km around Delhi. C. Rajagopalachari starts the Right-wing proliberalisation Swatantra Party, combining the Forum of Free Enterprise and the All-India Agricultural Federation. China’s suppression of the Tibetan revolt, violating the treaty signed by Nehru and Mao Zedong (1954), forces 14,000 Tibetan refugees, led by the Dalai Lama, to turn to India. One consequence is that the Chinese model of economic collectivisation is discredited. Most of the food imported under the subsidised PL 480 scheme from the USA is released in fair-price shops, inaugurating India’s indebtedness to global lending organisations. The Communist ministry in Kerala is dismissed. Six years after The Robe, Guru Dutt makes the first Indian CinemaScope film, Kaagaz Ke Phool. Do Aankhen Bara Haath is shown in Berlin and wins the Hollywood Foreign Press Association and Samuel Goldwyn Awards for best foreign film. Pather Panchali’s continuous 226-day run at the Fifth Avenue Playhouse, New York, apparently breaks a 30year record for foreign releases in the USA. The Federation of Film Societies of India is founded, with Satyajit Ray as its president and Indira Gandhi as one of the vice-presidents. In Bombay, the Marathi weekly Rasarang (edited by A. D. Potnis), featuring sports and movies, is started; the Hindi monthly Sushama, an offshoot of the famous Urdu periodical Shama (edited by Yusuf Dehlvi in Delhi), features poetry, short stories, song lyrics and articles on Hindi films.

1960 Bombay State is divided into Maharashtra and Gujarat. Steel production starts at the Durgapur plant. Indian Navy’s first aircraft carrier, the INS Vikrant, is commissioned in Belfast. The National Museum opens in New Delhi. The government implements the 1951 Film Committee recommendation and starts the Film Finance Corporation to give lowinterest loans to selected projects. In the late

60s, the FFC emphasises the financing of the independent sector. The Film Institute is started at Pune, on the former Prabhat Studio premises; the Institute for Film Technology is started in Madras. The Hindustan Photo Film Manufacturing Co. starts making b&w X-ray film. Mughal-e-Azam, the most expensive feature to date, is completed. Ranadheera Kanteerava is the first big Kannada hit, establishing its star, Rajkumar. Shri Venkateshwara Mahatyam inaugurates N. T. Rama Rao’s political persona of the ‘living god’. The weekly tabloid Movieland is launched in Madras. Gandhian Sarvodaya workers start a series of protests against indecent film posters and hoardings.

1961 India invades and annexes Goa, Daman, Diu and Nagar-Haveli, the remaining Portuguese colonies, which are now declared Union Territories, along with Nagaland. The All-India Census reveals India’s population growth to be 2. 3% annually, considerably higher than the Central Statistical Organisation’s projections. The Third Five-Year Plan introduces family planning programmes, which were later to prove controversial. School television project is launched in Delhi. Ganga Jumna promotes the use of regional dialects in the mainstream Hindi film. First Rajasthani film: B. K. Adarsh’s Babasa Ri Laadi. Drastic cuts in the import of raw film stock. Second Film Festival of India in Delhi.

1962 The border war with China (20 October-21 November) in the North and North East. The illequipped Indian Army is routed. Nehru is violently attacked by the Congress right wing for the failure of his ‘non-alignment’ policies. In the general elections, Congress wins but the rise of the Jan Sangh and the Swatantra Parties signal a formidable merging of industrial proliberalisation forces with those of Hindu communalism in collective opposition to Nehru. The Bhakra-Nangal multipurpose river valley project on the river Sutlej, one of the biggest dams in the world, is complete. In 1954, Nehru had described this engineering feat as the ‘greatest and holiest’ of India’s shrines. Pakistan bans Indian films in the East (West Pakistan had banned them in 1952), hitting the Bengali cinema particularly hard. Radio Ceylon captures India’s commercial radio audience by broadcasting film songs and film-based programmes, while All-India Radio concentrates on popularising classical music. First Bhojpuri film: Ganga Maiya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo. Indian Film Culture, the journal of the Federation of Film Societies of India, is launched in Calcutta.

1963 The ‘Kamaraj Plan’, initiated by K. Kamaraj, a senior Congress leader and Chief Minister of Madras, calls for the voluntary resignation of all senior Congress members from government posts in order to concentrate on revitalising the Party. Nehru uses the plan to purge the right wing from his ministry. Morarji Desai, one of

the most vocal critics of Nehru’s socialism, accuses him of preparing the rise to power of Indira Gandhi. Parliament approves the continued use of English as an official language beyond 1965. A 10kg ‘toy rocket’, launched into outer space from the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station near Trivandrum, is India’s first space research success. The Group 1890, an art exhibition with J. Swaminathan’s manifesto and an introduction by Octavio Paz, becomes the second major show, after the Progressive Artists Group, to redefine an indigenous modernism. The Indian Motion Picture Export Corporation (IMPEC) is formed. The first Indian MerchantIvory film, The Householder. Barnouw and Krishnaswamy’s Indian Film is published. The Journal of the CTA of South India, a Madrasbased monthly, is started; it is probably the first technical film journal in India, and reports on the work of major film technicians in the South.

1964 Nehru dies; Lal Bahadur Shastri becomes prime minister. The Communist Party of India splits, the majority of the rank and file going to the CPI (Marxist). The split is triggered by the India-China war, but the larger context is the CPSU’s support for the Congress, regarded as an imperialist ally by the CPI’s left wing. Following a split in the Congress and the imposition of president’s rule in Kerala, 800 CPI(M) cadres are arrested, including A. K. Gopalan, the best known of Kerala’s Marxist leaders. The indigenously manufactured Vaijayanta tank is the showpiece of the Indian Army’s arsenal. The National Film Archive of India is founded in Pune under the Information & Broadcasting Ministry. The Film Institute at Adyar, Madras, starts. Report on Indian Cinema for UNESCO by Jerzy Toeplitz, president of FIAF. He notes the Bombay cinema’s impact on the Hindi language. First Kashmiri film: Naizraat.

1965 Second Indo-Pakistan War since Partition disputing the Kashmir borders. Pakistan invades Chhamb and the Rann of Kutch (1-23 September). Major language riots in South India over the adoption of Hindi as India’s national ‘link’ language. Demonstrations in Madras exceed those of the 1942 Quit India movement. M. Karunanidhi is among the arrested DMK agitators. Kerala declares a strike on 18 February. The CPI(M) emerges as the dominant political party in Kerala’s mid-term elections. However, its significant left wing concentrates increasingly on creating peasant organisations with an extra-parliamentary action programme. Charu Majumdar, leading the best known of these movements, declares: ‘The real fight against revisionism can never be begun unless the peasant starts it through revolutionary practice’. Television becomes a daily service of one hour, restricted to Delhi. The International Film Festival of India turns competitive. R. Kariat’s Chemmeen.

1966 Indira Gandhi becomes prime minister, after the Tashkent peace talks followed by the death

of Lal Bahadur Shastri. Punjab is divided into Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. Devaluation of the rupee by 36. 5%. A growing number of political groups, both Left and Right, marginalise parliamentary politics and embark on violent protests. The Communists’ emphasis on extra-parliamentary ‘mass struggle’ is emulated by a variety of regionalist, ethnic and communal groups. The FICCI considers a proposal to raise a large election fund to support a ‘business party’. Ghatak joins the FTII in Pune. Karnataka Chief Minister Veerendra Patil initates a scheme to subsidise all films made in the state. The initial subsidy is Rs. 50,000 for b&w and Rs. 1 lakh for a colour film. The Dolton Press, part of B. Nagi Reddy’s publishing empire, starts the journal Bommai (edited by B. Vishwanatha Reddy) in Tamil. The Dadasaheb Phalke LifetimeAchievement Awards are started. The first Dogri film is Kumar Kuldip’s Gallan Hoyian Beetiyan. The North Calcutta Film Society starts the quarterly Chitravash and publishes special issues on, e. g. , Nemai Ghosh and Rajen Tarafdar. The Cine Club in Calcutta starts the occasional journal Kino in English.

1967 Indira Gandhi leads her Party to victory in the National Elections. The Congress, hit by major defections and multi-party alliances cobbled together exclusively to oppose it, finds its popular support eroded and loses in eight of India’s 17 states. Left United Fronts assume power in West Bengal and Kerala; the DMK wins in Madras on an anti-Hindi platform, and coalitions elsewhere include Hindu communalist factions, dissident exCongressmen and reincarnated preIndependence royalty. The peasant uprising in the Naxalbari District of West Bengal, led by CPI(M) members, starts peacefully but turns into an armed insurrection against individual landowners. Chief Minister Ajoy Mukherjee, who leads the only major non-Marxist faction in Bengal’s United Front, rigorously quells the rebellion, causing a split in the United Front and provoking the dismissal of the state government. ‘Naxalite’ activity surfaces in Andhra Pradesh, at Srikakulam, where Girijan tribals take on local landlords and the police to create virtual soviets, redistributing land and establishing their own administrative machinery. The Srikakulam uprising is defeated only in 1969 by the Central Reserve Police Force. The Rohini RH75 rocket is launched from the Thumba base. Bommai diversifies into the Telugu monthly, Vijaychitra. Start of the Bengali film monthly Chitrabikshan by Cine Central, Calcutta. Hindustan Photo Films makes India selfsufficient in b&w film and sound negative film. All colour stock is imported and locally perforated. The first 70mm wide-screen film screened in India. M. G. Ramachandran is shot and injured by co-star M. R. Radha. He also becomes a DMK Member of the Legislative Assembly and, in 1970, treasurer of the DMK. The Vividh Bharati channel on All-India Radio goes commercial in Bombay, Pune and Nagpur. Over the next decade, it becomes the dominant publicity medium for cinema, with, e. g. , sponsored serials and song compilation programmes.

1968 The All-India Co-ordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries, the precursor of the CPI(ML), becomes the focus of the extraparliamentary Left. The first Indian Triennale of International Art, organised by the Lalit Kala Akademi. The G. D. Khosla Committee Report on Film Censorship criticises the censorship guidelines: ‘If they are followed rigidly, not a single film, Indian or Western, is likely to be certified. ’ Abbas’s independent short, Char Shaher Ek Kahani, made in the context of the Khosla Committee’s investigations, sparks a major censorship controversy by suggesting that censorship violates the constitutional right to free speech. Major reforms are instituted by the Hidaytullah judgment in the Supreme Court. A manifesto for a New Indian Cinema movement is issued by Mrinal Sen and Arun Kaul, advocating a state-sponsored authorcinema. The state-owned Jyoti-Chitraban studio is inaugurated in Kahilipara, Guwahati, Assam.

1969 Indira Gandhi splits the Congress, sacks her finance minister Morarji Desai, and announces the nationalisation of 14 of India’s largest banks accounting for 52% of the national credit. She becomes the unquestioned leader of her Party. Her increasing use of radical socialist rhetoric attempts to neutralise both Left and Right opposition in the name of ‘progressive forces’. The CPI(ML) is founded in Calcutta by Kanu Sanyal. The atomic power station at Tarapur becomes operational. The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre produces Uranium 235. The scientist Vikram Sarabhai, Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, presents his vision for Indian TV: to overcome simultaneously India’s two major limitations, geographical distance and linguistic diversity. Bhuvan Shome and Uski Roti, financed by the FFC, inaugurate New Indian Cinema. Olavum Theeravum launches a second ‘new wave’ in Malayalam. Aradhana makes Rajesh Khanna a megastar in association with Kishore Kumar’s singing and S. D. and R. D. Burman’s scores. Publication of P. Parrain’s Regards sur le cinéma indien in Paris. First Satyajit Ray retrospective at the Cinémathèque, Paris.

1970 The Naxalite Movement takes a new turn with student uprisings in Calcutta and other cities. Rebelling against corrupt and archaic education systems, problems of unemployment and the class divide separating Westernised urban life from the ‘reality’ of rural India, the student action becomes iconoclastic, defacing statues of Gandhi, Rammohun Roy, Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar, Vivekananda et al. Furious debates about the role of art and culture, the supportable and objectionable aspects of India’s history, and the role of its petty bourgeoisie, end badly with brutal police and military crackdowns and indiscriminate killings. Anti-Naxalite hysteria grips the state machinery. The central government approves 25

the West Bengal Prevention of Violent Activities Bill. Indira Gandhi’s turn towards socialism is reflected in the new Industrial Licensing Policy, reversing the trend towards deregulation. This socialism is incarnated in the Fourth Five-Year Plan, with an outlay of Rs 15,902 crore. The government abolishes privy purses and all privileges to India’s erstwhile royalty. The English monthly Stardust, using ‘Bombay English’ and featuring movie star gossip and scandals, revolutionises the concept of the fanzine. Journal of the Kerala Film Chamber (Cochin) starts. Close Up (no. 5/6) publishes a special number on ‘The Indian Film Scene’. Samskara inaugurates New Indian Cinema in Kannada. Firoze Rangoonwala publishes his Indian Filmography: Silent and Hindi Films (1897-1969).

1971 The Pakistan government’s crackdown on Sheikh Mujibur Rahman’s Awami League leads to war with India and results in East Pakistan becoming Bangladesh. Indira Gandhi exploits India’s success by announcing elections. Her Congress (R) wins a massive majority, which she uses to change the Constitution, giving greater powers to the parliamentary executive at the expense of the judiciary. President’s Rule is declared in West Bengal and Union Minister Siddhartha Shankar Ray uses troops to quell what remains of the Naxalite Movement. A conservative estimate (quoted by Francine Frankel, 1978) is that 15,000 people were arrested, of whom 2000 were killed. By 1973, there are more than 30,000 political prisoners in Bengal, arrested under the Maintenance of Internal Security Act (MISA). India signs a 20year Treaty of Peace and Friendship with the USSR, triggered by ‘secret’ talks between Kissinger and Zhou Enlai and the fear that both China and the USA would back Pakistan in the event of further conflict. This effectively ends the Nehruite non-alignment policy. The State of Himachal Pradesh is formed. B. V. Karanth’s theatre group, Benaka, stages Karnad’s Hayavadana, Kambhar’s Jokumaraswamy and Lankesh’s Oedipus, inaugurating a Navyainspired avant-garde in Kannada theatre. The agreement between the Indian government and the MPEAA is allowed to expire. From 114 foreign films censored in 1972, the number falls to 38 in 1973 and 26 in 1974. The directive to the FFC to sponsor independent film-making is written into its official objectives, enjoining it to turn film into ‘an effective instrument for the promotion of national culture, education and healthy entertainment . . . by granting loans for modest but off-beat films of talented and promising persons in the field’. This directive was to last for only five years. India produces 433 feature films, making it the largest film producer in the world. The boom, started in the mid-60s, continues throughout the decade: in 1979, 714 Indian features were submitted to the censor. Pakeezah is released. Shantata! Court Chalu Aahe starts the New Indian Cinema movement in Marathi. Its original author, Tendulkar, writes the play Sakharam Binder. 26

1972 Government nationalises the coal-mining industry. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and Indira Gandhi reach agreement over Kashmir (the Simla Accord). Amol Palekar’s staging of Sadanand Rege’s Marathi play Gochee starts the Chhabildas experimental theatre movement, deriving its name from a school in a lowermiddle-class neighbourhood in Bombay, which the theatre group Aavishkar had earlier acquired to stage low-budget theatre experiments to a small audience. Television starts in Bombay (October). Stations are started the following year in Srinagar, Amritsar and Calcutta. Madras and Lucknow follow in 1975. First art-house cinema opened by the FFC. First features in Manipuri (Matamgi Manipur) and Coorgi (Nada Manne Nada Koolu). The first film co-operative run by technicians, the Chitralekha Co-op, starts production with Adoor Gopalakrishnan’s début, Swayamvaram. In Tamil Nadu, M. G. Ramachandran is expelled from the DMK and forms the Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam. The Malayalam film weekly Nana starts, occasionally publishing filmographies and listings in between features on the Malayalam film industry. Do Gaz Zameen Ke Neeche establishes the Ramsay Brothers and the horror genre in Hindi.

1973 The former Mysore State becomes Karnataka. A Special Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court restricts Indira Gandhi’s constitutional amendments of 1971, impeding her efforts to make parliament the supreme authority in the country’s constitution. In retaliation, Mrs Gandhi selects and appoints a new chief justice, a ‘blatant attempt . . . at undermining the independence of the judiciary’, according to the Supreme Court Bar Association. Jayaprakash Narayan, the former socialist later associated with the Gandhian Sarvodaya Samaj, warns against the erosion of democracy. All private wholesale trading in wheat is banned; only the Food Corporation of India, and similar organisations, are authorised to purchase wheat. The fixing of procurement prices, coupled with the relative failure of the wheat crop, leads to large-scale hoarding and a major black market in food. The FFC becomes the channelling agency for the import of raw stock, a role until then played by the State Trading Corporation of India. A 250% import duty on raw stock is imposed. First Haryanvi film: Beera Shera. Bobby reinvigorates the love story genre. Ankur is a commercial success, starting the ‘middle-of-the-road’ cinema of the independently financed, commercially designed art-house movie, a genre that soon dominates state-sponsored film and television. Launch of the Bombay-based weekly trade paper Film Information, providing the most reliable listings of Hindi cinema.

1974 The Nav Nirman student agitation in Gujarat, opposing a faction-ridden Congress, the corruption of Chief Minister Chimanbhai Patel and escalating prices of wheat and cooking oil,

leads to President’s Rule. The agitation spreads to Bihar as Jayaprakash Narayan announces his re-entry into political life to lead the movement, supported by the Jan Sangh, the Congress (O) and the CPI(M). A National Coordination Committee led by Narayan addresses a series of massive rallies, making Bihar the spearhead of the anti-Indira Gandhi campaign. Anand Patwardhan’s Waves of Revolution (1975) chronicles the movement towards what Narayan called ‘sampoorna kranti’ (‘Total Revolution’). The strike of 1.7 million railway workers continues for three weeks with wide support from the antiCongress opposition. It is broken through the widespread use of preventive detention under the Maintenance of Internal Security Act (MISA). The ‘peaceful’ nuclear blast at Pokharan demonstrates India’s acquisition of nuclear capability. Hindustan Photo Films starts limited production of positive colour stock. The Film Festival of India becomes an annual event. The Film Institute of India is registered as an autonomous society, and is merged with the TV Training Centre to become the Film & Television Institute of India.

1975 Indira Gandhi is accused of ‘corrupt practices’ during her 1971 election campaign in the Rae Bareilly constituency. She is debarred from holding elective office for six years. This event, and the expansion of the Jayaprakash Narayanled movement into Gujarat, the formation of a multi-party ‘Janata Front’ culminating in Narayan’s major Delhi rally calling on the army and police to disobey ‘illegal orders’, lead to the declaration of Internal Emergency. All opposition leaders and thousands of intellectuals and political activists are jailed. Mrs Gandhi announces her Twenty-Point Economic Programme, using the unprecedented powers of her government to promise: the implementation of agricultural land ceilings, houses for landless labourers, the abolition of bonded labour, the liquidation of rural debt, cheaper prices, higher agricultural wages, increased production and employment, the socialisation of urban land, a crackdown on tax evasion, the confiscation of smuggled property and cheaper textbooks. Smallpox is eradicated from India. The Chasnala colliery disaster, in which 372 miners die. Utpal Dutt presents his play, Dushwapner Nagari. The USA loans its satellite ATS-6 for a one-year SITE project, while Doordarshan expands its number of terrestrial stations (Calcutta, Madras and Lucknow in 1975, Ahmedabad in 1976). The Aryabhata, a 360kg satellite, is made in India and launched from a Soviet cosmodrome. A new agreement with the MPEAA means that US films can be imported again. Sholay and Jai Santoshi Maa are made. The Bengali film fortnightly Anandalok starts.

1976 Emergency attacks on civil liberties include the Prevention of Publication of Objectional Matter Act, effectively introducing pre-censorship of the press, and the 42nd Amendment, paving the way for a permanent dictatorship. A new

National Population Policy is announced by Sanjay Gandhi, aiming to sterilise 23 million people over three years. Between April and September 1976, 3.7 million Indians were sterilised, mostly among the lowest and most oppressed sections of the population, often forcibly in makeshift sterilisation camps. In the Turkman Gate and Jama Masjid neighbourhoods in Delhi, 700,000 people are made homeless by slum clearance and ‘beautification’ programmes. The Constitution’s preamble is amended from ‘Sovereign Democratic Republic’ to ‘Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic’. Food prices stabilise following a good monsoon; the number of days lost in industrial strikes goes down from 6 million between July and September 1974 to 1.56 million between July and September 1975. Doordarshan TV is separated from All-India Radio and is allowed to take advertising. During the Emergency, the Committee on Public Undertakings attacks the FFC’s ‘art-film’ policy because, from Rs 62.5 lakhs disbursed since June 1969 for 30 features, Rs 38.01 lakhs had not been recovered. From the 30 films financed, only 16 were completed and 10 of them ‘have not proved successful at the box office’. The Committee ignores distribution and exhibition, exclusively blaming the films instead. It decrees a series of aesthetic criteria for future film funding, including ‘human interest in theme’, ‘Indianness’ and ‘characters with whom the audience can identify’. Prefiguring the commercialised Doordarshan experiment, the Estimates Committee’s 80th Report (1975-6), states that ‘It should have been apparent to the [C]orporation that films are primarily a means of entertainment and unless the films financed provide good entertainment [t]hey would not be acceptable to the masses. ’ The Report adds that in 1969-70, Indian films worth Rs 4. 35 crore were exported illegally. It also attacks the selection policy of Indian films entered in foreign festivals. The journal Film Blaze starts in Bombay. The YUKT co-op, a group of ex-students of the FTII, makes Ghashiram Kotwal. The negative of Amrit Nahata’s Kissa Kursi Ka (remade 1977), a satire on Emergency rule, is destroyed by Sanjay Gandhi’s representatives.

1977 In the general election, Indira Gandhi is defeated and the Janata Party, a coalition of disparate opposition groups, takes power under Morarji Desai. The Emergency is withdrawn. In Tamil Nadu, the AIADMK comes to power with M. G. Ramachandran as chief minister. He introduces schemes to assist the Tamil film industry, including government subsidies. Tamil film production leaps from 66 films in 1978 to 105 in 1979.

1978 Indira Gandhi starts the Congress (I) Party. The Janata Party’s Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, and the founding of the Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission, effectively terminate the licences to Coca Cola, IBM and other multinationals. The All-Assam Students Union (AASU) issues a 16-point

Charter, including a demand to restrict the entry of foreigners, mainly Bangladeshi refugees, into Assam. The B. G. Verghese Working Group on Autonomy for Akashvani and Doordarshan, submits its report. The following year, the Prasar Bharati Bill cancels any possibility of real autonomy for TV. The net Indian box-office take for 1978-9 is c. Rs 247 crore. Entertainment tax for the period is Rs 187 crore. On average, state governments collect 43% of the gross box office. The Orissa Film Development Corporation (Est: 1976) announces the financing of ‘Janata cinema houses’ in rural and semi-urban areas. The number of Oriya films reaches 15. Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh adopt similar financing programmes while Punjab, UP and Kerala directly build state-owned theatres. Panorama of Indian cinema at the Carthage Film Festival. The Malayalam film journal Chitrabhoomi is started by the owners of the mainstream daily Mathrubhoomi.

1979 The Janata Party splits (e. g. because of the Jan Sangh’s affiliations to the RSS), Morarji Desai resigns and Charan Singh becomes a caretaker prime minister as elections are announced. The Akali Dal General House defines the Anandpur Sahib Resolution, demanding that Chandigarh becomes the capital of Punjab and that the Supreme Court adjudicate disputes over the distribution of river water. The Congress (I) supports Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale for the Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee elections. The film industry forms the National Party with a predominantly pro-industry, rightwing manifesto, denying that it is a version of the former Swatantra Party. This is the only occasion when the film industry attempted to start a political Party of its own, although several movie stars participated in parliamentary politics. Mass rallies in Assam, led by the AASU, on the issue of illegal immigrants, also generate anti-Muslim and regionalist anti-Bengali sentiment. The second satellite, Bhaskara-1, also built in India by ISRO, is launched from Bear’s Lake, USSR. However, the first Satellite Launching Vehicle (SLV) at Sriharikota fails with a payload of 40kg. Malayalam film production reaches 123 (54 in 1975), exceeding the Hindi cinema, partly because of the Kerala government’s Chitranjali Film Studio and other subsidies, but mostly because of the influx of ‘Gulf money’ remitted by Malayalam workers in the Middle East. Shankarabharanam is a major Telugu musical hit.

1980 Indira Gandhi’s Congress (I) returns to power, also winning Punjab with the support of Bhindranwale and other groups which unleash extreme Right terrorist attacks. As a result of the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, the number of foreign companies in India falls from 510 in 1975 to 300 by 1980-1. The second satellite launch from Sriharikota, the satellite ROHINI, is successful. The first colour telecast from Doordarshan, an experiment on 18 July, announces the 1982 shift to colour and

commercialisation. The Information & Broadcasting Minister makes colour TV one of the Congress (I)’s main election promises. India has 6368 permanent and 4024 temporary ‘touring’ theatres. The Lotus Cinema, hired by the FFC, becomes Bombay’s only venue for ‘art’ films, opening with Bimal Dutt’s Kasturi (1978). The FFC merges with the Indian Motion Picture Export Corporation to become the NFDC. Independent film-makers start the Forum for Better Cinema and ask the government to invite Satyajit Ray to head the new organisation. Ray declines the offer, urging the Forum to exercise caution. The NFDC’s Board combines disparate interests and is unable to agree which kind of cinema to support. K. S. Karanth’s Report of the Working Group on National Film Policy is published. It recommends, e. g. , the foundation of a Chalachitra Akademi for film in line with the academies for literature, theatre, dance and the visual arts. The academy would combine the Directorate of Film Festivals, the National Film Archive of India, a non-commercial import/export agency, a film museum and the means to fund film societies, education and research programmes. The government ignores the report. Satyajit Ray retrospective at the Indian International Film Festival; Mrinal Sen retrospective at the National Film Theatre, London. The journal Cinema Vision (India) starts in Bombay with an issue on silent cinema.

1981 Mrs Gandhi’s government reverses its preEmergency commitment to socialist protectionism in the wake of its new space satellite programme. The shift to colour TV pioneers the liberalisation of import licences for unassembled TV kits, assembly and marketing initially being reserved for small businesses. India borrows $5 billion from the International Monetary Fund, the biggest such loan in history. The art exhibition Place for People (Bhupen Khakhar, Vivan Sundaram, Gulam Mohammed Sheikh, Nalini Malani, Sudhir Patwardhan) reconstitutes Indian modernism, drawing on popular arts and on figurative elements rather than abstraction. India’s first geostationary telecommunications satellite, APPLE (Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment), weighing 670kg, is launched from French Guiana by the European Space Agency. Celebration of Indian cinema’s golden jubilee; formation of the short-lived Indian Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences (IAMPAS). A three-part season tours the USA (billed as a pre-Ray package, a Ray retrospective and a New Indian Cinema programme). Special issue on Indian cinema by the Journal for Asian Literature (Washington). 36 Chowringhee Lane achieves a commercially viable, English-speaking audience, enhanced by foreign sales.

1982 Continuing the Congress (I)’s liberalisation policies, Indian culture is marketed in a massive Festivals of India campaign starting in London, then in Paris and Moscow. India’s finest traditional and contemporary artists are 27

featured. The Bombay Textile strike, lasting almost a year. INSAT 1-A is launched from Cape Canaveral, inaugurating a national TV programme mobilising all prime time throughout the country for the New Delhi station. Colour TV starts on 25 April with the telecast of Ray’s Sadgati and Shatranj Ke Khiladi. Regular colour telecasts through INSAT begin on 15 August. The Ninth Asian Games held in Delhi provide the first nationwide colour programmes, using the USSR’s Stationary-5 satellite and 20 low-power transmitters. N. T. Rama Rao starts the Telugu Desam Party. The failure of Rawail’s Deedar-e-Yaar is a major setback to the Hindi industry. The Tamil film weekly Gemini Cinema starts. First films in Brijbhasha (Brij Bhoomi) and Malvi (Bhadwa Mata).

1983 Violence erupts in Assam, led by the All-Assam Students Union (AASU) which boycotts the Assembly elections held with major military support, although none of the main Parties except the Congress (I) and some Left groups participate. Rampant terrorism in the Punjab countryside, briefly quelled by massive state intervention, gradually resurfaces. INSAT 1-B satellite is put into orbit from the US space shuttle Challenger, inaugurating the Special Plan for Expansion of the Television Network. The Karnataka state subsidy to films is increased to Rs 1 lakh for b&w and Rs 1.5 lakh for colour, provided the films are in Kannada and made entirely in the state. Producers are allowed to do post-production outside Karnataka until 1986, when several dubbing, mixing and re-recording studios (the Chamundeshwari and Vasant labs, followed by Prasad Studios and Shankar Nag’s Sanket Electronics) are established. Panorama of Indian Cinema at the Centre Pompidou, Paris. First film in Garhwali (Jagwal) and Khasi (Ka Lawei Ha Ki Ktijong Ngi).

1984 The Bhopal disaster, in which deadly emissions of methyl iso-cyanate from a Union Carbide (India) plant in Bhopal kill 3849 people (by official estimates) and maim 500,000 people in the countryside. The army attacks the Golden Temple, Amritsar, the most sacred of Sikh gurdwaras and the hideout of Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale. Over 2000 people die, including a third of the military contingent used. The Congress (I)’s former protégé, Bhindranwale, is killed. In retaliation, Indira Gandhi is assassinated by her security guards, triggering the Delhi riots in which 2717 people (official estimate), mostly Sikhs, are killed by mobs with alleged Congress (I) compliance. Rajiv Gandhi becomes prime minister. The P. C. Joshi Working Group on Software for Doordarshan is presented to parliament, with scathing criticism of TV’s commercialism and ‘Delhicentrism’. The report is never officially published. Doordarshan starts a second channel from Delhi. John Abraham starts the Odessa Collective in Cochin. 28

1985 The 52nd Amendment bill disqualifies Members of Parliament who defect from one Party to another. The Assam accord, after which the AASU-Asom Gana Parishad leadership takes over the state government. The Punjab accord is signed by Rajiv Gandhi and Harchand Singh Longowal, the most moderate of the Sikh leaders. Longowal is assassinated shortly afterwards. Doordarshan becomes a fully commercial station selling prime time slots to private sponsors and manufacturers of TV soaps. Its first successful series, Kumar Vasudev’s Humlog (1984-5), is modelled on the Mexican concept of the ‘developmental’ soap opera and is sponsored by Colgate-Palmolive and Nestlé. Several privately made serials follow as TV ownership jumps from 2. 7 million in 1984 to 12. 5 million in 1986. Indian Cinema season at Pesaro Film Festival, Italy.

1986 The district judge of Faizabad orders the opening of the Babri Masjid mosque in Ayodhya to Hindu worshippers. According to fanatical Hindus, the mosque, built in 1528, stands on the spot where Ram, a Hindu god, was born. The Babri Masjid Action Committee (BMAC) is formed. G. M. Shah’s ministry in Kashmir is dissolved and Kashmir is brought under President’s rule. The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Bill, better known as the Shah Bano Bill, follows the Supreme Court’s judgment ordering Mohammed Ahmed Khan of Indore to pay alimony to his divorced wife Shah Bano. The Supreme Court is accused of violating the Shariat (the Koranic Commandments) by the Muslim Personal Law Board, and the government, to win conservative Muslim support, passes a Bill taking away all rights from divorced Muslim women. The assets of the top 574 companies identified by the Monopolies & Restrictive Trade Practices Act are, on average, Rs. 70.24 crore, almost double the value of Indian subsidiaries of foreign multinationals. The actress Smita Patil dies, aged 31. The Calcutta-based journal Splice starts, edited by Samik Bandyopadhyay. It lasts for four issues.

1987 Institutionalised corruption and capital flight become dominant political issues. Arms deals (e. g. buying Bofors guns and HDW submarines) and the hiring of an American detective agency to trace illegal funds held by Indians abroad provoke a series of inquiry commissions. Finance Minister V. P. Singh is sacked and becomes a leading opponent of the Rajiv Gandhi regime. Amitabh Bachchan resigns as MP after allegations that his family is involved in the Bofors kickback scandal. In Deorala, Roop Kanwar is burnt alive on her husband’s funeral pyre, reviving the ritual murder of widows which had been banned for a century. The Jharkhand agitation in Bihar strives for separate statehood. The government persecutes the Indian Express, a virulent antiRajiv Gandhi paper which relentlessly pursued

the corruption scandals. 300,000 Muslims at a New Delhi rally demand the return of the Babri Mosque, while militant Hindus gather at Ayodhya to pledge the building of a temple. India sends troops to support the Sri Lankan government against the guerrilla movement launched by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. The Baroda art exhibition, Questions and Dialogue, signals the emergence of the Radical Painters & Sculptors Association dominated by artists from Kerala and takes a militant stand on the commercialisation of Indian art, emphasising a role for the radical avant-garde. The Ramayana TV serial (1986-8) becomes Indian TV’s first major hit. The NFDC starts the quarterly journal Cinema in India.

1988 Rajiv Gandhi’s Defamation Bill, seeking to reimpose Emergency-type curbs on the press, is withdrawn following nationwide resistance. The National Front of opposition parties is launched in August; the Janata Dal, led by expelled Congress(I) member V. P. Singh, revives the centrist opposition unity of the Emergency, except for the BJP. The Bhartiya Kisan Union, led by Mahendra Singh Tikait, the most militant of the rich peasant organisations, organises a major rally at the Boat Club, New Delhi. The DMK wins the Tamil Nadu state assembly after M. G. Ramachandran’s death (1987) and the split in his AIADMK. IRS-1A, a remote sensing satellite, is launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome in the USSR. INSAT 1C, launched by the Ariane facility in Kourou, French Guiana, develops snags. The journals Cinemaya (A Quarterly on Asian Film) and Deep Focus start.

1989 Satwant Singh and Kehar Singh, accused of assassinating Indira Gandhi, are hanged. Safdar Hashmi, a street theatre activist, is killed by thugs allegedly members of the Delhi Congress(I). Amid a nationwide outcry, the Safdar Hashmi Memorial Trust is formed, organising a series of Artists Against Communalism programmes featuring some of India’s best-known musicians, dancers and artists. Agni, an intermediate-range ballistic missile, is fired, making India the fifth country to acquire IRBM capability. The Shilanyas ceremony is held at Ayodhya, as the foundation stone for a temple in the name of Ram is laid. Rajiv Gandhi, seeking Hindu support, allows the ceremony to take place. In the general elections (December), a coalition of the Janata Dal, supported by the right-wing BJP and the CPI(M), displace Rajiv Gandhi’s government. The Central Board of Film Certification allows 1268 video titles to be released, including 62 features, 213 shorts, 48 ‘long’ films and 915 foreign shorts.

1990 The government’s policy to increase quotas of jobs for ‘backward castes’ in public service is strongly attacked by upper-caste and middleclass sectors. Karunanidhi’s DMK government in Tamil Nadu is dismissed for allegedly supporting the Sri Lankan LTTE. A ‘Rath-Yatra’,

evoking a medieval chariot procession, is led by L. K. Advani of the BJP from Somnath to Ayodhya, fomenting communal violence along its route. Advani is arrested by the Janata Dal; in retaliation, the BJP withdraws its support from the government, which falls. The second Shilanyas procession and the ‘kar seva’ at Ayodhya on 30 October in which several people are killed and injured in police action. The first Bombay International Film Festival for Shorts and Documentaries, sponsored by Films Division.

1991 Rajiv Gandhi is assassinated by suspected LTTE terrorists. A rising foreign debt and other dysfunctions inaugurate a policy of economic reform encouraging foreign investment. The USSR disintegrates. India conducts the last census of the century, announcing a population of 844 million. The Doordarshan Director General, Shiv Sharma, is assassinated by suspected Punjab terrorists. Punjab is declared a ‘disturbed area’, followed by Assam. The 10th Lok Sabha elections take place with 200 million registered voters. The Congress emerges as the largest party and P.V. Narasimha Rao is sworn in as Prime Minister. The first-ever BJP ministry takes over in U.P and acquires the disputed Ayodhya land. Parliament passes the notorious Terrorists and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) (TADA) Bill. The Parliamentary ‘Question Hour’ is telecast for the first time.

1992 ‘Prithvi’, India’s medium range surface-tosurface missile is successfully tested, followed by the ‘Agni’. Major stock exchange scandal featuring the stockbroker Harshad Mehta is discovered, and the Janakiraman Committee’s revelations of major collusion by banks is accepted by the government. The BJP government makes Sanskrit compulsory in primary schools in U.P. Later in the year the BJP organises an attack on Ayodhya and destroys the Babri mosque leading to major bloodbaths in many parts of the country. The first Indian-made satellite, INSAT-2 A, is launched from Kourou. Five selected regional TV channels go national. Satyajit Ray is presented an honorary ‘Oscar’ and the Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian honour.

1993 Communal violence spreads in Bombay and Ahmedabad, with the Bombay death toll in the aftermath of the Ayodhya riots rising to 550. The movie star Sanjay Dutt is arrested under the TADA Act. The Government of India decides to implement the Mandal Commission recommendations, providing for 27% reservation for socially and educationally backward castes in the Central Services. The Hazratbal mosque in Kashmir is taken over by terrorists. The Latur earthquake obliterates over 40 villages in Maharashtra. Bill to regulate Cable TV introduced in the Lok Sabha. Five more Doordarshan channels are

launched. Murdoch’s STAR-TV acquires 49.9% shares in the ZEE-TV network. Controversy over the ‘Choli ke peeche’ song in Subhash Ghai’s Khalnayak.

1994 The Janata Dal splits and George Fernandes is elected president of the breakaway ‘Samata’ group. The agitation in Karnataka against the telecasting of news in Urdu turns violent, following which the Election Commission announces a stay-order on Urdu news telecasts from Bangalore Doordarshan. The Cable Television (Regulation) Ordinance is announced. Plague hits the city of Surat claiming 47 victims; five more die in Delhi of pneumonic plague. Real-life ‘Bandit Queen’ Phoolan Devi is released from prison after 11 years. Murdoch announces a new ‘pay-TV’ channel in Hindi, among several other ventures. Jurassic Park (1992) is dubbed in Hindi and grosses Rs 12 crore. It is followed by Speed (1993), Cliffhanger (1992) etc., Aladdin (1992), True Lies (1994), Twister (1996) etc. , intensifying the new practice of dubbing Hollywood products into Hindi and other languages. The ‘sarkailo khatia’ song in Raja Babu causes a scandal leading to the announcement of amendments in the Censor Code. Hum Aapke Hain Koun is declared the biggest hit in the history of Indian cinema, reintroducing the ‘family’ entertainment genre. Bandit Queen is virtually banned by the Indian Censor Board.

1995 The Government of India decides not to extend the notorious TADA (Terrorists and Disruptive Activities) Bill. The Shiv Sena-run Maharashtra government scraps the Enron power project but then revises its decision. The Chrar-e-Sharif shrine, built in 1460 by Zain-ul-Abedin in central Kashmir, is burnt down by terrorists. The Oil and Natural Gas Commission rig in Pasalapudi blows up, and the fire is put out after 62 days. The first-ever cellular phone service in India starts in major cities. The INSAT 2C is launched. ISRO and INTELSAT announce a $ 100 million 10-year agreement leasing some of the forthcoming INSAT-2E capacity. CNN announces a news channel in partnership with Doordarshan. Aditya Chopra’s Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge is the hit of the year. Mani Rathnam’s Bombay has a controversial release after it is ‘cleared’ by Shiv Sena chief Bal Thackeray. Major censorship controversy around E.V.V. Satyanarayana’s Alluda Majaaka.

1996 The Lok Sabha election takes place, with the BJP emerging as India’s single largest party, but short of a majority. A.B. Vajpayee’s government collapses after 13 days, and is replaced by a multi-party coalition under H.D. Deve Gowda. The Michael Jackson show is organised in Bombay by Shiv Sena leader Raj Thackeray. In a year dominated by political corruption, the ‘Jain Hawala’ case involves alleged kickbacks

by a businessman to several Cabinet Ministers and other noted politicians, former Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao is indicted in the ‘St Kitts forgery’ case and former telecommunications minister Sukh Ram’s house is raided by the CBI which finds Rs 3 crore in cash and jewellery. The Port Blair station of Doordarshan is inaugurated. Shyam Benegal’s Making of the Mahatma is released in India and South Africa. N.T. Rama Rao dies.

1997 The former film star and Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, J. Jayalalitha, is arrested on corruption charges. The liberalisation drive now includes consumer goods. Bill Gates visits India, as does Greek musician Yanni who performs outside the Taj Mahal. The BJP and Bahujan Samaj Party announce a coalition government in U.P. with a plan of rotating the Chief Ministership every six months, but this coalition comes to grief in the first six months. India joins the Information Technology Agreement (ITA) of the World Trade Organisation, paving the way for a phased reduction in import tariffs on IT products. Caste violence sweeps through many parts of North and South India, as 10 Dalits are killed by the pro-landlord Ranvir Sena in Bihar, and violence escalates between Dalit and Thevar communities in Tamil Nadu. Gulshan Kumar, owner of the T-Series label and pioneer of the audio-cassette revolution of the 1990s, is assassinated. Leading Hindi composer Nadeem is accused of the murder, and also accused of acting in collusion with a Dubai-based mafia. Continuing accusations of the ‘criminalisation’ of the Hindi film industry lead to its being declared an ‘industry’ the following year. Doordarshan drops its plans to introduce a STAR-TV-led project of Direct-toHome satellite TV. Amitabh Bachchan returns to film with the commercial disaster Mrityudaata.

1998 The I.K. Gujral-led United Front coalition government falls after the report of the Jain Commission on Rajiv Gandhi’s assassination claims the participation of the DMK in training Tamil militants in Sri Lanka. The BJP forms a government led by A.B. Vajpayee. The new government announces several changes in the Prasar Bharati Act of 1990, affecting Doordarshan’s future as an autonomous enterprise, as well as in the proposed Broadcast Bill. Riots in Bombay following the desecration of an Ambedkar statue. The Women’s Reservation Bill is withdrawn by the government following stiff opposition by practically every major political party. India explodes the H-Bomb at Pokharan. The Prime Minister’s ‘Task Force’ on Information Technology announces the plan of having ‘internet kiosks’ at every public telephone booth in India. The government declares the film industry as a legitimate industry qualifying it for institutional finance.

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164

1934 — — — — 10 — — — — — — 1 — — 1 — — 121 — 2 — — — — — — — — — — — — 11 — — — — — — 1 — — — — — — 14 3 — — — 233

1935 — 1 — — 19 — — — — — — — — — 1 — — 154 — 1 — — — — — — — — — — — — 9 — — — — — — 2 — 1 — — — — 38 7 — — — 217

1936 — — — — 20 — — — — — — — — — 3 — — 135 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 6 — — — — — 1 1 — 1 — — — — 38 12 — — — 176

1937 — — — — 16 — — — — — — — — — — — — 102 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 11 — — — — — — — — — — — — — 37 10 — — — 172

1938 — — — — 19 — — — — — — — — — — — — 88 — — — — — — — — — — — 1 — — 14 — — — — — — — — 1 — — — — 39 10 — — — 164

1939 — 1 — — 16 — — — — — — — — — 1 — — 80 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 12 — — — — — — — — 7 — — — — 35 12 — — — 170

1940 — — — — 16 — — — — — — — — — 1 — — 85 — — — — — — — — — — — 1 — — 10 — — — — — — — — 7 — — — — 36 14 — — — 166

1941 — 1 — — 19 — — — — — — 1 — — — — — 73 — 2 — — — — — — — — — 1 — — 13 — — — — — — — 1 8 — — — — 32 15 — — — 173

1942 — — — — 18 — — — — — — — — — — — — 98 — 2 — — — — — — — — — — — — 13 1 — — — — — — — 5 — — 1 — 23 12 — — — 161

1943 1 — — — 21 — — — — — — 1 — — — — — 106 — 4 — — — — — — — — — — — — 7 — — — — — — — 1 1 — — — — 13 6 — — — 127

1944 1 — — — 14 — — — — — — — — — — — — 85 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 5 — — — — — — — — 2 — — — — 14 6 — — — 99

1945 — — — — 9 — — — — — — — — — — — — 73 — 1 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 11 5 — — — 199

1946 — — — — 15 — — — — — — — — — 1 — — 155 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 2 — — — — — — — — 1 — — — — 16 9 — — —

INDIAN SOUND FEATURES 1931/1995

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1947 — 2 — — 33 — — — — — — — — — 11 — — 183 1 5 — — — — — — — — — — — — 6 — — — — — — 3 — — — — — 1 29 6 — — — 263

1948 — — — — 37 — — — — — — 1 — — 27 — — 147 — 2 — — — — — — — — — 1 — — 7 — — — — — 1 — — 1 — — — — 32 7 — — — 291

1949 — 2 — — 62 — — — — — — — — — 17 — — 159 — 6 — — — — — — — — — 1 — — 15 — — — — — — — — 1 — — — — 21 7 — — — 241

1950 — — — — 42 — — — — — — 1 — — 13 — — 114 — 1 — — — — — 1 — — — 6 — — 19 — — — — — 2 — — 5 — — — — 19 18 — — — 221

1951 — — — — 39 — — — — — — — — — 6 — — 99 — 2 — — — — — — — — — 6 — — 16 — — — 1 — 1 — — 4 — — — — 26 21 — — — 233

1952 — — — — 43 — — — — — — — — — 2 — — 102 — 1 — — — — — — — — — 11 — — 17 — — — — — — — — — — — — — 32 25 — — — 260

1953 — 1 — — 50 — — — — — — 2 — — — — — 97 — 7 — — — — — — — — — 7 — — 21 — — — — — 1 — — 3 — — — — 42 29 — — —

278

1954 — 1 — — 48 — — — — — — 2 — 1 — — — 118 — 11 — — — — — — — — — 9 — — 18 — — — — — 1 — — 3 — — — — 38 28 — — —

Note : This chart compiles official figures of censored films published annually by the Central Board of Film Certification. These figures could include several dubbed films, and usually number multilinguals as distinct and independent productions for each language.

Total

Language Arabic Assamese Avadhi Badaga Bengali Bhojpuri Bodo Brij Bhasha Chhatisghari Coorgi Dogri English Garwhali German Gujarati Gujjar Haryanvi Hindi Iranian Kannada Karbi Kashmiri Khasi Kodava Kok Borok Konkani Kumaoni Magdhi Maithili Malayalam Malvi Manipuri Marathi Marwari Nagamese Nagpuri Nepali Nimadi Oriya Persian Pushtu Punjabi Rajasthani Sanskrit Sindhi Sinhalese Tamil Telugu Thai Tulu Urdu

1931/1955

288

1955 — 2 — — 52 — — — — — — 1 — — 3 — — 125 — 15 — — — — — — — — — 7 — — 13 — — — — — — — — — — — — — 46 24 — — —

Sound Features

31

Total

Language Arabic Assamese Avadhi Badaga Bengali Bhojpuri Bodo Brij Bhasha Chhatisghari Coorgi Dogri English Garwhali German Gujarati Gujjar Haryanvi Hindi Iranian Kannada Karbi Kashmiri Khasi Kodava Kok Borok Konkani Kumaoni Magdhi Maithili Malayalam Malvi Manipuri Marathi Marwari Nagamese Nagpuri Nepali Nimadi Oriya Persian Pushtu Punjabi Rajasthani Sanskrit Sindhi Sinhalese Tamil Telugu Thai Tulu Urdu

295

1956 — 3 — — 54 — — — — — — 1 — — 3 — — 122 — 14 — — — — — — — — — 5 — — 13 — — — — — 2 — — — — — — — 51 27 — — —

1956/1980

293

1957 — 3 — — 55 — — — — — — — — — — — — 115 — 14 — — — — — — — — — 7 — — 14 — — — — — 1 1 — 2 — — — — 45 36 — — —

294

1958 — 2 — — 45 — — — — — — — — — 1 — — 114 — 11 — — — — — — — — — 4 — — 16 — — — — — — — — 1 — — 3 — 61 36 — — —

304

1959 — 5 — — 38 — — — — — — 1 — — — — — 115 — 5 — — — — — — — — — 3 — — 9 — — — — — 2 — — 1 — — — — 78 47 — — — 318

1960 — — — — 36 — — — — — — 1 — — 2 — — 118 — 12 — — — — — — — — — 6 — — 15 — — — — — 5 — — 4 — — 1 — 64 54 — — — 297

1961 — 2 — — 35 — — — — — — — — — 7 — — 104 — 12 — — — — — — — — — 11 — — 15 — — — — — 1 — — 5 1 — — — 49 55 — — — 315

1962 — 1 — — 42 1 — — — — — 2 — — 5 — — 90 — 16 — — — — — — — — — 15 — — 22 — — — — — 7 — — 6 — — — — 60 48 — — — 300

1963 — 3 — — 39 2 — — — — — 1 — — 6 — — 88 — 22 — — — — — 1 — — — 13 — — 15 — — — — — 2 — — 4 3 — — — 55 46 — — — 305

1964 — 1 1 — 38 7 — — — — — 1 — — 2 — — 101 — 18 — 1 — — — — — 1 — 19 — — 16 — — — — — 3 — — 8 3 — — — 44 41 — — — 323

1965 — — — — 29 5 — — 1 — — 1 — — 5 — — 98 — 21 — — — — — 1 — 1 — 31 — — 14 — — — — — 3 — — 5 1 — 1 — 56 50 — — — 312

1966 — 2 — — 30 2 — — — — 1 — — — 2 — — 100 — 21 — — — — — — — — — 32 — — 12 — — — 1 — 2 — — 4 — — 1 — 61 41 — — — 327

1967 — 2 — — 25 — — — — — — — — — 3 — — 82 — 24 — — — — — 1 — — — 40 — — 19 — — — — — 1 — — 4 — — 1 — 63 62 — — — 347

1968 — 1 — — 29 1 — — — — — — — — 3 — — 72 — 36 — — — — — — — — — 36 — — 17 — — — 1 — 3 — — 2 — — 1 — 68 77 — — — 379

1969 — 2 — — 29 — — — — — — 3 — — 6 — — 103 — 45 — 1 — — — 1 — — — 32 — — 16 — — — — — 2 — — 4 1 — 2 — 72 60 — — — 397

1970 — 3 — — 36 — — — — — — 1 — — 5 — — 102 — 37 — — — — — 1 — — — 43 — — 19 — — — 1 — — — — 2 — — — — 75 72 — — — 431

1971 — 5 — — 30 1 — — 1 — — 1 — — 2 — — 115 — 33 — — — — — 1 — — 1 53 — — 23 — — — — — 1 — — 2 — — 1 — 74 85 — 2 —

INDIAN SOUND FEATURES 1931/1993

410

1972 — 7 — — 25 — — — — 1 — 3 — — 4 — — 131 — 20 — — — — — — — — — 47 — 2 12 — — — — — 1 — — 3 — — 1 — 77 73 1 2 — 447

1973 — 9 — — 35 — — — — — — 1 — — 5 — 1 137 — 32 — — — — — — — — — 60 — — 14 — — — — — 2 — — 5 1 — 1 — 66 74 — 4 — 432

1974 — 3 — — 35 — — — — — — 1 — — 7 — 1 132 — 30 — — — — — — — — — 54 — 2 11 — — — — — 2 — — 4 — — — — 79 69 — 2 — 471

1975 — 6 — — 35 — — — — — — — — — 12 — — 119 — 38 — — — — — 1 — — — 77 — — 17 — — — — — 3 — — 5 — — — — 70 88 — — — 507

1976 — 5 — — 32 — — — — — — 2 — — 29 — — 106 — 45 — — — — — 1 — — — 84 — 1 10 — — — — — 6 — — 10 — — — — 81 93 — 2 — 555

1977 — 7 — — 29 2 — — — — — 3 — — 30 — — 134 — 49 — — — — — 1 — — — 91 — — 19 — — — — — 11 — — 12 — — — — 66 99 — 2 — 612

1978 — 6 — — 37 1 — — — — — 2 — — 32 — — 116 — 54 — — — — — 1 — — — 123 — — 15 — — — 1 — 15 — — 7 — — — — 105 94 — 3 —

707

1979 — 10 — — 37 2 — — — — — — — — 38 — — 113 — 59 — — — — — — — — — 130 — 3 19 — — — 1 — 10 — — 15 — — — — 139 131 — — —

739

1980 — 7 — 1 37 3 — — — — — — — — 34 — — 143 — 68 — — — — — 2 — — — 99 — — 28 — — — — — 15 — — 6 — — — — 144 152 — — —

32

Total

Language Arabic Assamese Avadhi Badaga Bengali Bhojpuri Bodo Brij Bhasha Chhatisghari Coorgi Dogri English Garwhali German Gujarati Gujjar Haryanvi Hindi Iranian Kannada Karbi Kashmiri Khasi Kodava Kok Borok Konkani Kumaoni Magdhi Maithili Malayalam Malvi Manipuri Marathi Marwari Nagamese Nagpuri Nepali Nimadi Oriya Persian Pushtu Punjabi Rajasthani Sanskrit Sindhi Sinhalese Tamil Telugu Thai Tulu Urdu Wordless

737

1981 — 5 — — 42 5 — — — — — 2 — — 34 — — 148 — 65 — — — — — — — — — 113 — 3 27 — — — — — 10 — — 8 2 — — — 138 134 — 1 — —

1981/1995

761

1982 — 4 — — 49 3 — 1 — 1 — 1 — — 39 — — 155 — 50 — — — — — 1 — — 1 118 — — 24 — — — 2 — 9 — — 6 2 — — — 140 155 — — — —

732

1983 — 4 — — 47 11 — — — — — 1 1 — 27 — 1 133 — 71 — 1 1 — — — — — — 111 — 3 20 — — — 2 — 12 — — 19 4 1 — — 127 134 — 1 — —

829

1984 — 5 — — 34 9 — 1 — — — 2 1 — 30 — 4 163 — 80 — — 1 — — — — — — 121 1 2 25 — — — 4 — 14 — — 9 2 — 1 — 148 171 — 1 — — 905

1985 — 10 — — 28 6 — — — — 1 1 — — 22 — 10 185 — 69 — — — — — — — — — 136 — — 16 — — — 4 1 17 — — 8 3 — — — 190 198 — — — — 840

1986 — 11 1 — 47 19 2 — — — — — 1 — 13 — 7 159 — 59 1 — — — — — — — — 130 — 1 17 — — — — — 17 — — 7 — — 1 — 154 192 — — 1 — 806

1987 — 8 — — 35 14 — 1 — — — 1 3 — 11 — 6 150 — 88 — — — — — — 1 — — 103 — — 27 — — — 6 — 9 — — 8 4 — — — 167 163 — 1 — — 773

1988 — 7 — — 37 8 — — — — — 5 — — 6 — 5 182 — 67 — — — — — — — — — 83 — 1 23 — — — 2 — 16 — — 6 7 — — — 152 162 — 1 3 — 780

1989 — 4 — — 50 10 — — — — — 3 — — 9 — 3 176 — 75 1 — — — — — — — — 96 — — 30 — — — — — 13 — — 2 7 — — — 148 152 — 1 — — 948

1990 — 8 — — 50 5 1 — — — — 4 1 — 14 — 2 200 — 81 — 1 — — — — — — — 126 — 2 25 — — — 4 — 13 — — 7 5 — — — 194 204 — 1 — — 906

1991 — 9 — — 51 8 — — — — — 1 — — 16 — 1 215 — 92 — — — — — — — — — 94 — 1 29 — 1 — 8 — 11 — — 9 — — — — 186 174 — — — —

INDIAN SOUND FEATURES 1931/1995 Year

837

1992 — 4 — — 42 8 — — — — — 5 1 — 5 — 2 189 — 92 — — — — — — — — — 90 — 1 25 — — 1 9 — 11 — — 12 3 1 1 — 180 153 — — 2 — 812

1993 — 9 — — 57 2 — — — — — 2 1 — 3 1 1 183 — 78 — — — 1 1 — — — — 71 — 3 35 — — — 7 — 20 — — 14 5 — — — 168 148 — 1 1 — 755

1994 — 6 — — 44 4 — 2 — — — 4 — — 6 — 1 155 — 70 — — — 1 — — — — — 70 — 2 22 — — — 10 — 14 — — 12 3 — — — 153 174 — 2 — — 793

1995 — 4 — — 26 6 1 — — — — 18 — — 9 — 1 157 — 89 — — — — — — — — — 83 — 2 22 — — 1 11 — 13 — — 12 3 — 1 — 165 168 — 1 — 1 2 3 1 1 3 1 1 3 2 1 3 1 22

1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 TOTAL

Below 1500 ft

1301

8

43

67

209

194

140

114

91

92

88

59

52

63

35

21

11

3

4

1

2

1

2

2

Above 1500 ft

INDIAN SILENT FILMS 1913/34 Year

1913/1934

8

1 (2)

1 (4)

1 (2)

1 (2)

1 (2)

1 (2)

1 (4)

1 (4)

Serials

Dictionary LIST OF ENTRIES Abbas, Khwaja Ahmad (1914-87) Abraham, John (1937-87) Acharya, N. R. (1909-56) Advani, Jagatrai Pesumal (b. 1903) Agarwala, Jyotiprasad (1903-51) Agradoot Ahluwalia, Sukhdev (b. 1932) Akhtar, Javed [see Salim-Javed] Akhtar, Sardar (1915-84) Akhtar-ul-Iman (1915-96) Ali, Muzaffar (b. 1944) All-India Film Altekar, Parshwanath Yeshwant (1898-1957) Aman, Zeenat (b. 1951) Amarnath, Gelaram Khetarpal (1914-83) Amrohi, Kamal (1918-93) A. Na. Kru [see Krishnarao, A. N.] Anand, Chetan (1915-97) Anand, Dev (b. 1923) Anand, Inder Raj Anand, Mukul Sudheswar (1951-97) Anand, Vijay (b. 1935) Anjaneyulu, Chilakalapudi Seeta Rama (1907-63) Annadurai, Canjeevaram Natarajan (1909-69) Anthony, P. J. (1923-79) Apte, Narayan Hari (1889-1971) Apte, Shanta (1916-64) Arathi (b. 1954) Aravindan, Govindan (1935-91) Art Schools Arudra (1925-98) Arunaraje or Aruna-Vikas [see Raje, Aruna] Ashwathamma, K. (1910-44) Asif, Karimuddin (1924-71) Athavale, Shantaram Govind (b. 1910) Athreya, Acharya (1921-89) Atma, K. P. [see Pratyagatma, K.] Atma Ram (1930-94) Atorthy, Premankur (1890-1964) Atre, Pralhad Keshav (1898-1969) Aurora Film Corporation AVM Film Company Azmi, Kaifi (b. 1925) Azmi, Shabana (b. 1950) Babu, Hanumappa Vishwanath (1903-68) Baburaj, M. S. (b. 1921) Bachchan, Amitabh (b. 1942) Backer, P. A. (b. 1940-93) Badami, Sarvottam (b. 1910) Bagchi, Gurudas (b. 1926) Bakshi, Anand (b. 1920) Bakshi, Shanti Prakash (1925-88) Balachander, Kailasam (b. 1930) Balachander, Sundaram (1927-90) Balakrishna (b. 1960) Balaramaiah, Ghantasala (1906-53) Balasaraswathi, R. (b. 1928) Balasubramanyam, S. P. (b. 1945) Bal Gandharva (1888-1967) Bali, Geeta (1930-65) Balkrishna, T. N. (1913-95) Baloch, Mohammed [see Kumar, Mehul] Bannerjee, Bhanu (1920-83)

Bannerjee, Durgadas (1893-1943) Bannerjee, Jyotish (b. 1887) Bannerjee, Kali (1921-93) Bannerjee, Kanu (1905-85) Bapaiah, K. Bapu (b. 1933) Baran, Timir (1904-87) Barua, Brojen (1925-72) Barua, Jahnu (b. 1952) Barua, Munin (b. 1948) Barua, Nip (1925-92) Barua, Padum (b. 1924) Barua, Pramathesh Chandra (1903-51) Barua, Ramen (b. 1938) Bedekar, Vishram (b. 1906) Bedi, Narendra (1937-82) Bedi, Rajinder Singh (1915-84) Benegal, Shyam (b. 1934) Betaab, Narayan Prasad (1872-1945) Bhaduri, Sisir Kumar (1889-1959) Bhagavathar, C. Honnappa (1914-92) Bhagavathar, M. Krishnamurthy Thyagaraja (1909-59) Bhagwan, Master (b. 1913) Bhagyaraj, Krishnaswamy (b. 1953) Bhanumathi, Paluvayi (b. 1924) Bharathan, B. G. (1946-98) Bharatidasan (1891-1964) Bharathirajaa (b. 1944) Bhasi, Adoor (1929-90) Bhasi, Thoppil (1925-92) Bhaskara Das (1892-1952) Bhaskaran, P. (b. 1924) Bhatavdekar, Harishchandra Sakharam (b. 1868) Bhatia, Vanraj (b. 1926) Bhatt, Balwant N. (1909-65) Bhatt, Mahesh (b. 1949) Bhatt, Nanabhai N. (b. 1915) Bhatt, Vijay Jagneshwar (1907-93) Bhattacharya, Abhi (1922-93) Bhattacharya, Ardhendu (1955-92) Bhattacharya, Basu (1934-97) Bhattacharya, Bijon (1917-78) Bhattacharya, Dhiraj (1905-59) Bhavnani, Mohan Dayaram (1903-62) Bhimsingh, A. (1924-78) Bhole, Keshavrao Vaman (1896-1967) Bhosle, Asha (b. 1933) Bilimoria, Dinshaw (b. 1904) Bilimoria, Fali (b. 1923) Biswas, Anil (b. 1914) Biswas, Sachindranath [Chhabi] (1900-62) Bombay Talkies Boral, Rai Chand (1903-81) Bordoloi, Atul (b. 1938) Bose, Debaki Kumar (1898-1971) Bose, Modhu (1900-69) Bose, Nitin (1897-1986) Bose, Sadhona (1914-73) Bose, Satyen (1916-93) Bose, Tapan (b. 1946) Bourne & Shepherd British Dominion Films Burma, Phani (b. 1897)

Burman, Rahul Dev (1939-94) Burman, Sachin Dev (1906-75) Calcutta Theatres Chakraborty, Madhabi [see Mukherjee, Madhabi] Chakraborty, Mithun (b. 1956) Chakraborty, Tulsi (1899-1961) Chakraborty, Utpalendu (b. 1948) Chakrapani (?-1975) Chakravarty, Amiya (1912-57) Chanakya, Tapi (1925-73) Chander, Krishan (1914-77) Chandra, N. (b. 1952) Chandrakant Gaur (b. 1929) Chandrakant Sangani [see Sangani, Chandrakant] Chandramohan (1905-49) Chandrasekhar, Raja (1904-71) Chatterjee, Anil (b. 1928) Chatterjee, Basu (b. 1930) Chatterjee, Dhritiman (b. 1946) Chatterjee, Nabyendu (b. 1937) Chatterjee, Pashupati (1906-91?) Chatterjee, Sabitri (b. 1937) Chatterjee, Soumitra (b. 1934) Chattopadhyay, Kartick (1912-89) Cherian, P. J. (1891-1981) Chinnappa, Pudukottai Ulaganathan (1915-51) Children’s Film Society Chiranjeevi (b. 1955) Chitnis, Leela (b. 1912) Chopra, Baldev Raj (b. 1914) Chopra, Yash (b. 1932) Choudhury, Ahindra (1897-1974) Choudhury, Basanta (b. 1928) Choudhury, Kosaraju Raghavaiah [see Kosaraju Raghavaiah Choudhury] Choudhury, Rama Shankar (1903-72) Choudhury, Salil (1925-95) Choudhury, Santi P. (1929-82) Choudhury, Supriya Chughtai, Ismat (1915-91) Chunder, Hemchandra (b. 1907) Chunder, Krishan [see Chander, Krishan (1914-77)] Company Natak Company School Painting Cooper, Patience (b. 1905?) Dakshinamurthy, V. (b. 1919) Damle, Vishnupant Govind (1892-1945) Das, Jharana (b. 1945) Dasgupta, Buddhadev (b. 1944) Das Gupta, Chidananda (b. 1921) Dasgupta, Harisadhan (b. 1923) Dasgupta, Kamal (?-1974) Dasgupta, Protima (b. 1922) Dasgupta, Sukumar (b. 1907) Date, Keshavrao (1889-1971) Datta Keshav Kulkarni (b. 1932) Dave, Mohanlal G. Dave, Ravindra (1919-92) Debi, Suprabha (b. 1939) Deol, Dharmendra (b. 1935) Desai, Dhirubhai B. (1908-90) Desai, Jayantilal Zinabhai (1909-76) Desai, Manmohan (1936-94) Desai, Nanubhai B. (1902-67) 33

Desai, Vasant (1912-75) Devarajan, Paravur Devare, Narayan Gopinath (1899-1954) Devi, Anjali (b. 1927) Devi, Arundhati (1923-90) Devi, B. Saroja (b. 1945) Devi, Chhaya (b. 1914) Devi, Kanan (1916-92) Devi, Saraswati (1912-80) Devi, Seeta (b. 1912) Devi, Sitara (b. 1919) Devika Rani [see Rani Choudhury, Devika] Dey, Krishna Chandra (1893-1962) Dey, Nirmal (b. 1913) Dhaiber, Keshavrao (1890-1978) Dharmadhikari, Dattatreya Jagannath (1913-82) Dharmaraj, Rabindra (1949-82) Dharma Rao, Tapi (1887-1973) Dixit, Madhuri (b. 1967) DMK Film Doordarshan Doshi, Chaturbhuj Anand (1894-1969) Duncan, Ellis R. (b. 1908) Durai Dutt, Geeta (1930-72) Dutt, Guru (1925-64) Dutt, Sunil (b. 1929) Dutt, Utpal (1929-93) Dutta, J. P. (b. 1949) East India Film Company Ekalavya [see Ghosh, Robi] Elangovan (1913-71) Empire Films Esoofally, Abdulally (1884-1957) Fatma, Begum Fattelal, Sheikh (1897-1964) Fazil (b. 1953) Film Advisory Board Film and Television Institute of India Film Finance Corporation [see National Film Development Corporation] Filmistan Films Division Gadkar, Jayshree (b. 1942) Gaggaiah, Vemuri (1895-1955) Gandhi, Naval (b. 1897) Ganesan, Sivaji (b. 1927) Ganesh, Gemini Ganguly, Dhirendranath (1893-1978) Ganguly, Jahar (1904-69) Ganguly, Jiban (1905-53) Ganguly, Priyanath N. (1887-1956) Gemini Pictures General Pictures Corporation George, Kulakkatil Geevarghese (b. 1945) Ghai, Subhash (b. 1943) Ghantasala Venkateswara Rao (1923-74) Ghatak, Anupam (1911-47) Ghatak, Ritwik Kumar (1925-76) Ghose, Gautam (b. 1950) Ghosh, Kaliprasad (b. 1889) Ghosh, Nachiketa (1924-76) Ghosh, Nemai (1914-88) Ghosh, Parbati (b. 1944) 34

Ghosh, Robi (1931-97) Gidwani, Moti B. (b. 1905) Gohar, Kayoum Mamajiwala (1910-85) Gopalakrishnan, Adoor (b. 1941) Gopalakrishnan, K. S. Gopi (b. 1937) Gopichand, Tripuraneni (1910-62) Govinda (b. 1963) Gulzar, Sampooran Singh (b. 1936) Gummadi [see Venkateswara Rao, Gummadi] Gupta, Dinen (b. 1932) Gupta, Hemen (1914-67) Haider, Ghulam (1908-53) Haldar, Krishna [see Atorthy, Premankur] Hamsalekha (b. 1951) Hariharan, T. Hazarika, Bhupen (b. 1926) Heblikar, Suresh (b. 1945) Hindustan Cinema Films Company Historicals Hublikar, Shanta (1914-92) Husnlal-Bhagatram [Husnlal (?-1968), Bhagatram (?-1973)] Hussain, Anwar (b. 1929) Hussain, Nasir (b. 1931) Ilaiyaraja Ilangovan [see Elangovan] Imperial Films Company Indian Kinema Arts Indian Peoples’ Theatre Association Information Films of India Irani, Ardeshir Marwan (1886-1969) Ishara, Babu Ram Islam, Kazi Nazrul (1889-1976) Iyer, Ganapathy Venkatramana (b. 1917) Jaddanbai (b. 1892) Jaffrey, Saeed (b. 1929) Jaggaiah, Kongara (b. 1926) Jagirdar, Gajanan (1907-88) Jamuna, Nippani (b. 1937) Janaki, S. (b. 1938) Janaki, Sowcar (b. 1922) Jaswantlal, Nandlal (b. 1906) Jayalalitha Jayaram (b. 1948) Jayamma, B. (1915-88) Jayoo Nachiket [see Jayoo and Nachiket Patwardhan] Jaywant, Nalini (b. 1926) Jeetendra (b. 1942) Jha, Prakash (b. 1952) Joshi, Manilal (1893-1927) Kale, Keshav Narayan (1904-74) Kalingrao, P. (1914-81) Kalki (1899-1954) Kallol Group Kalpana (?-1979) Kalyanasundaram, Pattukotai (1930-59) Kalyanji-Anandji [Kalyanji Veerji Shah & Anandji Virjee Shah] Kamalabai, Surabhi (b. 1913) Kamalahasan (b. 1954) Kambadasan Kambhar, Chandrasekhar (b. 1937) Kameshwara Rao, Kamalakara [see Rao, Kamalakara Kameshwara]

Kanagal, Subraveshti Ramaswamy Puttanna (1933-85) Kanam, E. J. (1926-87) Kanchanmala (1923-81) Kannadasan (1927-81) Kannamba, Pasupuleti (1912-64) Kapoor, Prithviraj (1906-72) Kapoor, Raj (1924-88) Kapoor, Shammi (b. 1931) Kapoor, Shashi (b. 1938) Kapur, Shekhar (b. 1945) Kar, Ajoy (1914-85) Karanth, B. V. (b. 1929) Karanth, Prema (b. 1936) Kardar, Abdul Rashid (1904-89) Kariat, Ramu (1927-79) Karnad, Girish Raghunath (b. 1938) Karnataki, Vinayak [see Vinayak, Master] Karun, Shaji N. (b. 1951) Karunanidhi, Muthuvel (b. 1924) Kasaravalli, Girish (b. 1949) Kashmiri, Aga Hashr (1879-1935) Kathavachak, Radheshyam (b. 1890) Kaul, Mahesh (1911-72) Kaul, Mani R. (b. 1942) K.D. Brothers Khan, Shah Rukh (b. 1965) Khandekar, Vishnu Sakharam (1898-1976) Khanna, Rajesh (b. 1942) Khayyam, Mohammed Zahur (b. 1927) Khosla, Raj (1925-91) Khote, Durga (1905-91) Kohinoor Film Company Koirala, Manisha Kolhapur Cinetone Komala, A. P. (b. 1934) Kondke, Dada (1932-98) Kosaraju Raghavaiah Choudhury (1905-87) Kottarakkara, Kuttan Pillai (b. 1924) Kottarakkara Sridharan Nair [see Nair, Kottarakkara Sridharan] Krishen, Pradip (b. 1949) Krishna Film Company Krishna, Ghantamneni (b. 1943) Krishnakant (b. 1922) Krishnamurthy, Hunsur (b. 1914) Krishnan, Nagerkoyil Sudalaimuthu (1905-57) Krishnan-Panju [R. Krishnan (b. 1909), S. Panju (b. 1915)] Krishnarao, Arakalagudu Narasinga Rao (1908-71) Krishnarao Phulambrikar, Master (1891-1974) Krishna Shastry, Devulapalli [see Sastry, Devulapalli Krishna] Krishnaveni, C. (b. 1924) Kulkarni, Datta Keshav [see Datta Keshav Kulkarni] Kumar, Anup (b. 1932) Kumar Ganguly, Ashok (b. 1911) Kumar, Dilip (b. 1922) Kumar, Hemant [see Mukherjee, Hemanta] Kumar, Kalyana (b. 1936) Kumar, Kishore (1929-87) Kumar, Manoj (b. 1937) Kumar, Mehul (b. 1949) Kumar, Rajendra (b. 1929)

Kumar, Sampath [see Kumar, Kalyana] Kumar, Udaya (1930-86) Kumar, Uttam (1926-80) Kumaran, K. P. Kumari, Meena (1932-72) Kumari, Usha [see Vijayanirmala] Kunchako (1912-76) Kurup, O. N. V. (b. 1931) Lahiri, Bappi Lahiri Nirendranath (1908-72) Lajmi, Kalpana (b. 1954) Lakshminarayan, N. (?-1991) Lakshminarayan, Sattiraju [see Bapu] Lakshmirajyam (1922-87) Lankesh, P. (b. 1935) Laxmikant-Pyarelal [Laxmikant Shantaram Kudalkar (1937-98), Pyarelal Ramprasad Sharma (b. 1940)] Leela, P. (b. 1933) Leelavathi (b. 1938) Ludhianvi, Sahir (1921-80) Luhar, Chimanlal Muljibhoy (1901-48) Madan Theatres Madgulkar, Gajanan Digambar (1919-77) Madhu Madhubala (1933-69) Mahapatra, Manmohan (b. 1951) Mahapatra, Nirad Maharashtra Film Company Mahendra, Balu (b. 1946) Mahendran, J. (b. 1939) Majid, Abdul (b. 1932) Majumdar, Nagendra (b. 1894) Majumdar, Phani (1911-94) Majumdar, Sushil (1906-88) Majumdar, Tarun (b. 1932) Malayil, Sibi Malini, Hema (b. 1948) Malvankar, Damuanna (1893-1975) Mammootty (b. 1953) Mane, Anant (1915-95) Mangeshkar, Lata (b. 1929) Mani Rathnam [see Rathnam, Mani] Manto, Sadat Hasan (1912-55) Marudakasi, Ayyamperumal (1920-89) Master, Homi (?-1949) Mathur, Vishnu (b. 1944) Mazumdar [see Majumdar] Mehboob (1906-64) Mehra, Krishna Dev (1907-95) Mehra, Prakash (b. 1939) Mehta, Harshadrai Sakerlal Mehta, Ketan (b. 1952) Mehta, Vijaya (b. 1934) Meiyappan Chettiar, A. V. [see AVM Film Company] Melodrama Menon, P. N. (b. 1928) Menon, S. Balachandra (b. 1954) Minerva Movietone Mir, Ezra (1903-93) Mirza, Saeed Akhtar (b. 1943) Mishra, Bhagwati Prasad (1896-1932) Mishra, Sisir (b. 1942) Mistri, Babubhai (b. 1919) Mitra, Kamal (1911-93)

Mitra, Naresh Chandra (1888-1968) Mitra, Premendra (1904-88) Mitra, Sombhu (1916-97) Modak, Shahu (1918-93) Modern Theatres Modi, Sohrab Merwanji (1897-1984) Mohanan, K. R. (b. 1947) Mohan Kohli, Madan (1924-75) Mohanlal (b. 1962) Mohapatra [see Mahapatra] Motilal Rajvansh (1910-65) Mudaliar, Pammal Vijayaranga Sambandham (1872-1964) Mudaliar, R. Nataraja (1885-1972) Mukherjee, Gyan (1909-59) Mukherjee, Hemanta Kumar (1920-89) Mukherjee, Hrishikesh (b. 1922) Mukherjee, Madhabi (b. 1943) Mukherjee, Sailajananda (1901-76) Mukherjee, Subodh (b. 1921) Mukkamala, Krishnamurthy (1920-87) Mullick, Amar (1899-1972) Mullick, Pankaj (1905-78) Munshi, Kanhaiyalal Maneklal (1887-1971) Murugadasa (b. 1900) Music Schools Muthuswamy, A. [see Murugadasa] Muzumdar [see Majumdar] Mythologicals Nadia (1908-96) Nadkarni, Sundarrao Nag, Anant (b. 1948) Nag, Shankar (1954-90) Nagabharana, T. S. (b. 1953) Nagabhushanam, Kadaru (b. 1902) Nagaiah, Chittor V. (1904-73) Nagalingam, P. K. [see Sandow, P. K. Raja] Nagarajan, A. P. Nagarjuna, Akkineni (b. 1959) Nagendra Rao, Pingali [see Rao, Pingali Nagendra] Nagendra Rao, R. [see Rao, Nagendra R.] Nageshwara Rao, Akkineni [see Rao, Akkineni Nageshwara] Nageshwara Rao, Pendyala [see Pendyala Nageshwara Rao] Nageshwara Rao, Rajanala [see Rao, Rajanala Nageshwara] Naik, Prabhakar [see Nayak, Prabhakar] Nair, Kottarakkara Sridharan (1922-86) Nair, Madathu Thekepattu Vasudevan (b. 1934) Nair, Mira (b. 1957) Nair, Thikkurisi Sukumaran (1917-97) Nanda, Prashanta (b. 1947) Narasaraju, Datla Venkata (b. 1920) Narasimha Rao, Bhimavarapu [see Rao, Bhimavarapu Narashimha] Narasimha Rao, Chitrapu [see Rao, Chitrapu Narasimha] Narasinga Rao, Bongu [see Rao, Bongu Narasinga] Narayana Kavi, Udumalai (1899-1981) Narayanamurthy, Chitrapu (1913-85) Narayanan, A. (1900-39) Narayana Rao, Adi [see Rao, Adi Narayana] Narayana Rao, Dasari [see Rao, Dasari Narayana]

Narayan Kale, K. [see Kale, K. Narayan] Narayan Rao, Balkrishna [see Rao, Balkrishna Narayan] Nargis (1929-81) National Film Development Corporation Naushad Ali (b. 1919) Navketan [see Chetan Anand] Navya Movement Navyug Chitrapat Naxalite Nayak, Prabhakar Manajirao (1920-86) Nayyar, Omkar Prasad (b. 1926) Nazir, Prem (1928-89) Neelakantan, P. (b. 1916) Neerja [see Vijayanirmala] Nene, Raja (1912-75) New Indian Cinema New Theatres Nihalani, Govind (b. 1940) Nurjehan (b. 1929) Nutan Samarth (1936-91) Osten, Franz (1876-1956) Pachajanya [see Mahapatra, Nirad] Padmanabhan, R. (b. 1896) Padmarajan, P. (1936-91) Padmini, S. (b. 1934) PAG [see Progressive Artists Group] Pagnis, Vishnupant (1892-1943) Painter, Baburao (1890-1954) Pal, Niranjan (1889-1959) Palekar, Amol (b. 1944) Palit, Nitai (b. 1923) Pancholi, Dalsukh M. (1906-59) Pande, Vinod Pandharibai (b. 1930) Panthulu, Budugur Ramakrishnaiah (1911-74) Paranjpe, Raja (1910-79) Paranjpye, Sai (b. 1936) Parsee Theatre Patankar, Shri Nath (?-1941) Patekar, Nana (b. 1951) Patel, Jabbar (b. 1942) Pathy, P. V. (1906-61) Patil, Dinkar Dattajirao (b. 1915) Patil, Smita (1955-86) Pat Painting Pattanayak, Kabichandra Kalicharan (b. 1900) Patwardhan, Anand (b. 1950) Patwardhan, Nachiket (b. 1948) and Patwardhan, Jayoo (b. 1949) Pavithran, Vattaparambil Krishnan (b. 1950) Pawar, Lalita (1916-98) Pendharkar, Baburao (1896-1967) Pendharkar, Bhalchandra Gopal [Bhalji] (1898-1994) Pendyala Nageshwara Rao (1924-84) Phadke, Sudhir Vinayak (b. 1919) Phalke, Dhundiraj Govind (1870-1944) Phalke Films Company Photography Pillai, Muthukulam Raghavan (b. 1909) Pothan, Prathap K. (b. 1952) Prabhat Film Company Prakash, Khemchand (1907-50) Prakash, Raghupati Surya (1901-56) 35

Prakash Rao, Kovalapati Surya (1914-96) Prakash Rao, Tatineni (1924-92) Prasad, L. V. (1908-94) Pratyagatma, Kotayya (b. 1925) Priyadarshan Progressive Artists Group Progressive Writers Association Pullaiah, Chittajallu (1895-1967) Pullaiah, P. (1911-85) Punatar, Ratilal Hemchand (b. 1913) Punjab Film Corporation Puri, Om (b. 1950) Puttanna, S. R. [see Kanagal, S. R. Puttanna] PWA [see Progressive Writers Association] Qadir, Kozhikode Abdul Rafi, Mohammed (1924-80) Raghava, Bellari (1880-1946) Raghavacharya, Samudrala (1902-68) Raghavaiah, Kosaraju [see Kosaraju Raghavaiah Choudhury] Raghavaiah, Vedantam (1919-71) Raghavendra Rao, K. Raghunath, T. R. (1912-90) Raghuramaiah, Kalyanam (1915-68) Rai, Himansu (1892-1940) Rajalakshmi, T. P. (?-1964) Rajamma, M. V. (b. 1923) Rajanikant [see Rajnikant] Rajan-Nagendra [Rajan (b. 1933), Nagendra (b. 1935)] Rajarathnam, Bezawada (b. 1921) Raja Sandow [see Sandow, P. K. Raja] Rajdutt (b. 1932) Raje, Aruna (b. 1946) Rajendar, Thesingu (b. 1955) Rajendran, Lenin (b. 1952) Rajendra Singh, S. V. [see Singh, S. V. Rajendra] Rajeswara Rao, Saluri [see Rao, Saluri Rajeswara] Rajkamal Kalamandir Rajkumar (b. 1929) Rajnikant (b. 1950) Raju, Thotakura Venkata (1921-73) Ramabrahmam, Gudavalli (1902-46) Ramachandran, Marudur Gopalamenon (1917-87) Ramaiyadas, Thanjai (1914-69) Ramakrishna Rao, P. S. [see Rao, P. S. Ramakrishna] Raman, Mahalingam Venkat (b. 1913) Rama Rao, Nandamuri Taraka (1923-96) Rama Rao, Tatineni (b. 1938) Ramchandra, Narhar Chitalkar (1918-82) Ramnoth, K. (1912-56) Ramsay Brothers Ranga, B. S. (b. 1918) Ranga Rao, Samrla Venkata (1918-74) Rani, Bulo C. (1920-93) Rani Choudhury, Devika (1907-94) Ranjit Movietone Rao, Adi Narayana (1915-91) Rao, Akkineni Nageshwara (b. 1924) Rao, A. Subba [see Subba Rao, A.] Rao, Balkrishna Narayan (b. 1909) Rao, Bhimavarapu Narasimha (?-1957) Rao, Bongu Narasinga (b. 1946) Rao, Chitrapu Narasimha (b. 1911) 36

Rao, Chittajalu Srinivasa (b. 1924) Rao, Dasari Narayana (b. 1947) Rao, Ghantasala Venkateswara [see Ghantasala Venkateswara Rao] Rao, Kamalakara Kameshwara (b. 1911) Rao, Pendyala Nageshwara [see Pendyala Nageshwara Rao] Rao, Pingali Nagendra (1901-71) Rao, Prakash [see Prakash Rao, K. S.] Rao, Raghavendra [see Raghavendra Rao, K.] Rao, R. Nagendra (1896-1977) Rao, Rajanala Nageshwara (1926-59) Rao, Rama [see Rama Rao, N. T. or Rama Rao, Tatineni] Rao, P. S. Ramakrishna (1918-86) Rao, Ranga [see Ranga Rao, S. V.] Rao, Saluri Rajeswara (b. 1922) Rao, Singeetham Srinivasa Rao, T. Prakash [see Prakash Rao, Tatineni] Rao, Yaragudipati Varada (1903-73) Raskapur, Manhar (1922-80) Rathnam, Mani (b. 1956) Rathod, Kanjibhai J. Rathod, Kantilal (1925-88) Rawail, Harnam Singh (b. 1921) Rawail, Rahul (b. 1951) Ray, Satyajit (1921-92) Reddi, Bommireddi Narasimha (1908-77) Reddy, Hanumappa Muniappa (1882-1960) Reddy, Kadri Venkata (1912-72) Reddy, Pattabhi Rama (b. 1919) Reddy, S.V. Krishna Rehman, Allah Rakha (b. 1966) Rehman, Waheeda (b. 1938) Rekha (b. 1954) Roy, Bimal (1909-66) Roy, Charu (1890-1971) Roy, Jahar (1929-77) Roy, Nirupa (b. 1931) Rupkonwar [see Agarwala, Jyotiprasad] Sabhyasachi [see Kar, Ajoy] Sadanandan, S. L. Puram (b. 1927) Sagar, Ramanand (b. 1917) Sagar Film Company Sahni, Balraj (1913-73) Sahu, Kishore (1915-80) Saigal, Kundan Lal (1904-46) Saikia, Bhabendranath (b. 1932) Saint Films Salim-Javed [Salim Khan, Javed Akhtar] Samanta, Shakti (b. 1925) Samarth, Nutan [see Nutan Samarth] Samarth, Shobhana (b. 1916) Sami, Arul Susai Anthony (b. 1917) Sandow, P. K. Raja (1894-1942) Sangani, Chandrakant (b. 1927) Sangeet Natak Sanyal, Pahadi (1906-74) Saraiya, Govind (b. 1929) Sardar Begum [see Akhtar, Sardar] Sarhadi, Zia (b. 1914) Sarma, Phani (1910-70) Sarpotdar, Narayanrao Damodar (1896-1940) Sasi, I. V. (b. 1948) Sasikumar Sastry, Bellave Narahari (1881-1961)

Sastry, Devulapalli Krishna (1897-1980) Sathyan (1912-71) Sathyu, Mysore Srinivasa (b. 1930) Satyanarayana, E.V.V. Saurashtra Film Company Save Dada [see Bhatavdekar, H. S.] Savitri, Kommareddy (1937-81) Segal, Mohan (b. 1921) Sekhar, Raja C. [see Chandrasekhar, Raja] Sen, Aparna (b. 1945) Sen, Asit (b. 1922) Sen, Hiralal (1866-1917) Sen, Mrinal (b. 1923) Sen, Satu (1902-72) Sen, Suchitra (b. 1931?) Sethumadhavan, K. S. (b. 1926) Shah, Chandulal Jesangbhai (1898-1975) Shah, Kundan (b. 1947) Shah, Naseeruddin Shahani, Kumar (b. 1940) Shailendra (1923-66) Shankar-Jaikishen [Shankarsinh Raghuwanshi (?-1987), Jaikishen Dayabhai Panchal (1929-71)] Shantaram, Rajaram Vankudre (1901-90) Sharada (b. 1945) Sharda Film Company Sharma, Aribam Syam (b. 1939) Sharma, Kidar Nath (b. 1910) Sharma, Ramesh Sharmaji [see Khayyam, Mohammed Zahur] Shobhana Samarth [see Samarth, Shobhana] Shobhan Babu (b. 1936) Shorey, Roshan Lal Shorey, Roop Kishore (1914-73) Simha, H. L. N. (1904-72) Singh, Dara (b. 1928) Singh, M. A. Singh, Shankar V. Rajendra (b. 1948) Singh, Suchet (?-1920) Singh, Surinder (b. 1945) Sinha, Mala (b. 1936) Sinha, Tapan (b. 1924) Sippy, Gopaldas Parmanand (b. 1915) Sippy, Ramesh (b. 1947) Sivan, Papanasam (1891-1973) Social Soundararajan, S. (?-1966) Sridevi (b. 1960) Sridhar, Chingelpet V. Srinivasan, M. B. (1925-88) Sriranjani Junior (1927-74) Sriranjani Senior (1906-39) Sri Sri (1910-83) Stage Backdrops Subbaiah Naidu, M. V. (1896-1962) Subba Rao, Adurthi (1921-75) Subburaman, C. R. (1921-52) Subramanyam, Krishnaswamy (1904-71) Subramanyam, P. (1910-78) Suhasini (b. 1961) Sukhdev Singh Sandhu (1933-79) Sulochana (1907-83) Sultanpuri, Majrooh (b. 1924) Sundaram, Tiruchengodu Ramalinga (1907-63) Sundarrajan, S [see Soundararajan, S.]

Surabhi Theatres Suraiya Jamal Sheikh (b. 1929) Suryakant (b. 1925) Suryakumari, Tantaguri (b. 1925) Swadeshi Swaminathan, Komal (1935-1995) Tagore, Rabindranath (1861-1941) Tagore, Sharmila (b. 1944) Tarafdar, Rajen (1917-87) Tembe, Govindrao (1881-1955) Tendulkar, Vijay (b. 1925) Thakur, Raja (1923-75) Thakur, Ramchandra (1908-92) Thakur, Siva Prasad (b. 1939) Timirbaran [see Baran, Timir] TKS Brothers Torney, Ramchandra Gopal (1880-1960) Trivedi, Upendra Urs, D. Kemparaj (1918-82) Vairamuthu Vakil, Nanubhai B. (1904-80) Vali Vamsy (b. 1956)

Vanisree (b. 1951) Varalakshmi, Garikipati (b. 1926) Varalakshmi, S. (b. 1927) Varkey, Mutatthu (b. 1918) Varkey, Poonkunnam (b. 1908) Varma, Raja Ravi (1848-1906) Varma, Ram Gopal (b. 1961) Varma, Vyalar Rama (1929-75) Vasan, S. S. (1903-69) Vasudevan Nair, M. T. [see Nair, Madathu Thekepattu Vasudevan] Vauhini Pictures Veeranna, Gubbi (1890-1972) Vel Pictures Venkaiah, Raghupathi (?-1941) Venkatesh, Daggubati (b. 1960) Venkatesh, G. K. (1927-93) Venkateswara Rao, Ghantasala [see Ghantasala Venkateswara Rao] Venkateswara Rao, Gummadi (b. 1927) Venkatramaiah, Relangi (1910-75) Venu, Master (1916-81) Vijaya Pictures

Vijayabhaskar (b. 1931) Vijayanirmala (b. 1945) Vinayak Damodar Karnataki, Master (1906-47) Vincent, Aloysius (b. 1928) Vishnuvardhan (b. 1952) Vishwanath, Kashinadhuri (b. 1930) Vithal, Master (?-1969) Vittalacharya, B. (b. 1920) Vyas, Avinash (1912-84) Vyas, Vishnukumar Maganlal (b. 1905) Vyjayanthimala (b. 1936) Wadia, Homi Boman (b. 1911) Wadia, Jamshed Boman Homi (1901-86) Wadia Movietone Wadkar, Hansa (1923-72) Walker, Johnny (b. 1925) Yagnik, Indulal (1892-1972) Yatrik see Majumdar, Tarun Yesudas, K. J. (b. 1940) Yoganand, D. (b. 1922) Yusufali, Abdulali [see Esoofally, Abdulally] Zils, Paul (1915-79) Zubeida (1911-90)

37

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Advani, jagatrai Pesumal

Abbas, Khwaja Ahmad (1914 - 87) Hindi-Urdu director and scenarist mainly in the socialist-realist mode. Born in Panipat, Haryana; grandfather is the well-known poet Hali. Graduated from Aligarh Muslim University (1933). Journalist, novelist and short-story writer with prodigious output. Worked on National Call, a New Delhi paper (1933); started Aligarh Opinion when studying law (1934); obtained law degree in 1935; political correspondent and later film critic for nationalist Bombay Chronicle, Bombay (193547) praising Dieterle, Capra and esp. Shantaram. Wrote Indian journalism’s longestrunning weekly political column, Last Page (1941-86), in Chronicle and Blitz. Best-known fiction (Zafran Ke Phool situated in Kashmir, Inquilab on communal violence) places him in younger generation of Urdu and Hindi writers with Ali Sardar Jafri and Ismat Chughtai, whose work followed the PWA and drew sustenance from Nehruite socialism’s preIndependence, anti-Fascist and anti-communal commitments. Founder member of IPTA’s allIndia front (1943), to which he contributed two seminal plays: Yeh Amrit Hai and Zubeida. Entered film as publicist for Bombay Talkies (1936) to whom he sold his first screenplay, Naya Sansar (1941). First film, Dharti Ke Lal, made under IPTA’s banner and drew on Bijon Bhattacharya’s classic play Nabanna (1944), dealing with the Bengal famine of 1943. Set up production company Naya Sansar (1951), providing India’s most consistent representation of socialist-realist film (cf. Thoppil Bhasi and Utpal Dutt). Best work is in the scripts for his own films and for those of Raj Kapoor (Awara, 1951; Shri 420, 1955, both co-written with V.P. Sathe; Jagte Raho, 1956; Bobby, 1973) and Shantaram’s Dr. Kotnis Ki Amar Kahani (1946; adapted from his own book, And One Did Not Come Back), which combined aspects of Soviet cinema

(Pudovkin) and of Hollywood (e.g. Capra and Upton Sinclair), influencing a new generation of Hindi cineastes (Kapoor, Chetan Anand) and sparking new realist performance idioms (Balraj Sahni). His Munna, without songs or dances, and Shaher Aur Sapna, cheaply made on location in slums, were described as being influenced by neo-realism. Pardesi is the first Indian-Soviet co-production, codirected by Vassili M. Pronin. The landmark Supreme Court censorship judgement about his Char Shaher Ek Kahani (aka A Tale of Four Cities) curtailed ‘arbitrary’ governmental precensorship powers on the grounds that the Indian Constitution guarantees the right to free speech. Published many books including I Am Not An Island and Mad Mad World of Indian Films (both 1977). Other important scripts: Neecha Nagar (1946); Mera Naam Joker (1970); Zindagi Zindagi (1972); Henna (1991). Abbas also brought a number of new talents into the film industry, such as Amitabh Bachchan in Saat Hindustani. FILMOGRAPHY: 1946: Dharti Ke Lal; 1947: Aaj Aur Kal; 1952: Anhonee; Rahi/Two Leaves And A Bud; 1954: Munna; 1957: Pardesi; 1959: Char Dil Char Raahein; 1960: Id Mubarak (Sh); 1961: Gir Game Sanctuary (Doc); 1962: Gyarah Hazaar Ladkiyan; 1963: Shaher Aur Sapna; Teen Gharaney; 1964: Hamara Ghar; 1965: Aasmaan Mahal; Tomorrow Shall Be Better (Sh); 1967: Dharti Ki Pukaar (Sh); Bambai Raat Ki Bahon Mein; 1968: Char Shaher Ek Kahani (Doc); 1969: Saat Hindustani; 1971: Do Boond Pani; Lav Kush (Sh); 1972: Bharat Darshan (Doc); 1973: Kal Ki Baat (Sh); Juhu (TV-Sh); 1974: Faasla; 1975: Papa Miyan of Aligarh (Doc); 1976: Phir Bolo Aaye Sant Kabir (Doc); 1978: Dr Iqbal (Doc); 1979: The Naxalites; 1983: Hindustan Hamara (Sh); 1984: Nanga Fakir (TV); Mr. X (unfinished).

Abraham, John (1937-87) Malayalam director born in Changanacherry, Kuttanad Dist., Kerala; studied economics at a college near Kottayam. Educated by grandfather who gave him his first camera. Worked as insurance salesman in Bellary; went to the FTII and studied under Ghatak. Assisted Mani Kaul on Uski Roti (1969) and worked on unreleased Hindi feature shot in Kerala, Trisandhya (1972). First films: Vidyarthikale Ithile Ithile, made in Madras as group cooperative effort, and his internationally acclaimed Agraharathil Kazhuthai in Tamil. Lived a nomadic existence in the 70s, depending on support from friends and colleagues in Kerala, later the basis of the Odessa Collective (Est: 1984 in Calicut) launched with street play Nayakali staged in Fort Cochin (1984). Odessa funded Amma Ariyan through screening 16mm prints of e.g. Chaplin’s The Kid (1921) and Anand Patwardhan’s Hamara Shaher (1985) in towns and villages throughout Kerala in return for small donations. After his accidental death, he is often portrayed as an example of the romantic artist who by-passed the tyranny of the market-place through a direct relationship with his people, raising money by travelling from village to village beating a drum and asking for contributions to a genuine ‘people’s cinema’. Others point to the probably Christian theme of infantile innocence in his work and place his marginal lifestyle in the cultural context of Kerala and the contentious history of authorial identity he inherited and lived out, exploring its alternatives. Suffered from alcoholism. Also wrote his own films. FILMOGRAPHY: 1967: Koyna Nagar (Doc); 1969: Priya (Sh); Hides And Strings (Doc); 1971: Vidyarthikale Ithile Ithile; 1977: Agraharathil Kazhuthai; 1979: Cheriyachente Kroora Krithyangal; 1986: Amma Ariyan.

Acharya, N. R. (1909-93) Hindi director born in Karachi. Was a government contractor when he joined East India Film in Calcutta (1934). Later worked as production manager at Bombay Talkies, where he directed the first examples of S. Mukherjee’s new regime, e.g. Bandhan and the Abbas script Naya Sansar. Became producer with Sahu’s Kunwara Baap (1942). Continued producing under the Acharya Arts Prod. banner until 1950. Also made Gujarati films, e.g. Lagna Mandap. FILMOGRAPHY: 1940: Bandhan; Azad; 1941: Naya Sansar; 1942: Uljhan; 1943: Aage Kadam; 1949: Parivartan; Shohrat (with K. Amarnath); 1950: Lagna Mandap; 1956: Dhola Maru.

Advani, Jagatrai Pesumal (b. 1903)

Romi (right) in K. A. Abbas’ Munna (1954)

Hindi director born in Hyderabad (now Pakistan). Studied film-making in Germany in the 20s and returned to become Bhavnani’s assistant. Directorial début at Krishnatone with 39

Agarwala, Jyotiprasad

Heer Ranjha, then at Saroj Movietone where he directed Sardar Akhtar (Gafil Musafir, Johare-Shamsheer, Shah Behram, Tilasimi Talwar). Made the Sardar Akhtar film Farebi Duniya at the Karachi-based Golden Eagle company; then directed e.g. Khursheed films (Elaan-eJung, Shokh Dilruba, Sipahsalar) and Anil Biswas musicals such as Veena, Ladli and Lajawaab. Apparently known as a director who could handle female stars to their advantage, his films starring Nimmi included Wafaa and a title probably produced by the star, Danka. His Sassi Punnu is a Hindi/ Punjabi bilingual. FILMOGRAPHY: 1931: Heer Ranjha; 1933: Zehar-e-Ishq; 1934: Afghan Abla; Dilara; Gafil Musafir; Johar-e-Shamsheer; Tilasmi Talwar; Vasantsena; Flashing Sword; 1935: Bahar-eSulemani; Farebi Duniya; Shah Behram; 1936: Elaan-e-Jung; Shokh Dilruba; Sipahsalaar; 1937: Saqi; Insaaf; 1939: Dekha Jayega; 1940: Dharma Bandhan; Sneh Bandhan; 1941: Shehzadi; 1942: Suhagan; 1943: Sahara; 1946: Sassi Punnu; 1948: Veena; 1949: Laadli; 1950: Wafaa; Lajawaab; 1952: Saloni; 1954: Danka; 1955: Hasina.

and 60s sentimental socials starring Uttam Kumar, esp. Agni Pareeksha (remade as Chhotisi Mulaqat, 1967) and the early colour production Pathe Holo Deri). Another hit, Lalu Bhulu, was remade as Dosti (1959). Other film-makers who passed through the group include Saroj De, Salil Dutta and Aravind Mukherjee. Other well-known collectives include Sabhyasachi (cf. Ajoy Kar), Agragami, Yatrik, Chitra Rath and Chitra Sathi. FILMOGRAPHY: 1947: Swapna-o-Sadhana; 1948: Samapika; Sabhyasachi/Pather Daabi; 1949: Sankalpa; 1951: Sahajatri; Babla; 1952: Aandhi; 1954: Agni Pareeksha; 1955: Anupama; Sabar Uparey; 1956: Trijama; 1957: Pathe Holo Deri; 1958: Surya Toran; 1959: Lalu Bhulu; 1960: Kuhak; Khokha Babur Pratyabartan; 1961: Agni Sanskar; 1962: Bipasha; Nabadiganta; 1963: Uttarayan; Badshah; 1965: Antaral; Surya Tapa; Tapasi; 1967: Nayika Sangbad; 1968: Kokhono Megh; 1969: Chiradiner; 1970: Manjari Opera; 1971: Chhadmabeshi; 1973: Sonar Khancha; 1974: Sedin Du-janay; 1977: Din Amader; 1981: Surya Sakhi; 1989: Aparanher Alo.

her style with an earthy quality lost to the cinema after Independence. Other films in which she sang include Purnima (the bhajan Giridhar ke sang) and Piya Ki Jogan. She married Mehboob in 1942 and ran the Mehboob Studio after his death. Made a comeback with Hulchul. FILMOGRAPHY: 1933: Id Ka Chand; Husn Ka Gulam; Malati Madhav; Naqsh-e-Sulemani; Roop Basant; 1934: Ajamil; Dilara; Gafil Musafir; Hothal Padmini; Jan Nissar; Johar-eShamsheer; Tilasmi Talwar; 1935: Delhi Express; Dharam Ki Devi; Dhoop Chhaon; Farebi Duniya; Misar Ka Khazana; Shah Behram; 1936: Karodpati; Piya Ki Jogan; Pratima; Prem Bandhan; Sangdil Samaj; Sher Ka Panja; 1937: His Highness; Bismil Ki Arzoo; Khwab Ki Duniya; 1938: Purnima; State Express; 1939: Pukar; 1940: Alibaba; Aurat; Bharosa; Pooja; 1941: Aasra; Nai Roshni; 1942: Duniya Ek Tamasha; Ghar Sansar; Phir Milenge; Uljhan; 1943: Fashion; Masterji; 1945: Rahat; 1971: Hulchul; 1973: Bandhe Haath; 1977: Jai Mata Di.

Akhtar-ul-Iman (1915-96) Agarwala, Jyotiprasad (1903-51) Aka Rupkonwar. First Assamese director. Born in Tezpur; radical playwright (e.g. Sonitkonwari, 1925; Karengar-Ligari, 1936; Rupalim, 1960). Stage director and songwriter who introduced traditional musical forms to contemporary Assamese stage. Graduate of Edinburgh University and Trinity College, Cambridge where he studied Western music (1926). Studied film-making at UFA, Germany (1930). Prominent political activist; jailed as member of Congress Party (1931-2); resigned from Tezpur Local Board protesting Assam government’s compulsory financial contributions to WW2 and was involved in CPled uprising of 1942. President of first IPTA conference in Assam at Silchar, following 1942 struggles. Briefly edited daily newspaper Dainik Asamiya (1944). First film, Joymati, based on Sahityatri Bezbaruah’s militant play, made in improvised studio adjoining his family’s tea gardens near Tezpur, an event commemorated in Bhupen Hazarika’s film about the director, Rupkonwar Jyotiprasad Aru Joymati (1976). FILMOGRAPHY: 1935: Joymati; 1939: Indramalati.

Agradoot Best-known instance of phenomenon unique to Bengali cinema: group of film technicians signing collectively as director. The Agradoot core unit, formed in 1946, consisted initially of Bibhuti Laha (cameraman born in 1915), Jatin Datta (sound), Sailen Ghosal (lab work), Nitai Bhattacharya (scenarist) and Bimal Ghosh (production). Bibhuti Laha was the driving force and after most of the other members had left the group, he continued directing under the Agradoot name while working as a cinematographer under his own name. They made several commercially successful late 50s 40

Ahluwalia, Sukhdev (b. 1932) Mainstream Punjabi director who started as assistant cinematographer at the Modern Studios. Shot a number of Hindi films directed by Suraj Prakash before turning writer-director of ruralist melodramas (e.g. Taakra tells of a reformed black-marketeer accused of having killed his lover), often dealing with superstition. In Jai Mata Sheran Wali, daughter-in-law Radha overcomes oppression because of her belief in the mother goddess, but in the children’s film Sajre Phool the superstitions of the oppressive landowner’s wife are used to expose a crime. Currently works mainly in video. Also made Kashmeera about a lovable young tribal from Kashmir for the CFS. FILMOGRAPHY: 1974: Do Sher; 1975: Dharamjeet; 1976: Taakra; 1977: Do Sholay; 1978: Jai Mata Sheran Wali; 1979: Til Til Da Lekha; Kunwara Mama; 1980: Ambe Maa Jagadambe Maa; 1981: Sajre Phool; 1983: Kashmeera; 1984: Maanwan Thandian Chhanwan; 1985: Takraar; 1987: Maahi Mera Chann Varga; 1990: Sounh Meno Punjab Di. Akhtar, Javed see Salim-Javed

Akhtar, Sardar (1915-84) Aka Sardar Begum. Hindi-Urdu actress, born in Lahore. Started on the Urdu stage, which supplied the mainstream historical film with most of its acting talent. Joined films at Saroj Movietone. Early films with A.P. Kapur. Broke through in the role of the washerwoman in Pukar, where she also sang Kaheko mohe chhede. Classic screen performance as the mother in Mehboob’s melodrama, Aurat. With Mukhtar Begum and Naseem Banu, she is one of the few Urdu stage actresses to make a successful transition to cinema. Her weighty, languid histrionics and gravelly voice invested

Hindi-Urdu scenarist born in Bijnor Dist., UP. Joined Filmistan Studio as dialogue writer (1945). Major Urdu writer with seven poetry anthologies (e.g. Yaadein, 1961) and one verse play, Sabrang (1948). His Urdu poetry emphasises anti-romantic humanism, moving away from the traditional ghazal into new formal and symbolic articulations of modernity, as in the encounter between traditional metres and the rhythm of everyday prose in his major poem, Ahd-e-Wafaa [Time of Promise]. Directed one film, Lahu Pukarega (1980). Wrote Hindi scripts, dialogues or both for Najam Naqvi (Actress, 1948; Nirdosh, 1950), B.R. Chopra (Kanoon, 1960; Gumrah, 1963; Hamraaz, 1967; Dastaan, 1972; Dhund, 1973), Raj Khosla (Mera Saaya, 1966; Chirag, 1969), Yash Chopra (Dharmaputra, 1961; Waqt, 1965; Ittefaq and Admi Aur Insaan, both 1969; Daag and Joshila, both 1973), Ramesh Sharma (Flat No. 9, 1961), Nandlal Jaswantlal (Akeli Mat Jaiyo, 1963), A. Bhimsingh (Admi, 1968; Joru Ka Gulam, 1972) and Manmohan Desai’s Roti (1974). Wrote Sunil Dutt’s monologue, Yaadein (1964) and Vimal Tewari’s Kunwara Badan (1973). Further dialogue credits include: Protima Dasgupta’s Jharna (1948), Aspi’s Barood (1960) and Shabnam (1964), Rakhan’s Kalpana (1960), Ved-Madan’s Neeli Aankhen (1962), Vasant Joglekar’s Aaj Aur Kal (1963), Mehmood’s Bhoot Bangla (1965), Chopra/ Hrishikesh Mukherjee’s Gaban (1966), Raja Nawathe’s Patthar Ke Sanam (1967), Deven Verma’s Bada Kabutar and Hari Dutt’s Naya Nasha (both 1973), Raj Tilak’s Chhattis Ghante (1974), Ravi Chopra’s Bachchan movie Zameer (1975), Sanjay Khan’s Chandi Sona (1977), Devendra Goel’s Do Musafir (1978) and actor Amjad Khan’s Chor Police (1983).

Ali, Muzaffar (b. 1944) Hindi-Urdu director born in Lucknow. Eldest son of the Raja Sajid Husain of Kotwara.

Aman, Zeenat

Science graduate from Aligarh Muslim University (1966). Worked in advertising agencies Clarion-McCann (1966) and Advertising & Sales Promotion (1968), and in publicity division of Air India (1970-81). Amateur painter with exhibitions in Aligarh, Lucknow, Calcutta and Bombay. First film, Gaman, about migrant labour in Bombay. Umrao Jaan returned to now rarely attempted (except in TV) genre of courtly melodrama set under Muslim rule. Worked with political themes with Subhashini Ali, a Kanpur-based trade unionist and one-time CPI(M) MP. Made and acted lead role of his TV serial Jaan-eAlam, rehabilitating the Nawab Wajid Ali Shah, King of Avadh. The story was inspired by the Indrasabha, a nautanki ballet of the period (cf. Indrasabha, 1932). One of the founders of the MUKT (Marketing Union of Kinematograph Technicians) Co-operative. Last feature, Zooni, remains unfinished. Now a fashion designer. Supports the UP-based Samajwadi (Socialist) Party of Mulayam Singh Yadav; unsuccessfully contested the state legislature elections in October 1993. FILMOGRAPHY: 1978: Gaman; 1981: Umrao Jaan; 1982: Vasiquedars: Pensioners of Avadh (Doc); Woodcraft of Sahranpur (Doc); Venue India (Doc); Laila Majnu Ki Nai Nautanki (Doc); 1983: Sunehre Sapne (Sh); Wah! Maan Gaye Ustad (Sh); Agaman; 1984: Vadakath: A Thervad In Kerala (Doc); Together Forever (Sh); Wapas Chalo (TV-Sh); Kue Yaar Mein (Doc); 1985: Ganga Teri Shakti Apaar (Doc); India: An Unusual Environment for Meetings (Doc); Sheeshon Ka Masiha (Doc); 1986: Anjuman; Jaan-e-Alam (TV); Aaya Basant Sakhi, Kali Mohini, Semal Ki Darakht (all Sh); 1991: Khizan (Doc).

All-India Film Generic term introduced and used most consistently by critic Chidananda Das Gupta to signify mass-produced film formula pioneered by post-WW2 Hindi cinema and duplicated by regional film industries predominantly in Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam and Bengali. As chronicled by the S.K. Patil Film Enquiry Committee Report (1951), following the withdrawal in 1946 of the licensing system imposed upon film-making during WW2 and the lifting of restrictions on raw stock: ‘There was a sudden spurt in both production and exhibition. [T]heatre equipment imported in the two years 1946-47 and 1947-48 amounted in value to a crore of rupees. Studio equipment costing another crore of rupees was also imported and installed. [W]ithin three months of decontrol, over 100 new producers entered the field ... and new films released numbered over 200 in 1946 and 283 in 1947.’ The All-India film appropriates aspects both from indigenous popular film and theatre genres and from Hollywood, subordinating them to an all-encompassing entertainment formula designed to overcome regional and linguistic boundaries. Das Gupta (1968) ascribes to this formula the function of a ‘cultural leadership [that reinforces] some of the unifying tendencies in our social and economic

changes [a]nd provides an inferior alternative [to a leadership that] has not emerged because of the hiatus between the intelligentsia, to which the leaders belong, and the masses’. The contention that the All-India film performs by default an integrating nationalist function similar to the consciously stated aim of AIR and more recently Doordarshan, has had a crucial influence on India’s national film industry policies since the S.K. Patil Committee: the industry’s inability to be financially selfsustaining is usually counterbalanced by its alleged ability to foster a unified contemporary ‘indigenous’ culture.

Altekar, Parshwanath Yeshwant (1897-1957) Mainly Marathi director born in Kharepatan, Ratnagiri. Also worked in Hindi, Tamil and Kannada. Educated in Kolhapur and obtained arts degree from Wellington College in Sangli. Studied law in Bombay but turned to the theatre, acting in the first play he directed, Rajsanyas, in 1922. Marathi writer Mama Warerkar influenced Altekar’s theatrical work as well as his shift to films, later providing songs and dialogues for the director’s Geeta. Film début in Joshi’s Prithvi Vallabh. The following year (1925) he joined the United Pics. Syndicate where he played a series of major roles in Maratha historicals: Hansaji in Sarpotdar’s Chandrarao More and the title role in Chhatrapati Sambhaji (Altekar later remade the film in Marathi with Master Vithal). Acted in and was associated with the making of Sarpotdar’s seminal realist experiment Maharachi Por, conjoining film, journalism and the avant garde theatre movement, a mix that later culminated in the work of the Natyamanwantar group. Also played the role of Prithviraj in Deccan’s Prabhavati. Joined the Pendharkar brothers’ Vande Mataram Films, acting in and, according to some sources, helping to direct their controversial Vande Mataram Ashram. Turned director at United Pics with the mythological Jugari Dharma, also playing the role of Bhim. In 1928, he went to Imperial Film, making four films, e.g. Jagadguru Shrimad Shankaracharya, which featured his future theatre associate K. Narayan Kale as actor, and Gori Bala, scripted by Warerkar. Worked for Torney’s Saraswati Cinetone (1933) while continuing his work in the theatre with Radio Stars and the Natyamanwantar group. Directed the first Kannada sound feature, Bhakta Dhruva, from a Ratnavali Theatre play. After a stint at Master Vinayak’s Huns Pics (e.g. the Khandekar script Sukhacha Shodh) and CIRCO Films (Geeta, featuring Chandramohan in a double role; Mahatma Vidur with Vishnupant Pagnis and Durga Khote), he became an independent producer with his own Natraj Cinetone partnered by Durga Khote, Govindrao Tembe, Mubarak et al., making the important Tembe-Khote musical Savangadi. Made three Tamil films (Parvati Kalyanam, Pati Bhakti, Bhishma Pratigna, all 1936). Started a theatre training school (1938) and soon stopped making films, devoting his

energies to theatre work. His films often continued his experiments with naturalist theatre for Natyamanwantar, Radio Stars and his repertory National Theatre Academy, for which he wrote several essays on the theory of stage performance in the Marathi journal Yashwant (e.g. Rangabhoomichi Avashyakta Kay? in December 1942; Udyacha Nat and Udyachi Rangabhoomi in November 1943). FILMOGRAPHY (* only act/** also act): 1924: Prithvi Vallabh*; 1925: Maharachi Por*; Chandrarao More*; Chhatrapati Sambhaji*; Kangal Qaidi*; Mulraj Solanki*; Prabhavati*; Saurashtra Veer*; 1926: Vande Mataram Ashram*; 1927: Jugari Dharma**; 1928: Jagadguru Shrimad Shankaracharya**; 1929: Vasal Ni Raat**; Gori Bala; 1931: Janma Haq (all St); 1934: Bhakta Dhruva; Vasavadatta; Chhatrapati Sambhaji; 1936: Parvati Kalyanam; Pati Bhakti; Bhishma Pratigna; 1937: Begunah*; 1938: Savangadi/ Saathi; 1939: Sukhacha Shodh/Mera Haq; 1940: Geeta; 1943: Mahatma Vidur; 1952: Chhatrapati Shivaji*; 1953: Maisaheb*.

Aman, Zeenat (b. 1951) Actress. Former advertising model. First major role in Hare Rama Hare Krishna as emancipated ‘hippie’ sister of hero Dev Anand, heralding the 70s look of the Westernised, ‘liberated’ young woman in Hindi film. At its best, this attempt to represent ‘modernity’ redefined the love story (Yaadon Ki Baraat) by violating several moral codes advocated by earlier melodramas to control female sexuality. The image was adopted and negatively inflected, notably by Parveen Babi (the gangster’s moll in Deewar, 1975), in the context of Amitabh Bachchan’s vigilante themes. Raj Kapoor later used the image to stigmatise the obscenity of contemporary consumerist versions of religious symbolism in Satyam Shivam Sundaram. FILMOGRAPHY: 1971: Hulchul; Hare Rama Hare Krishna; Hangama; 1973: Dhund; Heera Panna; Yaadon Ki Baraat; 1974: Ajnabi; Ishq Ishq Ishq; Manoranjan; Prem Shastra; Roti Kapda Aur Makaan; 1975: Chori Mera Kaam; Warrant; 1976: Deewangee; 1977: Ashiq Hoon Baharon Ka; Chhaila Babu; Darling Darling; Dharam Veer; Hum Kisise Kum Nahin; Kalabaaz; Paapi; 1978: Chor Ke Ghar Chor; Don; Heeralal Pannalal; Satyam Shivam Sundaram; Shalimar; 1979: The Great Gambler; 1980: Abdullah; Alibaba Aur Chalis Chor; Bombay 405 Miles; Dostana; Insaaf Ka Tarazu; Takkar; Ram Balram; Qurbani; 1981: Qatilon Ke Qatil; Krodhi; Lawaris; Professor Pyarelal; Gopichand Jasoos; Vakil Babu; Daulat; 1982: Ashanti; Samrat; Teesri Aankh; Jaanwar; Pyaas; 1983: Bandhan Kachche Dhaagon Ka; Humse Hai Zamana; Mahaan; Namumkin; Pukar; Taqdeer; 1984: Jagir/Teen Murti; Meri Adalat; Pakhandi; Sohni Mahiwal; Yeh Desh; 1985: Amir Admi Gareeb Admi; Bhawani Junction; Yaar Kasam; Yaadon Ki Kasam; Haathon Ki Lakeeren; 1986: Aurat; Baat Ban Jaye; 1987: Daku Hasina; 1989: Gawahi; Tujhe Nahin Chhodunga. 41

Amarnath, Gelaram Khetarpal

Amarnath, Gelaram Khetarpal (1914-83) Hindi and Tamil director born in Mianwali, now in Pakistan’s Punjab province. Studied at the Rangmahal High School (1931) and at Craik Technical School, Lahore. Joined films as an extra in Lahore a year before moving to Calcutta (1932). Then went to Bombay (1933) and became assistant director until débuting as director in 1936, making many of his early films in Tamil, including Minnalkodi. Known as a stunt film director associated with Mohan Pics, one of the major B-movie producers and filmed often with S. Nazir (Chashmavali, Midnight Mail, Bandookwali); made the Nazir-Lalita Pawar film Captain Kishori. Bazaar, with Shyam and Nigar Sultana, was a well-known musical success. Shifted to love stories in the late 40s with e.g. Nurjehan’s last big films in India (Village Girl and Mirza Sahiban, the first film he produced). In the early 50s he introduced Shammi Kapoor to films in romances such as Laila Majnu and Mehbooba. Started his own K. Amarnath Pics with Alif Laila. Directed Ajit’s leading roles in Baradari (with Geeta Bali), Bada Bhai (with Kamini Kaushal), Baraat (with Shakila) and the colour film Kabuli Khan (with Helen). FILMOGRAPHY: 1936: Matwali Jogan; Madras Mail; 1937: Danger Signal; Minnalkodi; Pucca Rowdy; 1938: Veer Ramani; Bhagya Leela; 1939: Bahadur Ramesh; Midnight Mail; Chashmawali; 1940: Tatar Ka Chor; Captain Kishori; 1941: Bulbule-Baghdad; 1942: Zevar; 1943: Chhed Chhaad; 1944: Bandookwali; 1945: Village Girl; 1947: Mirza Sahiban; Roop Nagar; 1949: Shohrat (co-d N.R. Acharya); Bazaar; 1950: Beqasoor; Meharbani; 1951: Sarkar; 1953: Alif Laila; Laila Majnu; 1954: Mehbooba; 1955: Baradari; 1956: Naya Andaz; 1957: Bada Bhai; 1960: Baraat; 1963: Kabuli Khan; 1964: Ishara; 1971: Woh Din Yaad Karo.

Amrohi, Kamal (1918-93) Originally Syed Amir Haider Kamal. Writer, poet (Hindi-Urdu) and director. Born in Amroha, UP. Early writing was within the Shakespearean contours of the Urdu Parsee Theatre (e.g. the script for Akhtar Hussain’s Romeo and Juliet, 1947). Went to Bombay in 1938; worked as writer for S. Modi (Jailor, 1938; Pukar, 1939; Bharosa, 1940), Kardar (Shahjehan, 1946), and K. Asif’s spectacular Mughal-e-Azam (1960), reinvigorating the Urdu historical genre. Scenarist at Bombay Talkies which produced his feature debut, Mahal. Established his own Kamal Pics (1953) and Kamalistan Studio in Bombay (1958), leasing the Mahal Studios mainly to make Pakeezah, one of the most successful Indian films ever and a classic Urdu melodrama. Its star, Meena Kumari, was his third wife. They separated in 1964 but she nevertheless finished the film in 1971. Scripted his own films. Other scripts include Yusuf Naqvi’s Shankar Hussain (1977), dialogues for Jagirdar’s Main Hari (1940), Zahur Raja’s Mazaaq (1943) and K. Asif’s Phool (1944). Also produced Kishore 42

Sahu’s Dil Apna Aur Preet Parayi (1960). FILMOGRAPHY: 1949: Mahal; 1953: Daera; 1971: Pakeezah; 1983: Razia Sultan. A. Na. Kru see Krishnarao, A. N.

Anand, Chetan (1915-97) Hindi director, scenarist and actor; elder brother of Dev and Vijay Anand. Born in Lahore. Worked for the BBC and taught at the Doon School, Dehradun. Went to Bombay to act in Hindi films. Played the lead in the IPTA’s stage production of K.A. Abbas’s Zubeida directed by Balraj Sahni (1943). First film Neecha Nagar made in parallel with Abbas’s IPTA-backed Dharti Ke Lal (1946) and Uday Shankar’s Kalpana (1948) under government licence (required during WW2). Together with Dev Anand started Navketan Prod. (1949). Directed (and co-wrote with his ex-wife Uma) their début film, Afsar, adapted from Gogol’s The Government Inspector. With composer S.D. Burman and lyricist Sahir Ludhianvi, Navketan marked an influential transition of IPTA’s socialist realism into a brand of commercial Hindi cinema that drew from King Vidor, Capra, Huston and others to define a brief but crucial populist phase in Hindi films dealing with the working class (e.g. Taxi Driver). Influenced several cineastes such as Guru Dutt, Mohan Segal, Raj Khosla and Vijay Anand. Started his own Himalaya Films (1960). After the war film Haqeeqat, about the 1962 conflict with China, Anand remained the leading director associated with that genre, extending it into serial format for TV (Param Veer Chakra). His son, Ketan Anand, also became a director (Toote Khilone, 1978; Hum Rahe Na Hum, 1984). FILMOGRAPHY (* also act): 1946: Neecha Nagar; 1950: Afsar; 1952: Aandhiyan; 1953: Humsafar (act only); 1954: Taxi Driver; 1955: Joru Ka Bhai; 1956: Funtoosh; 1957: Anjali*; 1960: Kala Bazaar (act only); 1963: Kinare Kinare*; 1964: Haqeeqat; 1966: Aakhri Khat; 1967: Aman (act only); 1970: Heer Ranjha; 1973: Hindustan Ki Kasam*; Hanste Zakhm; 1976: Jaaneman; 1977: Saheb Bahadur; 1981: Kudrat; 1985: Haathon Ki Lakeeren; 1988: Param Veer Chakra (TV).

Anand, Dev (b. 1923) Hindi star, producer and director. Born in Gurdaspur, Punjab, as Devdutt Pishorimal Anand. Arts degree from Punjabi University; went to Bombay to join elder brother Chetan Anand in the IPTA. Started acting at Prabhat (1945) where he met Guru Dutt. First hit, Ziddi, at Bombay Talkies. Launched Navketan (1949) with Chetan Anand, later (1953) joined by younger brother and star director Vijay Anand (e.g. Guide). Produced Guru Dutt’s directorial début, Baazi. Navketan spawned much new talent: directors Guru Dutt, Vijay Anand, Raj Khosla, composers S.D. and R.D. Burman, Jaidev, lyricists Sahir Ludhianvi and Neeraj, cameramen Fali Mistry, V. Ratra and D.K. Prabhakar, actors Johnny Walker,

Dev Anand shooting Loot Maar (1980) Zeenat Aman, Ekta Sharma, Tina Munim. Top star at Filmistan; made several of his most famous hits with Subodh Mukherjee (Munimji, Paying Guest) and other Filmistan-trained directors like Nasir Hussain and Shakti Samanta. Turned director in 1970. Directed, produced and starred in film launching his son, Suneil Anand (Anand Aur Anand). Now mainly produces and directs own starring vehicles deploying a more conventional heroic persona. Together with Raj Kapoor and Dilip Kumar, he ushered in the dominant acting idiom of postIndependence Hindi cinema. His style is demarcated from the naturalist method-acting modes of Motilal, Balraj Sahni and the Ashok Kumar of Kismet (1943). Amit Khanna noted: ‘Dev Anand’s forte was the boy next door, part lover, part clown and part dogooder.’ Although never the reviewers’ favourite, he claimed that filming ‘should be brought as close as possible to the making of a newspaper’. His deliberately awkward pastiches invoke various sources (e.g. Cary Grant, Gregory Peck). With directors Chetan and Vijay Anand, Guru Dutt and Subodh Mukherjee, along with playback singer Kishore Kumar, he satirised and reconstituted generic styles such as Capra’s (Nau Do Gyarah), John Huston’s (Jaal), the thriller (Jewel Thief, CID), the love story (Tere Ghar Ke Saamne, Paying Guest) and the Hollywood epic in Guide. Directorial concerns include the alleged aimlessness of today’s youth contrasted with the civilisational glory of the freedom struggle (e.g. Hare Rama Hare Krishna). Acted in the films he directed. Married actress Kalpana Kartik in 1954. FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1946: Hum Ek Hain; 1947: Aage Badho; Mohan; 1948: Hum Bhi Insaan Hain; Vidya; Ziddi; 1949: Jeet; Namuna; Shayar; Udhaar; 1950: Afsar; Birha Ki Raat; Dilruba; Hindustan Hamara; Khel; Madhubala; Nili; Nirala; 1951: Aaram; Baazi; Do Sitare; Nadaan; Sanam; Sazaa; Stage; 1952: Aandhiyan; Jaal; Tamasha; Zalzala; Rahi/Two Leaves And A Bud; 1953: Armaan; Humsafar; Patita; 1954: Baadbaan;

Anjaneyulu, Chilakalapudi Seeta Rama

Kashti; Taxi Driver; 1955: Faraar; House Number 44; Insaniyat; Milap; Munimji; 1956: CID; Funtoosh; Pocketmaar; 1957: Baarish; Dushman; Nau Do Gyarah; Paying Guest; 1958: Amar Deep; Kala Pani; Solva Saal; 1959: Love Marriage; 1960: Bambai Ka Babu; Ek Ke Baad Ek; Jaali Note; Kala Bazaar; Manzil; Sarhad; 1961: Hum Dono; Jab Pyar Kisise Hota Hai; Maya; Roop Ki Rani Choron Ka Raja; 1962: Asli Naqli; Baat Ek Raat Ki; 1963: Kinare Kinare; Tere Ghar Ke Saamne; 1964: Sharabi; 1965: Guide; Teen Deviyan; 1966: Pyar Mohabbat; 1967: Jewel Thief; 1968: Duniya; Kahin Aur Chal; 1969: Mahal; 1970: Johnny Mera Naam; Prem Pujari*; 1971: Hare Rama Hare Krishna*; Gambler; Tere Mere Sapne; 1972: Yeh Gulistan Hamara; 1973: Chhupa Rustom; Joshila; Shareef Badmash; Banarasi Babu; Heera Panna*; 1974: Ishq Ishq Ishq*; Amir Garib; Prem Shastra; 1975: Warrant; 1976: Bullet; Jaaneman; 1977: Darling Darling; Kalabaaz; Saheb Bahadur; 1978: Des Pardes*; 1980: Man Pasand; Lootmaar*; 1982: Swami Dada*; 1984: Anand Aur Anand*; 1985: Hum Naujawan*; 1989: Sachche Ka Bol Bala*; Lashkar; 1990: Awwal Number*; 1991: Sau Karod*; 1992: Pyar Ka Tarana (only d); 1995: Gangster*.

Anand, Inder Raj Scenarist and dialogue writer born in Miani (now Pakistan); uncle of Mukul S. Anand. Student years in Lahore and Hyderabad. Closely associated with the IPTA’s Bombay branch. Major contribution as playwright for Prithviraj Kapoor’s Prithvi Theatres: Deewar and Ghaddar mark its IPTA-influenced early 40s radical phase. Publicist for Minerva when Raj Kapoor hired him to write Aag (1948), leading to further collaborations: Aah (1953), Chhalia (1960), Sangam (1964), Sapnon Ka Saudagar (1968). Also scripted Mohan Segal’s landmark satire New Delhi and the Dev Anand whodunit CID (both 1956). Since early 60s, worked mainly as a ‘genre professional’ for South Indian producers wishing to enter the Bombay-based mainstream: e.g. dialogues for the Hindi films of L.V. Prasad, K. Balachander, Adurthi Subba Rao and Bharathirajaa. Regular scenarist for 80s director Rajkumar Kohli. Wrote and directed one film, Phoolon Ki Sej (1964), influenced, he claimed, by James Jones’s From Here To Eternity and Doris Lessing. Other script and/or dialogue credits include: Phool Aur Kaante (1948); Birha Ki Raat (1950); Anari, Chhoti Bahen (both 1959); Sasural (1961); Dil Tera Diwana (1962); Bahurani, Hamrahi (both 1963); Beti Bete, Dulha Dulhan (both 1964); Aasmaan Mahal (1965); Chhota Bhai (1966); Vaasna (1968); Bhai Bahen, Nannha Farishta (both 1969); Devi, Safar (both 1970); Jawani Diwani, Anokha Daan (both 1972); Gaai Aur Gori, Samjhauta, Insaaf (all 1973); Prem Nagar, Shubh Din, Faasla, Aaina (all 1974); Julie, Raja, Sunehra Sansar (all 1975); Maa, Nagin (both 1976); Yahi Hai Zindagi (1977); Lovers, Yeh Ishq Nahin Asaan (both 1983); Ek Nai Paheli, Jeene Nahin Doonga, Raj Tilak (all 1984).

Anand, Mukul Sudheshwar (1951-97) Hindi director associated with 90s Bachchan spectaculars (e.g. Hum). Born in Bombay. Son of a chartered accountant and nephew of Inder Raj Anand. Former assistant of Chetan Anand and Ravi Tandon; later ghost-directed several films in Hindi, Punjabi and Gujarati. Early films are low-budget remakes of foreign hits (Kanoon Kya Karega is based on J. Lee Thompson’s Cape Fear, 1961; Aitbaar on Hitchcock’s Dial M for Murder, 1954). Bigbudget extravaganzas since Sultanat place him in new generation of Hindi commercial film-makers. Made advertising films in between features for MAD Entertainments Ltd. (Est. 1991). First major hit, Insaaf, relaunched 70s stars Vinod Khanna and Dimple Kapadia. It created a fantasy world of sex, crime and sin despite its occasional references to the actual, widely reported death of a prostitute who ‘fell’ from a multi-storey block of flats belonging to a businessman suspected of criminal dealings. His films with Bachchan are also known for the star’s efforts to adapt his heroic image to his advancing age (Agneepath, Hum, Khuda Gawah). Returned to features with the bigbudget commercial failure Trimurti, produced by Subhash Ghai. FILMOGRAPHY: 1984: Kanoon Kya Karega; 1985: Aitbaar; 1986: Maa Ki Saugandh; Main Balwan; Sultanat; 1987: Insaaf; 1988: Mahasangram; 1990: Agneepath; 1991: Hum; Khoon Ka Karz; 1992: Khuda Gawah; 1995: Trimurti.

Anand, Vijay (b. 1935) Accomplished Hindi actor, director and producer; younger brother of Dev and Chetan Anand, nicknamed Goldie. Born in Gurdaspur, Punjab. Arts degree from the University of Bombay. Scripted Taxi Driver (1954) and made some of Navketan’s best films with Dev Anand, shaping Dev’s screen personality. Made Guide, the first Indo-American co-production (US version directed by Tad Danielewski). Made remarkable musical sequences using location-derived sets (e.g. the song inside the Qutub Minar in Tere Ghar Ke Saamne) to achieve complex interactions between music, lyrics and story, at times evoking Western novelettes (Pearl Buck, A.J. Cronin) or Hollywood (Capra). Neo-realist overtones, inherited from brother Chetan, are used mainly as ballast to release the fantasy, a technique best exemplified by Guide and in the opening song of Kala Bazaar. Wrote some of the films he directed and edited (Kala Bazaar, Chhupa Rustom, also co-lyricist for the latter) and returned to starring roles in e.g. Chor Chor, Hum Rahe Na Hum, Double Cross; also scenarist for Hum Dono (1961) and producer of Jaan Hazir Hai (1975). Played Sam the Detective in the TV series Tahqiqat, initially directed by nephew Shekhar Kapur. FILMOGRAPHY (** also d/* only d): 1955: Joru Ka Bhai; 1957: Agra Road; Nau Do

Gyarah*; 1960: Kala Bazaar**; 1963: Tere Ghar Ke Saamne*; 1964: Haqeeqat; 1965: Guide*; 1966: Teesri Manzil*; 1967: Jewel Thief*; 1968: Kahin Aur Chal*; 1970: Johnny Mera Naam*; 1971: Tere Mere Sapne**; 1972: Double Cross; 1973: Hindustan Ki Kasam; Chhupa Rustom**; Blackmail**; 1974: Kora Kagaz; Chor Chor; 1976: Bullet*; 1978: Main Tulsi Tere Aangan Ki; 1980: Ram Balram*; 1981: Ghunghroo Ki Awaaz; 1982: Rajput*; 1984: Hum Rahe Na Hum; 1988: Main Tere Liye*; 1994: Tahqiqat (TV).

Anjaneyulu, Chilakalapudi Seeta Rama (1907-63) Born in Guntur Dist., AP. Actor and singer in stage mythologicals since early youth. Became one of the first major Telugu stars. Film début as Ram in East India Film’s Ramadasu. Early roles in Telugu mythologicals, esp. Krishna in Draupadi Vastrapaharanam and the title roles in Tukaram and in P. Pullaiah’s Shri Venkateswara Mahatyam. Changed to socials with Raja Sandow’s Choodamani; became a comic villain in L.V. Prasad’s Grihapravesham, repeating the character in e.g. Appu Chesi Pappu Koodu. Other famous roles include the villainous farmer in Rojulu Marayi, Ramappa Panthulu in Kanyasulkam and Kuchela in Krishna Kuchela. Best known for K.V. Reddy’s Maya Bazaar, setting the standard for the image of the popular Mahabharata character, Shakuni. FILMOGRAPHY: 1933: Ramadasu; 1936: Draupadi Vastrapaharanam; 1937: Tukaram; 1939: Shri Venkateswara Mahatyam; Jayapradha; 1941: Choodamani; Talliprema; 1942: Sumati; 1945: Mayalokam; Paduka Pattabhishekham; 1946: Grihapravesham; 1947: Ratnamala; 1948: Bhakta Siriyala; 1949: Laila Majnu; 1950: Vali Sugriva; Paramanandayya Shishyula Katha; 1951: Saudamini; Akasharaju; Patala Bhairavi/Pataal Bhairavi; Agni Pareeksha; 1952: Dharmadevata; Manavati; Prema/Kathal; 1953: Devadasu; Paropakaram; Vayyari Bhama; Chandirani; 1954: Anta Manavalle; Iddaru Pellalu; Sati Sakkubai; Kanyadana/ Kanyadanam; Chakrapani; 1955: Ante Kavali; Rojulu Marayi; Kanyasulkam; 1956: Bhale Ramudu/Prema Pasam; Bhakta Markandeya; 1957: Repu Neede; Bhale Bhava; Bhale Ammayilu; Vaddante Pelli; Maya Bazaar; Suvarna Sundari; 1958: Ettuku Pai Ettu; Dongalunnaru Jagratha; Parvati Kalyanam; Appu Chesi Pappu Koodu; 1959: Pelli Sandadi; Rechukka Pagatichukka; Vachina Kodalu Nachindi; 1960: Jagannatakam; Nityakalayanam Pachathoranam; Rani Ratnaprabha; Bhakta Raghunath; Annapurna; Runanubandham; 1961: Jagadeka Veeruni Katha/Jagathala Prathapan; Bava Maradallu; Bhakta Jayadeva; Pelli Pilupu; Krishna Kuchela; Bikari Ramudu; 1962: Kalimilemulu; Chitti Tamudu; 1963: Irugu Porugu; Savati Koduku; 1964: Peetalameeda Pelli; Babruvahana; Bobbili Yuddham; 1967: Vasantsena; 1968: Chellelikosam. 43

Annadurai, Canjeevaram Natarajan

Annadurai, Canjeevaram Natarajan (1909-69) Tamil scenarist, playwright and DMK Party politician who founded the DMK Film propaganda genre. Born in Kanjeevaram; studied at university while translating for the Justice Party and stood for them as a candidate in the Madras City elections (1936). Worked in labour unions and edited a trade union weekly, Nava Yugam. Became a disciple of Periyar E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker (1937) and was his lieutenant when Periyar started the Dravidar Kazhagam Party (1944). Wrote his first major play Chandrodayam (1943), in which both he and his later protégé M. Karunanidhi acted, as Party propaganda. Broke away from the DK to start his own Party, the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (1949), which he led to victory in the Tamil Nadu elections (1967). As Chief Minister, his only film-related action was to reduce entertainment tax. His leadership of the DMK, often considered the golden years of the Party, included diluting Periyar’s antibrahminism and anti-religious politics, while indulging in a nationalist Tamil rhetoric identifying Hindi, North India and the Congress Party collectively as the main enemy. The DMK’s main ideologue, he wrote extensively on politics, dispensing his views (in e.g. Kambarasam, critiquing the Ramayana for glorifying Aryans) by way of propagandist short stories, novels and plays. Wrote the historical play Shivaji Kanda Indhu Rajyam, propelling Sivaji Ganesan into stardom as the Maratha emperor. Started the successful DMK Film genre, writing the scripts for Velaikkari (1949; based on his own stage play) and Nallathambi (1949), followed by Ore Iravu (1951), Sorgavasal (1954) and Nallavan Vazhvan (1961). His novel Rangoon Radha was adapted to the screen by Karunanidhi (1956). His début, Velaikkari, inaugurated via its lead character, Anandan (played by K.R. Ramaswamy), the enduring convention of subjecting a poor hero to many travails, often seeing his family destroyed, until he stridently denounces his oppressors, often equating the gods with the landlords as joint exploiters of the poor. Ramaswamy and MGR, who was later named the ‘Makkal Thilakam’ (People’s Star), later became stellar figureheads of the DMK. Although Annadurai’s political standing in Tamil Nadu remains unassailable, his scripts have sometimes been seen as modelled on Hollywood’s approach: cf. Nallathambi and Capra’s Mr. Deeds Goes To Town (1936), Sorgavasal and Rouben Mamoulian’s Queen Christina (1933), Rangoon Radha and Cukor’s Gaslight (1944).

an influential theatre group based in Ernakulam staging e.g. Cherukadu’s reformist plays. In cinema, famed for playing villains, except for his best-known performance in Nirmalayam as the priest torn between religious responsibilities and the amoral duplicity of those around him. Directed, scripted, acted in and provided lyrics for Periyar. Also wrote lyrics for Suhruthu (1952), the dialogues of Kootukar (1966) and Virunnukari, and the stories of Chekuthante Kotta, A. Vincent’s celebrated Nadhi and Detective 909 Keralathil (1970). FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1958: Randidangazhi; 1961: Mudiyanaya Puthran; 1962: Kalpadukal; 1963: Ninamaninja Kalpadukal; Ammeye Kannan; 1964: Thacholi Othenan; Adya Kiranangal; Bhargavi Nilayam; Kalanjukuttiya Thangam; 1965: Rosy; Rajamalli; Murappennu; 1966: Tharavatamma; Kunjali Marakkar; 1967: Irutinte Atmavu; Sheelavati; Balyakalasakhi; Anveshichu Kandatiyilla; Ashwamedham; Nagarame Nandi; Pareeksha; Kavalam Chundan; Chekuthante Kotta; Mulkireedam; 1968: Karutha Pournami; Manaswini; Asuravithu; Punnapra Vyalar; Lakshaprabhu; Kayalkarayil; 1969: Anashchadanam; Veetu Mrugham; Almaram; Kattukurangu; Susie; Nadhi; Virunnukari; 1970: Pearl View; Kurukshetram; Cross Belt; Kakathampurati; Ambalapravu; 1971: CID Nazir; 1972: Manushya Bandhangal; 1973: Periyar*; Masappadi Mathupilla; Nirmalayam; Dharma Yuddham; 1974: Atithi; 1975: Odakkuzhal; Priyamulla Sophia; 1976: Muthu; Nurayum Pathayum; 1978: Padasaram; Anayum Ambariyum; 1979: Manninte Maril; Chula.

Apte, Narayan Hari (1889-1971) Marathi novelist and scenarist; key influence on the elaboration of the reformist social as a

genre in the 20s and 30s. A product of 19th C. social reform movements in Maharashtra, Apte was self-taught and ran a publishing house, Apte & Co.(Est: 1924) which brought out a literary-political journal, Alhaad (started in 1915). Author of novels and short-story anthologies within the conventions of the historical (e.g. Manavi Asha, Rajputache Bhishma), or of the social (Na Patnari Goshta, the source for Kunku/Duniya Na Mane, 1937). Invented the social sub-genre of the dainik kadambari or ‘daily life’ novel, usually in a middle-class setting (Paach Te Paach, Waiting Room). Introduced to film by Baburao Painter writing Savkari Pash, the historical Rana Hamir (both 1925) and Pratibha (1937). Best-known film writing for Shantaram at Prabhat Studio (Amritmanthan, 1934; Kunku/Duniya Na Mane, 1937). May have provided the story, uncredited, of Phalke’s Gangavataran (1937). Worked with Dharmadhikari (Kunkvacha Dhani, 1951) and Dinkar D. Patil (Umaj Padel Tar, 1960). Also wrote K.P. Bhave’s Dhruva Kumar (1938), Shantaram Athavale’s Bhagyarekha (1948) and Sansar Karaychay Mala (1954).

Apte, Shanta (1916?-64) Born in Dudhni, Maharashtra. Actress-singer trained at the Maharashtra Sangeet Vidyalaya music school in Pandharpur. One of the great singing stars in the pre-playback era (with Kanan Devi). Best known work at Prabhat Studio. In Amritmanthan, as the hero’s sister Sumitra, caused a box-office sensation with her songs, which became popular in the North (Amritsar and Lahore) leading to a distribution breakthrough for Prabhat. Although music director Keshavrao Bhole had doubted whether she could adapt to his light classical style (Bhole, 1964), her ability to counterpoint musical rhythm with gestural spontaneity proved a refreshing departure from the then prevalent ponderously stagey style. Bestknown performance in Kunku/Duniya Na

Anthony, P. J. (1923-79) Aka P.J. Antony, born in Ernakulam, Kerala. Malayalam actor whose career illustrates that the roots of Kerala’s cinema are in the theatre. Major actor-playwright in the post-WW2 era with more than 90 plays, practising an Ibsenderived naturalism; he acted in N. Krishna Pillai’s seminal adaptation of A Doll’s House: Bhagnabhavanam (1942). Drew on the IPTA’s radical nationalism. Ran the Pratibha Arts Club, 44

Shanta Apte (left) and Bipin Gupta (centre) in Swayamsiddha (1949)

Art Schools

Mane, opposite and contrasting with Keshavrao Date, ensuring the film’s reputation as a progressive social still watchable today. Apart from her Prabhat films, also worked with Bhalji Pendharkar (who introduced her to films as a child), Phani Majumdar, Master Vinayak, Nandlal Jaswantlal, Moti Gidwani and Raja Paranjpe. She featured in one Tamil film, Savithri, playing the title role alongside the singing star (and Carnatic musician) M.S. Subbulakshmi who played the male role of Narada. Wrote autobiography, Jau Mi Cinemaat? (1940). Went on a famous hunger strike at the gates of the Prabhat Studio in July 1939 in a protest over her contract. FILMOGRAPHY (* also music d): 1932: Shyam Sundar; 1934: Amritmanthan; 1936: Amar Jyoti; Rajput Ramani; 1937: Kunku/ Duniya Na Mane; Wahan; 1938: Gopal Krishna; 1941: Savithri; 1942: Apna Ghar/ Aple Ghar; Zamindar; 1943: Duhai; Mohabbat; 1944: Bhagya Lakshmi; Kadambari; 1945: Sawan; 1946: Panihari; Subhadra; Uttara Abhimanyu; Valmiki; 1948: Mandir; Bhagyarekha; 1949: Main Abla Nahin Hoon*; Swayamsiddha; Jaga Bhadyane Dene Aahe; Shilanganache Sone; 1950: Jara Japoon; 1951: Kunkvacha Dhani; 1953: Tai Teleen; 1955: Mulu Manek; 1957: Chandi Puja.

Arathi (b. 1954) Kannada actress born in Aragal, Mysore, Karnataka. Star in 70s melodramas continuing Kalpana’s 60s films. Best work under Puttanna Kanagal’s direction in films built around her unique presence. Shot repeatedly and at length with an obsessive physical grossness, her body becomes the target of a destructive neurosis that Kanagal usually ascribes to the male lead. Her persona became an emblem elaborated over a series of films starting with Nagara Haavu and was later used by other film-makers. Her wooden acting coupled with a statuesque presence often adds a voyeurist dimension to long and complicated stories that end with the desecration of what she embodies and, sometimes, with her death (e.g. Ranganayaki). Even her absence in Kanagal’s Manasa Sarovara (1982) led to speculation about the ‘real’ meaning of the theme of a doctor who leaves his wife to cure a mentally deranged girl, falls in love with her, and goes insane when she falls for his nephew. Directed a TV series, Namma Nammalli. Briefly a member of the Karnataka State’s legislative assembly representing the fanatic BJP. FILMOGRAPHY: 1970: Gejje Pooje; Takka! Bitre Sikka!!; 1971: Kasturi Nivasa; Anugraha; Pratidhwani; Nyayave Devaru; Shri Krishna Rukmini Satyabhama; 1972: Sipayi Ramu; Bhale Huchcha; Nagara Haavu; Kulagaurava; Vooriki Upakari; Bangarada Manushya; 1973: Mane Belagida Sose; Edakallu Guddada Mele; Muruvare Vajragalu; Bangarada Panjara; Mannina Magalu; 1974: Nanu Baalabeku; Upasane; Maha Thyaga; Bhale Bhatta; 1975: Dari Tappida Maga;

Shubhamangala; Bili Hendthi; Katha Sangama; Devara Kannu; Hosilu Mettida Hennu; 1976: Premada Kanike; Punaradatta; Bahadur Gandu; Raja Nanna Raja; Phalithamsha; Balu Jenu; Aparadhi; 1977: Magiya Kanasu; Pavanaganga; Anurupa; Kudre Mukha; 1978: Hombisilu; Matu Tappada Maga; Muyyige Muyi; Paduvarahalli Pandavaru; Anuragha Bandhana; Premayana; Vasanthalakshmi; Balu Aparupa Nam Jodi; 1979: Dharmasere; Adalu Badalu; Na Niruvude Ninagangi; Manini; Nentaro Gantu Kallaro; 1980: Bhakta Siriyala; Hanthakana Sanchu; Bangarada Jinke; Nyaya Neethi Dharma; Anurakthe; 1981: Ranganayaki; Thayiya Madilalli; Nari Swargakke Dari; Ganesha Mahime; Bhagyavantha; Chadurida Chitragalu; Bhagyada Belaku; Edeyuru Siddalingeshwara; Preetisi Nodu; 1982: Pedda Gedda; Archana; Mullina Gulabi; Karmika Kallanalla; Mava Sose Saval; Parijata; Nyaya Yellide?; Kannu Terasida Hennu; Suvarna Sethuve; Hasyarathna Ramakrishna; Raja Maharaja; Parvayin Marupakkam; 1983: Tirugu Bhana; Gedda Maga; Jaggu; Nyaya Gedditu; Kalluveene Nudiyitu; Thayiya Nudi; Sididedda Sahodara; Kranthiyogi Basavanna; Ananda Sagara; Muttaide Bhagya; Gandharvagiri; Akrosha; Chelisada Sagara; Samarpane; Premave Balina Belaku; Bekkina Kannu; 1984: Kaliyuga; Khaidi; Poojaphala; Hennina Saubhagya; Avala Antaranga; Ramapurada Ravana; Pavitra Prema; Agnyathavasa; Preeti Vatsalya; 1985: Nee Nakkaga; Sati Sakkubai; Lakshmi Kataksha; Kumkuma Thanda Saubhagya; Swabhimana; Shiva Kotta Saubhagya; Tulasi Dala; Haavu Eni Aata; Kuridoddi Kurukshetra; 1986: Bettada Thayi; Seelu Nakshatra; Tiger; 1987: Thaliye Ane; 1988: Superboy.

Aravindan, Govindan (1935-91) Malayalam director, painter and cartoonist with an idiosyncratic style. Born in Kottayam, Kerala; son of the literary humorist, Govindan Nair. Worked as caricaturist for the Mathrubhoomi journal (1961-79), drawing the cartoon series Small Man and Big World, chronicling the adventures of Ramu, its corruptible proletarian hero, and Guruji; later did an occasional cartoon strip for the Kala Kaumudi journal, called A Bird’s Eye View. His published cartoon collection (1978) highlights a change in drawing style in the early 70s, emphasising large blank spaces and characters almost disappearing below the frame. His films are known for their distinctive look, sparse naturalism, silences and long shots with darker shades of grey in b&w films. Film society activist in Kottayam and Calicut. Early work was the only consistent cinematic manifestation of late 60s Calicut-based modernism represented particularly by artist Devan, the playwright and satirist Thikkodiyan and the writer Pattathiruvila Karunakaran (who produced Uttarayanam). A major influence on this group was the spiritualism of satirist and political activist Sanjayan. Later, like the visual artists associated with the Kerala Kalapeetam in Ernakulam, Aravindan combined this influence with the new, more

mystical direction taken by K.C.S. Panicker’s (1911-77) paintings (cf. Kanchana Seeta). His faithful producer and distributor, Ravindran of General Pics, ran a family business in cashew nuts. Worked at the Kerala Rubber Board throughout most of his film career. Also stage director, working in association with the playwright Srikantan Nair, after which he helped start the Navarangan (in Kottayam) and Sopanam theatre groups, staging e.g. Kali (1964) and Avanavan Kadamba (1976) using musical forms derived from the work of Kavalam Narayana Panicker, who later collaborated on the scripts of Kummatty and Estheppan. Noted actors associated with this group were Gopi and Nedumudi Venu. Also trained in the Kirana-style Khayal. Occasionally music director for other film-makers: Yaro Oral (1978), Piravi and Ore Thooval Pakshikal (both 1988). FILMOGRAPHY: 1974: Uttarayanam; 1977: Kanchana Seeta; 1978: Thampu; 1979: Kummatty; Estheppan; 1981: Pokkuveyil; 1985: Chidambaram; Viti (Doc); The Brown Landscape (Sh); 1986: Oridathu; The Seer Who Walks Alone (Doc); 1987: Contours of a Linear Rhythm (Doc); 1988: Anandi Dhara (Doc); Marattam (TV); Sahaja (Sh); 1989: Unni; 1990: Vasthuhara.

Art Schools The terms ‘art school’ or ‘academic’ aesthetic style in the visual arts refer to a series of art schools started in the mid-19th C. in Presidency cities, usually by Indian industrialists or entrepreneurs with support from the British government: the Calcutta School of Art (Est: 1854), the School of Industrial Arts in Madras (Est: 1854), the Sir Jamshedji Jeejeebhoy School of Art in Bombay (Est: 1857) and the Mayo School of Arts in Lahore (Est: 1878). Set up to provide industrial craft training (e.g. weaving, metal and wood carving, gem cutting), they became fine arts institutions modelled on the Royal Academy to train artists in ‘the whole paraphernalia of European art academies: the drawing-room copies, casts from “the antique”, Gothic mouldings etc. [while] at the same time it has been held as totally unnecessary, if not demoralising, for them to study the principles and methods of Indian painting and sculpture’ (E.B. Havell, Principal in early 20th C. of the Government School of Art, Calcutta, 1901). A valuable account of the art schools is given by T. Guha-Thakurta (1992), who points out that by the end of the 19th C. the art schools had managed to establish the idea that art could be a respectable vocation, in terms of the status of ‘high art’, as well as a career in terms of the middle-class employment opportunities offered by an ‘applied arts’ approach: ‘Art, indicating painting and sculpture, and the “applied arts”, indicating technical skills of draughtsmanship, engraving, etching or lithography, were not considered two separate spheres, but two essential aspects of the same profession.’ Extending the naturalist and neo-classical modes of British painting in India, the new academicism of the art schools, legitimated by e.g. portrait commissions from the British and Indian ruling classes, also fed into the 45

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diversified conventions of the Company School as Indian artists formerly under feudal patronage started selling their wares in urban market-places. The academic style, both in genre and manner, had a function analogous to that of operatic style in the Parsee Theatre: it created a new hierarchy of taste in competition with classicist brahminical aspirations while maintaining an opposition to native popular arts which sought to assimilate industrial technology differently (cf. Pat Painting and Raja Ravi Varma for alternative solutions). However, as Indian artists often found it difficult to incorporate the rules of monocular perspective, the art schools invented their own variations, reformulating the demand for verisimilitude in the painted or photographed image in terms of a naive formalism, thereby creating a peculiar genre popular with the potentially democratic and culturally eclectic urban middle classes. This institutionalised aesthetic became a conduit for theatrical and cinematic naturalism, displaced though it was into various devices that substituted for illusionistic skills. These developments prefigure the painted stage backdrops and set design, e.g. in the work of artists and art directors such as M.R. Achrekar (in Raj Kapoor films) or Kanu Desai (in Vijay Bhatt and Shantaram costume dramas). Bansi Chandragupta’s work for S. Ray is also relevant in this context, although other considerations come into play in his case as well. Later, the art school aesthetic influenced the posture of actors as they formed a frontal master-shot tableau within which the film-maker would insert close-ups or over-the-shoulder shots.

Arudra (1925-98) Telugu poet and film lyricist born in Vizag, AP, as Bhagavathula Shankara Sastry. Started publishing poetry as a teenager, e.g. Loha Vihangalu. Initially influenced by radical poet Sri Sri. After a brief stint in the army, he became a professional writer under the name Arudra. Early writing was romantic, but became more political under the influence of the Telangana anti-zamindari movements (cf. Twamevaham). Major poetry anthologies include Kunalamma Padyalu (1964), Enchina Padyalu (1965) and Intinti Padyalu (1969). Also wrote patriotic songs during the IndiaChina war (1962). Compiled an anthology of Telugu literature (Samagrandhra Sahityam). Film début in the Telugu version (Beedala Patlu) of Ramnoth’s classic Ezhai Padum Padu (1950). Made his reputation in films with Premalekhalu (1953), the Telugu dubbed version of Raj Kapoor’s Aah (1953). Described as the last of the pre-rock generation film lyricists. Recently worked for Bapu (Pelli Pustakam, 1991). Classic film lyrics anthologised by V.A.K. Ranga Rao in Kondagali Tirigindi. Arunaraje or Aruna-Vikas see Raje, Aruna

Ashwathamma, K. (1910-44) Star Kannada and Tamil actress-singer with brief but sensational film career. Launched on the stage (1934) and in film (1935) in title role 46

of Gubbi Veeranna’s Sadarame, both with Jayamma as Draupadi. Adult stage career began with Mohammed Peer’s Manolasini Nataka Sabha, which led to her career as a recording star and her biggest hit single, Ha priya prashanta hridaya (from the play Manmatha Vijaya). Her songs in Sadarame and her duet with M.K. Thyagaraja Bhagavathar in Y.V. Rao’s Chintamani confirmed her as a South Indian film and recording star, although she did only one more film, Sundarrao Nadkarni’s Sant Sakkubai. FILMOGRAPHY: 1935: Sadarame; 1937: Chintamani; 1939: Sant Sakkubai.

Asif, Karimuddin (1924-71) Urdu director born in Etawah, UP. Best known for expensive costume spectaculars centred around Muslim legend (cf. S. Modi). Assistant to uncle film-maker and actor, S. Nazir (Society, 1942). Turned director in 1944 and producer in 1951 with S.K. Ojha’s Hulchul. Mughal-eAzam, one of Indian cinema’s biggest blockbusters, took 9 years to make, initially starring Chandramohan, who died and was replaced by Dilip Kumar. Left two big projects unfinished at his death: Sasta Khoon Mehnga Paani (1970, which was to be shot in Jordan), and Love and God, using the Sufi legend of Laila-Majnu, started with Guru Dutt but entirely re-shot after Dutt died. Eventually released in unfinished form by producer K.C. Bokadia, starring Sanjeev Kumar. FILMOGRAPHY: 1944: Phool; 1960: Mughal-e-Azam; 1970: Sasta Khoon Mehnga Paani; 1986: Love and God.

Athavale, Shantaram Govind (b. 1910) Marathi and Hindi director, better known as a Marathi lyricist; born in Pune, where he saw many classic Sangeet Natak performances in his childhood. Apprenticed to novelist Narayan Hari Apte, helping him to publish the journal Madhukar in Koregaon. When Apte was invited to script Amritmanthan (1934) for Prabhat, Athavale followed his mentor as a songwriter, and achieved instant success esp. with the song Kiti sukhada. Achieved even greater renown when he wrote the only new song for Sant Tukaram (1936), the others being the saint poet’s original compositions. The song in question, Adhi beej ekale, convinced many Tukaram authorities that an unknown Tukaram composition had been discovered. He wrote most of the songs of Prabhat hits such as Kunku (1937), Mazha Mulga and Gopal Krishna (both 1938), Sant Dnyaneshwar (1940), Sant Sakhu and Shejari (both 1941), Daha Wajta (1942) and Ramshastri (1944), often in partnership with composer Keshavrao Bhole. Left Prabhat (1942) to write dialogues and lyrics for Debaki Bose’s Aple Ghar (1942) and lyrics for Vijay Bhatt’s Bharat Bhet (1942). For his début as director with Bhagya Rekha, he hired his former teacher N.H. Apte together with the star associated with his songs, Shanta Apte.

Athavale’s Main Abla Nahin Hoon was one of Apte’s better-known post-Prabhat performances. Made numerous educational shorts and documentaries, mostly in English. Wrote a history of Prabhat, ‘Prabhat’ Kaal (1965). FILMOGRAPHY: 1948: Bhagya Rekha; 1949: Main Abla Nahin Hoon; 1953: Vahinichya Bangdya; 1954: Sansar Karaychay Mala; 1955: Shevgyachya Shenga; 1958: Padada; 1960: Fix it Right (Doc); Write it Right (Doc); 1961: How to Vote (Doc); Gift of Sight (Doc); 1962: Citizens and Citizens (Doc); The Homecoming (Doc); Marriage and After (Doc); 1963: Chatur Balak; 1965: Vavtal; 1968: Sankat Main Swasthya Aur Safai (Doc); 1971: My Village My People (Doc).

Athreya, Acharya (1921-89) Telugu poet, scenarist, lyricist and noted playwright. Born near Sullurpet, AP, as Kilambi Narasimhacharyulu. Wrote several plays while a student at Nellore and Chittoor and was associated with the Venkatagiri Amateurs stage group. Abandoned his studies to participate in the Quit India agitations and was imprisoned. Odd jobs including working as a clerk in a settlement office and assistant editor on the journal Zamin Raitu. Early plays in the historical genre (Gautama Buddha, 1946; Ashoka Samrat, 1947). Introduced a brand of realism on the stage, addressing contemporary political issues, e.g. N.G.O. (1949), later adapted to the screen as Gumasta (1953). Other major plays include Eenadu (1947), Vishwashanti (1953), Bhayam (1957). First film script was Samsaram (1950; uncredited), followed by H.M. Reddy’s Nirdoshi (1951). Wrote lyrics for more than 250 films, starting with Deeksha (1951). Secretary of the Andhra Screen Writers Guild (1955-6). Lyrics published by the actor K. Jaggaiah. Directed one film: Vagdanam (1961). Atma, K. P. see Pratyagatma, K.

Atma Ram (1930-94) Hindi director born in Calcutta as Atmaram Padukone; younger brother of Guru Dutt. Did clerical work and joined the Socialist Party (1948-50); active trade unionist and secretary of the Press Workers’ Union. Studied at the University of Bombay (1952); then assisted Guru Dutt. Worked for a while in London (1958-61) directing films produced by Stuart Legg and Arthur Elton for the Shell Film Unit; also scripted documentaries for James Beveridge for India’s Shell Film Unit (1955-62). Turned to features, mostly musicals, after Guru Dutt’s death (1964) and ran the company. Tried to go in a new direction with Umang, his first independent Atma Ram Films production, dispensing with major stars in favour of ‘youth movie’ ensemble play (with the then unknown Subhash Ghai as actor). His Yeh Gulistan Hamara, for Guru Dutt Films, is a nationalist movie in which Dev Anand, on behalf of the Indian government, quells the North Eastern frontier tribals with love to the tune of classic S.D. Burman numbers (Kya yeh zindagi hai,

AVM Film Company

Raina soyi soyi). The Saira Banu and Vinod Khanna hit Aarop addressed corruption in journalism. Also made advertising films with his younger brother, Devi Dutt. Active in official institutions (e.g. at the FTII in the late 70s). Often worked for television. FILMOGRAPHY: 1960: The Living Soil (Doc); 1961: The Peaceful Revolution (Doc); 1964: Kaise Kahun; 1968: Shikar; 1969: Chanda Aur Bijli; 1970: Umang; 1971: Memsaab; Yaar Mere; 1972: Yeh Gulistan Hamara; 1973: Aarop; Resham Ki Dori; 1974: Imaan; 1975: Qaid; 1976: Ladusingh Taxiwala (TV); 1977: Aafat; Ashanti Shantidas (TV); 1978: Ramlal Shyamlal (TV); 1979: Khanjar; 1982: Pyar Ke Rahi; 1988: JP (Doc); Yeh Sach Hai (Doc); 1990: Beeswa Oonth (TV); 1992: Tulsidas; 1993: Vividha (TV).

Atorthy, Premankur (1890-1964) Bengali and Hindi director born in Faridpur (now Bangladesh). Noted novelist and playwright, author of many books including compilations of short stories, essays (e.g. on silent film, cf. Atorthy, 1990) and plays. Bestknown literary work: Mahasthavir Jatak (1922), a fictional autobiography in four volumes noted for its irreverent portrayal of Calcutta’s early 20th C. élites. Associated with literary journal Bharati; edited Nachghar, one of the first performing arts journals to take film seriously, with Hemendra Kumar Roy and filmmaker Pashupati Chatterjee. Founded Betar Jagat, the journal of the AIR, Calcutta (1929). Started as scenarist and actor, using the pseudonym Krishna Haldar, at Indian Kinema Arts (Punarjanma, 1927; Chasher Meye, 1931). Remade Punarjanma in 1932. Joined B.N. Sircar’s International Filmcraft as writer and assistant to Prafulla Roy (Chasher Meye is based on Atorthy’s novel and script). Also scripted Nitin Bose’s Buker Bojha (1930). First film, Dena Paona, was New Theatres’ first talkie, made in direct competition with Madan

Theatres’ Jamai Sasthi (1931). Made several Urdu films as part of New Theatres’ effort to enter the North Indian market, including the classic film of Aga Hashr Kashmiri’s play Yahudi Ki Ladki. His film versions of literary classics, e.g. from Saratchandra Chattopadhyay (Dena Paona), Rabindranath Tagore (Chirakumar Sabha) and Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay (Kapal Kundala), established the élite literary film genre intended to distinguish New Theatres’ films from routine stage adaptations and remained important signifiers of high art in Bengali cinema. First Bengali film-maker to work in Western India, e.g. for Kolhapur Cinetone (1935) and for Imperial (1936). Credited with the supervision of H.K. Shivdasani’s Yasmin (1935), made by the Krishna Studio. FILMOGRAPHY: 1931: Dena Paona; 1932: Mohabbat Ke Aansoo; Subah Ka Sitara; Zinda Lash; Punarjanma; Chirakumar Sabha; 1933: Kapal Kundala; Yahudi Ki Ladki; 1935: Bharat Ki Beti; Bhikharan; Karwan-eHayat; 1936: Hind Mahila; Sarala; 1937: Dhanwan; 1938: Dulhan; 1940: Kalyani; 1941: Avatar; 1942: Lajwanti; 1943: Dikshul; 1950: Sudhar Prem.

Atre, Pralhad Keshav (1898-1969) Marathi-Hindi director and controversial literary figure in post-WW1 Maharashtra. Educated at the universities of Poona and London; studied experimental psychology under Cyril Burt and taught at Harrow before returning to India. Owner-editor of populist down-market Maratha newspaper; one-time Congress Party MLA. Author of 22 plays, 13 short-story collections, four books of poetry and a 4-volume autobiography (Atre, 1965-7). Teacher and producer of several school textbooks, often calling himself Principal Atre in his film credits. Aggressive polemicist remembered for famous literary battles with N.S. Phadke and Mama Warerkar. Owned

Chitramandir Studio/Atre Pictures (1940), the Atre Printing Press (1944) and Atre Arts (1968). Film career began adapting his own short stories for Master Vinayak (Brahmachari, 1938; Brandichi Batli, 1939). Became a leading independent scenarist (e.g. Raja Rani, 1942) and pioneered the entry of new literary modes emerging from non-fictional prose into post-Independence Marathi film. His chosen genre was political satire, usually directed against the realist conventions of pre-WW1 social reform novels with their caste biases and Anglophilia. However, his best-known film as director was the bitter-sweet melodrama Shyamchi Aai. Wrote plays in many genres: thrillers (To Mee Navhech), tragedies (rewriting the reformist Sangeet Natak playwright Ram Ganesh Gadkari and his own Udyacha Sansar) and satire. Noted scripts: Dharmaveer, Premveer, Begunah (all 1937), Ardhangi/ Ghar Ki Rani, Lapandav (both 1940). Preferred to hire directors rather than to direct. Produced and wrote his own movies, often starring his wife, Vanmala, through his Atre Pics, founded in 1940. FILMOGRAPHY: 1944: Dil Ki Baat; 1945: Parinde; 1948: Moruchi Mavshi; 1949: Brahma Ghotala; 1951: Hi Majhi Lakshmi; 1953: Shyamchi Aai; 1954: Mahatma Phule.

Aurora Film Corporation Studio in Calcutta initially named Aurora Cinema (Est: 1911) by founders Debi Ghosh, Anadi Bose and Charu Ghosh. It ran tent shows in Howrah and around Assam, showing Western films as part of a variety bill. Started making films in 1917, having won the contract to make shorts for the army during WW1 with cameras bought from Hiralal Sen. Early productions include shots of plays from Calcutta’s Art Theatres (Basabadatta, Chandrasekhar) and Manmohan Theatres (Bishabriksha). Later known for major films like Surendra Narayan Roy’s Ratnakar (1921) and Bidyasundar (aka The Lover’s Trance, 1922) and Aurora Tuki-taki (Aurora Tidbits, compilations of clips). Converted into Aurora Film when Anadi Bose became sole proprietor, purchasing the studio premises of Barua Pics (1929). Made films in Bengali (e.g. by Niranjan Pal and Naresh Mitra), in Hindi and some in Telugu and Tamil (e.g. by Sundarrao Nadkarni). Niranjan Pal helped launch the pioneering Aurora Screen News, which shot the footage of Rabindranath Tagore’s funeral later used by Satyajit Ray in his documentary (1961). The only silent Bengali studio still operating in 1992.

AVM Film Company

Vanamala in P.K. Atre's Shyamchi Aai (1953)

One of the top South Indian studios set up in 1947 by film-maker, producer and mogul A.V. Meiyappan (1907-79). Born to a family of Chettiars, Meiyappan initially ran a shop named A.V. & Sons, later expanded (1932) to include Saraswathi Stores, also distributor for the German Odeon label. Début as producer with Saraswathi Sound (Alli Arjuna, 1935). His previous companies included Saraswathi Talkies and Pragati Pics, the latter known for 47

Azmi, Kaifi

comedy double bills written by A.T. Krishnaswamy (Poli Panchali, 1940; Sabhapati, 1941) and for the film of R. Nagendra Rao’s play, Bhukailasa (1940), directed by Sundarrao Nadkarni. Following his Tamil hit, Srivalli (1945) starring singermusician T.R. Mahalingam, Meiyappan established his AVM Studio adapting S.V. Sahasranamam’s stage hit Nam Iruvar (1947). The film was a precursor of the classic DMK Film dramas made at this studio later, e.g. Parasakthi (1952). Developed a unique production infrastructure in four Indian languages, including Hindi films starting with Bahar (1951), starring Vyjayanthimala in a remake of her début, the hit Vazhkai (1949), directed by M.V. Raman. Made films such as Bedara Kannappa (1954) and Sadarame (1956) in Kannada, the Raj Kapoor-Nargis Hindi hit, Chori Chori (1956), the Tamil films Andha Naal (1954), Server Sundaram (1964). AVM also pioneered the practice of dubbing productions. Among the directors working in the four languages at AVM were M.V. Raman, Krishnan-Panju, A. Bhimsingh, A.C. Trilogchander and S.P. Muthuraman, who worked mainly in Tamil. Meiyappan published his autobiography, Enadhu Vazhkai Anubhavangal/The Experiences of My Life (1974). He is credited with the direction of Sabhapati (1941), En Manaivi (with S. Nadkarni, 1942), Srivalli (1945), Nam Iruvar (1947) and Vethala Ulagam (1948). The studio was dormant towards the end of his life, although his son Saravanan later made Murattu Kalai (1980), which confirmed Rajnikant’s superstar status, and Sahakala Vallavan (1982) with Kamalahasan, both directed by S.P. Muthuraman, and seen as reestablishing the studio with themes celebrating atavistic notions of masculinity.

Azmi, Kaifi (b. 1925) Film lyricist and scenarist born in Azamgarh as Akhtar Husain Rizvi. Urdu poet in the tradition of Josh Malihabadi and Faiz Ahmed Faiz (191184). Abandoned his studies of Persian and Urdu during the 1942 Quit India agitations, and shortly thereafter became a full-time Marxist activist. Went to Bombay (1945) and was for a while a trade union worker; closely involved with the PWA in Bombay. Published three anthologies of poetry (Akhini-Shab, Jhankar and Awara Sajde). Early work as story writer for Nanubhai Vakil’s films (Yahudi Ki Beti, 1956; Parvin, 1957; Miss Punjab Mail, 1958; Id Ka Chand, 1964). Wrote lyrics for numerous films, most notably for Guru Dutt’s Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959), Chetan Anand’s nationalist war movie Haqeeqat (1964) and Kamal Amrohi’s Pakeezah (1971). Established formidable reputation as perhaps the most charismatic writer in films, following the acclaim for his script, dialogue and lyrics for M.S. Sathyu’s Garam Hawa (1973), based on Ismat Chughtai’s story. Also wrote dialogues for Sathyu’s Kanneshwara Rama (1977). Other contributions include dialogues for Benegal’s Manthan (1976), lyrics for Hrishikesh Mukherjee’s Bawarchi (1972) and for Kamal Amrohi’s Razia Sultan (1983). Played a memorable role as the old man in Naseem 48

(1995), Saeed Akhtar Mirza’s poignant feature around the destruction of the Babri Masjid in 1992. Raman Kumar made a documentary, Kaifi Azmi (1979).

Azmi, Shabana (b. 1950) Actress. Daughter of Kaifi Azmi and celebrated IPTA actress Shaukat. Graduate of FTII acting course (1972); feature début in Abbas’s mediocre Faasla, released after her emergence in Ankur. Became a regular presence in Benegal films (Nishant, Junoon, Mandi, Susman, Antarnaad). Together with Smita Patil, Azmi is the most prominent star spawned by the New Indian Cinema, working with e.g. Satyajit Ray (Shatranj Ke Khiladi), Mrinal Sen (Khandhar, Genesis, Ek Din Achanak), Saeed Mirza (Albert Pinto Ko Gussa Kyon Aata Hai), Gautam Ghose (Paar), Sai Paranjpye (Sparsh, Disha), Aparna Sen (Picnic, Sati), and Mahesh Bhatt films, including the notorious Arth. Also worked with Western directors (John Schlesinger’s Madame Sousatzka, 1988; Roland Joffe’s City of Joy, 1992). Became a major mainstream Hindi star after Fakira, working in Manmohan Desai’s Amar Akbar Anthony, Parvarish and Prakash Mehra’s Jwalamukhi. Initially practised, in her ‘art’ movies, a style of naturalist acting equated with the absence of make-up, an emphasis on regional accents (e.g. the rural Andhra accent in Ankur and Nishant or the Parsee Hindi in Pestonjee) and the theatre-derived technique of alternating the casual gesture and dramatic high points. Married scenarist Javed Akhtar. Also acted on the stage, including an acclaimed performance in the revived IPTA’s 1980 Hindi version of The Caucasian Chalk Circle entitled Safed Kundali by M.S. Sathyu. First TV drama, Picnic, under Aparna Sen’s direction. Briefly chairperson of the CFS. Known also as a courageous political activist associated with the Nivara Hakk Samrakshan Samiti, fighting the cause of Bombay’s slum and pavement-dwellers, and with various anti-communal organisations,

Shabana Azmi in Ankur (1973)

playing an effective, high-profile role in e.g. the 1993 communal riots in Bombay. FILMOGRAPHY: 1973: The December Evening (Sh); Munshiji (Sh); Ankur; 1974: Parinay; Ishq Ishq Ishq; Faasla; 1975: Kadambari; Nishant; 1976: Fakira; Shaque; Vishwasghaat; 1977: Adha Din Adhi Raat; Amar Akbar Anthony; Chor Sipahi; Ek Hi Raasta; Hira Aur Patthar; Khel Khiladi Ka; Kissa Kursi Ka; Parvarish; Shatranj Ke Khiladi; Swami; Kanneshwara Rama; Karm; 1978: Atithi; Devata; Khoon Ki Pukar; Swarg Narak; Toote Khilone; Junoon; 1979: Amar Deep; Bagula Bhagat; Lahu Ke Do Rang; Sparsh; Jeena Yahan; 1980: Apne Paraye; Ek Baar Kaho; Jwalamukhi; Thodisi Bewafayi; Yeh Kaisa Insaaf; Albert Pinto Ko Gussa Kyon Aata Hai; Hum Paanch; 1981: Ek Hi Bhool; Sameera; Shama; Raaste Pyar Ke; 1982: Anokha Bandhan; Ashanti; Namkeen; Suraag; Yeh Nazdeekiyan; Arth; Log Kya Kahenge; Masoom; 1983: Avatar; Doosri Dulhan; Mandi; Sweekar Kiya Maine; Khandhar; Pyaasi Aankhen; 1984: Aaj Ka MLA Ramavatar; Bhavna; Gangvaa; Hum Rahe Na Hum; Kaamyaab; Yaadon KI Zanjeer; Kamla; Mr X; Lorie; Paar; Ram Tera Desh; 1985: Rahi Badal Gaye; Uttarayan; Khamosh; Shart; 1986: Anjuman; Ek Pal; Samay Ki Dhara; Nasihat; Susman; Genesis; 1987: Itihaas; Jallianwala Bagh; Pestonjee; 1988: Mardon Wali Baat; Ek Din Achanak; Madame Sousatzka; 1989: Oonch Neech Beech; Libaas; Jhoothi Sharm; Rakhwala; Main Azaad Hoon; Sati; 1990: Picnic (TV); Disha; Amba; Muqaddar Ka Badshah; Ek Doctor Ki Maut; 1991: Immaculate Conception; Dharavi; 1992: Adharm; Jhoothi Shaan; City of Joy; Antarnaad; 1993: In Custody; Patang.

Babu, Hanumappa Vishwanath (1903-68) Major 30s Telugu director born in Bangalore. Studied medicine. Made mythologicals usually starring Kannamba, carrying on the genre’s

Bachchan, Amitabh

silent era version as practised in Bombay’s studios where he began his career. Worked for Kohinoor as actor (1927), then at Imperial as actor and assistant to his brother-in-law, H.M. Reddy (1929-35). First and best-known film, Draupadi Vastrapaharanam, made in competition with a Laxmi Films production starring Bellari Raghava. It also launched the pioneering Telugu production company, Saraswathi Talkies, which introduced Gudavalli Ramabrahmam to film-making. FILMOGRAPHY: 1931: Bar Ke Pobar (St; act only); 1936: Draupadi Vastrapaharanam; 1937: Kanakatara; 1940: Bhoja Kalidasa; 1941: Mandaravathi; 1943: Krishna Prema; 1949: Dharmangada; 1952: Adarsham; 1955: Grihalakshmi; 1963: Devasundari.

Baburaj, M. S. (b. 1921) Malayalam music composer, born in Calicut, Kerala. First associated with Nilambur Balan’s stage group, working mainly in the Malabar region of North Kerala. Based in Calicut, Baburaj was one of the first composers to introduce the North Indian classical influence into the otherwise Carnatic Malayalam film music. Until his work for Kariat’s films (cf. Mudiyanaya Puthran), the Northern influence had been restricted to e.g. Kozhikode Abdul Qadir’s imitations of K.L. Saigal. His compositions in e.g. Vincent’s Bhargavi Nilayam, working outside the routine madhya laya (middle tempo) to create a slower beat using minimal orchestration, are still remembered for the early (and for some, the finest) songs of Yesudas. Associated most closely with Bhaskaran’s lyrics. Scored P.N. Menon’s independent film Olavum Theeravum and Madhu’s directorial début Priya. FILMOGRAPHY: 1957: Minnaminungu; 1960: Umma; 1961: Kandam Becha Coat; Mudiyanaya Puthran; 1962: Laila Majnu; Palattukoman; Bhagya Jatakam; 1963: Ninamaninja Kalpadukal; Moodupadam; 1964: Thacholi Othenan; Kuttikkuppayam; Karutha Kayi; Bhargavi Nilayam; Bharthavu; 1965: Zubaida; Kadatthukaran; Porter Kunjali; Kuppivala; Ammu; Thankakudam; Kattuthulasi; Mayavi; Chettathi; Thommente Makkal; Sarpakadu; 1966: Manikya Kottaram; Pennmakkal; Kootukar; Kattumallika; Anarkali; Tharavatamma; Kanakachilanka; 1967: Irutinte Atmavu; Agniputhri; Udyogastha; Balyakalasakhi; Karutharathrigal; Kadhija; Anveshichu Kandatiyilla; Collector Malathi; Pareeksha; 1968: Manaswini; Inspector; Karthika; Lakshaprabhu; Love In Kerala; Midumidukki; Anju Sundarigal; 1969: Sandhya; Velliyazhcha; Virunnukari; Olavum Theeravum; 1970: Saraswathi; Anatha; Ambalapravu; Cross Belt; Bhikara Nimishinkal; Nizhalattam; Vivaham Swargathil; Priya; 1971: Neethi; Ernakulam Junction; 1972: Sambhavami Yuge Yuge; Panimudakku; Pulliman; Azhimukham; 1973: Bhadra Deepam; Aradhika; Ladies’ Hostel; Soundarya Pooja; Manasu; Kamini; Chuzhi; 1974: Nathoon; Swarna Malsiyam; 1975: Jnan

Ninne Premikkunu; Srishti; Criminals; 1976: Allah-o-Akbar; Appooppan; Dweep; Pushpa Sarem; 1977: Gandharvam; Yatheem; 1978: Bhrashtu; Yagaswam; 1979: Bharyaye Avasyamundu.

Bachchan, Amitabh (b. 1942) Hindi cinema’s biggest star actor. Born in Allahabad, son of noted Hindi poet Harivanshrai Bachchan. Former stage actor, radio announcer and freight company executive in Calcutta. Although he initially had difficulties being accepted as an actor, his productions eventually determined the health of the whole Hindi film industry. Abbas gave him his first role in Saat Hindustani; next came a voice-over for Sen’s Bhuvan Shome (1969). Later, he also did the voice-over for Ray’s Shatranj Ke Khiladi (1977). Eventually became the superstar of the mid-70s TV, radio and the press issued daily bulletins on his health when he suffered a near-fatal accident in 1982 while shooting Coolie. In early Gulzarscripted and Hrishikesh Mukherjee-directed films (Anand, Namak Haram) and in Saudagar, based on Narendranath Mitra’s story, Bachchan is presented as a brooding, melancholic anti-hero drawn from Bengali literary stereotypes traceable to novelist Saratchandra Chattopadhyay and brought into Hindi film by Nitin Bose, Bimal Roy and Asit Sen. In this respect, he is in the tradition of

Dilip Kumar (e.g. Deedar, 1951), Sunil Dutt (Sujata, 1959; Gaban, 1966) and Dharmendra (Satyakam, 1969). His persona of the angry youth was elaborated in directly political language in Zanjeer, the first of his big vendetta films. Expanded in the films of Prakash Mehra and Yash Chopra, Bachchan’s image reorganised the formulaic melodrama around the clash between the laws of kinship and the laws of the state, requiring the hero to become an outlaw governed by a higher code of conduct. In Deewar and Trishul this conflict still constituted the films’ main theme but it quickly became a mere plot device, while a more directly political discourse began to insinuate itself into the films via the repeated references to the early 70s working class agitations (which culminated in the 1974 railway strike preceding the Emergency in 1975), as in e.g. Kala Patthar. Other topical and politically loaded references invoked threats of national economic destabilisation in e.g. Trishul, Shakti and Mr. Natwarlal. The melodramatic plot structure also lent itself well to the enactment of the fantasy of the lumpen rebel-vigilante who achieves great personal success, at times turning the film into a gigantic masquerade (esp. with Manmohan Desai). In addition to his own charismatic presence and his sonorous voice, an important component in several Bachchan films is the Salim-Javed script. Bachchan’s persona is often defined by two female figures: the melodramatic mother

Amitabh Bachchan and Sridevi in Aakhri Raasta (1986) 49

Backer, P. A.

who symbolises the family and the ‘liberated’ woman as personified by Parveen Babi (Deewar), Zeenat Aman (Don), and their clones (e.g. Amrita Singh in Mard). Inquilab was released as part of his election campaign: the climax showed him slaughtering a group of corrupt politicians. Elected MP for Allahabad supporting Rajiv Gandhi’s Congress (I) in 1984, but he soon abandoned politics. After Shahenshah and his return to cinema, some of his films’ unofficial budgets made them the most expensive Indian films ever. In the late 80s his popularity declined but revived with Hum (and other Mukul Anand films) showing the star coming to terms with the ageing process. His wife, the actress Jaya Bhaduri, stopped acting after their marriage, except for one noted appearance with her husband in Silsila (returning with Nihalani’s Hazar Chourasi Ki Maa, 1998). In 1995, founded the controversial ABCL (Amitabh Bachchan Corporation Limited) as an entertainment conglomerate for merchandising himself and other celebrities as a brand name, creating and marketing TV software, producing and distributing films, making audio products under his ‘Big-B’ label, and event management. Initially billed as the first significant effort in India to corporatise India’s chaotic entertainment industry (cf. Businessworld 1-14 Nov 1995 cover feature ‘Bachchan’s Business Blueprint’), ABCL had a major setback when the ‘Miss World 1996’ contest, hosted by them in Bangalore, led to a political and financial controversy. Following the disastrous reception of his ‘comeback’ film, Mehul Kumar’s Mrityudaata (1997) produced by ABCL, the company has faced a severe crisis forcing it to sell its ‘Big-B’ record label and its ‘Star Track’ talent bank, leading to questions about the survival of the company. FILMOGRAPHY: 1969: Saat Hindustani; 1970: Anand; 1971: Parwana; Pyar Ki Kahani; Reshma Aur Shera; Sanjog; Guddi; 1972: Bombay To Goa; Bansi Birju; Ek Nazar; Raaste Ka Patthar; Jaban; 1973: Abhimaan; Bandhe Haath; Namak Haram; Saudagar; Zanjeer; Gehri Chaal; 1974: Benaam; Kasauti; Kunwara Baap; Majboor; Roti Kapda Aur Makaan; Dost; 1975: Chupke Chupke; Deewar; Faraar; Mili; Sholay; Zameer; Chhotisi Baat; 1976: Adalat; Do Anjaane; Hera Pheri; Kabhie Kabhie; 1977: Alaap; Amar Akbar Anthony; Imaan Dharam; Khoon Pasina; Parvarish; Khatta Meetha; Charandas; 1978: Besharam; Don; Ganga Ki Saugandh; Kasme Vaade; Muqaddar Ka Sikandar; Trishul; 1979: Golmaal; Jurmana; Kala Patthar; Manzil; Mr Natwarlal; Suhaag; The Great Gambler; 1980: Do Aur Do Paanch; Ram Balram; Shaan; Dostana; 1981: Barsaat Ki Ek Raat/Anusandhan; Chashme Buddoor; Kaliya; Lawaris; Naseeb; Silsila; Yaarana; Satte Pe Satta; Vilayati Babu; 1982: Bemisal; Desh Premi; Khuddar; Namak Halal; Shakti; 1983: Andha Kanoon; Coolie; Mahaan; Nastik; Pukar; 1984: Inquilab; Sharabi; 1985: Giraftaar; Mard; Aakhri Raasta; 1986: Jalwa; 1987: Kaun Jeeta Kaun Hara; 1988: Shahenshah; Soorma Bhopali; Ganga Jamuna Saraswati; Hero Hiralal; 1989: Toofan; Jadugar; Main Azaad Hoon; 1990: Agneepath; Aaj Ka Arjun; Krodh; 1991: Hum; Ajooba; Indrajit; Akela; 1992: Khuda Gawah; 1994: Insaniyat. 50

Backer, P. A. (b. 1940-93) Malayalam director born in Trichur, Kerala. Started as journalist for Kuttikal and Poomattukal; then assistant to Ramu Kariat (1960), the focus of a renovatory wave in Malayalam cinema; broke away to produce P.N. Menon’s Olavum Theeravum (1969), launching a second renewal. His first film, Kabani Nadi Chuvannappol, upset the censors during the Emergency. Claiming explicitly political but unaffiliated avantgardism, his work constitutes a precedent for an independent Left cinema, e.g. of the Odessa Collective (Est: 1984 by John Abraham), Raveendran, T.V. Chandran et al. Much of Backer’s cinema, like that of his successors, comes from an effort to elaborate the forms of discourse about ‘independent’ politics, seen as a transference of repression that is either sexual (Kabani Nadi Chuvannappol; Chuvanna Vithukal), or religious (Manimuzhakkum), or the displacement of an infantile desire for salvation (Sanghaganam). FILMOGRAPHY: 1975: Kabani Nadi Chuvannappol; 1976: Manimuzhakkum; Chuvanna Vithukal; 1979: Sanghaganam; Manninte Maril; Unarthupattu; 1981: Charam; 1982: Chappa; 1985: Prema Lekhanam; Shri Narayana Guru; 1987: Innaleyude Baaki.

Badami, Sarvottam (b. 1910) Hindi, Telugu and Tamil director born in Channapatna, Karnataka. Son of a revenue officer in Mysore. Worked as motor mechanic and handyman in garage owned by Ambalal Patel, then as a projectionist at Patel’s Select Pictures cinema in Bangalore. When Patel partnered Ardeshir Irani and Chimanlal Desai in launching Sagar Film (1930), Badami, as the only available South Indian in the Bombay studio, was allowed to finish Harishchandra and Galava Rishi and went on to direct the Telugu Paduka Pattabhishekham. Made several socials at Sagar, usually starring Sabita Devi, including some of novelist K.M. Munshi’s best-known scripts, e.g. Dr. Madhurika, Vengeance is Mine. Also adapted Hollywood films, e.g. Aap Ki Marzi, based on E. Buzzell’s Paradise For Three (1938). Followed his mentor Patel to Sudama Pics. in 1939 when Sagar merged to become National Film. Worked in Famous Cine laboratory (19468). Chief producer (newsreel) at Films Division (1948-52) where he also made documentaries. Left Films Division in 1954 and became an industrialist based in Bangalore; also adviser to the Kamani industrial group. FILMOGRAPHY: 1932: Harishchandra; Galava Rishi; Paduka Pattabhishekham; Shakuntala; 1933: Chandrahasa; 1934: Grihalakshmi; 1935: Dr. Madhurika; Vengeance is Mine; 1936: Jeevan Lata; Grama Kanya; 1937: Kokila; Kulavadhu; 1938: Three Hundred Days and After; 1939: Aap Ki Marzi; Ladies Only; 1940: Chingari; Sajani; 1941: Holiday in Bombay; 1942: Khilona; 1943: Prarthana; 1944: Bhagya Lakshmi; 1945: Ramayani; 1946: Uttara Abhimanyu;

1947: Manmani; 1951: Vinoba Bhave (Doc); 1952: Roof Over the Head (Doc).

Bagchi, Gurudas (b. 1926) Bengali director born in Calcutta. Started as assistant to Chhabi Biswas on Jar Jetha Ghar (1949); then assisted Ardhendu Mukherjee and Chitta Bose (1954-60) before débuting as director in 1963. FILMOGRAPHY: 1963: Dwiper Nam Tiya Rang; 1964: Ta Holey; 1969: Teer Bhoomi; 1970: Samanaral; 1972: Chhandapatan; 1973: Bindur Chheley; Alo-o-Chhaya; 1975: Srishtichhara; 1976: Joi; 1977: Ramer Sumati; 1978: Tusi; 1979: Chirantan; Jata Mat Tata Path; 1981: Swami Stri; 1983: Samarpita; 1989: Mahapith Tarapith.

Bakshi, Anand (b. 1920) Prolific Hindi lyricist; wrote more than 2500 songs, averaging c.100 songs for c.20 films annually. Born in Rawalpindi (now Pakistan). Son of a bank manager; joined the army aged 18 as a field-telephone operator. Family migrated to India where he started as a scenarist for e.g. Master Bhagwan’s Badla (1943). Unable to obtain sufficient film assignments, rejoined the army until 1958. Debut as lyric writer in Bhagwan’s Bhala Admi (1958). Broke through with Suraj Prakash’s films, esp. with the songs Kankaria more karke ishare in Mehndi Lagi Mere Haath (1962), Pardesiyon se na akhiyan milana in Jab Jab Phool Khile (1965) and Sawan ka mahina in Adurthi Subba Rao’s Milan (1967). Confirmed his reputation for romantic songs with the Rajesh Khanna hit Aradhana (1969), writing most of Khanna’s maudlin lyrics for several years thereafter, including Amar Prem (1971), which he considers to be his best work, esp. the song Chingari koi bhadke. One of the few songwriters of his generation to have no credentials as an independent poet. Sang two songs for Mom Ki Gudiya (1972). Consistently denies having any artistic pretensions. Recently wrote the Bachchan hit Jumma chumma in Hum (1991). Worked mainly with music directors Laxmikant-Pyarelal.

Bakshi, Shanti Prakash (1925-88) Punjabi and Hindi director; started as scenarist and assistant to the major Punjabi cameramandirector Harcharan Singh Kwatra, scripting Pilpili Saheb (1954) and Teesmar Khan (1955). Kwatra produced Bakshi’s first film Kode Shah, scored by Sardul Kwatra. Like Kwatra, Bakshi was basically a Bombay director making inexpensive Hindi films, often with Hindi stars. Also wrote Amarnath’s Baradari (1955) in Hindi. Directorial début in 1953 with Punjabi films. Made three Hindi features in the late 50s (Mr Chakram, Pataal Pari and Sun To Le Hasina). FILMOGRAPHY: 1946: Kamli; 1953: Kode Shah; 1954: Ashtalli; 1955: Mr Chakram; 1957: Pataal Pari; 1958: Sun To Le Hasina; 1960: Heer Syal; 1962: Pardesi Dhola; 1965:

Balasubramanyam, S. P.

Sassi Punnu; 1986: Munda Naram Te Kudi Garam.

Balachander, Kailasam (b. 1930) Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Hindi director and producer, born in Nannilam, Thanjavur. Graduated in science from Annamalai University, Madras (1951); employed as a civil servant in the Accountant General’s office until 1964. Worked initially in the Tamil theatre as playwright and director. His best-known plays have been filmed: Server Sundaram by Krishnan-Panju (1964) and Major Chandrakant in Hindi by Phani Majumdar (Oonche Log, 1965) and by himself in Tamil. Film début as scenarist with the MGR film Daivathai (1964). Adapted his own play for his directorial début, Neer Kumizhi. Was employed by the Kalakendra Films unit for some years, before becoming an independent producer with his own company Kavithalaya. Known as the most consistent manufacturer of morality tales usually reinforcing middle-class conservatism, e.g. the joint-family structure (Bhale Kodalu/Bhama Vijayam), widow remarriage (Aval Oru Thodarkathai), the plight of divorced women (Avargal), the dowry problem (Kalyana Agathigal), Gandhian values (Punnagai), miscarriages of justice (Major Chandrakant). His emphasis on the middle class, his sentimentalism and his practice of remaking his hits in other languages recall the L.V. Prasad style. Prasad produced his major Hindi hit, Ek Duuje Ke Liye, remaking his earlier Telugu success Maro Charithra, both starring Kamalahasan. Like Prasad, he created several Tamil stars, e.g. Kamalahasan, Rajnikant, Sujata and S.V. Sekhar. Changed his idiom to make the political dramas Thanneer Thanneer, based on Komal Swaminathan’s play, and his own story Achamillai Achamillai. These films, with Arangetram, telling the story of a girl from a Brahmin family who becomes a prostitute, constitute the closest that Tamil cinema came to contributing to the State-sponsored New Indian Cinema idiom. Arangetram was used by the TN government for its family-planning campaigns. His production company Kavithalaya also produced Mani Rathnam’s Roja and the Rajnikant solos Annamalai (1994) and Muthu (1995). Produced the TV series Rayil Sneham. FILMOGRAPHY: 1965: Neer Kumizhi; Naanal; 1966: Major Chandrakant; 1967: Bhama Vijayam/Bhale Kodalu; Anubavi Raja Anubavi; 1968: Ethir Neechal; Thamarai Nenjam; 1969: Poova Thalaiya; Iru Kodukal; Sattekalapu Sattaiah; 1970: Pattam Pazhali; Ethiroli; Navagraham; Kaviya Thalaivi; 1971: Bomma Borusa; Nangu Suvarkal; Nootrukku Nooru; Punnagai; 1972: Kanna Nalama; Velli Vizha; 1973: Arangetram; Sollathen Ninaikiran; 1974: Naan Avanillai; Aval Oru Thodarkathai/Aval Oru Thodarkatha/Aaina; 1975: Apoorva Ragangal; 1976: Manmatha Leelai; Moondru Mudichu; Anthuleni Katha; 1977: Avargal; Pattina Pravesham; Oka Talli Katha; Meethi Meethi Baatein; 1978: Nizhal Nijamakirathu; Thappida Tala/Thappu Thalangal; Maro Charithra; 1979:

Ninaithale Inikkum; Nool Veli; Andamaina Anubhavam; Idi Kathakadu; Edo Charithra; Guppedu Manasu; 1980: Varumayin Niram Sigappu; 1981: Akali Rajyam; Tholikodi Koosindhi; Enga Ooru Kannagi; Thillu Mullu; Ek Duuje Ke Liye; Thanneer Thanneer; 47 Natkal/47 Rojulu; 1982: Agni Satchi; Pyara Tarana; 1983: Benki Alli Aralida Hoovu; Kokilamma; Poikkal Kuthirai; Zara Si Zindagi; 1984: Love Love Love; Achamillai Achamillai; Ek Nai Paheli; Eradu Rekhagalu; 1985: Mugila Mallige; Kalyana Agathigal; Sindhu Bhairavi; 1986: Punnagai Mannan; Sundara Swapnagalu; 1987: Manadhil Urudhi Vendhum; 1988: Rudraveena; Unnal Mudiyum Thambi; 1989: Pudhu Pudhu Arthangal; 1990: Oru Veedu Iru Vasal; 1991: Azhagan; 1992: Vaname Ellai; Jathi Malli; 1994:Duet.

Balachander, Sundaram (1927-90) Tamil director born in Madras; son of a lawyer. Also a music composer, actor and producer, he is best known as a classical Carnatic musician and veena player. Child actor in Prabhat’s Tamil mythological Seeta Kalyanam. Employed briefly by the AIR. Early work as actor and composer in Ithu Nijama (playing twins), and Rajambal (in the popular role of a debonair villain). Directorial work includes the melodrama En Kanavar and the thriller Kaidhi. First major film was the war/spy drama, Andha Naal, possibly influenced by Rashomon (1950). Another remarkable genre adaptation is Avan Amaran, made for the Leftist Peoples’ Films. His own productions were often adaptations, e.g. Avana Evan from George Stevens’s A Place in the Sun (1951) and the Hitchcockian Bommai. His company, S.B. Creations (1960), was known for its thrillers, e.g. Nadu Iravil based on Agatha Christie’s Ten Little Niggers. Scored the music of all the films he directed, where, in contrast to his classical musical reputation, he often provided a pastiche of jazz, Latin American music, Western and Indian classical styles. Left films to devote himself more to music. FILMOGRAPHY (* only act/** also act): 1933: Seeta Kalyanam*; 1935: Radha Kalyanam*; 1936: Rukmini Kalyanam*; 1941: Kamadhenu*; Rishyashringar*; 1942: Nandanar*; 1948: Ithu Nijama*; En Kanavar; 1951: Rajambal*; Devaki*; Kaidhi**; 1952: Rani*; 1953: Inspector*; 1954: Penn*; Andha Naal; 1955: Dr Savithri*; 1958: Avan Amaran; 1959: Maragatham*; 1962: Avana Evan; 1964: Bommai; 1970: Nadu Iravil**.

Balaramaiah, Ghantasala (1906-53) Telugu director born in Pottepalem village, AP. Well-known 20s Telugu stage actor, e.g. title role in Ramadasu directed by his brother Radhakrishnaiah. Started Shri Rama Films, financed by rich landlords from Nellore, with Chitrapu Narasimha Rao’s Sati Tulasi, then set up Studio Kubera Pics with two Chitrapu Narayanamurthy films, Markandeya (1938)

and Mahiravana (1940). Started directing after founding Pratibha Film with Parvati Kalyanam. His Garuda Garvabhangam, starring Bhanumathi and Gaggaiah, instituted an influential variant of the mythological: a kind of heroic folklore loosely echoing forms like the Burrakatha. This trend, which he developed with the hit Swapna Sundari featuring A. Nageshwara Rao and Anjali Devi, was also continued by K.V. Reddy and provided in Gaggaiah an early model for the NTR persona. FILMOGRAPHY (* only act): 1933: Ramadasu*; 1936: Sati Tulasi*; Kabir*; 1941: Parvati Kalyanam; 1942: Seeta Rama Jananam; 1943: Garuda Garvabhangam; 1946: Mugguru Maratilu; 1948: Balaraju; 1950: Shri Lakshmamma Katha; Swapna Sundari; 1952: Chinnakodalu.

Balasaraswathi, R. (b. 1928) Telugu and Tamil singer and actress, born in Madras. Daughter of musician K. Parthasarathy. Started recording when discovered as a 6-yearold by composer-lyricist Kopparapu Subba Rao. Début as actress in C. Pullaiah’s Ansuya (as Ganga); worked with K. Subramanyam, playing Krishna in Bhakta Kuchela, followed by the major role of Sarasa in his Balayogini. Played child roles before becoming a heroine in Ramabrahmam’s Illalu, acting and singing duets with Saluri Rajeswara Rao, who also composed popular non-film songs for her in the early 40s. Virtually retired from acting after she married the Rajah of Kolanka (1944), but continued as playback singer until the mid-50s. Her first playback number, Tinne meedi chinnoda for Kamala Kotnis in P. Pullaiah’s Bhagya Lakshmi (1943), was composed by B. Narasimha Rao and was one of the first film songs officially credited on the record label to the singer rather than the actor. Associated with some of the best compositions of music directors C.R. Subburaman (Swapna Sundari, 1950), G. Ashwathama (Chinnakodalu, 1952) and Ramesh Naidu (Dampatyam, 1957). Other classic songs include Muntha perugandoyi with comedians K. Siva Rao and Relangi Venkatramaiah in Prema (1952), Tana panthame tanadanevadu in the unusual raga Rasali, written and scored by B. Rajanikanta Rao (Manavati, 1952). Came out of retirement to sing in the film directed by her niece Vijayanirmala, Sangham Chekkina Silpalu (1979). Also remembered as a dancer in e.g. Suvarnamala’s street scene. FILMOGRAPHY: 1936: Ansuya; Bhakta Kuchela; Balayogini; 1937: Tukaram; 1939: Mahananda; Thiruneelakantar; 1940: Illalu; 1941: Chandrahasa; Apavadu; 1942: Thasippen; 1947: Radhika; 1948: Suvarnamala; Bilhana.

Balasubramanyam, S. P. (b. 1945) Leading South Indian film singer, actor, composer, producer and familiar dubbing voice. Born in Nellore, the son of a Harikatha performer. Studied engineering at Anantpur and Madras. First break as singer with 51

Bal Gandharva

composer Kothandapani. Sings in all four South Indian languages and in Hindi and Oriya. Broke through as singer in the MGR hit Adimai Penn (1969) and in K. Vishwanath’s musical megasuccess Shankarabharanam (1979) where he sang in the classical Carnatic style. First Hindi hit was K. Balachander’s Ek Duuje Ke Liye (1981), starring Kamalahasan. Known increasingly in the 90s for his acting (eg. Kadhalan, 1994).

Bal Gandharva (1888-1967) Given name was Narayanrao Rajhans. Celebrated female impersonator on the stage, mainly in mythologicals (Swayamvar, Saubhadra) and occasionally in influential socials, e.g. the Gadkari musical Ekach Pyala. The plays had a massive impact in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka and in Thanjavur, TN. Also came to epitomise feminine beauty in the emerging fashion industry of these regions. His ‘look’ embodied the tribhangi posture from classical sculpture: a slightly inclined head and feet at an angle to the torso, also used in several Ravi Varma paintings (e.g. Lady with a Mirror). On stage, this became a tableau posture usually dividing the proscenium frame into three vertical areas offset by a gaze turned 3/4 towards the audience. Also top singing star of Marathi Sangeet Natak. Introduced by the Kirloskar Natak Mandali, but left to form his own Gandharva Natak Mandali (1913). Prabhat Studio gave great publicity to his recruitment to cinema (Dharmatma) but he left, feeling uncomfortable with film acting and with playing male roles, contrary to his public image. However, two of Prabhat’s top composers, Govindrao Tembe and Master Krishnarao, were products of Bal Gandharva’s troupe, and his stage idiom, emphasising a flat proscenium layered with stage backdrops, as well as the conventions of feminine beauty he incarnated, had a major influence on early Marathi talkies. Painter’s Sadhvi Mirabai was a straight adaptation of a Gandharva Natak Mandali play.

Died from smallpox during the filming of Rajinder Singh Bedi’s classic novel Ek Chadar Maili Si, which she, by some accounts, was to have directed as well (other accounts also credit the incomplete film to R.L. Dhir). Also produced Baaz (under H.G. Films) and Raag Rang (under Bali Sisters) directed by her brother Digvijay. FILMOGRAPHY: 1942: The Cobbler (Sh); 1946: Badnami; Kahan Gaye; 1948: Suhaag Raat; Jalsa; Nai Reet; Patjhad; 1949: Badi Bahen; Bansaria; Bholi; Dil Ki Duniya; Dulari; Garibi; Girls’ School; Jal Tarang; Kinara; Neki Aur Badi; 1950: Banwre Nain; Bhai Bahen; Gulenar; Nishana; Shaadi Ki Raat; 1951: Albela; Baazi; Bedardi; Ek Tha Ladka; Ghayal; Johari; Lachak; Nakhre; Phoolon Ke Haar; 1952: Anandmath; Bahu Beti; Betaab; Jaal; Jalpari; Najaria; Neelam Pari; Raag Rang; Usha Kiron; Zalzala; 1953: Baaz; Firdaus; Gunah; Jhamela; Naina; Naya Ghar; 1954: Ameer; Daku Ki Ladki; Kashti; Kavi; Suhagan; 1955: Albeli; Baradari; Chhora Chhori; Faraar; Jawab; Milap; Miss Coca Cola; Sau Ka Note; Vachan; 1956: Hotel; Inspector; Lalten; Pocketmaar; Rangeen Raatein; Sailaab; Zindagi; 1957: Coffee House; Jalti Nishani; 1958: Do Mastane; Aji Bas Shukriya; Jailor; Ten o’Clock; 1959: CID Girl; Mohar; Nai Raahein; 1960: Bade Ghar Ki Bahu; 1961: Mr India; Sapan Suhane; 1963: Jabse Tumhe Dekha Hai.

Balakrishna (b. 1960) 90s Telugu star; son of N. T. Rama Rao. Introduced by the family’s Ramakrishna studios in Tatamma Kala, directed by his father; minor actor in Akbar Saleem Anarkali. First lead role in Disco King, after B. Subhash’s Disco Dancer (1982). Known mainly for romances and thrillers, forming a new-generation trio with Nagarjuna and Venkatesh, notably in Kodi Ramakrishna’s films Mangammagari Manavadu and Muddula Mamaiah. The hit Bhairava Dweepam was a colour remake, with more special effects, of his father’s megahit Patala Bhairavi (1955).

FILMOGRAPHY: 1935: Dharmatma; 1937: Sadhvi Mirabai; 1951: Vithal Rakhumai.

Bali, Geeta (1930-65) Hindi actress, dancer and singer, originally Harikirtan Kaur. Born in Amritsar, Punjab. Started in film aged 12 in a Shorey short (The Cobbler) followed by her feature début in Majnu’s Badnami. Lively dancer, mainly in films by Kidar Sharma (Suhaag Raat was her first major film), Guru Dutt (Baazi, Baaz, Jaal, Sailaab) and Master Bhagwan (the hit musical Albela). Also featured in whodunits by Ravindra Dave and Shakti Samanta. Only occasionally successful in dramatic roles, e.g. her famous portrayal of a blind girl in Sohrab Modi’s Jailor. In Sharma’s Banwre Nain she used an eloquent gestural style to play the country girl betrayed by the hero, matched only by her contemporary, Nimmi. Co-starred with Raj Kapoor, Dev Anand and later with the man she would marry, Shammi Kapoor. 52

Geeta Bali in Chhora Chhori (1955)

FILMOGRAPHY: 1974: Tatamma Kala; Ram Rahim; 1975: Anna Dammula Anubandham; Vemulavada Bhimakavi; 1977: Daana Veera Shura Karna; 1978: Akbar Saleem Anarkali; 1979: Shrimad Virata Parvam; Shri Tirupati Venkateshwara Kalyanam; 1980: Rahasya Rathri; Rowdy Ramudu Konte Krishnudu; 1982: Anuraga Devatha; 1983: Simham Navindi; 1984: Disco King; Mangammagari Manavadu; Janani Janma Bhoomi; Katha Nayakudu; Sahasame Jeevitham; Palnati Puli; Shrimad Virat Veerabrahmendra Swamy Charitra; Katha Nayakudu; 1985: Atmabalam; Babai Abbai; Kathula Kondaiah; Pattabhishekham; 1986: Nippulanti Manishi; Muddula Krishnaiah; Seeta Rama Kalyanam; Ansuyammagari Alludu; Deshoddharakulu; Kaliyuga Krishnudu; Apoorva Sahodaralu; 1987: Allari Krishnayya; Bhargava Ramudu; Lorry Driver; Sahasa Samrat; Presidentgari Abbayi; Muvva Gopaludu; Ramu; Bhanumathigaru Mogudu; 1988: Bharatamlo Balachandrudu; Inspector Pratap; Donga Ramudu; Tiraga Bidda Telugu Bidda; Ramudu Bheemudu; Rakthabhishekham; 1989: Bhale Donga; Ashoka Chakravarthi; Bala Gopaludu; Muddula Mamaiah; Nari Nari Naduma Murari; 1990: Prananiki Pranam; Muddula Menaludu; 1991: Brahmarishi Vishwamitra; Aditya 369; Talli Tandrulu; 1992: Rowdy Inspector; Dharmakshetram; Ashwamedham; 1993: Nippuravva; Bangaru Bullodu; 1994: Bhairava Dweepam; Gandeevam; Bobbili Simham; Top Hero; 1995: Matho Pettukokku.

Balkrishna, T. N. (1913-1995) Phenomenally successful Kannada comedian. Born in Arasikere, Karnataka. Was sold as a child to adoptive parents to pay his father’s medical bills. Lost his hearing as a youth and dropped out of school. Acted in the play Shri Rama Paduka Pattabhishekha (1929); then apprenticed to painter of stage backdrops and later a professional sign painter. Returned to the stage as an actor in Harmonium Master

Bannerjee, Bhanu

Giri Gowda’s group, the Lakshmasani Nataka company, and in Neelkantappa’s Gowrishankar Nataka Mandali before joining Gubbi Veeranna’s theatre company. His presence was almost mandatory in Kannada films from the early 40s where, adapting the folk form Yakshagana, he formed a bumbling comedy duo with his constant sidekick Narasimhraju. Redefined the tone of ‘comedy relief’ by adding his own brand of ineffectual villainy. Also wrote some plays and scripts; started the Abhimana Studio in Bangalore (1968). Also starred in some Tamil films but did not succeed because of his difficulty with the language. FILMOGRAPHY: 1943: Radha Ramana; 1952: Dallali; 1954: Devasundari; Kanyadana; Muttidella Chinna; 1955: Ashadabhooti; Bhakta Mallikarjuna; 1956: Daiva Sankalpa; Muttaide Bhagya; Pancharathna; Sadarame; 1957: Mahiravana; Ratnagiri Rahasya; Shukradeshe; Chintamani; 1958: Anna Thangi; Mane Thumbida Hennu; Mangalya Yoga; School Master; 1959: Mangalsutra; Jagajyothi Basaveshwara; 1960: Shivalinga Sakshi; Ranadheera Kanteerava; Rani Honamma; 1961: Intiki Deepam Illale; Kaivara Mahatme; Kantheredu Nodu; Kittur Chanamma; Raja Satya Vrata; Shrishaila Mahatme; 1962: Bhoodana; Daiveleele; Tejaswini; 1963: Kanya Ratna; Mana Mechhida Madadi; Sant Tukaram; 1964: Chandavalliya Tota; Muriyada Mane; Mane Aliya; Nandi; 1965: Mahasati Ansuya; Satya Harishchandra; 1966: Mohini Bhasmasura; 1967: Bellimoda; Chakra Teertha; Immadi Pulakesi; 1968: Arunodaya; Gandhinagara; Manku Dinne; Bhagya Devathe; Mysore Tonga; Bhagyada Bagilu; Rowdy Ranganna; Attegondukala Sosegondukala; Hoovu Mullu; 1969: Margadarshi; Gandondu Hennaru; Mallammanna Pavada; Kappu Bilapu; Shiva Bhakta; Bhagirathi; Madhuve Madhuve Madhuve; Punarjanma; Kalpa Vruksha; Uyyale; Chikamma; Manashanti; 1970: Bhale Kiladi; Anirikshita; Aparajithe; Mrityu Panjaradalli Goodachari 555; Muru Muttugalu; Bhale Jodi; Sedige Sedu; Nanna Thamma; Sukha Samsara; 1971: Signalman Siddappa; Hoo Bisilu; Kulagaurava; Namma Samsara; Amara Bharathi; Jatakarathna Gunda Joisa; Anugraha; Namma Baduku; Bhale Adrushtavo Adrushta; Pratidhwani; Sakshatkara; Mahadimane; Sothu Geddavalu; 1972: Bangarada Manushya; Nanda Gokula; Mareyada Deepavali; 1973: Devaru Kotta Thangi; Sahadharmini; Swayamvara; Bharathada Rathna; Cowboy Kulla; Seetheyalla Savithri; Doorada Betta; Jaya Vijaya; Mane Belagida Sose; Gandhadagudi; Bangarada Panjara; Mannina Magalu; Bettada Bhairava; 1974: Gruhini; Urvashi; Nanu Baalabeku; Boothayyana Maga Ayyu; Eradu Kanasu; Sampathige Saval; Bhakta Kumbhara; Professor Huchuraya; Anna Attige; Mahadeshwala Poojaphala; Namma Ura Devaru; 1975: Jagruthi; Nanjuda Nakkaga; Kasturi Vijaya; Mane Belaku; Koodi Balona; Kaveri; Viplava Vanithe; Onderupa Eradu Guna; Hennu Samsarada Kannu; Trimurthi; Devaru Kotta Vara; Hosilu Mettida Hennu; Hoysala; Bangalore Bhootha; 1976: Premada

Kanike; Punaradatta; Bahadur Gandu; Mugiyada Kathe; Chiranjeevi; Raja Nanna Raja; Bayalu Dari; Na Ninna Mareyalare; Badavara Bandhu; Sutrada Bombe; Aparadhi; Devara Duddu; 1977: Deepa; Bayasade Banda Bhagya; Bhagyavantharu; Lakshmi Nivasa; Pavanaganga; Manasinante Mangalya; Srimanthana Magalu; Sanadhi Appanna; Sahodarara Saval; Olavu Gelavu; Galate Samsara; Ganda Hendthi; 1978: Halli Haidha; Shankar Guru; Vamsa Jyothi; Matu Tappada Maga; Sneha Sedu; Balu Aparupa Nam Jodi; Thayige Takka Maga; Jagan Mohini; 1979: Balina Guri; Na Ninna Bidalare; Asadhya Aliya; Na Niruvude Ninagangi; Huliya Halina Mevu; Nentaro Gantu Kallaro; Preeti Madu Tamashe Nodu; 1980: Kulla Kulli; Auto Raja; Vajrada Jalapata; Mugana Sedu; Swamiji; Ondu Hennu Aaru Kannu; Biligiriya Bandalalli; Mayeya Musuku; Pattanakke Banda Patniyaru; Anveshane; Mithuna; Nadurathri; Triloka Sundari; 1981: Tirada Bayake; Thayiya Madilalli; Anupama; Nee Nanna Gellalare; Bhagyavantha; Number Aidu Uyekka; Chadurida Chitragalu; Guru Shishyaru; Lakshmi Prasanna;1982: Gunanodi Hennu Kodu; Mullina Gulabi; Praya Praya Praya; 1983: Devara Tirpu; Kavirathna Kalidas; Benkiya Bale; Kamana Billu; Premave Balina Belaku; 1984: Gajendra; Kaliyuga; Makkaliravva Mane Thumba; Ahuti; 1985: Thayi Kanasu; Bettada Hoovu; Dhruva Tare; Bhagyada Lakshmi Baramma; Hosa Baalu; Lancha Lancha Lancha; Netra Pallavi; Savira Sullu; Shabash Vikrama; Tulasi Dala; 1986: Hennina Koogu; Henne Ninagenu Bandhana; Brahmastra; Satya Jyothi; Bete; Aparoopada Kathe; 1987: Oluvina Udugore; Shruti Seridaga; Athiratha Maharatha; Thayikotta Thali; 1988: Oorigittakolli; Dada; Ondu Muthina Kathe; Devatha Manushya; 1989: Indrajit; Kalabhimani; Yuddhakanda; Hridaya Geethe; Avatara Purusha; Rudra; Samsara Nauka; Deva; 1990: Tiger Gangu; Ashwamedha; Love Letter; Udbhava; Chakravarthi; Haliya Surasuraru; Prema Taranga; 1991: Garuda Dhwaja; Kalyana Mantapa; Puksatte Ganda Hotte Thumba Unda; 1992: Halli Mestru; 1994: Odahuttidavaru; Love 94; Poornasatya; Hethakaralu. Baloch, Mohammed see Kumar, Mehul

Bannerjee, Bhanu (1920-83) Bengali comedian, born in Dhaka (now Bangladesh). Political activist associated with the terrorist group Anushilan in the Dhaka Dist., and after the Quit India movement with the Revolutionary Socialist Party. Later founded the Kranti Shilpi Sangha with writer (later filmmaker) Salil Sen, staging the latter’s landmark play Natun Yahudi (1951, filmed 1953) about East Bengal refugees for fund-raising and propaganda on their behalf in Calcutta. Briefly a government employee and then a film extra (Jagran). Broke through playing the voluble East Bengali businessman in Nirmal Dey’s Basu Parivar, developing his trade mark: an idiosyncratic use of East Bengali dialect. One of Bengali film’s most prolific comic actors, often

partnering Jahar Roy. The duo were sometimes billed in the titles themselves (e.g. Bhanu Pelo Lottery, Bhanu Goenda Jahar Assistant). Continued as stage actor, e.g. Adarsha Hindu Hotel (1953) and esp. in Star Theatre productions (e.g. Shamoli, Tapasi, Parineeta, Dak Bungalow). Directed the play Jai Mahakali Boarding (1979). Associated with folk Jatra companies Sushil Natya and Mukta Mancha. FILMOGRAPHY: 1947: Jagran; 1949: Ja Hoy Na; 1950: Mandanda; Tathapi; 1951: Sey Nilo Bidaya; Anuraag; Setu; 1952: Chitta Banhiman; Basu Parivar; Pasher Bari; 1953: Sharey Chuattar; Boudir Bone; Kajari; Natun Yahudi; Keranir Jiban; Sabuj Pahar; Harilakshmi; Bana Hansi; Sosur Bari; Rami Chandidas; Lakh Taka; Bastab; Bou Thakuranir Haat; Adrishya Manush; 1954: Atom Bomb; Moner Mayur; Ora Thake Odhare; Satir Dehatyaag; Vikram Urvashi; Kalyani; Ladies’ Seat; Jagrihi; Mani-AarManik; Sadanander Mela; Barbela; Chheley Kaar; Nilshari; Bhanga-Gara; Balay Gras; 1955: Bratacharini; Bandish; Nishiddha Phal; Sanjher Pradeep; Chatujye-Banrujye; Rani Rashmoni; Sajghar; Chhoto Bou; Aparadhi; Durlav Janma; Bir Hambir; Jyotishi; Joymakali Boarding; Dashyumohan; Bhalobasha; Ardhangini; 1956: Mahanisha; Tonsil; Shubharatri; Savdhan; Ekti Raat; Asamapta; Mamlar Phal; Manraksha; Rajpath; Suryamukhi; Govindadas; Maa; Daner Maryada; Taka-Ana-Pai; Amar Bou; 1957: Louha-Kapat; Andhare Alo; Natun Prabhat; Kancha-Mithey; Basanta Bahar; Ogo Sunchho; Jiban Trishna; Ek Gaon Ki Kahani; 1958: Yamalaya Jibanta Manush; Manmoyee Girls’ School; Nupur; Bhanu Pelo Lottery; Kalamati; Swarga Martya; Daktar Babu; Surya Toran; 1959: Nauka Bilash; Pushpadhanu; Bhranti; Chhabi; Nirdharita Silpir Anupastithi Tey; Sonar Harin; Mriter Martye Agaman; Personal Assistant; 1960: Sakher Chor; Hospital; 1961: Swayambara; Raibahadur; Mr & Mrs Choudhury; Bishkanya; Kanchanamulya; Kathin Maya; Kanamachi; 1962: Atal Jaler Ahwan; Bodhu; Mayar Sansar; Abhisarika; Dada Thakur; 1963: Dui Bari; Barnachora; Sat Bhai; High Heel; Bhranti Bilas; Dui Nari; Akash Pradeep; Hashi Sudhu Hashi Noy; Shreyasi; 1964: Jiban Kahini; Deep Nebhey Noy; Binsati Janani; 1965: Dolna; Alor Pipasa; Mahalagna; Ek Tuku Basa; Raj Kanya; Pati Sansodhini Samiti; Devatar Deep; Abhoya-oSrikanta; Gulmohar; Mukhujey Paribar; Tapasi; Kal Tumi Aleya; 1966: Galpa Holeo Satti; Mayabini Lane; Shesh Tin Din; 1967: Ashite Ashio Na; Hathat Dekha; Kheya; Miss Priyambada; 1968: Apanjan; Baghini; Chowringhee; Garh Nasimpur; Pathe Holo Dekha; Rakta Rekha; 1969: Shuk Sari; Dadu; Maa-o-Meye; Sabarmati; 1970: Pratham Kadam Phool; Aleyar Alo; Sagina Mahato; Rajkumari; 1971: Bhanu Goenda Jahar Assistant; Ekhane Pinjar; Malyadaan; Maha Biplabi Aurobindo; Pratham Basanta; 1972: Stree; 1973: Bindur Chheley; Nishi Kanya; Roudra Chhaya; 1974: Sangini; Swikarokti; 1975: Harmonium; Nishi Mrigaya; Priya Bandhabi; Swayamsiddha; 1976: Nidhi Ram Sardar; Nandita; Asadharan; Ek Je Chhilo Desh; 1977: Abirvab; Ramer Sumati; 1979: 53

Bannerjee, Durgadas

Devdas; Shahar Theke Dooray; 1980: Bancharamer Bagan; Bhagya Chakra; Darpachurna; Priyatama; Pipasa; Sondhi; Matribhakta Ramprasad; 1981: Pratishodh; Father; Kapal Kundala; Subarnalata; 1982: Raj Bodhu; Amrita Kumbher Sandhaney; Matir Swarga; Prafulla; Bijoyini; Preyasi; 1984: Shorgol; Achena Mukh; 1986: Jiban; 1987: Nadiya Nagar; 1993: Amar Kahini.

Bannerjee, Durgadas (1893-1943) Major Bengali actor in Calcutta Theatres. Born in Kalikapur, 24 Parganas District. Introduced to film by Sisir Bhaduri (Taj Mahal Film) in 1922. From his first major film, Maanbhanjan, until late 30s he was the definitive Bengali screen hero at Madan in Jyotish Bannerjee’s literary films, at Arya Films, at Indian Kinema and at New Theatres, where he played the lead in Debaki Bose’s epoch-making Chandidas and the king in Bidyapati. His oft-mentioned aristocratic lineage - he was born in a zamindar (landlord) family - is said to be the key to his image of dignified, heroic reserve which massively influenced the next generation of Bengali actors (cf. Chhabi Biswas). Remained major theatre star at the Star, Manmohan, Minerva and Rangmahal companies and in plays like Karnarjun (the landmark 1923 Art Theatre production of this play introduced him to the stage, and he later tackled the tough double role of both Karna and Arjun), Iraner Rani, Rishir Meye, Chirakumar Sabha. Many of these plays, later adapted to film, used performative idioms partly derived from his acting style. FILMOGRAPHY: 1923: Maanbhanjan; 1924: Chandranath; Mishar Rani; 1925: Jaler Meye; Premanjali; 1926: Dharmapatni; Krishnakanter Will; 1927: Durgesh Nandini; 1928: Bishabriksha; Sarala; Sasthi Ki Shanti; 1929: Kapal Kundala; Rajani; Indira; 1930: Radha Rani; Buker Bojha; Kanthahaar (all St.); 1931: Dena Paona; 1932: Bhagya Lakshmi (St); Punarjanma; Chirakumar Sabha; Chandidas; 1933: Kapal Kundala; Meerabai; 1934: Mahua; 1935: Bhagya Chakra; Karodpati; 1936: Paraparey; 1937: Didi; Bidyapati; 1938: Desher Mati; 1939: Parasmani; 1940: Thikadar; 1941: Avatar; 1943: Priya Bandhabi.

Bannerjee, Jyotish (b. 1887) Bengali and Hindi director born in Bihar. Started as a typist at Madan Theatres; later became the studio’s main film-maker in silent era. Part of film-making team with Priyanath Ganguly, Jyotish Mukherjee, Amar Choudhury, B.J. Rajhans, Abdur Rehman Kabuli (later star of Indrasabha, 1932) and cameramen Jyotish Sarkar and T. Marconi. Initially worked with Eugenio De Liguoro (Dhruva Charitra, Nala Damayanti, both 1921; Ramayan, 1922) and C. Legrand (Vishnu Avatar, 1921). Early films were mainly adaptations of stage spectaculars from the Elphinstone and Corinthian companies. His late 20s silents adapted several novels of Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay owned by Madan Theatres. Also filmed plays 54

by Girish Ghosh and Rabindra Mohan Moitra and a novel by Romesh Chandra Dutt (Madhabi Kankan). These were early examples of the Bengali literary film genre later incarnated into a formula by New Theatres. Went on to make one of the most successful stage adaptations in the Bengali cinema, Manmoyee Girls’ School. Worked at Madan until 1933, then freelanced, notably at Radha Films, at Madan’s successors Bharatlaxmi Pics and at the Indrapuri Studio. FILMOGRAPHY (* uncertain attribution): 1922: Matri Sneh*; 1924: Mishar Rani; Veer Bharat; 1925: Premanjali; Sati Lakshmi; Jaler Meye; 1926: Dharmapatni; Joydev; Prafulla; 1927: Chandidas; 1928: Bhranti; Sasthi Ki Shanti; Bishabriksha; 1929: Indira; Rajani; 1930: Radha Rani; Rajsingha; Jugalangriya; Manik Jorh; Bharat Ramani; Mrinalini; Madhabi Kankan; 1931: Keranir Mas Kabar; Bibaha Bibhrat (all St.); Jore Barat; Rishir Prem; 1932: Vishnu Maya; Krishnakanter Will; Aankh Ka Tara; 1933: Dhruva Charitra; Dhruva; Joydev; 1934: Daksha Yagna; Nagan; 1935: Manmoyee Girls’ School; Kanthahaar; 1936: Ahalya; Rajani; 1937: Ranga Bou; 1938: Bekar Nashan; Rupor Jhumko; Khana; Ekalavya; 1939: Nara Narayan; Rukmini; 1941: Karnarjun; Shakuntala; Shri Radha; 1942: Bhishma; Milan; 1943: Devar; 1945: Kalankini; 1946: Prem Ki Duniya; 1948: Banchita; Kalo Ghora; 1949: Robin Master; 1950: Sheshbesh.

Bannerjee, Kali (1921-93) Bengali actor born in Calcutta. Professional stage actor from 1945 playing e.g. in Mahendra Gupta’s Satabarsha Agey and Tipu Sultan. Joined IPTA in the late 40s, acting in Tagore’s Bisarjan, staged as a riposte to the extreme Left attacks on the author. Returned to the commercial Calcutta Theatres with Adarsha Hindu Hotel (1953). Early and still bestknown film roles in Ghatak’s Nagarik and Ajantrik. Also played the Chinese trader in Mrinal Sen’s Neel Akasher Neechey. Worked extensively with Satyajit Ray (Parash Pathar, Teen Kanya), Tapan Sinha (Louha-Kapat, Hansuli Banker Upakatha, Arohi, Harmonium), Dinen Gupta and Tarun Majumdar. Made a mainstream comeback as an aged eccentric in Anjan Choudhury’s Guru Dakshina. FILMOGRAPHY: 1947: Burmar Pathey; 1951: Barjatri; 1952: Nagarik; 1955: Rickshawala; Devimalini; Sabar Uparey; Kalindi; 1956: Aparajito; Tonsil; Shilpi; 1957: Surer Parashey; Ogo Sunchho; Ami-BaroHabo; Louha-Kapat; Parash Pathar; Ajantrik; 1958: Dak Harkara; Nagini Kanyar Kahini; Surya Toran; Rajdhani Theke; Neel Akasher Neechey; 1959: Janmantar; Bari Theke Paliye; Agnisambhaba; Sonar Harin; 1960: Dui Bechara; Prabesh Nishedh; Khudha; Shesh Paryanta; Natun Fasal; 1961: Teen Kanya; Pankatilak; Punashcha; 1962: Hansuli Banker Upakatha; Shubha Drishti; 1963: Ek Tukro Agun; Akash Pradeep; Tridhara; Badshah; 1964: Saptarshi; Kinu Goyalar Gali; Kanta Taar; Arohi; Dui Parba;

Subah-o-Debatargrash; 1965: Surer Agun; Dinanter Alo; 1966: Joradighir Choudhury Paribar; 1967: Seba; 1968: Boudi; Hansamithun; Jiban Sangeet; Kokhono Megh; Rakta Rekha; 1969: Protidan; 1970: Shasti; Aleyar Alo; Muktisnan; Rupasi; 1971: Attatar Din Pare; Janani; Nimantran; 1972: Andha Atit; Ajker Nayak; Bighalita Karuna Janhabi Jamuna; Maa-o-Mati; Bawarchi; Subse Bada Sukh; 1973: Agni Bhramar; Pranta Rekha; 1974: Debi Choudhrani; Sangini; Natun Surya; Swikarokti; Umno-o-Jhumno; 1975: Sansar Simantey; Swayamsiddha; Hansaraj; Harmonium; 1976: Dampati; Sandhya Surya; Yugo Manab Kabir; Ek Je Chhilo Desh; 1977: Ae Prithibi Pantha Niwas; Ek Bindu Sukh; Pratima; Behula Lakhinder; 1978: Joi Ma Tara; 1979: Devdas; Nandan; Nauka Dubi; Sunayani; Ghatkali; 1980: Dadar Kirti; Batasi; Bichar; Shesh Bichar; 1981: Manikchand; Maa Bhawani Maa Amar; Meghmukti; Monchor; Subarna Golak; 1982: Simanta Raag; Preyasi; Matir Swarga; Chhoto Maa; Raj Bodhu; Padachinha; 1983: Agami Kal; Arpita; Indira; Jabanbandi; Nishi Bhor; 1984: Sonar Sansar; Ahuti; Mukta Pran; Dada Moni; 1985: Devika; 1986: Urbashe; Parinati; Bouma; Prem Bandhan; 1987: Guru Dakshina; 1988: Chhoto Bou; Parasmoni; Debibaran; Anjali; 1989: Nayanmoni; Shatarupa; Mangaldip; Kari Diye Kinlam; Sati; Mahajan; Nyaya Chakra; 1990: Byabadhan; Debata; Jiban Sangeet; 1991: Ahankar; Sadharan Meye; Anand; Abhagini; Bidhilipi; 1992: Shaitan; Purshottam; 1993: Shraddhanjali; Arjun; 1994: Ami-o-Maa; Salma Sundari; Sudhu Asha; 1995: Boumoni; Abirbhab; Mejo Bou; Pativrata.

Bannerjee, Kanu (1905-85) Bengali actor born in Jodhpur. Known primarily as the father, Harihar Rai, in Satyajit Ray’s Apu Trilogy. Early work in plays directed by Sisir Bhaduri (Alamgir, 1932; Biraj Bou, 1934). Mainly known as a stage comedian, also celebrated for his ‘realist’ performance, first on stage (1947) then in film, as the hapless Jamal, wrongly accused for stealing a bag of rice during the 1943 famine and tortured by police, in Tulsi Lahiri’s Dukhir Iman. Introduced into films by Phani Majumdar. Early (pre-Ray) film work with writer-film-makers Sailajananda Mukherjee (Shahar Theke Dooray) and Premendra Mitra (Kuasha) (see Kallol Group). FILMOGRAPHY: 1938: Desher Mati; 1940: Doctor; 1941: Epar Opar; Pratishodh; Nandini; 1942: Garmil; Pashan Devata; Avayer Biye; Mahakavi Kalidas; 1943: Sahadharmini; Swamir Ghar; Nilanguriya; Dampati; Shahar Theke Dooray; Jogajoj; 1944: Birinchi Baba; Bideshini; Pratikar; 1945: Nandita; Kato Door; Abhinay Nay; Do Tana; Path Bendhe Dilo; Bhabhi-Kaal; 1946: Natun Bou; Nivedita; Matrihara; Dukhe Jader Jiban Gara; 1947: Ratri; Chorabali; Swapna-o-Sadhana; Abhijog; Dui Bandhu; 1948: Mayer Dak; Sarbahara; Bish Bichar Agey; Priyatama; 1949: Rangamati; Bamuner Meye; Kuasha; Parash Pathar; 1950: Mandanda; Digbhranta; 1951: Aparajito; Pandit Moshai; 1952: Ratrir

Barua, Munin

Tapasya; Prarthana; Siraj-ud-Dowla; 1953: Haranath Pandit; Natun Yahudi; 1954: Moner Mayur; Dukhir Iman; Champadangar Bou; Kalyani; Sadanander Mela; Sati; Bhanga-Gara; Mantra Shakti; 1955: Sanjher Pradeep; Aparadhi; Bir Hambir; Jyotishi; Upahar; Pather Panchali; Bhagwan Shri Shri Ramakrishna; 1956: Govindadas; Daner Maryada; Aparajito; 1957: Punar Milan; 1958: Sadhak Bama Kshyapa; Shri Shri Tarakeshwar; Marmabani; 1959: Abhishap; 1961: Pankatilak; Kathin Maya; Aaj Kal Parshu; Madhureno; 1964: Ketumi; 1967: Mahashweta; 1969: Banajyotsna; 1970: Ae Korechho Bhalo; Diba Ratrir Kabya; 1972: Alo Amar Alo; 1973: Agni Bhramar; Janmabhoomi; 1978: Tushar Tirtha Amarnath; 1980: Shodh; 1981: Pahadi Phool.

Bapaiah, K. Mainstream Telugu and Hindi director. Nephew of T. Prakash Rao. Started as an editor at the Vijaya Studio in the mid-60s; then assistant director and début as solo director in 1970. Moved to low-budget Hindi remakes of Telugu hits, often starring Jeetendra, e.g. Mawaali and Himmat Aur Mehnat. Also directed Mithun Chakraborty in vendetta thrillers such as Ghar Ek Mandir and Waqt Ki Awaaz. FILMOGRAPHY: 1970: Drohi; 1973: Memu Manushulame; 1974: Urvashi; 1975: Soggadu; Vaikunthapali; Eduruleni Manishi; 1977: Dildaar; Charitra Heenulu; Gadusu Pillodu; Indra Dhanushu; 1978: Dil Aur Deewar; Sahasavanthudu; Yuga Purushudu; 1979: Mande Gundelu; 1980: Bandish; Takkar; 1981: Sindoor Bane Jwala; Aggirava; Agni Poolu; Guru Shishyulu; 1982: Kaliyuga Ramudu; Naa Desam; 1983: Mawaali; Mundadugu; 1984: Ghar Ek Mandir; Maqsad; Dandayatra; Intiguttu; 1985: Aaj Ka Daur; Pataal Bhairavi; Chattamtho Poratam; 1986: Aag Aur Shola; Ghar Sansar; Jayam Manade; Muddat; Swarg Se Sundar; 1987: Himmat Aur Mehnat; Maavoori Maagadu; Majaal; Makutamleni Maharaju; Mard Ki Zabaan; 1988: Charnon Ki Saugandh; Sone Pe Suhaaga; Waqt Ki Awaaz; Pyar Ka Mandir; 1989: Sikka; 1990: Pyar Ka Devata; Pyar Ka Karz; Izzatdar; 1991: Pyar Hua Chori Chori; 1992: Parda Hai Parda; Kasak.

Bapu (b. 1933) Telugu cartoonist, designer and director, also worked extensively in Hindi film. Born in Narsapur, West Godavari, AP, as Sattiraju Lakshminarayana. Graduated as a lawyer from Madras University (1955). Collaborated with comic writer Mullapoodi Venkataramana; political cartoonist for Andhra Patrika newspaper (1955) and illustrator. Worked in advertising in the early 60s. Début with Saakshi, a rare instance of late 60s New Indian Cinema aestheticism in Telugu. Occasionally resorted to painterly imagery in his otherwise realist approach (e.g. Muthyala Muggu). Transposed several mythological narratives into contemporary fables

(Manavoori Pandavulu, remade in Hindi as Hum Paanch). Some early work invoked rationalist ideology and Hum Paanch was strongly defended by populist independent Left. Later films are unashamedly revivalist: e.g. Thyagayya, a remake of Nagaiah’s 1946 film. His Hindi films are usually remakes of Telugu ones: Bezubaan is based on S.P. Muthuraman’s Mayangurikal Oru Madhu (1975) but with a modified role for Naseeruddin Shah; Radha Kalyanam is adapted from Bhagyaraj’s Andha 7 Natkal (1981); he remade his adaptation in Hindi as Woh Saat Din. Remade B.R. Chopra’s notorious rape movie, Insaaf Ka Tarazu (1980), as Edi Nyayam Edi Dharmam. FILMOGRAPHY: 1967: Saakshi; 1968: Bangaru Pichika; 1969: Buddhimanthudu; 1970: Inti Gauravam; Balaraju Katha; 1971: Sampoorna Ramayanam; 1973: Andala Ramudu; 1974: Shri Ramanjaneya Yuddham; 1975: Muthyala Muggu; 1976: Seeta Kalyanam; Seeta Swayamvar; Shri Rajeshwari Vilas Coffee Club; Bhakta Kannappa; 1977: Sneham; 1978: Manavoori Pandavulu; Gorantha Deepam; Anokha Shivbhakt; 1979: Thoorpu Velle Railu; Rajadhi Raju; 1980: Kaliyuga Ravana Surudu; Vamsha Vriksham; Hum Paanch; 1981: Bezubaan; Thyagayya; Radha Kalyanam; 1982: Edi Nyayam Edi Dharmam; Neethi Devan Mayangurigal; Pellidu Pillalu; Krishnavataram; 1983: Woh Saat Din; Mantrigari Viyyankudu; 1984: Seetamma Pelli; 1985: Mohabbat; Bullet; Jackie; Pyari Behna; 1986: Mera Dharam; Kalyana Tambulam; 1987: Diljala; 1989: Prem Pratigya; 1990: Pelli Pustakam; 1993: Mr Pellam; Shrinatha Kavi Sarvabhowma; 1994:Pelli Koduku; Parmatma; 1995: Rambantu.

Baran, Timir (1904-87) Aka Timirbaran Bhattacharya. Composer associated with the pioneering use of music for narrative purpose in early sound films. Born to a family of traditional Sanskrit scholars. Became a professional sarod player, studying first under Radhikaprasad Goswami and then, more extensively, with Ustad Allauddin Khan, continuing the latter’s experiments with orchestral arrangements at Maihar when he joined Uday Shankar’s dance troupe (1930), touring in Europe and the USA. Worked with Modhu Bose’s Calcutta Art Players (1934), enhancing Bose’s Orientalist plays with an eclectic amalgam of symphonic structures for Indian instruments (Alibaba, Bidyutparna). Baran extended Bose’s idiom after visits to Java and Bali whence he imported the xylophone. Continued working with Bose in film (Kumkum, Raj Nartaki). Best-known work at the New Theatres, starting with his classic score for Barua’s Devdas. Moved briefly to Bombay (1939) working at Sagar and Wadia Studios. Took a break from films to work e.g. for AIR, creating an orchestral score to accompany Tagore’s Kshudista Pashan, a symphony on non-violence to celebrate India’s first Independence Day (1947), and a 75’ programme on the History of the Earth. Joined the music faculty of Tagore’s Shantiniketan in the 60s.

FILMOGRAPHY: 1935: Devdas; Bijoya; 1936: Pujarin; 1938: Adhikar; 1940: Dharmapatni; Deepak; Lakshmi; Suhaag; Kumkum/Kumkum The Dancer; 1941: Raj Nartaki/Court Dancer; Uttarayan; 1944: Samaj; 1945: Bondita; 1949: Samapti; 1954: Baadbaan; 1955: Amar Saigal; 1959: Bicharak; 1965: Thana Theke Aschhi; 1970: Diba Ratrir Kabya; 1978: Dak Diye Jai.

Barua, Brojen (1925-72) Assamese director, actor, stage director and singer. Former member of the Assamese IPTA. Elder brother of Nip Barua and Ramen Barua. Helped establish an Assamese film industry independent of theatrical techniques. First film Ito Sito Bohuto, was Assam’s first genuine comedy. His other famous film, Dr. Bezbarua, although modelled on Hindi film formulas, was equally influential for successfully manufacturing a hit from purely local technical and performative resources, and for using outdoor locations. Acted in all his films. FILMOGRAPHY: 1963: Ito Sito Bohuto (also act); 1969: Dr. Bezbarua; 1970: Mukuta; 1972: Opaja Sonor Mati; Lolita.

Barua, Jahnu (b. 1952) Assamese director born in Lakowa. Graduated from Guwahati University and the FTII (1974). Joined ISRO; produced more than 100 children’s science programmes for SITE in Ahmedabad (1975-6). Lives and works in Bombay, where he makes advertising and corporate films. Lectured at St Xavier’s Institute of Communications. Films address the contemporary culture and politics of Assam. One of the most technically competent New Indian Cinema film-makers; deploys an almost expressionistic approach to regional reformism. Aparoopa is the first NFDCfinanced Assamese film. Chairman of the Indian Film Directors’ Association (1993). FILMOGRAPHY: 1974: The F Cycle (Sh); Diary of a Racehorse (Doc); 1976: One Hundred and Eighty Days of SITE (Doc); 1982: Aparoopa/Apeksha; 1986: Papori; Ek Kahani (TV); 1987: Halodiya Choraye Baodhan Khaye; 1988: Adhikar (TV); 1989: Banani; 1991: Firingoti; 1994: Hkhgoroloi Bohu Door.

Barua, Munin (b. 1948) Assamese scenarist, musician and film-maker. Introduced as instrumentalist in Nalin Duara’s Mamata (1973) but changed to become a scenarist. His scripts make him one of the main purveyors of middle-budget, deliberately middle-of-the-road and non-sensationalist socials of the 80s. Scripted, in addition to his own films, several productions by Siva Prasad Thakur: Bowari (1982), Ghar Sansar (1983), Son Moina (1984) and Mon Mandir (1985). Also scripted Ae Desh Mor Desh (1986), Biju Phukan’s Bhai Bhai (1988), and Sewali (1989). 55

Barua, Nip

FILMOGRAPHY: 1987: Pratima; Pita Putra; 1991: Pahadi Kanya; 1992:Prabhati Pokhir Gaan.

Barua, Nip (1925-92) Best-known mainstream Assamese film-maker; younger brother of Brojen Barua. Started as cinematographer on Bengali and Assamese films. Directed the first big-budget multi-star Eastmancolor film in the language, Ajali Nabou. Before his flamboyant film career, he was a musician and flautist, a footballer of some repute (playing for the Maharana AC and Assam state) and a cartoonist for the Assam Tribune. Mainly made family socials, often coming close to home-movie levels of intimacy; also made mythologicals (Bhakta Prahlad, Narakasur). Younger brother, Ramen Barua, is a noted composer. FILMOGRAPHY: 1955: Smritir Parash; 1957: Mak Aru Morom; 1958: Ranga Police; Bhakta Prahlad; 1959: Amar Ghar; 1961: Narakasur; 1970: Baruar Sansar; 1973: Sonetara; 1977: Sonmai; 1978: Manima (also act); 1980: Ajali Nabou; 1983: Koka Deuta Nati Aru Hati; 1984: Shakuntala Aru Shankar Joseph Ali; 1985: Dadu Nati-o-Hati; 1986: Antony Mor Naam; 1988: Ae Mor Janame Janame.

Barua, Padum (b. 1924) Assamese director. His only film, Ganga Chiloner Pankhi (1975), took a decade to make. Hiren Gohain, one of the foremost commentators on contemporary Assamese culture, speaks of him as ‘the first man to raise the standard of revolt against both the outworn theatrical mode and the slick Bombay style movie. [H]e is a director who can show us things.’ Was musically inclined since childhood and an articulate cinephile since his student days at Benares Hindu University. Claims to have been influenced by John Ford, P.C. Barua, V. Shantaram and Debaki Bose.

Council. Joined New Theatres (1932-39), freelanced thereafter. His Zindagi was remade in Bengali (1943). Making melancholic love stories set amid a nihilistically portrayed aristocracy, he evolved a unique melodramatic style, drawing from the literary traditions against which Kallol defined itself. The static stories and the mask-like actorial postures are counterpointed by the most mobile subjective camera in the Indian cinema of his time, the visual excess of his sweeping pans announcing the landscapes of later Bengal School painting. Wrote and starred in his productions, but remembered best for his Bengali version of Devdas (Saigal starred in the Hindi one), remade by Bimal Roy in 1955, and for Mukti. Died in Calcutta, leaving his last feature unfinished. FILMOGRAPHY (** also act/* only act): 1931: Aparadhi*; 1932: Bhagya Lakshmi* (all St); Bengal 1983**; 1934: Rooplekha/ Mohabbat Ki Kasauti**; 1935: Abasheshe*; Devdas**; 1936: Grihadah/Manzil**; Maya; 1937: Mukti**; 1938: Adhikar**; 1939: Rajat Jayanti**; 1940: Shapmukti**; Zindagi; 1941: Mayer Pran**; Uttarayan**; 1942: Shesh Uttar/Jawab**; 1943: Chandar Kalanka/Rani**; 1944: Subah Shyam; 1945: Amiri; 1946: Pehchan; 1949: Iran Ki Ek Raat; 1953: Maya Kanan**.

Barua, Ramen (b. 1938) One of Assamese cinema’s main music composers. Started as playback singer to his brother Brojen Barua’s music in his other brother Nip Barua’s Smritir Parash (1955). Turned composer in partnership with Brojen Barua, his own songs in Amar Ghar became major hits. Despite his popular and commercially successful work, he prefers the folk-derived music he composed for Mukuta and the classical compositions of Sonmai, extending his work as composer in the theatre and his experience with the IPTA. Also set some of Jyotiprasad Agarwala’s lyrics to music and re-released a series of Brojen Barua’s old hits.

FILMOGRAPHY: 1959: Amar Ghar; 1969: Dr. Bezbarua; 1970: Mukuta; 1971: Jog Biyog; 1972: Lolita; Hridayar Proyojan; Opaja Sonor Mati; 1973: Sonetara; Uttaran; Parinam; 1975: Toramai; 1977: Sonmai; Moromi; 1978: Moram; Manima; 1979: Ashray; 1980: Ajali Nabou; Raja Harishchandra; 1981: Manashi; Uttar Sunya; 1982: Raja; 1983: Koka Deuta Nati Aru Hati; 1984: Shakuntala Aru Shankar Joseph Ali; 1985: Dada Nati-o-Hati; Deepjyoti; 1986: Antony Mor Naam.

Bedekar, Vishram (b. 1906) Marathi and Hindi director, best known as a writer, born in Amravati, Eastern Maharashtra. Started with Sangeet Natak company Balwant Sangeet Mandali as playwright-lyricist. Moved to film-making when the theatre group expanded its box-office draw by producing Krishnarjun Yuddha, starring the group’s writer-actor Chintamanrao Kolhatkar. Unlike other films produced by Sangeet Natak companies (e.g. Lalitkaladarsh), the film succeeded commercially and he co-directed three more with the group’s owner-producer Vamanrao N. Bhatt. Scripted the mythological Pundalik (1936) and, according to his autobiography, co-d the film with V.N. Bhatt. Briefly studied film-making in the UK (1938); published his first novel, Ranangan (1938), on his return. Joined Prabhat briefly to write Shantaram’s Shejari/Padosi (1941), returning to the studio to script Ramshastri (1944, a re-edited version of which, credited to him, was later released as a children’s film entitled Ramshastri Ka Nyay) and to direct Guru Dutt’s début, Lakhrani. Made classic melodramas for Baburao Pendharkar’s New Huns, Baburao Pai’s Famous Pics and Minerva Movietone. Wrote Shantaram’s Amar Bhoopali (1951). Directed some of the Ramsay Brothers’ early productions (Rustom Sohrab, Ek Nannhi Munni Ladki Thi). Works in modernist frame defined by K. Narayan Kale’s generation and G.B. Shaw; most of his literary and filmic work recasts stereotypes of pre-WW1 Marathi social reform novels into the declamatory style of prose

Barua, Pramathesh Chandra (1903-51) Major, still undervalued Bengali-Hindi director of Assamese origin, and one of the first major movie stars in India. Born into aristocratic family as the big game-hunting son of the Maharajah of Gauripur. Promising amateur sportsman and art-lover. Graduated from élite Presidency College, Calcutta (1924). Visited Europe and saw films (esp. René Clair and Lubitsch). Entered film as actor in silents; shareholder in Dhiren Ganguly’s British Dominion Films (1928). Spent a few months at Elstree to learn film-making and started Barua Pics in Calcutta (1929), producing e.g. Debaki Bose’s Aparadhi (1931) and Nishir Dak (1932). Joined Chittaranjan Das’ Swarajya Party (1928) which represented Hindu zamindar interests after the Hindu-Muslim riots of 1926. Prominent member of Assam Legislative Assembly (1928-36) when his Party piloted the anti-tenant and anti-Muslim Tenancy Act (1928) through Bengal Legislative 56

P. C. Barua (left), Bhanu Bannerjee (centre) and Pahadi Sanyal (right) in Rajat Jayanti (1939)

Benegal, Shyam

melodrama with increasingly complex storylines. As playwright, works include Brahmakumari, Vaje Paool Apule and Tilak Ani Agarkar (1980). Also scripted his films. Published autobiography, Ek Jhaad Ani Don Pakshi (1985).

and Raj Kapoor’s Ab Dilli Door Nahin (1957). Briefly director of the radio station Jammu and Kashmir Broadcasting Service. Directorial début in 1970 in the context of New Indian Cinema. His son, Narendra Bedi, had débuted as a director one year earlier.

FILMOGRAPHY: 1934: Krishnarjun Yuddha; 1935: Satteche Prayog; Thakicha Lagna; 1936: Pundalik; Andheri Duniya; 1938: Lakshmiche Khel; 1942: Pahila Palna; 1943: Paisa Bolto Aahe/Nagad Narayan; 1945: Lakhrani; 1947: Chul Ani Mul; 1948: Mera Munna; 1950: Krantiveer Vasudev Balwant; 1951: Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak (Doc); Bhola Shankar; 1956: Ramshastri Ka Nyay; 1957: Talash; 1961: Do Bhai; 1963: Vinobha Bhave: The Man (Doc); Rustom Sohrab; 1964: All God’s Children (Doc); 1968: At the Service of Small Industries (Doc); 1970: Ek Nannhi Munni Ladki Thi; 1971: Jai Jawan Jai Makan; 1972: Bharat Ke Shaheed.

FILMOGRAPHY: 1970: Dastak; 1973: Phagun; 1978: Aankhin Dekhi; Nawab Sahib.

Bedi, Narendra (1937-82) Hindi director born in Bombay; son of Rajinder Singh Bedi. Arts degree from Bombay University and joined film industry as part of G.P. Sippy’s production team. Début film, produced by Sippy, is a Rajesh Khanna classic renovating the ruralist melodrama (cf. Bangarada Manushya, 1972). His second film, Jawani Diwani, a megahit, contained alltime R.D. Burman hits such as Tum kahan. Went on to make teenage musical romances in the 70s. FILMOGRAPHY: 1969: Bandhan; 1972: Jawani Diwani; 1974: Benaam; Khote Sikkay; Dil Diwana; 1975: Raffoo Chakkar; 1976: Adalat; Maha Chor; 1981: Kachche Heere; 1982: Insaan; Sanam Teri Kasam; Taaqat.

Bedi, Rajinder Singh (1915-84) Director born in Sialkot Dist. (now Pakistan). Major short-story writer in Urdu, seen with Krishan Chander and Sadat Hasan Manto as constituting a new radical literary generation in the context of WW2, Independence and Partition, following Premchand, who introduced khari boli style of ‘common man’s prose’ into the courtly idiom prevalent in Urdu literature. Focused on experience of being a cultural and political refugee (e.g. Garam Coat, which he adapted to the screen in 1955) and peasant life (Ek Chadar Maili Si, his novel filmed by Sukhwant Dhadda with a Bedi script in 1986). Opposed notion of creative ‘spontaneity’ asssociated with Krishan Chander and Manto, strongly asserting craftmanship (Bedi, 1989). Stories often overlay the everyday with references to the mythological (e.g. Grahan, 1972). Entered film as scenarist and dialogue writer in late 40s, working with Sohrab Modi (Mirza Ghalib, 1954), Bimal Roy (Devdas, 1955; Madhumati, 1958) and Hrishikesh Mukherjee (Anuradha, 1960; Memdidi, 1961; Anupama, 1966). Prolific scenario and dialogue writer, including Raj Khosla’s Milap (1955) and Bambai Ka Babu (1960), Nitin Bose’s Dooj Ka Chand (1964)

Benegal, Shyam (b. 1934) Hindi director born in Trimulgherry, AP; also worked in Telugu. Made first amateur film aged 12 with father’s camera; nephew of Guru Dutt. Studied economics at Osmania University, Hyderabad; involved in student theatre. Founded Hyderabad Film Society. Moved to Bombay and worked for Lintas advertising agency (1959-63) and for Advertising & Sales Promotion Co. (1963-73). Made more than 900 advertisements and 11 corporate films (195973). Worked as documentarist; taught at the FTII (1969) and at Bhavan College (1966-73). Received Homi Bhabha fellowship (1969-72), allowing a stay in Britain and in the USA where he worked as associate producer for Boston WGBH TV and with the Children’s Television Workshop in New York. First feature, Ankur, with a 10-year-old script and independently financed, uses a quasi-realist style then considered antagonistic to the Hindi film industry. Its commercial success in the wake of Bhuvan Shome (1969) spawned a new sector of film-making later known as ‘middle cinema’ (cf. New Indian Cinema). Early work sited in rural environment (Ankur and Nishant in AP, Manthan in Gujarat), using professional actors but with explicit references to the peasant unrest, initially CPI(ML)-led (see Naxalite) and acquiring a national dimension after the failure of the 1971-2 harvests. This work provided an early aesthetic articulation of what would soon become official government media policy towards the rural areas via the SITE

programme. Later features are closer to the entertainment-led ‘middle cinema’. Made several features (including fiction) on commission for clients, e.g. the National Dairy Development Board in Gujarat (Manthan), the CPI(M)-led Government of West Bengal (Aarohan), the Handloom Co-operatives (Susman), Indian Railways (Yatra), an IndoSoviet government-sponsored featuredocumentary (Nehru) and the 53-episode TV serial based on Nehru’s book, The Discovery of India (Bharat Ek Khoj). Influential presence in national film policy organisations. FILMOGRAPHY: 1962: Gher Betha Ganga (Sh); 1967: A Child of the Streets (Doc); Close to Nature (Doc); 1968: Indian Youth: An Exploration (Doc); Sinhasta: Path to Immortality (Doc); Poovanam (Sh); 1969: Flower Garden (Sh); 1970: Quest for a Nation (Doc); Why Export? (Doc); 1971: Pulsating Giant (Doc); Steel: A Whole New Way of Life (Doc); 1972: Tala and Rhythm (Doc); Sruti and Graces in Indian Music (Doc); Raga and Melody (Doc); Notes on the Green Revolution (Doc); Foundations of Progress (Doc); Power to the People (Doc); 1973: Ankur; Suhani Sadak (Doc); 1974: Violence: What Price? Who Pays? (No. 5) (Doc); You Can Prevent Burns (Doc); 1975: Charandas Chor; Nishant; Epilepsy (Doc); Hero (Sh); The Quiet Revolution Pt 1 (Doc); 1976: Manthan; Tomorrow Begins Today (Doc); Bhumika; 1977: Kondura/ Anugraham; 1978: Junoon; 1979: The Quiet Revolution Pt 2 (Doc); Reaching Out to People (Doc); Pashu Palan (Doc); 1980: Kalyug; 1981: New Horizons in Steel (Doc); 1982: Aarohan; Growth for a Golden Future (Doc); 1983: Mandi; Sangathan (Doc); Vardan (Doc); Animal Reproduction and Artificial Insemination in Bovines (Doc); Tata Steel: Seventy Five Years of the Indian Steel Industry (Doc); Nehru (Doc); 1984: Satyajit Ray (Doc); 1985: Trikaal; Festival of India (Doc); 1986: Susman; Yatra (TV); Katha Sagar (TV); 1988:

Shyam Benegal 57

Betaab, Narayan Prasad

Bharat Ek Khoj (TV); 1990: Nature Symphony (Doc); Abode of Kings: Rajasthan (Doc); A Quilt of Many Cultures: South India (Doc); 1992: Antarnaad; Suraj Ka Satwan Ghoda; 1994: Mammo.

Betaab, Narayan Prasad (1872-1945) Playwright for Parsee theatre and scenarist mainly for the Ranjit Studio. Early stage successes Meetha Zaher (1905) and Zehari Saap (1906), written originally for the Parsee Natak Mandali, were extensively staged and filmed. Used the mythological genre (e.g. his best-known play, Mahabharata, for the Khatau-Alfred company, 1913) and inaugurated what the critic Agyaat called the Betaab Yug (c.1910-35), consolidating 19th C. efforts to define distinctively Hindi playwrighting practice. Whereas the 19th C. stage mythological mainly adapted familiar musical compositions interspersed with prose commentaries, the improvisational style of a traditional kathakaar, the Betaab style codified a more contemporary genre, determined politically by his explicitly brahminical adherences (underlined by his editorship of the journal Brahma Bhatt Darpan). His example greatly influenced the genre’s cinematic form. Also created Hindi versions of original screenplays by e.g. Chandulal Shah. After working at Ranjit, Betaab wrote scripts for Madan, Ambika, Sharda and Saroj Studios. Definitive biography by Vidyavati Namra (1972). Story, dial and/or lyr credits include Chandulal Shah’s Devi Devayani (1931), Radha Rani, Sati Savitri, Sheilbala (all 1932), Vishwamohini, Miss 1933 (both 1933), Barrister’s Wife, Keemti Aansoo (both 1935) and Pardesi Pankhi (1937); Jayant Desai’s Krishna Sudama (1933), Nadira, Sitamgarh, Veer Babruwahan (all 1934), College Girl, Noor-e-Watan (both 1935), Raj Ramani (1936) and Prithvi Putra (1938); J.J. Madan’s Zehari Saap (1933); Nandlal Jaswantlal’s Pardesi Preetam (1933) and Kashmeera (1934); Raja Sandow’s Raat Ki Rani (1935); Gunjal’s Ambarish (1934); Nanubhai Desai and J.P. Advani’s Shah Behram (1935); R.S. Choudhury’s Kal Ki Baat (1937); Advani’s Sneh Bandhan (1940) and Parashuram by Ramnik Desai (1947).

Bhaduri, Sisir Kumar (1889-1959) Bengali director and actor born in Howrah, Bengal. Legendary figure in early 20th C. Bengali theatre embodying the transition from the 19th C. theatre dominated by Girishchandra Ghosh to a modernist sensibility that later assimilated aspects of Meyerhold, Reinhard and Brecht. Established reputation as actor while still at university, playing role of Kedar in Rabindranath Tagore’s play Boikunter Khata (1912). Lectured in English at Metropolitan Institute (later Bidyasagar College) 1914-21. First professional theatre appearance in title role of the landmark Bengali play, Alamgir, produced by Bengali Theatrical Co. controlled by Madan (1921). Established own theatre company, Natyamandir (1923), with Jogesh 58

Choudhury’s Seeta, a play redefining conventions of the mythological with greater emphasis on dramatically coherent performance idiom, elimination of stage wings and orchestra pit and a new type of background music (by Nripendra Nath Majumdar) in harmony with the songs of K.C. Dey. Best-known productions include reedited ‘traditional’ plays by Girish Ghosh and D.L. Roy, influential stage interpretations of Tagore and, at the Srirangam theatre (1942-56), plays by a new generation of writers like Tulsi Lahiri (Dukhir Iman) and Premankur Atorthy (Takht-e-Taus). Several of Bengal’s best-known actors, writers, musicians and technicians entered film via his theatre company and the Star Theatre. Participant in cultural anti-Fascist front and one of the very few commercial theatre personalities acknowledged by the IPTA as having influenced its own radical practice: his theatre hosted the IPTA’s inaugural production, Nabanna (1943). Entered film as actor-director at Madan Theatres (1921). Founded and briefly ran his own Taj Mahal Studio (1922), returned to Madan and then worked at New Theatres and at Priyanath Ganguly’s Kali Films. Bestknown films (Seeta, Talkie of Talkies and Chanakya) are adaptated from his stage plays. Acted in films he directed as well as in Satish Dasgupta’s Poshya Putra, 1943. FILMOGRAPHY: 1921: Mohini; 1922: Andhare Alo; Kamale Kamini; 1929: Bicharak (all St); 1932: Palli Samaj; 1933: Seeta; 1937: Talkie of Talkies; 1939: Chanakya.

Bhagavathar, C. Honnappa (1914-92) Kannada and Tamil actor and singer born in Choudasandra village, Karnataka. Trained in classical Carnatic music by Shamanna and Sambandhamurthy Bhagavathar. Acted in Company Natak plays in Gubbi Veeranna’s troupe, but his début was in the Tamil cinema, often acting in Modern Theatres films, e.g. T.R. Sundaram’s Burma Rani, Subhadra. Introduced into Kannada via Veeranna productions directed by H.L.N. Simha (Hemareddy Malamma, Gunasagari). Later played in remarkable Saint films (K.R. Seetarama Sastry’s Mahakavi Kalidasa), usually providing his own music. His music, performances and acting remain definitive of the genre in Kannada and Tamil. Also produced films, e.g. Uzhavukkum Thozhilukkum Vandhanai Seivom. FILMOGRAPHY (* also music d): 1941: Subhadra; Krishna Kumar; 1942: Sati Sukanya; 1943: Arundhati; Devakanya; 1944: Burma Rani; Prabhavati; Rajarajeshwari; 1945: Hemareddy Mallamma; Bhakta Kalathi; Subhadra; 1946: Kundalakesi; Shri Murugan; Valmiki; 1948: Bhakta Jana; Gokula Dasi; 1949: Devamanohari; 1953: Gunasagari; 1955: Mahakavi Kalidasa*; 1956: Pancharathna; 1959: Uzhavukkum Thozhilukkum Vandhanai Seivom*; Jagatjyoti Basaveshwara; 1979: Sadananda.

Bhagavathar, M. Krishnamurthy Thyagaraja (1909-59) One of the first major Tamil singing stars, introduced in K. Subramanyam’s mythological Pavalakkodi (as Arjuna). Born into a family of goldsmiths in Tiruchi; joined the theatre as a child in F.G. Natesa Iyer’s troupe and went on to become the biggest Tamil stage star, sporting shoulder-length hair, diamond ear-rings and kohl around his eyes. After a successful film début, became briefly the highest-paid actor in South India, despite appearing in only 11 films, with classic performances in Duncan’s Ambikapathy, Y.V. Rao’s Chintamani and Raja Chandrasekhar’s Ashok Kumar, and the folk legend of the reformed saint Haridas, a major commercial hit. Helped launch the mainstream Newtone Studio (1937). As a musician, he adhered to the Tamizhisai movement, emphasising Tamil traditions as opposed to the Carnatic idiom dominated by Telugu, Kannada and Sanskrit. Arrested with N.S. Krishnan and jailed in 1945 for two years for the infamous Lakshmikantan murder (in which the two stars allegedly had a film gossip columnist, C.N. Lakshmikantan, killed). Made a high-profile comeback with two of his own productions: Chandrasekhar’s Raja Mukthi failed but is remembered as the debut of playback singer M.L. Vasanthakumari. Turned to direction with his last film Pudhu Vazhvu. Biography by Vindhan (1983). FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1934: Pavalakkodi; 1935: Sarangadhara; 1936: Satya Seelan; 1937: Ambikapathy; Chintamani; 1939: Thiruneelakantar; 1941: Ashok Kumar; 1943: Sivakavi; 1944: Haridas; 1948: Raja Mukthi; 1952: Amarakavi; 1957: Pudhu Vazhvu*; 1960:Sivagami.

Bhagwan, Master (b. 1913) Hindi and Marathi actor and director; born Bhagwan Abhaji Palav in Bombay, the son of a mill worker. After devoting himself to bodybuilding, he started in the silent era with his long-term partner, Chandrarao Kadam, in G.P. Pawar-directed stunt movies. Co-directed first feature with Pawar (1938), then producer (1942) with Jagriti Pics and Bhagwan Art Prod.; eventually owner of Jagriti Studios, Chembur (1947). Success of Albela established him briefly as a major post-Independence producer. Starred as a dancer and naive simpleton in many stunt, adventure and comedy movies. Acting style associated mainly with the elaboration of a minimalist dance movement which arguably became a major behavioural influence on Hindi film audiences (e.g. Bachchan’s dances, which today determine how people move on the streets in wedding or religious processions, bear the mark of Bhagwan’s influence). Balraj Sahni wrote that while ‘Raj Kapoor and Dilip Kumar are [m]uch more popular than he is, they do not enjoy the popularity among the poorer classes that Bhagwan Dada does. [The working class] sees in him their own image and what endears

Bhanumathi, Paluvayi

him to them is that he, a fellow member of the proletariat, should make a beauty like Geeta Bali fall in love with him.’ (Sahni, 1979). Since the early 70s, he has been largely relegated to cameo roles and comedy routines. FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1931: Bewafa Ashq; 1933: Daivi Khajina; Pyari Katar; Jalta Jigar; (All St); 1935: Himmat-e-Mard; 1936: Bharat Ka Lal; 1937: Chevrolet 1936; 1938: Bahadur Kisan*(co-d C. Kadam); 1939: Criminal*; Jayakkodi*; 1941: Raja Gopichand*; Vanamohini*; Premabandhan; 1942: Sukhi Jeevan*; 1943: Badla*; 1944: Bahadur*; 1945: Nagma-E-Sahra*; Ji Haan; 1946: Nargis; Dosti*; 1947: Matwale*; Shake Hands*; Bahadur Pratap*; Madadgaar; 1948: Jalan*; Lalach*; Matlabi*; Tumhari Kasam; 1949: Bachke Rehna*; Bhedi Bungla*; Bhole Bhale*; Jigar*; Bhole Piya; Bigde Dil; Jeete Raho; Joker; Khush Raho; Pyar Ki Raat; Roop Lekha; Shaukeen; 1950: Achhaji; Aflatoon; Baksheesh; Dushmani; Jodidar; Babuji*; Jungle Man; Rangile Musafir; 1951: Albela*; Actor; Bade Saheb; Bhola Shankar; Damaad; Gazab; Ram Bharose; 1952: Baghdad; Bhoole Bhatke; Daryai Lutera; Goonj; Sinbad the Sailor; 1953: Char Chand; Rangila*; Jhamela*; Shamsheer; 1954: Halla Gulla*; 1955: Deewar; Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baaje; Oonchi Haveli; Chhabila; Pyara Dushman*; 1956: Badshah Salamat; Char Minar; Chori Chori; Mr Lambu; Sheikh Chilli; Passing Show*; Bhagambhag*; Kar Bhala*; 1957: Adhi Roti; Agra Road; Beti; Coffee House; Garma Garam; Gateway of India; Raja Vikram; Ustad; Uthavala Narad; 1958: Don Ghadicha Dav; Chaalbaaz; Dulhan; Mr Q; Naya Kadam; Son Of Sinbad; Bhala Admi*; Sachche Ka Bol Bala*; 1959: Chalis Din; Chacha Zindabad; Duniya Na Mane; Kangan; Lal Nishan; Madam XYZ; Mohar; O Tera Kya Kehana; 1960: Diler Hasina; Nakhrewali; Rangila Raja; Road No. 303; Zimbo Comes To Town; 1961: Salaam Memsaab; Sapan Suhane; Shola Jo Bhadke*; Lucky Number; Stree; Teen Ustad; Zamana Badal Gaya; 1962: Baghdad Ki Raatein; Madam Zapata; Rocket Girl; Tower House; 1963: Awara Abdulla; Magic Box; Rustom-e-Baghdad; Dekha Pyar Tumhara; 1964: Aandhi Aur Toofan; Magic Carpet; Hukum Ka Ekka; Main Bhi Ladki Hoon; Tarzan and Delilah; 1965: Hum Diwane*; Adventure Of Robin Hood and Bandits; Bekhabar; Flying Man; Khakaan; Sher Dil; Sinbad Alibaba and Alladdin; Tarzan and King Kong; Tarzan Comes To Delhi; Chor Darwaza; 1966: Chale Hain Sasural; Duniya Hai Dilwalon Ki; Labela*; Daku Mangal Singh; Ladka Ladki; Veer Bajrang; 1967: Albela Mastana; Chhaila Babu; Duniya Nachegi; Gunehgaar; Hum Do Daku; Trip To The Moon; Arabian Nights; 1968: Jhuk Gaya Aasmaan; Bai Mothi Bhagyachi; 1969: Goonda; Inteqam; The Killers; Raat Ke Andhere Mein; 1970: Geet; Mangu Dada; Choron Ka Chor; Night in Calcutta; Suhana Safar; Lakshman Resha; 1971: Aag Aur Daag; Guddi; Hangama; Joi Bangla Desh; Mera Gaon Mera Desh; Tere Mere Sapne; 1972: Putli Bai; Aan Baan; Tangewala; Sultana Daku; Gaon Hamara Shaher Tumhara; Do Chor; Raaste Ka Patthar;

1973: Taxi Driver; Chhalia; Barkha Bahar; Banarasi Babu; Chori Chori; Shareef Badmash; Mahasati Savitri; 1974: Badhti Ka Naam Daadhi; Balak Dhruv; Imaan; Tarzan Mera Saathi; Aarop; Badla; Paap Aur Punya; Aparadhi; Dulhan; 1975: Faraar; Jaan Hazir Hai; Kala Sona; Maze Le Lo; Natak; Zindagi Aur Toofan; Daku Aur Bhagwan; Ek Gaon Ki Kahani; Jaggu; Mazaaq; Raffoo Chakkar; Zorro; Bhoola Bhatka; Shantata! Khoon Jhala Aahe; 1976: Naag Champa; Sangram; Alibaba; Toofan Aur Bijli; 1977: Banyabapu; Bhingri; Navara Mazha Brahmachari; Ram Ram Gangaram; Chakkar Pe Chakkar; Jai Vijay; Khel Khiladi Ka; Agent Vinod; Mandir Masjid; Saheb Bahadur; Mukti; 1978: Azad; Darwaza; Kasme Vade; Khoon Ka Badla Khoon; Main Tulsi Tere Aangan Ki; Sampoorna Sant Darshan; Ganga Sagar; Sawan Ke Geet; Bhairu Pahelwan Ki Jai; 1979: Aitya Bilavar Nagoba; Apli Manse; Ahimsa; Do Hawaldar; Gawah; Heera Moti; Naya Bakra; Jaan-eBahar; Raja Harishchandra; 1980: Asha; Karwa Chouth; Mera Salaam; Phatakadi; Hyoch Navara Pahije; Sharan Tula Bhagavanta; Aap To Aise Na The; Badrinath Dham; Bombay 405 Miles; Bulandi; Do Premi; Ganga Aur Suraj; Jyoti Bane Jwala; Khoon Kharaba; Nazrana Pyar Ka; Phir Wohi Raat; Yeh Kaisa Insaaf; Choravar Mor; 1981: Chanwa Ke Take Chakor; Ganga Aur Sarju; Biwi-o-Biwi; Chalti Ka Naam Zindagi; FiftyFifty; Gehra Zakhm; Qatilon Ke Qatil; Kranti; Lubna; Sahas; Ustadi Ustad Se; Do Posti; Shitala Mata; Commander; Chhupa Chhupi; Govinda Ala Re Ala; Laath Marin Tithe Pani; 1982: Honey; Ali Angavar; Preet Na Jaane Reet; 1983: Dard-e-Dil; Bindiya Chamkegi; Aao Pyar Karen; Bekhabar; Jai Baba Amarnath; Kaise Kaise Log; 1984: Bhatke Rahee; Bhool; Love Marriage; Mera Dost Mera Dushman; Meri Kahani; Jhootha Sach; Yaadgaar; Ali Lahar Kela Kahar; Bahurupi; Chorachya Manaat Chandani; Gulchhadi; 1985: Pyari Bhabhi; 1986: Andheri Raat Mein Diya Tere Haath Mein; Bijli; Dhondi Dhondi Pani De; 1987: Bola Dajiba; Chhakke Panje; Prem Karuya Khullam Khulla; Diwana Tere Naam Ka; Tarzan and Cobra; 1988: Halaal Ki Kamai; Khatarnak; 1989: Ilaaka; Ina Mina Dika; Navara Baiko; 1990: Naache Nagin Gali Gali; 1992: Sagale Sarkhech.

Bhagyaraj, Krishnaswamy (b. 1953) Top Tamil director once declared by MGR to be his cinematic heir. Dropped out of colleges in Coimbatore; was a rickshaw puller and a circus clown in Kakinada. In Madras, became assistant to G. Ramakrishna and Bharathirajaa, débuting in the latter’s films as actor (first major role in Puthiya Varpugal) and scenarist (Kizhakke Pokum Rayil, Sigappu Rojakkal, both 1978; Niram Maratha Pookal, 1979; Oru Kaithiyin Diary, 1985) originally starring Kamalahasan. Directorial début with the hit Suvar Illatha Chitrangal established a distinctive style, with the director usually playing the comic underdog in rural dramas, often with a comic sidekick who undermines his pretensions to heroism. Also scored some

of his films. Several were remade in Hindi, often by Bapu: (e.g. Andha 7 Natkal remade as Woh Saat Din, 1983; Thooral Ninnu Pochu as Mohabbat, 1985). Other remakes include Mundhanai Mudichu as K. Raghavendra Rao’s Masterji (1985) and Enga Chinna Raja as Indra Kumar’s 90s hit Beta (1992). Bhagyaraj’s bigbudget Hindi Bachchan film Aakhri Raasta is a remake of Oru Kaithiyin Diary (1984). Made an abortive effort to enter politics (1989). Married Hindi/Tamil actress Poornima Jayaram. Edits and publishes the tabloid journal Bhagya. FILMOGRAPHY (* only act): 1979: Puthiya Varpugal*; Kanni Paruvathinile*; Suvar Illatha Chitrangal; 1980: Bhama Rukmini*; Kumari Pennin Ullathiley*; Oru Kai Osai; 1981: Mouna Geethangal; Indru Poyi Nalai Vaa; Veediyum Varai Kathiru; Andha Ezhu Natkal; 1982: Thooral Ninnu Pochu; Darling Darling Darling; Poyi Satchi; 1983: Mundhanai Mudichu; Thavani Kanavukal; 1984: Oomai Janangal*; Mayadari Mogudu; 1985: Chinna Veedu; Chithirame Chithirame; Aakhri Raasta; Naan Sigappu Manithan*; 1987: Enga Chinna Rasa; 1988: Vaddante Pelli; Idu Namma Alu*; 1989: Araro Ariraro; 1990: Avasara Police 100; Sundara Kandam; 1991: Pavunnu Pavanuthan; Rudra*; 1992: Ammavandachu*; Rasakutty; 1993: Veetile Visheshanga; 1995: Oru Oorile Oru Rajakumari.

Bhanumathi, Paluvayi (b. 1924) Aka Bhanumathi Ramakrishna. Born in Guntur Dist., AP. Actress-director and grande dame of the Telugu and Tamil cinemas. Her now legendary performances at the Vauhini and Gemini Studios were among their earliest post-WW2 bids for All-India Film industrial status. Major singing star of 40s/50s; later studio owner with her husband P.S. Ramakrishna Rao (Bharani Studios, 1947), scenarist, music composer, film-maker and popular author of ‘mother-in-law’ short stories (the Attagari Kathalu series). Film début as teenager in C. Pullaiah’s reformist melodrama Varavikrayam as Kalindi, a daughter who commits suicide because her parents cannot afford her wedding dowry. Her first major success came in the bizarre role of a village girl who grows into a ‘society lady’ in B.N. Reddi’s Swargaseema. Mid-40s Telugu films, in addition to conventional mythologicals by Balaramaiah and Babu (Krishna Prema), often cast her in comedies dealing with anxieties about traditional (sometimes rural) cultures assimilating aspects of Western modernity, a subject central to much popular reform literature: in Y.V. Rao’s Tehsildar she wears high heels and attends a British tea party; Prasad’s ‘feminist’ Grihapravesham opens with her playing badminton and confronting the misogynist hero. This context, and her unique ability to function simultaneously in the reformist-social and the traditional mythological genres, was later used to remarkable effect in Nallathambi, the seminal DMK Film, and in the Gemini trilingual adventure drama, Apoorva Sahodarargal. Her incarnation of ‘tradition’, exemplified and 59

Bharathan, B. G.

stressed by her music, was later put to ideological use in the genre still most closely associated with her: ‘damsel-in-distress’ performances in MGR’s Robin Hood-derived vigilante films (Malaikallan, Alibabavum Narpatha Thirudargalum, Madurai Veeran). Her music drew on C. Ramchandra, Arabian folk (Swargaseema, Laila Majnu) and even Pat Boone, but she is best remembered for her versions of Thyagaraja’s kirtis and Purandaradasa’s bhajans, which led to her being nominated Principal of the Government College of Music in Madras in the mid-80s. Her songs and dances are featured in the compilation film, Chitramala (1985). Wrote her autobiography Naalo Neno (1993). FILMOGRAPHY (* also d/** also music d): 1939: Varavikrayam; 1940: Malathi Madhavam; Dharmapatni; 1941: Bhaktimala; 1943: Garuda Garvabhangam; Krishna Prema; 1944: Tehsildar; 1945: Swargaseema; 1946: Grihapravesham: 1947: Ratnamala; 1948: Rajamukthi; 1949: Laila Majnu; Raksharekha; Ratnakumar; Apoorva Sahodarargal/Nishan; Nallathambi; Devamanohari; 1950: Apoorva Sahodarulu; 1951: Mangala; Malleeswari; 1952: Prema/ Kathal; Rani; 1953: Shamsheer; Chandirani*; 1954: Malaikallan; Aggiramudu; Chakrapani**; Vipranarayana**; 1955: Kalvanin Kadhali; Alibabavum Narpatha Thirudargalum; 1956: Rambayin Kadhali; Sadaram; Thaikku Pinn Tharam; Tenali Ramakrishna/Tenali Raman; Madurai Veeran; Rangoon Radha; Chintamani**; 1957: Ambikapathy; Makkalai Petra Maharasi; Nala Damayanti; Sarangadhara; Rani Lalithangi; Varudukavali/Manamagal Thevai**; 1958: Nadodi Mannan; 1959: Mani Mekalai; Bandaramudu/Adisaya Thirudan; 1960: Raja Bhakti; Raja Desingu; 1961: Batasari/Kanal Neer**; 1962: Annai/ Penchina Prema; 1963: Anuragam; Arivali; Kalai Arasi; Kanchi Thalaivan; 1964: Bobbili Yuddham; Vivahabandham**; 1965: Sarasa BA; Todu Needa; Antastulu; 1966: Palnati Yuddham; 1967: Pattathu Rani; Grihalakshmi*; Punyavati; Nai Roshni; 1970: Kadhal Jyothi; 1971: Mattilo Manikyam; 1972: Anta Mana Manchike*/**; 1973: Vichitra Vivaham*; Kattilla Thottilla; 1974: Tatamma Kala; Mangalya Bhagyam; Ammayi Pelli*; Pathumatha Bandham; Swathi Nakshatram; Thayi Pirandhal; 1975: Pandanti Samsaram; Eduppar Kayi Pillai; Ippadiyum Oru Penn*/ **; 1976: Manamara Vazhthungal; Vanga Sambandhi Vanga*/**; Manavadi Kosam*/**; 1980: Rachayithri*/**; Oke Naati Rathri*/**; 1982: Bhakta Dhruva Markandeya*/**; 1984: Mangammagari Manavudu; 1985: Muddula Manavaralu; 1986: Attagaru Swagatham; 1987: Mandala Dheesudu; 1988: Attagaru Zindabad; 1989: Bammamata Bangaru Pata; 1992: Periamma*/**; Samrat Ashok; Peddarikam; 1993: Asadhyuralu.

Bharathan, B. G. (1946-98) Successful Malayalam and Tamil director and nephew of P.N. Menon. Had a substantial art60

house following in his early career. Born in Vadakkanacheri, Trichur Dist., Kerala. Graduate of Trichur School of Art; professional painter before he joined films as a set designer and publicist. Produced his début feature from his own story, later also composing the lyrics and the music for his own features. His films often draw their iconography from Padmarajan’s writings, depending on few characters, addressing sexuality set in a bleak moral landscape that metes out primal justice (e.g. the snakebite and divine intervention in Rathi Nirvedham). The format was extended into an indigenous version of the western with the big-budget CinemaScope film Thazhvaram, in which a stranger (Mohanlal) appears in the frontier town to settle a long-standing feud. Changed his idiom for his major hit, Thevar Magan, written and produced by Kamalahasan and devoted to the star’s selfimage. FILMOGRAPHY: 1975: Prayanam; 1977: Guruvayoor Kesavan; Aniyara; 1978: Aravam; Rathi Nirvedham; 1979: Thakara; Chamaram; 1980: Lorry; Savithri; 1981: Chatta; Nidra; Palangal; Parvathi; Parankimala; Rani; 1982: Ormakkayi; Marmaram; 1983: Eenum; Sandhya Mayungam Neram; Kattathe Kilikoodu; 1984: Ente Upasana; Ithiri Poove Chuvannapoove; 1985: Kathodu Kathoram; Ozhivukalam; Unjaladum Uravugal; 1986: Chilampu; Pranamam; Nilakurinhi Poothappol; 1987: Oru Minnaminuginte Nurungu Vettam; 1988: Oru Sayahnathinte Swapnam; Vaishali; 1989: Thazhvaram; 1990: Malootty; 1991: Amaran; 1992: Thevar Magan; Avarampu; Vengalam; 1993: Chamayam; Padhayam.

Bharatidasan (1891-1964) Major Tamil poet, playwright and scenarist. Seminal figure in the Tamil nationalist movement, prefiguring the regional political ideology of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (cf. DMK Film). Changed his name in 1908 from Kanaka Subburathnam to Bharatidasan, ‘disciple of Bharati’, in honour of his mentor, the poet Subramanya Bharati. Wrote religious poems and was briefly a follower of Gandhi; later became an atheist under the influence of Periyar E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker and joined the Dravidar Kazhagam. Published his first anthology, Bharatidasan Kavitaikal in 1938 (collected works published in 1977). Mounted several attacks on religious brahminism using a demotic Tamil; militantly affirmed a Tamil identity against Northern hegemony. Film début in P.V. Rao’s Balamani (1937) as dialogue writer-lyricist. His dialogues for Duncan’s Kalamegham (1940) led to a longterm association with Modern Theatres where he wrote e.g. T.R. Sundaram’s Subhadra (1945) and Sulochana (1946), achieving mass popularity with Sundaram’s Apoorva Chintamani (1947), followed by the story/dialogue/lyrics of Duncan’s Ponmudi (1949). Also wrote Sundaram’s Valayapathi (1952). Poems have been used as lyrics in numerous Tamil films, notably P. Neelakantan’s Ore Iravu (1951).

Bharathirajaa (b. 1944) Real name Chinnaswamy. Successful Tamil director and scenarist; also worked extensively in Hindi and Telugu. Born in Allinagaram, Madurai, TN. Joined films having apparently been obsessed with Sivaji Ganesan’s movies during his childhood in a peasant family. Assisted K.S. Sethumadhavan (1968), P. Pullaiah and Puttanna Kanagal (whose influence he acknowledges). Début with Pathinaru Vayathinile, scored by his childhood friend Ilaiyaraja, establishing both composer and lead star Sridevi in the Tamil cinema. It was remade in Hindi as Solva Sawan. Went on to adapt the middle-class melodramas of C.V. Sridhar and K. Balachander into a new genre of the rural ‘realist’ film based on folk ritual (often featuring the local village deity as dramatic pivot, as in Vedham Pudithu), while introducing technocentric fantasy elements. His reliance on emotionally heightened psychodrama, with nature itself or its invocation through ritual playing a crucial part in the narrative, elaborates the Kanagal style, as at the end of Kizhakke Pokum Rayil when, in the nick of time, the hero saves the heroine from being sacrificed to placate the flooding river. This work, notably after the controversial and critically acclaimed Karuthamma (1994), has been recently revalued in the context of the relative absence of a New Indian Cinema in Tamil. Most of his non-Tamil films are remakes of Tamil hits (e.g. Lovers remakes Alaigal Oyvathillai; Savere Wali Gadi remakes Kizhakke Pokum Rayil). Best-known work, Sigappu Rojakkal, is a slasher film directed against women. It was remade with Rajesh Khanna in Hindi as Red Rose and triggered protests from feminists in Bombay and Delhi. Introduced several new actors in Tamil, e.g. Radha, Revathi, Radhika, Rekha, Bhagyaraj and Karthik. FILMOGRAPHY: 1977: Pathinaru Vayathinile; 1978: Kizhakke Pokum Rayil; Sigappu Rojakkal; Solva Sawan; 1979: Puthiya Varpugal; Niram Maratha Pookal/ Niram Maradha Pushpangal; Yar Gulabi; 1980: Red Rose; Kallukkul Eram; Nizhalgal; Kotha Jeevithulu; 1981: Alaigal Oyvathillai; Tik Tik Tik; Seethakoka Chilaka; 1982: Kathal Oviyam; Valibame Vaa; 1983: Mann Vasanai; Lovers; Pudhumai Penn; 1984: Oru Kaithiyin Diary; 1985: Ee Tharam Illalu; Muthal Mariyathai; Savere Wali Gadi; Yuvatharam Pilichindi; 1986: Kadalora Kavathaikal; 1987: Vedham Pudithu; Aradhana; 1988: Jamadagni; Kodiparakkuthu; 1989: En Uyir Thozhan; 1991: Pudhu Nellu Pudhu Nathu; 1992: Nadodi Thendral; Captain Magal; 1993: Kizhakku Seemayile; 1994:Karuthamma; 1995:Pasumponn; Anthimantharai.

Bhasi, Adoor (1929-90) Malayalam cinema’s best-known film star in the 60s and 70s after Prem Nazir. Until 1980, he starred in a third of all films made in Malayalam. Born in Adoor, originally named K. Bhaskaran Nair. A former textile technologist

Bhasi, Adoor

Adoor Bhasi and Manorama in Vidyarthikale Ithile Ithile (1971) and stage performer, he went into films when he moved to Madras and worked briefly as production manager on Tamil films. A renowned comedian, he continued the slapstick style introduced into Malayalam cinema by S.P. Pillai. His first major role was as Anachal Krishna Pillai in P. Bhaskaran’s Adya Kiranangal. Later developed the persona of the wide-eyed, wooden-faced and sometimes unsmiling figure delivering lines in a staccato rhythm, which recalled the literary satires of his father, E.V. Krishna Pillai (1894-1938), especially in Kavya Mela, where he plays a poet directly reminiscent of Krishna Pillai’s Kavitakkesu (1929). His style evoked the major tradition of Malayalam farces pioneered by the plays of C.V. Raman Pillai, later used to parody the romantic poetry of the post-Vallathol era. As such, Bhasi functions as the satirical, even cynical, counter to Prem Nazir’s extension of the romantic tradition as he mouths the lyrics of Vyalar Rama Varma. Bhasi’s best-known performance outside Kerala is in John Abraham’s Cheriyachente Kroora Krithyangal, masterfully cast as the cowering Cherian consumed by guilt. Also remembered for his out-of-character ‘serious’ role as the father in Aravindan’s Uttarayanam, and for his triple role in Padunna Puzha. Also directed four films. Contested the Trivandrum Corp elections as an Independent candidate backed by the Left parties, but lost. FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1961: Mudiyanaya Puthran; Gnana Sundari; 1962: Veluthampi Dalawa; Bhagya Jatakam; Viyarppinte Vila; 1963: Ninamaninja Kalpadukal; Moodupadam; Satyabhama; Chilampoli; Ammeye Kannan; 1964: Devalayam; Thacholi Othenan; Kuttikkuppayam; School Master; Atom Bomb; Oralkoodi Kalanayi; Karutha Kayi; Adya Kiranangal; Bhargavi Nilayam; Bharthavu; Kalanjukuttiya Thangam; Kudumbini; Althara; 1965: Devatha; Shyamalachechi;

Odeyil Ninnu; Kadatthukaran; Porter Kunjali; Inapravugal; Muthalaly; Kalyanaphoto; Ammu; Thankakudam; Kattuthulasi; Mayavi; Jeevitha Yatra; Rajamalli; Kattupookal; Kathiruna Nikkah; Kochumon; Bhoomiyile Malakha; Shakuntala; Pattu Thoovala; Chettathi; Kavya Mela; Murappennu; Thommente Makkal; Sarpakadu; 1966: Kalithozhen; Kusirthikuttan/Anni; Archana; Station Master; Pakal Kinavu; Rowdy; Pinchu Hridayam; Jail; Kootukar; Kalyana Rathriyil; Kayamkulam Kochunni; Tharavatamma; Kanmanikal; Puchakanni; Kallipennu; Kanakachilanka; Karuna; Sthanarthi Saramma; Tilottama; Priyatama; Mayor Nair; Kunjali Marakkar; 1967: Ashwamedham; Ramanan; Sahadharmini; Jeevikan Anuvadhikuka; Irutinte Atmavu; Agniputhri; Kottayam Kola Case; Udyogastha; Postman; Kudumbam; Mainatharuvi Kola Case; Madatharuvi; Aval; Bhagyamudra; Kannatha Veshankal; Anveshichu Kandatiyilla; Chitramela; Nagarame Nandi; Pavapettaval; Pareeksha; Cochin Express; N.G.O.; Kavalam Chundan; Nadan Pennu; Kasavuthattam; Swapnabhoomi; 1968: Thirichadi; Viruthan Sanku; Manaswini; Inspector; Dial 2244; Asuravithu; Vazhipizhacha Santhathi; Karthika; Padunna Puzha; Punnapra Vyalar; Lakshaprabhu; Love in Kerala; Kaliyalla Kalyanam; Yakshi; Thulabharam; Midumidukki; Anju Sundarigal; Aparadhini; Kodungalluramma; Velutha Kathrina; Agni Pareeksha; Kayalkarayil; Bharyamar Sukshikuka; 1969: Vila Kuranja Manushyar; Anashchadanam; Padicha Kallan; Veetu Mrugham; Almaram; Kattukurangu; Mr Kerala; Rahasyam; Susie; Adimagal; Kannur Deluxe; Sandhya; Kadalpalam; Mooladhanam; Jwala; Vilakkapetta Bandhangal; Nadhi; Danger Biscuit; Kootu Kudumbam; Virunnukari; Rest House; 1970: Ambalapravu; Kurukshetram; Moodalamanju; Pearl View;

Saraswathi; Amma Enna Stree; Anatha; Palunku Pathram; Kalpana; Stree; Vazhve Mayam; Cross Belt; Ezhuthatha Katha; Bhikara Nimishankal; Dattuputhran; Rakta Pushpam; Vivaham Swargathil; Othenente Makan; Kuttavali; Vivahitha; Kakathampurati; A Chitrashalabham Paranotte; Priya; Lottery Ticket; Triveni; Tara; Aranazhikaneram; 1971: Abhijathyam; Line Bus; Achante Bharya; Neethi; CID Nazir; Moonnupukkal; Inquilab Zindabad; Marunattil Oru Malayali; Karakanakadal; Ummachu; Vilakku Vangiya Veena; Shiksha; Oru Penninte Katha; Lanka Dahanam; Vidyarthikale Ithile Ithile; Vithukal; 1972: Sambhavami Yuge Yuge; Nadan Premam; Aradi Manninte Janmi; Kandavarundo; Pushpanjali; Devi; Maya; Manthrakodi; Manushya Bandhangal; Aromalunni; Taxi Car; Mayiladum Kunnu; Omana; Kalippava; Ini Oru Janmam Tharu; Chemparathi; Achannum Bappayum; Oru Sundariyude Katha; Miss Mary; Punarjanmam; Maraivil Thiruvu Sukshikuha; Gandharvakshetram; Nrithyasala; Azhimukham; Anveshanam; Snehadeepame Mizhi Thurakku; Brahmachari; Ananthasayanam; Putrakameshti; Shakti; Sathi; Postmane Kananilla; Chhayam; Teerthayatra; Maram; 1973: Police Ariyaruthu; Football Champion; Agnathavasam; Enippadikal; Panchavati; Bhadra Deepam; Thiruvabharanam; Masappadi Mathupilla; Kalachakram; Udayam; Ponnapuram Kotta; Aradhika; Kavitha; Kaliyugam; Chenda; Veendum Prabhatam; Manushya Puthran; Rakkuyil; Thani Niram; Ladies’ Hostel; Darshanam; Achani; Soundarya Pooja; Urvashi Bharathi; Thenaruvi; Pacha Nottukal; Pavangal Pennungal; Nakhangal; Kapalika; Dharma Yuddham; Prethangalude Thazhvara; Chukku; Driksakshi; Sastram Jayichu Manushyan Thottu; Interview; Poyi Mukhangal; Manasu; Thottavadi; Divya Darshanam; Ithu Manushiano?; Checkpost; Thekkan Kattu; Madhavikutty; Padmavyuham; Angathattu; 1974: Manyashri Vishwamithran; Chanchala; Oru Pidi Ari; Pattabhishekham; Shapamoksham; Chandrakantham; Suprabhatam; Nathoon; Panchatanthram; Rahasya Rathri; Durga; Setu Bandhanam; Nellu; Alakal; Poonthenaruvi; Neela Kannukal; Chattakkari; Night Duty; Nagaram Sagaram; Aswathi; College Girl; Swarna Vigraham; Ayalathe Sundari; Kalyana Saugandhikam; Chakravakam; Thacholi Marumagan Chandu; Thumbolarcha; Nadhi Nadanmare Avasiamundu; Raja Hamsam; Sapta Swarangal; Uttarayanam; Bhoomidevi Pushpiniyayi; Arakallan Mukkal Kallan; Chief Guest; Swarna Malsiyam; 1975: Abhimanam; Alibaba and Forty-one Thieves; Aranyakandam; Babu Mon; Boy Friend; Cheenavala; Chumadu Thangi; Chuvanna Sandhyakal; Criminals; Dharmakshetre Kurukshetre; Hello Darling; Kottaram Vilakkanundu; Kuttichathan; Love Marriage; Madhura Pathinezhu; Makkal; Manishada; Mattoru Seeta; Mucheettu Kalikarante Magal; Neela Ponman; Omana Kunju; Padmaragam; Palazhi Madhanam; Pennpada; Picnic; Pravaham; Ragam; Sammanam; Surya 61

Bhasi, Thoppil

Vamsam; Thamarathoni; Thiruvonam; Tourist Bungalow; Ullasa Yathra; Velicham Akale; 1976: Abhinandanam; Ajayanum Vijayanum; Amma; Ammini Ammavan; Amritha Vahini; Anubhavam; Appooppan; Ayalakkari; Chennai Valarthiya Kutty; Chottanikara Amma; Dweep; Kamadhenu; Kanyadanam; Kayamkulam Kochunniyude Maghan; Light House; Manasa Veena; Mallanum Mathevanum; Mohini Attam; Muthu; Nee Ente Lahari; Neelasaree; Nurayum Pathayum; Ozhukkinethire; Panchami; Panchamrutham; Parijatham; Pickpocket; Ponn; Prasadam; Priyamvadha; Pushpa Sarem; Rathriyile Yathrakar; Rajayogam; Seemantha Puthran; Sexilla Stuntilla; Thuruppu Gulam; Vanadevatha; Vazhi Vilakku; Yakshaganam; Yuddha Bhoomi; 1977: Suryakanthi; Acharam Ammini Osaram Omana*; Adyapadam*; Akale Akasam; Akshaya Pathram; Ammayi Amma; Anjali; Aparajitha; Bharya Vijayam; Chakravarthini; Chaturvedam; Gandharvam; Guruvayoor Kesavan; Itha Ivide Vare; Jalatarangam; Kaduvaye Pidicha Kiduva; Kannappanunni; Lakshmi; Madanolsavam; Makam Piranna Manka; Minimol; Mohamum Mukthiyum; Mutthate Mulla; Nalumani Pookkal; Nirai Kudam; Parivarthanam; Rathi Manmathan; Rendu Lokam; Samudram; Satyavan Savithri; Sneham; Sujatha; Sukradasa; Tholkkan Enikku Manassilla; Varadakshina; Veedu Oru Swargam; Vishukkani; 1978: Anappachan; Aarum Anniyaralla; Adimakachavadam; Anubhoothikalude Nimisham; Ashokavanam; Aval Vishwasthayayirunnu; Balapareekshanam; Bharyayum Kamukiyum; Ee Ganam Marakkumo; Itha Oru Manushyan; Jayikkanai Janichavan; Kadathanattu Makam; Kalpa Vruksha; Kanalkkattakal; Kudumbam Namakku Sreekovil; Mannu; Mattoru Karnan; Nakshatrangale Kaval; Nivedyam; Onappudava; Rathi Nirvedham; Raghuvamsam*; Shathru Samharam; Snehathinte Mukhangal; Thampuratti; Vadagaikku Oru Hridayam; Vyamoham; Yagaswam; Theerangal; Bandhanam; 1979: Ward No. 7; Cheriyachente Kroora Krithyangal; Kathirmandapam; Kaumarapayam; Manushiyan; Prabhu; Rathammillatha Manushyan; Thuramukham; Vellayanni Paramu; 1980: Ammayum Makkalum; Anthappuram; Digvijayam; Ithikkara Pakki; Kalika; Karimbana; Meen; Nayattu; Rajanigandhi; 1981: Ilakkangal; Ellam Ninakku Vendi; Kallan Pavithran; Kodumudikal; Munnettam; Pathiya Suryan; Sahasam; Thakilukottampuram; Theekali; 1982: Ganam; Chillu; Chiriyo Chiri; Ente Mohanangal Poovaninju; Enikkum Oru Divasam; Irattimadhuram; Jambulingam; Kattile Pattu; Keni; Koritharicha Naal; Mayilanji; Nagamadhathu Thampuratti; Olangal; Ormakkayi; Oru Kunji Janikkunnu Mathurka Kutumbam; Snehapoorvam Meera; 1983: Mahabali; Adhyathe Anuragam; Adhipathyam; Aroodam; Ashtapadi; Eenum; Ente Katha; Guru Dakshina; Himavahini; Justice Raja; Kuyiline Thedi; Maniyara; Nanayam; Onnu Chirikku; Oomakuyil; Pinninvalu; Sandhyakku Virinja Poovu; Sandhya Vandanam; Yangana Nee 62

Marakkum; 1984: Alkoottathil Thaniye; April 18; Athirathram; Ente Kalithozhen; Etha Ennumuthal; Jeevitham; Koottinilangili; Lakshmana Rekha; Manithali; Muthodu Muthu; Onnanu Nammal; Pavam Poornima; Saundamevide? Bandamevide?; Thathamme Poocha Poocha; Vellom; Vepralam; Vettah; 1985: Anakkorumma; Avidathepole Ivideyum; Eeran Sandhya; Ee Thanalil Ithirineram; Kilippattu; Kochuthemmadi; Madhu Vidhurathri; Manya Mahajangale; Mulamoottil Adima; Nerariyum Nerathu; Orikkal Oridathu; Pachavelicham; Principal Olivil; Yathra; 1986: Vaiki Odunna Varathi; 1987: Sarvakalasala; Manivathoorile Ayiram Sivarathrikal; Purushartham.

Bhasi, Thoppil (1925-92) Malayalam director and prolific scenarist born in Vallikunnam, Alleppey. Often used the pseudonym Soman. Major literary and political figure in the Kerala CPI. Starting out as an activist for the state Congress, he became politicised and joined the CPI after being accused of murder and having to go underground for three years. Became a playwright, later adapting several of his bestknown plays as film scripts: Ramu Kariat’s Mudiyanaya Puthran (1961), A. Vincent’s Ashwamedham (1967) and Thulabharam (1968), P. Bhaskaran’s Mooladhanam (1969), and his own Sarvekkalu. His most famous play, and later his directorial début, Ningalenne Communistaki (You Made Me a Communist, 1952) launched the Kerala Peoples’ Arts Club (see IPTA) and became emblematic of the influential literary socialist-realist tradition in post-Independence Kerala. The leading figure of Kerala’s CPI(M) later described the play’s lead character as the ‘worst and most inane [i]n all of Kerala’s radical theatre’ (E.M.S. Namboodiripad, 1974). Bhasi also wrote many scripts for the Malayalam studio magnate, Kunchako, and for Sethumadhavan, Vincent and Bhaskaran. Was a member of the Travancore-Cochin State Legislature (1954) and, later (1956), of the Kerala State Legislature. His autobiography is one of the more detailed chronicles of the Party’s late 40s movement against the erstwhile Travancore State ruled by Dewan C.P. Ramaswamy Aiyer. His son, Ajayan, made a promising début directing the critically acclaimed Perumthachan (1990). FILMOGRAPHY: 1970: Ningalenne Communistaki; 1971: Sarasayya; 1972: Oru Sundariyude Katha; 1973: Enippadikal; Madhavikutty; 1974: Chakravakam; 1975: Mucheettu Kalikarante Magal; 1976: Sarvekkalu; Ponn; Missi; 1977: Yuddha Kandam; 1978: Ente Neela Akasham; 1979: Mochanam.

Bhaskara Das (1892-1952) aka Madhurakavi Bhaskara Das. Born in Madurai as Vellaisamy Thevar. First Tamil film lyricist, writing the songs for the first Tamil talkie, H.M. Reddy’s Kalidas (1931). Already

known for several records of his lyrics sung by K.B. Sundarambal, M.S. Subbulakshmi, et al. Worked with the stage group Madurai Balaranjani Sangeeta Sabha, producing many successful Company Natak plays. Turned to politics with his Khilafat agitational songs (1919), later writing songs about e.g. the Jallianwala Bagh massacre (1919), many of which were banned by the British government. Wrote musical plays like Usha Parinayam, released as 78rpm disc sets by the Broadcast Gramophone Co. Wrote film songs, many addressing reformist themes like temperance and child marriage, for P.V. Rao’s Prahlada and Valli Thirumanam (both 1933), Raja Chandrasekhar’s Raja Desingu (1936) and A. Narayanan’s Rajasekharan (1937).

Bhaskaran, P. (b. 1924) Malayalam director, songwriter and poet. Born in Kodungallour, Kerala. Débuted with Kariat (Neelakuyil). Associated with 40s/50s cultural movements affiliated to the CPI in Kerala. Newspaper journalist for Deshabhimani and Jayakeralam. Producer at AIR in Calicut (1959) and briefly editor of Kottayam-based weekly, Deepika. Best known as a poet (c.20 books) and songwriter (more than 3000 lyrics in Malayalam) with strong roots in a 30s/40s literary tradition of romantic pastoralism exemplified by major 30s poet Changampuzha. First film as lyricist: Chandrika (1950). Acted in his first feature, co-d with Ramu Kariat. Early films attempted a hard-hitting realism but later work was mainly love stories and melodramas with social concerns. Made some revivalist mythologicals in the 70s (e.g. Srimadh Bhagavad Geeta and the Saint film, Jagadguru Adi Shankaran). Also made shorts, e.g. Nattarangu. Acted in and provided lyrics for Manoratham (1978). Currently associated with ASIANET, a privately owned satellite channel in Malayalam. FILMOGRAPHY: 1954: Neelakuyil; 1956: Rarichan Enna Pauran; 1958: Nair Pidicha Pulivalu; 1962: Laila Majnu; Bhagya Jatakam; 1963: Ammeye Kannan; 1964: Adya Kiranangal; 1965: Shyamalachechi; 1966: Tharavatamma; 1967: Irutinte Atmavu; Balyakalasakhi; Anveshichu Kandatiyilla; Pareeksha; 1968: Manaswini; Lakshaprabhu; Aparadhini; Kattukurangu; 1969: Mooladhanam; Kalli Chelamma; 1970: Kurukshetram; Stree; Ambalapravu; Thurakatha Vathil; Kakathampurati; 1971: Moonnupukkal; Navavadhu; Vithukal; Muthassi; Ummachu; Vilakku Vangiya Veena; 1972: Aradi Manninte Janmi; Snehadeepame Mizhi Thurakku; 1973: Udayam; Veendum Prabhatam; Rakkuyil; 1974: Oru Pidi Ari; Arakallan Mukkal Kallan; Thacholi Marumagan Chandu; 1975: Chumadu Thangi; Mattoru Seeta; 1976: Appooppan; Vazhi Vilakku; Srimadh Bhagavad Geeta; 1977: Jagadguru Adi Shankaran; 1978: Vilakkum Velichavum; 1983: Enikku Visakkunu; 1984: Guruvayoor Mahatmiyam; 1987: Nattarangu (Doc); 1989: Vikasikkunna Chirakukal (Sh); Puthiya Chakravalangal (Sh); 1991: Keli.

Bhatt, Vijay Jagneshwar

Bhatavdekar, Harishchandra Sakharam (b. 1868) Aka Save Dada. Almost certainly the first Indian film-maker. Professional still photographer often portrayed as an amateur, but, in fact, a businessman trading in cameras and film equipment on a nationwide basis. Made several shorts, including one on a wrestling match and one on the antics of monkeys. Best-known footage shows the return from England of R.P. Paranjpye, Minister of Education in Bombay Presidency, which he exhibited with imported shorts in a tent bioscope in Bombay. Sold equipment to Karandikar of S.N. Patankar’s company and retired from cinema in 1907. Interviewed in Screen, Bombay (30 April 1954). FILMOGRAPHY: 1899: The Wrestlers; Man and Monkey; 1901: Landing of Sir M.M. Bhownuggree; Atash Behram; 1902: Sir Wrangler Mr R.P. Paranjpye; 1903: Delhi Durbar of Lord Curzon (all St).

Royal Cinetone with the advent of sound and subsequently to Prakash Pics with Actress. Although working mostly in Hindi, made some Gujarati films as well (e.g. Sansar Leela, Seth Sagalsha, Divadandi and a version of Snehlata). Became a producer in 1942 (Dillagi). FILMOGRAPHY: 1932: Chalta Purza; 1933: Gunehgaar (all St); Alif Laila (co-d Shanti Dave); 1934: Actress; Nai Duniya; 1935: Sansar Leela; 1936: Tope Ka Gola; Snehlata; 1937: Challenge; His Highness; 1938: Purnima; 1939: Hero No. 1; Bijli; 1940: Shamsheerbaaz; Suhaag; 1941: Circus Ki Sundari; Madhusudhan; 1942: Dillagi; 1943: Aankh Ki Sharam; 1944: Collegian; 1946: Her Highness; 1947: Seth Sagalsha; 1949: Delhi Express; Joker; 1950: Circuswale; Jodidar; Divadandi; 1951: Hamari Shaan; 1952: Mordhwaj; 1953: Khoj; 1955: Shahi Mehmaan; 1957: Hazaar Pariyan; 1966: Nagin Aur Sapera. Bhatt, Batuk see Bhatt, Nanabhai N.

Bhatia, Vanraj (b. 1926) One of the few Hindi composers trained in classical Western music. Educated in Bombay. Studied at the Royal Academy of Music, London (1950). Travelled extensively in Europe listening to opera. Tried to become a professional composer in Europe but eventually returned to Bombay. Provided music for documentaries and advertising films, and some incidental music for Merchant-Ivory’s The Householder (with Jyotirindra Moitra). Made professional feature début for Benegal’s Ankur. Best-known work for Benegal and Kumar Shahani (Tarang, Kasba). One of the finest composers fusing Indian classical ragas with Western harmonics; his music for Tarang was performed as a concert by a chamber orchestra. Often expressed a desire to have his music played on every street corner of Bombay, but is also working on a full opera. FILMOGRAPHY: 1963: The Householder; 1967: Moving Perspective (Doc); 1973: Ankur; 1975: Nishant; 1976: Manthan; Bhumika; 1977: Kondura/Anugraham; 1978: Junoon; 1980: Kalyug; 1981: Sazaaye Maut; 36 Chowringhee Lane; 1983: Mandi; Jaane Bhi Do Yaaron; Mohan Joshi Haazir Ho; 1984: Tarang; Hip Hip Hurray; Khandaan (TV); 1985: Surkhiyaan; Aaghat; Trikaal; Khamosh; 1986: Yatra (TV); Susman; 1987: Pestonjee; Tamas (TV); Mohre; 1988: Bharat Ek Khoj (TV); 1989: Khandaan (TV); Percy; 1990: Lifeline (TV); Kasba; 1992: Suraj Ka Satwan Ghoda; Antrnaad; Beta; 1993: Sardar; Damini; 1994: Mammo; Drohkaal; 1995: Bangarwadi; Naseem.

Bhatt, Balwant N. (1909-65) Hindi director associated with stunt film genre; elder brother of Nanabhai Bhatt and uncle of Mahesh Bhatt. Born in Porbandar, Gujarat. Assisted Naval Gandhi (1930-31) and N.B. Vakil at Sagar (1932). Then turned director during the last days of silent cinema at Royal Art, the predecessor of Prakash Pics. Moved to

Bhatt, Mahesh (b. 1949) Hindi director born and educated in Bombay. Son of film-maker Nanabhai Bhatt whose Jeevan Rekha (1974) he scripted. Dropped out of college in 1970. Former assistant to Raj Khosla. Along with N. Chandra and J.P. Dutta, one of an aggressive new generation of commercial Hindi film-makers whose early work was marked by psychological violence. Début film, Manzilein Aur Bhi Hain, was banned for 14 months by the censors, allegedly for mocking the ‘sacred institution of marriage’. His melodramas about illegitimacy and extramarital affairs are more successful on video than as theatrical releases. Soap-opera sentimentalism is often given a voyeuristic edge by claiming autobiographical sources (notably his breakthrough film, Arth). His successful 90s films are often love stories starring daughter Pooja Bhatt (Dil Hai Ke Maanta Nahin). Shifted increasingly to Doordarshan (e.g. Daddy) and made the first film production of STAR’s Hindi channel ZeeTV, Phir Teri Kahani Yaad Aayi. Wrote a biography of U.G. Krishnamurthi. Currently editor of a video film magazine, and the TV series Swabhimaan written by pulp novelist Shobha De. FILMOGRAPHY (* act only): 1973: Manzilein Aur Bhi Hain; 1976: Vishwasghaat; 1978: Naya Daur; 1979: Lahu Ke Do Rang; 1980: Abhimanyu; 1982: Arth; 1984: Saaransh; Sheeshe Ka Ghar*; 1985: Janam; 1986: Ashiana; Naam; 1987: Kaash; Thikana; Aaj; 1988: Kabzaa; 1989: Daddy; Zameen; 1990: Awaargi; Jurm; Aashiqui; 1991: Haq*; Deshwasi*; Dil Hai Ke Maanta Nahin; Swayam; Saathi; Sadak; 1992: Saatwan Asmaan; Junoon; Tadipaar; 1993: Gumrah; Gunah; Sir; Phir Teri Kahani Yaad Aayi; Hum Hain Rahi Pyar Ke; 1994: Milan; Naraaz; Gentleman; Criminal; 1995: Najayaz; Papa Kehte Hain; 1995-: Swabhimaan (TV).

Bhatt, Nanabhai N. (b. 1915) Hindi-Gujarati director, aka Batuk Bhatt. Born as Yeshwant Bhatt in Porbandar, Gujarat. Seminal influence on the post-WW2 Hindi Bmovie. Entered films as sound recordist at Prakash Pics where his elder brother Balwant Bhatt worked. Early career as director with stunt-movie producer Chandrarao Kadam. With Babubhai Mistri, was briefly employed in Homi Wadia’s Basant Pics (1942), then owned Deepak Pics in Bombay (1946). Début with the classic Nadia double-role crime movie Muqabala. Films often based on cheaper variations of Prakash Pics megabudget mythologicals featuring tales from the Ramayana (Ram Janma). Also known for Arabian Nights fantasies (Baghdad, Baghdad Ki Raatein, Arabian Nights). Has often presented elaborate special effects, e.g. the famous scene of the sword fight between two invisible men in Sinbad the Sailor. Also made crime movies (Kangan, Police Detective). Appeared in the documentary about Nadia, Fearless - The Hunterwali Story (1993). Father of film-maker Mahesh Bhatt. FILMOGRAPHY: 1942: Muqabala; 1943:Hunterwali Ki Beti; Mauj; 1945: Chalis Karod; 1946: Maa Baap Ki Laaj; 1947: Meerabai; 1949: Shaukeen; Veer Ghatotkach; Sudhaar; 1950: Hamara Ghar; Janmashthami; Veer Babruwahan; 1951: Lakshmi Narayan; Daman; Lav Kush; Ram Janma; 1952: Apni Izzat; Baghdad; Sinbad the Sailor; 1954: Toote Khilone; Watan; 1956: Kismet; 1957: Mr X; Ustad; 1958: Chaalbaaz; Son of Sinbad; 1959: Bazigar; Daaka; Kangan; Madam XYZ; Naya Sansar; 1960: Lal Qila; Police Detective; Zimbo Comes to Town; 1961: Teen Ustad; 1962: Baghdad Ki Raatein; Rocket Girl; 1963: Alapiranthavan; Bhootnath; Cobra Girl; 1964: Samson; 1965: Adhi Raat Ke Baad; Bekhabar; 1966: Shankar Khan; 1967: Arabian Nights; 1968: Jung Aur Aman; 1974: Jeevan Rekha; 1975: Balak Aur Jaanwar; 1976: Dharti Mata; 1981: Gajara Maru; 1982: Jaya Parvati Vrat.

Bhatt, Vijay Jagneshwar (1907-93) Hindi and Marathi director born in Palitana, Saurashtra, best known for classic Ramayana extravaganzas with Shobhana Samarth. Educated in Gujarat and Bombay. Studied electrical engineering. Started as playwright (e.g. successful Gujarati play Lakho Phulani) and writer in silent era. Provided stories for silent films, e.g. Nagendra Majumdar’s Panima Aag, Fearless Phantom and K.P. Bhave’s Vanthel Veshya (all 1926), R.S. Choudhury’s Heer Ranjha (1929) and Moti Gidwani’s Gulam (1931). Partner with his elder brother Shankarbhai J. Bhatt in Royal Films (1928), later also distributor (Royal Pictures Corp). Founded Prakash Pics, later Prakash Studio (1933-71), also with his brother Shankarbhai as producer. Their younger brother Harsukh Jagneshwar Bhatt assisted Vijay for a while (1947-52) before co-directing three films with Bhalchandra Shukla and eventually going solo in 1957. Vijay started in stunt films (e.g. State Express and Leatherface) and in socials (notably Samaj 63

Bhattacharya, Abhi

Ko Badal Dalo). Launched his Ramayana series with the Samarth hit Bharat Milap, consolidated with Ramrajya, attempting a Hindu version of the costumed Urdu historical, rather than the more conventional specialeffects mythological, although Ramrajya’s climax uses special effects in plenty. Followed this with Rambaan and a second Ramrajya. Made melodramas incorporating the legend of classical Indian music, e.g. the major hit Baiju Bawra and Goonj Uthi Shehnai. Sometimes claimed that his interest in Hindu fantasy movies was a logical extension of his Gandhian sympathies. His autobiography was serialised in the journal Janmabhoomi (1968). FILMOGRAPHY: 1937: Khwab Ki Duniya; 1938: State Express; 1939: Leatherface; 1940: Ek Hi Bhool; Narsi Bhagat; 1942: Bharat Milap/Bharat Bhet; 1943: Ramrajya; 1945: Vikramaditya; 1947: Samaj Ko Badal Dalo; 1948: Rambaan; 1952: Baiju Bawra; 1953: Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu; 1956: Patrani; 1959: Goonj Uthi Shehnai; 1960: Angulimal; 1962: Bapu Ne Kaha Tha (Doc); Hariyali Aur Raasta; 1965: Himalay Ki God Mein; 1967: Ramrajya; 1971: Banphool; 1977: Heera Aur Patthar.

Bhattacharya, Abhi (1922-93) Lead actor in late 40s Bengali melodramas, débuting in Bengali version of Nitin Bose’s bilingual Nauka Dubi/Milan (Dilip Kumar took the role in Hindi). Worked at New Theatres (Yatrik) and in independent productions of former New Theatres directors Nitin Bose, Debaki Bose and Bimal Roy (Biraj Bahu). Played the upright hero, evoking the Westernised liberal stereotype often used to characterise pre-WW2 Bengali urban upper middle class. Introduced this image into the Hindi cinema, notably in Hrishikesh Mukherjee films (e.g. Anuradha), extending it into a tragic dimension (e.g. Sohrab Modi’s Jailor). This image was later used to devastating effect by Ghatak in Subarnarekha, where he played the upright Ishwar. Acted extensively with Satyen Bose as well as in Shakti Samanta’s Aradhana and his Hindi-Bengali bilinguals (e.g. Amanush). Also featured regularly in mythologicals by S. Fattelal (Jagadguru Shankaracharya, Ayodhyapati), Babubhai Mistri (Mahabharat, Har Har Gange) and Ashish Kumar devotionals. FILMOGRAPHY: 1946: Nauka Dubi/Milan; 1948: Mayer Dak; 1949: Bisher Dhoan; 1950: Sheshbesh; 1951: Bhairab Mantra; Paritran; Ratnadeep/Ratnadeepam; 1952: Chitta Banhiman; Yatrik; 1953: Naina; Rami Dhoban; Bhor Hoye Elo; 1954: Ankush; Amar Prem; Biraj Bahu; Jagriti; Parichay; Shobha; 1955: Jagadguru Shankaracharya; Naata; 1956: Ayodhyapati; Gauri Puja; Keemat; Sailaab; Suryamukhi; 1957: Aparadhi Kaun; Chhote Babu; Ek Gaon Ki Kahani; Madhu Malati; 1958: Jailor; Teesri Gali; 1959: Deep Jalta Rahe; Fashionable Wife; Hum Bhi Insaan Hain; Love Marriage; 1960: Anuradha; Bade Ghar Ki Bahu; Trunk Call; 1961: Do Bhai; Ramleela; Madhya Rater Tara; Shola Aur 64

Shabnam; 1962: Aashiq; Subarnarekha; Vallah Kya Baat Hai; 1964: Daal Mein Kala; Dosti; Kohraa; 1965: Mahabharat; 1966: Hum Kahan Ja Rahe Hain; Mere Lal; Netaji Subhashchandra Bose; Pinjre Ke Panchhi; Pari; 1967: Badrinath Yatra; Ghar Ka Chirag; Jab Yaad Kisiki Aati Hai; Milan Ki Raat; Naunihal; 1968: Ashirwad; Har Har Gange; Jyot Jale; 1969: Aradhana; Balak; Dharti Kahe Pukar Ke; Ek Masoom; Jyoti; Mahal; Meri Bhabhi; Prarthana; Ram Bhakta Hanuman; Sambandh; 1970: Aan Milo Sajna; Bhagwan Parashuram; Maa Ka Anchal; Pavitra Papi; Puraskaar; Sharafat; 1971: Amar Prem; Andaz; Door Ka Rahi; Dushman; Hathi Mere Saathi; Kal Aaj Aur Kal; Mata Vaishno Devi; Memsaab; Parwana; Paraya Dhan; Mere Apne; Maryada; Sansar; Seema; Tulasi Vivah; 1972: Anuraag; Hari Darshan; Anokhi Pehchan; Savera; Seeta Aur Geeta; Anokha Milan; Bankelal; Samadhi; 1973: Kahani Hum Sub Ki; Jhoom Utha Akash; Mera Desh Mera Dharam; Kahani Kismat Ki; Mehmaan; 1974: Phir Kab Milogi; Ganga; Bhagat Dhanna Jat; Kasauti; Dost; Har Har Mahadev; Imtehan; Kisan Aur Bhagwan; Prem Shastra; Amanush; Balak Dhruv; 1975: Chaitali; Kehte Hain Mujhko Raja; Maya Machhindra; Pratigya; Badnaam; Phanda; 1976: Bhagwan Samaye Sansar Mein; Do Anjaane; Dus Numbri; Meera Shyam; Sharafat Chhod Di Maine; Phool Aur Insaan; 1977: Behula Lakhinder; Aankh Ka Tara; Anurodh; Gayatri Mahima; Hatyara; Khel Kismat Ka; Ooparwala Jaane; Solah Shukrawar; 1978: Ganga Sagar; Dil Se Mile Dil; Mera Rakshak; 1979: Dil Ka Heera; Raja Harishchandra; Aangan Ki Kali; Chhat Maiya Ki Mahima; 1980: Angar; Taxi Chor; Aanchal; Badla Aur Balidan; Chaalbaaz; 1981: Ganga Maang Rahi Balidan; Barsaat Ki Ek Raat/Anusandhan; Commander; Dhuaan; 1982: Lekhne Mathe Mekh; 1983: Bekhabar; Gumnaam Hai Koi; Sant Ravidas Ki Amar Kahani; Dhat Tere Ki; Navratri; 1984: Shravan Kumar; Sulagte Arman; Harishchandra Shaibya; 1985: Mayuri (H); 1986: Woh Din Aayega; 1987: Daku Hasina; Sadak Chhaap; Khudgarz; Mera Karam Mera Dharam; 1989: Sansar; Santosh; Swarna Trishna.

Bhattacharya, Ardhendu (1955-92) Khasi-Assamese director born in Shillong. Postgraduate in philosophy at Shantiniketan; then joined FTII. Worked in Bombay, later in Gauhati. Made documentaries while lecturing in philosophy. His only feature, Manik Raitong (1984), is in Khasi, a North Eastern tribal language. Died before finishing a TV series based on Birendra Kumar Bhattacharya’s novel, Mrityunjaya.

Bhattacharya, Basu (1934-97) Bengali director born in Murshidabad, West Bengal, into Brahmin family which provided hereditary priests to the Cossimbazar royal family. Educated in Behrampore. Moved to Calcutta to attend college, then to Bombay in the early 50s. Started as assistant to Bimal Roy (1958); married Roy’s daughter Rinki, a noted

critic. First film, the Raj Kapoor and Waheeda Rehman musical Teesri Kasam, has several major 60s song hits. Anubhav and Avishkar represent stereotypical Hindi New Indian Cinema products of the 70s, a ‘realist’ emphasis being reduced to a concern with marital problems of upper-class couples. Served on several influential governmental committees concerning film policy, including the Working Group on National Film Policy (1980) and the board of the NFDC. Produced Sai Paranjpye’s Sparsh (1979). President of Indian Film Directors Association (1976-9). Father of director Aditya Bhattacharya (Raakh, 1988). FILMOGRAPHY: 1966: Teesri Kasam; Uski Kahani; 1971: Anubhav; 1973: Avishkar; 1975: Daku; Tumhara Kalloo; Sangat; 1977: Known Yet Not Known (Doc); 1978: Madhu Malati; 1979: Grihapravesh; 1982: Science India (Doc); 1983: Horky Podzim S Vuni Manga (co-d Jiri Sequens); 1985: Anveshan (TV); 1986: Panchavati; Solar Energy (Doc); 1991: Ek Saas Zindagi; 1996: Astha.

Bhattacharya, Bijon (1917-78) Actor, playwright, writer, scenarist, composer of stage music, singer and theatre director. Born in Faridpur (now Bangladesh). Teenage years strongly influenced by Gandhi’s Satyagraha agitations. Became a Marxist during WW2. Part of radical literary group, the Agami Chakra, and joined CPI in 1942. Founder member of IPTA for which he wrote Aagun (based on Binoy Ghosh’s novel, Laboratory), Jaban Bandi, and one of modern Indian theatre’s most influential plays, Nabanna. Dealing with the experience of the 1943 famine, the play as first staged by Bhattacharya and Sombhu Mitra (1943) tried to define postWW2 documentary realism, which had a major impact later in theatre and cinema, in e.g. Ghatak, Mrinal Sen and K.A. Abbas’s Dharti Ke Lal (1946). Acted in Nemai Ghosh’s Chinnamul. Left IPTA in 1948. Scenarist at Filmistan (1948-50). Wrote Jaswantlal’s mammoth hit Nagin (1954), loosely adapting his play Jiyankanya. Returned to Calcutta where he ran his Calcutta Theatres (1950-70) and the Kabach Kundal (1970-7). Did the classic scripts for Nirmal Dey’s Uttam Kumar movies (Basu Parivar, 1952; Sharey Chuattar, 1953). Wrote the story of Binu Das Gupta’s Daktar Babu (1958), dialogues for Asit Sen’s Trishna, in which he also acted, and story/dial. for Piyush Ganguly’s Debigarjan (1984). Featured regularly in Ghatak’s films, e.g. as father in Meghe Dhaka Tara, Ishwar’s friend Harprasad in Subarnarekha, the Sanskrit scholar in Jukti Takko Aar Gappo. His presence and performance in Sen’s Padatik helped set the tone of the film’s political address. His interest in religious motifs, which eventually turned into obscurantism, earned him criticism from former Marxist colleagues. FILMOGRAPHY: 1950: Tathapi; Chinnamul; 1954: Haan; Shoroshi; 1959: Bari Theke Paliye; 1960: Meghe Dhaka Tara; 1961: Komal Gandhar; 1962: Subarnarekha; 1964: Kashtipathar; 1965:

Bhimsingh, A.

Trishna; 1966: Swapnaniye; 1969: Parineeta; 1971: Nabaraag; Pratham Basanta; Sona Boudi; 1972: Archana; Bohurupee; 1973: Padatik; 1974: Jukti Takko Aar Gappo; 1975: Arjun; 1977: Bhola Moira; Swati; 1978: Dooratwa.

Bhattacharya, Dhiraj (1905-59) Actor born in Jessore (now Bangladesh). Degree in literature. Started as a policeman, then Bengali film star from the 20s to the 50s. Began at Madan Theatres in Jyotish Bannerjee silents. Worked with Modhu Bose in Giribala and with Priyanath Ganguly (Kal Parinaya, Jamuna Puliney). Developed his reputation as actor in films like Charu Roy’s seminal Bangalee, Ardhendu Sen’s Adarsha Hindu Hotel (having earlier done the role of Hajari Prasad on stage, at the Rungmahal Theatre, 1953), and several Premendra Mitra films, including Samadhan, Kuasha, Kankantala Light Railway, Moyla Kagaj. Known later for his refined villain roles. One of the few Bengali stars not to emerge from the Calcutta Theatres stage, he turned to the theatre later as an established film star, acting in plays like Sindhu Gaurab (1932) and Charitraheen (1935). His autobiography was published in two volumes, one dealing with his life as a policeman, the other, on his film career, came out in 1956. FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1925: Sati Lakshmi; 1930: Giribala; Kal Parinaya; Mrinalini; 1932: Nauka Dubi (all St); Krishnakanter Will; 1933: Jamuna Puliney/ Radha Krishna; Annapurna (St); 1934: Chand Saudagar; Daksha Yagna; Rajnati Basantsena; Seeta; 1935: Kanthahaar; Satya Pathe; Basabdatta; 1936: Krishna Sudama; Bangalee; Sonar Sansar; Bala Ki Raat; Joyar Bhanta*; Chino Haar; 1937: Rajgee; Mandir; 1938: Sarbajanin Bibahotsab; Abhinaya; Rupor Jhumko; 1939: Pathik; Nara Narayan; Parasmani; 1940: Kumkum/Kumkum the Dancer; Byabadhan; Rajkumarer Nirbashan;

1941: Epar Opar; Nandini; Banglar Meye; 1942: Pashan Devata; Milan; Avayer Biye; 1943: Sahadharmini; Swamir Ghar; Samadhan; Dwanda; Shri Ramanuja; Nilanguriya; Daabi; Shahar Theke Dooray; Wapas; 1944: Bideshini; Iraada; 1945: Kato Door; Mane Na Mana; Kalankini; 1947: Natun Khabar; Giribala; 1948: Pratibad; Jayjatra/Vijay Yatra; Kalo Chhaya; Sankha Sindoor; Taruner Swapna; 1949: Kuasha; 1950: Rakter Tan; Kankantala Light Railway; Eki Gramer Chhele; Kankal; Pattharar Kahini; 1951: Chiner Putul; Niyati; Sparshamani; Setu; 1952: Rani Bhabani; 1953: Chirantani; Chikitsa Sankat; Dui Beyai; 1954: Maa-oChhele; Moyla Kagaj; Ora Thake Odhare; Maraner Pare; Sati; Amar Prem; 1955: Sanjher Pradeep; Dakinir Char; 1956: Mahanisha; He Maha Manab; Manraksha; Amar Bou; Rajpath; 1957: Bardidi; Adarsha Hindu Hotel; Raat Ekta; Neelachaley Mahaprabhu; Shrimatir Sansar; Tamasha; 1958: Manmoyee Girls’ School; Bagha Jatin; Leela Kanka; Dhoomketu; 1960: Gariber Meye; Aparadh.

Bhavnani, Mohan Dayaram (1903-62) Hindi director born in Hyderabad, Sind. Studied at College of Technology, Manchester (1921-4), then studied film-making in Germany at UFA (1924). Contracted to Kohinoor (19256) where his Sulochana films were the earliest efforts in the Indian cinema to create a Hollywood-type movie star, e.g. Cinema Ni Rani where she plays a famous actress with whom the painter hero falls in love, or Wildcat of Bombay where she played multiple roles. Joined Imperial (1927-9), where he made Khwab-e-Hasti, adapted from the novel Dreamland (later also adapted by N. Taurog’s Strike me Pink, 1936). Scripted by A.S. Desai, this film is not to be confused with Kashmiri’s play of the same title. Vasantsena was the first Kannada intertitled film. Became independent producer with Indian Art Prod. (1931-2). Returned to Germany to study sound film

technique. Started Ajanta Cinetone (1933-4) and his own Bhavnani Prod. (1935-48). Sound début was a flop, but it introduced Durga Khote. Hired Premchand to script Mazdoor, representing the author’s only direct encounter with film, following it with the unemployment melodrama Jagran. Produced and directed the first full-length colour film shot on 16mm Kodachrome and blown up to 35mm, Ajit. Joined Films Division and became its first Chief Producer (1948-55). In 1958 Bhavnani followed up an invitation from Zhou En-Lai to make a documentary on China and travelled extensively throughout the country shooting with cameramen Kishore Rege and S.K. Kulkarni. His wife Enakshi Rama Rao, who acted in Vasantsena, had earlier played the lead in Shiraz (1928) and became a noted dancer and author of the book The Dance of India (1965). FILMOGRAPHY: 1925: Cinema Ni Rani; Matri Prem; Veer Bala; Seth Sagalsha; 1926: Pagal Premi; Diwan Bhamasha; Mena Kumari; Ra Kawat; Samrat Shiladitya; Bhamto Bhoot; 1927: Naseeb Ni Lili; Daya Ni Devi; Trust Your Wife; Wildcat of Bombay; Gamdeni Gori; 1929: Hawai Swar; Khwab-eHasti; Mysore, Gem City of India (Doc); Khedda (Doc); 1930: Vasantsena (all St); 1931: Shakuntala; Farebi Jaal; Lafanga Langoor (Sh); 1932: Veer Kunal; 1933: Afzal; Rangila Rajput; 1934: Dard-e-Dil; Mazdoor; Sair-e-Paristan; 1935: Jung Bahadur; Navjeevan; Shadi Ki Raat; 1936: Dilawar; Garib Parwar; Jagran; Wrestling (Doc); 1937: Zambo the Ape Man; 1938: Double Cross; Himalay Ki Beti; Yangrilla; 1939: Zambo Ka Beta; 1940: Jhoothi Sharm; Prem Nagar; 1945: Biswi Sadi; 1946: Rang Bhoomi; 1948: Ajit; 1949: Vale of Kashmir (Doc); 1950: The Private Life of a Silkworm (Doc); 1951: Lest We Forget (Doc); 1952: Kumaon Hills (Doc); 1953: Folk Dances of India (Doc); Republic Day Record (Doc); 1955: Republic Day 1955 (Doc); 1956: Operation Khedda (Doc); 1957: The Himalayan Tapestry (Doc).

Bhimsingh, A. (1924-78)

Molina Devi and Dhiraj Bhattacharya in Abhagin (1938)

Tamil director; also worked in other South Indian languages and in Hindi. Born in Chittoor, AP. Started as proofreader for the Telugu newspaper Andhra Prabha. Assistant to Krishnan-Panju in late 40s at AVM. First film, Ammaiyappan, was major Tamil hit. Raja Rani, scripted by Karunanidhi, consolidated the strong bid for a politically interventionist melodrama sponsored by the DMK movement (see DMK Film). Set up Buddha Pics (1956) with Pati Bhakti and introduced a commercially successful formula centred around family plots, often the disintegration of the joint family under the pressures of urbanisation, usually with Ganesan, lyricist Kannadasan and composers VishwanathanRamamurthy. Later also worked at the Newtone Studio in Madras. From the early 60s, concentrated as much on Hindi films as on Tamil, often adapting his own and other directors’ work, e.g. his best-known Hindi film Admi, which borrows from the Ganesan hit Alayamani. Pasamalar was remade as Bhai 65

Bhole, Keshavrao Vaman

Bahen. Made the bizarre comedy Sadhu Aur Shaitan, featuring the uninhibited duo of Kishore Kumar and Mehmood. Later films include the Jayakantan scripts Sila Nerangalil Sila Manithargal and Oru Nadigai Nadagam Parkiral representing Tamil actress Laxmi’s best-known work. Many of his film titles, for superstitious reasons, begin with the Tamil syllable ‘Pa’ and show a statue of the Buddha. FILMOGRAPHY: 1954: Ammaiyappan; 1956: Raja Rani; Nane Raja; 1958: Thirumanam; Pati Bhakti; 1959: Bhagapirivinai; Ponnu Vilayum Bhoomi; President Panchatcharam; Sahodari; 1960: Padikkatha Methai; Kalathur Kannamma; Aai Phirse Bahar; Petra Manam; 1961: Maavoori Ammayi; Palum Pazhamum; Pavamanippu; Pasamalar; 1962: Pavitra Prema; Parthal Pasi Theerum; Main Chup Rahungi; Raakhi; Senthamarai; Bandha Pasam; Padithal Mattum Pothuma; 1963: Paar Magale Paar; 1964: Pooja Ke Phool; Pachai Vilakku; 1965: Khandaan; Pazhani; 1966: Papa Pariharam; 1967: Meharbaan; Paladai; 1968: Admi; Gauri; Sadhu Aur Shaitan; 1969: Bhai Bahen; Manasichina Maguva; 1970: Oke Kutumbam; Gopi; Pathukappu; 1972: Joru Ka Gulam; Malik; Sub Ka Saathi; Maa Inti Jyothi; 1973: Loafer; 1974: Naya Din Nayi Raat; Patha Poojai; 1975: Bhagasthulu; Ragam; Amanat; 1976: Bangaru Manishi; Chiranjeevi; Kanavan Manaivi; Sila Nerangalil Sila Manithargal; 1977: Evaru Devudu; Nee Vazhavendum; Yaaron Ka Yaar; Nirai Kudam; Sneham; 1978: Vamsa Jyothi; Karunamayudu; Oru Nadigai Nadagam Parkiral; Iraivan Kodutha Varam; Karunai Ullam; Kayi Pidithaval; Mattoli.

Bhole, Keshavrao Vaman (1896-1967) Music director born in Amravati, Maharashtra. Exposure to Western orchestras accompanying silent films prompted him to experiment successfully with orchestral compositions: ‘The tones of the instruments, their timbre and how such diverse instruments could play together without sounding atonal, engaged my mind,’ he wrote in his book Mazhe Sangeet: Rachana Ani Digdarshan (1964). First introduced piano, Hawaiian guitar and violin for Vartak’s vanguard play Andhalyanchi Shala, staged by the Natyamanwantar group (1933). The music also performed the unusual function of tying the play to a fixed running time. Moved to Prabhat Studio (1933), replacing the more orthodox Govindrao Tembe, and scored some of the studio’s best-known hits. For Amritmanthan, the actors rehearsed to a score played live, tuning their performance rhythm to the music. The scales were also chosen to counterpoint the actors’ speaking voices. Bhole’s impact on performance idioms is most evident in Sant Tukaram, where Vishnupant Pagnis’s outstanding achievement owes much to the score. Left Prabhat with Raja Nene, Dharmadhikari et al., working with them independently for some years. 66

FILMOGRAPHY: 1932: Sant Sakhubai; Krishnavatar; 1934: Amritmanthan; 1935: Chandrasena; 1936: Rajput Ramani; Sant Tukaram; 1937: Kunku/Duniya Na Mane; 1938: Mazha Mulga/Mera Ladka; 1940: Sant Dnyaneshwar; 1941: Sant Sakhu; 1942: Daha Wajta/Dus Baje; 1944: Ramshastri; 1945: Taramati; 1947: Kuber; 1948: Bhagyarekha; 1951: Parijatak/Shri Krishna Satyabhama.

Bhosle, Asha (b. 1933) Singer born in Satara, Maharashtra. Trained by her father, Dinanath Mangeshkar. With her sister, Lata Mangeshkar, she dominated Indian film (playback) singing for more than three decades, releasing 20,000-plus songs in more than 14 languages. Introduced to film in Ravindra Dave’s Chunaria (1948). First solo number in Jagdish Sethi’s Raat Ki Rani (1949). Best-known early work with music director O.P. Nayyar, continuing Geeta Dutt’s singing style and borrowing from Latin American dance music as well as from North American big band pop featuring large brass sections. Two songs in 1957, Mister John (in Shankar Mukherjee’s Baarish) and Ina mina dika (in M.V. Raman’s Aasha) were landmarks in the Benny Goodman-style swing music pioneered by C. Ramchandra. The jazz influence was transformed into popular electronic music mainly through several 70s duets with Kishore Kumar, often composed by R.D. Burman. Remixed several Burman classics in a posthumous tribute, Rahul & I.

Bilimoria, Dinshaw (b. 1904)

Saubhagya Sundari; Sulochana; 1934: Gul Sanobar; Indira MA; Khwab-e-Hasti; Piya Pyare; Devaki; 1935: Anarkali; Do Ghadi Ki Mauj; Pujarini; 1936: Bambai Ki Billi; Jungle Queen; Shaan-e-Hind; 1937: Jagat Kesari; New Searchlight; Wah Ri Duniya; 1939: Prem Ki Jyot; 1942: Jawani Ki Pukar*.

Bilimoria, Fali (b. 1923) Born in Bombay; son of a lawyer. Abandoned medical studies (1946) and went into politics. Documentary director and producer since late 40s. Early career with P.V. Pathy and Paul Zils. Established Documentary Unit: India (1947) and later the Art Films of Asia (1952), both in partnership with Zils. When Zils returned to Germany, started his own Fali Bilimoria Prod. (1959). Best-known films on agricultural technology on behalf of US Technical Cooperation Missions in the context of the controversial Green Revolution promised by imported fertiliser, and also on American Public Law 480 aid to India. Also made films on cooperative movements in handloom, fisheries, housing, agriculture etc. supporting the ‘Colombo Plan’ foreign aid to India. Clients include Shell, British Transport, Deutsche Condor, the USIS and private American sponsors for whom, on one occasion, he filmed an interview with Jawaharlal Nehru to prove to the US State Department that Nehru was not a Communist (1958). Several noted films blur the distinction between documentary and fiction narrative by introducing professional actors (e.g. A Tiny Thing Brings Death, documentary on malaria starring Sombhu Mitra). Some titles in the filmography, all documentaries, were probably only produced by Bilimoria. Also made numerous advertising films. Retired in 1987.

Actor-director born in Kirkee. Usually described as the highest-paid silent star in India. Formed the celebrated lead couple with Sulochana esp. at Imperial. Introduced in stunt movie-derived historicals and mythologicals adapting Maratha legends at N.D. Sarpotdar’s United Pics. First two films at Imperial, Bhavnani’s Wildcat of Bombay and Choudhury’s Anarkali, were massive hits for him and Sulochana. His John Barrymorestyle image was born in elaborate costume fantasies opposite Sulochana’s Orientalised ‘Queen of Romance’, a reference elaborated later by some of the biggest directors of the silent era, e.g. Choudhury, Chandulal Shah, Homi Master, Jaswantlal and Nanubhai Vakil. Several of his silent hits were remade as sound films, notably Indira MA and Anarkali. Acted in some films at Ranjit. Azadi-e-Watan (1940), advertised as directed by him, is probably a dubbed version of an American import.

FILMOGRAPHY (* co-d Paul Zils): 1947: Congress Session 1947; 1948: Congress Session 1948; Mother/Child/Community*; 1949: White Magic*; The Last Jewel*; Flying Goods Wagon; General Motors in India*; A Tiny Thing Brings Death*; 1954: Ujala*; 1956: Textiles; A Village in Travancore; Iron and Steel; 1957: The Land of Bengal; Fifty Miles from Poona*; 1958: The Vanishing Tribe*; Interview with Jawaharlal Nehru; 1960: Four Families; 1961: Rivers of Life/Jeevan Ki Nadiyan; Coir Worker; New Marketplace; 1962: Comparative Religions; 1965: The Weavers; 1966: US Vice President Humphrey Visits India; 1967: The House that Ananda Built; 1968: Water; 1972: Last Raja; 1974: Look At Us Now; 1975: Women of India; 1976: A Small Family; There is Another Way; 1980: Warning Signal; 1982: The Ganga Bridge; People of India: The Anglo-Indians.

FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1925: Chhatrapati Sambhaji; 1926: Dha Cha Ma; Tai Teleen; Umaji Naik; 1927: Wildcat of Bombay; Vilasi Kanta; Daya Ni Devi; 1928: Anarkali; Qatil Kathiyani; Madhuri; Rajrang; 1929: Khwab-eHasti; Mewad Nu Moti; Punjab Mail; Heer Ranjha; Rajputani; Hawai Swar; 1930: Pahadi Kanya; Rasili Radha; Diwani Dilbar; 1931: Baghdad Nu Bulbul; Mojili Mashuq; Noor-eAlam; Premi Jogan (all St); Devi Devayani; 1932: Sati Madalasa; 1933: Daku Ki Ladki;

Bengali and Hindi composer born in Barisal (now Bangladesh). A talented tabla player since infancy, he worked in amateur theatre as child singer. Became a political activist as a student and was associated with terrorist insurgency movements in Bengal. Repeatedly jailed in early 30s. Received early assignments as musician from Kazi Nazrul Islam at the Megaphone gramophone company; then

Biswas, Anil (b. 1914)

Biswas, Sachindranath [Chhabi]

scored and acted in several commercial Calcutta Theatres stage productions, notably in the Rangmahal theatre. Moved to Bombay (1934) where he was first employed by Ram Daryani’s Eastern Art Syndicate, then by Sagar and its successor National Studio (1940-2) and finally by Bombay Talkies (1942-6) before turning freelance. Best-known compositions are among the most effective film adaptations of theatrical music, with 12-piece orchestras and full-blooded choral effects in e.g. the Amirbai Karnataki songs of Gyan Mukherjee’s Kismet and even more so in Mehboob’s early films. His recitative prose songs in Roti helped give the film its parable dimension and came close to an indigenous Brechtian mode. His work is a rare effort in popular Hindi film to define a cultural-political avant-garde. Later composed music for K.A. Abbas’s films (e.g. the famous ‘songless’ Munna) and for Mahesh Kaul. Music co-d for Begunah, using the name Haribhai. Scored Doordarshan’s pioneering TV series Humlog (1984-5) and a number of Films Division documentaries (e.g. Controlling Aphids in Mustard Crop, 1979; Development of Inland Fisheries, 1988; Modern Seeding and Planting Equipment, 1991, etc.) . FILMOGRAPHY (* also act): 1935: Bal Hatya; Bharat Ki Beti; Dharam Ki Devi*; 1936: Fidae-Watan; Piya Ki Jogan; Pratima; Prem Bandhan; Sangdil Samaj; Sher Ka Panja; Shokh Dilruba; 1937: Bulldog; Dukhiari; Gentleman Daku; Insaaf; Jagirdar; Kokila; Mahageet; 1938: Three Hundred Days and After; Dynamite; Gramophone Singer; Hum Tum Aur Woh; Nirala Hindustan; Abhilasha; Watan; 1939: Jeevan Saathi; Ek Hi Raasta; 1940: Alibaba; Aurat; Pooja; 1941: Aasra; Bahen; Nai Roshni; 1942: Apna Paraya; Garib; Jawani; Roti; Vijay; 1943: Hamari Baat; Kismet; 1944: Char Aankhen; Jwar Bhata; Lady Doctor; 1945: Pehli Nazar; 1946: Darban; Nauka Dubi/Milan; 1947: Bhookh; Manjdhar; Naiya; 1948: Anokha Pyar; Gajre; Veena; 1949: Girls’ School (with C. Ramchandra); Jeet; Laadli; Begunah; 1950:

Chhabi Biswas (left) in Maa-o-Chhele (1954)

Arzoo; Beqasoor; Lajawaab; 1951: Aaram; Badi Bahu; Do Sitare; Tarana; 1952: Do Raha; Rahi; 1953: Akash; Faraib; Humdard; Jallianwala Bagh Ki Jyot; Mehmaan; 1954: Maan; Mahatma Kabir; Munna; Naaz; Waris; 1955: Faraar; Du-janay; Jasoos; 1956: Heer; Paisa Hi Paisa; 1957: Abhimaan; Jalti Nishani; Pardesi; 1958: Sanskar; 1959: Char Dil Char Raahein; 1960: Angulimal; Return of Mr Superman; Meera Ka Chitra; 1961: Lucky Number; Savitri; 1962: Hame Khelne Do; Sautela Bhai; 1964: Raju Aur Gangaram; 1965: Chhoti Chhoti Baatein.

Biswas, Sachindranath [Chhabi] (1900-62) Actor born in Calcutta. Best-known outside Bengal for his two major performances in Satyajit Ray’s Jalsaghar and Kanchanjungha. Epitomises the Bengali literary (and visual: cf. Company School Painting) late 19th C. fascination with the colonial ‘gentleman’ (culminating with Kanchanjungha) as well as the feudal Zamindar. Used in a variety of ways to comment on the Westernising strand of 19th C. reform movements, or to parody Calcutta’s urban élite (see Dhiren Ganguly, with whom Biswas acted in Daabi) in the form of the bhadralok stereotype elaborated at various times by all the major actors in 20th C. Bengal: Sisir Bhaduri, Durgadas Bannerjee, Ahindra Choudhury, P.C. Barua, Pahadi Sanyal. Before entering film, did amateur theatre while at Presidency College, Calcutta, in association with Bhaduri and Naresh Mitra (e.g. Nemai Sanyas), and Jatra performances. Turned professional at Natyaniketan (1938). Title roles in stage productions of Devdas, Kashinath, Siraj-ud-Dowla et al. are considered definitive performances in the era after Sisir Bhaduri and Ahindra Choudhury. Switched from early lead roles to successful ‘character’ roles, notably in Kabuliwala, Shashi Babur Sansar, Headmaster and Dada

Thakur. Other classic roles include the exploitative father-in-law in Devi. FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1936: Annapurnar Mandir; 1937: Haranidhi; 1938: Chokher Bali; 1939: Sharmistha; Chanakya; 1940: Swami Stri; Nimai Sanyasi; Nartaki; 1941: Epar Opar; Pratishodh; Pratisruti; Karnarjun; Banglar Meye; 1942: Mahakavi Kalidas; Garmil; Jiban Sangini; Milan; Ashok; Parineeta; Pativrata; Bondi; Avayer Biye; Shodhbodh; Nari; Saugandh; Pashan Devata; 1943: Dampati; Aleya; Samadhan; Dwanda; Nilanguriya; Daabi; Devar; Dikshul; 1944: Pratikar*; Matir Ghar; Chhadmabeshi; 1945: Bondita; Raj Lakshmi; Path Bendhe Dilo; Stree Durga; Dui Purush; 1946: Prem Ki Duniya; Sat Number Bari; Biraj Bou; Vande Mataram; Sangram; Nivedita; Tumi Aar Ami/Tum Aur Main; 1947: Mandir; Pather Daabi; Abhijog; Nurse Sisi; Chandrasekhar; 1948: Anirban; Nandaranir Sansar; Sadharan Meye; Sankha Sindoor; Shesh Nibedan; Umar Prem(?); 1949: Jar Jetha Ghar*; Manzoor; Bhuler Baluchare; Debi Choudhrani; Singhdwar; 1950: Mandanda; Mahasampad; Garabini; Vidyasagar; 1951: Durgesh Nandini; Maldar; Aparajito; 1952: Krishnakanter Will; Ratrir Tapasya; 1953: Sat Number Kayedi; Boudir Bone; Makarshar Jaal; Sabuj Pahar; Jog Biyog; Lakh Taka; Raja Krishna Chandra; Blind Lane; Sati Behula; 1954: Shobha; Maa-oChhele; Ora Thake Odhare; Naa; Kalyani; Prafulla; Dhuli; Banglar Nari; Sadanander Mela; Chheley Kaar; Shoroshi; Jadubhatta; Bhanga-Gara; 1955: Sanjher Pradeep; Rani Rashmoni; Dattak; Pather Sheshey; Jharer Parey; Joymakali Boarding; Katha Kao; Prashna; Hrad; Upahar; Kalo Bou; Devimalini; Bratacharini; Drishti; Shribatsa-Chinta; Sabar Uparey; 1956: Bhola Master; Kirti Garh; Asabarna; Saheb Bibi Golam; Shubharatri; Shankar Narayan Bank; Asamapta; Trijama; Mamlar Phal; Manraksha; Ek Din Raatre; Rajpath; Chhaya Sangini; Suryamukhi; Govindadas; Madan Mohan; Putrabadhu; Falgu; Daner Maryada; Sinthir Sindoor; Raat Bhore; Kabuliwala; 1957: Shesh Parichaya; Bardidi; Ghoom; Bara Maa; Ektara; Tapasi; Adarsha Hindu Hotel; Prithibi Amar Chay; Natun Prabhat; Neelachaley Mahaprabhu; Surer Parashey; Rastar Chhele; KanchaMithey; Chhaya Path; Abhishek; Sandhan; Abhoyer Biye; Mathur; Baksiddha; Antariksha; Garer Math; Kari-o-Komal; Madhabir Jonye; Pathe Holo Deri; Louha-Kapat; Parash Pathar; 1958: Yamalaya Jibanta Manush; Priya; Bandhu; Nupur; Daily Passenger; O Amar Desher Mati; Tansen; Nagini Kanyar Kahini; Sadhak Bama Kshyapa; Jalsaghar; Indrani; Dhoomketu; Surya Toran; Marmabani; 1959: Bicharak; Thakur Haridas; Derso Khokhar Kando; Shashi Babur Sansar; Bhranti; Gali Theke Rajpath; Chhabi; Amrapali; Nirdharita Silpir Anupastithi Tey; Khelaghar; Agnisambhaba; Nrityer Tale Tale; Headmaster; Rater Andhakare; Shubha Bibaha; Mriter Martye Agaman; Kshaniker Atithi; 1960: Maya Mriga; Debarshi Narader Sansar; Raja-Saja; Devi; Haat Baraley Bandhu; Kshudista Pashan; Chupi Chupi Ashey; Sakher Chor; Gariber Meye; Hospital; Smriti Tuku Thak; Shesh Paryanta; Ajana Kahini; Nader Nimai; Surer Pyasi; Suno Baro 67

Bombay Talkies

Nari; 1961: Manik; Carey Shaheber Munshi; Bishkanya; Agni Sanskar; Madhya Rater Tara; Swayambara; Necklace; Kanchanmulya; Dainee; Ashay Bandhinu Ghar; Madhureno; Saptapadi; Maa; 1962: Sorry Madam; Bipasha; Kancher Swarga; Suryasnan; Shiulibari; Kanchanjungha; Atal Jaler Ahwan; Agnisikha; Bodhu; Kajal; Mayar Sansar; Shubha Drishti; Dada Thakur; Dhoop Chhaya; 1963: High Heel; Surya Sikha; 1964: Kanta Taar; 1976: Shri Shri Maa Lakshmi.

Bombay Talkies Film studio set up by Himansu Rai in 1934. Among the biggest pre-WW2 talkie studios, it was the only major one launched as a fully fledged corporate body with a board of directors including F.E. Dinshaw, Sir Chimanlal Setalvad, Sir Chunilal Mehta, Sir Pheroze Sethna and Sir Cowasji Jehangir as some of the ‘dozen individuals who, by their control over banks, insurance companies and investment trusts, occupy commanding positions in the industrial life of Bombay’ (A.R. Desai, 1948). It was one of the first studios with backing from major financial institutions, paying a regular dividend from the third year onwards. The resident star was Devika Rani. The scenarists were Niranjan Pal and J.S. Casshyap. The technical team was imported from Europe, including director Franz Osten, cameraman Josef Wirsching, set designer Carl von Spreti (later Count Carl von Spreti, the West German ambassador murdered in Guatemala in 1970) and soundman Len Hartley. The studio had three major phases. The first, the Rai-Osten era (Achhut Kanya, 1936; Kangan, 1939) ended with Osten’s arrest at the beginning of WW2 and, later, Rai’s death (1940). The second saw Devika Rani, as production controller, split the studio into two production groups, one led by Amiya Chakravarty (best-known film of this period: Jwar Bhata, 1944, introducing Dilip Kumar) and the other led by S. Mukherjee with Rai Bahadur Chunilal. The latter group broke away to start Filmistan (1942). The formal orthodoxy of Chakravarty’s work (Basant, 1942) is clearly counterposed by a series of influential films, from N.R. Acharya’s Naya Sansar (1941) to Kismet (1943), all direct precedents of the Filmistan signature style. This included the early films of Gyan Mukherjee, Nazir Ajmeri and the writer Manto. The third phase began when star Ashok Kumar, who had moved to Filmistan, and sound recordist Savak Vacha returned and took over the studio (1947); it includes the early work of stars Dev Anand and Shyam, along with films by Kamal Amrohi, Shaheed Latif, Bimal Roy, Nitin Bose and Phani Majumdar. In the early 50s the studio declined despite efforts by the workers’ association to save it, and it made only one more film, Majumdar’s Baadbaan (1954).

Boral, Rai Chand (1903-81) Music director aka Raichand Boral, born in Calcutta. Son of classical musician Lalchand Boral (spelled L. Bural in early 1910s record labels). Producer of Indian music programmes 68

on Indian Broadcasting Co. in Calcutta (1927). Joined New Theatres during silent era, creating live score for Charu Roy’s Chorekanta (1931) and Prafulla Roy’s Chasher Meye (1931), and remained the studio’s top composer into the 40s. Although less associated with the dominant Rabindra Sangeet (Tagore’s lyrics) than e.g. Pankaj Mullick, his adaptations of the ghazal style into light classical, emotionally charged music were influential in the recording industry, esp. as interpreted by his famous protegé, actor-singer Kundanlal Saigal, in e.g. the Saigal-Umasashi duet Prem nagar mein banaoongi ghar main from Nitin Bose’s Chandidas, Balam aaye and Dukh ke in Barua’s Devdas, Ek bangla bane nyaara in President, all remaining perennial hits. Other legendary compositions include Phani Majumdar’s Street Singer, Debaki Bose’s Bidyapati, and Nitin Bose’s Lagan and Dhoop Chaon (claimed by some as the first use of playback in India), songs by Pahadi Sanyal, Kanan Devi and, in Hindi, by the ghazal exponent Talat Mahmood. Worked extensively with the early Bimal Roy, (Udayer Pathey, Anjangarh, Maa). His musical style rested heavily on songs with large string sections, with e.g. sitar and violins. In many of the songs he combined forms like Thumri, Keertan, Akhrai and the Kabigan, invoking a 19th C. Bengali tradition of cultural fusion in popular music associated with immigrants to Calcutta who brought musical forms from the North and the East. Also directed an animated short, Pear Brothers. Formed the independent MLB Prod. with actor Shyam Laha and Amar Mullick. FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1931: Dena Paona; 1932: Mohabbat Ke Aansoo; Chirakumar Sabha; Chandidas; Subah Ka Sitara; Zinda Lash; Punarjanma; Palli Samaj; 1933: Puran Bhakt; Meerabai/Rajrani Meera; Kapal Kundala; Mastuto Bhai; 1934: Excuse Me, Sir; Rooplekha/Mohabbat Ki Kasauti; Chandidas; Daku Mansoor; Pear Brothers* (Sh); 1935: Devdas; Dhoop Chhaon/Bhagya Chakra; Inquilab; 1936: Karodpati; Grihadah/Manzil; Maya; 1937: Barababu; Anath Ashram; Didi/President; Bidyapati/Vidyapati; 1938: Abhigyan/ Abhagin; Street Singer/Saathi; 1939: Sapurey/Sapera; Jawani Ki Reet/Parajay; Rajat Jayanti; 1940: Abhinetri/Haar Jeet; 1941: Parichay/Lagan; Pratisruti; 1942: Nari; Saugandh; 1943: Daabi; Wapas; 1944: Udayer Pathey/Hamrahi; 1945: Vasiyatnama; 1946: Biraj Bou; 1948: Anjangarh; 1949: Bishnupriya; Mantramughda; Swami/Swami Vivekananda; 1950: Bara Bou; Pehla Admi; 1951: Sparshamani; Paritran; 1952: Maa; 1953: Dard-e-Dil; Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu; 1955: Amar Saigal; 1957: Neelachaley Mahaprabhu; 1959: Sagar Sangamey; 1960: Natun Fasal.

Bordoloi, Atul (b. 1938) Assamese playwight and director born in Jorhat; initially a teacher after graduating from Gauhati University (1962). Author of 15 fulllength and about 20 one-act plays in Assamese.

Worked as journalist for the daily, Natun Asomiya. First film, Aparajeya, was the unremarkable result of a remarkable filmmaking experiment sponsored by poetplaywright Phani Talukdar and made by a group, Chaturanga, including Gauri Burman and Munin Bayan. Bordoloi’s films, set in deprived milieus, are known mainly for their multi-layered sense of reality achieved by suppressing narrative progression. Best-known film: Kallol. FILMOGRAPHY: 1970: Aparajeya; 1973: Banaria Phool; Anutaap; 1978: Kallol; 1979: Megh; 1990: Grahan; Drishti; 1991: Sinyor.

Bose, Debaki Kumar (1898-1971) Bengali and Hindi director born in Akalpoush, Burdwan Dist., West Bengal; also worked in Tamil and in Marathi. Son of a noted solicitor, Madhusudhan Bose. Influenced by Sisir Bhaduri, his teacher at Bidyasagar College, Calcutta (1920). Left university to join non-cooperation movement after Calcutta Congress (1920). Edited journal, Shakti, from Burdwan (1927-8). Hired by Dhiren Ganguly as actor and scenarist for Dinesh Ranjan Das’ Kamaner Aagun (1930). Devotee of Vaishnava evangelical movement. Joined British Dominion Films (1927) as scenarist, then director. Joined P.C. Barua’s Barua Pics (1930), then entered New Theatres (1932-4) together with Barua, directing the studio’s first hit, Chandidas. Its cinematic validation of a major stage genre - the quasi-legendary biographical helped lessen Bengali cinema’s dependence on the Calcutta Theatres for its themes as well as its literary, musical and acting talent. Early work known mainly for his free and inventive approach to established genres, esp. the mythological and the Saint film, creating a Bengali quality cinema (e.g. Aparadhi and Chandidas). Went to East India Film (1934-6) where he made the lyrical Seeta which launched Prithviraj Kapoor and Durga Khote as a star duo. Returned to New Theatres (1937-41), making the classic Bidyapati. His independent Debaki Bose Prod. (1945) with stars from the Hindi and Marathi cinemas paved the way for other Calcutta cineastes after the decline of New Theatres in the early 40s. Made Arghya, a documentary on the caste system, based on four narrative poems by Tagore to celebrate the centenary of his birth. FILMOGRAPHY: 1930: Kamaner Aagun (only act); Panchasar (also act); 1931: Aparadhi; Shadows of the Dead; 1932: Nishir Dak (all St); Chandidas; 1933: Puran Bhakt; Meerabai/Rajrani Meera; Dulari Bibi; 1934: Seeta; 1935: Inquilab; Jeevan Natak; 1936: Sonar Sansar/Sunehra Sansar; 1937: Bidyapati/Vidyapati; 1939: Sapurey/ Sapera; 1940: Nartaki; Abhinav; 1942: Apna Ghar/Aple Ghar; 1943: Shri Ramanuja; 1945: Meghdoot; Swarg Se Sundar Desh Hamara; 1946: Krishna Leela; 1947: Chandrasekhar; 1948: Sir Shankarnath; 1949: Kavi; 1951: Ratnadeep/Ratnadeepam; 1953: Pathik; 1954: Kavi; Bhagwan Shri Krishna Chaitanya; 1955: Bhalobasha; 1956:

Bose, Sadhona

Chirakumar Sabha; Nabajanma; 1958: Sonar Kathi; 1959: Sagar Sangamey; 1961: Arghya.

Bose, Modhu (1900-69) Bengali and Hindi director-scenarist born in Calcutta; grandson of the historian R.C. Dutt. Studied at Shantiniketan and Bidyasagar College, Calcutta, under Sisir Bhaduri. Entered film briefly as actor at Madan Theatres (1923). Assisted J.J. Madan on the making of Turki Hoor (1924); assisted on Himansu Rai’s Prem Sanyas (1925). Went to London and assisted cameraman Baron Gaetano Ventigmilia on a Hitchcock film for Balcon/Gainsborough (1926; probably The Mountain Eagle) and worked briefly with Karl Freund at UFA (probably on Lang’s Metropolis, 1925). Shot a Burmese film for the London Film Company, Rangoon, in 1927. Started the Calcutta Amateur Players (CAP) theatre group (1927). Production manager and actor in Prapancha Pash (1929). Married actress Sadhona Bose. Early films produced by Madan Theatres. Made Khyber Falcon for the Punjab Film Corp. in Lahore. Best-known work for Bombay-based Wadia Movietone and Sagar. Developed an influential generic hybrid from Rabindranath Tagore’s ballets (Dahlia) and Khirode Prasad Vidyavinode’s Alibaba, both starring his wife, Sadhona Bose. Made Orientalist song-dance-adventure spectaculars, indigenous variants of British 19th C. Ruritanian comedies (Selima, Kumkum, Raj Nartaki) and several Tagore adaptations. After 1936, when the CAP turned professional, concentrated mainly on stage work, e.g. Niranjan Pal’s Zarina, Manmatha Ray’s The Dreams of Omar Khayyam. Also film biographicals of Girishchandra Ghosh, Michael Madhusudhan Dutt and Swami Vivekananda. Wrote autobiography: Amar Jeeban (1967).

and head of the camera department at New Theatres (1930). Shot many films for Debaki Bose (e.g. Chandidas, 1932; Meerabai, 1933) and Atorthy (e.g. Dena Paona, 1931; Mohabbat Ke Aansoo, Subah Ka Sitara, Punarjanma, all 1932); also shot Shakuntala for Bhavnani (1931). Directorial début when Debaki Bose left the studio in 1933. A key figure in the New Theatres organisation and maker of some of its most successful films. His early work continued in the vein of Debaki Bose (first feature was remake of Bose’s Chandidas). Later introduced a ‘realist’ element (Didi/President; Desher Mati/ Dharti Mata) foreshadowing the films of his own student and cameraman Bimal Roy (Udayer Pathey, 1944), and probably Mrinal Sen’s early films. Also made successful films after he left New Theatres in 1941 (e.g. Ganga Jumna in Hindi and Bhojpuri was one of the biggest hits of post-Independence cinema). Worked with major producers in Bombay: Bombay Talkies (Nauka Dubi) and Minerva. Started his own production company with Dard-e-Dil in 1953. When A. Chakravarty died, Bose finished Kathputli. Set up Guwahati Studio in Assam. FILMOGRAPHY: 1921: Belgian Emperor’s Visit to India (Doc); 1930: Buker Bojha (all St); 1934: Chandidas; Daku Mansoor; 1935: Dhoop Chhaon/Bhagya Chakra; 1937: Didi/President; 1938: Desher Mati/Dharti Mata; Dushman/Jiban Maran; 1941: Parichay/Lagan; 1943: Kashinath; Bichar/ Paraya Dhan; 1944: Mujrim; 1945: Mazdoor; 1946: Nauka Dubi/Milan; 1948: Drishtidaan; 1950: Mashaal/Samar; 1951: Deedar; 1953: Dard-e-Dil; 1954: Waris; 1955: Amar Saigal; 1956: Char Dost; 1957:

Madhabir Jonye; Kathputli; 1958: Jogajog; 1961: Ganga Jumna; 1962: Ummeed; 1963: Nartaki; 1964: Dooj Ka Chand; 1966: Hum Kahan Ja Rahe Hain; 1972: Samanata.

Bose, Sadhona (1914-73) Actress born in Calcutta. Some sources give 1903 as year of birth. Granddaughter of 19th C. reformist leader Keshub Chunder Sen. Participated in her husband Modhu Bose’s dance spectaculars (Kumkum; Raj Nartaki) which helped convert the late 19th/early 20th C. Parsee Theatre-influenced operatic mode into popular Bengali and Hindi films. A classically trained dancer (Kathak dance under Taraknath Bagchi and Manipuri under Guru Senarik Rajkumar) and musician (studied under Inayat Khan, Timir Baran and, briefly, S.D. Burman; piano with musician Franco Polo), her early work included ballets supervised by Rabindranath Tagore (one of which later became the film Dahlia, 1930). In the 1929 stage version of Alibaba, met and briefly worked with Anna Pavlova. A classicist ideology was attributed to her work with Modhu Bose for the Calcutta Amateur Players and later in film. Her best-known play, Alibaba (1934; filmed 1937), helped translate the musical style of Calcutta Theatres, originating with Khirode Prasad Vidyavinode, into Broadway/Hollywood inspired Orientalist spectaculars. Introduced these into Hindi cinema, via directors like Chaturbhuj Doshi (Shankar Parvati) and Kidar Sharma (Vish Kanya). In her autobiography (Sadhona Bose, 1963), plays like Theme Songs of Omar Khayyam and Hindu Dance Dramas, Birth of Freedom, Samarpan and Ajanta are described as ‘neo-classical ballets‘ while her later films

FILMOGRAPHY: 1930: Giribala; Dahlia; 1932: Khyber Falcon (all St); 1935: Selima; 1936: Bala Ki Raat; 1937: Alibaba (also act); 1938: Abhinaya; 1940: Kumkum/Kumkum the Dancer; 1941: Raj Nartaki/Court Dancer; 1942: Meenakshi; 1947: Giribala; 1950: Michael Madhusudhan; 1953: Raakhi; Shesher Kabita; 1954: Vikram Urvashi; 1956: Mahakavi Girishchandra; Paradhin; Shubha Lagna; 1964: Bireshwar Vivekananda.

Bose, Nitin (1897-1986) Bengali and Hindi director, cameraman and producer; cousin of Satyajit Ray. Born in Calcutta. Learned still photography from his father, Hemendra Mohan Bose, owner of the famous Kuntalin Press and of Talking Machine Hall (distributor of Pathéphone recording systems). Acquired movie camera in his teens and became proficient in shooting home movies which he developed himself. Made newsreels in 1921-2 (the chariot festival at Puri, the elephant hunt of the Maharaja of Tripura) which he sold to the International Newsreel Corp. and to Fox Kinogram. First feature as cinematographer: Jaigopal Pillai’s Punarjanma (1927). Cameraman on features for Aurora, Indian Kinema Arts, Sisir Bhaduri and International Filmcraft. Chief technical adviser

Sadhona Bose in Raj Nartaki (1941) 69

Bose, Satyen

are called ‘film ballets’, adhering to all the tenets of traditional art. Produced the show Rhythm of Victory as a political spectacular with more than 40 dancers. An English version of her best-known film, Raj Nartaki, was distributed in the USA as Court Dancer. FILMOGRAPHY: 1937: Alibaba; 1938: Abhinaya; 1940: Kumkum/Kumkum the Dancer; 1941: Raj Nartaki/Court Dancer; 1942: Meenakshi; 1943: Paigham; Shankar Parvati; Vish Kanya; 1945: Neelam; 1951: Bhola Shankar; For Ladies Only; Nand Kishore; 1952: Shin Shinaki Boobla Boo; 1953: Shesher Kabita; 1954: Maa-o-Chhele; Vikram Urvashi.

its overt support of separatist militants. An appellate tribunal revoked the ban, imposing other strictures such as the unprecedented requirement that ‘In all interviews, so as to ensure the genuineness of the interviews and interviewees, except where the interviewee is a known public character, there shall, throughout the interview, be a subtitle ... depicting the name and address of the interviewee and the location where the interview was taken. In default, such interview to be deleted in its entirety’ (see A.G. Noorani, 1993). Also works on video. FILMOGRAPHY: 1981: An Indian Story; 1986: Bhopal: Beyond Genocide; 1991: The Vulnerable Road User; 1993: From Behind The Barricade; Jharkhand.

Bose, Satyen (1916-93) Bengali and Hindi director born in Purnea, Bihar. Commerce graduate from Bidyasagar College, Calcutta (1941). Worked on the railways and in a bank. Participant in amateur theatre as student. With friends set up National Progressive Pics (1948) and produced Hemen Gupta’s Bhuli Naai in Bengali. Early films contextualised by post-Partition Bengal, addressing the fragmentation of the traditional middle class (e.g. Bhor Hoye Elo) under different social and political pressures, e.g. the schoolboy movie Paribartan. Combined realism with comedy, esp. Barjatri, which was praised by S. Ray for its typically Bengali spirit, humorous dialogue and spontaneous acting style. Moved to Bombay late in 1953 to make Parichay. Then worked mainly with the brothers Kishore, Anoop and Ashok Kumar in the sadly comic Bandi and the one slapstick classic of Hindi cinema, Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi. Also directed Nargis’s last film, Raat Aur Din. FILMOGRAPHY (* also act): 1949: Paribartan*; 1951: Barjatri*; 1953: Bhor Hoye Elo; 1954: Jagriti; Parichay; 1955: Rickshawala; Bandish; 1957: Bandi; 1958: Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi; Savera; Sitaron Se Aage; 1960: Masoom; Girl Friend; 1964: Daal Mein Kala; Dosti; 1966: Aasra; Mere Lal; 1967: Bhagya; Raat Aur Din; 1968: Jyot Jale; 1969: Wapas; Aansoo Ban Gaye Phool; 1970: Jeevan Mrityu; 1972: Sa Re Ga Ma Pa; Anokhi Pehchan; Mere Bhaiya; 1977: Mastan Dada; 1978: Anmol Tasveer; 1979: Saanch Ko Aanch Nahin; Bin Maa Ke Bachche; 1980: Payal Ki Jhankaar; 1982: Tumhare Bina; 1983: Kaya Palat; 1986: Woh Din Aayega.

Bose, Tapan (b. 1946) Documentary director; part of Cinemart Foundation with actress Suhasini Mulay (Bhuvan Shome, 1969, Bhavni Bhavai, 1980) and Salim Shaikh. Started as assistant to Sukhdev. Controversial cineaste, often hampered by officialdom. Independent début, An Indian Story, featured the infamous Bhagalpur incident in which prison inmates were blinded as part of police torture. Co-d his second film examining the consequences of the Bhopal gas disaster (1984). From Behind the Barricade attacks the central government’s repression in Punjab. The film was banned for 70

Bourne & Shepherd Calcutta-based company; oldest and most prominent still photography dealers in India, set up in 1840 as a studio by Samuel Bourne. Charles Shepherd and A. Robertson started a Photographic Artists Studio in Agra (1862) which became Howard & Bourne in Simla (1863) and finally Bourne & Shepherd in Calcutta (1868). Both were photographers, making portraits of political and arts personalities, urban scenes of Calcutta and royal Durbars and were dealers in equipment and stock. They produced photographic variants of Company School painting for the popular art market: Hiralal Sen’s career started when he won a Bourne & Shepherd photography competition in 1887. Their nationwide distribution and processing/ printing network was one of the first to expand into film (by 1900) when, with the Bombaybased Clifton & Co., they started showing movies in their studios. Mainly sold or hired out equipment by Pathé-Freres, Gaumont and the Barker Motion Picture Co., aggressively marketing their services and making professional cameramen and crews available to shoot events of state or private importance on commission from the government, Indian royalty or business magnates (e.g. Pundalik, 1912). Until the establishment of Pathé (India) in 1907, companies like Bourne & Shepherd occasionally worked as agents for the Pathé Exchange, the International Newsreel Corp. and Fox Films, purchasing locally made documentaries for them as ‘News’ films, or the cheaper ‘Review’ films. The first extensively filmed public event in India, the British Royal Family’s visit in 1911 (shot by Patankar, Hiralal Sen, Madan Theatres and others) was also shot by the company: Their Imperial Majesties in Delhi (1911).

British Dominion Films Dhiren Ganguly’s third and best-known silent studio, set up in 1929 in Dumdum, Calcutta. Board of directors comprised P.C. Barua, the Rajahs of Puri, Khadia and Patna, Tarubala Sen, N.N. Mukherjee and K.C. Roy Choudhury with Ganguly as managing director. Financially supported by royalty, it also sought colonial state support. Productions include first films by Debaki Bose, writer-film-maker Dinesh Ranjan

Das and cameramen Sailen Bose and Dronacharya. Made only eight films. Closed down in 1930 as victim of the change to sound.

Burma, Phani (b. 1897) Bengali director born in Calcutta. Started as actor (e.g. Naresh Mitra’s Devdas, 1928; also Bangabala, 1929 and Bigraha and Mrinalini, both 1930). Turned director while starring in Shesh Path on location in Burma. Concentrated on direction from 1936 onwards. Co-directed Kamale Kamini with Nirmal Goswami. FILMOGRAPHY: 1930: Shesh Path (St); 1936: Krishna Sudama; Jhinjhinyar Jer; Bishabriksha; Prabas Milan; 1939: Janak Nandini; Debjani; 1940: Kamale Kamini; Byabadhan; Nimai Sanyasi; 1947: Mandir; 1952: Prahlad; Vishwamitra; 1954: Joydev; 1955: Shribatsa Chinta; 1957: Harishchandra; Onkarer Joy Jatra; Data Karna.

Burman, Rahul Dev (1939-94) Hindi composer aka Pancham. Entered films as assistant to his father S.D. Burman, often playing the mouth organ in his father’s orchestras. Trained under Ali Akbar Khan. Independent career coincided with the wave of early 70s Rajesh Khanna love stories (esp. Kati Patang, Amar Prem, Apna Desh) and the new lease of life they offered to singer Kishore Kumar. Informally assisted his father in composing the seminal Khanna-Kumar combination, Shakti Samanta’s Aradhana (1969). Breakthrough in Nasir Hussain musicals, starting with Baharon Ke Sapne and consolidated by the classic Zeenat Aman rock music teen-movie Yaadon Ki Baraat, having earlier scored her début Hare Rama Hare Krishna. Some of his best music is associated with Gulzar’s lyrics, e.g. Parichay and Aandhi. Brought Hindi film music into the era of electronic rock with a series of enormously popular youth movies, e.g. Narendra Bedi’s Jawani Diwani. Worked mostly with singers Asha Bhosle and Kishore Kumar, providing much of the music that defines their reputations. Also produced independent albums, including one based on the samba and one with British pop star Boy George. Occasionally sang his own songs in a unique, grunting bass (e.g. the Mehbooba mehbooba number in Sholay). 1942 : A Love Story, his last film released after his death, was a major musical success. FILMOGRAPHY (* also act): 1961: Chhote Nawab; 1965: Bhoot Bangla*; Teesra Kaun; 1966: Pati Patni; Teesri Manzil; 1967: Baharon Ke Sapne; Chandan Ka Palna; 1968: Abhilasha; Padosan; 1969: Pyar Ka Mausam*; Waris; 1970: Rajkumari; Ehsan; Kati Patang; Puraskaar; Raaton Ka Raja; Saas Bhi Kabhi Bahu Thi; The Train; 1971: Adhikar; Amar Prem; Buddha Mil Gaya; Caravan; Hangama; Hare Rama Hare Krishna; Lakhon Mein Ek; Mela; Paraya Dhan; Pyar Ki Kahani; Hulchul; Sanjog; 1972: Apna Desh; Bombay To Goa; Dil Ka Raja; Do Chor; Garam Masala; Gomti Ke Kinare; Jawani Diwani; Mere Jeevan Saathi;

Calcutta Theatres

Parichay; Parchaiyan; Raakhi Aur Hathkadi; Rampur Ka Lakshman; Rani Mera Naam; Samadhi; Savera; Seeta Aur Geeta; Shehzada; Double Cross; 1973: Aa Gale Lag Jaa; Anamika; Bada Kabutar; Bandhe Haath; Chhalia; Do Phool; Heera Panna; Hifazat; Jaise Ko Taisa; Jheel Ke Us Paar; Joshila; Nafrat; Namak Haram; Paanch Dushman; Raja Rani; Rickshawala; Shareef Badmash; Yaadon Ki Baraat; Mr Romeo; 1974: Aap Ki Kasam; Ajnabi; Benaam; Charitraheen; Dil Diwana; Doosri Seeta; Goonj; Humshakal; Imaan; Ishq Ishq Ishq; Khote Sikkay; Madhosh; Manoranjan; Phir Kab Milogi; Shaitan; Trimurti; Ujala Hi Ujala; Zehreela Insaan; 1975: Aandhi; Deewar; Dharam Karam; Kala Sona; Khel Khel Mein; Khushboo; Mazaaq; Raja; Sholay; Warrant; Kehte Hain Mujhko Raja; 1976: Balika Badhu; Bandalbaaz; Bhanwar; Bullet; Khalifa; Maha Chor; Mehbooba; Nehle Pe Dehla; Vishwasghaat; Dhongee; 1977: Chala Murari Hero Banne; Chalta Purza; Chandi Sona; Darling Darling; Hum Kisise Kum Nahin; Jeevanmukt; Karm; Kinara; Kitaab; Mukti; 1978: Azad; Bhola Bhala; Chor Ho To Aisa; Devata; Ghar; Heeralal Pannalal; Naukri; Kasme Vade; Naya Daur; Phandebaaz; Shalimar; 1979: Bhala Manus; Golmaal; The Great Gambler; Hamare Tumhare; Jhootha Kahin Ka; Jurmana; Manzil; Naukar; Ratnadeep; Salaam Memsaab; 1980: Aanchal; Abdullah; Alibaba Aur Chalis Chor; The Burning Train; Dhan Daulat; Jal Mahal; Khubsoorat; Phir Wohi Raat; Red Rose; Shaan; Sitara; Takkar; Bulandi; Gunehgaar; Qatil Kaun; 1981: Barsaat Ki Ek Raat/Anusandhan; Basera; Biwi-o-Biwi; Dhuaan; Gehra Zakhm; Ghunghroo Ki Awaaz; Harjaai; Jail Yatra; Kaliya; Kudrat; Love Story; Mangalsutra; Naram Garam; Raksha; Shaukeen; Rocky; Zamane Ko Dikhana Hai; Satte Pe Satta; Kachche Heere; Daulat; Angoor; Kalankini Kankabati; 1982: Aamne Samne; Ashanti; Bemisal; Ganga Meri Maa; Namkeen; Sanam Teri Kasam; Shakti; Swami Dada; Teri Kasam; Yeh To Kamaal Ho Gaya; Yeh Vaada Raha; Dard Ka Rishta; Masoom; Trayi; Aparoopa; 1983: Namumkin; Agar Tum Na Hote; Betaab; Chor Police; Jaan-e-Jaan; Kaun? Kaise?; Lovers; Mahaan; Main Awara Hoon; Mazdoor; Pukar; Qayamat; Rang Birangi; Romance; Shubh Kaamna; Farishta; Boxer; Bindiya Chamkegi; Bade Dil Wala; Aan Aur Shaan; 1984: Anand Aur Anand; Andar Bahar; Awaaz; Bheema; Duniya; Hum Hain Lajawaab; Jagir/Teen Murti; Jawani; Sunny; Jhootha Sach; Karishma; Mati Mange Khoon; Manzil Manzil; Yeh Desh; Zameen Aasmaan; Hum Dono; Musafir; 1985: Aar Paar/Anyay Abichar; Alag Alag; Amir Admi Gareeb Admi; Arjun; Awara Baap; Ek Se Bhale Do; Lava; Oonche Log; Rahi Badal Gaye; Ram Tere Kitne Naam; Joshilay; Sagar; Shiva Ka Insaaf; Sitamgarh; Zabardast; Savere Wali Gadi; Hum Naujawan; Rusvai; 1986: Bond 303; Anokha Rishta; Ek Main Aur Ek Tu; Jeeva; Palay Khan; Samundar; Shatru; Zindagani; 1987: Apne Apne; Dacait; Hifazat; Inaam Dus Hazaar; Itihaas; Jallianwala Bagh; Ekanto Apon; Ijaazat; Belagaam; 1988: Agun; Mardon Wali Baat; Zalzala; Rama-o-Rama; Mil Gayi Manzil Mujhe; Chatran; Faisla; Libaas; 1989: Aag Se

Khelenge; Dost; Parinda; Aakrosh; Jankar; Jurrat; Bahurani; Ladaai (B); Shatarupa; 1990: Ekhane Amar Swarga*; Jeene Do; Dushman; Chor Pe Mor; Apon Amar Apon; Debata; 1991: Gunehgaar Kaun; Indrajit; Bourani; Nawab; Ananda Niketan; 1992: Jhoothi Shaan; Sarphira; Siyasat; Drohi; Khule Aam; Shet Patharer Thala; Krodhi; Adhikar; Maa; Purshottam; 1993: Gurudev; Gardish; Tum Karo Vaada; Puraskaar; Kanyadaan (only act.); Bhranta Pathik (only act.); Shraddhanjali; 1994: 1942 : A Love Story; Sukhi Sansarachi Bara Sutre; Janam Se Pehle; Shesh Chitthi; Ajana Path.

Burman, Sachin Dev (1906-75) Music director born in Tripura. Classical training by his father, sitarist and Dhrupad singer Nabadwipchandra Dev Burman; later with Ustad Badal Khan and Bhishmadev Chattopadhyay. Early work for radio was based on East Bengali and North Eastern folk-music. In early 30s made a reputation in Bengal as singer of folk and light classical music, e.g. at the Allahabad Sangeet Sammelan (Music Conference) in 1935. First record was of a Nazrul Islam composition, leading to a long and productive relationship with the writer/ composer. Film début singing for Pankaj Mullick in Atorthy’s Yahudi Ki Ladki (1933) but the songs were scrapped and re-sung by Pahadi Sanyal. First film as singer: Tinkari Chakraborty’s Sanjher Pidim (1935); also acted in Dhiren Ganguli’s Bidrohi (1935). Music director from 1939 onwards in Calcutta. Moved to Bombay (1944) and worked at Filmistan (Eight Days, Shabnam), Navketan (Afsar, Taxi Driver, Funtoosh, Guide) and for Guru Dutt (Baazi, Jaal, Pyaasa, Kaagaz Ke Phool). Remained Dev Anand’s key composer for several years (Paying Guest, Tere Ghar Ke Saamne, Jewel Thief, Prem Pujari). Also worked on films for Bimal Roy (Devdas, Sujata, Bandini). Film compositions often influenced by his huge repertory of folk-tunes from the Bengali Bhatiali, Sari and Dhamail traditions of the North East. As a singer, his thin but powerful, accented voice was often used as a bardic commentary: e.g. the Wahan kaun hai tera musafir number in Guide, Safal hogi teri aradhana in the hit Rajesh Khanna movie Aradhana. Wrote an autobiography: Sargamer Nikhad. FILMOGRAPHY: 1937: Rajgee; 1939: Jakher Dhan; 1940: Amar Geeti; Rajkumarer Nirbashan; 1941: Pratishodh; 1942: Mahakavi Kalidas; Avayer Biye; Milan; Jiban Sangini; Ashok; 1943: Jajsaheber Nathni; 1944: Chhadmabeshi; Matir Ghar; Pratikar; 1945: Kalankini; 1946: Matrihara; Shikari; Eight Days; 1947: Chittor Vijay; Dil Ki Rani; Do Bhai; 1948: Vidya; 1949: Kamal; Shabnam; 1950: Afsar; Mashaal/Samar; Pyar; 1951: Baazi; Bahar; Buzdil; Ek Nazar; Naujawan; Sazaa; Babla; 1952: Jaal; Lal Kunwar; 1953: Armaan; Jeevan Jyoti; Shahenshah; 1954: Angarey; Chalis Baba Ek Chor; Radha Krishna; Taxi Driver; 1955: Devdas; House Number 44; Madh Bhare Nain; Munimji; Society; 1956: Funtoosh; 1957: Miss India;

Nau Do Gyarah; Paying Guest; Pyaasa; 1958: Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi; Kala Pani; Lajwanti; Sitaron Se Aage; Solva Saal; 1959: Insaan Jaag Utha; Kaagaz Ke Phool; Sujata; 1960: Apna Haath Jagannath; Bambai Ka Babu; Bewaqoof; Ek Ke Baad Ek; Kala Bazaar; Manzil; Miya Bibi Razi; 1962: Baat Ek Raat Ki; Dr Vidya; Naughty Boy; 1963: Bandini; Meri Soorat Teri Aankhen; Tere Ghar Ke Saamne; 1964: Benazir; Kaise Kahun; Ziddi; 1965: Guide; Teen Deviyan; 1967: Jewel Thief; 1969: Aradhana; Jyoti; Talash; 1970: Ishq Par Zor Nahin; Prem Pujari; 1971: Gambler; Naya Zamana; Sharmilee; Tere Mere Sapne; 1972: Anuraag; Yeh Gulistan Hamara; Zindagi Zindagi; 1973: Abhimaan; Chhupa Rustom; Jugnu; Phagun; 1974: Prem Nagar; Sagina; Us Paar; 1975: Chupke Chupke; Mili; 1976: Arjun Pandit; Barood; Deewangee; Tyaag.

Calcutta Theatres Commercial theatre movement in late 19th and early 20th C. Calcutta, drawing on 18th C. British amateur theatricals, Gerasim Lebedeff’s (1749-1817) influential Bengally Theatre (Est: 1795) and ‘private’ theatres from which emerged the first major Bengali playwright, Michael Madhusudhan Dutt (1824-73). Cultural and economic pinnacle coincided with the career of writer-actor Girishchandra Ghosh (1844-1912), first at National Theatre and later Minerva Theatre (1893-1912), including Ghosh’s mythologicals, Dwijendralal Roy’s historicals and Khirode Prasad Vidyavinode’s musicals (notably Alibaba). Influenced by the Shakespearean Parsee Theatre, a realist current contemporaneous with the reformist Bengali novel (e.g. Dinabandhu Mitra’s Nildarpan, staged by National in 1872, about the condition of peasants in Bengal’s indigo plantations) and by operatic ballet in the Madan repertories. Also significant was the mediation of amateur theatre in Shantiniketan and Jorasanko: Rabindranath Tagore’s musical theatre (Tasher Desh, Balmiki Pratibha) and dance dramas (Chandalika, Chitrangada), e.g. by Modhu Bose’s Calcutta Amateur Players. Early 20th C. stage industry counted many very successful companies usually owned by rich financiers and run by manager-impresarios. They had a determinating impact on the early Bengali film industry (see Hiralal Sen and Madan Theatres). Conventionally, modern 20th C. Bengali theatre dates back to Star Theatres’ 1923 production of Karnarjun (starring Ahindra Choudhury, Naresh Mitra and Durgadas Bannerjee). Sisir Bhaduri’s plays at Natyamandir later provided a generic backdrop to radical ‘group’ theatre movements launched in early 40s (see Utpal Dutt). The era of the great public theatres was later often evoked in films as pre-war nostalgia or as the nascent origin of Bengal’s mass-culture industry (e.g. the New Theatres’ Abhinetri/ Haar Jeet, 1940 and Meri Bahen, 1944). Established several key genres, including the historical and mythological, for the cinema as much as for the popular Jatra theatre. Chakraborty, Madhabi see Mukherjee, Madhabi 71

Chakraborty, Mithun

Chakraborty, Mithun (b. 1956) Bengali-Hindi actor. Major hits B. Subhash’s Disco Dancer and Dance Dance earned him a major following in India and abroad, esp. in the USSR. Early work in realist ‘political’ films, e.g. Mrigaya, The Naxalites and Hum Paanch. Later achieved a brand image with gangland thrillers, indigenous Westerns and love stories for mid-level producers like Raveekant Nagaich, offering cheaper variants of what Bachchan was doing in the top bracket. Late 80s marketing strategies often cast him alongside Bachchan, playing second lead (Manmohan Desai’s Ganga Jamuna Saraswati, Mukul Anand’s Agneepath). Regarded in the late 80s as the ‘safest’ investment in Hindi cinema, although he had no major hits until Vijay Sadanah’s Pyar Jhukta Nahin, because he appealed to the semi-urban and rural audiences which sustained long-term distribution. Changed his image in Buddhadev Dasgupta’s Tahader Katha to win the national acting award. FILMOGRAPHY: 1976: Do Anjaane; Mrigaya; 1977: Mukti; 1978: Hamara Sansar; Mera Rakshak; Tere Pyar Mein; Kasturi; Phool Khile Hain Gulshan Gulshan; Nadi Theke Sagare; 1979: Amar Deep; Bhayanak; Prem Vivah; Suraksha; Tarana; The Naxalites; Chameli Memsahib; 1980: Aakhri Insaaf; Bansari; Beshaque; Patita; Sitara; Taxi Chor; Unees Bees; Khwab; Kismet; Hum Paanch; Ghamandi; 1981: Dhuaan; Humse Badhkar Kaun; Jeene Ki Arzoo; Laparwah; Main Aur Mera Hathi; Sahas; Wardat; Kalankini Kankabati; Pahadi Phool; Upalabdhi; Sameera; Shaukeen; 1982: Aadat Se Majboor; Aamne Samne; Ashanti; Disco Dancer; Heeron Ka Chor; Sun Sajna; Swami Dada; Taqdeer Ka Badshah; Ustadi Ustad Se; Trayi; 1983: Faraib; Humse Hai Zamana; Karate; Kaun? Kaise?; Mujhe Insaaf Chahiye; Marriage Bureau;

Mithun Chakraborty in Dushman (1990) 72

Pasand Apni Apni; Taqdeer; Woh Jo Haseena; Boxer; Lal Chunaria; Wanted; 1984: Baazi; Ghar Ek Mandir; Pyar Jhukta Nahin; Jhootha Sach; Jaag Utha Insaan; Jagir/Teen Murti; Kasam Paida Karne Wale Ki; Rakta Bandhan; Tarkeeb; Hanste Khelte; Sharara; Teri Baahon Mein; 1985: Aandhi Toofan; Aar Paar/Anyay Abichar; Badal; Bepanah; Char Maharathi; Ghulami; Karishma Kudrat Ka; Karm Yudh; Maa Kasam; Pyari Behna; Yaadon Ki Kasam; Ek Aur Sikandar; 1986: Aisa Pyar Kahan; Amma; Avinash; Baat Ban Jaye; Dilwala; Jaal; Karamdata; Kismatwala; Main Balwan; Nasihat; Pyar Ke Do Pal; Sheesha; Swarg Se Sundar; Zindagani; Muddat; 1987: Dance Dance; Diwana Tere Naam Ka; Hawalaat; Hirasat; Mera Yaar Mera Dushman; Param Dharam; Parivar; Watan Ke Rakhwale; 1988: Charnon Ki Saugandh; Commando; Jeete Hain Shaan Se; Pyar Ka Mandir; Rukhsat; Waqt Ki Awaaz; Saazish; Sagar Sangam; Ganga Jamuna Saraswati; Agni; Bees Saal Baad; Mar Mitenge; Meri Zabaan; Mil Gayi Manzil Mujhe; 1989: Guru; Hum Intezar Karenge; Ilaaka; Prem Pratigya; Garibon Ka Daata; Daata; Aakhri Gulam; Hisab Khoon Ka; Mujrim; Dost; Dana Pani; Ladaai; Bhrashtachar; Swarna Trishna; Galiyon Ka Badshah; Aakhri Badla; 1990: Pyar Ke Naam Qurban; Agneepath; Gunahon Ka Devta; Humse Na Takrana; Paap Ki Kamaai; Pati Patni Aur Tawaif; Roti Ke Keemat; Pyar Ka Karz; Pyar Ka Devata; Dushman; Shandaar; 1991: Swarg Yahan Narak Yahan; Trinetra; Pratigyabadh; Pyar Hua Chori Chori; Shikari; Numbri Admi; Dil Ashna Hai; 1992: Tahader Katha; Mere Sajna Saath Nibhana; Raju Dada; Jhoothi Shaan; Pitambar; Ghar Jamai; 1993: Yugandhar; Phool Aur Angaar; Krishan Avatar; Meharbaan; Pardesi; Jeevan Ki Shatranj; Admi; Dalaal; Tadipaar; Shatranj; 1994: Parmatma; Cheetah; Kranti Kshetra; Rakhwale; Yaar Gaddar; Teesra Kaun?; 1995: Ab Insaaf Hoga; Gunehgaar; Nishana; The

Don; Zakhmi Sipahi; Ahankaar; Jallad; Diya Aur Toofan; Bhagyadevata.

Chakraborty, Tulsi (1899-1961) Actor born in Calcutta. Acted the gormless fool in dozens of Bengali comedies in the 30s, an image used by Satyajit Ray in Parash Pathar casting him as Paresh Dutta, a middleaged bank clerk who discovers the philosopher’s stone. His image, characterised by his bald head, bulging eyes and a remarkable sense of timing is an enduring icon of early Bengali cinema. Known initially as a singer and dancer on the stage, e.g. in his major stage début for Star Theatres, Jaidev. Film début in Atorthy’s Punarjanma, also in a singing role. Acted in several New Theatres productions, e.g. by Hemchandra Chunder (Wapas, Meri Bahen) and Kartick Chattopadhyay (Ramer Sumati, Mahaprasthaner Pathey), Bimal Roy mobilised his earthy caricature of the Bengali middle class in a ‘realist’ context (Udayer Pathey, Anjangarh, Naukri). Premendra Mitra (Moyla Kagaj), Tapan Sinha and Ray (in Pather Panchali, where he played the schoolteacher) extended this vein. Other classic roles incl. the villain in Mejdidi and the central character of the landlord in the hit Sharey Chuattar. He demonstrated his musical abilities only occasionally in his later career, e.g. in Debaki Bose’s Kavi, singing his own compositions. Continued acting in theatre until 1961 (last play: Shreyasi) working with Star, Natyaniketan (e.g. Maa) and at Natyabharati and Rungmahal companies. FILMOGRAPHY: 1932: Punarjanma; 1933: Shri Gauranga; 1934: Dhruva; Sachidulal; Daksha Yagna; Rajnati Basantsena; 1935: Manmoyee Girls’ School; Kanthahaar; 1936: Krishna Sudama; Kritiman; Prabas Milan; Chino Haar; 1938: Halbangala; Bekar Nashan; Abhinaya; Ekalavya; 1939: Nara Narayan; Parasmani; Rikta; Vaman Avatar; Janak Nandini; 1940: Kamale Kamini; Nimai Sanyasi; 1941: Shri Radha; Uttarayan; Pratisruti; 1942: Meenakshi; Shesh Uttar/ Jawab; Garmil; Saugandh; 1943: Jogajog/ Hospital; Shri Ramanuja; Wapas; Swamir Ghar; Aleya; Poshya Putra; Dampati; Dikshul; 1944: All-Star Tragedy; Meri Bahen; Subah Shyam; Takraar; Udayer Pathey/Hamrahi; Sondhi/Sandhi; 1945: Vasiyatnama; Path Bendhe Dilo; Mane Na Mana; Bhabhi-Kaal; Dui Purush; 1946: Biraj Bou; Vande Mataram; 1947: Giribala; Jharer Parey; Alaknanda; Abhijog; Dui Bandhu; Gharoa; Ramer Sumati/Chhota Bhai; 1948: Samapika; Anjangarh; Anirban; Bhuli Naai; Bankalekha; Priyatama; Sankha Sindoor; Taruner Swapna; Sir Shankarnath; Umar Prem(?); Mati-o-Manush; 1949: Satero Bachhar Pare; Kavi; Bishnupriya; Swami; Manzoor; 1950: Radha Rani; Rupkatha/Roop Kahani; Mejdidi; Kuhelika; 1951: Biplabi Kshudiram; Ratnadeep/Ratnadeepam; Babla; 1952: Mahaprasthaner Pathey/ Yatrik; Patri Chai; Abu Hossain; Chhoti Maa; 1953: Bana Hansi; Nabin Yatra/Naya Safar; Sharey Chuattar; Shri Shri Satyanarayan; Chirantani; Chikitsa Sankat; Jhakmari; 1954:

Chandra, N.

Maa-o-Chhele; Atom Bomb; Moyla Kagaj; Moner Mayur; Ora Thake Odhare; Naramedh Yagna; Champadangar Bou; Prafulla; Ladies’ Seat; Jagrihi; Sadanander Mela; Annapurnar Mandir; Chheley Kaar; Bokul/ Bakul; Shoroshi; Grihapravesh; Jadubhatta; Naukri; 1955: Shribatsa-Chinta; Nishiddha Phal; Chhoto Bou; Aparadhi; Jharer Parey; Joymakali Boarding; Katha Kao; Upahar; Pather Panchali; Godhuli; Devimalini; Paresh; Du-Janay; Sabar Uparey; Kalindi; Sanjher Pradeep; 1956: Shyamali; Saheb Bibi Golam; Savdhan; Chirakumar Sabha; Ekti Raat; Asamapta; Rajpath; Nagardola; Chore; Amar Bou; Nabajanma; Asha; 1957: Sindoor; Ektara; Adarsha Hindu Hotel; Abhishek; Abhoyer Biye; Baksiddha; Madhabir Jonye; Tamasha; Janmatithi; Parash Pathar; Ajantrik; Kancha-Mithey; Ogo Sunchho; Chandranath; 1958: Meja Jamai; Yamalaya Jibanta Manush; Sonar Kathi; Rajalakshmi-oShrikanta; Nupur; Swarga Martya; Jonakir Alo; Sadhak Bama Kshyapa; Indrani; Joutuk; Surya Toran; Shri Shri Tarakeshwar; Rajdhani Theke; 1959: Chaowa-Pawa; Thakur Haridas; Derso Khokhar Kando; Deep Jweley Jai; Gali Theke Rajpath; Nirdharita Silpir Anupastithi Tey; Abak Prithvi; Mriter Martye Agaman; Personal Assistant; 1960: Maya Mriga; Kuhak; AkashPatal; Bhoy; Dui Bechara; Khokha Babur Pratyabartan; Khudha; Kono-Ek-Din; Shesh Paryanta; Ajana Kahini; Nader Nimai; Suno Baro Nari; Gariber Meye; 1961: Sandhya Raag; Manik; Sadhak Kamalakanta; Lakshmi Narayan; Mr & Mrs Choudhury; Bishkanya; Swayambara; Kanchanmulya; Aaj Kal Parshu; Madhureno; Saptapadi; Dui Bhai; Kanamachi; 1962: Mon Dilona Bandhu; Suryasnan; Shasti; Agun; Kajal; Shesh Chinha; Banarasi; 1963: Dui Bari; High Heel.

Chakraborty, Utpalendu (b. 1948) Bengali director, musician and novelist. Born in Pabna Dist. (now Bangladesh). Was influenced in early youth by his uncle, Communist writer Swarnakamal Bhattacharya who wrote Chinnamul and Tathapi (both 1950). Master’s degree in modern history from University of Calcutta (1967) and associated with CPI(ML)led student agitations. Published emphatically emotive short stories in anthology Prasab under the name of Swaranamitra. Worked as informal teacher among the tribals of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa until ill health forced his return to Calcutta (1971). Taught at higher secondary school. First film was 16mm documentary Mukti Chai made during the Emergency, campaigning for the release of political prisoners. Subsequent features, made with reluctance given his often-declared mistrust of both state and private funding agencies, continue his emphatic discursive style. Worked for TV (inc. Chaturtha Panir Pather Yuddha, Shatabarshe Mohun Bagan); also made a documentary on S. Ray. FILMOGRAPHY: 1977: Mukti Chai (Doc); 1980: Moyna Tadanta; 1982: Chokh; 1983: Debabrata Biswas (Doc); 1984: Music of Satyajit Ray (Doc); 1985: Debshishu; 1986: Aparichita (TV); Rang (TV); 1988: Bikalpa (TV); 1989: Phansi; Janani (TV); Dwibachan

(TV); Sonar Chheye Dami (TV); Chhandaneer; 1994: Prasab.

Chakrapani (?-1975) Legendary Telugu scenarist, producer and journalist; co-owner of the Vijaya Studio with B. Nagi Reddy. Born as Aluri Venkata Subba Rao in Tenali, Guntur Dist., AP. Became a Hindi scholar and briefly started a Hindi school. Participated in Gandhi’s salt agitations. Started a literary career translating Saratchandra Chattopadhyay into Telugu. First script: P. Pullaiah’s Dharmapatni (1940); first success with B.N. Reddi’s melodrama Swargaseema (1945) based on his story. Joined Nagi Reddy as a partner at Vijaya, scripting all its influential early L.V. Prasad hits: Shavukaru (1950), Pelli Chesi Choodu (1952), Missiamma (1955), Appu Chesi Pappu Koodu (1958). Started, on behalf of Nagi Reddy’s BNK Press, the children’s monthly Chandamama (1947), now published in 14 languages. Also started the popular journal Yuva. Credited himself with the direction of Manithan Maravillai, which is the Tamil version of K. Kameshwara Rao’s Chakrapani-scripted hit Gundamma Katha (1962), as well as Shri Rajeshwari Vilas Coffee Club (1976), remaking the Malayalam film Marunattil Oru Malayali (1971). He is satirised in the film Chakrapani (1954).

Chakravarty, Amiya (1912-57) Hindi director born in Rangpur. Child actorsinger on stage. Full-time political activist in early 30s, arrested during the Salt Satyagraha (1930) and forced to leave Bengal in 1935. Joined Bombay Talkies apparently as Bengali tutor to Niranjan Pal’s son. Scenarist of Najam Naqvi’s Punar Milan (1940, with Gyan Mukherjee) and Sushil Majumdar’s Char Aankhen (1944). Assigned by Devika Rani to direct her and Ashok Kumar (in Anjaan) when she took over studio management following Himansu Rai’s death. The split that followed with the establishment of Filmistan (1942), and the major success of Basant (introducing Mumtaz Shanti) and Jwar Bhata (Dilip Kumar’s début) made him the studio’s top director in its most controversial period. With N.R. Acharya (Naya Sansar, 1941), pioneered a new generation of film-making at Bombay Talkies, but adhered more to the Osten-Rai orthodoxy, especially in scripts and performances. Formed production company Mars & Movies, e.g. the successful Dilip Kumar film Daag. His last feature was completed by Nitin Bose. FILMOGRAPHY: 1941: Anjaan; 1942: Basant; 1944: Jwar Bhata; 1947: Mera Suhaag; 1949: Girls’ School; 1950: Gauna; 1951: Badal; 1952: Daag; 1953: Patita; Shahenshah; 1954: Badshah; 1955: Seema; 1957: Dekh Kabira Roya; Kathputli.

Chanakya, Tapi (1925-73) Telugu director born in Vizianagaram, Andhra Pradesh. Son of scenarist/lyricist Tapi Dharma Rao. Early interests in Telugu theatre. Was a

radio telegraphist, also in the Army. Assistant in the sound department at Shobhanachala Studios, Madras (1947). Début at the Sarathi Studios where his first film, Anta Manavalle, was a hit. His next one, Rojulu Marayi, was even bigger. It had an anti-feudal ruralist theme, Waheeda Rehman’s screen début as a dancer and a score that was widely imitated in 50s Telugu film music. Later worked at Vijaya Studios and also in Tamil (the MGR hit Enga Veetu Pillai), Hindi (e.g. Ram Aur Shyam). His Bangaru Talli was a Telugu remake of Mother India (1957) starring Jaggaiah, Jamuna (in Nargis’ role) and Shobhan Babu. FILMOGRAPHY: 1954: Anta Manavalle; 1955: Rojulu Marayi/Kalam Maripochu; 1957: Peddarikalu; 1958: Ettuku Pai Ettu; 1959: Bhagya Devatha/Bhagya Devathai; Kalisivunte Kaladu Sukham; 1960: Kumkumarekha; Jalsarayudu; Pudhiya Pathai; 1962: Constable Koothuru; 1964: Varasatwam; Ramudu Bheemudu; 1965: CID; Enga Veetu Pillai; Enga Veetu Penn; 1966: Adugu Jadalu; Naan Anaittal; 1967: Ram Aur Shyam; 1968: Oli Vilakku; Pudhiya Bhoomi; 1969: Madhavi; 1970: Vidhi Vilasam; 1971: Bangaru Talli; Man Mandir; Bikhare Moti; 1972: Jaanwar Aur Insaan; Bandhipotu Bhayankara; Manavata; Subah-o-Shyam; 1973: Ganga Manga.

Chander, Krishan (1914-77) One of the main modern Urdu writers. Regarded, with Sadat Hasan Manto and Rajinder Singh Bedi, as the literary generation that revolutionised post-war fiction, esp. the short story. Author of c.30 short-story anthologies and 20 novels. Best-known early writing set in native Kashmir, often elaborating strong contrasts between social oppression and the fertility of surrounding nature (e.g. Tilism-eKhayal). Short satire, Annadata, adopted multiple pov narrative to describe the 1943 Bengal famine and was an important source for Abbas’s Dharti Ke Lal (1946). His major novel, Jab Khet Jaage, situated in the 1949 Telangana peasant uprising, was adapted by Gautam Ghose’s Maabhoomi (1979). Employed in early 40s as dialogue writer at Shalimar Cinetone, Pune, along with other noted Hindi/Urdu writers. Josh Malihabadi records their collective experiences there in his book Yaadon Ki Baraat (published in Pakistan). Also worked at Sagar. Wrote scripts and dialogue, e.g. for K.B. Lall and Kardar. Adapted Minoo Masani’s Our India to the screen for Zils (Hindustan Hamara, 1950); also scripted his Zalzala (1952). Directed one film he didn’t write: Private Secretary (1962).

Chandra, N. (b. 1952) Hindi director. Full name: Chandrasekhar Narvekar. Born in Bombay. One of the most commercially successful directors in late 80s Hindi cinema. Former film editor and assistant to Gulzar; also assisted Bapu. His Shiv Sena propaganda film Ankush and his first independent production Tezaab relied on violence and recognisably Bombay settings. Claims to have first-hand experience of his 73

Chandrakant Gaur

plot-lines in his own working-class antecedents. The dialogue and several visual references, evoking Bombay’s encoded and highly communal inner-city speech forms, are a brutalised yet more complex version of Manmohan Desai’s style (e.g. Tezaab, which contained the megahit song Ek Do Teen). Scripts and edits his own films. FILMOGRAPHY: 1985: Ankush; 1987: Pratighaat; 1988: Tezaab; 1991: Narasimha; Hamla; 1993: Yugandhar.

Chandrakant Gaur (b. 1929) Hindi B-movie director of action films and mythologicals. His work extends the Babubhai Mistri tradition, featuring Dara Singh (who also worked for Mistri) and Marathi star Jayshree Gadkar. Made Punjabi hits (e.g. Bhagat Dhanna Jat) reviving the Punjabi cinema. Also made Gujarati mythologicals. FILMOGRAPHY: 1951: Riding Hero; 1955: Ganga Maiya; 1956: Delhi Durbar; 1957: Adhi Raat; Sant Raghu; 1958: Circus Sundari; 1959: Jaggu Daku; 1961: Ramleela; 1962: Jadugar Daku; 1963: Maya Mahal; Zingaro; 1964: Badshah; Roop Sundari; Veer Bhimsen; 1968: Balaram Shri Krishna; 1970: Tarzan 303; 1971: Tulasi Vivah; Kabhi Dhoop Kabhi Chhaon; 1972: Hari Darshan; 1973: Mahasati Savitri; 1974: Kisan Aur Bhagwan; Har Har Mahadev; Bhagat Dhanna Jat; 1976: Bajrang Bali; 1977: Bolo He Chakradari; Shri Krishna Sharanam Mama; 1979: Shankar Parvati; 1984: Shravan Kumar; 1986: Krishna Krishna. Chandrakant Sangani see Sangani, Chandrakant

Chandramohan (1905-49) Actor born in Narasingpur. Employed by Prabhat’s distributors, Famous Pics. Cast by Shantaram in Amritmanthan mainly for his one physical characteristic: unusually large grey eyes, used to advantage in the film’s famous opening sequence. Subsequently cast as elaborately costumed villain in several films, e.g. the Macbeth figure in Jwala, the evil Ravana in Vijay Bhatt’s mythological Rambaan. Mostly acted in mythologicals and historicals (the Emperor Jehangir in Sohrab Modi’s Pukar, and Randhir Singh in Mehboob’s Humayun) but best remembered as the rapacious industrialist Seth Dharamdas in Mehboob’s Roti. FILMOGRAPHY: 1934: Amritmanthan; 1935: Dharmatma; 1936: Amar Jyoti; 1937: Wahan; 1938: Jwala; 1939: Pukar; 1940: Bharosa; Geeta; 1942: Apna Ghar/Aple Ghar; Jhankar; Roti; 1943: Fashion; Naukar; Shakuntala; Taqdeer; 1944: Bade Nawab Saheb; Draupadi; Mumtaz Mahal; Raunaq; Us Paar; 1945: Humayun; Pannadai; Preet; Ramayani; 1946: Magadhraj; Shalimar; Shravan Kumar; 1948: Dukhiari; Rambaan; Shaheed; 1950: Chocolate; 1954: Ramayan; 1955: Bal Ramayan; 1971 : Pakeezah. 74

Chandrasekhar, Raja (1904-71) Tamil and Kannada director born in Tiruchirapalli, TN; aka Raja C. Sekhar. Former textile engineer. Started in film in Bombay (1926). Assistant to Fatma Begum (1929). Later with General Pics and East India Film. First film adapted Veeranna’s stage hit Sadarame. Early practitioner of Tamil costume dramas derived from Bombay version of Douglas Fairbanks movies. Was the film-maker who (with Duncan) gave Tamil superstar MGR his breaks (Dakshayagnam, Maya Machhindra, Ashok Kumar). May have co-directed Badami’s début, Harishchandra at Sagar Film, although some sources credit co-direction of the film to T.C. Vadivelu Naicker. FILMOGRAPHY: 1932: Harishchandra; 1935: Sadarame; Gnanasoundari; 1936: Chandramohana; Raja Desingu; 1937: Bhakta Tulsidas; 1938: Dakshayagnam; 1939: Maya Machhindra; 1941: Ashok Kumar; 1943: Arundhati; 1948: Raja Mukthi.

Chatterjee, Anil (b. 1928) Actor born in Calcutta. Degree in literature and stage actor (e.g. in Eric Elliot’s Shakespeare Group). Introduced in Ritwik Ghatak films and later, with Bijon Bhattacharya and Kali Bannerjee, featured in several roles (e.g. as Rishi in Komal Gandhar and singer Shankar in Meghe Dhaka Tara). Central to Ghatak’s integration of folk/popular and classical performance styles. Best-known early 60s films with Satyajit Ray: Teen Kanya (the postmaster), Kanchanjungha (flirtatious photographer Anil), Mahanagar (lead role of Subrata Majumdar), Devi. Played numerous lead and supporting roles in Bengali films by Tapan Sinha, and in socials pioneered by the Agradoot and Yatrik units. Other major roles are that of the psychopath in Agni Sanskar, the title role in Deshbandhu Chittaranjan and the negative character taking on Dilip Kumar in Sagina Mahato. Recent films include those of Utpalendu Chakraborty (Chokh), Gautam Ghose (Paar) and Aparna Sen (Paroma). Music director for Mayabini Lane (1966); also worked as assistant director (e.g. Jog Biyog, Dhuli, Asabarna). FILMOGRAPHY: 1952: Nagarik; 1953: Jog Biyog; 1954: Moyla Kagaj; Dhuli; 1955: Sajghar; Bidhilipi; 1956: Asabarna; 1957: Garer Math; Ulka; Abhishek; Ajantrik; 1958: Priya; Rajalakshmi-o-Shrikanta; Kalamati; 1959: Marutirtha Hinglaj; Chaowa-Pawa; Shri Shri Nityananda Prabhu; Deep Jweley Jai; Rater Andhakare; Kshaniker Atithi; 1960: Akash-Patal; Dui Bechara; Devi; Meghe Dhaka Tara; Gariber Meye; Kono-Ek-Din; Smriti Tuku Thak; Aparadh; 1961: Mr & Mrs Choudhury; Komal Gandhar; Agni Sanskar; Swaralipi; Teen Kanya; Megh; Kanchanmulya; Ahwan; 1962: Kancher Swarga; Suryasnan; Kanchanjungha; Agun; Bandhan; Shesh Chinha; Kumari Mon; Rakta Palash; 1963: Dui Bari; Barnachora; Uttarayan; High Heel; Nirjan Saikate; Mahanagar; 1964: Kaalsrote; Jotugriha; Sindoore Megh; Ashanta Ghoorni; Sandhya

Deeper Sikha; Ketumi; 1965: Faraar; Jaya; Ghoom Bhangar Gaan; Devatar Deep; 1966: Ashru Diye Lekha; Nutan Jiban; Sannata; 1967: Akash Chhoan; Mahashweta; 1968: Baluchari; Boudi; Jiban Sangeet; Panchasar; 1969: Protidan; Teer Bhoomi; 1970: Samanaral; Muktisnan; Sagina Mahato; Deshbandhu Chittaranjan; 1971: Khunje Berai; Pratham Basanta; Sona Boudi; 1972: Bohurupee; Bilet Pherat; Duranta Jay; Chhandapatan; 1973: Andhar Periye; Bon Palashir Padabali; Alo Andhare; Megher Pare Megh; 1974: Alor Thikana; Sujata; Sagina; Amanush; Phulu Thakurma; Raja; 1975: Ami Sey-o-Sekha; Phool Sajya; Bandi Bidhata; Sabhyasachi; Harmonium; 1976: Mom Batti; Ajasra Dhanyabad; Nayan; Aguner Phulki; Asomoy; Ek Je Chhilo Desh; Samrat; 1977: Avatar; Kabita; Pratima; Shesh Raksha; 1978: Dhanraj Tamang; Maan Abhiman; Singhdwar; Striker; Tusi; Chameli Memsaheb; Hirey Manik; Lattu; Parichay; 1979: Dour; Jiban Je Rakam; Chameli Memsaab; 1980: Byapika Biday; Kalo Chokher Tara; 1981: Saheb; Upalabdhi; 1982: Chokh; Swarna Mahal; Prahari; Bandini Kamala; Shubha Rajani; Bijoyini; Trayi; Sati Savitri Satyavan; Sonar Bangla; Agradani; 1983: Muktir Din; Aloye Phera; Sagar Balaka; Jay Parajay; Mohoner Dike; Banashree; 1984: Debigarjan; Didi; Anveshan; Ankahee; Surya Trishna; Andhi Gali; Paar; Mukta Pran; Sonar Sansar; Ajantay; Jog Biyog; 1985: Amar Prithibi; Paroma/Parama; Putulghar; 1986: Ashirwad; Atanka; Madhumoy; Artanad; 1987: Bandookbaj; Rudrabina; Mahamilan; Aaj Ka Robin Hood; 1988: Boba Sanai; Apaman; Surer Sathi; Ek Din Achanak; Tumi Koto Sundar; 1989: Bandhobi; Chokher Aloye; Amar Shapath; Aghaton Ajo Ghatey; Swarna Trishna; Aakhri Badla; Nyaya Chakra; Shubha Kamana; Natun Surya; 1990: Agnikanya; 1991: Kagajer Nauka; Prashna; Anand; Palatak; Bourani; 1992: Rupaban Kanya; Indrajit; Ananya; 1993: Rangbaj; Amar Kahini; Shakti; Tomar Rakte Amar Sohag; 1994: Mahabharati; 1995: Mejo Bou.

Chatterjee, Basu (b. 1930) Hindi director born in Ajmer, Rajasthan. Arrived in Bombay in the 50s and worked for 18 years as cartoonist-illustrator for weekly tabloid Blitz. Helped found the Film Forum Society (1959). Assisted Basu Bhattacharya on Teesri Kasam (1966). Worked in western region of Federation of Film Societies of India and on editorial board of Close Up, published by Film Forum in the 70s. First film Sara Akash noted for award-winning work of cinematographer K.K. Mahajan. Second film, Piya Ka Ghar, adapted Raja Thakur’s Marathi melodrama Mumbaicha Javai (1970), set in a lower-class tenement in Bombay. Moved to low-budget middle class comedies starring Amol Palekar (Rajanigandha, Chhotisi Baat), which he adapted into a formula of rapidly shot sentimental low budget films. Made 4 TV serials (1985-9), shooting and editing 30’ episodes in two days each. Best known for Rajani (about consumer rights), Darpan (a dramatisation of well-known short stories) and Kakkaji Kahin, a satire about politicians. Like

Chatterjee, Soumitra

Hitchcock, the director appears in very minor parts in his own films. FILMOGRAPHY: 1969: Sara Akash; 1971: Piya Ka Ghar; 1974: Us Paar; Rajnigandha; 1975: Chhotisi Baat; 1976: Chit Chor; 1977: Swami; Safed Jhooth; Priyatama; 1978: Khatta Meetha; Chakravyuha; Dillagi; Tumhare Liye; Do Ladke Dono Kadke; 1979: Manzil; Baaton Baaton Mein; Prem Vivah; Ratnadeep; Jeena Yahan; 1980: Man Pasand; Apne Paraye; 1981: Shaukeen; Hamari Bahu Alka; 1983: Pasand Apni Apni; 1984: Lakhon Ki Baat; 1985: Rajani (TV); Darpan (TV); Ek Ruka Hua Faisla (TV); 1986: Sheesha; Chameli Ki Shaadi; Kirayedaar; Bhim Bhawani (TV); 1987: Zevar; 1988: Kakkaji Kahin (TV); 1989: Kamala Ki Maut; Durga; 1990: Hamari Shaadi; 1993: Byomkesh Bakshi (TV).

Chatterjee, Dhritiman (b. 1946) Actor. Played the unemployed youth, Siddhartha, in Ray’s Pratidwandi and the Naxalite in Sen’s Padatik, making him the icon of Calcutta’s middle-class sense of uncertainty after the late 60s agitations of the CPI(ML), echoing Bikash Bhattacharya’s paintings of aimless youths wandering through Calcutta and Mahashweta Devi’s fictional descriptions of the time. Acted in Aparna Sen’s 36 Chowringhee Lane and in Ray’s Ganashatru and Agantuk. Does films as amateur alongside a career in advertising. FILMOGRAPHY: 1970: Pratidwandi; 1972: Picnic; 1973: Padatik; 1974: Jadu Bansha; 1977: Abirvab; 1980: Akaler Sandhaney; 1981: 36 Chowringhee Lane; 1982:Canvas; 1983: Tanaya; Ka Lawei Ha Ki Ktijong Ngi (also d); 1989: Ganashatru; 1991: Agantuk; 1993: Sunya Theke Suru.

Chatterjee, Nabyendu (b. 1937) Bengali director who started out, unsuccessfully, as an actor. Then assistant to Aravind Mukherjee (1962-5). Directorial début with an experimental Hindi film, followed by a hit Bengali film and continued directing in that language, bemoaning the passing of his notion of village life in Bengal (Aaj Kal Parshur Galpa) and the Calcutta middle-class sense of disorientation which turns politically and economically weak men into violent oppressors of women (Chopper). The women in his films tend to stand for the values of a pre-modern patriarchal order. Unsuccessfully tried to extend Mrinal Sen’s early-70s approach in the 80s. FILMOGRAPHY: 1967: Naya Raasta; 1968: Adwitiya; 1972: Chitthi; Ranur Pratham Bhaag; 1981: Aaj Kal Parshur Galpa; 1985: Chopper; 1987: Sarisreep; 1989: Parashuramer Kuthar; 1990: Atmaya; 1993: Shilpi.

Chatterjee, Pashupati (1906-91?) Bengali director born in Chandernagore, West Bengal. Graduated from Calcutta University

and became a photo-journalist. Worked with Premankur Atorthy on the journal Nachgar. Assisted Debaki Bose (1934) on Inquilab; then joined New Theatres (1935) where he worked with Amar Mullick (e.g. lyrics for Bardidi, 1939; dialogues for Abhinetri, 1940). Became an independent producer with Swami and was active in trade organisations. Early films based on Saratchandra’s fiction. He edited a number of journals including the literary journal Natun Lekha and wrote extensively on film history, e.g. in the Calcutta Film Society journal Chitravash. FILMOGRAPHY: 1942: Parineeta; 1944: Shesh Raksha; 1948: Priyatama; Arakshaniya; 1949: Swami; 1951: Nastaneer; 1953: Niskriti; 1954: Shoroshi; 1955: Nishiddha Phal; 1956: Mamlar Phal; 1959: Mriter Martye Agaman.

Gulmohar; Kal Tumi Aleya; 1966: Joradighir Choudhury Paribar; Susanta Sha; 1967: Grihadah; 1968: Baluchari; Pathe Holo Dekha; 1970: Shasti; Aleyar Alo; Kalankita Nayak; Muktisnan; Sheela; Nala Damayanti; Nishipadma; Manjari Opera; 1971: Dhanyi Meye; Pratham Pratisruti; Sansar; Sona Boudi; 1972: Natun Diner Alo; Sapath Nilam; Shesh Parba; 1973: Bhangan; 1974: Umno-oJhumno; Mouchak; Swikarokti; 1975: Phool Sajya; Sei Chokh; 1976: Aguner Phulki; 1977: Brajabuli; Mantramugdha; Shesh Raksha; 1978: Hirey Manik; 1980: Raj Nandini; 1981: Pratishodh; 1984: Anveshan; 1985: Hulusthul; Till Theke Tal; 1986: Cheleta; 1987: Nadiya Nagar; Tunibou; 1988: Tumi Koto Sundar; 1989: Amar Shapath; 1991: Abhagini; Ananda Niketan; 1992: Priya; Bahadur; 1993: Maya Mamata; Puraskaar; 1994: Geet Sangeet; Salma Sundari; Abbajan.

Chatterjee, Sabitri (b. 1937) Bengali actress born in Comilla (now Bangladesh). Migrated to Calcutta at an early age; joined films as an extra, usually in dance sequences (e.g. Anuraag, Alladdin-oAshcharya Pradeep), while doing realistic theatre (e.g. Salil Sen’s Natun Yahudi, 1951, filmed in 1953). Début as lead actress in Pasher Bari. Following Nirmal Dey’s Basu Parivar and Niren Lahiri’s Subhadra, gained a reputation for comedy. Developed, along with actresses like Anubha Gupta and Manju Dey, an unorthodox style departing from the melodramatic mode of 40s Bengali film heroines. Also worked on stage, e.g. in Adarsha Hindu Hotel (with Bhanu Bannerjee and Dhiraj Bhattacharya) and in Shyamali (with Uttam Kumar). She starred with Uttam Kumar in 60s films (e.g. Bhranti Bilas). Acted in early Mrinal Sen films (Raat Bhore, Abasheshe) and produced his Pratinidhi. FILMOGRAPHY: 1951: Anuraag; 1952: Alladdin-o-Ashcharya Pradeep; Pasher Bari; Basu Parivar; Subhadra; 1953: Boudir Bone; Kajari; Natun Yahudi; Keranir Jiban; Sosur Bari; Rami Chandidas; Lakh Taka; Sitar Patal Prabesh; Adrishya Manush; Blind Lane; 1954: Atom Bomb; Moyla Kagaj; Champadangar Bou; Bhanga-Gara; Kalyani; Annapurnar Mandir; 1955: Pather Sheshey; Bidhilipi; Upahar; Godhuli; Dui Bone; Bratacharini; Paresh; Drishti; Kalindi; Ardhangini; Anupama; Raikamal; 1956: Raat Bhore; Paradhin; Mamlar Phal; Chalachal; Govindadas; Maa; Daner Maryada; Sinthir Sindoor; Nabajanma; Savdhan; 1957: Shesh Parichaya; Ektara; Natun Prabhat; Taser Ghar; Kancha-Mithey; Punar Milan; Basanta Bahar; Abhishek; Abhoyer Biye; Baksiddha; Adarsha Hindu Hotel; 1958: Priya; Megh Malhar; Dak Harkara; Nupur; Daktar Babu; Marmabani; 1959: Nauka Bilash; Marutirtha Hinglaj; Shashi Babur Sansar; Gali Theke Rajpath; Abak Prithvi; Rater Andhakare; 1960: Raja-Saja; Kuhak; Haat Baraley Bandhu; Khudha; Gariber Meye; 1961: Dui Bhai; Kanamachi; 1962: Khana; Nav Diganta; Abasheshe; 1963: Uttarayan; Bhranti Bilas; Akash Pradeep; Shreyasi; 1964: Pratinidhi; Marutrisha; Momer Alo; 1965: Antaral; Jaya; Pati Sansodhini Samiti; Dinanter Alo;

Chatterjee, Soumitra (b. 1934) Bengali star. Started as radio announcer. Trained as actor under Ahindra Choudhury while still a student. Wrote, directed and acted in plays like Rajkumar and Naam Jiban. Also a poet and initiator of one of Bengal’s bestknown literary journals, Ekshan, which he coedited with Nirmalya Acharya. With Uttam Kumar the major 60s and 70s star of Bengali film. Début with Ray’s Apur Sansar; has thereafter remained associated with Ray, and was described by Pauline Kael as his ‘one-man stock company’. Chidananda Das Gupta (Talking About Films, 1981) suggested Ray cast him so often because of a distinct physical resemblance to the young Tagore. Repeated aspects of his most famous Ray role in Charulata as a leitmotiv in Kapurush and Aranyer Din Ratri, of the brash but insecure hero. Also played the detective Felu in children’s films (Sonar Kella, Joi Baba Felunath) and several ‘character’ roles, including the rough taxi driver in Abhijaan and the famine-stricken Brahmin in Ashani Sanket. The hit Jhinder Bandi featured a rare joint appearance with Uttam Kumar (they also did Stree together). Other major roles in Tapan Sinha’s Kshudista Pashan, Mrinal Sen’s Akash Kusum, several Ajoy Kar films (Saat Pake Bandha, Kanch Kata Hirey) and Majumdar’s Sansar Simantey and Ganadevata. Since Ghare Baire spent more time on the stage and doing poetry readings. Published Swagato, an antholology of essays on cinema, theatre and acting (1996). FILMOGRAPHY: 1959: Apur Sansar; 1960: Devi; Kshudista Pashan; 1961: Swaralipi; Teen Kanya; Swayambara; Jhinder Bandi; Punashcha; 1962: Shasti; Atal Jaler Ahwan; Agun; Banarasi; Abhijaan; 1963: Saat Pake Bandha; Shesh Prahar; Barnali; 1964: Pratinidhi; Charulata; Kinu Goyalar Gali; Ayananta; 1965: Baksha Badal; Ek Tuku Basa; Raj Kanya; Kapurush; Akash Kusum; Eki Ange Eto Rup; 1966: Joradighir Choudhury Paribar; Kanch Kata Hirey; Manihar; 1967: Ajana Shapath; Hathat Dekha; Mahashweta; Prastar Swakshar; 1968: Baghini; Parishodh; 1969: Aparichita; Chena Achena; Parineeta; Teen Bhubhaner Parey; Aranyer Din Ratri; 75

Chattopadhyay, Kartick

in traditional martial arts (e.g. silambam) and gymnastics. Début at Jupiter Pics in Raja Sandow’s Chandrakantha; broke through with a double role in T.R. Sundaram’s Uthama Puthran based on A. Dumas’s The Man in the Iron Mask. Displayed his musical abilities as well as those of actor and stuntman in Sundaram’s Manonmani; also remembered for his acting and clear diction as Kovalan in T.R. Mani’s Kannagi. FILMOGRAPHY: 1936: Chandrakantha; 1937: Rajamohan; 1938: Anadhai Penn; Punjab Kesari; Yayati; 1939: Mathru Bhoomi; 1940: Uthama Puthran; 1941: Kacha Devayani; Aryamala; Dharmaveeran; Dayalan; 1942: Kannagi; Prithvirajan; Harishchandra; 1943: Kubera Kuchela; Manonmani; 1944: Jagathala Prathapan; Mahamaya; 1945: Ardhanari; 1946: Pankajavalli; Vikatakavi; 1947: Tulasi Jalandhar; 1948: Krishna Bhakti; 1949: Mangayar Karasi; Ratnakumar; 1951: Vanasundari; Sudarshan.

Sandhya Roy and Soumitra Chatterjee in Ek Tuku Basa (1965) 1970: Aleyar Alo; Padmagolap; Pratham Kadam Phool; 1971: Khunje Berai; Malyadaan; Sansar; 1972: Jiban Saikate; Natun Diner Alo; Stree; Basanta Bilap; Bilet Pherat; 1973: Ashani Sanket; Epar Opar; Nishi Kanya; Shesh Pristhay Dekhun; Agni Bhramar; 1974: Asati; Jadi Jantem; Sangini; Sonar Kella; Chhutir Phande; 1975: Nishi Mrigaya; Sansar Simantey; Sudur Niharika; 1976: Datta; Nandita; 1977: Babu Moshai; Mantramugdha; Pratima; 1978: Nadi Theke Sagare; Ganadevata; Job Charnaker Bibi; Joi Baba Felunath; Pronoy Pasha; 1979: Devdas; Nauka Dubi; 1980: Darpachurna; Gharer Baire Ghar; Hirak Rajar Deshe; Pankhiraj; 1981: Father; Nyay Anyay; Khelar Putul; Pratishodh; 1982: Bijoyini; Rashmayir Rashikala; Preyasi; Matir Swarga; Agradani; Simanta Raag; 1983: Indira; Chena Achena; Amar Geeti; 1984: Achena Mukh; Kony; Lal Golap; Ghare Baire; Vasundhara; 1985: Baikunther Will; Tagori; Sandhya Pradeep; 1986: Urbashe; Shyam Saheb; Atanka; 1987: Raj Purush; Nyay Adhikar; Sukumar Ray; Amor Sangi; 1988: Channachara; Agaman; Agni Sanket; Agun; Debibaran; Anjali; Pratik; 1989: Maryada; Amar Shapath; Ganashatru; Ladaai (B); Shatarupa; 1990: Anuraag; Ekti Jiban; Chetana; Jwar Bhata; Abhimanyu; Manasi; Ekhane Amar Swarga; Apon Amar Apon; Shakha Proshakha; 1991: Mahaprithibi; Abhagini; Ek Pashla Brishti; Antardhan; 1992: Raktalekha; Indrajit; 1993: Uttoran; Mon Mane Na; Puraskaar; Sampark; Pashanda Pandit; Ghar Sansar; Prajapati; 1994: Wheel Chair; Sopan; Shesh Chitthi; Gajamukta; 1995: Kumari Maa; Shesh Pratiksha; Boumoni; Mashaal; Kakababu Here Gelen; Mejo Bou; Ujan; Bhagyadevata.

Chattopadhyay, Kartick (1912-89) Bengali-Hindi director best known for late 40s New Theatres films e.g. Mahaprasthaner Pathey. Début with Rural Life in Bengal. First 76

feature, Ramer Sumati, based on Saratchandra Chattopadhyay’s story; launched K.C. Prod. (1954) with Arun Choudhury’s Ladies’ Seat. His Saheb Bibi Golam, adapted from Bimal Mitra’s novel and starring Uttam Kumar was later re-adapted by Guru Dutt. FILMOGRAPHY: 1947: Rural Life in Bengal (Doc); Ramer Sumati/Chhota Bhai; 1952: Mahaprasthaner Pathey/Yatrik; 1953: Bana Hansi; 1955: Godhuli; 1956: Saheb Bibi Golam; Chore; 1957: Neelachaley Mahaprabhu; Chandranath; 1959: Jal-Jangal; 1965: Gulmohar.

Children’s Film Society Set up in 1955 as an autonomous body under the Central Government’s Information & Broadcasting Ministry’s control. Produced films by e.g. Ezra Mir, Kidar Sharma, Tapan Sinha, Sai Paranjpye and Shyam Benegal. Although it has no independent distribution, it makes 16mm prints of its own productions and of imported children’s films available to educational institutions for nominal fees. Current annual production budget is c.Rs 5 million. Organises a biennial competitive international children’s film festival. Renamed the National Centre of Films for Children and Young People in 1992. 1993 chairperson is Jaya Bhaduri-Bachchan, who presided over a fundamental reshaping of the organisation.

Cherian, P. J. (1891-1981) Actor-producer, born in Ernakulam Dist., Kerala. Produced P.V. Krishna Iyer’s Nirmala (1948), the first Malayalam sound film made in Kerala. Regarded as the founder of the Malayalam film industry. Owned the Royal Dramatic Co. (later Royal Cinema & Dramatic Co.), the main professional stage company in 30s Kerala, known mainly for its staging of Christian themes (e.g. Parudisa Nashtam, adapting Paradise Lost). Known also as a painter in the Raja Ravi Varma tradition and was awarded the title of Artist Chevalier by the Pope. Acted in S.S. Rajan’s Snehaseema (1954). Wrote his autobiography Ente Kala Jeevitham (1964).

Chinnappa, Pudukottai Ulaganathan (1915-51) Major 40s Tamil star born in Pudukottai, the son of a stage actor. Joined the Madurai Original Boys’ Co. aged 8; later known as actor and singer, releasing several records many of which (along with his subsequent film music) have remained popular. Trained in Carnatic music by Nannaya Bhagavathar and Karaikal Vedachala Bhagavathar; simultaneously trained

Chiranjeevi (b. 1955) Macho 80s Telugu megastar. Born in Narasapuram taluk, AP, as Shivashankara Varaprasad. Student at the Madras Film Institute and amateur stage actor. First public performance in the Republic Day parade ballet of AP (1976). Early films with Bapu (Manavoori Pandavulu) and K. Balachander (Idi Kathakadu, 47 Rojulu, and more recently, Rudraveena, produced by his brother-in-law and regular producer Allu Aravind). Routine career in late 70s films was transformed by the spectacular success of his negative role in Kodi Ramakrishna’s Intilo Ramayya Vidhilo Krishnayya. Developed his main reputation in violent gangster thrillers, a genre pioneered by A. Kodandarami Reddy (Khaidi, Goonda, Challenge, Vijeta, Marana Mridangam, Trinetrudu etc.), Vijaya Bapineedu (Khaidi No. 786, Gang Leader) and more recently, Raviraja Pinisetty (Jwala, Chakravarthi). Much of his character impersonates the ‘rowdysheeter’, a legal term of colonial vintage, indicating a potentially violent person who’s on a police list and gets rounded up when violence is anticipated. The term is referred to

Chitnis, Leela

in titles like B. Gopal’s State Rowdy. Hindi début with Pratibandh, followed by Aaj Ka Goonda Raj, both directed by Pinisetty (aka Ravi Raja), have established him as one of the highest-paid stars in the country in the early 90s. Alluda Majaaka led to a major censorship controversy because of its alleged lewdness and recourse to violence. FILMOGRAPHY: 1978: Punadhirallu; Pranam Khareedu; Manavoori Pandavulu; Thayaramma Bangaraiah; Priya; 1979: Kukkakatuku Cheppu Debba; Idi Kathakadu; I Love You; Kotha Alludu; Shri Rama Bantu; Kotala Rayudu; 1980: Kothapeda Rowdy; Chandi Priya; Arani Mantulu; Jatara; Punnani Mogudu; Nakili Manishi; Love in Singapore; Prema Tarangulu; Mogudu Kavali; Raktha Bandham; Tathaiah Prema Leelalu; 1981: Ranuva Veeran; Rani Kasularangamma; Adavallu Meeku Joharlu; Parvati Parameshwarulu; Todu Dongalu; Tiruguleni Manishi; Prema Natakam; Nyayam Kavali; Urikichina Mata; Rani Kasularangamma; 47 Rojulu; Sirirasthu Subhamasthu; Chattaniki Kallulevu; Kirai Rowdylu; Intilo Ramayya Vidhilo Krishnayya; 1982: Bandipotu Simham; Shubhalekha; Idi Pellantara; Seeta Devi; Radha My Darling; Tingu Rangadu; Patnam Vachina Pativrathalu; Billa Ranga; Yamakinkarudu; Mondighatam; Manchu Pallaki; 1983: Bandhalu Anubandhalu; Prema Pichollu; Palletooru Monagallu; Abhilasha (Tel); Alayashikharam; Sivudu Sivudu Sivudu; Puli Bebbuli; Goodachari No. 1; Maha Maharaju; Rosha Gadu; Maa Inti Premayanam; Simhapuri Simham; Khaidi; Mantrigari Viyyankudu; Sangharshana; Hero (Tel); Yuddha Bhoomi; 1984: Allulostunnaru;

Goonda; Devanthakudu; Mahanagaramlo Mayagadu; Challenge; Intiguttu; Naagu; Agni Gundam; Rustom; 1985: Chattamtho Poratham; Donga; Chiranjeevi; Jwala; Puli; Raktha Sindooram; Adavi Donga; Vijeta; Kirathakudu; 1986: Kondaveeti Raja; Mahadheerudu; Veta; Chantabbayi; Rakshasudu; Dhairyavanthudu; Chanakya Sapatham; 1987: Donga Mogudu; Aradhana; Chakravarthi; Pasivadi Pranam; Swayamkrushi; Jebu Donga; Manchi Donga; 1988: Rudraveena; Yamudiki Mogudu; Khaidi No. 786; Marana Mridangam; Trinetrudu; 1989: Attaku Yamudu Ammayiki Mogudu; State Rowdy; Lankeshwarudu; Kondaveeti Donga; 1990: Jagadeka Veerudu Atilokasundari; Kodama Simham; Raja Vikramarka; Pratibandh; Stuvartpuram Police Station; 1991: Gang Leader; Rowdy Alludu; Aaj Ka Goonda Raj; 1992: Gharana Mogudu; Mutha Mestri; Apathbandhavudu; 1993: Shivanna; Military Mava; Mechanic Alludu; 1994: Mugguru Monagallu; S.P. Parashuram; Gentleman; 1995: Alluda Majaaka; Big Boss.

Chitnis, Leela (b. 1912) Actress born in Dharwar, Karnataka. Best known for her mother roles in 60s/70s Hindi cinema. She brought to Hindi film a performative idiom developed in Marathi stage melodramas by the Natyamanwantar group’s introduction of Ibsenite naturalism (see K. Narayan Kale). Early stage work in the Natyamanwantar group itself (e.g. the prose comedy Usna Navra, 1934) and with her theatre group Naytasadhana in P.K. Atre’s Udyacha Sansar. Wrote and directed the stage

adaptation of Somerset Maugham’s Sacred Flame (Ek Ratra Ardha Diwas, 1957). Entered films as extra at Sagar; later in B-grade mythologicals and Ram Daryani stunt pictures. In Daryani’s Gentleman Daku, playing the elegant thief dressed in male costume, she was advertised in the Times of India (1938) as ‘the first graduate society-lady on the screen from Maharashtra’. Worked at Prabhat (Wahan). First major role in Ranjit’s Saint film, Sant Tulsidas as Vishnupant Pagnis’s wife Ratnavali. Romantic lead opposite Ashok Kumar in major Bombay Talkies films Kangan, Bandhan and Jhoola made her briefly one of the top stars of the early 40s. Played the mother (of hero Dilip Kumar) for the first time in Shaheed and consolidated her image in her famous portrayal of Raj Kapoor’s mother in Awara and, later, in the famous role of the mother of the warring brothers in Ganga Jumna. Also acted key roles in Master Vinayak (Chhaya, Ardhangi) and Raja Paranjpe (Jara Japoon, Adhi Kalas Mag Paya) films in Marathi. Produced Kisise Na Kehna (1942) and directed Aaj Ki Baat. Her autobiography was published in 1981. FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1935: Dhuwandhaar; Shri Satyanarayan; 1936: Berozgar; Chhaya; 1937: Insaaf; Gentleman Daku; Wahan; 1938: Chhote Sarkar; Jailor; Ustad; Vijay Danka; 1939: Chhotisi Duniya; Sant Tulsidas; Kangan; 1940: Azad; Bandhan; Ardhangi/Ghar Ki Rani; 1941: Jhoola; Kanchan; 1942: Kisise Na Kehna; 1943: Rekha; 1944: Kiran; Char Aankhen; Manorama; 1945: Ghazal; 1946: Bhakta Prahlad; Devkanya; Shatranj; 1947: Andhon Ki Duniya; Ghar Ghar Ki Kahani; 1948: Lakhpati; Shaheed; 1949: Namuna; Aakhri Paigham; 1950: Saudamini; Jara Japoon; 1951: Awara; Saiyan; 1952: Maa; Ek Hota Raja; Sangdil; 1953: Rami Dhoban; Hari Darshan; Naya Ghar; 1954: Baadbaan; 1955: Aaj Ki Baat*; 1956: Basant Bahar; Awaaz; 1957: Naya Daur; 1958: Phir Subah Hogi; Post Box 999; Sadhana; 1959: Barkha; Dhool Ka Phool; Kal Hamara Hai; Main Nashe Mein Hoon; Ujala; 1960: Apna Haath Jagannath; Ghunghat; Hum Hindustani; Kohinoor; Bewaqoof; Maa Baap; Parakh; Kala Bazaar; Umaji Naik; Sakhya Savara Mala; 1961: Aas Ka Panchhi; Batwara; Kaanch Ki Gudiya; Char Diwari; Ganga Jumna; Hum Dono; Ramleela; Adhi Kalas Mag Paya; 1962: Aashiq; Prem Andhala Asta; Asli Naqli; Dr Vidya; Manmauji; Naag Devata; 1963: Dil Hi To Hai; Pahu Re Kiti Vaat!; 1964: Dosti; Aap Ki Parchhaiyan; Pooja Ke Phool; Shehnai; Suhagan; Zindagi; 1965: Johar Mehmood In Goa; Mohabbat Isko Kehte Hain; Nai Umar Ki Nai Fasal; Waqt; Guide; Faraar; 1966: Dulhan Ek Raat Ki; Phool Aur Patthar; 1967: Gunahon Ka Devta; Aurat; Manjhli Didi; 1969: Inteqam; Prince; Badi Didi; The Killers; Ram Bhakta Hanuman; 1970: Man Ki Aankhen; Jeevan Mrityu; Bhai Bhai; 1977: Palkon Ki Chhaon Mein; 1978: Satyam Shivam Sundaram; 1979: Janata Havaldar; Aangan Ki Kali; Bin Maa Ke Bachche; 1980: Takkar; 1985: Dil Tujhko Diya.

Leela Chitnis and Bharat Bhushan in Maa (1952) 77

Chopra, Baldev Raj

Chopra, Baldev Raj (b. 1914) Hindi director and producer born in Ludhiana, Punjab. He is the elder brother of Yash Chopra. Studied at the University of Lahore. Worked on fringe of Lahore-based film industry with Pancholi group and later as film journalist. Edited the Cine Herald (1937-47) at Lahore. After Partition moved to Delhi where he was briefly assistant editor of The Listener (1947), then to Bombay. Started as a producer for Shri Gopal Pics (Karwat, 1949, apparently also directing the film). The success of Chandni Chowk allowed him to found B.R. Films (1956). One of the most influential émigrés from Lahore (with A.R. Kardar and Roop K. Shorey) who imported their lumpenised versions of Hollywood suspense thrillers and melodrama. Since the mid-70s the Hindi film industry’s senior spokesman and a regular contributor to Screen (Bombay) in late 60s and 70s, influencing the film-financing policy of the NFDC. Now concentrates on the business affairs of his company, leaving direction to his son Ravi who is credited as codirector on the 94 episodes of the TV serial Mahabharat, running on Doordarshan in 1988-90, with peak audience at 75% of the urban adult population and over Rs 10 million advertising revenue per episode. Also codirected Kal Ki Awaaz with Ravi Chopra. FILMOGRAPHY: 1949: Karwat (uncredited); 1951: Afsana; 1953: Sholay; 1954: Chandni Chowk; 1956: Ek Hi Raasta; 1957: Naya Daur; 1958: Sadhana; 1960: Kanoon; 1963: Gumrah; 1967: Hamraaz; 1972: Dastaan; 1973: Dhund; 1977: Karm; 1978: Pati Patni Aur Woh; 1980: Insaaf Ka Tarazu; 1982: Nikaah; 1985: Tawaif; 1986: Bahadur Shah Zafar (TV); 1987: Awaam; 1988: Mahabharat (TV); 1992: Kal Ki Awaaz; Sauda (TV).

Chopra, Yash (b. 1932) Hindi director and producer born in Jullundur, Punjab. Started as assistant to elder brother B.R. Chopra and then made several films for his company. Became independent producer with Daag, working mostly with distributor Gulshan Rai. His B.R. Films are low-budget genre movies (e.g. suspense thrillers: Waqt, Ittefaq) but his own productions are plushy, soft-focus upper-class love stories (Kabhi Kabhie), battles over family honour (embodied by the mother: Deewar, Trishul) and the conflict between the laws of kinship and those of the State. Amitabh Bachchan made some of his best-known films with Chopra. In the 90s, he adapted his style to the image of Shah Rukh Khan for the hit Darr. Produced his son Aditya’s megahit Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (1995) and directed the 1997 success Dil To Pagal Hai, upgrading his trademark love story into a theme featuring teen aerobics. FILMOGRAPHY: 1959: Dhool Ka Phool; 1961: Dharmaputra; 1965: Waqt; 1969: Admi Aur Insaan; Ittefaq; 1973: Daag; Joshila; 1975: Deewar; 1976: Kabhi Kabhie; 1978: Trishul; 1979: Kala Pathar; 1981: Silsila; 78

1984: Mashaal; 1985: Faasle; 1988: Vijay; 1989: Chandni; 1991: Lamhe; 1992: Parampara; 1993: Darr.

Choudhury, Ahindra (1897-1974) Actor born in Calcutta. Major Calcutta Theatres stage star launched with key role of Arjun in epochal production of Karnarjun at Star Theatre (1923). Stagework in e.g. Iraner Rani, Bandini, Chirakumar Sabha, Mishar Rani etc. had impact comparable to that of Sisir Bhaduri, who had a similar career. Early films at Madan Theatres, usually by Jyotish Bannerjee who continued to direct him into the talkie era, included stage successes like Mishar Rani and Karnarjun. At Madan also filmed scenes from his stage plays in early sound experiments. In 1928 attempted, unsuccessfully, to start the Ahindra Film Studio at Ultadanga, North Calcutta. Then directed some Telugu films for Aurora (Ansuya, Vipranarayana). Was a regular genre actor in Bengali cinema, notably in films by Sailajananda Mukherjee, P.C. Barua and Modhu Bose, until he retired in mid-50s. Wrote a two-volume autobiography, Nijere Haraye Khunji (1945). His collection of theatre and film memorabilia forms the Ahindra Choudhury Archives at Chetla, Calcutta. FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1922: Soul of a Slave; 1924: Mishar Rani; 1925: Premanjali; 1926: Krishna Sakha (only d.); 1927: Durgesh Nandini; 1928: Sasthi Ki Shanti; 1930: Rajsingha (all St); 1931: Rishir Prem; Prahlad; 1932: Vishnu Maya; Krishnakanter Will; 1933: Seeta; 1934: Chand Saudagar; Rooplekha/ Mohabbat Ki Kasauti; Mahua; Daksha Yagna; Bhakta Ke Bhagwan; 1935: Ansuya*; Devadasi; Prafulla; Kanthahaar; Balidan; 1936: Tarubala; Krishna Sudama; Paraparey; Rajani; Sarala; Sonar Sansar; Dalit Kusum; Prabas Milan; Chino Haar; 1937: Vipranarayana*; Rukmini Kalyanam*; Talkie Of Talkies; Haranidhi; Indira; Samaj Patan; 1938: Abhinaya; Devifullara; Khana; 1939: Janak Nandini; Jakher Dhan; Nara Narayan; Rikta; Rukmini; Sharmistha; Chanakya; Vaman Avtar; 1940: Tatinir Bichar; Kamale Kamini; Suktara; Doctor; Amar Geeti; Rajkumarer Nirbashan; 1941: Raj Nartaki/ Court Dancer; Uttarayan; Doctor; Avatar; Nandini; Karnarjun; 1942: Jiban Sangini; Ashok; Pativrata; Avayer Biye; Shesh Uttar/ Jawab; Meenakshi; 1943: Jogajog/ Hospital; Janani; Dwanda; Devar; 1944: Matir Ghar; Sandhya; Sondhi/Sandhi; Shesh Raksha; 1945: Amiri; Banphool; Vasiyatnama; Abhinay Nay; Mane Na Mana; Kalankini; Grihalakshmi; Bondita; Nandita; Dui Purush; 1946: Pehchan; Prem Ki Duniya; Pather Sathi; Natun Bou; Nivedita; Dukhe Jader Jiban Gara; 1947: Roy Choudhury; Mandir; Alaknanda; Giribala; Abhijog; Burmar Pathey; 1948: Jayjatra/Vijay Yatra; Bicharak; Ghumiye Ache Gram; Nandaranir Sansar; Priyatama; Sir Shankarnath; Swarnaseeta; 1949: Abhijatya; Bisher Dhoan; Niruddesh; Pratirodh; Nirdosh Abla; Grihalakshmi; 1950: Kuhelika; Michael Madhusudhan; Pattharar Kahini; Sanchali; Vidyasagar; Mahasampad; 1953: Mushkil Ashan; Chirantani; 1954: Maa-o-Chhele;

Mantra Shakti; 1955: Devatra; Pratiksha; Bir Hambir; Kankabatir Ghat; Bratacharini; 1956: He Maha Manab; Chirakumar Sabha; Paradhin; Mahakavi Girishchandra; Shyamali; Rajpath; Bhola Master; 1957: Tapasi; Neelachaley Mahaprabhu; 1973: Shravan Sandhya.

Choudhury, Basanta (b. 1928) Aka Vasant Choudhury; Bengali actor born in Nagpur known for refined accent and romantic looks. Entered film at New Theatres with Mahaprasthaner Pathey. Played the title role in Debaki Bose’s Bhagwan Shri Krishna Chaitanya, and the mentally ill Tapash in Deep Jweley Jai. Was a romantic lead in the pre-Uttam Kumar era. Title role in Raja Rammohun, providing the definitive image of the 19th C. reformer. Shifted to character roles including villains (e.g. Baidurya Rahasya). Known best for his aristocratic rendition of characters, relying on his unique stage voice. In later films often played the villain. Known also as a radio star and stage actor with the bestknown Jatra group, the Natya Company. Recent work mainly in Dinen Gupta and Tapan Sinha films; cameo appearance in Gautam Ghose’s Antarjali Jatra. FILMOGRAPHY: 1952: Mahaprasthaner Pathey/Yatrik; 1953: Nabin Yatra/Naya Safar; Bhagwan Shri Krishna Chaitanya; 1954: Jadubhatta; Bokul/Bakul; 1955: Aparadhi; Pather Sheshey; Bhalobasha; DuJanay; Devimalini; 1956: Shubharatri; Shankar Narayan Bank; Chhaya Sangini; Govindadas; Rajpath; 1957: Shesh Parichaya; Madhu Malati; Andhare Alo; Basanta Bahar; Haar Jeet; Khela Bhangar Khela; 1958: Jogajog; 1959: Deep Jweley Jai; Shashi Babur Sansar; 1960: Khudha; Parakh; 1962: Sancharini; Agnisikha; Bodhu; Nabadiganta; 1963: Shreyasi; 1964: Kashtipathar; Anustup Chhanda; 1965: Alor Pipasa; Raja Rammohun; Abhoya-o-Srikanta; Eki Ange Eto Rup; Gulmohar; 1966: Sankha Bela; Susanta Sha; Uttar Purush; 1970: Diba Ratrir Kabya; Megh Kalo; 1971: Pratham Pratisruti; Sansar; Grahan; 1973: Pranta Rekha; 1974: Debi Choudhrani; Jadi Jantem; Sangini; 1975: Nishi Mrigaya; 1976: Sankhabish; 1977: Babu Moshai; 1978: Parichay; Mayuri; 1979: Chirantan; Jiban Je Rakam; 1980: Bhagya Chakra; 1981: Kalankini; 1982: Sonar Bangla; 1983: Indira; Deepar Prem; 1985: Baidurya Rahasya; Putulghar; 1987: Antarjali Jatra/Mahayatra; 1988: Antaranga; Sankhachur; 1990: Raktorin; Ek Doctor Ki Maut; 1990: Sankranti; 1991: Raj Nartaki; 1992: Hirer Angti; Apon Ghar; Satya Mithya; 1993: Kacher Prithvi. Choudhury, Kosaraju Raghavaiah see Kosaraju Raghavaiah Choudhury

Choudhury, Rama Shankar (1903-72) Hindi director born in Benares, UP. Graduated from J.J. School of Art (1922). Entered films as art director and designer of publicity

Choudhury, Supriya

pamphlets. Did remarkable covers for Gujarati film journal Mouj Majah. Assisted Manilal Joshi at Laxmi Film. First film at Laxmi is Sandow’s hit costume spectacular, Neera. Best-known films at Imperial and Sagar, where he made several classics in historical genre, e.g. Anarkali, Shirin Khushrau, Shaane-Hind, often using the legendary epic as a nationalist allegory. Films often starred Sulochana and Zubeida. Regarded as teacher by Mehboob for whom he later scripted Roti (1942), Aan (1952) and Son of India (1962). Also scripted, in addition to his own films, e.g. Kardar’s Pehle Aap (1944), M. Sadiq’s hit Rattan (1944) and several films for Ravindra Dave. Continued writing scripts until the 70s. FILMOGRAPHY (* also act): 1926: Neera; Asha; 1927: Karmayili Kali; 1928: Anarkali; Pita Ke Parmeshwar; Sarovar Ki Sundari*; Madhuri; 1929: Maurya Patan; Heer Ranjha; Indira; Punjab Mail; Shirin Khushrau; Talwar Ka Dhani; 1930: Hamarun Hindustan; 1931: Badmash; Khuda Ki Shaan (all St); 1932: Madhuri; 1933: Sulochana; Daku Ki Ladki; 1934: Aaj Kal; Piya Pyare; 1935: Anarkali; 1936: Hamari Betiyan; Shaan-e-Hind; 1937: Kal Ki Baat; 1938: Rifle Girl; 1939: Sach Hai; 1942: Aankh Micholi; 1943: Adab Arz; 1944: Gaali; 1946: Magadhraj; 1953: Jallianwala Bagh Ki Jyot.

Choudhury, Salil (1925-95) Self-trained composer and music director. Activist among peasantry in 24 Parganas Dist., Bengal. Did music for IPTA plays and musical squads performing in Bengali countryside, calling for cultural internationalism as opposed to an emphasis on regional folk traditions (cf. Bhupen Hazarika; also Choudhury’s Modern Bengali Music in Crisis, 1951). His influences in songs that have remained enduring favourites with Left cultural groups all over India include Mozart, Hanns Eisler and contemporary Latin American forms, such as Abak prithibi (written by Sukanta Choudhury and sung by Hemanta Mukherjee) and Kono ek gayer bodhu (written by Choudhury himself). Ghatak, in Komal Gandhar (1961), and Mrinal Sen, in Akaler Sandhaney (e.g. Hai samhalo dhan ho! on the 1943 famine) used his music to typify the spirit of 40s Bengali agitational theatre movements, which he also extended to cover other genres, like Zia Sarhadi’s Awaaz and Tarafdar’s Ganga. Entered films with Satyen Bose. First major hit was Bimal Roy’s Do Bigha Zameen, based on his own story, with full-blooded choral compositions celebrating peasant vitality (monsoon song Hariyala sawan), a form still most associated with him. Went on to score the pathbreaking soundtrack of Roy’s Madhumati. Also did notable work for Hrishikesh Mukherjee films, e.g. his début Musafir and the 70’s hit Anand. The only front-line Hindi composer to work in several languages: Assamese (the experimental Aparajeya by the Chaturanga collective), Kannada (A.M. Samiulla’s films, including Samshayaphala, Onderupe Eradu Guna etc., and Balu Mahendra’s début Kokila), Tamil (Doorathu Idhi Muzhakkam) and Telugu (Chairman Chalamayya). Most spectacular

work outside Bengali and Hindi is, however, for Ramu Kariat, scoring the several hits in his breakthrough Chemmeen, followed by Ezhu Rathrikal, Abhayam, Nellu etc. FILMOGRAPHY (* also d/** also lyr): 1949: Paribartan; 1951: Barjatri; 1953: Do Bigha Zameen; Banser Kella; Bhor Hoye Elo; 1954: Aaj Sandhya; Mahila Mahal; Biraj Bahu; Naukri; 1955: Amanat; Tangewali; Rickshawala; 1956: Raat Bhore; Awaaz; Parivar; Jagte Raho/Ek Din Raatre; 1957: Aparadhi Kaun; Gautama The Buddha (Doc); Ek Gaon Ki Kahani; Lal Batti; Musafir; Zamana; 1958: Madhumati; 1959: Bari Theke Paliye; 1960: Ganga; Sunehri Raatein; Jawahar; Kanoon; Parakh; Usne Kaha Tha; 1961: Char Diwari; Chhaya; Kabuliwala; Maya; Memdidi; Sapan Suhane; Raibahadur; 1962: Half Ticket; Jhoola; Prem Patra; Sunbai; 1964: Kinu Goyalar Gali; Ayananta; Lal Patthar; 1965: Chand Aur Suraj; Poonam Ki Raat; Chemmeen; 1966: Pinjre Ke Panchhi*; Netaji Subhashchandra Bose; Pari**; 1968: Ezhu Rathrikal; Jawab Ayega; 1969: Ittefaq; Sara Akash; 1970: Anand; Abhayam; Aparajeya; 1971: Gehra Raaz; Mere Apne; Samshayaphala; 1972: Annadata; Anokha Daan; Anokha Milan; Mere Bhaiya; Subse Bada Sukh; Marjina Abdallah**; 1973: Swapnam; 1974: Rajanigandha; Nellu; Chairman Chalamayya; 1975: Chhotisi Baat; Sangat; Onderupa Eradu Guna; Neela Ponman; Ragam; Rasaleela; Thomasleeha; 1976: Aparadhi; Thulavarsham; Jeevan Jyoti; Mrigaya; Uranchoo; 1977: Kabita**; Sister**; Minoo; Chinna Ninna Muddaduve; Kokila; Madanolsavam; Vishukkanni; 1978: Paruvamazhai; Ee Ganam Marakkumo; Etho Oru Swapnam; Samayamayilla Polum; Naukri; 1979: Jiban Je Rakam**; Srikanter Will**; Kala Patthar; Jeena Yahan; Chuvanna Chirakukal; Pratiksha; Puthiya Velicham; Azhiyada Kolangal; 1980: Chehre Pe Chehra; Byapika Biday**; Kuhasa; Room No. 203; Air Hostess; Paribesh**; Akaler Sandhaney; Doorathu Idhi Muzhakkam; Chirutha; Nani Maa; 1981: Plot No. 5; Agni Pareeksha; Batasi Jhada; Monchor; 1982: Andhiveyilille Ponnu; Dil Ka Saathi Dil; Darpok Ki Dosti (Sh); 1984: Kanoon Kya Karega; 1985: Pratigya; Devika; Manas Kanya; 1986: Jiban; 1988: Trishagni; 1989: Swarna Trishna; Jawahar; Kamala Ki Maut; 1990: Triyartri; Vasthuhara; 1991: Netraheen Sakshi; 1994: Mahabharati.

Choudhury, Santi P. (1929-82) Major independent documentary film-maker. Educated at Presidency College, Calcutta, and Glasgow University. Active participant in British film society movement (1954). Worked with Satyajit Ray (1955-7). Founded Little Cinema film unit in Calcutta (1958) which made over 100 shorts independent of government support, influencing the younger generation of documentarists. Also made children’s films. Except for Dakather Hatey Bulu and Heerer Prajapati, all titles are documentaries. FILMOGRAPHY: 1957: Songs of Bengal; 1958: Virsa and the Magic Doll; 1959: Their

New Roots; 1960: Rabindranath’s Shantiniketan; 1961: Lokeshilpay Terracottay Ramayan; Banglar Mandirey Terracotta; 1962: Rabindranather Chitrakala; 1963: Your Home Defence: Home Guards; They Met the Challenge; Science for Children; Dakather Hatey Bulu; 1964: Handicrafts of Assam; To Light a Candle; Madhabir Biya; 1965: Song of Punjab; Folk Instruments of Rajasthan; 1966: A City in History; Calcutta; Electrocine; 1967: To Share and to Learn; Handicrafts of Rajasthan; 1968: Benarasi’s Secret; Heerer Prajapati; Entertainers of Rajasthan; 1969: Secularism; 1971: Biju in Hyderabad; The Other Calcutta; Seeds of the Green Revolution; An Indian Journey; Working Together; Action for Calcutta; 1972: Janasanstha; Indian Engineering; Dakshina Haryana; Mughal Gardens Pinjore; Green Horizon; ITC Tube: The Lifetimer; 1973: An Environment; After Ten Years; 1974: Asia ‘72; Silent Service; A Painter of Our Times; 1975: Search for SelfReliance; 1976: We’re Building an IOL Pipeline For You; 1977: Parvati; 1978: Banglar Kabigan; The Magic Hands; 1980: Husain; Region of Harmony; Seven; Pahar Theke Shahar; 1981: Subho Tagore; 1982: Racing in India.

Choudhury, Supriya Actress. Bengali star of 60s socials best known as romantic lead opposite Uttam Kumar (with whom she apparently featured in 33 films). Spent some of her childhood in Rangoon; introduced into films by veteran Bengali actress Chandrabati Devi. Début in Nirmal Dey’s Basu Parivar, after which she married and retired from films for some years. Incarnated the ‘heroine’ of reformist middle-class pulp fictions. Adhered more to melodramatic orthodoxy than her chief rival, Suchitra Sen, evoking e.g. Jamuna’s acting in P.C. Barua productions and generating a sense of nostalgia for pre-Independence middle-class Bengali melodrama, thus providing a kind of cultural legitimation to the weepies of the Agradoot/Agragami/Yatrik units and filmmakers like Piyush Bose. Known outside Bengal for her extraordinary performance as the heroine in Ghatak’s Meghe Dhaka Tara and Komal Gandhar. These, and Ajoy Kar’s Suno Baro Nari, were rare instances in which she stepped out of her star image. Turned producer with the commercial flop Uttar Meleni. FILMOGRAPHY: 1952: Basu Parivar; Prarthana; Madhurati; 1959: Amrapali; Ae Jahar Sey Jahar Noy; Sonar Harin; Shubha Bibaha; 1960: Uttar Megh; Meghe Dhaka Tara; Kono-Ek-Din; Ajana Kahini; Surer Pyasi; Natun Fasal; Suno Baro Nari; 1961: Komal Gandhar; Bishkanya; Agni Sanskar; Swaralipi; Swayambara; 1962: Kajal; Abhisarika; 1963: Begana; Nisithe; Uttarayan; Dui Nari; Surya Sikha; 1964: Aap Ki Parchhaiyan; Door Gagan Ki Chhaon Mein; Ayananta; Lal Patthar; 1965: Kal Tumi Aleya; 1966: Harano Prem; Sudhu Ekti Bachhar; 1967: Akash Chhoan; Jiban Mrityu; 1968: Teen Adhyay; 1969: Chiradiner; Mon-Niye; Sabarmati; 1970: Bilambita Lay; 1971: Jiban 79

Chughtai, Ismat

Jignasa; 1972: Andha Atit; Chinnapatra; 1973: Bon Palashir Padabali; 1974: Jadi Jantem; Rakta Tilak; 1975: Bagh Bandi Khela; Nagar Darpane; Sanyasi Raja; Sabhyasachi; 1976: Samrat; Banhi Sikha; Mom Batti; 1977: Bhola Moira; Sister; 1978: Dui Purush; 1979: Devdas; 1980: Dui Prithibi; 1981: Kalankini Kankabati; 1982: Uttar Meleni; Iman Kalyan; 1983: Raat Dastay; 1984: Anveshan; 1989: Kari Diye Kinlam; 1992: Honeymoon.

Chughtai, Ismat (1915-91) Born in Badaun. The only major woman writer in 40s radical Urdu literary movements (see Manto and Krishan Chander). Her most famous stories are set in middle-class, often orthodox Muslim society and strongly imbued with sexual symbology informed by Freudian psychoanalysis (see Tahira Naqvi in Chughtai, 1990). Some of her writing caused major controversy for its violation of traditional morality codes: Lihaaf (1942) provoked obscenity trial in Lahore. Married to film-maker Shaheed Latif and was closely involved with the making of Ziddi (1948), Dev Anand’s first major hit. Worked as scenarist and occasionally as producer with Latif (Arzoo, 1950; Darwaza, 1954; Society, 1955; Sone Ki Chidiya, 1958). Involved as dialogue writer and actress in Benegal’s Junoon (1978). Wrote the story for Sathyu’s Garam Hawa (1973) and the dialogues of Amar Kumar’s films Barkha Bahar (1973) and Mehfil (1978). Wrote and codirected Faraib (1953). Directed the children’s film Jawab Ayega (1968) and the documentary My Dreams (1975).

Chunder, Hemchandra (b. 1907) Aka Hem Chunder. Hindi-Bengali director. Début in B.N. Sircar’s International Filmcraft. Acted in Prafulla Roy’s silent Chasher Meye (1931). Major films with New Theatres, where he was its principal Hindi director (1935-48) in its attempts to enter the Western Indian market. Second film, Karodpati, was one of Saigal’s best-known musicals. Anath Ashram, starring Prithviraj Kapoor and scripted by novelist Sailajananda Mukherjee, made an influential intervention in the Bengali genre of the literary melodrama. Turned independent producer in collaboration with actress Meera Mishra (H.M. Prod.). FILMOGRAPHY: 1935: Karwan-e-Hayat; 1936: Karodpati; 1937: Anath Ashram; 1939: Jawani Ki Reet/Parajay; 1941: Pratisruti; 1942: Saugandh; 1943: Wapas; 1944: Meri Bahen; 1948: Pratibad/Oonch Neech; 1949: Bishnupriya; 1952: Chhoti Maa; 1954: Chitrangada; 1955: Madh Bhare Nain; Teen Bhai; 1956: Bandhan; 1958: Manmoyee Girls’ School; 1960: Natun Fasal. Chunder, Krishan see Chander, Krishan (1914-77)

Company Natak Popular theatre movement in late 19th C. Karnataka, predominantly around the Mysore 80

court, contemporaneous with similar movements in Telugu (cf. Surabhi Theatres) and Tamil (see TKS Brothers). Performed as night-long shows by travelling groups in tents, it evolved from the Yakshagana folk theatre and its variants, Dashavtara and Bailatta, and helped codify the mythological. Gubbi Veeranna’s company was its best-known exponent. The form assimilated aspects of Parsee theatre (e.g. versions of Gul-e-Bakavali and Indrasabha) and Sangeet Natak. As a folk-inspired genre, it allowed for a freewheeling, open-ended adaptation of speech and musical modes: Veeranna writes of using Urdu and pidgin Hindi phrases in Kannada texts while the numerous songs, using over 50 verses as bases for improvisation, could be accompanied by pedal-harmonium and claviolin as well as the traditional tabla, violin and sota. In the early 20th C., direct sponsorship from feudal élites helped imbue the form with a caste-conscious classicism usually signified by a recourse to translations of Sanskrit texts (e.g. Kalidasa) and Shakespeare, paralleling the increased emphasis on classical Bharat Natyam gestures in Yakshagana dance and dialogue-delivery, and on Carnatic music in the songs. In the late 30s some of the major groups moved into film, following Veeranna’s Gubbi Co. which converted its stage hits into the first Kannada films. Mohammed Peer’s Chandrakala Nataka Co. yielded two major 60s Kannada film-makers, H.L.N. Simha and B.R. Panthulu, while the Sahitya Samrajya Nataka Mandali run by film-maker R. Nagendra Rao and M.V. Subbaiah Naidu converted their hit plays Yachhamanayika and Bhukailasa (1938, 1940) into successful films. The Company Natak provided virtually all the major talent for the early Kannada film, e.g. Honnappa Bhagavathar, megastar Rajkumar, B. Jayamma and K. Ashwathamma as well as scenarists B.N. Sastry and B. Puttaswamaiah. It defined the economic distribution infrastructure for a regional film industry and, crucially, paved the way for the political use of the mythological and the historical genres (see A.N. Krishnarao, Rajkumar and G.V. Iyer).

Company School Painting An 18th and 19th C. painting style geared to the British presence. According to Mildred Archer, ‘the favourite subjects were costumes, methods of transport and festivals, [H]indu deities and temples. Such subjects, arranged in sets, provided a conspectus of social life in India and, whether harsh and garish in the South or mild and soft as in the North East, the pictures recorded in pseudo-British terms the exotic environment in which [East India] Company officers and their successors lived. In these sets, each trade, craft or occupation was shown with identifying attributes - a bricklayer with measure and trowel, a shoemaker with awl and shoe, a cook with chicken and kettle’ (Archer, 1977). Guha-Thakurta (1992) noted that with the dwindling of court patronage, court painters became reduced to the state of bazaar painters, ‘a new colonial category that underlined their displacement and forced exposure and adjustment to Western demands

in an open market. European paintings and engravings of Indian scenes began to be supplanted, more cheaply and abundantly, by the pictures produced by this pool of displaced artists. In commissioning pictures from these “bazaar” painters, the British preferred those with hereditary links with old painting ateliers. Yet the skills of these miniature artists were valued primarily for their adaptability to Western naturalistic conventions and the flair for precision and detail in the pictures and diagrams ordered of them.’From the middle of the 18th C., numerous British artists, both professional (the best known are William Hodges, Tilly Kettle, George Chinnery and John Zoffany) and sketch-book amateurs recorded scenes from India. Some of them were in the employ of Indian nobility and trained or otherwise influenced Indian artists, while numerous others simply imitated the style. The Company School mode, which usually functioned as a cheaper and barely legitimate version of European naturalism, established an influential visual lexicon of stereotypes used for a variety of purposes: parodies of the British and Indian gentry, local fashion primers, visual anthropology and some of the earliest examples of the mythological iconography later adopted by the cinema. Early documentaries in India, e.g. Bourne & Shepherd’s actuality and review films, F.B. Thanawala’s Splendid New Views of Bombay (1899) and Taboot Procession at Kalbadevi (1900) as well as footage bought for c.10 cents to a dollar per foot by e.g. the Pathé Exchange, International Newsreel Corp. and Fox Films, inherited the disingenuous Orientalism of the Company School painters once Parsee businessmen, the Indian aristocracy and British multinationals like Warwick Trading in Calcutta (Panorama of Calcutta, 1898) shifted their patronage to film production.

Cooper, Patience (1905?-?) Top star of silent cinema before Sulochana. Contracted to Madan Theatres. Started as a dancer in Bandmann’s Musical Comedy, a Eurasian troupe; later employed by Madan’s Corinthian Stage Co. Played title roles in two major Sisir Bhaduri films, Mohini and Kamale Kamini. Dominant character in several films by Jyotish Bannerjee and Priyanath Ganguly: played Leelavati in Pati Bhakti, Sushila in Nartaki Tara, the title role in Noorjehan and perhaps the earliest double roles in Indian film in Patni Pratap (where she played two sisters) and Kashmiri Sundari (as mother and daughter). Often cast as the sexually troubled but innocent heroine at the centre of moral dilemmas represented by male protagonists, foreshadowing Nargis’s performances three decades later in Mehboob’s films (e.g. Humayun, 1945). A major aspect of her star image was the successful achievement of the Hollywood look in spite of vastly different light and technical conditions. Her dark hair, sharp eyes and skin tone allowed technicians to experiment with the imported convention of eye-level lighting. FILMOGRAPHY: 1920: Nala Damayanti; 1921: Behula; Vishnu Avatar; Mohini;

Das Gupta, Chidananda

Dhruva Charitra; 1922: Ratnavali; Nartaki Tara; Raja Bhoj; Sati; Bhagirathi Ganga; Pati Bhakti; Matri Sneh; Laila Majnu; Ramayan; Kamale Kamani; Princess Budur; 1923: Patni Pratap; Noorjehan; 1924: Turki Hoor; 1925: Kashmiri Sundari; Sati Lakshmi; Adooray Chheley; Sansar Chakra; 1926: Dharmapatni; Prafulla; Joydev; Krishnakanter Will; 1927: Chandidas; Jana; Durgesh Nandini; 1928: Bhranti; Aankh Ka Nasha; Hoor-e-Arab; 1929: Kapal Kundala; 1930: Kal Parinaya; Rajsingha; Ganesh Janma; Vaman Avatar; 1931: Bibaha Bibhrat; Alladdin and the Wonderful Lamp (all St); Bharati Balak; Samaj Ka Shikar; 1932: Bilwamangal; Chatra Bakavali; Hathili Dulhan; Alibaba and the Forty Thieves; Pati Bhakti; Educated Wife; 1933: Madhur Murali; Naqli Doctor; Zehari Saap; Dhruva Charitra; 1934: Anokha Prem; Kanya Vikraya; Kismet Ka Shikar; Sakhi Lutera; 1935: Asmat Ka Moti; Dil Ki Pyaas; Mera Pyara; Sulagto Sansar; Prem Ki Ragini; Khudadad; 1936: Baghi Sipahi; Khyber Pass; Noor-e-Wahadat; 1937: Fakhr-e-Islam; 1943: Rani; 1944: Iraada.

Dakshinamurthy, V. (b. 1919) Malayalam film music director and composer, born in Alleppey, Kerala. Regarded as a ‘classicist’. Concert singer in 50s/60s. Trained by Venkatachalam Potti; practised at the Vaikom temple. At their best, his Carnaticinspired scores are deceptively simple (e.g. when putting G. Sankara Kurup’s lyrics to music), trying to adapt the recitative rhythms to given raga patterns. Nearly all his work is ragabased, notably in Khamboji, Sahana (e.g. the musical leitmotif in Kavya Mela), Todi and Charukesi. His compositions are a major influence on singers P. Leela and Vasanthakokila. Credits after 1978 and for films other than Malayalam are likely to be incomplete. FILMOGRAPHY: 1950: Chandrika (with Govindarajulu Naidu); Nallathanka; 1951: Jeevitha Nauka; Navalokam; 1952: Amma; 1953: Velaikkaran; Lokaneethi; Sario Thetto; Asha Deepam; 1954: Avan Varunnu; Snehaseema; 1955: Kidappadam; 1956: Atmarpanam; 1959: Nadodikal; 1960: Seeta; 1961: Umminithanka; Gnana Sundari; 1962: Veluthampi Dalawa; Sreekovil; Vidhithanna Vilakku; Viyarppinte Vila; 1963: Satyabhama; Sushila; Chilampoli; 1964: Devalayam; Shri Guruvayoorappan; Bharthavu; (with Baburaj); 1965: Inapravugal; Kavya Mela; 1966: Pinchu Hridayam; Kadamattathachan; 1967: Indulekha; Lady Doctor; Mainatharuvi Kola Case; Cochin Express; 1968: Padunna Puzha; Adhyapika; Bharyamar Sukshikuka; 1969: Kannur Deluxe; Poojapushpam; Danger Biscuit; 1970: Kalpana; Stree; Ezhuthatha Katha; Kuttavali; Lottery Ticket; Sabarimala Shri Dharmasastha; Palunku Pathram; 1971: Muthassi; Marunattil Oru Malayali; Achante Bharya; 1972: Maya; Manushya Bandhangal; Nadan Premam; Shri Guruvayoorappan; Nrithyasala; Putrakameshti; Shakti; Sathi; Brahmachari; 1973: Football Champion; Udayam; Veendum Prabhatam; Police Ariyaruthu; Urvashi Bharathi; Driksakshi;

Sastram Jayichu Manushyan Thottu; Interview; Poyi Mukhangal; 1974: Alakal; Night Duty; Aswathi; Bhugolam Thiriyunnu; Thacholi Marumagan Chandu; Sapta Swarangal; Arakallan Mukkal Kallan; Yauvanam; 1975: Chumadu Thangi; Mattoru Seeta; Sammanam; Sathyathinde Nizhalil; 1976: Neelasari; Prasadam; Priyamvadha; Sexilla Stuntilla; Srimadh Bhagavad Geeta; Thulavarsham (with Salil Choudhury); Thuruppu Gulam; Vazhi Vilakku; Oru Udhappu Kann Simittukirathu; 1977: Nanda Enn Nilla; Jagadguru Adi Shankaran; Kaduvaye Pidicha Kiduva; Makam Piranna Manka; Muttathe Mulla; Niraparayum Nilavilakkum; Shri Chottanikkara Bhagavathi; Thalappoli; 1978: Ashtamudikayal; Ashokavanam; Kalpa Vruksha; Kanalkkattakal; Kudumbam Namakku Sreekovil; Manoratham; Ninakku Jnanum Enikku Neeyum; Prarthana; Prema Shilpi; 1979: Jimmy; Kannukal; Kathirmandapam; Manushiyan; Oru Koyil Eru Deepangal; 1980: Ambala Vilakku; Bhakta Hanuman; 1981: Ampal Poovu; Arikkari Ammu; Ellam Ninakku Vendi; Pathiya Suryan; Sambhavam; 1982: Ente Mohanangal Poovaninju; Priyasakhi Radha; 1984: Guruvayoor Mahatmiyam; Krishna Guruvayoorappa; 1985: Madhu Vidhurathri; Navadakku Paniyedukku; 1987: Idanazhiyil Oru Kalocha; 1989: Season.

Damle, Vishnupant Govind (1892-1945) Marathi director and producer born in Pen, Raigad Dist., Maharashtra. Like his long-term collaborator, Fattelal, was apprenticed to Anandrao, the artist-technician cousin of Baburao Painter, helping to construct theatrical backdrops. Became expert set designer and cinematographer, making his own camera and processing film. Co-founded Maharashtra Films (1918) with Painter and Fattelal. With Shantaram, they broke away and established Prabhat in 1929. Damle took charge of the sound department and is credited with introducing the playback technique. Took over management of Prabhat after Shantaram left (1942) but without success. Best known for the classic Sant Tukaram and subsequent Saint films (co-d with Fattelal). Last film, Sant Sakhu, co-d with Raja Nene and Fattelal. FILMOGRAPHY (co-d with S. Fattelal): 1928: Maharathi Karna (St); 1936: Sant Tukaram; 1938: Gopal Krishna; 1940: Sant Dnyaneshwar; 1941: Sant Sakhu.

Das, Jharana (b. 1945) Major 60s Oriya actress in melodramas like Amada Bata, Abhinetri and esp. the classic Malajanha. Born in a Christian family; a noted child artist on AIR, Cuttack. Learnt dance from Guru Kelucharan Mahapatra, the main dance teacher in the classical form of Odissi. Returned to radio work and achieved immense popularity in radio plays before joining films with Amada Bata. Appointed assistant station director for Cuttack Doordarshan and acted in TV programmes e.g. Ghare Bhada Diya Jiba

and Manisha, while continuing her film career. Directed a documentary on the Orissa politician H.K. Mahtab. Married Bengali cameraman Dipak Das. FILMOGRAPHY: 1964: Amada Bata; Nabajanma; 1965: Abhinetri; Malajanha; 1970: Adina Megha; 1979: Shri Jagannath; 1981: Tike Hasa Tike Luha; 1982: Samaya Bada Balabaan; Hisab Nikas; Jwain Pua; 1983: Mahasati Sabitri; 1984: Ninad; 1985: Pooja Phula; Hakim Babu; 1987: Kasturi; 1988: Lal Pan Bibi; 1989: Topaye Sindoora Deepata Sankha.

Dasgupta, Buddhadev (b. 1944) Bengali poet and director born in Anara, Purulia (Bengal). Former lecturer in economics at Calcutta University (1968-76) and Bengali poet since 1961, published in journals like Kabita, Ekshan and Desh; wrote many anthologies (Govir Arieley, 1963; Coffin Kimba Suitcase, 1972; Him Jug, 1977; Chhata Kahini, 1981; Roboter Gaan, 1985). Gave up academic post to extend poetic work into cinema. Early film-making (Dooratwa) attempted a didactic variation on S. Ray’s type of urban lyrical realism. With the thriller Grihajuddha and melodrama Andhi Gali, both adapting novelist Dibyendu Palit, he tried new forms of addressing the contemporary situation in Bengal after the Naxalite movements, usually from the view of a guilt-ridden middle class. From this perspective, revisits established literary traditions, including the writings of Kamal Kumar Majumdar (Neem Annapurna), Narendranath Mitra (Phera) et al. Published a book of film essays, Swapna Samay Cinema (1991). FILMOGRAPHY: 1968: Samayer Kache (Sh); 1969: Continent of Love (Doc); 1970: Fishermen Of Sundarban (Doc); 1973: Dholer Raja Khirode Natta (Doc); 1974: Saratchandra (Doc); 1978: Dooratwa; 1979: Neem Annapurna; 1980: Vigyan O Tar Avishkar; (Doc); 1981: Rhythm of Steel (Doc); 1982: Grihajuddha; Sheet Grishmer Smriti (TV); 1984: Andhi Gali; Indian Science Marches Ahead (Doc); 1985: Story of Glass (Doc); India on the Move (Doc); 1986: Ceramics (Doc); Phera; 1987: Contemporary Indian Sculpture (Doc); 1989: Bagh Bahadur; 1990: History of Indian Jute (Doc); 1992: Tahader Katha; 1993: Charachar.

Das Gupta, Chidananda (b. 1921) Noted Indian film critic committed to a realist aesthetic and humanist philosophy best exemplified by Satyajit Ray. Born in Shillong. Founded with Ray et al. the Calcutta Film Society (1947) and the Federation of Film Societies of India (1960), functioning as its secretary until 1967. Editor of the Indian Film Review and Indian Film Culture and widely published film and arts journalist. Published The Cinema of Satyajit Ray and the anthology Film India: Satyajit Ray (both 1981) in addition to numerous essays. Extended his argument for an organic film culture beyond Ray to cover mainstream Indian cinema, launching the 81

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notion of the All-India Film with a culturally integrative role in nationalist terms (see the essay ‘The Cultural Basis of Indian Cinema’, 1968). Recent essays collected in his The Painted Face (1991) describe the realist and the All-India Film as committed to, respectively, a cinema of fact and of myth. For some years editor of the journal Span published by the USIS. Also known as the director of the critically acclaimed feature Bilet Pherat (1972), and of the documentary about Ananda Coomaraswamy, The Dance of Shiva (1968). Other documentaries include Portrait of a City (1961), The Stuff of Steel (1969), Birju Maharaj (1972) and Zaroorat Ki Purti (1979). Father of Bengali star Aparna Sen, scored his daughter’s film Sati (1989).

Dasgupta, Harisadhan (b. 1923) Bengali documentary and fiction director born in Calcutta. Studied film-making first at USC and later at UCLA (1945). Apprenticed to Hollywood film-maker Irving Pichel and present during the making of RKO’s They Won’t Believe Me (1947) and Universal’s Mr Peabody and the Mermaid (1948). Founder member with S. Ray, C. Das Gupta, Asit Sen et al. of the Calcutta Film Society (1947). Assisted Jean Renoir in making The River (1951) and shot best-known documentary Konarak (1949) with Renoir’s brother Claude. The film was partly remade in a ‘popular version’ by his brother Bulu for Films Division (1958). Début, A Perfect Day, is a featurette promoting cigarettes sponsored by the National Tobacco Co. scripted by Ray, produced by C. Das Gupta and shot by Ajoy Kar. It combined a vérité style with a fictional script, announcing e.g. Ray’s 50s realism. Later made the classic documentary The Story of Steel sponsored by Tata Steel, India’s largest private sector corporation. It was scripted by Ray, shot by Claude Renoir and edited by Hrishikesh Mukherjee with music by Ravi Shankar. It became a model for the type of Nehruite nation-building socialist-realism later associated with Films Division. Best-known films with the Shell Film Unit. Dasgupta and Ray planned to film Tagore’s Ghare Baire, a project realised 30 years later by Ray in 1984. Made two features, Kamallata and the critically acclaimed Eki Ange Eto Rup. He is regarded as Sukhdev’s teacher, later contributing to Nine Months To Freedom (1972). His son Raja Dasgupta is now a documentary director. Also made several 30’ films for USIS, the Ford Foundation, UNESCO etc. 1956-60 as well as for Hindustan Motors (1968). FILMOGRAPHY: 1948: A Perfect Day; 1949: Konarak: The Sun Temple; 1953: Weavers of Maindargi; Shaher Ki Jhalak; Gaon Ki Kahani; 1955: Panchthupi: A Village in West Bengal; 1956: The Story of Steel; 1960: Our Children Will Know Each Other Better; 1961: Panorama of West Bengal; Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray; 1964: Bade Ghulam Ali Khan Saheb; 1965: Baba; Malabar Story; Eki Ange Eto Rup; Glimpses of India; Quest for Health; 1969: Kamallata; The Automobile Industry in India; 1970: Terracotta Temples; 1971: The Tale of Two Leaves and a Bud; Port of Calcutta; 1973: 82

Engineers (India) Limited; 1976: Preservation of Ancient Monuments; 1977: Bagha Jatin; 1978: Haldia Dock Complex; The Brave Do Not Die; 1981: The ITA Story; 1982: This Land is Mine; Mizoram; 1984: Acharya Nandalal.

Dasgupta, Kamal (?-1974) Bengali composer born in Dhaka (now Bangladesh). Début with the Gramophone Company of India. Became widely known when his music was performed by the popular singer Juthika Roy and provided the definitive musical arrangements for some of Kazi Nazrul Islam’s compositions. His use of orchestration typifies the Nazrul gharana, which he helped popularise in the early years of the gramophone industry. Along with Anupam Ghatak and Anil Bagchi, one of the most popular composers in the interwar years. Worked with Barua (e.g. Shesh Uttar/Jawab, Pehchan) and extensively with Niren Lahiri (Garmil, Jayjatra). Also scored Modhu Bose’s Tagore-derived Giribala. Worked with Sagar directors Luhar (Bindiya) and Badami (Manmani) and later with Pranab Roy, also producing Roy’s Prarthana. Later years in Bangladesh where he married the singer Feroza Begum. FILMOGRAPHY: 1936: Pandit Moshai; 1938: Sarbajanin Bibahotsab; 1939: Debjani; 1942: Shesh Uttar/Jawab; Garmil; 1943: Sahadharmini; Jogajog/Hospital; Chandar Kalanka/Rani; Dampati; 1944: Bideshini; 1945: Nandita; Meghdoot; Bhabhi-Kaal; 1946: Bindiya; Krishna Leela; Pehchan; Zameen Aasmaan; 1947: Faisla; Giribala; Manmani; Chandrasekhar; 1948: Jayjatra/Vijay Yatra; 1949: Iran Ki Ek Raat; Rangamati; Anuradha; 1951: Phulwari; 1952: Prarthana; 1953: Malancha; 1954: Nababidhan; Bhagwan Shri Krishna Chaitanya; 1955: Bratacharini; 1956: Manraksha; Govindadas; 1957: Madhu Malati; Sandhan; 1967: Bodhu Baran.

Dasgupta, Protima (b. 1922) Hindi actress, producer and director born in Bhavnagar into wealthy family. Studied briefly in England; then at Tagore’s Shantiniketan where she was apparently a favoured student. Début in Naresh Mitra’s film of Tagore’s Gora, her role apparently satisfying the author. Hindi début in Modhu Bose’s trilingual Raj Nartaki. Acted in three films directed by Kishore Sahu. Turned film-maker with Chhamia followed by the comedy Pagle, both with leading stars Begum Para and David. Her Jharna got into trouble when the Chief Minister of Bombay Presidency, Morarji Desai, banned it for what he felt were sexually explicit scenes. The film was a financial disaster and she retired from the cinema. FILMOGRAPHY : (* also d): 1938: Gora; 1940: Path Bhoole; Suktara; Byabadhan; 1941: Raj Nartaki/Court Dancer; 1942: Kunwara Baap; 1943: Namaste; Raja; 1944: Shararat; 1945: Chhamia*; 1948: Jharna*; 1950: Pagle*.

Dasgupta, Sukumar (b. 1907) Bengali director born in Calcutta. Started as scenarist for Prafulla Roy’s Abhishek (1931) and P.C. Barua’s Maya (1936). Comedy director in the ensemble format popularised by Nirmal Dey. Known mainly for having introduced Suchitra Sen (Sat Number Kayedi) and for early Uttam Kumar comedies (notably Sadanander Mela, adapting Roy del Ruth’s It Happened on Fifth Avenue, 1947) and Abhoyer Biye. FILMOGRAPHY : 1936: Ashiana; 1937: Rajgee; 1940: Rajkumarer Nirbashan; 1941: Epar Opar; 1942: Pashan Devata; 1945: Nandita; 1946: Sat Number Bari; 1949: Abhijatya; 1950: Banprastha; 1951: Pratyabartan; 1952: Sanjibani; 1953: Sat Number Kayedi; 1954: Ora Thake Odhare; Sadanander Mela; 1955: Parishodh; 1956: Mahanisha; 1957: Abhoyer Biye; 1960: Haat Baraley Bandhu; 1961; Sathi Hara.

Date, Keshavrao (1889-1971) Major Marathi stage actor born in Adivare, Ratnagiri Dist., Maharashtra; one of the first practitioners of naturalist prose theatre at Maharashtra Natak Mandali (e.g. Agryahun Sutka and Bebandshahi) in an era dominated by Sangeet Natak musicals. Key participant, with writer-actor K. Narayan Kale and composer Keshavrao Bhole, of Natyamanwantar group’s production of Andhalyanchi Shala (1933), a pinnacle of Stanislavsky (and Ibsen/Shaw) inspired naturalism in Marathi theatre, prompting Shantaram to hire all three for Prabhat. Kale suggests that Date’s constant effort to reconcile reformist-social literature’s stereotypes with European theatrical styles inevitably led to the expressionist technique of fragmenting characters into certain gestures and a speaking style, construed as an ‘entry into the character’s mind’ (Kale, 1950). Best-known film work with Shantaram at Prabhat (e.g. the classic Kunku and Shejari) and Rajkamal (Dahej, Toofan Aur Diya), where his declamatory speech and gesture fitted Shantaram’s expressionist inclinations. Date’s style remains a characteristic of Shantaram’s influential variant of melodrama. Also directed some films at Rajkamal. Biography by V.V. Jog (1976). FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1934: Amritmanthan; 1936: Savkari Pash; 1937: Kunku/Duniya Na Mane; Pratibha; 1938: Umaji Naik; 1939: Sant Tulsidas; Adhuri Kahani; 1940: Chingari; Diwali; Holi; 1941: Shejari; 1942: Kisise Na Kehna*; 1944: Bhakticha Mala/Mali*; 1946: Dr Kotnis Ki Amar Kahani; 1947: Andhon Ki Duniya*; 1948: Bhool; 1949: Apna Desh/Nam Naadu; 1950: Dahej; Jara Japoon; 1951: Kunkvacha Dhani; Sharada; 1953: Teen Batti Char Raasta; Maisaheb; Surang; 1955: Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baaje; 1956: Toofan Aur Diya; 1957: Do Aankhen Barah Haath; 1958: Mausi; 1959: Navrang; 1961: Stree; 1963:

Desai, Dhirubhai B.

Surdas; Shetalne Kanthe; Bhadar Tara Vehta Pani; 1976: Bhaibandhi; Malavpati Munj; 1977: Jai Randalma; Maa Avret Jivrat; Paiso Bole Chhe; Son Kansari; 1978: Chundadi Odhi Tara Namni; Patali Parmar; Bhagya Lakshmi; 1979: Suraj Chandra Ni Sakhe; Preet Khandani Dhar; 1980: Koino Ladakvayo; Virangana Nathibai; 1981: Jagya Tyanthi Savar; Seth Jagadusha; Dukhda Khame Ee Dikri; 1983: Palavade Bandhi Preet; 1984: Nagmati Nagvalo; 1985: Malo Naagde.

Debi, Suprabha (b. 1939) Assamese writer, distributor and first woman director. Born into an established family from Golaghat, Upper Assam. Married the journalist and cineaste D.N. Debi. Involved in the films of Rajendra Chalachitra. After her husband’s death, became distributor and producer, eventually directing as well. FILMOGRAPHY: 1983: Nayanmoni; 1985: Sarbajan.

Keshavrao Date in Kunku (1937) Sehra; 1964: Geet Gaya Pattharone; 1965: Iye Marathyachi Nagari/Ladki Sahyadri Ki.

Datta Keshav Kulkarni (b. 1932) Marathi director and playwright born in Bombay. Assistant to Dharmadhikari (1952) before going to Filmistan as scenarist and director. Often also provided the lyrics for his own films. FILMOGRAPHY: 1966: Ati Shahana Tyacha; 1968: Bai Mothi Bhagyachi; Yethe Shahane Rahataat; 1970: Meech Tujhi Priya; 1971: Dher Chalaki Jin Kara; Asel Mazha Hari; 1973: Mala Dev Bhetla; 1974: Bayano Navare Sambhala; Ovalite Bhauraya; 1977: Badla; Bhingri; Navara Mazha Brahmachari; 1980: Phatakadi; Savli Premachi; Jidda; 1981: Mosambi Narangi; 1982: Vishwas; 1983: Kashala Udyachi Baat; Ranine Dav Jinkala; 1985: Saubhagya Lene; 1987: Porichi Dhamal Bapachi Kamal; Prema Saathi Vatelte; Sant Gajanan Shegavicha; 1989: De Taali; 1990: Dhamal Bablya Ganpyachi; 1991: Yeda Ki Khula.

Dave, Mohanlal G. Top silent cinema scenarist; first scenarist to get his name above the title (see e.g. the publicity pamphlets of Kohinoor Film which often give no other credits). Started as an accountant; then publicist for Imperial Theatre in Bombay. Apparently honed his craft writing lively synopses in publicity hand-outs for Pathé’s imports. Entered films with S.N. Patankar and moved to National Studio (where he was already paid Rs 10,000 a year to write a minimum of 15 stories) and Kohinoor, where he made his reputation and wrote about one screenplay a week. Thereafter worked at Jayant Pics. and at Imperial with the coming of sound, where he often teamed up with director Jaswantlal. As a professional, he handled all genres, but his narrative style is related to the

then emerging popular Gujarati fiction as introduced to the cinema by ex-novelists like Naranji Vassanji Thakkar, Gopalji Delwadekar, Shaida etc. His scripts are said to have included detailed camera movements, fades etc., as in Rathod’s complicated Gul-e-Bakavali (1924), written in 92 scenes. Major early scripts: the politically controversial Bhakta Vidur (1921), the Rathod hit Kala Naag (1924), Chandulal Shah’s début film Panchdanda (1925) and Homi Master’s Fankdo Fituri (1925). His sound films were often rewrites of his own silent hits with dialogue. His major successes were with V.M. Vyas, including the Gujarati film Ranakdevi (1946). Remained a popular writer until the 60s.

Dave, Ravindra (1919-92) Hindi and Gujarati director born in Karachi. Started as cinema manager in the Pancholi distribution empire. Later learnt editing under director Shaukat Hussain; also scenarist until 1941. Early films for Pancholi. 50s films were usually cop thrillers and murder mysteries (Moti Mahal, CID Girl, Guest House). Post Box 999 adapted plot of Call Northside 777 (1947). Shifted to Gujarati cinema with the folk fantasy Jesal Toral, a major hit. Thereafter worked mainly in the same genre and language. Also scripted Mohan Segal’s Sajan (1969). FILMOGRAPHY: 1943: Poonji; 1945: Dhamki; 1948: Chunaria; Patjhad; 1949: Naach; Sawan Bhadon; 1950: Meena Bazaar; 1951: Nagina; 1952: Lal Kunwar; Moti Mahal; 1953: Naina; 1954: Bhai Saheb; 1955: Shikar; Lutera; 1956: Char Minar; 1957: Agra Road; 1958: Farishta; Post Box 999; 1959: CID Girl; Ghar Ghar Ki Baat; Guest House; Satta Bazaar; 1962: Aankh Micholi; Girls’ Hostel; 1963: Band Master; 1964: Tere Dwar Khada Bhagwan; Dulha Dulhan; Punar Milan; 1967: Raaz; 1969: Road to Sikkim; 1971: Jesal Toral; 1973: Raja Bhartrahari; 1974: Hothal Padmini; Kunwarbainu Mameru; 1975: Sant

Desai, Dhirubhai B. (1908-90) Hindi and Gujarati director born in Kaliawadi, near Navsari, Gujarat. Started at Sharda Studio (1927); assisted A.P. Kapur. Completed Maya Na Rang, left unfinished by P.V. Chavan and Sundarrao Nadkarni when Bhogilal Dave took over his United Pics Syndicate in 1929. Early work marked by the Sharda genre of action films and later by Indulal Yagnik’s politically informed melodrama. Also worked for Nanubhai Desai’s Saroj Film. Set up own talkie studio, Vishnu Cinetone (with Surya Kumari, 1933), with Natwar Shyam Maniar and Chaturbhai Patel. Later also owned Chandrakala Pics. One of the few silent filmmakers with a long career in Hindi and Gujarati B-movies. Post-40s films mainly cheap mythologicals, often remakes of silent hits. FILMOGRAPHY: 1928: Maya Na Rang; 1929: Kusum Lata; Nishan Danka; Mayavi Nagari; Bahadur Baharvatiyo; 1930: Abad Veer; Chittor Ni Veerangana; Komalner Ni Kusum; Bhawani No Bhog; 1931: Lal Panjo; Aatishe Ishq; Jawahir-e-Hind, Kanak Kesari; Dariyai Devangana; Alakh Kishori; 1932: Gurjar Veer; Sinh Santaan (all St); 1933: Surya Kumari; 1934: Bulbul-e-Paristan; 1935: Dard-e-Ulfat; Delhi Ka Thug; Lal Chitta; 1936: Hoor-eSamundar; 1937: Vanraj Kesari; 1938: Fashionable Wife; Talwar Ka Dhani; 1939: Baghi; Payame Haq; 1940: Pyar; Rani Saheba; 1941: Chandan; 1942: Bolti Bulbul; Seva; 1944: Maya Nagari; 1946: Bhakta Prahlad; Devkanya; 1947: Saat Samundaron Ki Mallika; 1948: Satyavadi Harishchandra; 1949: Bhakta Pundalik; 1951: Jai Mahakali; 1952: Bhakta Puran; Neelam Pari; 1953: Shuk Rambha; 1954: Durga Puja; Shiv Kanya; 1955: Mastani; Oonchi Haveli; 1956: Sati Ansuya; 1957: Paristan; Raja Vikram; 1958: Harishchandra; 1959: Maa Ke Aansoo; 1960: Saranga; 1961: Jai Bhawani; 1962: Kailashpati; 1964: Bhakta Dhruvakumar; 1965: Mahasati Ansuya; 1967: Badrinath Yatra; 1968: Mata Mahakali; 1969: Pujarin; 83

Desai, Jayantilal Zinabhai

1970: Sampoorna Teerth Yatra; 1972: Narad Leela; 1975: Daku Aur Bhagwan.

Desai, Jayantilal Zinabhai (1909-76) Hindi director born in Surat, Gujarat. Entered films initially as Surat-based exhibitor, later scenarist for London Film, Rangoon, and for Krishna and Sharda Studios. Assisted Chandulal Shah (Rajputani, 1929). Turned director completing Nandlal Jaswantlal’s Pahadi Kanya (1930). Front-line Ranjit filmmaker until 1943, then independent producer, owner of Jupiter Studio, Jayant Desai Prod. (1943) and Hemlata Pics. Also had exhibition interests with Hindmata Talkies and Star Theatres in Bombay and operated as a distributor in the 50s with his Jupiter Films. Directed K.L. Saigal’s last films. Desai’s devotionals (e.g. Har Har Mahadev) and historicals (Tansen) show how these genres were inflected towards neo-traditional melodrama (including his several Saint films and mythologicals) by a growing urban working-class audience and an economy determined by WW2. FILMOGRAPHY: 1930: Pahadi Kanya (uncredited); Noor-e-Watan; Jawan Mard; Joban Na Jadu; 1931: Mukti Sangram; Banke Savaria; Vilasi Atma; Qatil Katari; Vijay Lakshmi; Fauladi Pahelwan; 1932: Lal Swar; Sipahsalaar (all St); Bhutia Mahal; Char Chakram; Do Badmash; 1933: Bhola Shikar; Bhool Bhulaiyan; Krishna Sudama; 1934: Nadira; Sitamgarh; Toofan Mail; Veer Babruwahan; 1935: College Girl; Noor-eWatan; 1936: Laheri Lala; Matlabi Duniya; Raj Ramani; Rangila Raja; 1937: Toofani Toli; Mitti Ka Putla; Zameen Ka Chand; 1938: Ban Ki Chidiya; Billi; Prithvi Putra; 1939: Sant Tulsidas; 1940: Aaj Ka Hindustan; Diwali; 1941: Beti; Shadi; 1942: Chandni; Fariyad; 1943: Bansari; Bhakta Raaj; Tansen; Zabaan; 1944: Lalkaar; Manorama; 1945: Samrat Chandragupta; Tadbir; 1946: Maharana Pratap; 1950: Har Har Mahadev; Shaan; Veer Bhimsen; 1951: Dashavtar; Shri Ganesh Janma; 1952: Amber; Nishan Danka; Shivashakti; 1953: Hazaar Raatein; Manchala; Naya Raasta; 1954: Miss Mala; Shiv Ratri; 1955: Sati Madalasa; 1956: Basant Panchami; Hamara Watan; 1957: Lakshmi Pooja; 1961: Zamana Badal Gaya.

Desai, Manmohan (1936-94) Hindi director born in Bombay. Son of Kikubhai Desai, founder of the Paramount Studio which later housed Filmalaya (Est: 1958). Elder brother of the producer Subhash Desai. Started as assistant director to Babubhai Mistri in the late 50s; 60s work in line with Shammi Kapoor’s films at Filmistan (Bluff Master, Badtameez). Although the films rely on Hollywood models (esp. Elvis Presley) introduced into Hindi film by Subodh Mukherjee and Nasir Hussain, they also jettison some of the narrative ballast that e.g. Hussain puts into his romances. The narratives in the 70s films with Rajesh Khanna 84

Shammi Kapoor (centre) in Manmohan Desai's Bluff Master (1963) (Sachcha Jhutha) and Jeetendra (Bhai Ho To Aisa) develop a series of autonomously packaged sequences emotionally complete in themselves. Desai formula plots deploy good guy-bad guy dual roles or lost-and-found brother stories first elaborated by Tamil films (e.g. Parasakthi, 1952), removing the political aspects from their populist approach and replacing them with a more diffuse, less targeted aggressiveness. Turned independent producer with Amar Akbar Anthony, often financed by industrial family of Hindujas. Leading director in the 70s. Desai’s best-known films, Naseeb and Coolie, have Bachchan continuing the MGR mode of presenting himself in the guise of the oppressed subaltern. But Desai adds a celebration of lumpen power charged with communal references. Publicly announced his retirement as a director after Ganga Jamuna Saraswati. Recently, the resemblance between Desai’s formula plots and the structure of US TV series caused his work to be associated with notions of postmodernism. His son Ketan Desai now makes films for MKD Films (e.g. Allah Rakha, 1986; Toofan, 1989). FILMOGRAPHY: 1960: Chhalia; 1963: Bluff Master; 1966: Badtameez; 1968: Kismet; 1970: Sachcha Jhutha; 1972: Bhai Ho To Aisa; Rampur Ka Lakshman; Shararat; 1973: Aa Gale Lag Jaa; 1974: Roti; 1977: Amar Akbar Anthony; Chacha Bhatija; Dharam Veer; Parvarish; 1979: Suhaag; 1981: Naseeb; 1982: Desh Premi; 1983: Coolie; 1985: Mard; 1988: Ganga Jamuna Saraswati.

Desai, Nanubhai B. (1902-67) Born in Kaliawadi, near Navsari, Gujarat. Major producer and director of pioneering action and stunt films characteristic of the Sharda Studio style. Joined Ardeshir Irani’s Star Film; later partnered Dorabsha Kolha, Nowroji Pavri and his mentor Bhogilal Dave in Saraswati Film (Est: 1924), from which emerged the nucleus of Sharda started by Desai and Dave (1925). Founded Saroj Film (1929), later Saroj Movietone. Ran Amar Pics, which replaced the earlier Sagar Film when it split. Produced

films by R.S. Choudhury et al. Ended up as production manager at the Pakshiraja Studio (e.g. for their Hindi film Azad, 1955). FILMOGRAPHY: 1923: Champraj Hado; 1924: Razia Begum; Sati Sardarba; Vikram Charitra; 1925: Saurashtra Veer; Bhadra Bhamini; Mumbai Ni Mohini; Bajirao Mastani; 1926: Vasant Bala; Dil Aram; 1927: Bhedi Trishul; Gulzar; Kailash Kumari; Reshmi Sari; Asuri Lalsa; Jaan-e-Alam Anjuman Ara; Kala Pahad; 1928: Maya Mahal (all St).

Desai, Vasant (1912-75) Music director born in Kudal, Maharashtra. Employed at Prabhat as actor and studio-hand from 1929. Assistant to composers Tembe, Krishnarao and Bhole and actor-singer with successful solos in Ayodhyecha Raja and Amar Jyoti. Music director at Rajkamal, where he was a regular in Shantaram films for over three decades starting with Shakuntala. Best-known work mainly adapting traditional Maharashtrian musical modes of Powada and Lavni (e.g. in Lokshahir Ramjoshi and Amar Bhoopali). Made several polemical statements calling for Marathi cinema’s return to regional music traditions (e.g. Desai, 1950). Scored several mythologicals by Vijay Bhatt and Babubhai Mistri and two major Sohrab Modi films: Sheesh Mahal and Jhansi Ki Rani. Later scored for Hrishikesh Mukherjee (Ashirwad, Guddi) and Gulzar (Achanak). FILMOGRAPHY (* act only): 1932: Ayodhyecha Raja*; 1935: Dharmatma*; 1936: Amar Jyoti*; 1937: Wahan*; 1940: Sant Dnyaneshwar*; 1942: Shobha; 1943: Aankh Ki Sharam; Mauj; Shakuntala; 1944: Parbat Pe Apna Dera; 1946: Dr Kotnis Ki Amar Kahani; Jeevan Yatra; Subhadra; 1947: Andhon Ki Duniya; Lokshahir Ramjoshi/Matwala Shayar Ramjoshi; 1948: Mandir; Sona; 1949: Narasinh Avatar; Udhaar; Sakharpuda; Nai Taleem; 1950: Krantiveer Vasudev Balwant; Dahej; Hindustan Hamara; Sheesh Mahal; 1951: Jeevan Tara; Amar Bhoopali; Hi Majhi

Devare, Narayan Gopinath

Lakshmi; 1952: Hyderabad Ki Nazneen; 1953: Anand Bhavan; Dhuaan; Jhansi Ki Rani; Majhi Zameen; Shyamchi Aai; 1954: Kalakaar; Savdhan; Suhagan (all 3 with C. Ramchandra); Kanchanganga; 1955: Ye Re Majhya Maglya; Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baaje; 1956: Toofan Aur Diya; 1957: Do Aankhen Barah Haath; 1958: Do Phool; Mausi; 1959: Ardhangini; Do Behnen; Goonj Uthi Shehnai; Samrat Prithviraj Chouhan; 1960: Umaji Naik; 1961: Pyar Ki Pyaas; Sampoorna Ramayan; 1962: Baap Mazha Brahmachari; 1963: Chhota Jawan; Molkarin; 1964: Swayamvar Jhale Seeteche; Rahul; Yaadein; 1965: Amar Jyoti; Bharat Milap; Iye Marathyachi Nagari/Ladki Sahyadri Ki; And Miles To Go...; 1967: Ramrajya; 1968: Dhanya Te Santaji Dhanaji; Ashirwad; 1970: Lakshman Resha; 1971: Guddi; 1972: Grahan; 1973: Achanak; 1974: Jai Radhe Krishna; Bayano Navre Sambhala; Raja Shivachhatrapati; 1975: Rani Aur Lalpari; 1976: Shaque; Tuch Majhi Rani.

Devarajan, Paravur Prolific 60s and 70s Malayalam film composer. Established reputation with songs for plays of the left Kerala Peoples’ Arts Club (see IPTA), esp. the O.N.V. Kurup lyric sung by K.S. George and Sulochana invoking the graves of the Communist rebels of Punnapra-Vyalar (1946), set to a militant rendition of the raga Hamsadhwani. Extensively associated with Vyalar Rama Varma’s lyrics. Like Dakshinamurthy, was trained in classical Carnatic music but, unlike him, often borrowed extensively from folk influences. Early scores in Puttanna Kanagal’s Malayalam films (School Master, Kalanjukuttiya Thangam); broke through with Sethumadhavan’s 60s films, remaining his regular composer for several years (e.g. Odeyil Ninnu, Daham, Adimagal, Aranazhikaneram). Worked on several major Vincent films including Ashwamedham, Thulabharam and Nadhi. In the 70s, was associated with independent breakthroughs including Menon’s Kabani Nadi Chuvannappol and Backer’s work (e.g. Charam), while simultaneously working on I.V. Sasi’s mainstream productions. Composed Aravindan’s Chidambaram as well. Reputedly the first composer in Malayalam film to make sense of the non-verbal background score, with a bias for violin effects. FILMOGRAPHY: 1955: Kalam Marunnu; 1958: Chadarangam; 1962: Bharya; 1963: Nithya Kanyaka; Doctor; Kadalamma; 1964: Anna; School Master; Manavatti; Omanakuttan; Kalanjukuttiya Thangam; 1965: Odeyil Ninnu; Kaliyodam; Kattupookal; Kathiruna Nikkah; Daham; Shakuntala; Pattu Thoovala; 1966: Kalithozhen; Rowdy; Jail; Kalyana Rathriyil; Kanmanikal; Karuna; Tilottama; 1967: Swapnabhoomi; Sheelavati; Arakillam; Aval; Ashwamedham; Chitramela; Pooja; Kavalam Chundan; Nadan Pennu; Kasavuthattam; 1968: Viplavakarikal; Thokkukal Katha Parayunnu; Hotel Highrange; Yakshi; Thulabharam; Velutha Kathrina; Agni Pareeksha; 1969: Anashchadanam; Padicha Kallan; Veetu

Mrugham; Kattukurangu; Susie; Adimagal; Urangatha Sundari; Kadalpalam; Mooladhanam; Jwala; Nadhi; Kootu Kudumbam; Kumara Sambhavam; 1970: Mindapennu; Nishagandhi; Vazhve Mayam; Dattuputhran; Othenente Makan; Abhayam (with Salil Choudhury); Ningalenne Communistaki; Vivahitha; Nilakatha Chalanangal; Swapnangal; A Chitrashalabham Paranotte; Triveni; Tara; Aranazhikaneram; Pearl View; 1971: Shiksha; Oru Penninte Katha; Thettu; Kalithozhi; Inquilab Zindabad; Sarasayya; Karakanakadal; Line Bus; Puthanveedu; Avalalppam Vaikippoi; Sindooracheppu; Anubhavangal Palichakal; 1972: Mayiladum Kunnu; Devi; Professor; Aromalunni; Omana; Chemparathi; Achannum Bappayum; Akkarapacha; Oru Sundariyude Katha; Punarjanmam; Maraivil Thiruvu Sukshikuha; Gandharvakshetram; Postmane Kananilla; Chhayam; Maram; 1973: Enippadikal; Kalachakram; Ponnapuram Kotta; Gayatri; Manushya Puthran; Thani Niram; Darshanam; Achani; Thenaruvi; Pavangal Pennungal; Nakhangal; Dharma Yuddham; Prethangalude Thazhvara; Chukku; Madhavikutty; Swargaputhri; Angathattu; Masappadi Mathupilla; Kaliyugam; Chenda; Vijaya; 1974: Chattakkari; Paruvakalam; Shapamoksham; Suprabhatam; Panchatanthram; Durga; Setu Bandhanam; Neela Kannukal; Nagaram Sagaram; Thumbolarcha; Devi Kanyakumari; Raja Hamsam; Vishnu Vijayam; Bhoomidevi Pushpiniyayi; Atithi; Mazhakkaru; 1975: Alibaba and Forty-One Thieves; Ayodhya; Bharya Illatha Rathri; Boy Friend; Chalanam; Chuvanna Sandhyakal; Kabani Nadi Chuvannappol; Kottaram Vilakkanundu; Makkal; Manishada; Mucheettu Kalikarante Magal; Palazhi Madhanam; Priyamulla Sophia; Swami Ayyappan; Antharangam; 1976: Kumara Vijayam; Amba Ambika Ambalika; Ammini Ammavan; Anavaranam; Aruthu; Ayalakkari; Colonel and Collector; Hridayam Oru Kshetram; Manimuzhakkum; Missi; Mohini Attam; Nee Ente Lahari; Nurayum Pathayum; Panchamrutham; Ponn; Rathriyile Yatrakar; Romeo; Sarvekkalu; Udyanalakshmi; Vanadevatha; Chuvanna Vithukal; 1977: A Nimisham; Acharam Ammini Osaram Omana; Agni Nakshatram; Akale Akasam; Anandam Paramanandam; Anjali; Chakravarthini; Chaturvedam; Guruvayoor Kesavan; Innale Innu; Itha Ivide Vare; Karnaparvam; Kavilamma; Lakshmi; Minimol; Nalumani Pookkal; Needhi Peedham; Oonjal; Pennpuli; Rajani; Rendu Lokam; Rowdy Rajamma; Saghakkale Munottu; Samudram; Satyavan Savithri; Shri Murugan; Sridevi; Varadakshina; Veedu Oru Swargam; Vidarunna Mottugal; Aniyara; 1978: Nakshatrangale Kaval; Anappachan; Aazhi Alayazhi; Adimakachavadam; Amarsham; Ammuvinte Atinkutty; Avalakku Maranamilla; Avar Jeevikkunu; Ee Manohara Theeram; Jnan Jnan Mathram; Iniyum Puzha Ozhukum; Kadathanattu Maakkam; Mudra Mothiram; Nivedyam; Padasaram; Rappadigalude Gatha; Rajan Paranja Katha; Rathi Nirvedham; Satrathil Oru Rathri; Snehikkan Oru Pennu; Thampuratti; Tharu Oru Janmam Koodi; Vadagaikku Oru Hridayam; Vayanadan

Thampan; Vilakkum Velichavum; Yeetta; 1979: Sanghaganam; Allavudeenum Albutha Velakkum/Allavudeenum Arputha Vilakkum/ Alladdin and the Wonderful Lamp; Anubhavangale Nandi; Iniyethra Sandhyakal; Hridayathinte Nirangal; Lahari; Manavadharmam; Manninte Maril; Mochanam; Nilathamara; Ormayil Nee Mathram; Sharapanjaram; Thirayum Thiravum; Veerabhadran; Vellayanni Paramu; Ward No. 7; 1980: Akalangalil Abhayam; Chakara; Chora Chuvanna Chora; Digvijayam; Evar; Ishtamanu Pakshe; Kalika; Lava; Meen; Nattuchakkiruttu; Palattu Kunjikannan; Pavizha Muthu; Prakatanam; Rajanigandhi; Salini Ente Kuttukari; Suryadaham; Swathu; 1981: Ira Thedunna Manushyan; Kathayariyathe; Maniyan Pillai Athava Maniyan Pillai; Nidra; Parankimala; Swarangal Swapnangal; Thalam Manasinte Thalam; Theekali; Vayal; Charam; 1982: Amritha Geetham; Angachamayam; Asthi; Keni; Madrasille Mohan; Odukkam Thudakkam; Swapname Ninakku Nandi; Veedu; 1983: Eetapuli; Himavahini; Kattaruvi; Oru Madaupravinte Katha; Thimingalam; Kodugal Illatha Kolam; Pudhiya Varavu; Villainpur Matha; 1984: Ningalil Oru Stree; Poomadathu Pennu; Vellom; Vikatakavi; 1985: Ee Thalamura Inganna; Kochuthemmadi; Shri Narayana Guru; Chidambaram; 1987: Ivide Ellavarkkum Sukham; Thoranam; 1988: Innaleyude Baaki; 1989: Utsavapittennu; Thangachi Kalyanam.

Devare, Narayan Gopinath (1899-1954) Bombay-based cinematographer and director of the silent period; born in Bombay. Son of the court photographer Gopinath Devare. Studied photography and cinematography in Europe (1918-20); returned to India (1921) and worked briefly in his father’s studio before joining Kohinoor as a technician in the early 20s, where he worked with his cousin Gajanan Shyamrao Devare, also a cameraman and director. N.G. Devare has been credited with directing films he shot for Kanjibhai Rathod and Homi Master. He also shot Telephone Ni Taruni (1926), pioneering location shooting at the Grant Road Telephone Exchange in Bombay, and Bhaneli Bhamini and Gunsundari (both 1927). Turned director in 1927. Virtually ran Kohinoor when it became the employee-run Kohinoor U.A. (1928), establishing his own N.G. Devare Prod. in 1933, but the venture collapsed. Several filmmakers were apprenticed to him, e.g. the thencameraman V.M. Vyas for Zakhmi Jigar and Jaswantlal for Ulfat-e-Mohammed. Recorded his version of this controversial period in Kohinoor’s history and of the silent studios in the film Daily Mail. Co-directed a few Hindi and Marathi films in the late 30s and 40s with Homi Master (e.g. Punjab Lancers) and Sarpotdar (Sant Janabai). His cousin G.S. Devare had become a prominent cameraman with films such as Bhakta Vidur (1921), Kala Naag (1924), Fankdo Fituri and Lanka Ni Laadi (both 1925). As a director, G.S. Devare was associated with J.B.H. Wadia and later ran a film processing laboratory. The two Devares co-directed the Marathi film Raigad. 85

Devi, Anjali

FILMOGRAPHY: 1927: Be Ghadi Mouj; Sati Madri; 1928: Naag Padmini; Tajayali Taruni; Bharmayalo Bharthar; Princess Rajba; 1929: Baghdad Nu Baharvatiyo; Zakhmi Jigar; Ulfate-Mohammed; Mumbaino Satodio; Nirdoshi Abla; 1930: Daily Mail; Baharvatiyo Ni Beti; 1931: Afghan Abla (all St); 1934: Sant Tulsidas; Neki Ka Taj; 1935: Rang Bhoomi; 1937: Punjab Lancers; 1938: Sant Janabai; 1939: Saguna Sarasa; 1940: Raigad; 1947: Ghar Ki Bahu.

Devi, Anjali (b. 1927) Telugu/Tamil/Hindi actress born in Peddapuram, East Godavari Dist. as Anjani Kumari. Started on the Telugu stage aged 10 under her future husband, composer Adi Narayana Rao, who instructed her in music and dance. Also stage actress with the Young Men’s Happy Club. Performed in plays like Srinivasa Kalyanam and Premavijayam and gave live dance shows. Film début in C. Pullaiah’s Gollabhama playing the vamp Mohini. Early roles continued the ‘vamp’ image (e.g. Balaramaiah’s Balaraju, Keelugurram, R. Padmanabhan’s Raksharekha, T.R. Sundaram’s Sarvadhikari). These directors, and Raghavaiah, were associated with her early career, and her best-known screen image, e.g. in the famous Swapna Sundari playing a heavenly damsel descending to earth, followed by hits like Raghavaiah’s Anarkali (which ran for 100 weeks) and Suvarna Sundari, T.R. Raghunath’s Kanavane Kan Kanda Daivam and P. Neelakantan’s Chakravarthi Thirumagal, which made her a top female Telugu and Tamil star for several years. Often acted with Telugu superstars A. Nageshwara Rao and NTR and, in Tamil, with MGR and Gemini Ganesh. Started Ashwini Pics in 1949 in partnership with A. Nageshwara Rao and Gopala Rao which in 1951 became Anjali Pics Studio, in partnership with her husband Adi Narayana Rao débuting with Prasad’s Poongothai/Paradesi. In the 70s mainly played mother roles. Vice-president of the South Indian Film Chamber of Commerce (1950-51). FILMOGRAPHY: 1947: Gollabhama; Mahatma Udhangar; 1948: Balaraju; Madalasa; Adithan Kanavu; 1949: Raksharekha; Keelugurram/Maya Kudhirai; Kanniyin Kathali; Mangayar Karasi; Mayavathi; 1950: Maya Rambha; Palletoori Pilla; Shri Lakshmamma Katha; Swapna Sundari; Praja Rajyam; 1951: Strisahasam; Mayalamari/ Mayakkari; Nirdoshi/Niraparadhi; Tilottama/ Mayamalai; Sarvadhikari; Marmayogi/Ek Tha Raja; 1952: Pedaraitu; 1953: Pakkinti Ammayi; Poongothai/ Pardesi; Ladki; Shuk Rambha; 1954: Annadata; Ponnavayal/ Bangaru Bhoomi; Rechukka; Sangham; Sorgavasal; Ratha Pasam; 1955: Anarkali; Jayasimha/Jaisingh; Santosham/Naya Admi; Vadinagari Gajulu; Kanavane Kan Kanda Daivam; Mudhal Thedi; Town Bus; 1956: Naga Panchami; Jayam Manade; Ilavelpu; Mathar Kula Manikam/ Charanadasi; Devata; 1957: Ustad; Peddarikalu; Allavudeenum Arputha Vilakkum/Allauddin Adbhuta 86

Deepam/Alladdin Ka Chirag; Suvarna Sundari/Manalane Mangayin Bhagyam; Sati Ansuya; Panduranga Mahatyam; Chakravarthi Thirumagal; 1958: Chenchulakshmi; Shobha; Raja Nandini; Aadapettanam; Bhuloka Rambha/Bhuloka Rambhai/Pareeksha; 1959: Pelli Sandadi/ Kalyana Penn; Jayabheri; Balanagamma; Naan Sollum Rahasiyam; Kalaivanan; Pachai Malai Kurathi; 1960: Kuladaivam; Rani Ratnaprabha; Bhatti Vikramarka; Runanubandham; Adutha Veetu Penn; Advantha Daivam; Engal Selvi; Mannathai Mannan; 1961: Shanta; Sati Sulochana; Bhakta Jayadeva; Saugandh; Pachani Samsaram; Pankalikal; 1962: Bhishma; Swarnamanjari/Mangayir Ullam Mangada Selvam; Naag Devata; 1963: Lavakusa; Paruvu Pratishthalu; Raj Mahal; 1964: Varasatwam; En Kadamai; Sati Savitri; Phoolon Ki Sej; 1965: Poomalai; Ennathan Mudivu; Sati Sakkubai; 1966: Palnati Yuddham; ChilakaGorinka; Bhakta Potana; Hantakulostunnaru Jagratha; Shri Krishna Tulabharam; Dr Anand; Rangula Ratnam; 1967: Bhakta Prahlada; Chadarangam; Kambojaraju Katha; Nirdoshi; Private Master; Rahasyam; Sati Sumati; Stree Janma; Vasantsena; 1968: Lakshminivasam; Challani Needa; Kumkumabharina; Mana Samsaram; Sati Arundhati; Veeranjaneya; 1969: Adarsha Kutumbam; Shri Rama Katha; Bhale Mastaru; Bandhipotu Bhimanna; 1970: Amma Kosam; Desamante Manushuloi; Agni Pareeksha; Raithe Raju; 1971: Suputhrudu; Bangaru Kutumbam; Pagabattina Paduchu; Kalyana Mandapam; Vikramarka Vijayam; Raitu Kutumbam; 1972: Mathru Murthi; Vamsodharakudu; Manchi Roju Lostai; Kodalu Pilla; Vichitra Bandham; Maa Inti Velugu; Badi Panthulu; Kalam Marindi; Vooriki Upakari; Tata Manavadu; Shanti Nilayam; Bava Diddina Kapuram; Akka Tammudu; Bala Bharatam; 1973: Kanna Koduku; Talli Kodukulu; Nindu Kutumbam; Sreevaru Maavaru; Bhakta Tukaram; Minor Babu; Mayadari Malligadu; Abhimanavanthulu; Vakkuruthi; 1974: Intinti Katha; Manchi Manushulu; Deeksha; Peddalu Marali; Manushilo Devudu; Uttama Illalu; Krishnaveni; Chakravakam; Palle Paduchu; Urmai Kural; 1975: Gunavanthudu; Raktha Sambandhalu; Challani Talli; Gajula Kishtayya; Soggadu; Pichimaraju; 1976: Monagadu; Vadhu Varulu; Mahakavi Kshetrayya; Magaadu; Devude Gelichadu; Raja; 1977: Kurukshetramu; Sati Savitri; Seeta Rama Vanavasu; Ee Tharam Manishi; Bangaru Bommalu; Geetha Sangeetha; 1978: Allari Bullodu; Anna Dammula Saval; Ramakrishnulu; Dudubasavanna; Simha Baludu; Anukunnadhi Sadhishta; Angadi Bomma; K.D. No. 1; Kannavari Illu; Simha Garjana; 1979: Shri Tirupati Venkateswara Kalyanam; Amma Evarikaina Amma; Judagadu; Tiger; Sangham Chekkina Silpalu; Annai Oru Alayam; Mande Gundelu; 1980: Adrushtavandhudu; Devudichina Koduku; Shri Venkateshwara Vrata Mahatyam; Bhale Krishnudu; Chandi Priya; Ram Robert Rahim; Shri Vasavi Kannika Parameshwari Mahatyam; 1981: Guru Shishyulu; Puli Bidda; Jeevitha Ratham; Bhogimanthulu; 1982:

Swayamvaram; 1983: Amayukudu Kadhu Asadhyudu; Lanke Bindelu; Poratham; 1984: Pozhudu Vidinachu; Dongalu Baboi Dongalu; 1985: Atmabalam; Kutumba Bandham; Shri Shirdi Saibaba Mahatyam; Surya Chandra; Mangalya Balam; 1989: Krishnagari Abbayi; Chinnari Sneham; Ashoka Chakravarthi; 1992: Brindavanamu; 1993: Anna Vadina;

Devi, Arundhati (1923-90) Aka Arundhati Mukherjee (when married to film-maker Prabhat Mukherjee). Bengali actress, director and musician born in Barisal (now Bangladesh). Studied music at Shantiniketan, and acted as a child aged 6 in several Tagore plays directed by the poet himself (Dakghar, Mayar Khela, Tasher Desh et al.). Promising singer of the Rabindra Sangeet, trained by Sailajaranjan Majumdar; also featured in the stage production of Tagore’s Balmiki Pratibha (1943). Film début as actress in Kartick Chattopadhyay’s travelogue Mahaprasthaner Pathey/Yatrik. As an actress, her poised self-assertiveness was often used to exemplify the ‘strong-willed’ characteristics of e.g. Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay’s ‘nobina’ or ‘new woman’, e.g. playing the hero’s wife in Jotugriha. Bestknown screen role: Bhagini Nivedita, a nationalist biopic about Sister Nivedita. The film used the actress’s bhadralok image to convert its subject into a chaste Hinduised martyr. Turned director with Chhuti; directed, scripted and scored films from well-known literary works. Her last film, Gokul was a TV featurette. Became an independent producer with her Anindiya Chitra (1969). Later married Tapan Sinha and acted in several of his films, e.g. Kshudista Pashan, Jhinder Bandi and Jotugriha; also costume designer for Sinha’s Adalat-o-Ekti Meye. FILMOGRAPHY: (* only d/** also music d) 1952: Mahaprasthaner Pathey/Yatrik; 1954: Naad-o-Nadi; Sati; Bokul/Bakul; Shoroshi; 1955: Prashna; Godhuli; Dashyumohan; Du-Janay; 1956: Taka-AnaPai; Chalachal; Maa; Nabajanma; 1957: Mamata; Panchatapa; 1958: Shikar; Kalamati; 1959: Janmantar; Bicharak; Shashi Babur Sansar; Pushpadhanu; Kichhukshan; 1960: Akash-Patal; Kshudista Pashan; Indradhanu; 1961: Jhinder Bandi; 1962: Bhagini Nivedita; Shiulibari**; 1963: Nyayadanda; 1964: Jotugriha; 1965: Surer Agun; 1967: Chhuti*; 1969: Megh-oRoudra*; 1972: Padi Pishir Barmi Baksha*; 1975: Harmonium; 1983: Deepar Prem*; 1985: Gokul*.

Devi, B. Saroja (b. 1945) Top 60s star in Tamil, Telugu and Kannada cinemas. Associated mainly with sentimental melodrama. Also worked in several Hindi films. Early career in mythologicals after she was spotted by Honnappa Bhagavathar who cast her in Mahakavi Kalidasa. Telugu début with NTR in the National Art Theatres’ mythological, K. Kameshwara Rao’s Panduranga Mahatyam; later acted with NTR in several

Devi, Chhaya

Yamadharma Raju; 1991: Alludu Diddina Kapuram; 1992: Apathbandhavudu; 1993: Paramparyam; 1994: Mahashakti Maye; 1995:Puttmalli.

Devi, Chhaya (b. 1914) Bengali actress, born in Bhagalpur; her family was associated with the performing arts. Related to Hindi star Ashok Kumar. Early lessons in classical Hindustani music from Bundi Ustad and in Calcutta from K.C. Dey who introduced her in Debaki Bose films. First lead role in Sonar Sansar. Achieved a national reputation as Rani Lakshmibai in Bidyapati. Performed on AIR as a singer. Her demure but seductive style managed to convey sexually charged messages through devotional gestures. Early films mainly with Jyotish Bannerjee. Often formed a screen pair with Chhabi Biswas. Later developed a formidable actorial presence, notably in Tapan Sinha films (Nirjan Saikate, Hatey Bazarey, Apanjan) and Arundhati Devi’s Padi Pishir Barmi Baksha. Acted in early Mrinal Sen (Raat Bhore, Abasheshe). Also sang in some films, e.g. Rikta, Amar Geeti, Harmonium. B. Saroja Devi and Ajit in Opera House (1961) other Telugu films. Became a superstar with the MGR Tamil hit Nadodi Mannan, after which she did many films with him, incl. a few in which she played the dominant role (e.g. Thayi Sollai Thatthathe). Acted in over 160 films in four languages. Was Chairperson of the Karnataka Film Development Corp. and the Kanteerava Studios, Bangalore. Her main directors include Panthulu (School Master, Ratnagiri Rahasya, Kittur Chanamma), K.V. Reddy and A. Bhimsingh. FILMOGRAPHY: 1955: Mahakavi Kalidasa; Ashadabhooti; Shrirama Pooja; 1956: Kacha Devyani; Kokilavani; Pancharathna; 1957: Chintamani; Ratnagiri Rahasya/Tangamalai Rahasyam; Manalane Mangayin Bhagyam; Panduranga Mahatyam; 1958: Illarame Nallaram; Manamulla Maratharam; Nadodi Mannan; Shabash Meena; Sengottai Singam; Thedi Vantha Selvam; Thirumanam; Bhukailasa; Bhuloka Rambha/Pareeksha; Anna Thangi; School Master/Badi Panthulu; 1959: Jagajyothi Basaveshwara; Paigham; Pelli Sandadi/Kalyana Penn; Bhagapirivanai; Kalyana Parisu; Kudivazhanthal Kodi Nanmai; Ore Velaiyadu Papa; President Panchatcharam; Vazha Vaitha Daivam; 1960: Ellorum Innattu Mannar; Irumputhirai; Kairasi; Parthiban Kanavu; Vidiveli; Yanai Pagan; Pelli Kanuka; Bhakti Mahima; 1961: Seeta Rama Kalyanam; Intiki Deepam Illale; Jagadeka Veeruni Katha/Jagathala Prathapan; Mahout; Opera House; Sasural; Kittur Chanamma/ Rani Chanamma; Vijayanagarada Veeraputra; Palum Pazhamum; Panithirai; Thayi Sollai Thatthathe; Thirudathe; Krishna Kuchela; 1962: Adiperaku; Alayamani; Kudumba Thalaivan; Madappura; Pasam; Parthal Pasi Theerum; Thayai Katha Thanayan; Valar Pirai; Devasundari; Hong Kong; Shri Krishnarjuna Yuddham; 1963: Pyar Kiya To Darna Kya; Manchi Chedu;

Iruvar Ullam; Kalyanin Kanavan; Kulamangal Radhai; Needukkupin Pasam; Panathottam; Periya Idathu Penn; 1964: Daivathai; En Kadamai; Padakotti; Panakara Kudumbam; Pasamum Nesamum; Pudhiya Paravai; Thayin Madiyil; Vazhkai Vazhvadarke; Atmabalam; Dagudu Moothulu; Beti Bete; Dooj Ka Chand; Amarashilpi Jakanachari/Amarashilpi Jakanna; 1965: Prameelarjuneyam; Beretha Jeeva; Todu Needa; Asai Mukham; Enga Veetu Pillai; Kalankari Vilakkam; 1966: Anbe Vaa; Nadodi; Naan Anaittal; Parakkum Pavai; Petral Than Pillayya; Thali Bhagyam; Shakuntala; Preet Na Jane Reet; 1967: Arasa Kattali; Penn Entral Penn; 1968: En Thambi; Panama Pasama; Thamarai Nenjam; Umachandi Gauri Shankarula Katha; Arunodaya/ Arunodhayam; 1969: Mallammanna Pavada; Anbalipu; Thanga Malar; Odum Nadhi; Anjal Petty 520; Kulavilakku; Aindhu Laksham; 1970: Kanmalar; Sinehithi; Malathi; Lakshmi Saraswati; Vijayam Mande; Mayani Mamata; 1971: Purnima; Papa Punya; Thande Makkalu; Nyayave Devaru; Shri Krishna Rukmini Satyabhama; Thenum Palum; Uyir; 1972: Shakti Leela; Hari Darshan; Pandanti Kapuram; Mathru Murthi; 1973: Sahadharmini; 1974: Pathumatha Bandham; Chamundeshwari Mahime; Gruhini; Shri Srinivasa Kalyana; Manushilo Devudu; Shri Ramanjaneya Yuddham; 1975: Gunavanthudu; Bhagya Jyothi; Katha Sangama; 1976: Chiranjeevi; 1977: Daana Veera Shura Karna; Seetarama Vanavasu; Babruvahana; Bhagyavantharu; Shri Renukadevi Mahatme; Shani Prabhava; 1978: Parsuraman; 1980: Guru Sarvabhowma Shri Raghavendra Karune; 1981: Nammina Thayi Annamma; 1984: Guru Bhakti; Yarivanu?; Rudranaga; 1985: Thayi Thande; 1988: Poovukkul Pookambalam; Ladies’ Hostel; 1989: Ponmana Selvan; Ore Thayi Ore Kulam; Dharma Devan; Guru; 1990: Bhale Chatura;

FILMOGRAPHY: 1936: Pather Sheshey; Sonar Sansar/Sunehra Sansar; Prabas Milan; Chino Haar; 1937: Ranga Bou; Bidyapati/Vidyapati; 1938: Bekar Nashan; Halbangala; Khana; 1939: Tumhari Jeet; Janak Nandini; Debjani; Rikta; Vaman Avatar; Jakher Dhan; 1940: Abhinetri/Haar Jeet; Swami Stri; Amar Geeti; 1941: Banglar Meye; 1942: Chowringhee; Pativrata; Avayer Biye; Mera Gaon; 1943: Shri Ramanuja; Samadhan; 1944: Bideshini; Samaj; 1945: Stree Durga; Bondita; 1946: Uttara Abhimanyu; 1947: Jharer Parey; Burmar Pathey; 1948: Anirban; Bish Bichar Agey; Dhatri Debata; Mahakal; 1949: Abhijatya; Abhimaan; 1950: Indranath; Apabaad; Sati Simantini; Mahasampad; 1951: Ratnadeep/ Ratnadeepam; 1953: Chirantani; 1954: Maa-o-Chhele; 1955: Sanjher Pradeep; Bratacharini; Era Bator Sur; 1956: Raat Bhore; Saheb Bibi Golam; Sadhana; He Maha Manab; Shankar Narayan Bank; Trijama; Rajpath; Daner Maryada; Shubha Lagna; 1957: Bardidi; Shesh Parichaya; 1958: Bagha Jatin; Marmabani; 1959: Shri Radha; Gali Theke Rajpath; Bhranti; Shubha Bibaha; 1960: Saharer Itikatha; 1961: Manik; Sadhak Kamalakanta; Agni Sanskar; Swayambara; Pankatilak; Saptapadi; 1962: Bipasha; Kancher Swarga; Atal Jaler Ahwan; Dada Thakur; Abasheshe; 1963: Nisithe; Saat Pake Bandha; Nirjan Saikate; Shesh Prahar; Uttar Falguni; Deya Neya; Kanchan Kanya; Barnali; 1964: Bibhas; Natun Tirtha; Arohi; 1965: Thana Theke Aschhi; Antaral; Raja Rammohun; Surya Tapa; Mukhujey Paribar; Eki Ange Eto Rup; Tu Hi Meri Zindagi; 1966: Galpa Holeo Satti; Harano Prem; Kanch Kata Hirey; Manihar; Pagal Thakur; Mamata; 1967: Akash Chhoan; Ajana Shapath; Antony Firingee; Hatey Bazarey; Kedar Raja; Mahashweta; 1968: Apanjan; Baghini; Charan Kabi Mukundadas; Neel Kamal; 1969: Andhar Surya; Arogyaniketan; Balak Gadadhar; Chena Achena; Maa-o-Meye; Mon87

Devi, Kanan

Niye; Parineeta; Pita Putra; Protidan; Sabarmati; 1970: Kalankita Nayak; Muktisnan; Pratham Kadam Phool; Duti Mon; Megh Kalo; Rajkumari; 1971: Kuheli; 1972: Padi Pishir Barmi Baksha; Shesh Parba; Zindagi Zindagi; Haar Mana Haar; 1973: Roudra Chhaya; Shesh Pristhay Dekhun; 1974: Alor Thikana; Debi Choudhrani; Sujata; 1975: Chhoto Nayak; Harmonium; Kajal Lata; Nagar Darpane; Harano Prapti Niruddesh; Swayamsiddha; Sei Chokh; Phool Sajya; 1976: Ek Je Chhilo Desh; Pratisruti; Rajbansha; Mom Batti; 1977: Brajabuli; Babu Moshai; Ae Prithibi Pantha Niwas; Jaal Sanyasi; Pratima; Proxy; Alaap; 1978: Dhanraj Tamang; Maan Abhiman; Nadi Theke Sagare; Singhdwar; Karunamayi; Pronoy Pasha; 1979: Arun Barun-o-Kiranmala; Nabadiganta; Mother; Samadhan; 1980: Aro Ekjan; Raj Nandini; Pipasa; Bandhan; 1981: Surya Sakhi; Faisla; Samarpan; Manikchand; Nyay Anyay; Subarnalata; Kalankini; 1982: Raj Bodhu; Bandini Kamala; Simanta Raag; Agradani; 1983: Chena Achena; Rang Birangi; Prayashchitta; Deepar Prem; Srinkhal; 1984: Didi; Lal Golap; Rashifal; 1985: Hulusthul; Kenaram Becharam; 1987: Apan Ghare; Pratikar; Swarnamoir Thikana; 1988: Boba Sanai; 1993: Tomar Rakte Amar Sohag.

Devi, Kanan (1916-92) Actress and singer; started with the name Kananbala. Début as child actress in Joydev. Later contracted to Radha Films where she acted in Jyotish Bannerjee films (e.g. Manmoyee Girls’ School). P.C. Barua was unable to obtain her for the role of Paro in Devdas (1935) but she played the lead in his next film, Mukti, which made her a star and launched her long association with New Theatres. The success of Bidyapati, esp. her duets with K.C. Dey, made her the top star of this studio 1937-40. An untrained singer when she entered films, she later studied briefly with Ustad Allah Rakha at Lucknow. Employed as singer at Megaphone Gramophone receiving further training from Bhishmadev Chatterjee, possibly responsible for her distinctive Bengali style. Later learnt Rabindra Sangeet with Anadi Dastidar. She considered Rai Chand Boral to be her real teacher. One of the few New Theatres lead players not to have a stage background, her impact on Bengali film paralleled Shanta Apte’s on Marathi cinema, departing from proscenium frontality and privileging synchronous speech. Her singing style, usually in rapid tempo, is still identified with some of the biggest studio era hits (esp. Bidyapati, Street Singer, Sapurey). Resigned from New Theatres (1941) and freelanced in Bengali and Hindi films. Turned producer with Shrimati Pics (1949); later launched the Sabhyasachi collective with the film Ananya (cf. Ajoy Kar). Wrote an autobiography, Sabare Ami Nomi (1973). The Marxist economist and noted columnist Ashok Mitra took her as an example to comment on the élitism of pre-Independence Calcutta society in his ‘Calcutta Diary’ (Economic and Political Weekly, 1-8 August 1992), describing her ‘Eliza Doolittle’ transformation from the illegitimate Kananbala into the glamorous Kanan Devi, 88

stardom and her first marriage to the brotherin-law of the economist Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis making her a member of Calcutta’s cultural élite. FILMOGRAPHY: 1926: Joydev (St); 1931: Jore Barat; Rishir Prem; 1932: Vishnu Maya; 1933: Char Darvesh; Shri Gouranga/Shri Gouranga Leela; 1934: Maa; 1935: Basabdatta; Manmoyee Girls’ School; Kanthahaar; 1936: Krishna Sudama; Khooni Kaun; Bishabriksha; 1937: Mukti; Bidyapati/Vidyapati; 1938: Street Singer/Saathi; 1939: Sapurey/ Sapera; Jawani Ki Reet/Parajay; 1940: Abhinetri/Haar Jeet; 1941: Parichay/ Lagan; 1942: Shesh Uttar/Jawab; 1943: Jogajog/Hospital; 1944: Bideshini; 1945: Banphool; Raj Lakshmi; Path Bendhe Dilo; 1946: Arabian Nights; Krishna Leela; Tumi Aar Ami/Tum Aur Main; 1947: Faisla; Chandrasekhar; 1948: Anirban; Bankalekha; 1949: Ananya; Anuradha; 1950: Mejdidi; 1951: Darpachurna; 1954: Nababidhan; 1955: Devatra; 1956: Asha; 1959: Indranath Srikanta-o-Annadadidi.

Devi, Saraswati (1912-80) Music director born as Khursheed Manchershah Minocher-Homji. Student of V.N. Bhatkhande’s music school, Sharada Sangeet Vidyalaya. Specialised in Dhrupad and Dhamar music. Ran popular late 20s orchestra group, Homji Sisters, performing on Indian Broadcasting Company, Bombay, where she sang to the accompaniment of sitar, mandolin, dilruba and organ. These instruments also feature prominently in her film compositions. Associated mainly with Bombay Talkies. In her first film she refused to appear as a singer, dubbing her elder sister Manek instead. Her major achievement was probably to persuade star Devika Rani to sing. Several of her best-known songs, rendered in film by amateur singers Ashok Kumar and Rani, succeeded because of their nursery rhyme simplicity (e.g. Main ban ka panchi in Achhut Kanya, Chali re meri nao in Jhoola). Worked briefly with Sohrab Modi after leaving Bombay Talkies. Also scored Jaswantlal’s hit musical Amrapali. Collaborated at times with Ramchandra Pal on music.

and Madan Theatres films. Also worked with Niranjan Pal and Naval Gandhi. The silent cinema scholar Virchand Dharamsey suggests that both Renee Smith and her sister Percy Smith may have appeared as ‘Seeta Devi’. FILMOGRAPHY: 1925: Prem Sanyas; 1926: Krishnakanter Will; 1927: Durgesh Nandini; 1928: Sarala; Shiraz; The Loves of a Mughal Prince; 1929: Kapal Kundala; Prapancha Pash; 1930: Naseeb Ni Balihari; Kal Parinaya; Bharat Ramani; 1931: Kashmir Nu Gulab (all St); 1932: Shikari.

Devi, Sitara (b. 1919) Actress born in Calcutta. One of the foremost exponents of classical Kathak dance, with notable appearances as a dancer in early Mehboob films. Daughter of Sukhdev Maharaj of Benares, former court musician at Nepal, she was trained by her father and by Achan Maharaj at the palace of the Rajah of Mymensingh and later by Kathak maestros Shambhu and Lachhu Maharaj. Entered films as a child actress at Sagar where she first worked with Mehboob, with whom she later did her best-known films. Turned lead player with his Watan. Salaried artist at Ranjit Studio, working with Chandulal Shah (Achhut) and on some famous films by Kardar (Holi, Pagal, Pooja). Her amazingly lively performance as a ‘tribal’ practising primitive communism and Anil Biswas’ music were responsible for the successful use of the parable form in Roti. Married K. Asif and acted in his Phool. FILMOGRAPHY: 1931: Digvijay (St); 1933: Aurat Ka Dil; 1934: Anokhi Mohabbat; Shaher Ka Jadoo; Vasantsena; 1935: Azad Abla; Judgement of Allah; Vengeance is Mine; Registan Ki Rani; 1936: Grihadah/Manzil; Prem Bandhan; Zan Mureed; 1937: Begunah; Calcutta after Midnight; Jeevan Swapna; Kokila; Mahageet; 1938: Baghban; Professor Waman M.Sc.; Watan; 1939: Meri Aankhen; Nadi Kinare; Pati Patni; 1940: Achhut; Aaj Ka Hindustan; Haiwan; Holi; Pooja; Pagal; Zindagi; 1941: Swami; 1942: Dhiraj; Dukh

FILMOGRAPHY: 1935: Jawani Ki Hawa; 1936: Achhut Kanya; Janmabhoomi; Jeevan Naiya; Mamata; Miya Bibi; 1937: Izzat; Jeevan Prabhat; Prem Kahani; Savitri; Nirmala; 1938: Bhabhi; Vachan; 1939: Durga; Kangan; Navjeevan; 1940: Azad; Bandhan; Punar Milan; 1941: Jhoola; Naya Sansar; 1943: Bhakta Raidas; Prarthana; Prithvi Vallabh; 1944: Dr Kumar; Parakh; 1945: Amrapali; 1946: Maharani Meenal Devi; 1947: Khandani; 1948: Naqli Heera; 1949: Usha Haran; 1950: Kunwara Pati; 1961: Babasa Ri Laadi.

Devi, Seeta (b. 1912) Stage name of actress Renee Smith. Became a star as the exotic Oriental in Himansu Rai’s Prem Sanyas. Played the ‘other woman’ in Shiraz and the heroine in Prapancha Pash. Thereafter worked with Priyanath Ganguly

Sitara Devi in Hulchul (1951)

Dharma Rao, Tapi

Sukh; Kalyug; Roti; Society; 1943: Aabroo; Andhera; Bhalai; Chhed Chhad; Najma; Salma; 1944: Chand; Dr Kumar; Phool; 1945: Badi Maa; Parinde; 1947: Amar Asha; 1949: Lekh; 1950: Bijli; 1951: Hulchul; 1957: Anjali. Devika Rani see Rani Choudhury, Devika

Dey, Krishna Chandra (1893-1962) Music director and actor born in Calcutta, mostly credited as K.C. Dey. Blind from age of 14. Taking advantage of e.g. the 19th C. playwright Girish Ghosh’s use of blind and mad characters as a kind of chorus, following a convention in Bengali Jatra theatre, Dey often played an itinerant blind singer in New Theatres films (e.g. Chandidas, Bidyapati, Devdas). He was trained in classical music but was considered mainly a master of the keertan form. Major stage reputation with Sisir Bhaduri, with whom he first appeared in 1924 in Basanta Leela (role of Basant-doot or the Herald of Spring) and Seeta (as Baitalik). Partner in Rungmahal Theatre with actor Rabindra Mohan Roy (1931-41) where he scored several plays such as Bhaduri’s Shri Shri Vishnupriya (1932). Early films include A.R. Kardar’s productions at East India Film. Worked in several Hindi films in Bombay as actor and music composer. Hit solos in Devdas, Bidyapati and Dhoop Chhaon rank as alltime favourites. Nephew is playback singer Manna Dey. FILMOGRAPHY (* act only/** also act): 1932: Chandidas*; 1933: Nala Damayanti*; Puran Bhakt*; Sabitri*; Abe Hayat; 1934: Kismet Ki Kasauti**; Seeta**; Chandragupta; Shaher Ka Jadoo**; Grihalakshmi*; 1935: Inquilab*; Devdas*; Dhoop Chhaon/ Bhagya Chakra*; Bijoya*; Biraha; Bidrohi; Bidyasundar; Prafulla; 1936: Sonar Sansar/ Sunehra Sansar; Paraparey; Maya*; Pujarin*; Grihadah/Manzil*; 1937: Ambikapathy; Bidyapati/Vidyapati*; Milap; Ranga Bou; 1938: Desher Mati/ Dharti Mata*; 1939: Sapurey/Sapera*; Sharmistha; Chanakya**; 1940: Alochhaya/ Aandhi**; 1942: Mera Gaon**; Tamanna; Meenakshi*; Nari*; 1943: Andhera*; Mohabbat*; Badalti Duniya**; 1944: Suno Sunata Hoon**; Insaan*; 1945: Devadasi**; 1946: Insaaf*; Shravan Kumar*; Door Chalein**; 1948: Anirban*; 1953: Raakhi**; 1957: Madhu Malati*; Ektara*.

Dey, Nirmal (b. 1913) Bengali director born in Mymensingh (now Bangladesh). Graduate in fine arts. Published short fiction in the 30s. Assisted Bimal Roy at New Theatres as cameraman, later sharing joint screenplay credit with him for Udayer Pathey (1944). Turned director when Murlidhar Chatterjee of MP Prod. persuaded him to give up his self-imposed retirement at Shantiniketan to make Basu Parivar. Débuted with the unfinished but important Bedeni based on a Tarashankar Bannerjee story

(Ghatak took it over for a while before it was abandoned). His Sharey Chuattar launched the screen duo of Uttam Kumar and Suchitra Sen, followed by Champadangar Bou and a string of successes. Satyajit Ray rated Sharey Chuattar among the most important early Bengali sound films, regarding the director as the first genuine purveyor of Bengali social comedies. His formal training in the visual arts, literature and photography often yielded dexterous combinations of witty dialogue, inventive acting and a fluid narrative style that rarely resorted to middle-class sentimentalism while evoking, with a sense of self-mockery, its manners and conversational culture. Despite their success, Dey made only a few more films, scripting other film-makers’s work instead, including Gurudas Bagchi’s Samanaral (1970). FILMOGRAPHY: 1952: Bedeni (incomplete); Basu Parivar; 1953: Sharey Chuattar; 1954: Champadangar Bou; 1955: Du-Janay; 1959: Nirdharita Silpir Anupastithi Tey.

Dhaiber, Keshavrao (1890-1978) Marathi and Hindi director, cameraman and actor born in Kurukali, Kolhapur. After a brief military career as a Lancer and employment as a tax inspector, befriended Baburao Painter and joined Maharashtra Films as a technician in Painter’s Sinhagad (1923). Apprenticed to Damle, co-directed Shantaram’s directorial début Netaji Palkar (1927) and was cameraman for many Shantaram classics. Joined the breakaway Prabhat Film in 1929 as cameraman, e.g. Sinhagad, in which he also acted, and, also in 1933, a colour version of Sairandhri. His best-known Prabhat film is Rajput Ramani, although he remained the least successful of the studio’s regular filmmakers. Married the actress Nalini Tarkhad and briefly had his own Jayshri Films (1935) before joining Minerva Movietone as a director (e.g. Akrava Avatar, Ulti Ganga) before rejoining Prabhat as production supervisor (1943-6). Then worked at Famous Studios (1946-7). Tried to start a new independent company at Lucknow, but the business soon collapsed. Made some documentaries, e.g. of the coronation of the Maharaja of Baroda (1940) and assignments for the Maharashtra and Gujarati state governments. Published an autobiography, Eka Zindagichi Patkatha (1967). FILMOGRAPHY (* act only/** also act): 1925:Savkari Pash*; 1927: Netaji Palkar (co-d V. Shantaram); 1929: Baji Prabhu Deshpande*; 1930: Khooni Khanjar; Rani Saheba** (co-d V. Shantaram); Udaykal (cod V. Shantaram); 1931: Zulm (all St); 1933: Sinhagad*; 1936: Rajput Ramani; 1938: Nandakumar; 1939: Akrava Avatar**; 1942: Ulti Ganga; 1943: Bhakta Raidas; 1949: Ahimsapath; 1958: Sudamyache Pohe.

Dharmadhikari, Dattatreya Jagannath (1913-82) Marathi and Hindi producer-director born in Kolhapur. Doorkeeper at Prabhat (1934), then bit player (1936) and assistant to K. Narayan

Kale (Mazha Mulga, 1938), Damle and Fattelal, and V. Shantaram. One of the younger cineastes (e.g. Raja Nene, editor Anant Mane, scenarist Shantaram Athavale and musician Keshavrao Bhole) who left Prabhat (1944) to work collectively in Bombay. Assisted Raja Nene at Mohan Studios, then at Balasaheb Pathak’s Manik Studios. Made first film for Raja Nene’s company, probably co-directed by Nene. Launched Alhaad Chitra (1951-4) which revitalised the Marathi cinema converting the social into very successful stage-inspired weepies (e.g. Chimni Pakhare/Nannhe Munne, Stree Janma Hi Tujhi Kahani), often ending with funerals. This style was continued by e.g. Anant Mane, Datta Mane and Datta Keshav (all from Alhaad Chitra), grafting Hindi All-India film norms on to Marathi cinema. Also worked in Hindi for Homi Wadia’s Basant Studio and at Filmistan. Appeared as actor in Sant Dnyaneshwar (1940). His son Alhaad Dattatreya Dharmadikari, aka Master Alhaad (b. 1947) became a noted child actor in Hindi and Marathi films. FILMOGRAPHY: 1947: Shadi Se Pehle; 1949: Maya Bazaar; Bala Jo Jo Re; 1951: Kunkvacha Dhani; 1952: Akher Jamla; Chimni Pakhare/ Nannhe Munne; Stree Janma Hi Tujhi Kahani; 1953: Bhagyavaan; Saubhagya; Mahatma; 1954: Savdhan; 1956: Sudarshan Chakra; 1957: Aliya Bhogasi; 1959: Deep Jalta Rahe; Pativrata; 1961: Ek Dhaga Sukhacha; Kalanka Shobha; 1962: Kshan Aala Bhagyacha; Saptapadi; Vithu Mazha Lekurvala; 1963: Subhadra Haran; 1964: Vaishakh Vanava; 1967: Thamb Lakshmi Kunku Lavte; 1969: Saticha Vaan; Mujhe Seene Se Laga Lo; 1973: Nasti Uthathev; 1975: Bhakta Pundalik; 1978: Dhakti Mehuni; 1980: Satichi Punyayi.

Dharmaraj, Rabindra (1949-82) Documentarist and Hindi director. Former journalist (e.g. Vietnam War from US perspective) and radio newsreader whose ‘BBC voice’ was later used extensively for strident commentaries by Films Division productions. Joined Pentecostal Church. Moved to Bombay (1971) and assisted Fali Bilimoria, Benegal et al. Did short course in film and video in California. Bombay-based executive in advertising agencies Lintas and Hindustan Thompson (as film-maker). Died soon after the first screening of his only feature, Chakra. FILMOGRAPHY: 1971: Crisis on the Campus (Sh); 1974: No Tree Grows (Sh); 1976: Indian Airlines ... Pride of India (Sh); 1980: Chakra.

Dharma Rao, Tapi (1887-1973) Telugu scenarist-lyricist, poet, journalist and literary critic born in Behrampur. Influenced as a student by the historian Gidugu Ramamurthy Panthulu, who advocated a vyavaharika (or demotic) Telugu. Was personal secretary to the Rajah of Bobbili, a Justice Party ideologue for the interests of the zamindar class and Chief Minister of Madras Presidency in the early 89

Dharmendra Deol

1930s. Pursued the notion of a people’s language in his poetry (esp. in Dyayonam, Bhikshapatram, Andhra Tejam) and in plays like Vilasarjunam, Taptashrukanam and Avanni Kannellena. Wrote essays on historical and cultural issues, e.g. in journals like Samadarshini and Janavani, later collected in his Kottapali Onamalu Sahitya Mormaralu. Worked on films by Ramabrahmam (Malapilla, 1938; Raitu Bidda, 1939). Wrote scripts and lyrics for e.g. L.V. Prasad’s Drohi (1948), B.A. Subba Rao’s Palletoori Pilla (1950) and K.S. Prakash Rao’s Deeksha (1951). A major advocate of a separate state for Teluguspeaking people prior to the formation of Andhra Pradesh. Wrote c.40 scripts and several very popular lyrics. Father of film director Tapi Chanakya.

Dharmendra Deol (b. 1935) Actor born in Phagwara, Punjab. Former mechanic in a factory. Top Hindi star for three decades. Created an influential image as a markedly North Indian, even specifically Punjabi macho man devoted to his mother and committed to upholding the honour of the family or of the village. Since the mid-70s, after Bachchan’s impact, mainly in action films, occasionally using complicated gadgetry but always emphasising peasant simplicity and beating the villain in physical combat. Since mid-80s, notably in T. Rama Rao’s films but also in other Madras-based Hindi productions, his presence is used mainly to ensure a film’s nationwide distribution in a respectable economic category. His early 60s films, in sharp contrast to his current post-Sholay image, presented a secularised Hindustani version of Bengali literary stereotypes, launched by Bimal Roy’s Bandini and continued in Hrishikesh Mukherjee’s 60s socials (Anupama, Manjhli Didi, Satyakam) and in Phani Majumdar’s Akashdeep. Early 70s work transposed this image into tales of existential suffering (Mohan Segal’s Raja Jani) and into Mukherjee’s whimsical comedies (Guddi, Chupke Chupke) made alongside Pramod Chakravarty and Arjun Hingorani thrillers and films like Vijay Anand’s Blackmail. Currently promoting his son Sunny Deol (e.g. Sunny; Ghayal, 1990); best-known performances of the 90s in J.P. Dutta films. FILMOGRAPHY: 1955: Railway Platform; 1960: Dil Bhi Tera Hum Bhi Tere; 1961: Boy Friend; Shola Aur Shabnam; 1962: Anpadh; Shadi; 1963: Soorat Aur Seerat; Bandini; Begana; 1964: Aap Ki Parchhaiyan; Aayi Milan Ki Bela; Ganga Ki Lehren; Haqeeqat; Main Bhi Ladki Hoon; Mera Kasoor Kya Hai; Pooja Ke Phool; 1965: Akashdeep; Chand Aur Suraj; Kajal; Neela Akash; Purnima; 1966: Anupama; Aaye Din Bahar Ke; Baharen Phir Bhi Aayengi; Devar; Dil Ne Phir Yaad Kiya; Dulhan Ek Raat Ki; Mamata; Pari; Mohabbat Zindagi Hai; Phool Aur Patthar; 1967: Ghar Ka Chirag; Chandan Ka Palna; Jab Yaad Kisiki Aati Hai; Manjhli Didi; 1968: Aankhen; Baazi; Baharon Ki Manzil; Izzat; Mere Humdum Mere Dost; Shikar; 1969: Soldier; Admi Aur Insaan; Aaya Sawan Jhoom Ke; Pyar Hi Pyar; Satyakam; Yakeen; Khamoshi; 90

Meena Kumari and Dharmendra in Purnima (1965) 1970: Ishq Par Zor Nahin; Jeevan Mrityu; Kab Kyon Aur Kahan; Man Ki Aankhen; Mera Naam Joker; Sharafat; Tum Haseen Main Jawan; 1971: Guddi; Mera Gaon Mera Desh; Naya Zamana; Rakhwala; 1972: Do Chor; Lalkaar; Raja Jani; Seeta Aur Geeta; Samadhi; Jiban; Anokha Milan; 1973: Blackmail; Jheel Ke Us Paar; Jugnu; Jwar Bhata; Kahani Kismat Ki; Keemat; Loafer; Phagun; Yaadon Ki Baraat; 1974: Dost; International Crook; Kunwara Baap; Patthar Aur Payal; Pocketmaar; Resham Ki Dori; Do Sher; 1975: Teri Meri Ik Jindri; Apne Dushman; Chaitali; Chupke Chupke; Dhoti Lota Aur Chowpatti; Ek Mahal Ho Sapnon Ka; Kehte Hain Mujhko Raja; Pratigya; Saazish; Sholay; 1976: Charas; Maa; 1977: Chacha Bhatija; Do Sholay; Dream Girl; Khel Khiladi Ka; Chala Murari Hero Banne; Dharam Veer; Do Chehre; Tinku; Charandas; Kinara; Swami; 1978: Azad; Dillagi; Phandebaaz; Shalimar; 1979: Dil Ka Heera; The Gold Medal; Kartavya; Chunauti; 1980: Alibaba Aur Chalis Chor; Ram Balram; The Burning Train; Aas Paas; 1981: Qatilon Ke Qatil; Krodhi; Professor Pyarelal; Khuda Kasam; Naseeb; 1982: Badle Ki Aag; Baghavat; Do Dishayen; Ghazab; Main Inteqam Loonga; Meharbani; Rajput; Samrat; Teesri Aankh; 1983: Naukar Biwi Ka; Andha Kanoon; Putt Jattan De; Jaani Dost; Qayamat; Razia Sultan; 1984: Dharam Aur Kanoon; Jagir/Teen Murti; Jeene Nahin Doonga; Jhootha Sach; Raj Tilak; Sunny; Baazi; 1985: Ghulami; Karishma Kudrat Ka; Sitamgarh; 1986: Begana; Main Balwan; Mohabbat Ki Kasam; Savere Wali Gadi; Sultanat; Insaniyat Ke Dushman; Loha; 1987: Aag Hi Aag; Dadagiri; Hukumat; Insaaf Kaun Karega;

Insaaf Ki Pukar; Jaan Hatheli Pe; Mard Ki Zabaan; Mera Karam Mera Dharam; Watan Ke Rakhwale; 1988: Khatron Ke Khiladi; Mardon Wali Baat; Soorma Bhopali; Zalzala; Mahaveera; Paap Ko Jalakar Raakh Kar Doonga; Ganga Tere Desh Mein; Sone Pe Suhaaga; Vardi; Aakhri Muqabala; Yateem; 1989: Kasam Suhaag Ki; Nafrat Ki Aandhi; Sachaai Ki Taaqat; Batwara; Elaan-e-Jung; Sikka; Shehzade; Hathyar; Ilaaka; 1990: Pyar Ka Karz; Nakabandi; Humse Na Takrana; Veeru Dada; Sher Dil; Kanoon Ki Zanjeer; Paap Ki Aandhi; 1991: Kaun Kare Qurbani; Mast Kalandar; Dushman Devata; Farishte; Trinetra; Hamla; Kohraa; 1992: Virodhi; Zulm Ki Hukumat; Tahalka; Kal Ki Awaaz; Khule Aam; Kshatriya; Waqt Ka Badshah; 1993: Superman; Kundan; Aag Ka Toofan; 1994: Maha Shaktishali; Juari; Rakhwale; 1995: Maidan-e-Jung; Azmayish; Taaqat; Paapi Devata; Veer; Hum Sub Chor Hain; Fauji; Binani Hove To Isse.

Dixit, Madhuri (b. 1967) Hindi actress born in Ratnagiri. The youngest of a Bombay engineer’s four children. Mother was trained in classical music. As a biology student at the Parle College, Madhuri agreed to act in the Hindi film Abodh, which flopped. Also appeared in some episodes of a Doordarshan TV series, Bombay Meri Hai. Her breakthrough came with N. Chandra’s Tezaab, in which she introduced a novel kind of sensuality, mainly via the song ‘Ek do teen’, choreographed by Saroj Khan. Her sensual dances, often exuding sexuality more overtly than had been the convention in Hindi films,

DMK Film

guaranteed mass appeal. Performed the suggestive ‘Dhak dhak’ song in Beta and her reputation culminated with the controversial ‘Choli ke peeche’ in S. Ghai’s Khalnayak, which included the piquant question: ‘What’s beneath the blouse?’ Considered by many as the leading female star of the 90s after she catapulted to mega-stardom following Hum Aapke Hain Koun...!, followed by Raja. FILMOGRAPHY: 1984: Abodh; 1986: Swati; 1987: Hifazat; Uttar Dakshin; Mohre; 1988: Dayavan; Mahasangram; Khatron Ke Khiladi; Vardi; Tezaab; 1989: Ilaka; Mujrim; Paap Ka Ant; Parinda; Prem Pratigya; Tridev; Ram Lakhan; Kanoon Apna Apna; 1990: Diwana Mujhsa Nahin; Dil; Jamai Raja; Jeevan Ek Sangharsh; Izzatdar; Kishan Kanhaiya; Sailaab; Thanedar; Khilaaf; Pyar Ka Devata; 1991: 100 Days; Prahaar; Pratikar; Dharavi; Saajan; 1992: Beta; Sangeet; Zindagi Ek Jua; Prem Diwani; Khel; 1993: Khalnayak; Phool; Prem Pooja; Sahiban; Dil Tera Aashiq; Aansoo Bane Angarey; 1994: Anjaam; Hum Aapke Hain Koun...!; 1995: Raja; Paapi Devata; Yaarana.

DMK Film Unique and extraordinarily influential type of propaganda cinema pioneered in Tamil Nadu by the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). Histories of the DMK trace the party’s ancestry to 19th C. reform literature in the erstwhile Madras Presidency, where writers like Subramanya Bharati (1882-1921; sometimes considered the greatest modern Tamil poet) extended their reformist politics to advocate a specifically Tamil nationalism. After the establishment of the Justice Party aka the South Indian Liberation Federation (Est: 1917), this nationalism retained a strongly anti-Aryan

thrust in its claim to represent the indigenous cultures of South India, attempting e.g. to rewrite Indian history to trace the Tamil influence back to the Indus Valley civilisation. The Justice Party had a strategic alliance with the pro-imperialist landed élite but also advocated bourgeois-democratic reformism opposing e.g. caste oppression. The party broadened its base in Kerala and Andhra Pradesh, esp. when contesting the provincial elections after the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms (1919) on an anti-Brahmin platform. The Party was transformed in the post-WW2 era by one of the most influential politicians in 20th C. Tamil Nadu, Periyar E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker (1879-1973), a former Congress Party member who founded the Self-Respect Movement (1926), a social action group aimed at eradicating Untouchability and caste and advocating an atheist politics. According to Charles Ryerson, at that time the movement deployed five principles: no God, no religion, no Gandhi, no Congress and no Brahmins. In 1944, Periyar transformed the Justice Party into the separatist Dravidar Kazhagam (DK) and later called for India’s first Independence Day in 1947 to be declared a day of mourning, since his demand for an independent Dravida Nadu or Tamil state remained unrealised. In 1949, his chief disciple, the playwright and scenarist C.N. Annadurai broke away to found the DMK. The DMK was elected to the TN state assembly in 1967, mainly on an anti-Hindi platform, repeating their victory in 1971 through a conditional alliance with Indira Gandhi’s Congress. The DMK split once again when its most famous member, film star MGR, was expelled for indiscipline and launched the Anna-DMK (ADMK) in 1972, which later became the All-India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK), winning power along with the Congress in 1977 and making MGR the Chief Minister. The DMK under Karunanidhi

Madhuri Dixit and Sanjay Kapoor in Raja (1995)

returned to power in 1988 after MGR died, but was dismissed by the Congress (I)-backed minority government in 1990 and then decimated in the 1991 elections following Rajiv Gandhi’s assassination which brought into power MGR’s former heroine Jayalalitha as the new AIADMK leader and Chief Minister.The DMK Film genre is the most spectacular of the party’s propaganda fronts and helped make five film personalities Chief Ministers (Annadurai, Karunanidhi, MGR, his wife and former star V.N. Janaki, and Jayalalitha) since 1967. Annadurai launched the genre adapting his own play Velaikkari to the screen, followed by his script for Nallathambi (both 1949). The films, esp. Nallathambi, were major hits and spawned many more as the party decided to use film as its main propaganda medium with writers like A.V.P. Asaithambi (dialogue for T.R. Sundaram’s Sarvadhikari, 1951), A.K. Velan and the DMK poet Kannadasan who also produced the propaganda hit Sivagangai Seemai (1959). Karunanidhi scripted Manthiri Kumari (1950) as MGR’s first folk legend for directly political purposes. He also wrote and contributed lyrics for the most famous DMK film, Parasakthi (1952), Sivaji Ganesan’s début. A string of hits followed, often starring MGR or Ganesan: Marmayogi and Sarvadhikari (both 1951), Sorgavasal (1954), and the MGR-directed Nadodi Mannan (1958). Annadurai had codified an elaborately plotted and highly charged melodramatic idiom promoting an iconoclastic ‘rationalism’ and an anti-Brahmin, Tamil-nationalist ideology. The films incorporated numerous references to Party symbols and colours, anagrams of Party leaders’ names and characters reciting whole passages from Annadurai’s speeches (cf. Pandharibai in Parasakthi). These devices are part of a very rhetorical visual and literary style as the hero, usually in the courtroom at the end of the film, presents his (and his Party’s) case in a speech that could last up to 30’. The success of the DMK Film idiom has been linked (see Bhaskaran and Sivathamby) to the fact that the cinema was an important social equaliser in Tamil Nadu, where the other performing arts traditions were rigidly demarcated along class/ caste lines. The old Congress Party’s attempt (e.g. by C. Rajagopalachari) to continue that élitism in the cinema allowed its DMK opponents to present cinema as a people’s art. Numerous studies have been devoted to the DMK Film: K. Sivathamby’s The Tamil Film as a Medium of Political Communication (1981); Robert Hardgrave’s When Stars Displace the Gods: The Folk Culture of Cinema in Tamil Nadu (1975); Hardgrave and Anthony Neidhart, Film and Political Consciousness in Tamil Nadu (1975); S. Theodore Baskaran’s The Message Bearers (1981) which deals with the pre-DMK history of political film; Ka. Thirunavukkarasu’s Dravidar Iyakkamum Thiraipada Ulagamum (1990); M.S.S. Pandian’s The Image Trap: M.G. Ramachandran in Film and Politics (1992). For histories of the DMK Party and Tamil politics, see Margaret RossBarnett’s The Politics of Cultural Nationalism in South India (1976) and Charles Ryerson’s Regionalism and Religion: The Tamil Renaissance and Popular Hinduism (1988). 91

Doordarshan

Doordarshan Official title for state-owned Indian television, after it was delinked from the AIR and established as an independent corporation under the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting (1976). TV was introduced experimentally in 1959, supported by UNESCO, the US government and Philips, with a weekly half-hour service covering a radius of 40km centred on Delhi. With Indira Gandhi as the new Information & Broadcasting Minister, this became a daily service (1965). In 1972, a station was established in Bombay, then in Srinagar (1973) followed by Calcutta and Madras, with 39 more centres set up in the 80s. In 1975, the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) was launched with support from NASA using Delhi and Ahmedabad as ground stations to broadcast ‘instructional programmes’ to 2500 villages in six states (Bihar, MP, Orissa, Rajasthan, AP and Karnataka). The programme was briefly accompanied by a much smaller but arguably more significant experiment at Pij, in Gujarat, where a 1-kV transmitter addressed 750 community sets in 350 villages: several major film-makers produced programmes and discussed them with the villagers. Colour programmes were introduced, controversially, in 1982, to telecast the Asian Games in New Delhi with imported outside broadcast and electronic news-gathering units using Soviet satellite services while setting up 20 low-power transmitters. The first Indian telecommunications satellite assembled at the ISRO failed; the second, INSAT 1B, launched in 1983, also inaugurated the Special Plan for the Expansion of the Television Network. The Plan claimed to be unique in the history of TV expansion, eventually installing 13 high-power and 113 low-power transmitters, linking them up to make terrestrial broadcasts available to 70% of the population within a period of 18 months (1983-4). The Seventh Five-Year plan doubled its communications media investment to Rs 150 billion, 49% of this sum going to Doordarshan alone. Although advertising had been allowed since 1977, Doordarshan went commercial only in 1982, also making New Delhi the centre of a daily ‘national programme’ dominating peak-hour viewing. Initially, its commercial shows were predominantly film-based, such as the Chitrahaar series (stringing together song sequences from Indian movies) and the weekend feature films. Started selling 30’ slots for independently made TV serials sponsored by advertisers with the serial Hum Log (We, the People, 1984-5), a ‘developmental’ soap opera sponsored by Colgate-Palmolive and Nestlé. In 1987, advertising revenue topped Rs 10 billion with 65% coming from only six multinational corporations. Best-known serials were the Hindu epics, Ramayan (by Ramanand Sagar, 1986-8) and Mahabharat (by B.R. Chopra, 1988-90). Doordarshan’s monopoly over both advertising and news and its role as the ruling government’s most effective propaganda platform was often criticised. The Janata Party’s 1977 election manifesto promised to make Doordarshan fully autonomous and set up the B. G. Verghese Working Group on Autonomy 92

for Akashvani and Doordarshan (1978) to work out the logistics of such a move. However, the Prasar Bharati bill presented in 1979 offered a vastly watered-down version of the promised autonomy. The report of the governmentappointed Working Group on Software for Indian TV, aka the P.C. Joshi Committee Report (1984), was extremely critical of Doordarshan’s ‘Delhi-centrism’, its mode of introducing consumerism in the countryside and its dependence on foreign networks for programme ideas. The report appeared only in excerpts in independent journals. Doordarshan started collaborating with the NFDC (1988), producing films by e.g. Aravindan, Adoor Gopalakrishnan, Girish Kasaravalli, Mira Nair and Mani Kaul, initially to reduce its massive dependence on the film industry. The results were mostly telecast in late-night film slots. In 1992-3 the Hong Kong-based STAR-TV cable network (subsequently bought by Rupert Murdoch) challenged Doordarshan’s monopoly. It heralded a major boom in commercial satellite channels both in English and Hindi (the latter led by STAR subsidiary ZEE-TV). Between 1993-5 the proliferation of cable channels spread to other languages (Malayalam with ASIANET, Tamil with SUN), depending on a parallel, mainly multinational, satellite services industry (e.g. the Pan American Satellite-4, Asiasat etc.), which provides increasingly cheaper beaming facilities over the South Asian footprint. Doordarshan’s political control over the Indian territory was legally challenged when a Supreme Court ruling (13 February 1995) declared the Air Waves to be public property. In response to the changing situation, Doordarshan introduced the commercial Metro Channel in 1993, and DD-3 in 1995, as well as several regional channels.

Doshi, Chaturbhuj Anandji (1894-1969) Hindi and Gujarati director born in Kathiawar, Gujarat. Journalist for progressive daily Hindustan (1926) under editor Indulal Yagnik. Silent era scenarist (1930) for Jayant Desai, Nandlal Jaswantlal, Nanubhai Vakil etc. Wrote several Ranjit films. One of the top Gujarati scenarists; scripted the key Punatar productions that launched a Gujarati film industry (Gunsundari, Nanand Bhojai, both 1948) and Raskapur’s Mehndi Rang Lagyo (1960); at times considered a successor to scenarist Mohanlal Dave. As film-maker, he is known for devising a more rationalist interpretation of the mythological. FILMOGRAPHY: 1938: Gorakh Aya; Secretary; 1939: Adhuri Kahani; 1940: Musafir; 1941: Pardesi; Sasural; 1942: Bhakta Surdas; Dhiraj; Mehmaan; 1943: Chhoti Maa; Shankar Parvati; 1944: Bhartrahari; 1945: Murti; 1946: Phulwari; 1947: Bela; Kaun Hamara; 1948: Jesal Toral; Karaiyavar; Sati Sone; 1949: Bhakta Puran; Vevishal; 1950: Akhand Saubhagya; Kisi Ki Yaad; 1954: Aurat Teri Yahi Kahani; 1956: Aabroo; Dassehra; 1957: Khuda Ka Banda; Shesh Naag; 1958: Sanskar.

Duncan, Ellis R. (b. 1908) Tamil director and American cinematographer aka Dungan. Born in Ohio; graduate of UCLA and the American Institute of Cinematography and worked in Hollywood as a cameraman (1927). Came to India (1935) to sell camera equipment and stayed for 17 years making several major Tamil films, starting with Sati Leelavathi, based on S.S. Vasan’s novel and introducing MGR. M.L. Tandon, who had earlier met Duncan at UCLA, got him to direct films. Iru Sahodarargal, also with MGR, made him the top director of a nascent Tamil film industry, also editing his own work and integrating music and comedy routines into the plot, which was perhaps his most influential contribution. A series of hits followed: Ambikapathy with M.K. Thyagaraja Bhagavathar at Salem Shankar Films; Shakuntalai and the memorable Meera with the singer M.S. Subbulakshmi at Chandraprabha Cinetone. Best-known work at Modern Theatres: Ponmudi and the seminal MGR hit Manthiri Kumari (which was completed by T.R. Sundaram). Although Duncan did not know Tamil (his interpreters were known as ‘ rush directors’), his work is remembered for its emphasis on Tamil dialogue: the famed scenarist Elangovan débuted in his Ambikapathy while Ponmudi remains one of the poet Bharatidasan’s bestknown scripts; Manthiri Kumari was Karunanidhi’s first major literary contribution to cinema. Duncan worked with well-known actor-singers such as G.N. Balasubramanyam, M.S. Subbulakshmi (the two acting together in Shakuntalai), and T.N. Rajarathnam Pillai (who featured in Kalamegham). Credited with codirection of an Indo-US co-prod. The Jungle (William Berke, 1952), starring Rod Cameron, Marie Windsor and Caesar Romero, later dubbed into Tamil as Kaadu. During WW2 made propaganda shorts (e.g. Returning Soldier with T.S. Balaiah), and after Independence was commissioned by the government to film the transfer of power ritual. In the 50s returned to live in Wheeler city, West Virginia, occasionally working in India, e.g. as a 2nd unit photographer for Hugo Fregonese’s Harry Black (1958) and John Guillermin’s Tarzan Mera Saathi (1962). FILMOGRAPHY: 1936: Sati Leelavathi; Simantini; Iru Sahodarargal; 1937: Ambikapathy; 1940: Shakuntalai; Suryaputri; Kalamegham; 1943: Daasi Penn; 1945: Valmiki; Meera; Returning Soldier; 1949: Ponmudi; 1950: Manthiri Kumari; 1952: Kaadu.

Durai Prominent 70s independent Tamil director. Former assistant to Yoganand and G.V. Iyer (Hamsa Geethe, 1975). First film, Avalum Penn Thaane, is a tragic portrayal of an orphaned woman saved from a vice den who sacrifices her life to protect another woman from being trapped into prostitution. It attracted some critical attention as one of the better mid-70s commercial films engaging with the feminist movement. However, he went on

Dutt, Sunil

to make a formula of this theme, featuring a series of florid female characters such as the tragic heroine who marries her lover’s son in Oru Veedu Oru Ulagam. Best-known film is Pasi, which redeems its sentimentalism through a realistic usage of dialect and a number of well-sketched characterisations. Worked in Hindi, Kannada, Telugu and Malayalam. Also scripted his films. FILMOGRAPHY: 1974: Avalum Penn Thaane; 1975: Oru Kudumbathin Kathai; 1976: Mugiyada Kathe; Asai Arubathu Naal; 1977: Raghupati Raghava Rajaram; 1978: Aval Thantha Uravu; Chadarangam; Pavathin Sambalam; Ayiram Janmangal; Oru Veedu Oru Ulagam; 1979: Kadamai Nenjam; Pasi; Neeya; Needhikku Mun Neeya Nana; Malligai Mohini; Priya Bandhavi; Pathai Marinal; 1980: Kaadu; Maria My Darling; Pennukku Yar Kaval; Enga Vathiar; Porkalam; Thani Maram; Oli Pirandathu; 1981: Aval Oru Kaviyam; Vadagai Veedu; Mayil; Kilinjalgal; 1982: Ruby My Darling; Velicham Vitharunna Pennkutty; Nalanthana; Thunai; Theerpugal Thirutha Padalam; 1983: Do Gulab; 1984: Pet Pyar Aur Paap; 1985: Veli; 1986: Oru Manithan Oru Manaivi; 1987: Veera Pandian; 1988: Palaivanathil Pattampoochi; 1990: Pudhiya Athiyayam.

Dutt, Geeta (1930-72) Aka Geeta Roy. Singer born in Faridpur (now Bangladesh). Trained under composer Hanuman Prasad who launched her in Bhakta Prahlad (1946). First major hit in Filmistan production Do Bhai (1947) where, to S.D. Burman’s music, she sang Mera sundar sapna. Although an orthodox rendition compared with her later work, it pioneered a move away from the ghazal-inflected folk style inherited from the studio era represented by e.g. Amirbai Karnataki or by Shamshad Begum’s Pancholi songs. She had hits in Jogan (1950), composed by Bulo C. Rani (e.g. Ghunghat ke pat khole re) and Anarkali (1953), but is best remembered for her Guru Dutt films (she was married to the director) like Baazi (1951: she introduced a crooning style with her hit Tadbir se bigdi here), Mr and Mrs ’55 (1955), Pyaasa (1957), Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959) and Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam (1962). The songs of these films remain among the biggest successes in post-Independence Hindi cinema.

Made adventure films, comedies (also starring in Twelve O’Clock) and love stories. Films often referred to social issues and exploitation, partly following Chetan Anand’s version of John Huston-type realism but imbuing them with thematic layers amid complex, richly stylised imagery (courtesy of cinematographer V.K. Murthy) and exquisite songs. Made India’s first CinemaScope film, Kaagaz Ke Phool, which flopped. Refused to sign his films after that but continued as producer and actor. Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam was credited to his co-scenarist Abrar Alvi but is attributable to Dutt. His premature death by suicide was foreshadowed in the autobiographical Kaagaz Ke Phool. His last film, Baharen Phir Bhi Aayengi, was finished by his brother Atma Ram in 1966, with Dharmendra in the role Dutt had played. A 2nd film left unfinished, K. Asif’s Love and God, was eventually released in 1986 in a completely reshot and recast version. As producer, launched the career of his assistant Raj Khosla with CID. With the darkly romantic Pyaasa, almost certainly inspired by Saratchandra’s novel Srikanta, muted social critique suddenly veers to tragedy as Dutt launched a cycle of films that have remained India’s most spectacular achievement in melodrama. His work encapsulates with great intensity the emotional and social complexities affecting the artist when the reformism associated with Nehruite nationalism disintegrated under the pressures of industrialism and urbanisation, creating the space for Indian modernism but also generating immense social dislocation. Dutt’s work, like his life, is located on the faultline of those conflicting forces and his supreme achievement is to have succeeded, at times, in both using and modifying available aesthetic modes to represent a profoundly contradictory experience, often via a focus on his extraordinary female figures (e.g. Waheeda Rehman) who are made to represent the conflictual dynamics of history. Book-length analysis of his films by Arun Khopkar (1985).

début, Yaadein, is an overtly experimental one-man show. Launched his son Sanjay Dutt to Hindi stardom with Rocky. Became MP representing Congress (I) in North Bombay constituency in 1979, playing a heroic role in the 1993 communal riots in Bombay. FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1955: Kundan; Railway Platform; 1956: Ek Hi Raasta; Kismet Ka Khel; Rajdhani; 1957: Mother India; Payal; 1958: Post Box 999; Sadhana; 1959: Didi; Insaan Jaag Utha; Sujata; 1960: Duniya Jhukti Hai; Ek Phool Char Kaante; Hum Hindustani; Usne Kaha Tha; 1961: Chhaya; 1962: Jhoola; Main Chup Rahungi; 1963: Aaj Aur Kal; Gumrah; Mujhe Jeene Do; Yeh Raaste Hain Pyar Ke; Nartaki; 1964: Beti Bete; Ghazal; Yaadein*; 1965: Khandaan; Waqt; 1966: Amrapali; Gaban; Mera Saaya; 1967: Hamraaz; Meharbaan; Milan; 1968: Gauri; Padosan; Sadhu Aur Shaitan; 1969: Bhai Bahen; Chirag; Meri Bhabhi; Pyaasi Shyam; 1970: Darpan; Bhai Bhai; Jwala; 1971: Reshma Aur Shera*; 1972: Jai Jwala; Zameen Aasmaan; Zindagi Zindagi; 1973: Heera; Pran Jaye Par Vachan Na Jaye; Man Jeete Jag Jeet; 1974: Chhattis Ghante; Geeta Mera Naam; Kora Badan; 1975: Himalay Se Ooncha; Neelima; Umar Qaid; Zakhmi; 1976: Nagin; Nehle Pe Dehla; 1977: Sat Shri Akal; Ladki Jawan Ho Gayi; Aakhri Goli; Darinda; Gyaniji; Paapi; Charandas; 1978: Jindri Yar Di; Kala Admi; Ram Kasam; Daku Aur Jawan*; 1979: Ahimsa; Jaani Dushman; Muqabala; 1980: Ek Gunah Aur Sahi; Ganga Aur Suraj; Lahu Pukarega; Shaan; Yari Dushmani; 1981: Rocky (d. only); 1982: Badle Ki Aag; Dard Ka Rishta*; 1984: Laila; Raj Tilak; Yaadon Ki Zanjeer; 1985: Faasle; 1986: Kala Dhandha Goray Log; Mangal Dada; 1987: Watan Ke Rakhwale; 1988: Dharamyudh; 1991: Yeh Aag Kab Bujhegi*; Qurban; Pratigyabadh; Hai Meri Jaan; 1992: Virodhi; Kshatriya; Parampara; 1993: Phool.

FILMOGRAPHY (* also act/** act only): 1945: Lakhrani**; 1951: Baazi; 1952: Jaal; 1953: Baaz*; 1954: Aar Paar*; 1955: Mr and Mrs ’55*; 1956: Sailaab; 1957: Pyaasa*; 1958: Twelve O’Clock**; 1959: Kaagaz Ke Phool*; 1960: Chaudhvin Ka Chand**; 1962: Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam**; Sautela Bhai**; 1963: Bahurani**; Bharosa**; 1964: Sanjh Aur Savera**; Suhagan**.

Dutt, Guru (1925-64) Hindi film director and actor. Born in Bangalore as Gurudatta Padukone. Educated in Calcutta. Studied dance at Uday Shankar’s India Cultural Centre, a dance academy, in Almora (1942-4). Telephone operator in Calcutta before joining Prabhat Studio (1944) as actor (Lakhrani), then choreographer and assistant director (Hum Ek Hain, 1946). Met Dev Anand and was part of an informal group of ex-IPTA members at Navketan, the company that produced his first film, Baazi. Set up own production house with Baaz. Introduced Waheeda Rehman in CID (1956), propelling her to stardom through his films.

Dutt, Sunil (b. 1929) Hindi star and director born in Khurd, Jhelum Dist. (now Pakistan) as Balraj Dutt. Former announcer on Radio Ceylon. Best known in his early career as the outlaw hero of Mother India, playing the son of his future wife Nargis. Then shifted to the image of the cleancut modern youth in late 50s socials (Bimal Roy’s Sujata). Continued with both images throughout his career. Also played remarkable comedy roles, e.g. the bumbling lover in Padosan. Best work with B.R. Chopra. Recently, like Dilip Kumar, specialises in larger-than-life roles (Shaan). Directorial

Shyama and Sunil Dutt in Duniya Jhukti Hai (1960) 93

Dutt, Utpal

Dutt, Utpal (1929-93) Prolific Bengali and Hindi actor born in Shillong, Assam; also director and a major Marxist theatre personality in Bengal. After 1977 associated with the CPI(M). Started career in the 40s with Geoffrey Kendall’s theatre group performing Shakespeare, later directing Shakespeare for the Little Theatre Group. Formed his own group in 1949, then joined the Bengal unit of IPTA (1950-1) doing agitational plays staged on street corners and occasionally during political rallies to massive audiences, such as Chargesheet (1950), written overnight following the arrest of CP members and performed next day at Hazra Park. The Special Train was performed on behalf of striking workers of the Hindustan Automobile Factory, Uttarpara (1961). Also did theatrical spectaculars: Angar (1959), Kallol (1965; a play about the Royal Indian Navy mutiny of 1946, sparking off political rallies), Din Badaler Pala (1967, written for the CPI(M)’s electoral campaign) and Tiner Talwar (1970). Barricade (1972) and Dushwapner Nagari (1975) were staged in the context of the Emergency. Also made major interventions in the Jatra form (e.g. Rifle, Sanyasir Tarabari). Claims influence of Erwin Piscator to ‘create proletarian myths of revolution’ (cf. Dutt, 1984). His work, comprising mostly historical reconstructions, was criticised by the Left for its determinism and the recourse to the ‘ great man’ theory of history. Prolific film actor with a spectacular début as Michael Madhusudhan, a legendary 19th C. Bengali poet, repeating the role several times on the stage. After Mrinal Sen’s Bhuvan Shome, shifted to Hindi films, often playing retired soldiers or bluff comedian fathers (Guddi) in melodramas. Also important comedy roles in Bengali, e.g. Mohan Baganer Meye, Shriman Prithviraj et al. Claimed to act in films mainly to finance his theatrical work. Played key roles in recent Satyajit Ray films, e.g. the king in Hirak Rajar Deshe and the stranger in Agantuk. Directorial work extends his theatrical work. Autobiography, including his views on theatre, published in 1982. Stridently populist essays on film, often targeting the New Indian Cinema were published after his death as Towards A Heroic Cinema (1994). FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1950: Michael Madhusudhan; Vidyasagar; Jaan Pehchan; 1952: Siraj-ud-Dowla; 1953: Maharaj Nandakumar; 1954: Vikram Urvashi; Chitrangada; 1955: Rani Rashmoni; 1956: Kirti Garh; Shubha Lagna; Mahakavi Girishchandra; 1958: Jogajog; Rajdhani Theke; 1960: Uttar Megh; Kuhak; 1961: Megh*; Pankatilak; Dilli Theke Kolkata; Saptapadi; 1962: Kancher Swarga; Abasheshe; Sakshi; 1963: Shesh-Anka; Maniram Dewan; Surya Sikha; 1964: Momer Alo; 1965: Ghoom Bhangar Gaan*; Shakespeare Wallah; 1966:Sankha Bela; 1967: Mahashweta; 1968: Chowringhee; 1969: Aparichita; Bibaha Bibhrat; Bhuvan Shome; Saat Hindustani; The Guru; 1970: Bombay Talkie; Kalankita Nayak; Interview; Heer Ranjha; 1971: Fariyad; Khunje Berai; Kuheli; Ek Adhuri 94

Kahani; Guddi; 1972: Calcutta ’71; Shesh Parba; Mere Jeevan Saathi; Sabse Bada Sukh; Marjina Abdallah; Shriman Prithviraj; Parivartan; 1973: Mr Romeo; Agni Bhramar; Honeymoon; Shravan Sandhya; Rodon Bhora Basanta; Shesh Pristhay Dekhun; 1974: Amanush; Asati; Charitraheen; Bisarjan; Bikele Bhorer Phool; Chorus; Phuleshwari; Sadhu Judhishthirer Karcha; My Friend; Thagini; Alor Thikana; Sedin Du-janay; Jukti Takko Aar Gappo; Chhutir Phande; Swikarokti; 1975: Palanka; Sansar Simantey; Swayamsiddha; Salaam Memsaab; Nishi Mrigaya; Julie; Anari; Aparajito; Sei Chokh; Ek Hans Ka Joda; Jana Aranya; Mohan Baganer Meye; 1976: Ananda Mela; Dampati; Sandhya Surya; Datta; Kitne Paas Kitne Door; Raees; Yugo Manab Kabir; Nidhi Ram Sardar; Do Anjaane; Shaque; Santan; Asadharan; Pratisruti; Jatayu; 1977: Anand Ashram; Anurodh; Farishta Ya Qatil; Ek Hi Raasta; Babu Moshai; Mantramugdha; Sister; Swati; Imaan Dharam; Kissa Kursi Ka; Kotwal Saab; Priyatama; Lal Kothi; Safed Hathi; Swami; Yahi Hai Zindagi; Sanai; 1978: Moyna; Tilottama; Dhanraj Tamang; Bandi; Atithi; Toote Khilone; Striker; Joi Baba Felunath; Chakravyuha; Niskriti; 1979: Jhor*; Nauka Dubi; Golmaal; Kartavya; Prem Vivah; The Great Gambler; Bayan; Naya Bakra; 1980: Bandhan; Gharer Baire Ghar; Hirak Rajar Deshe; Paka Dekha; Pankhiraj; Shesh Bichar; Agreement; Apne Paraye; Khwab; Nishana; Ram Balram; Asha; 1981: Baisakhi Megh*; Kalankini; Subarna Golak; Saheb; Barsaat Ki Ek Raat/Anusandhan; Naram Garam; Shaukeen; Meghmukti; Angoor; Raaste Pyar Ke; Chaalchitra; Agni Pareeksha; 1982: Raj Bodhu; Matir Swarga; Hamari Bahu Alka; Pratiksha; Prateeksha; 1983: Rang Birangi; Maa*; Achha Bura; Kisise Na Kehna; Pasand Apni Apni; Shubh Kaamna; Agami Kal; Indira; Jay Parajay; Duti Pata; Srinkhal; Prayashchitta; 1984: Ahuti; Harishchandra Shaibya; Madhuban; Pujarini; Rashifal; Inquilab; John Jani Janardan; Lakhon Ki Baat; Paar; Bandh Honth; Yeh Desh; Love Marriage; Inquilab Ke Baad*; Shapath; Ulta Seedha; 1985: Aar Paar/Anyay Abichar; Bhalobasha Bhalobasha; Pratigya; Putulghar; Tagori; Bandhan Anjana; Saheb; 1986: Uttar Lipi; Jiban; Pathbhola; Aap Ke Saath; Baat Ban Jaye; Kirayedaar; Main Balwan; Sada Suhagan; Lal Mahal; 1987: Aaj Ka Robin Hood; Pyar Ke Kabil; Sukumar Ray (Sh); Samrat-o-Sundari; Pratikar; Jar Je Priyo; 1988: Prati Paksha; Agun; Agaman; Mahaveera; Sagar Sangam; Pratik; Parasmoni; Jyoti; 1989: Asha-o-Bhalobasha; Biday; Gili Gili Ge; Bahurani; Judge Saheb; Aakrosh; Angar; Kari Diye Kinlam; Libaas; Shubha Kamana; Ladaai (B); Mahajan; Garmil; 1990: Mera Pati Sirf Mera Hai; Raktorin; Agnikanya; Triyatri; Jawani Zindabad; Qaidi; Nyayadanda; 1991: Agantuk; Ahankar; Path-o-Prasad; Maan Maryada; Pati Param Guru; Sajani Go Sajani; Nawab; 1992: Padma Nadir Majhi; Manikanchan; Pennam Calcutta; Mayabini; 1993: Bhranta Pathik; Mishti Madhur; 1994: Ajana Path; 1995: Kecho Khurte Keute; Pratidhani; Abirbhab.

Dutta, J. P. (b. 1949) Hindi director born in Bombay. Son of cineaste O.P. Dutta. Belongs to late 80s generation of Hindi commercial film-makers (e.g. Vinod Chopra, N. Chandra) aiming for a realist surplus through the sensory intensification of established film genres, as in 70s Hollywood films (e.g. Scorsese). Locates all his scripts in feudal Rajasthan, among conflicts featuring the Jat and the immensely powerful Thakur zamindars. His début, Sarhad (1978) was to star Vinod Khanna but remained unfinished. Faced major controversy when his next film, Ghulami, sparked off communal violence in Rajasthan. Best-known film Hathyar extended the ancestral conflict into Bombay’s gang wars. FILMOGRAPHY : 1985: Ghulami; 1988: Yateem; 1989: Hathyar; Batwara; 1992: Kshatriya.

East India Film Company Est: 1932 in Calcutta. One of the first sound studios in Bengal, set up with RCA-Photophone equipment and Mitchell cameras. Owned by B.L. Khemka. Bengali productions include films by Tulsi Lahiri (Jamuna Puliney, 1933), Naresh Mitra’s Sabitri (1933), Dhiren Ganguly (Bidrohi, 1935) and Debaki Bose (Sonar Sansar, 1936). Most prominent inhouse director was Hindi film-maker A.R. Kardar (1933-6). The studio branched out into Tamil (e.g. K. Subramanyam’s Bhakta Kuchela, 1936) and Telugu films (e.g. Pullaiah’s Savithri, 1933). Until the mid-40s it was the only fully equipped sound studio available to Tamil film-makers and was a major reason for numerous Bengali film technicians, particularly cameramen (best known: Jiten Bannerjee) working in the South, a tradition later continued by Gemini Studios. Ekalavya see Ghosh, Robi

Elangovan (1913-71) Tamil script and dialogue writer in the 40s, originally named T.K. Thanikachalam. Début with Duncan’s seminal Ambikapathy (1937), followed by several story and script credits for films which established a new style in film melodrama: Raja Chandrasekhar’s Ashok Kumar (1941), R.S. Mani’s Kannagi (1942), Central Studios’ Sivakavi (1943), R.S. Mani’s Mahamaya (1944: some accounts credit him with direction as well), K. Subramanyam’s Gokula Dasi (1948), S.M. Sreeramulu Naidu’s Pavalakkodi (1949), and especially Ramnoth’s epic Ezhai Padum Padu (1950). Formerly associated with the journal Manikodi whose literary idiom he transferred to cinema (cf. Kannamba’s monologues in Kannagi). Critic and film-maker K. Hariharan writes: ‘ He breathed new fire into film dialogues [with] a passion quite removed from the standard mythologicals’ and quotes popular scenarist A.L. Narayanan as saying that Elangovan and P. Neelakantan, ‘were the first real screen writers in Tamil’. The literary scripting style was adopted later by e.g. A.S.A. Samy in Valmiki (1946) and S.D. Sundaram in Kanniyin Kathali

Filmistan

(1949). it was also an important precursor of Annadurai’s later declamatory scripts. Wrote Raja Sandow’s Thiruneelakantar (1939), Raja Chandrasekhar’s Arundhati (1943), S. Nottani’s Inbavalli (1949), K.S. Gopalakrishnan’s Parijatham (1950) and many others.

Mohini; Gaud Bangal; 1926: Khubsoorat Bala; Indrajal; Panna Ratna; Bulbul-eParistan (only d.); 1928: Chandravali*; Heer Ranjha*; 1929: Kanakatara*; Milan Dinar*; Naseeb Ni Devi*; Shakuntala*; Mahasundar.

Fattelal, Sheikh (1897-1964) Empire Films The Imperial Conference (1926) resolved to reserve 7.5% of screen time in the British Empire for films made within the Empire. This measure was intended to privilege the British film industry as opposed to the US industry in the Indian market, helping to revitalise the post-WW1 British cinema in the process. However, although the idea was initially welcomed by organisations like the Bombay Cinema and Theatres Association and the Indian Motion Picture Producers Association, such organisations soon raised the demand, that as the Empire’s main film industry, 50% of the quota should be reserved for Indian cinema. Whereas the first result of the Conference was to limit Hollywood’s access to the Indian market, the Indian demands effectively ended up regulating British access to the Indian market as well, favouring indigenous production. In the context of the Swadeshi polemic, the Indian Merchants Chamber led by Seth Walchand Hirachand argued that the only answer to combat Hollywood (and, implicitly, Britain) in India was a combination of tax incentives and the tenfold escalation of customs duty on imported films. Many of these debates informed the Indian Cinematograph Committee’s work (1928), published in 5 volumes.

Marathi director and technician. Real name: Yashin Mistri, aka Sahebmama Fattelal also spelt Fatehlal. Born in Kagal, Kolhapur. Belonged to hereditary artisanal caste (Mistri means ‘ carpenter’, although his father was a stonemason). Apprenticed to the Kolhapur artist Abalal Rehman. Lifelong partner of Vishnupant Damle. Co-disciple with Damle of Baburao’s technician-artist cousin, Anandrao Painter. Co-founder of and all-round technician at Maharashtra Film. Partner and head of art department at Prabhat where he organised spectacular sets (e.g. Amritmanthan, 1934). Debut as co-dir of his only silent film, Maharathi Karna (1928). Co-directed Saint films with Damle, including Sant Tukaram (1936) (for Filmography, see Damle). Also major achievements as art director: e.g. Ayodhyecha Raja/Ayodhya Ka Raja, Maya Machhindra (both 1932), Amar Jyoti (1936), Kunku/Duniya Na Mane (1937), Mazha Mulga/Mera Ladka (1938), Manoos/Admi (1939), Shejari/Padosi (1941) and Ramshastri (1944). Produced a film after Damle’s death (1945) for Prabhat; then solo direction of two features. FILMOGRAPHY: 1955: Jagadguru Shankaracharya; 1956: Ayodhyapati.

Fazil (b. 1953) Esoofally, Abdulally (1884-1957) Exhibitor born in Surat, Gujarat. Travelled 1908-14 with tent bioscope through large parts of the Far East, including Burma, Singapore and Indonesia, introducing the cinema to these regions. In 1914 he settled in Bombay where he partnered Ardeshir Irani in an exhibition concern based on the acquisition of the Alexandra Theatre and later of the Majestic. Remained Irani’s partner for over 40 years. Active member of the Cinema Exhibitors Association of India since 1946.

Fatma, Begum Probably first woman director in India. Married the Nawab of Sachin and mother of silent superstars Sultana and Zubeida as well as of Shahzadi. Career on Urdu stage, then film actress in Irani’s Star Film (Veer Abhimanyu); set up Fatma Film (1926), later Victoria-Fatma Film (1928). Actress at Kohinoor and Imperial Studios while producing, writing and directing (often also acting in) her own films at the Fatma Co. Continued acting in the 30s, e.g. for Nanubhai Vakil and Homi Master. FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1922: Veer Abhimanyu; 1924: Prithvi Vallabh; Gul-eBakavali; Kala Naag; Sati Sardarba; 1925: Naharsinh Daku; Devadasi; Mumbai Ni

Successful Malayalam director, and one of the first to make the transition into big-budget Tamil films. Born in Alleppey, Kerala; theatre director and actor while at university. Degree in literature; later worked with Kavalam Narayana Panicker’s theatre group Thiruvarung. Film début assisting A. Vincent. Directorial début: the musical Manjil Virinja Pookkal which he also scripted and produced. Since then has been associated with the urban middle-class family musical melodrama, e.g. the Ilaiyaraja musical hit Poove Poo Chooda Va. His Tamil films are sometimes adapted from his own Malayalam hits (e.g. the melodrama Ente Mamattukuttiamma remakes En Bommu Kutti Ammavukku), although the incisiveness of the original (according to critic K. Hariharan) is usually diluted to suit the populist tastes of Tamil distributors. Varusham 16 was the Tamil debut of major star Khushboo. Co-directed the widely discussed Manichitratharazu. FILMOGRAPHY: 1980: Manjil Virinja Pookkal; 1981: Dhanya; 1983: Eettillam; Marakkailo Rikalum; Ente Mamattukuttiamma; 1984: Nokketha Dhoorathu Kannum Nattu; 1985: Poove Poo Chooda Va; 1986: Ennennum Kannettante; Poovinnu Puthiya Poonthennal; 1987: Poovizhi Vasalile; Manivathoorile Ayiram Sivarathrikal; 1988: En Bommu Kutti Ammavukku; 1989: Varusham 16; 1990:

Arangetra Velai; 1991: Ente Suryaputhrikku; Karpura Mullai; 1992: Killer; Papayude Sontham Appoose; 1993: Kilipetchu Ketkava; 1993: Manichithratharazu; 1994: Manathe Vellitheru.

Film Advisory Board Est: 1940. First instance of direct state production of documentary film in India. Started as part of the Dept of Information to advise on the making of propaganda shorts during WW2 under chairmanship of Alexander Shaw (formerly associated with John Grierson in the Empire Marketing Board and later producer with Crown Film Unit). J.B.H. Wadia, V. Shantaram and Ezra Mir worked briefly as chief producers (1942). The FAB was intended to collaborate with independent producers/financiers, coordinating and overseeing the distribution of indigenous and imported war propaganda films. Initial productions included documentaries and newsreels made at Wadia Movietone (e.g. early work of documentarist P.V. Pathy), films commissioned from the advertising agency D.J. Keymer and localised versions of newsreels by 20th Century-Fox. Replaced in 1943 by Information Films of India.

Film and Television Institute of India India’s premier training institute for filmmaking, cinematography, editing and soundrecording. Founded in 1960, a decade after the S.K. Patil Film Enquiry Committee’s recommendations, as the Film Institute of India. It was established in Pune using the premises of the former Prabhat Film. Became an autonomous organisation funded by the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting in 1974, simultaneously expanding to include a TV section in the context of Doordarshan’s development plans. The FTII’s history is most closely associated with Ritwik Ghatak who joined as Professor of Film and Vice-Principal (1966-7) and formed several of the New Indian Cinema pioneers, such as Kumar Shahani, Mani Kaul, Adoor Gopalakrishnan et al., as well as numerous key technicians, e.g. cinematographer K.K. Mahajan. The FTII produced two feature films, Raakhi Raakhi (Mahesh Kaul, 1969) and Jai Jawan Jai Makan (Vishram Bedekar, 1971). Film Finance Corporation see National Film Development Corporation

Filmistan Bombay-based studio; Est: 1943-44 leasing the former premises of the Sharda studio. Launched by major breakaway group from Bombay Talkies led by their production controller Rai Bahadur Chunilal and producer Shashadhar Mukherjee. Their first film was Gyan Mukherjee’s Chal Chal Re Naujawan (1944, with Ashok Kumar). The studio continued more or less from S. Mukherjee’s two influential Bombay Talkies productions: Naya Sansar (1941) and the colossal hit Kismet (1943). Its subsequent output elaborated these into the first consistent 95

Films Division

generic codification and regulation of a postIndependence All-India Film market-place. By the early 50s, the ‘ film factory’ (as B.R. Chopra, who worked there briefly, called it) had revolutionised distribution with midbudget genre productions selling mainly on their star value and their music. The approach was exemplified by Gyan Mukherjee himself and extended by P.L. Santoshi, Subodh Mukherjee, Nasir Hussain and Najam Naqvi, with stars Ashok Kumar, Dev Anand, Dilip Kumar, Shammi Kapoor and Nalini Jaywant, and music directors C. Ramchandra and S.D. Burman. Following the hits Shaheed (1948), Shabnam (1949: establishing the famous star pair of Dilip Kumar and Kamini Kaushal and featuring Burman’s music) and Samadhi (1950), Filmistan’s style arguably had the largest impact of any studio on later independent commercial film-making in Hindi. This is evident e.g. in Manmohan Desai’s cinema. Other notable Filmistan cineastes are P.L. Santoshi, Nandlal Jaswantlal, Kishore Sahu and Ramesh Saigal. The studio yielded yet another mutation when Shashadhar Mukherjee moved out to start Filmalaya (1958).

Films Division Est: 1949. A ‘ mass-media unit’ run by the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, it is ‘the central film-producing organisation responsible for the production and distribution of newsreels, documentaries and other films required by the Government of India for public information, education and for instructional and cultural purposes’ (UNESCO report, 1973; quoted in Jag Mohan, 1990). Until the postEmergency period which saw, for the first time, the independently made documentary (cf. Anand Patwardhan), the Films Division had the monopoly on documentary cinema in India, making upwards of 200 shorts/ documentaries and weekly newsreels (Indian News Review). Each film had over 9000 prints and was dubbed into 18 Indian languages and exhibited through compulsory block booking in every permanent cinema in the country. Its early work used imagery today considered typical of the iconography of the Nehru era, such as N.S. Thapa’s documentary on the Bhakra Nangal dam (1958), and connects via the war propaganda productions of the Film Advisory Board with the British documentary tradition pioneered by John Grierson, a link further strengthened by film producers Jean Bhownagry, James Beveridge (Shell Film Unit) and, briefly in the late 60s, film-maker Basil Wright working at Films Division on loan from UNESCO. Best-known 70s work was by Sukhdev. Recent productions include Shyam Benegal’s feature-length documentaries Nehru and Satyajit Ray (both 1984) and Mani Kaul’s Siddheshwari (1989). However the bulk of the Films Division’s enormous output is by inhouse film-makers.

film, imaged repeatedly as innocent and tearful daughter-in-law in some of the longest and most sentimental Marathi socials/melodramas (e.g. Bhalji Pendharkar’s Mohityanchi Manjula). Early work strongly influenced by Hansa Wadkar who played her foster-mother in her first major hit, Sangtye Aika. Played Tamasha dancing-girl in several Anant Mane and Dinkar D. Patil rural melodramas in the 60s, when Dhirubhai Desai and Babubhai Mistri also cast her in Hindi mythologicals. Now associated with roles opposite stunt star Dara Singh in Chandrakant films (Har Har Mahadev, Kisan Aur Bhagwan). Published autobiography in 1986. FILMOGRAPHY: 1956: Dista Tasa Nasta; Gaath Padli Thaka Thaka; 1957: Aliya Bhogasi; Aai Mala Kshama Kar; Pahila Prem; Devagharcha Lena; Utavala Narad; 1958: Sanskar; Padada; 1959: Sangtye Aika; Yala Jeevan Aise Nav; Pativrata; Ek Armaan Mera; Madari; Do Gunde; Charnon Ki Dasi; 1960: Avaghachi Sansar; Lagnala Jato Mi; Saranga; Paishyacha Paoos; Pancharati; Bindiya; Police Detective; 1961: Kalanka Shobha; Manini; Rangapanchami; Shahir Parashuram; Vyjayanti; Jai Bhawani; Ramleela; Sasural; 1962: Baap Mazha Brahmachari; Bhagya Lakshmi; Preeti Vivah; Sukh Ale Majhya Daari; Private Secretary; 1963: Mohityanchi Manjula; Naar Nirmite Nara; Subhadra Haran; Sukhachi Savli; Yeh Dil Kisko Doon; Mere Arman Mere Sapne; 1964: Ek Don Teen; Kai Ho Chamatkar; Saval Mazha Aika; Sundara Manamadhye Bharli; Vaishakh Vanava; Sati Savitri; Seeta Maiya; 1965: Gopal Krishna; Mahasati Ansuya; Aai Kuna Mhanu Mi; Malhari Martand; Sadhi Manse; Yugo Yugo Mi Vat Pahili; Kadhi Karishi Lagna Mazhe; 1966: Toofan Mein Pyar Kahan; Hi Naar Rupasundari; Hirva Chuda; Patlachi Soon; Pavanakathcha Dhondi; Veer Bajrang; 1967: Poonam Ka Chand; Baharon Ke Sapne; Bai Mi Bholi; Sangu Kashi Mi; Shrimant Mehuna Pahije; Thamb Lakshmi Kunku Lavte; Suranga Mhantyat Mala; Lav Kush; 1968: Balaram Shri Krishna; Har Har Gange; Mata Mahakali; Ek Gao Bara Bhangadi; Jivhala; 1969: Dongarchi

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Gaggaiah, Vemuri (1895-1955) Noted Telugu stage and film actor of the 40s. Legendary stage star with an imposing presence and loud voice, which suited demonic roles in mythologicals, e.g. Yama and Kans. Film début with East India Film’s production of Savithri playing Yama, god of death. Known mainly as one of the first actors to define a performative idiom tailored to the mythological. FILMOGRAPHY: 1933: Savithri; 1935: Shri Krishna Leelalu; 1936: Draupadi Vastrapaharanam; Sati Tulasi; 1937: Mohini Rugmangada; 1938: Markandeya; 1940: Chandika; Mahiravana; 1941: Dakshayagnam; 1942: Bhakta Prahlada; 1943: Garuda Garvabhangam; 1948: Bhakta Siriyala.

Gandhi, Naval (b. 1897)

Gadkar, Jayshree (b. 1942) Actress born in Karwar Dist., Karnataka. Introduced into films by Raja Paranjpe as child actress. Major 60s and 70s star in Marathi

Maina; Gan Gaulan; Murali Malhari Rayachi; Tila Lavite Mi Raktacha; Ram Bhakta Hanuman; 1970: Bhagwan Parashuram; Dagabaaz; Shri Krishna Leela; Gharkul; Veer Ghatotkach; Meech Tujhi Priya; 1971: Tulasi Vivah; Aai Ude Ga Ambabai; Lakhat Ashi Dekhani; Ashich Ek Ratra Hoti; Mata Vaishno Devi; 1972: Naag Panchami; Hari Darshan; Kasa Kai Patil Bara Hai Ka?; Kunku Mazha Bhagyacha!; Pathrakhin; Soon Ladki Hya Gharchi; Shiv Bhakt Baba Balak Nath; 1973: Mi Tuzha Pati Nahi; Mahasati Savitri; 1974: Har Har Mahadev; Dawat; Balak Dhruv; Kisan Aur Bhagwan; Soon Majhi Savitri; Sugandhi Katta; Bhagat Dhanna Jat; 1975: Paach Rangachi Paach Pakhare; Ek Gaon Ki Kahani; Maya Machhindra; Ghar Gangechya Kathi; 1976: Mazha Mulga; Bajrang Bali; 1977: Gayatri Mahima; Bolo He Chakradhari; 1978: Chandoba Chandoba Bhaglas Ka?; 1979: Har Har Gange; Lagebandhe; 1980: Savat; Jidda; Kadaklakshmi; Saubhagyavan; Shiv Shakti; Nishana; 1981: Jiyo To Aise Jiyo; Soon Majhi Lakshmi; Baine Kela Sarpanch Khula; Jai Tulaja Bhawani; Alakh Niranjan; 1982: Jaya Parvati Vrat; Lekhne Mathe Mekh; Avhaan; Farz Aur Kanoon; Sati Naag Kanya; 1983: He Daan Kunkvache; Thorli Jau; 1984: Attaracha Phaya; Gangavatarana; Rath Jagannathacha; Jakhmi Vaghin; Naya Kadam; Sulagte Arman; Shravan Kumar; Sindoor Ka Daan; Maya Bazaar; 1985: Masterji; Veer Bhimsen; Khichadi; Devashapath Khara Sangen; 1986: Bijali; Krishna Krishna; Patton Ki Baazi; Ramayan (TV); 1987: Bhatak Bhawani; Poorna Satya; Sher Shivaji; Nazrana; 1988: Mar Mitenge; Eeshwar; Pandharichi Vari; Shiv Ganga; 1989: Mal Masala; Kanoon Apna Apna; 1990: Amiri Garibi; 1991: Mumbai Te Mauritius; Yeda Ki Khula?; 1994: Sasar Maher (also d.); 1995: Gandha Matila Aala; He Geet Jeevanache.

Jayshree Gadkar in Patlachi Soon (1966)

Hindi director born in Karachi. Graduated in Ahmedabad (1919) and went on European study tour. Joined Irani’s Majestic (1923). Later worked at Orient Pics where he made one of the most discussed quality films of the silent era, Balidan, adapted from Tagore. Went on

Ganesan, Sivaji

to direct its star, Zubeida, at Orient and at Kohinoor UA. Worked at the Directorate of Services Kinematography, the film wing of the armed forces during WW2, where he produced P.V. Pathy’s documentaries. Went into radio in the early 50s. FILMOGRAPHY : 1924: Chandan Malayagiri; Mumbai Ni Sethani; Paap No Pashchatap; Shahjehan; Paap No Fej; Sanyasi; 1926: Yauvan Chakra; 1927: Balidan; 1930: Devadasi; Veer Rajput; 1931: Nadira; Diwani Duniya (all St); 1932: Shikari.

Ganesan, Sivaji (b. 1927) Tamil superstar, originally Viluppuram Chinnaiahpillai Ganesan but best known as Sivaji. Born in Sirkali, TN, into the peasant Kallar caste although his father worked on the railways. According to the official biography, the day he was born his father was jailed for participating in the Independence movement in Nellikuppam. Enjoyed a fitful education and joined theatre groups. Made his reputation as actor in C.N. Annadurai’s play Sivaji Kanda Indhu Rajyam, a historical on the Maratha Emperor Shivaji which also gave him his screen name. He followed Annadurai when the latter started the DMK (1949), and his début, in the wordy role of Gunasekharan in Parasakthi, made him the official icon of the Party for some years (cf. DMK Film). He started distancing himself from the DMK in the mid-50s, joining E.V.K. Sampath’s Tamil Nationalist Party (1961), then joined Congress and wound up supporting the opposition Janata Dal. Moving away from the early DMK’s atheistic politics, he acted in several mythologicals, esp. Sampoorna Ramayanam and Thiruvillaiyadal, in nationalist historicals (his most famous film Veerapandiya Kattaboman) and in biographicals (Kappalotiya Thamizhan, a film on V.O. Chidambaram Pillai, a 19th C. antiimperialist who defied the British to start the Steam Navigation Co.). Was associated in his middle period mainly with the films of A. Bhimsingh and A.P. Nagarajan. Played the

negative role of the womaniser in Thirumbi Paar and then some years later, more famously, in Rangoon Radha. According to K. Sivathamby (1981), Ganesan and his main rival, MGR (with whom he acted in one film, Kundukkili), dominated the Tamil cinema to such an extent that the two automatically demanded Madras distribution rights in their contracts and could bankrupt a producer by causing production delays, a power the stars used to further their political ambitions. Their power base is buttressed by several fan clubs and the Ganesan Rasikar Manram. Rajya Sabha Member of Parliament (1982-8). However it is maintained that Ganesan had a more significant iconic presence among the Tamil middle-class, leading to his 1980s-90s deification, than MGR could ever acquire. His younger brother ran Sivaji Prod. and his son Prabhu was propelled to stardom in the 80s in films like Kozhi Kuvutthu (1982) and Vetri Vizha (1989, adapting Robert Ludlum’s The Bourne Identity). FILMOGRAPHY: 1952: Parasakthi; Panam; 1953: Poongothai/Pardesi; Anbu; Kangal; Thirumbi Paar; Manithanum Mrigamum; Pempudu Koduku; 1954: Andha Naal; Illara Jyothi; Ethirparadathu; Kalyanam Panniyum Brahmachari; Kundukkili; Thuli Visham; Thooku Thooki; Manohara/ Manohar; 1955: Ulagam Palavitham; Kalvanin Kadhali; Kaveri; Koteshwaran; Mangayar Thilakam; Mudhal Thedi/Modalatedi; Pennin Perumai; 1956: Amara Deepam; Tenali Raman; Naney Raja; Nalla Veedu; Raja Rani; Naan Petra Selvam; Rangoon Radha; Vazhvile Oru Naal; 1957: Pudhuvayal; Tangamalai Rahasyam; Makkalai Petra Maharasi; Manamagal Thevai; Bhagyavati; Vanangamudi; Rani Lalithangi; Ambikapathy; Sarangadhara; 1958: Annaiyin Aanai; Uthama Puthran/Sitamgarh; Kathavarayan; Shabash Meena; Sampoorna Ramayanam; Pati Bhakti; Bommalapelli/ Bommai Kalyanam; School Master; 1959: Aval Yar; Thangapathumai; Naan Sollum Rahasiyam; Bhagapirivinai; Maragatham;

Sivaji Ganesan and Helen in Uthama Puthran (1958)

Veerapandiya Kattaboman/Amar Shaheed; 1960: Daiva Piravi; Kurvanji; Irumputhirai; Padikkatha Methai; Petra Manam; Pavai Vilakku; Raja Bhakti; Makkala Rajya/Kuzhandaigal Kanda Kudiyarasu; Vidiveli; 1961: Ellam Unnakkaga; Kappalotiya Thamizhan; Pasamalar; Punarjanmam; Pavamanippu; Marudu Nattu Veeran; Palum Pazhamum; Srivalli; 1962: Alayamani; Senthamarai; Nishchaya Thambulam; Padithal Mattu Pothuma; Bale Pandian; Bandha Pasam; Parthal Pasi Theerum; Vadivukku Valai Kappu; Valar Pirai; 1963: Arivali; Annai Illam; Iruvar Ullam; Raktha Tilakam; Kulamagal Radhai; Chittor Rani Padmini; Kumkumam; Paar Magale Paar; Naan Vanangum Daivam; Kalyanin Kanavan; Mamakaram; 1964: Karnan; Pachai Vilakku; Andavan Kathali; Kaikodutha Daivam; Pudhiya Paravai; Muradhan Muthu; Navarathri; School Master; 1965: Pazhani; Anbukkarangal; Shanti; Thiruvillaiyadal; Neelavanam; 1966: Motor Sundaram Pillai; Mahakavi Kalidas; Saraswathi Sabatham; Selvam; Thaye Unakkaga; 1967: Kandan Karunai; Nenjirukumvarai; Pesum Daivam; Thangai; Paladai; Thiruvarut Selvar; Iru Malargal; Ootivarai Uravu; 1968: Thirumal Perumai; Harishchandra; Enga Ooru Raja; Galatta Kalyanam; En Thambi; Thillana Mohanambal; Lakshmi Kalyanam; Uyarntha Manithan; Arunodhayam; 1969: Anbalipu; Thanga Surangam; Kaval Daivam; Gurudakshinai; Anjal Petty 520; Nirai Kudam; Daivamagan; Thirudan; Sivantha Mann; 1970: Enga Mama; Vilayattu Pillai; Vietnam Veedu; Ethiroli; Raman Ethanai Ramanadi; Dharti; Sorgam; Engiruthu Vandhal; Pathukappu; 1971: Iru Thuruvam; Thangaikkaga; Kulama Kunama; Sumathi En Sundari; Praptham; Savale Samali; Thenum Palum; Moondru Daivangal; Babu; 1972: Raja; Gnana Oli; Pattikada Pattanama; Dharmam Engay; Thavaputhalvan; Vasantha Maligai; Neethi; Maa Inti Jyothi; 1973: Bharatha Vilas; Raja Raja Chozhan; Ponnunnjal; Engal Thanga Raja; Gauravam; Manithiral Manikam; Raja Part Rangadurai; Ranganna Sabatham; Bhakta Tukaram; 1974: Sivakamyin Selvan; Thayi; Vani Rani; Thanga Padakkam; En Magan; Anbai Thedi; Gauravam; 1975: Manithanum Daivamagalam; Avanthan Manithan; Mannavan Vandanadi; Anbe Aruyere; Vaira Nenjam; Doctor Siva; Pattam Bharathamum; 1976: Unakkaga Naan; Grihapravesham; Sathyam; Uthaman; Chitra Pournami; Rojavin Raja; Avan Oru Charitram; Ilaya Thalaimurai; Ennai Pol Oruvan; 1977: Deepam; Naam Pirandha Maan; Annan Oru Koyil; Andaman Kathali; Chanakya Chandragupta; Jeevana Theeralu; 1978: Thyagam; Punya Bhoomi; General Chakravarthi; Thacholi Ambu; Pilot Premnath; Justice Gopinath; 1979: Thirisulam; Emayam; Kavariman; Nallathoru Kudumbam; Naan Vazhavippen; Pattakathi Bhairavan; Vetrikku Oruvan; 1980: Dharma Raja; Yamanukku Yaman; Ratha Pasam; Rishi Moolam; Vishwa Roopam; 1981: Amarakaviyam; Sathyam Sundaram; Mohana Ponnagai; Kalthoon; Lorry Driver Rajakannu; Madi Veetu Ezhai; Kizhvanam Sivakkam; 1982: Hitler Umanath; Oorukku Oru Pillai; 97

Ganesh, Gemini

Vaa Kanna Vaa; Garuda Sowkiyama; Sangili; Vasanthathil Oru Naal; Theerpu; Thyagi; Paritchaikku Neramchu; Oorum Uravum; Nenjangal; Nivurigappina Nippu; Thunai; 1983: Neethipathi; Imaigal; Sandhippu; Mridanga Chakravarthi; Sumangali; Vellai Roja; Uruvavugal Maralam; Bezwada Bebbuli; 1984: Thiruppam; Chiranjeevi; Tharasu; Vazhkai; Charitra Nayakan; Simma Soppanam; Ezhuthantha Sattangal; Iru Methaigal; Vamsa Vilakku; Thavani Kanavukal; 1985: Bandham; Nam Iruvar; Padikkatha Panayar; Neethiyin Nizhal; Nermai; Muthal Mariyathai; Raja Rishi; Padikkadhavan; 1986: Sadhanai; Marumagal; Ananda Kannir; Viduthalai; Thaikku Oru Thalattu; Maaveeran; Lakshmi Vandhachu; 1987: Veerapandian; Mutukkal Moonru; Anbulla Appa; Thambathiyam; Vishwanatha Nayakudu; Agni Putrudu; 1988: En Thamil En Makkal; Marmagal; Pudhiya Vanam; 1991: Gnana Paravai; 1992: Muthal Kural; Thevar Magan; Nangal; Chinna Marumagal; 1993: Paramparyam; 1995: Pasumponn.

Ganesh, Gemini Aka Ramaswamy Ganesan, known in Tamil as Kadhal Mannan (King of Romance). Tamil star also known for performances in Telugu, Malayalam and Hindi. Graduated in chemistry and worked at the Madras Christian College. Joined the Gemini Studio in 1946 as casting assistant. Became a star with his double role in Manampola Mangalyam, during the making of which he met Telugu and Tamil star Savitri, whom he married. Known mainly for soft romantic roles (e.g. Kalyana Parisu), or Vanjikottai Valiban (where he played opposite two female leads, Padmini and Vyjayanthimala); also for love stories in which he plays the loser. Later played in mythologicals, e.g. A.P. Nagarajan’s Kandan Karunai and several P. Subramanyam films in Malayalam such as Kumara Sambhavam; the melodramatic lead with Sowcar Janaki in Panthulu’s Tamil remake of School Master. Father of Hindi star Rekha. FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1947: Miss Malini; 1952: Thayi Ullam; 1953: Avvaiyyar; Manampola Mangalyam; 1954: Penn; 1955: Maheshwari; Valliyin Selvam; Maman Magal; Kanavane Kan Kanda Daivam; Kalam Maripochu; Pennin Perumai; Missiamma; 1956: Prema Pasam; Asai; Devata; Mathar Kula Manikam; Sadaram; 1957: Miss Mary; Manalane Mangayin Bhagyam; Mallika; Maya Bazaar; Yar Paiyan; Saubhagyavati; Karpurakarasi; Kutumba Gauravam; 1958: Thirumanam; Vanjikottai Valiban; Raj Tilak; Pati Bhakti; Kadan Vangi Kalyanam; School Master/Badi Panthulu; Bhuloka Rambha/Bhuloka Rambhai/Pareeksha; 1959: Kalyana Parisu; Veerapandiya Kattaboman/Amar Shaheed; Vazha Vaitha Daivam; Nalla Theerpu; Adisaya Thirudan; Bhagya Devatha/Bhagya Devathai; Ponnu Vilayum Bhoomi; 1960: Kalathur Kannamma; Parthiban Kanavu; Pudhiya Pathai; Meenda Sorgam; Ellorum Innattu Mannar; Kairasi; 1961: Kappalotiya Thamizhan; Pasamalar; Nazrana; Saugandh; Bhagya 98

Lakshmi; Thennilavu; Pavamanippu; Panithirai; 1962: Kathirunda Kankal; Konjum Salangai; Adiperaku; Parthal Pasi Theerum; Sumaithangi; Manithan Maravillai; Patha Kannikkai; Swarnamanjari/Mangaiyar Ullam Mangada Selvam; 1963: Lavakusa; Idayathil Nee; Karpagam; Ezhai Pangalan; 1964: Oralkoodi Kalanayi; Pasamum Nesamum; Vazhkai Vazhvadarke; 1965: Hello Mister Zamindar; 1966: Ramu; Chinnachiru Ulagam; Thene Mazhai; 1967: Kandan Karunai; Pattathu Rani; Seeta; Padhyam; Penn Entral Penn; 1968: Balaram Shri Krishna; Panama Pasama; Thamarai Nenjam; 1969: Kumara Sambhavam; Avare En Daivam; Iru Kodukal; Kuzhandai Ullam; Thanga Malar; Porsilai; Aindhu Laksham; Manaivi; Shanti Nilayam; Kulavilakku; 1970: Ethirkalam; Tapalkaran Thangai; Sorgam; Sinehithi; Kanmalar; Kaviya Thalaivi; Malathi; 1971: Punnagai; 1972: Kanna Nalama; Enna Mudalali Sowkiyama; Appa Tata; Kurathi Magan; Ellai Kodu; Velli Vizha; Daivam; Shakti Leela; Professor; Shri Guruvayoorappan; 1973: Ganga Gauri; Nalla Mudivu; School Master; Thirumalai Daivam; Malai Nattu Mangai; Kattilla Thottilla; Jesus; 1974: Manikka Thothil; Nan Avanillai; Devi Shri Karumariamman; Devi Kanyakumari; 1975: Swami Ayyappan; Uravukku Kayi Koduppam; 1976: Dashavatharam; Idaya Malar*; Lalitha; Unakkaga Naan; 1977: Naam Pirandha Maan; Shri Murugan; Oka Thalli Katha; 1978: Shri Kanchi Kamakshi; Bhrashthu; 1979: Allavudeenum Albutha Velakkum/Allavudeenum Arputha Vilakkum/ Alladdin and the Wonderful Lamp; Gnana Kuzhandhai; 1983: Oppantham; Soorakottai Singhakutty; 1988: Rudraveena; Unnal Mudiyum Thambi; Ponmana Selvan.

Ganguly, Dhirendranath (1893-1978) Bengali director, painter and actor born in Calcutta. Studied in Shantiniketan, graduated from the Government School of Art, Calcutta (1915); art teacher in the Nizam’s Art College, Hyderabad. Successful portrait painter and sought to extend his oil painting techniques into photography. Published 2 collections of photographic self-portraits, Bhaber Abhiyakti and Biye (1922), as photo montages with Ganguly himself modelling all the characters. Set up Indo-British Film (1918) in Calcutta with Nitish Lahiri. First film, Bilet Pherat, was probably ready in 1919. Returned to Hyderabad and set up Lotus Film (1922-4) on the Nizam’s invitation. Went back to Calcutta, after a short stay in Bombay, and started British Dominion Films Studio (1929) together with P.C. Barua. Remained ardent supporter of Empire Films concept. Unable to sustain his studio into the sound era, he went freelance in 1934, including two separate periods at New Theatres. With Bilet Pherat introduced a type of satire into film (continued in The Marriage Tonic, Takay Ki Na Hay) analogous to 19th C. tradition of Naksha satirical literature, drawing on Pat painting and the musical satires of Calcutta Theatres. Among his later films were adaptations of Premendra Mitra’s novels (e.g. Ahuti, Daabi).

FILMOGRAPHY (* act only): 1921: Bilet Pherat*; Shri Radha Krishna*; 1922: Sadhu Aur Shaitan*; Indrajit; Lady Teacher; Hara Gauri; Chintamani; Bimata; 1923: The Marriage Tonic; Yayati; 1927: Shankaracharya*; 1930: Panchasar*; Kamaner Aagun*; Alik Babu; 1931: Takay Ki Na Hay; Charitraheen; Maraner Pare* (all St); 1933: Mastuto Bhai; 1934: Excuse Me, Sir; Night Bird; Halkatha; 1935: Bidrohi; 1936: Country Girl; Dwipantar; 1938: Halbangala; Achin Priya; Abhisarika; 1940: Path Bhoole; Karmakhali; 1941: Pratishodh*; Ahuti; 1943: Daabi; 1947: Srinkhal; 1948: Shesh Nibedan; 1949: Cartoon; 1962: Abhisarika*; Rakta Palash*.

Ganguly, Jahar (1904-69) Actor born in 24 Parganas Dist., Bengal. Major stage actor, dancer and singer in Calcutta Theatres, e.g. as Fatikchand in Poshyaputra (1932) and as Bhola Moira in Anthony Kabial in the late 60s. Broke through in film with Premankur Atorthy’s Dena Paona. Cast in almost 1/3 of Bengali films in 40s and 50s as a character actor in comedy counterparts to the dramatic lead. A crucial mediator between the Calcutta Theatres style and popular cinema (e.g. his Jyotish Bannerjee and Naresh Mitra films). Best-remembered lead role as Manas opposite Kanan Devi’s Niharika in Manmoyee Girls’ School, a part reprised from his 1932 Art Theatres production. Also major role in Shahar Theke Dooray, and remarkable cameos in Satyajit Ray’s Parash Pathar and Chidiakhana. Continued as stage actor until the 60s. FILMOGRAPHY: 1931: Geeta (St); Dena Paona; 1934: Tulsidas; 1935: Manmoyee Girls’ School; Mantra Shakti; Payer Dhulo; Kanthahaar; 1936: Pather Sheshey; Kal Parinaya; Mahanisha; Bishabriksha; 1937: Talkie of Talkies; 1938: Sarbajanin Bibahotsab; Bekar Nashan; Ekalavya; 1939: Janak Nandini; Jakher Dhan; Nara Narayan; Sharmistha; Vaman Avatar; 1941: Kavi Joydev; Bijoyini; Pratishodh; Shri Radha; Nandini; Pratisruti; Karnarjun; 1942: Nari; Bhishma; Garmil; Milan; Bondi; Pashan Devata; Shesh Uttar/Jawab; 1943: Shahar Theke Dooray; Sahadharmini; Jogajog/Hospital; Dwanda; Poshya Putra; Nilanguriya; Jajsaheber Nathni; Paper Pathey; Dampati; Rani; Priya Bandhabi; 1944: Matir Ghar; Samaj; Shesh Raksha; Chhadmabeshi; Sandhya; 1945: Bondita; Kato Door; Do Tana; Path Bendhe Dilo; Mane Na Mana; Kalankini; Grihalakshmi; Dui Purush; Raj Lakshmi; 1946: Pather Sathi; Sat Number Bari; Ae To Jiban; Natun Bou; Bande Mataram; Matrihara; Tumi Aar Ami; Dukhe Jader Jiban Gara; 1947: Pather Daabi; Abhiyatri; Srinkhal; Ratri; Jharer Parey; Mandir; Swapna-o-Sadhana; Tapobhanga; Ramer Sumati; 1948: Anirban; Bankalekha; Nandaranir Sansar; Narir Rup; Sadharan Meye; Samapika; 1949: Rangamati; Sankalpa; Anuradha; Abhijatya; Abhimaan; Kamana; Mahadan; Niruddesh; Singhdwar; 1950: Biresh Lahiri; Indranath; Mahasampad; Kankantala Light Railway; Eki Gramer Chhele; Banprastha; Garabini; Gipsy Meye; Mejdidi;

George, Kulakkatil Geevarghese

Sahodar; 1951: Kulhara; Babla; 1952: Meghmukti; 1953: Sat Number Kayedi; Makarshar Jaal; Keranir Jiban; Harilakshmi; Sitar Patal Prabesh; Niskriti; 1954: Maa-oChhele; Nababidhan; Naa; Kalyani; Mani-AarManik; Sati; Barbela; Agni Pareeksha; Nilshari; Shivashakti; Grihapravesh; Mantra Shakti; 1955: Nishiddha Phal; Devatra; Parishodh; Bidhilipi; Kalo Bou; Godhuli; Dui Bone; Mejo Bou; Bhagwan Shri Shri Ramakrishna; Bhalobasha(?); 1956: Sagarika; Asabarna; Saheb Bibi Golam; He Maha Manab; Chirakumar Sabha; Paradhin; Asamapta; Trijama; Mamlar Phal; Rajpath; Nabajanma; Bandhan; Chhaya Sangini(?); Asha; 1957: Bara Maa(?); Tapasi; Madhu Malati; Ghoom; Baksiddha; Adarsha Hindu Hotel; Chhaya Path; Parer Chheley; Punar Milan; Ogo Sunchho; Abhoyer Biye; Ami-Baro-Habo; Madhabir Jonye; Chandranath; Parash Pathar; 1958: Shri Shri Maa; Bandhu; Manmoyee Girls’ School; Kangsa; Dak Harkara; Jogajog; O Amar Desher Mati; Purir Mandir; 1959: Janmantar; 1960: Khokha Babur Pratyabartan; Chhupi Chhupi Ashey; Gariber Meye; Ajana Kahini; Nader Nimai; Biyer Khata; 1961: Manik; Raibahadur; Kathin Maya; 1962: Bandhan; Nabadiganta; 1963: Dui Bari; Barnachora; Sat Bhai; Nirjan Saikate; Palatak; Tridhara; Nyayadanda; Uttar Falguni; 1964: Jiban Kahini; Bireshwar Vivekananda; Kanta Taar; Natun Tirtha; Dui Parba; 1965: Dinanter Alo; Raja Rammohun; Mukhujey Paribar; 1966: Ramdhakka; Shesh Tin Din; Sudhu Ekti Bachhar; 1967: Mahashweta; Chidiakhana; 1968: Charan Kabi Mukundadas; Hansamithun; 1969: Arogyaniketan; Pita Putra; Protidan.

Ganguly, Jiban (1905-53) Calcutta Theatres stage star, e.g. as Lav in Sisir Bhaduri’s Natyamandir production of Seeta (1924). Lead role in the film of Atorthy’s novel Chasher Meye made a substantial impact on New Theatres’ early style of ‘ following the path of literature’ (B.N. Sircar, 1952; cf. B. Jha, 1990). Played several literary roles, e.g. in Sailajananda Mukherjee’s novel Pataal Puri filmed by Priyanath Ganguly and in Tagore’s Gora filmed by Naresh Mitra. FILMOGRAPHY: 1927: Shankaracharya; 1930: Bigraha; 1931: Chasher Meye; Abhishek; 1932: Sandigdha (all St); 1933: Sabitri; 1934: Taruni; 1935: Pataal Puri; Swayambara; 1936: Kal Parinaya; Sonar Sansar; 1937: Ranga Bou; Muktisnan; 1938: Sarbajanin Bibahotsab; Abhigyan; Gora; 1939: Parasmani; Parajay; 1940: Tatinir Bichar; Shapmukti; Thikadar; 1941: Mayer Pran; 1943: Paper Pathey; 1949: Samarpan; Pratirodh; 1950: Krishan; Panchayat; 1951: Kulhara; 1954: Vikram Urvashi; Naramedh Yagna; Chitrangada.

Ganguly, Priyanath N. (1887-1956) One of Madan’s top silent directors together with Jyotish Bannerjee. Started working for Madan in 1904. Directorial début with experimental comedy short Bear-scare in the

Rajah’s Garden Party. Embarked on a series of documentaries, Swadeshi Films, for Madan’s Elphinstone Bioscope, made with Kumar Gupta and covering e.g. the Prince of Wales’s visit (1905), the Grand Masonic Procession (1906), etc. Started Asiatic Cinematograph Co. in Calcutta, a production and distribution concern that built two theatres in the city and shot Indian visit of George V in direct competition with the Madan unit and Hiralal Sen (1911). Early features at Madan included versions of Bankimchandra Chatterjee’s novels (Krishnakanter Will, Durgesh Nandini and Debi Choudhrani). Manager of Madan’s Elphinstone Picture Palace in the early 30s. Joined East India Film and took over Kali Films/India Film Industry (1935) where he hired Sisir Bhaduri, Satu Sen, Sushil Majumdar, Tulsi Lahiri and encouraged the post-Kallol generation of film-makers (esp. novelist-film-maker Sailajananda Mukherjee, filming his novel Pataal Puri). Kali Films also produced the first film in Oriya, the mythological Seeta Bibaha (1934). FILMOGRAPHY: 1926: Krishnakanter Will; 1927: Jana; Durgesh Nandini; 1929: Kapal Kundala; 1930: Kal Parinaya; 1931: Debi Choudhrani (all St); Prahlad; 1933: Jamuna Puliney/Radha Krishna; 1934: Taruni; 1935: Pataal Puri; Bidyasundar; 1936: Kal Parinaya.

Gemini Pictures Aka Gemini Studios. Best-known Madras studio in the 40s for redefining the concept of mass entertainment with Chandralekha (1948), the first Madras film to break successfully into the Hindi cinema. S.S. Vasan started Gemini as a distribution agency, the Gemini Pics Circuit, distributing and partly financing films by K. Subramanyam’s Motion Pics Producers Combine. When the Combine went bankrupt, Vasan bought the studio in 1939 at public auction for a mere Rs 86,427-11 (Annas)-9 (Paise) (according to Randor Guy). The studio’s début feature was probably Balkrishna Narayan Rao’s Madanakamarajan (1941), but it only took off when cameraman-scenarist K. Ramnoth joined it along with his Vauhini partner, art-director A.K. Sekhar. This team made most of Gemini’s early features: Mangamma Sapatham (1943), Kannamma En Kadhali (1945) and Miss Malini (1947) before the Chandralekha blitz catapulted it on to the national stage. In the early days, the most important event in the studio was Uday Shankar’s dance extravaganza Kalpana (released 1948) which also provided training for most of Gemini’s technicians as well as providing the model for an Orientalist dance idiom later associated with influential Tamil choreographers like Hiralal and Chopra Master. A few minor hits followed Chandralekha before the studio’s second major onslaught on the national box office with Apoorva Sahodarargal (1949), a trilingual that established the studio’s dominance in the genre of the costumed adventure movie. Although its Hindi version Nishan was not a major success, Vasan continued making Hindi films, often signing them himself: e.g. the Dilip Kumar

and Dev Anand film Insaniyat (1955), Vyjayanthimala’s Raj Tilak (1958) and Paigham (1959) starring Dilip Kumar, Raaj Kumar and Vyjayanthimala. They also made the megabudget Tamil classic Avvaiyyar (1953). An important later production was Motor Sundaram Pillai (1966), Sivaji Ganesan’s only film at this studio. In 1958 the studio expanded into the Gemini Colour lab, licensed by Eastmancolor Kodak film. After Vasan’s death, his son S.S. Balasubramanyam produced the unsuccessful Ellorum Nallavare (1975). Gemini’s productions declined in the 70s, although it remained successful as a studio and equipment rental business now taken over by the Anand Cine Services.

General Pictures Corporation First professional film studio in Madras; Est: 1929 at Tondiarpet by film-maker A. Narayanan after visiting Universal City in Hollywood. It was linked to a distributionexhibition network extending into Burma and Singapore. Prominent film-makers included R.S. Prakash, C. Pullaiah (as cameraman) and Y.V. Rao (initially as actor). General Pics consolidated the pioneering work of R. Venkaiah and Prakash with Star of the East Film and made 18 features and a number of shorts commissioned by e.g. the Health Department and by Imperial Chemical Industries (Burma Oil Company Fire, The Spirit of Agriculture, etc.). It closed in 1933, being replaced by the Srinivasa Cinetone sound studio in 1934.

George, Kulakkatil Geevarghese (b. 1945) Malayalam director born in Tiruvalla, Kerala, into Syrian Christian family; son of a signboard painter. Graduate in political science from University of Kerala (1967). Diploma from FTII (1971), then for three years assistant to Kariat (e.g. on Maya, 1972) contributing substantially to some documentaries credited to Kariat (e.g. Manavallakurchi:My Village, 1973). Films often use contemporary political or social issues as a pivot for thriller-like plots (e.g. Yavanika). Controversial film Lekhayude Maranam Oru Flashback (Lekha’s Death is a shorter version by c.40’) faced legal controversy for allegedly exploiting the suicide of actress Shobha. Commercially successful films also enjoy a large art-house following in Kerala. Produced the film Mahanagaram (Rajeev Kumar, 1992). FILMOGRAPHY: 1971: Faces (Sh); Health in the Village (Doc); 1975: Swapnadanam; 1977: Vyamoham; 1978: Onappudava; Rappadigalude Gatha; Mannu; Ini Aval Urangatte; 1979: Ulkadal; 1980: Mela; Kolangal; 1982: Yavanika; 1983: Lekhayude Maranam Oru Flashback; Adaminte Variyellu; 1984: Panchavadippalam; 1985: Irakal; 1987: Kathakku Pinnil; 1988: Mattoral; Yathrayude Anthyam (TV); 1990: Ee Kanni Koodi. 99

Ghai, Subhash

Ghai, Subhash (b. 1943) Hindi director born in Nagpur. Along with Manmohan Desai and Ramesh Sippy, one of the top producer-directors of 80s Hindi cinema. Graduated as actor from the FTII (1968), then actor and scenarist, collaborating with B.B. Bhalla (e.g. Khan Dost, 1976). Directorial début produced by N.N. Sippy. Broke through with Karz. Lavish song picturisations underline his commitment to bigscreen spectaculars. Claims independence from the star system but relies on it for his extravagant marketing campaigns, regularly using Dilip Kumar, Anil Kapoor and Jackie Shroff. Also acted in a number of films (Aradhana, 1969; Umang, 1970; Bharat Ke Shaheed and Do Bachche Dus Haath, 1972; Grahan, 1972; Dhamki, 1973; Natak, 1975). Became independent producer with his own Mukta Arts (1983). His most recent feature, Khalnayak, attracted censorship problems because of Madhuri Dixit’s performance of the provocative song Choli ke peeche. The film also featured Sanjay Dutt who was arrested shortly before its release charged with being implicated in the bomb explosions in Bombay in March 1993. Also produced Uttar Dakshin (1987) and Mukul Anand’s Trimurti (1995). FILMOGRAPHY: 1976: Kalicharan; 1978: Vishwanath; 1979: Gautam Govinda; 1980: Karz; 1981: Krodhi; 1982: Vidhata; Meri Jung; 1983: Hero; 1986: Karma; 1989: Ram Lakhan; 1991: Saudagar; 1993: Khalnayak.

Ghantasala Venkateswara Rao (1923-74) Telugu and Tamil composer and also singer. Legendary name in popular Telugu music who sang over 10,000 songs in his career, and composed, apparently, for over 125 films. Born in Chautapelle, Gudivada Taluk, AP, the son of a musician. Orphaned as a child. Child actor, in near slavery conditions, in plays like Chintamani and Sant Sakkubai. Apprenticed to the school of Susarlu Krishna Brahma Sastry; graduated from the music school at Vijayanagar while earning a living as an itinerant singer and beggar. Received the title of Vidwan in 1941. Was arrested and imprisoned in the Alipore jail for singing patriotic songs during Gandhi’s Satyagraha agitations (1942). Went to Madras (1945); cast in small film roles, e.g. Balaramaiah’s Seeta Rama Jananam (1942) and Thyagayya (1946), while occasionally recording for AIR. Broke through in Swargaseema (1945), singing duets with Bhanumati to Nagaiah’s score. Turned composer for L.V. Prasad’s Mana Desam. Known mainly for love duets (recently released on cassette by HMV, titled Divyaprema). Combined native idioms with classical Carnatic styles, e.g. in compositions for Chiranjeevulu and Rahasyam, set to the lyrics of Malladi Ramakrishna Sastry. His work in these two films was, to V.A.K. Ranga Rao, his best film work although both films flopped. Also produced Paropakaram (1953). Made a rare screen appearance in the hit Shri Venkateswara Mahatyam (1960). 100

FILMOGRAPHY (* act only): 1949: Mana Desam; Keelugurram/Maya Kudhirai; 1950: Shavukaru; Lakshmamma; 1951: Nirdoshi/Niraparadhi; Patala Bhairavi; 1952: Palletooru; Pelli Chesi Choodu; 1953: Chandraharam; Paropakaram; Bratuku Theruvu; 1955: Kalvanin Kadhali; 1956: Chiranjeevulu; 1957: Maya Bazaar; Thodi Kodallu; Vinayaka Chaviti; 1958: Manchi Manushuku Manchi Roju; 1959: Shabash Ramudu; 1960: Shantinivasam; Shri Venkateswara Mahatyam*; 1961: Raktha Sambandham; 1962: Gundamma Katha; 1963: Lavakusa; Veera Kesari/Bandhipotu; Valmiki; Paruvu Pratishthalu; Anuragam; 1964: Satyanarayana Mahatyam; 1965: Simhachala Kshetram; Pandava Vanavasam; Madhuve Madi Nodu; CID; 1966: Paramanandayya Sishyula Katha; 1967: Peddakayya; Rahasyam; Punyavati; Nirdoshi; 1968: Veerapooja; Govula Gopanna; Pantalu Pattimpulu; 1969: Jarigina Katha; 1970: Nanna Thamma; 1971: Ramalayam; 1972: Menakodalu; Vamsodharakudu; 1973: Poola Mala; 1974: Ammayi Pelli; Tulasi; 1977: Sati Savitri; Vasthade Maa Bava.

Ghatak, Anupam (1911-47) Second-generation Bengali-Hindi composer (after Rai Chand Boral and Pankaj Mullick) born in Mymensingh (now Bangladesh). Studied music under his father Atul Ghatak and later under Keshab Ganesh Dhekan, becoming a noted flautist. Sang on radio (1930). Assisted composer Bishen Chand Boral in Hiren Bose’s Mahua (1934) at New Theatres, and then Rai Chand Boral for the classic Bidyapati/ Vidyapati (1937). First independent film score: Payer Dhulo. Later worked at Sagar Film in Bombay, composing Zia Sarhadi’s Bhole Bhale and a series of films for Badami, Luhar et al. (1939). Returned to Calcutta, notably for Barua’s Shapmukti; thereafter had assignments in both Calcutta and Lahore. Known for his wide range, from the sentimental Ekti paisa dao go babu in Shapmukti to the experimental Gane more kon indradhanu in Agni Pareeksha. FILMOGRAPHY (* act only): 1934: Mahua*; 1935: Payer Dhulo; Bidrohi*; 1936: Grihadah*; 1939: Bhole Bhale; Ladies Only; Sadhana; Seva Samaj; Uski Tamanna; 1940: Shapmukti; Civil Marriage; 1941: Karnarjun; Mayer Pran; 1942: Pashan Devata; 1943: Shri Ramanuja; 1945: Champa; 1946: Ayi Bahar; Badnami; Khush Naseeb; Shalimar; 1947: Aisa Kyon; Faisla; 1948: Banjare; 1949: Abhishapta; 1950: Shri Tulsidas; 1953: Shamsheer; 1954: Kalyani; Agni Pareeksha; 1955: Anupama; Devimalini; Paresh; Drishti; 1956: Kirti Garh; Ekti Raat; Shankar Narayan Bank; Asamapta; Nagardola; 1957: Madhabir Jonye; Ektara; Surer Parashey; Parer Chheley.

playwright, director and actor (1948-54), including Bijon Bhattacharya’s production of Nabanna (1948) and his Jwala (1950) and Officer (1952). Set up Natyachakra Theatre Group, then broke away to work with Sombhu Mitra’s Bohurupee Group (1949). Entered film as assistant to Manoj Bhattacharya (Tathapi, 1950). Acted and was generally involved in the making of Chinnamul, helping to transform documentary film into committed fiction cinema, an effort extended into Nagarik (1952, released in 1977). Continued street theatre work and was voted best theatre actor and director at all-India IPTA conference, Bombay (1953). Forced out of IPTA because of ideological differences and set up Group Theatre (1954) animated by his interpretation of Stanislavski’s approach. Purged from CPI (1955). Joined Filmistan in Bombay as scenarist; scripted Bimal Roy’s Madhumati (1958) and collaborated with Hrishikesh Mukherjee on Musafir (1957). Professor of Film Direction and Vice-Principal of the FTII (1966-7). Wrote the play Sei Meye while in a mental asylum and staged it there with doctors and patients (1969). Suffered increasingly from alcoholism. Active in cine technicians’ unions throughout his career. Authored numerous short stories, at least eight plays including Bengali adaptations of Gogol and Brecht. Among his published writings on film are Chalachitra Manash Ebam Aro Kichhu (1975) and Cinema and I (1987, the first volume of a collected works project by the Ritwik Memorial Trust). Anthologies of critical writings on Ghatak by Shampa Bannerjee (1982), Haimanti Bannerjee (1985) and Rajat Roy (1979, 1983). Also scripted Swaralipi (1961), Kumari Mon (1962), Dwiper Nam Tiya Rang (1963) and Raj Kanya (1965). Within the political framework of WW2, the 1943 famine and Partition, Ghatak launched with Ajantrik a new investigation into film form, expanding the refugee experience into a universalised leitmotiv of cultural dismemberment and exile evoking an epic tradition drawing on tribal, folk and classical forms (Buddhist sculpture, Baul music, the khayal). As a film-maker investigating cinema’s image-sound dialectic in epic constructs, Ghatak’s unconventional, even idiosyncratic use of e.g. Tagore in his films evoking the character of Shakuntala from Prachin Sahitya in Komal Gandhar, and the Shishu Tirth sequence in the bar in

Ghatak, Ritwik Kumar (1925-76) Bengali director born in Dhaka. Left East Bengal (now Bangladesh) in early youth when family migrated to Calcutta. Became politically active (1946) and joined the IPTA as

Ritwik Ghatak in his Jukti Takko Aar Gappo (1974)

Ghosh, Robi

Subarnarekha - has been analysed in contrast to the assimilation of Tagore in other Bengali films. Aesthetically his work can be placed alongside that of Bengali novelist Manik Bandyopadhyay (1908-56) and the teachings of his musical forbear Ustad Allauddin Khan. His influence has been most fundamental on his FTII students (1964-5), e.g. Kumar Shahani, Mani Kaul and John Abraham. FILMOGRAPHY (* act only): 1950: Tathapi*; Chinnamul*; 1952: Bedeni (incomplete); Nagarik; 1954: Naramedh Yagya; 1955: Adivasiyon Ka Jeevan Srot (Doc); Bihar Ke Darshaniya Sthan (Doc); 1957: Ajantrik; 1959: Bari Theke Paliye; Kata Ajanare (incomplete); 1960: Meghe Dhaka Tara; 1961: Komal Gandhar; 1962: Subarnarekha; Scissors (Sh); 1963: Ustad Allauddin Khan (Doc) (uncredited); 1964: Bagalar Bangadarshan (incomplete); 1965: Fear (Sh); Rendezvous (Sh); 1967: Scientists of Tomorrow (Doc); 1968: Raunger Gholam (incomplete); 1970: Puruliar Chhou Nritya (Doc); Amar Lenin (Sh); Yeh Kyun? (Sh); 1971: Durbargati Padma (Sh); 1972: Indira Gandhi (Doc) (incomplete); 1973: Titash Ekti Nadir Naam; 1974: Jukti Takko Aar Gappo; 1975: Ramkinker (Doc) (incomplete).

Ghose, Gautam (b. 1950) Bengali director born in Faridpur, East Bengal (now Bangladesh). Father was a professor of English literature. Active in student politics in Calcutta. Freelance journalist and fringe theatre director. Made early documentaries as extension of his photojournalism. Influenced in this early practice by documentarist Sukhdev, who inspired him to do his own screenplays, camerawork, music and editing (in his early films). First feature, Maabhoomi, based on the Telangana uprising of 1941, imbues fiction with semi-documentary mode influenced by Solanas/Getino films of the 60s and by the folk Burrakatha form. Later moved to more conventional forms. Often places his stories in conditions of extreme social marginality, presented through his actors as physical, primitive and elemental battles of survival (Dakhal, Paar). Worked with the writings of Bengali novelist Kamal Kumar Majumdar (e.g. Antarjali Jatra). Most recent film Padma Nadir Majhi is an ambitious and expensive Indo-Bangladesh co-production adapting a classic novel by Manik Bandyopadhyay. Also directed a TV series adapting famous Bengali short stories (1986). Acted in Buddhadev Dasgupta’s Grihajuddha (1982), playing the reporter Sandipan who is killed, and composed the music for Agni Sanket (Sanjib Chattopadhyay, 1988). FILMOGRAPHY: 1973: New Earth (Doc); 1976: Hungry Autumn (Doc); Chains of Bondage (Doc); 1979: Maabhoomi; 1981: Dakhal; Development in Irrigation (Doc); 1984: Paar; 1985: Parampara (Doc); 1986: The Land of Sand Dunes (Doc); A Tribute to Odissi (Doc); 1987: Ek Ghat Ki Kahani (Doc); Antarjali Jatra/Mahayatra; 1989: Sange Meel Se Mulaqat (Doc); 1990: Mohor (Doc); 1991: The Bird of Time (Doc); 1992: Padma Nadir Majhi; 1993: Patang.

Ghosh, Kaliprasad (b. 1889) Bengali director educated at Calcutta University. Started as theatre director with Calcutta Theatres’ Minerva Company. Established Indian Kinema Arts (1927) with Minerva proprietor Ghanshyamdas Chokhani. Joined East India Film in 1932 and Bombay’s Sagar Movietone in 1934 before returning to Calcutta (1936). FILMOGRAPHY: 1927: Shankaracharya; 1928: Nishiddha Phal; 1929: Apahrita; 1930: Kanthahaar; 1932: Bhagya Lakshmi (all St); 1934: Shaher Ka Jadoo; 1936: Lagna Bandhan; 1943: Jajsaheber Nathni; 1948: Dhatri Debata; 1950: Vidyasagar; 1952: Kar Papey; 1955: Rani Rashmoni; 1958: Shri Shri Maa.

Ghosh, Nachiketa (1924-76)

and was considered by Ray as his first-choice cameraman for Pather Panchali (1955). Member of the IPTA, acting in its seminal play Nabanna. First film: Chinnamul, a classic of IPTA-inspired socialist realism, admiringly reviewed by Pudovkin in Pravda (1951). Moved to Madras (1951) where he worked as cameraman on Tamil and Kannada films, e.g. G.V. Iyer’s Hamsa Geethe (1975). Key member of a Marxist collective, the Kumari Films Co-op, which produced Padhai Theriyudu Paar. Also made documentaries, e.g. Light and Candle and Mysore University. Vice-President of the Federation of Film Societies for several years and a Naxalite sympathiser in the 70s. FILMOGRAPHY: 1950: Chinnamul; 1960: Padhai Theriyudu Paar; 1981: Sooravalli.

Ghosh, Parbati (b. 1944)

Bengali and Hindi composer. A doctor by training; also known as an accomplished tabla player. Trained in music by Anathnath Basu and Latafat Hussain. Worked briefly in radio. His compositions recall Hemanta Mukherjee’s work in defining a typically postIndependence ‘adhunik’ (modern/ contemporary) popular idiom characterised by eclecticism and its sentimental address to an urban middle class. Popular compositions in Joydev and in 70s films like Bilambita Lay, Nishipadma, Dhanyi Meye and Stree. Also set nursery rhymes to music which remained popular.

Oriya actress and director. Started as actress aged 6. Known mainly as producer, with husband Gaura Ghosh, producing seminal films in the early history of the Oriya cinema, e.g. Bhai Bhai (1956); Lakhmi (1962); Kaa (1966). Turned to direction with Sansar (with her husband), and then adapted Fakir Mohan Senapati’s classic 19th C. novel, Chamana Atha Guntha for directorial comeback.

FILMOGRAPHY: 1953: Boudir Bone; 1954: Joydev; 1955: Nishiddha Phal; Pather Sheshey; Jharer Parey; Bhalobasha; Ardhangini; 1956: Trijama; Nabajanma; 1957: Tapasi; Prithibi Amar Chai; Harishchandra; Natun Prabhat; Rastar Chhele; 1958: Bandhu; Bhanu Pelo Lottery; Indrani; Rajdhani Theke; Jonakir Alo; 1959: Chaowa-Pawa; Swapna Puri; Derso Khokhar Kando; Kichhukshan; Nirdharita Silpir Anupastithi Tey; Personal Assistant; 1960: Akash-patal; Haat Baraley Bandhu; Khudha; Biyer Khata; 1961: Kanamachi; 1964: Kanta Taar; 1968: Chhoto Jignasa; Rakta Rekha; 1969: Chiradiner; Shesh Theke Shuru; 1970: Nishipadma; Bilambita Lay; 1971: Fariyad; Dhanyi Meye; 1972: Chinnapatra; Natun Diner Alo; Stree; Sabari; 1973: Agni Bhramar; Bon Palashir Padabali; Nakal Sona; Nani Gopaler Biye; Shravan Sandhya; 1974: Alor Thikana; Asati; Sujata; Mouchak; 1975: Chhutir Phande; Kajal Lata; Nagar Darpane; Priya Bandhabi; Sanyasi Raja; Swayamsiddha; Sei Chokh; 1976: Mom Batti; Ananda Mela; Hotel Snow Fox; 1976: Asadharan; 1977: Brajabuli; 1984: Abhishek.

Major Bengali comedian. Best known in the role of Bagha in Satyajit Ray’s fantasy, Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne, repeating the character in Hirak Rajar Deshe and in Sandeep Ray’s sequel Goopy Bagha Phere Elo, as well as for the unemployed youth in Aranyer Din Ratri. Stage actor with Utpal Dutt’s Little Theatre Group (1953-60), e.g. Chhayanat and Angar. 60s films continued in the line of Bengali film comedians (e.g. Tinkari Chakraborty, Indu Mukherjee, Amar Mullick, etc.). Ghosh regarded Tulsi Chakraborty, along with Harold Lloyd and Harry Langdon, as his main influence. Also acted in other Ray films (Abhijaan, Mahapurush, Aranyer Din Ratri, Jana Aranya), for Tapan Sinha (Apanjan, Sabuj Dwiper Raja) and Mrinal Sen (Abasheshe, Chorus). Also acted in almost all Dinen Gupta films between 1972-85. His small body, mobile face and extraordinary timing was acclaimed by his stage mentor, Utpal Dutt, for its Brechtian ability to slip in and out of the characters and stereotypes (used subversively in the role of Mr Mitter in Jana Aranya). Ghosh regards the comedian as uniquely able to communicate with diverse audiences, having assimilated both the boisterous folk comedy and the urbane comedy of manners. Ran the amateur stage group, Chalachal, which closed in 1970. Returned to the professional stage with e.g. Bibar (1973), Shrimati Bhayankari (1980), Kane Bibhrat (1983) and Sabash Peto Panchu (1988). Also directed two films, one (1974) under the pseudonym Ekalavya.

Ghosh, Nemai (1914-88) Bengali and Tamil director/cameraman. Born in Calcutta. Assistant to Bibhuti Das at the Aurora Studio (1932); resigned following a trade union dispute. For several years involved with a cine-technicians’ union. Member of the Calcutta Film Society from the outset (1943)

FILMOGRAPHY: 1971: Sansar; 1986: Chamana Atha Guntha.

Ghosh, Robi (1931-97)

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Gidwani, Moti B.

FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1959: Kichhukshan; 1961: Megh; 1962: Hansuli Banker Upakatha; Abhijaan; Agun; Abasheshe; 1963: Nirjan Saikate; Palatak; Shesh Prahar; Chhaya Surya; Binimoy; Nyayadanda; 1964: Saptarshi; Kashtipathar; Natun Tirtha; Momer Alo; Lal Patthar; Subaho-Debatargrash; Mahapurush; 1965: Ek Tuku Basa; Surer Agun; Kal Tumi Aleya; 1966: Dolgobinder Karcha; Galpa Holeo Satti; Griha Sandhaney; Manihar; Swapnaniye; Uttar Purush; 1967: Ashite Ashio Na; 1968: Apanjan; Baghini; Baluchari; Hansa Mithun; Panchasar; Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne; 1969: Arogyaniketan; Bibaha Bibhrat; Teen Bhubhaner Parey; Satyakam; Aranyer Din Ratri; Teer Bhoomi; 1970: Sheela; Ae Korechho Bhalo; Rupasi; 1971: Dhanyi Meye; Kuheli; Pratibad; 1972: Ajker Nayak; Chhayatir; Padi Pishir Barmi Baksha; Shesh Parba; Basanta Bilap; Chitthi; Marjina Abdallah; Shriman Prithviraj; Alo Amar Alo; Maa-o-Mati; Subse Bada Sukh; Calcutta ’71; 1973: Megher Pare Megh; Achena Atithi; Daabi; Pranta Rekha; 1974: Sadhu Judhishthirer Karcha*; Bikele Bhorer Phool; Chorus; Jadu Bansha; Phuleshwari; Rakta Tilak; Sangini; Thagini; Chhutir Phande; Mouchak; Premer Phande; 1975: Raag Anuraag; Sansar Simantey; Salaam Memsaab; Jana Aranya; Mohan Baganer Meye; Sudur Niharika; Harano Prapti Niruddesh; 1976: Nidhi Ram Sardar*; Ek Je Chhilo Desh; Ananda Mela; Dampati; Era-EkJug; Jatayu; Samrat; Sankhabish; 1977: Abirvab; Brajabuli; Mantramugdha; Pratima; Proxy; Bar Bodhu; 1978: Nadi Theke Sagare; Ganadevata; Lattu; Charmurti; Tilottama; 1979: Jhor; Chirantan; Malancha; Nauka Dubi; Ghatkali; Sabuj Dwiper Raja; Samadhan; Satma; Shahar Theke Dooray; Sonay Suhaga; Krishna Sudama; 1980: Kuhasa; Bandhan; Bancha-ramer Bagan; Ae To Sansar; Gopal Bhanar; Hirak Rajar Deshe; Paka Dekha; Priyatama; Batasi; 1981: Baisakhi Megh; Kalankini; Pahari Phool; Subarna Golak; Meghmukti; Swami Stri; Maa Bipat Tarini Chandi; Pratishodh; 1982: Amrita Kumbher Sandhaney; Rashmayir Rashikala; Raj Bodhu; Matir Swarga; Simanta Raag; 1983: Aparoopa; Ae Chhilo Mone; Amar Geeti; Din Jay; Indira; Jay Parajay; Jiban Maran; Robi Shom; Kauke Bolo Na; Aloye Phera; Samarpita; Srinkhal; Banashree; Duti Pata; Mohaney Dike; 1984: Prarthana; Rashifal; Shorgol; Uncle; Vasundhara; Inquilab Ke Baad; 1985: Abasheshe; Hulusthul; Kenaram Becharam; Pratigya; Tagori; 1986: Abhishap; Abhimaan; Bouma; Jiban; 1987: Lalan Fakir; Aaj Ka Robin Hood; Bidrohi; Antarjali Jatra/ Mahayatra; Raj Purush; Samrat-o-Sundari; Amor Sangi; 1988: Agni Sanket; Koroti; Antaranga; Ora Charjon; Madhuganjer Sumati; 1989: Shubha Kamana; Amar Tumi; 1990: Chakranta; Chetana; Jwar Bhata; Abhimanyu; 1991: Prashna; Amar Saathi; Palatak; Antarer Bhalobasha; Goopy Bagha Phere Elo; Agantuk; 1992: Padma Nadir Majhi; Anutap; Priya; Gunjan; Shaitan; Ananya; Adhikar; 1993: Mon Mane Na; Kuchbaron Kanya; Maya Mamata; Krantikaal; Shanka; Prajapati; 1994: Tobu Mone Rekho; Geet Sangeet; Sagar; Phiriye Dao; 1995: 102

Kahini; Mohini; Pratidhani; Kumari Maa; Mejo Bou.

Barrister’s Wife; Desh Dasi; Keemti Aansoo; 1936: Prabhu Ka Pyara; Sipahi Ki Sajni/Sipahini Sajni; 1937: Pardesi Pankhi; 1940: Achhut.

Gidwani, Moti B. (b. 1905) Hindi director born in Karachi. Studied filmmaking in Britain (1926-7) and returned to make his first feature, which failed and helped close down Maharashtra Film. Went on to direct for Imperial and Sagar and made a name as a ‘ safe’ freelance director. Evidence suggests he co-operated with Irani on making of Alam Ara (1931). Major successes in collaboration with Dalsukh Pancholi: the Punjabi film Yamla Jat, the musical thriller Khazanchi that lifted Lahore’s local film industry into national prominence, and Zamindar. His Kisan Kanya was India’s first colour production using Cinecolour process (Sairandhri, 1933, was processed in Germany). FILMOGRAPHY: 1929: Nisha Sundari; 1930: Josh-e-Jawani; Veer Na Ver; Dav Pech; 1931: Gulam (all St); Anangsena; 1932: Niti Vijay; 1933: Daku Ki Ladki; Insaan Ya Shaitan; 1934: Manjari; Noor Mahal; 1936: Gulam Daku; 1937: Kisan Kanya; Do Auratein; 1940: Yamla Jat; 1941: Khazanchi; 1942: Zamindar; 1945: Kaise Kahun; 1946: Khamosh Nigahen.

Gohar Kayoum Mamajiwala (1910-85) Mainly silent Hindi actress often billed as the Glorious Gohar. Born in Lahore. Daughter of actress; started on the stage as a child. Major star at Kohinoor. Left with Chandulal Shah to form Jagdish Film and then Ranjit. Her first hit was Homi Master’s Lanka Ni Laadi. Acted in several Master films in roles especially scripted for her by Mohanlal Dave with strong roots in popular Gujarati serial novels. Shah later used her screen persona for his famous satires on Gujarat’s urban business communities in Gohar’s best-known silents, Typist Girl/Why I Became a Christian and Gunsundari/Why Husbands Go Astray. Some later films, esp. those alongside Raja Sandow, developed mythological associations, e.g. Betaab’s scripts (Sati Savitri, Vishwamohini). Other films, in which she plays the upper-class socialite opposite the suave heroics of the brothers Bilimoria (Toofani Taruni, Barrister’s Wife) were important items in Ranjit’s popular film-novelettes. FILMOGRAPHY: 1925: Baap Kamai; Ghar Jamai; Lanka Ni Laadi; 1926: Briefless Barrister; Lakho Vanjaro; Mumtaz Mahal; Prithvi Putra; Ra Kawat; Samrat Shiladitya; Sati Jasma; Shirin Farhad; Telephone Ni Taruni; Delhi No Thug; Typist Girl; Mena Kumari; 1927: Bhaneli Bhamini; Gunsundari; Sati Madri; Sindh Ni Sumari; 1928: Grihalakshmi; Vishwamohini; 1929: Bhikharan; Chandramukhi; Pati Patni; Rajputani; 1930: Pahadi Kanya; Raj Lakshmi; Diwani Dilbar (all St); 1931: Devi Devayani; 1932: Radha Rani; Sati Savitri; Sheilbala; 1933: Miss 1933; Vishwamohini; 1934: Tara Sundari; Toofani Taruni; Gunsundari; 1935:

Gopalakrishnan, Adoor (b. 1941) Malayalam director born in Adoor, Kerala. Stage début as actor aged 8. Graduated from Gandhigram Rural University (1960) having produced over 20 plays, including ones he wrote himself. Notable among these was Godothe Kathe, adapting Beckett’s Waiting For Godot, with Gopi. Resigned from government job and graduated from the FTII (1965). Founder and president of the Chitralekha Film Co-op in Trivandrum (1965), the first of its kind in India, set up by FTII graduates as a production-distribution centre for personal films outside the commercial sector. In the mid70s, a laboratory was added to the Trivandrum studio. Writes his own scripts, two of which (Elippathayam and Mukha Mukham) were published in English by Seagull Books in Calcutta (1985). Films show an emphasis on psychology depicted through gesture (cf. S. Ray). Theorised his approach in Cinemayude Lokam (1983). The reformist dimension of his work achieves an extra edge given the relative absence of that tradition in Travancore’s literature. Travancore’s delayed entry into the nationalist mainstream and its sudden transformation from a feudal state ruled by Dewan C.P. Ramaswamy Aiyer into one run by a CPI government, created a break in Kerala’s history which animates his films: e.g. his portrayal of the Nair community of former rent collectors in Elippathayam and of the Communist movement itself in Mukha Mukham and Mathilukal. FILMOGRAPHY: 1965: A Great Day (Sh); 1968: And Man Created (Doc); Danger At Your Doorstep (Doc); 1969: Towards National STD (Doc); 1972: Swayamvaram; 1974: Guru Chengannur (Doc); 1975: Past in Perspective (Doc); 1977: The Myth (Doc); Kodiyettam; 1979: Yakshagana (Doc); 1980: The Chola Heritage (Doc); 1981: Elippathayam; 1982: Krishnattam (Doc); 1984: Mukha Mukham; 1987: Anantaram; 1989: Mathilukal; 1993: Vidheyan; 1995: Kathapurushan.

Gopalakrishnan, K. S. Tamil director. Originally a playwright, started as actor in Nawab Rajamanikkam Co. Later production manager for Venus Pics. Scripted Bhimsingh’s Padikkatha Methai (1960) and later Krishnan-Panju’s Annai (1962). Commercially successful middle-budget director in 60s/70s Tamil cinema, initially making theatrical melodramas (début feature, Sharada, is about a man with sexual problems). Shifted to mythologicals with the hit Adi Parasakthi after A.P. Nagarajan revived the genre. Adi Parasakthi is sometimes seen as the first mythological hit to revive the famous ‘ little’ tradition of 50s Tamil cinema: films featuring local deities rather than stories from pan-Indian epics. Launched his own studio after the success of Karpagam, naming it after

Govinda

the film. He is not to be confused either with an earlier Tamil director who worked at the Gemini Studios in the 40s, or with the more recent Malayalam director with the same name. FILMOGRAPHY: 1962: Sharada; Daivathin Daivam; 1963: Karpagam; 1964: Ayiram Roopai; Kaikodutha Daivam; Suhagan; 1965: Ennathan Mudivu; Rishte Naate; Ennathan Mudivu; 1966: Chinnachiru Ulagam; Chitthi; Selvam; 1967: Kan Kanda Daivam; Pesum Daivam; 1968: Panama Pasama; Uyira Manama; 1969: Kulavilakku; 1970: Malathi; Tapalkaran Thangai; 1971: Adi Parasakthi; Kulama Kunama; 1972: Kurathi Magan; Vazhai Yadi Vazhai; 1973: Nathayil Muthu; Vandhale Magarasi; 1974: Swathi Nakshatram; 1976: Dashavatharam; Vayilla Poochi; 1977: Palabhisekham; Punniyam Seithaval; Rowdy Rakkamma; 1978: Shri Kanchi Kamakshi; Ullathil Kuzhanthayadi; 1979: Adukku Malli; 1980: Nandri Kalangal; Neer Nilam Neruppu; 1981: Magarantham; 1982: Daiviyin Thiruvilaiyadal; Nayakarin Magal; 1983: Yuga Dharmam; 1985: Padikkatha Panayar; 1986: Mahashakti Mariamman; 1988: Parthal Pasu; 1989: Athaimadi Methaiyadi; 1992: Kaviya Thalaivan.

Gopi (b. 1937) Aka Bharath Gopi. Malayalam actor and more recently director, born in Chirayankil near Trivandrum. Full name: V. Gopinathan Nair. Known mainly as stage actor before joining films. Discovered by noted playwright and director of the Trichur School of Drama, G. Shankara Pillai; then lead actor of the Prasadhana Little Theatre. Achieved a major reputation on the stage, notably in roles like that of Shandilyan in the farce Bhagavatha

Gopi in Kodiyettam (1977)

Yajjukam (dir. Aravindan) and in folkdominated plays of Kavalam Narayana Panicker’s Thiruvarung (e.g. Avanevan Kadamba), before Adoor Gopalakrishnan cast him in Swayamvaram and Kodiyettam. His theatrical experience of stylised choreography, Kalaripayattu-derived footwork, complex incantatory speech and folk percussion patterns, provided him with unique skills to internalise the rhythm of a shot (cf. the raising of the circus tent scene in Thampu, or the tea-stall scene in Mani Kaul’s Satah Se Uthata Admi). Played several straight dramatic roles, e.g. as the government co-ordinator Mamachen in George’s Adaminte Variyellu, the drunk in Neram Pularumbol and the corrupt trade union leader in Nihalani’s Aaghat. Suffered a partial paralysis in the late 80s forcing him to suspend his acting career for some years. He turned to direction having débuted earlier with Njattadi, a jaundiced view of Leftist activists deploring the blind adventurism besetting the movement. Recently also worked as a theatre director (e.g. Kavalam Narayana Panicker’s Thirumudi). Published autobiography Abhinayam Anubhavam (1994). FILMOGRAPHY (* d only): 1972: Swayamvaram; 1974: Thumbolarcha; 1976: Choondakari; 1977: Kodiyettam; 1978: Aaru Manikkur; Thampu; 1979: Peruvazhiyampalam; Njattadi (also d); 1980: Satah Se Uthata Admi; Greeshamam; 1981: Kallan Pavithran; Palangal; 1982: Alolam; Champalakadu; Snehapoorvam Meera; Thuranna Jail; Ormakkayi; Yavanika; Marmaram; 1983: Adaminte Variyellu; Akkare; Asthram; Lekhayude Maranam Oru Flashback; Nizhal Moodia Nirangal; Rachana; Ashtapadi; Kattathe Kilikoodu; Ente Mamattukuttiamma;

Sandhya Mayungam Neram; 1984: Aduthaduthu; Appunni; April 18; Arorumariyathe; Oru Painkillikatha; Panchavadippalam; Swantham Sarika; 1985: Chidambaram; Aaghat; Archana Aradhana; Kanathaya Pennkutty; Karimbin Poovinakkare; Kayyum Thalayum Purathidaruthu; Neram Pularumbol; Onathumbikorunjal; Punnaram Cholli Cholli; Scene No. 7; Irakal; Meenamasathile Sooryan; 1986: Nilavinte Nattil; 1988: Ulsavapittennu*; 1991: Yamanam*; 1994: Swaham; 1995:Ormakalunda-yirikkanam.

Gopichand, Tripuraneni (1910-62) Telugu director born in Telangana, AP. Wrote c.300 Telugu short stories, two major novels (Parivartana, 1942; Asamarthuni Jiva Yatra, 1945) and essays on political theory, e.g. Marxism Ante Emiti? (1954). Was briefly the Secretary of the Andhra Radical Democratic Party (1954). Arguments for ideology of rational reformism were presented in his literary column ‘ Ubhaya Kushalopari’ for Ramabrahmam’s journal Prajamitra. Wrote scripts for L.V. Prasad, P. Pullaiah and Adurthi Subba Rao. First film as director, Lakshmamma, made in direct competition to a Balaramaiah film on a Telugu folk ballad. Made only two more films, both based on his own literary fiction. FILMOGRAPHY: 1950: Lakshmamma; 1951: Perantalu; 1952: Priyuralu.

Govinda (b. 1963) 90s Hindi star specialising in dance and comedy movies often marketed in terms of his modest origins in the Bombay suburb of Virar. Born Govind Ahuja, the son of film producer and former actor Arun Ahuja (who played the role of Shamu in Mehboob’s Aurat, 1940) and bhajan singer Nirmala Devi. Debut in the musical Love 86. After working mainly as a low-budget star in the tradition of Mithun Chakraborty, the success of Aankhen and Raja Babu defined his distinct comedy persona, usually featuring comic sidekicks Shakti Kapoor and Kadar Khan, the heroine Karishma Kapoor and numerous songs, including controversially lewd ones such as the ‘Sarkailo khatia’ number in Raja Babu. FILMOGRAPHY: 1986: Love 86; Tan Badan; Ilzaam; Sada Suhagan; Duty; 1987: Marte Dam Tak; Khudgarz; Mera Lahu; Dadagiri; Pyar Karke Dekho; Sindoor; Dariya Dil; Ghar Mein Ram Gali Mein Shyam; 1988: Jeete Hain Shaan Se; Shiv Shakti; Pyar Mohabbat; Hatya; Ghar Ghar Ki Kahani; Tohfa Mohabbat Ka; Halaal Ki Kamai; Paap Ko Jalakar Raakh Kar Doonga; Farz Ki Jung; Khatarnak; Mahasangram; 1989: Dost Garibon Ka; Gharana; Do Qaidi; Aasman Se Ooncha; Gair Kanooni; Billoo Badshah; Aakhri Baazi; Jaisi Karni Waisi Bharni; Jungbaaz; Taaqatwar; Sachaai Ki Taaqat; Gentleman; Paap Ka Ant; Kali Ganga; Mastan; 1990: Taqdeer Ka Tamasha; Awaargi; Naya Khoon; Izzatdar; Swarg; Apmaan Ki Aag; Raeeszada; 1991: Hum; Bhabhi; Kaun Kare Qurbani; 1992: 103

Gulzar, Sampooran Singh

Khushboo; Mausam; Aandhi; 1977: Kinara; Kitaab; 1979: Meera; 1980: Shaira; 1981: Angoor; 1982: Namkeen; 1984: Suniye/Aika (Sh); 1985: Ek Akar (Doc); 1987: Ijaazat; 1988: Mirza Ghalib (TV); Libaas; 1990: Lekin ...; Ustad Amjad Ali Khan (Doc); 1992: Pandit Bhimsen Joshi (Doc). Gummadi see Venkateswara Rao, Gummadi

Gupta, Dinen (b. 1932) Bengali director and cameraman born in Calcutta into a family in the film business. Member of the 50s generation of Calcutta cineastes (Ghatak, Sen et al.) influenced by the IPTA, the Calcutta Film Society (Est: 1941) and Italian neo-realism (screened in India at the International Film Festival in 1952). Early work as assistant to cameraman Ramananda Sengupta: shot some of Ghatak’s early films (e.g. Ajantrik, 1957; Bari Theke Paliye, 1959), Tarafdar’s Ganga (1960) and Harisadhan Dasgupta’s work. Directorial début with Natun Pata locates him, somewhat belatedly, in the post-Pather Panchali (1955) tradition of rustic lyricism. Pratham Pratisruti was based on Ashapurna Devi’s famous novel. Ajker Nayak belonged to the ‘ lumpen rebel’ genre that emerged in 70s Bengali cinema after the Naxalite uprising, but it stuck closer to e.g. Sinha’s version of events rather than the better-known M. Sen iconography. Later made some comic melodramas (e.g. Basanta Bilap, Raag Anuraag, etc.). Shoots his own films as well as those of other film-makers. FILMOGRAPHY: 1969: Banajyotsna; Natun Pata; 1971: Pratham Pratisruti; 1972: Ajker Nayak; Basanta Bilap; Marjina Abdallah; 1973: Pranta Rekha; 1974: Debi Choudhrani; Sangini; 1975: Raag Anuraag; Nishi Mrigaya; 1977: Rajani; Sanai; Proxy; 1978: Tilottama; 1979: Srikanter Will; 1980: Priyatama; 1981: Kalankini; 1982: Sathe Satyam; Jwain Pua; 1983: Indira; Sagar Balaka; 1984: Rashifal; 1985: Abasheshe; 1987: Mahamilan; Sargam; 1988: Antaranga; 1990: Bakulbasar (TV); Tero Sandhyar Galpo (TV); 1991: Kato Bhalobasha; 1994: Nati Binodini. Govinda and Karishma Kapoor in Coolie No. 1 (1995) Shola Aur Shabnam; Jaan Se Pyara; Zulm Ki Hukumat; Radha Ka Sangam; Baaz; Muqabala; 1993: Aankhen; Prateeksha; Zakhmon Ka Hisab; Admi Khilona Hai; Bhagyavaan; Teri Payal Mere Geet; 1994: Raja Babu; Dulara; Prem Shakti; Khuddar; Ekka Raja Rani; Aag; Brahma; Rakhwale; Beta Ho To Aisa; 1995: Andolan; Hathkadi; Kismet; Coolie No 1; Rock Dancer; Gambler.

Gulzar, Sampooran Singh (b. 1936) Mainstream Hindi-Urdu director and writer born in Deena, Jhelum Dist. (now Pakistan). Started as a poet associated with the PWA; became Bimal Roy’s lyricist (Mora gora ang lai in Bandini, 1963), then his full-time assistant. Wrote scripts and lyrics for several film-makers (Hrishikesh Mukherjee, Asit Sen, Basu Chatterjee, Buddhadev Dasgupta, Kumar Shahani etc). First film: Mere Apne, a 104

remake of Tapan Sinha’s Apanjan (1968). Though himself an Urdu writer, claims strong influence of Bengali literature. Made one film based on a Saratchandra Chattopadhyay novel (Khushboo) and two on Samaresh Basu’s writing (Kitaab, Namkeen). Finished S. Sukhdev’s last film Shaira, a documentary on Meena Kumari. He describes his cinema as a ‘ study of human beings ... interesting human relationships in different aspects, different situations’ (Vasudev and Lenglet, 1983). Has published three anthologies of poetry (Janam, Ek Boond Chand, Kuch Aur Nazme) and several books for children including verse tales from the Panchtantra in Hindi. Writes his own scripts and prolific dialogue writer as well as lyricist (e.g. Ashirwad, 1968; Khamoshi, 1969; Safar, 1970; Gharonda and Khatta Meetha, both 1977; Masoom, 1982). FILMOGRAPHY: 1971: Mere Apne; 1972: Koshish; Parichay; 1973: Achanak; 1975:

Gupta, Hemen (1914-67) Bengali-Hindi director born in Rajasthan. Degree in literature from Calcutta University. Private secretary of Subhashchandra Bose; fulltime radical activist in 1930-2 Civil Disobedience movement and in terrorism around Midnapore Dist., Bengal. Arrested, jailed (1932-8) and allegedly sentenced to death. This period is commemorated in two of his best-known films, Bhuli Naai and ’42. His film project on the Bengal famine (1945) was banned by the British government. Moved to Bombay in 1951 and made several Hindi films for Filmistan and for Bimal Roy, e.g. the classic adaptation of Tagore’s Kabuliwala. His Insaaf Kahan Hai was never released. Raj Kamal was left incomplete (1957), as was his last film, Anamika (1967). FILMOGRAPHY: 1943: Dwanda; 1944: Takraar; 1947: Abhiyatri; 1948: Bhuli Naai; 1949: ’42; 1952: Anandmath; 1954: Kashti;

Hazarika, Bhupen

Meenar; 1956: Taksaal; 1959: Insaaf Kahan Hai; 1960: Babar; 1961: Kabuliwala; 1966: Netaji Subhashchandra Bose.

Haider, Ghulam (1908-53) Music composer born in Hyderabad (Sind, Pakistan). Studied dentistry. Leading composer from the Lahore group with e.g. Shyam Sundar, Khurshid Anwar and S.D. Batish. With Naushad initiated a musical revolution helping to institutionalise an All-India Film aesthetic in the 40s. Learnt music from Babu Ganeshlal, with whom he worked in theatre playing harmonium in Calcutta. Briefly composer for the Jenaphone recording label. Broke into films in Lahore with Shorey; then worked for Pancholi starting with the Punjabi film Gul-eBakavali featuring Nurjehan as a child actress. Regular composer for Pancholi until Poonji. His score for Khazanchi led to a series of Pancholi hits pioneering new marketing strategies. Best-known compositions, often sung by Shamshad Begum, invoke Punjabi folk rhythms and extensively feature percussion instruments like the dholak. Moved to Bombay in 1944 where he worked in Filmistan (Chal Chal Re Naujawan) and Minerva. Composed one successful Mehboob film (Humayun) and gave Lata Mangeshkar her first big break in playback singing (Majboor, in duets with Geeta Dutt and Mukesh). Returned to Lahore after Partition, where he started Filmsaz with director S. Nazir Ajmeri and actor S. Gul, making Beqaraar. Also scored Akeli, Bheegi Palkein and the two Nurjehan films Gulenar (1953) and Laila. FILMOGRAPHY: 1934: Thief of Iraq; 1935: Majnu 1935; Swarg Ki Seedhi; 1939: Gul-eBakavali; 1940: Yamla Jat; 1941: Choudhury; Khazanchi; 1942: Khandaan; Zamindar; 1943: Poonji; 1944: Bhai; Chal Chal Re Naujawan; Phool; 1945: Humayun; 1946: Behram Khan; Jag Biti; Shama; 1947: But Tarash; Manjdhar; Mehndi; 1948: Barsaat Ki Ek Raat; Majboor; Padmini; Patjhad; Shaheed; 1949: Kaneez; 1950: Do Saudagar; Putli; 1953: Aabshar. Haldar, Krishna see Atorthy, Premankur

Hamsalekha (b. 1951) Star Kannada music composer and lyric writer also active in Tamil and Telugu films. Born Govindaraju Gangaraju in Bangalore. Employed in his father’s printing press and, later, as a member of his brother G. Balakrishna’s orchestra. Film debut as songwriter in Triveni (1973). Started his theatre group Vivekaranga (1974) staging musicals. Directed, wrote and composed the apparently unreleased film Rahu Chandra (1981). Film career actually began writing dialogues and lyrics for Nanu Nanna Hendthi, 1985). Broke through with his next film, Ravichandran’s rock musical Premaloka and became part of the Kannada film boom in the late 80s. Scored some 150 films over the next decade. Mostly writes both dialogues and lyrics for his Kannada films. FILMOGRAPHY (* also lyr): 1986: Henne

Ninagenu Bandhana*; 1987: Premaloka*; Mr Raja*; Antima Theerpu*; Digvijaya*; Bedi*; Sangrama*; Divyashakti*; 1988: Avale Nanna Hendthi*; Ranadheera*; Prema Tapaswi*; Vijaya Khadga; Sangliana*; Matrudevobhava; Anjada Gandu*; Balondu Bhavageethe*; Jadiketha Moodi; Ranaranga*; Dharmapatni; Pelli Chesi Choodu; Kodiparakkuthu; Pudhiya Vanam; Kirataka*; 1989: Mutyamanta Muddu; Anantana Avanthara; Yuddhakanda*; Idhu Ungal Kudumbam; Avane Nanna Ganda*; Amanusha*; Yuga Purusha*; Sura Sundaranga*; Indrajit*; Arthanadam; CBI Shankar*; Kindara Jogi*; Singari Bangari; Onti Salaga*; Neram Nadhi Kadhu; Agni; Narasimha*; Parashurama*; Poli Huduga*; Premagni*; 1990: Kaliyuga Abhimanyudu; Nammoora Hemmira*; SP Sangliana*; Kempu Gulabi*; Trinetra*; Avesha*; Velai Kidaichiruchu; Bannada Gejje*; Prema Yuddham; Hosa Jeevana*; Muthina Hara*; Sididedda Gandu*; Abhimanyu*; Rani Maharani*; Pratap*; Aata Bombata*; Ananta Prema*; Challenge Gopalakrishna*; Nighooda Rahasya*; College Hero*; Bhujangayana Dashavatara*; 1991: Hatyakanda; Ajagajanthara*; Punda Prachanda*; Neenu Nakkare Haalu Sakkare; Ide Police Belt*; Garuda Dhwaja*; Navatare*; SP Bhargavi*; Ramachari*; Shanti Kranti; Puksatte Ganda Hotte Thumba Unda; Rowdy and MLA; Veera Deera; Anatharakshaka; Teja; Shivaraj; Kaliyuga Bhima; Nayaka; 1992: Ankuram; Belli Kalungara; Chaitrada Premanjali; Chitralekha; Entede Bhanta; Halli Mestru; Ksheera Sagara; Vajrayudha; Purushottama; Solillada Saradada; Gopi Krishna; Sahasi; Nanna Thangi; Hosa Kalla Hale Kulla; Police File; Guru Brahma; Gandharva; Chikka Yajamanaru; Mannina Doni; Marana Mridanga; Jhenkara; Shri Ramchandra; Rajakiya; Atanka; 1993: Mangalya Bandhana; Gadbidi Ganda; Anuraghada Alegalu; Shringara Kavya; Sarkarakke Saval; Annaya; Akasmika; Midida Hridayagalu; Hridaya Bandhana; Chirabandhavya; Mane Devaru; Hoovu Hannu; Kadambari; Munjaneya Manju; Shringara Raja; Golibar; Kalyana Rekha; Wanted; Kumkumabhagya; Mojina Madhuve; Jailor Jagannath; Apoorva Jodi; Ba Nalle Madhuchandrakke; Bevu Bella; Kempaiah IPS; Rupayi Raja; Karulina Koogu; 1994: Chinna; Musuku; Time Bomb; Sammilana; Rasika; Samrat; Mahakshatriya; Gopikalyana; Meghamale; Chinna Nee Naguthiru; Sididedda Pandavaru; Makkala Sakshi; Halunda Thavaru; Lockup Death; Hongirana; Muthanna; Jana; Shri Gandha; 1995: Puttnanja; Professor; Muthinantha Hendthi; Kone Edaithe; Mojugara Sogasugara; Thayi Illada Thavaru; Deergha Sumangali; Om; Eshwar; Kalyanotsava; Tungabhadra; Madhura Maitri; Ganayogi Panchakshara; Police Power; Chiranjeevi Rajegowda; Dore; Mr Abhishek.

Hariharan, T. Malayalam director born in Calicut. Arts teacher in Kerala and film critic; also associated with the theatre. Became assistant to M.S. Mani in Madras (1960) and to M. Krishnan Nair. Continued as assistant until successful

directorial début in 1973 with a hit about a wealthy young woman who returns from Singapore and is sought after for her money. Panchagni was a major hit, as was Sargam, starring Manoj K. Jayan. Films often written by M.T. Vasudevan Nair addressing the latter’s favoured themes revisiting the condition of a declining feudal Nair community (e.g. Parinayam). Made one Hindi film, Anjaam. Along with I.V. Sasi, represents a cinema implicated in the economy of Kerala’s migrant workers in the Middle East in the 1980s. FILMOGRAPHY: 1973: Ladies’ Hostel; 1974: College Girl; Raja Hamsam; Ayalathe Sundari; Bhoomidevi Pushpiniyayi; 1975: Babu Mon; Love Marriage; Madhura Pathinezhu; 1976: Panchami; Rajayogam; Themmadi Velappan; Kanyadanam; Ammini Ammavan; 1977: Ivanente Priyaputhran; Sujatha; Sangamam; Tholkkan Enikku Manassilla; 1978: Adimakachavadam; Kudumbam Namakku Sreekovil; Snehathinte Mukhangal; Yagaswam; 1979: Edavazhiyile Pucha Mindappucha; Sharapanjaram; 1980: Muthichippikal; Lava; 1981: Valarthu Mrugangal; Pucha Sanyasi; Shriman Shrimati; 1982: Ankuram; Anuraga Kodathi; 1983: Varanmare Avashyamundu; Evedayo Oru Sathru; 1984: Poomadathu Pennu; Vikatakavi; Vellom; 1986: Panchagni; Nakhakshathangal; Anjaam; 1987: Amritam Gamaya; 1988: Aranyakam; 1989: Oru Vadakkan Veeragatha; Charan Data; 1990: Oliyambugal; 1992: Sargam; 1994: Parinayam.

Hazarika, Bhupen (b. 1926) Born in Sadiya, Assam. Most important Assamese singer and composer in postIndependence period. Deeply influenced by Paul Robeson. Child actor in Agarwala’s second film, Indramalati (1939). Degree from Benares University (1946); doctorate at Columbia University with a thesis on the role of mass communication in India’s adult education (1952). Returned to lecture at Gauhati University, but resigned (1955) in favour of film-making and music. Member of Assam’s first IPTA provincial committee (with Agarwala, Bishnu Rabha and Phani Sarma, 1946). Released first record, Mahatmer Mahaprayam, in 1948. Major intervention in musical forms like Bihu (spring festival music), Ban-geet and Bar-geet (devotionals written by medieval Saint poets Shankara Deb and Madhab Deb), and plantation workers’ music. Toured Assam’s riotaffected areas with Hemango Biswas and their musical troupe (1960). Early films as music director were part of continuing collaboration with IPTA colleagues Rabha and Sarma, as was his directorial début, Era Bator Sur, starring Balraj Sahni. His Shakuntala starred the popular singer Khagan Mahato. His films are noted for tremendously popular music, often with singers from Bombay, e.g. Lata Mangeshkar in Era Bator Sur, Talat Mahmood in Pratidhwani and Asha Bhosle, Kishore Kumar and Mukesh in Chik Mik Bijuli. Mera Dharam Meri Maa was the first production of the newly formed state of Arunachal Pradesh. Member of Assamese State Legislative Assembly (1967-72). Edited art journal Gati 105

Heblikar, Suresh

(1964-7), columnist on Amar Pratinidhi (196380). Published several books of essays and anthologies of songs. Wrote and scored his own films, music director only on the others. Equally popular as a Bengali singer. In the 1990s associated mainly with the films/TV productions of Kalpana Lajmi. FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1948: Siraj; Sati Behula; 1955: Pioli Phukan; Era Bator Sur*; 1957: Dhumuha; Kari-o-Komal; Jiban Trishna; 1958: Jonakir Alo; 1959: Mahut Bandhu Re*; Kecha Sone; Puwati Nishar Sapon; 1960: Dui Bechara; 1961: Shakuntala*; 1963: Maniram Dewan; 1964: Pratidhwani/Ka Swarati*; 1966: Lati Ghati*; 1969: Chik Mik Bijuli*; 1971: Ekhane Pinjar; 1973: 27 Down; 1974: Aarop; Bristi; For Whom the Sun Shines* (Doc); 1975: Chameli Memsaab; Khoj; 1976: Dampati; Mera Dharam Meri Maa*; Rupkonwar Jyotiprasad Aru Joymati*; Palasor Rong; 1977: Banahansa; Through Melody and Rhythm* (Doc); 1978: Banjoi; 1979: Mon Prajapati*; Chameli Memsahib; Chhat Maiya Ki Mahima; 1980: Akan; 1981: Nagpash; 1982: Aparoopa/Apeksha; 1983: Deepar Prem (only act.); 1985: Angikar; 1986: Sankalpa; Ek Pal; Swikarokti* (Sh); 1988: Siraj*; Lohit Kinare (TV); 1992: Rudali; 1994: Sopan; Gajamukta; 1995: Boumoni.

Heblikar, Suresh (b. 1945) Kannada director and actor born in Dharwar. Studied economics at Karnatak University and advertising in Bombay. Worked in a bank and performed on the amateur stage in English and in Kannada. Hired to play the lead in Kankana (1975) and continued as a screen actor, appearing in Rushya Shringa (1976), Khandavideko Mamsavideko (1979), Vatsalya Patha (1980), Alemane (1981), Amara Madhura Prema and Jyoti (1982), Matte Vasantha (1983), Kanoonige Saval (1984), Chukki Chandramma (1991), Shh...! (1993) and Murder (1994).Turned director in 1983. Recent film Aaghata is produced by psychiatrist Ashok Pai, fictionalising a real-life case study with the intention of popularising psychiatry. The producer has made other films on similar lines, usually featuring Girish Karnad as the problem-solving doctor.

resigned from the Board (1919) but returned to become its chief producer and technical adviser (1923) as well as its main film-maker, directing 43 of its 96 films. 35 of the films were directed by G.V. Sane, 11 by Shinde (including Tukaram, 1921); other directors include V.S. Nirantar (4), Kashinath Bharadi, Munshi Abbas and Abhaychand Lahiri who each made one film there. The first studio to have its own distribution operation (run briefly by Bhogilal Dave) with offices in Bombay and Madras. Started offshoot Bharat Film (1919). Its last film, Phalke’s Setu Bandhan (1932), was postsynchronised for sound but the studio failed in 1933.

Historicals Like the reformist social, the historical genre derived from late 19th C. novel and theatre writing. Used mainly to glorify epochs of regional (usually military) power, it incorporated ‘ Tipu Sultan in Kannada, Shivaji in Marathi, Pratapaditya or Siraj-ud-Dowla in Bengali - although Maratha and Rajput history transcended all bounds to gain an all-India popularity’ (Meenakshi Mukherjee, 1985). Often the language of the most spectacular historicals (see K. Asif, Sohrab Modi and Kamal Amrohi) was Urdu and the favourite settings were the Caliphates, the Delhi Sultanate (13th-16th C.) or the Mughal empire (16th C.). As Mukherjee points out via novelist Abdul Halim Sharar, the ‘Muslim evocation of a glorious past could hark back to the days of Moorish domination of Spain and other Mediterranean lands’. Generally, the genre was invented to represent the ‘moment of departure’ for Indian nationalism (Partha Chatterjee, 1986), resurrecting national or regional glory to create allegories for communal and regional difference and to consolidate the reform movements’ new historiography. The specific functions of the genre varied from region to region: in conditions where royalty had been reduced to a largely ceremonial role (e.g. South India), it was a specific response to imperialist

domination: e.g. in Travancore where the first major novel by C.V. Raman Pillai (1858-1922), Martanda Varma (1891; filmed in 1931) resurrected the 18th C. emperor; in the old Mysore province several Company Natak plays returned to the glory of the Vijayanagar Empire (14th C.). The early cinema takes off directly from the stage historical (cf. Baburao Painter). The most evident influence was the Parsee theatre, where the genre was interpreted entirely as a play about feudal power and therefore a crucial mediation of kinship relations (see Aga Hashr Kashmiri, Mehboob). Influential regional imitations of this mode included the Bengali plays of Dwijendralal Roy (Mewar Patan, 1909), interpreted by Parthasarathy Gupta in the context of Swadeshi (cf. Gupta, 1988), and the famous Shahjehan (1909) or those of Khirode Prasad Vidyavinode (e.g. Alamgir, 1921, staged by Sisir Bhaduri). Imperial Studio re-coded the genre along Cecil B. DeMille lines. Bhalji Pendharkar and G.V. Iyer (in his Rajkumar films) used the genre for directly ideological ends. In most instances where the cinema took off from folk or popular theatre (as in Telugu), early historicals are usually blurred into other genres like the mythological or the Saint film (e.g. Vel Pics) and are conventionally referred to as ‘costume’ dramas, a tradition later continued by Gemini’s adventure films and politicised as an imaginary pseudo-history by MGR.

Hublikar, Shanta (1914-92) Actress born in Hubli, Karnataka. Entered films at Kolhapur, where she worked with Torney and Bhalji Pendharkar. Became an icon in Marathi cinema with her popular role as the prostitute Maina in Shantaram’s Manoos/ Admi and esp. with the song Ab kis liye kal ki baat, one of the biggest hits in the Prabhat repertoire. Its Marathi version, Kashalya Udyachi Baat (Why speak of tomorrow?) became the title of her autobiography (1990). Also played the rich Nalini who discovers higher moral principles through meeting the

FILMOGRAPHY: 1983: Antarala; 1984: Ecology of the Western Ghats (Doc); Energy (Doc); Smoking Tuna (Doc); 1985: Agantuka; 1988: Kadina Benki; 1989: Prathama Usha Kirana; 1992: Chamatkar; 1994: Aaghata (also act.). Hema Malini see Malini, Hema

Hindustan Cinema Films Company Est: 1918 in Nasik, Maharashtra. First purely indigenous film studio with corporate shareholding. Started by Phalke to replace the ailing Phalke Films with partners Waman Shridhar Apte, Mayashankar Bhatt (later financier for Sharda Studio), Gokuldas Damodar and Madhavji Jessing. Phalke 106

Shahu Modak and Shanta Hublikar in Mazha Mulga (1938)

Ilaiyaraja

poor but honest Diwakar (Shahu Modak) in K. Narayan Kale’s Mazha Mulga/Mera Ladka at Prabhat. Later acted in Hindi films (e.g. by V.M. Vyas), one Kannada film opposite Kemparaj Urs (Jeevana Nataka) and did some stage roles in Sangeet Natak musicals. FILMOGRAPHY: 1934: Bhedi Rajkumar/ Thaksen Rajputra; 1937: Kanhopatra; 1938: Mazha Mulga/Mera Ladka; 1939: Manoos/ Admi; 1941: Ghar Ki Laaj; Prabhat; 1942: Malan; Pahila Palna; Jeevana Nataka; 1945: Kul Kalank; 1958: Ghar Grihasthi; Saubhagyavati Bhava.

Husnlal-Bhagatram (Husnlal: ?1968; Bhagatram: ?-1973) Music composer duo. First instance of two composers working together and signing all their work jointly. Popular in Hindi film in late 40s/50s, esp. Pyar Ki Jeet (e.g. the Mohammed Rafi hit Ik dil ke tukde), Badi Bahen, Adhi Raat, Afsana, Sanam. Suraiya sang several of their compositions and some of their hits were popularised over Radio Ceylon. Later became members of LaxmikantPyarelal’s orchestra. Har Mandir Singh’s Geet Kosh credits them with the music of Bambi in the 40s (probably a dubbed version of David Hand’s Walt Disney film of 1942). FILMOGRAPHY: 1944: Chand; 1946: Hum Ek Hain; Nargis; 1947: Heera; Mirza Sahiban; Mohan; Romeo and Juliet; 1948: Aaj Ki Raat; Lakhpati; Pyar Ki Jeet; 1949: Amar Kahani; Balam; Badi Bahen; Bansaria; Hamari Manzil; Jal Tarang; Naach; Raakhi; Sawan Bhadon; 1950: Adhi Raat; Apni Chhaya; Birha Ki Raat; Chhoti Bhabhi; Gauna; Meena Bazaar; Pyar Ki Manzil; Sartaj; Surajmukhi; 1951: Afsana; Sanam; Shagun; Stage; 1952: Kafila; Raja Harishchandra; 1953: Aansoo; Farmaish; 1954: Shama Parwana; 1955: Adle-Jehangir; Kanchan; Mr Chakram; 1956: Aan Baan; 1957: Dushman; Jannat; Krishna Sudama; 1958: Trolley Driver; 1961: Apsara; 1963: Shaheed Bhagat Singh; 1965: Tarzan And The Circus; 1966: Sher Afghan.

Hussain, Anwar (b. 1929) Assamese director. Completed first film, the formally and ideologically orthodox Sarapat, aged 26: a resigned tale of human failure and family disaster. Later work is an early use in Assamese cinema of the language of mythology, both secular and religious, seen most notably in Tejimola. FILMOGRAPHY: 1955: Sarapat; 1958: Natun Prithibi; 1963: Tejimola; 1977: Paap Aru Prayashchitta; 1983: Shri Shri Maa Kamakhya.

Hussain, Nasir (b. 1931) Hindi director born in Bhopal, MP. Briefly worked for A.R. Kardar, then joined Filmistan as scenarist (1948); wrote some of Subodh Mukherjee’s films starring Dev

Anand: Munimji (1955), Paying Guest (1957). First film, Tumsa Nahin Dekha, was Shammi Kapoor’s first big hit and inaugurated a new type of 60s musicals with Mohammed Rafi’s singing clearly influenced by rock and roll. Independent producer with his own Nasir Hussain Films (1960). Made some of the most popular and frequently imitated love stories: Jab Pyar Kisise Hota Hai, the Zeenat Aman hit Yaadon Ki Baraat, Hum Kisise Kum Nahin starring Rishi Kapoor, and Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak (1988), produced and scripted by him, directed by his son Mansoor, which launched his nephew and 90s star Aamir Khan. The film spearheaded the return of the teenage love theme. Since then produces his son’s films. FILMOGRAPHY: 1957: Tumsa Nahin Dekha; 1959: Dil Deke Dekho; 1961: Jab Pyar Kisise Hota Hai; 1963: Phir Wohi Dil Laya Hoon; 1967: Baharon Ke Sapne; 1969: Pyar Ka Mausam; 1971: Caravan; 1973: Aangan; Yaadon Ki Baraat; 1977: Hum Kisise Kum Nahin; 1981: Zamane Ko Dikhana Hai; 1984: Manzil Manzil; 1985: Zabardast.

Ilaiyaraja Prolific Tamil composer with a legendary reputation. Born as Daniel Rajayya, the 8th son of an estate supervisor in Pannaipuram, TN. Joined his stepbrother Varadarajan, a CP member, to form a music group, Pavalar Brothers, staging live concerts often as election propaganda for Left groups. Went to Madras as a teenager, where he learnt Western classical music and the Western technique of writing musical scores. Learnt Carnatic music from singer and mridangam performer T.V. Gopalakrishnan. Joined films as a member of various film orchestras. Sensational début as composer in Annakkili, using rural folk melodies. Introduced fusion effects into Tamil cinema combining Carnatic, Western classical and pop (cf. Raja Parvai). Early hits for the films of his childhood friend Bharathirajaa (Pathinaru Vayathinile). Extensively associated with playback singer S.P. Balasubramanyam and, for a while, lyricist Vairamuthu. Recent music hits notably in Mani Rathnam’s films, e.g. Raja rajadhirajan indha raja in Agni Nakshatram, followed by the songs of Anjali, etc. Commanded fees equalling those of the highest-paid actors in Tamil and was an independent star attraction until he was partially eclipsed by A.R. Rehman. Made two independent music albums, How to Name It and Nothing but Wind, both continuing his fusion experiments, as in the composition I Love You, Mozart in which he has flautist Hariprasad Chaurasia playing the raga Kalyani with a violin evocation of Mozart’s 40th Symphony. Occasionally provided lyrics and sang his compositions. Composed music apparently for c.700 films in five languages (the exhaustive filmography is virtually impossible to compile). Published two books, the European travelogue Sangeetha Kanavugal, and Vettaveliyil Kotti Kidakkudhu, addressing his philosophical preoccupations. In an essay (1996) M.S.S. Pandian demonstrates that Ilaiyaraja’s

popularity represented ‘a moment of great anxiety for the musical elite’. FILMOGRAPHY: 1976: Annakkili; Bhadrakali; Paluti Valartha Kili; Uravadum Nenjam; 1977: Alukkoru Asai; Avar Enakke Sontham; Bhuvana Oru Kelvi Kuri; Deepam; Durga Devi; Gayatri; Kavikuyil; Odi Vilayadu Thatha; Penn Janmam; Sainthadamma Sainthadu; Pathinaru Vayathinile; Thunai Eruppal Meenakshi; 1978: Achani; Aval Appadithan; Aval Oru Pachchai Kuzhandhai; Bhairavi; Chattam En Kaiyil; Chittu Kuruvi; Elamai Vunjaladugiradhu; Ithu Eppadi Irukku; Kannan Oru Kai Kuzhanthai; Katrinile Varum Geetham; Kizhakke Pokum Rayil; Mariamman Thiruvizha; Mullum Malarum; Sigappu Rojakkal; Sondhadu Needana; Thirukalyanam; Thyagam; Vattathukkul Chaduram; Vazha Ninaithal Vazhalam; Matu Tappada Maga; Aaru Manikkur; Vyamoham; Vayasu Pilichindi; Priya; 1979: Urvashi Neenu Nanna Preyasi/ Urvashi Nive Naa Preyasi; Yugandhar; Azhage Unnai Aradikiran; Akal Vilakku; Annai Oru Alayam; Azhiyada Kolangal; Aarilirunthu Arubathu Varai; Udhiri Pookal; Kalyanaraman; Kavariman; Kuppathu Raja; Chella Kili; Dharma Yuddham; Thayillamal Nannilai; Naan Vazhavippen; Niram Maratha Pookal/Niram Maradha Pushpangal; Pagalil Oru Iravu; Puthiya Varpugal; Poonthalir; Ponnu Urukku Puthusu; Mudhal Iravu; Anbe Sangeetha; Kadavul Amaitha Medai; Lakshmi; Mugathil Mugam Parkalam; Nadhiyai Thedi Vandha Kadal; Nallathoru Kudumbam; Pattakathi Bhairavan; Rosappu Ravikkaikari; Sakkalathi; Vetrikku Oruvan; Amma Evarikaina Amma; Pancha Bhoothalu; 1980: Janma Janmada Anubandha; Anbukku Naan Adimai; Ilamaikolam; Ullasa Paravaigal; Enga Oor Rasathi; Kallukkul Eram; Kannil Theriyum Kathaigal; Kali; Gramathu Adhiyayam; Guru; Samanthi Poo; Savithri; Soolam; Sundarime Varuga Varuga; Thayi Pongal; Nadhiyai Thedi Vandha Kadal; Nizhalgal; Nenjathai Killathey; Poottadha Poothukkal; Ponnagaram; Murattu Kalai; Moodupani; Rishi Moolam; Rusi Kanda Poonai; Johnny; Sridevi; Dooram Arike; Manju Moodal Manju; Ayiram Vasal Ithayam; Ellam En Kairasi; Ithayithal Oru Edam; Naan Potta Saval; Ore Mutham; Oru Iravu Oru Paravai; Kotha Jeevithulu; Pasidi Mogalu; 1981: Raja Parvai; Geetha; Nee Nanna Gellalare; Bhari Bharjari Bete; Shikari; Do Dil Diwane; Alaigal Oyvathillai; Aradhanai; Ellam Inbamayam; Idru Poyi Nalai Vaa; Enakkaga Kathiru; Garjanai/Garjanam/ Garjane; Kadal Meengal; Karaiyellam Shenbagappu; Kalthoon; Kazhagu; Koyil Pura; Shankaral; Tik Tik Tik; Nandu; Netrikkan; Panneer Pushpangal; Balanagamma; Pennin Vazhkai; Madhumalar; Meendum Kokila; Rajangam; Rama Lakshman; Ranuva Veeran; Veediyum Varai Kathiru; Seethakoka Chilaka; Echil Iravugal; Kanni Theevu; Nallathu Nadanthe Theerum; Nandu; Rattha Katteriyin Marma Maligai; 1982: Kanya Dweep; Azhagiya Kanney; Archanai Pookkal; Ilanjodigal; Echil Iravugal; Engeyo Ketta Kural; Kalyana Kalam; Kanne Radha; Kathal Oviyam; Kozhi Kuvutthu; Sahalakala Vallavan; Sangili; 107

Imperial Films Company

Thanikatu Raja; Thayi Moogambikai; Marumagaley Varuga; Thyagi; Theerpu; Thooral Ninnu Pochu; Nalanthana; Nizhal Thedum Nenjalgal; Nenaivellam Nithya; Nenjalgal; Payanangal Mudivathillai; Pakkathu Veetu Roja; Paritchaikku Neramchu; Pannaipurathu Pandavargal; Puthu Kavithai; Boom Boom Madu; Pookkari Raja; Magane Magane; Moondram Pirai; Metti; Ranga; Rani Theni; Lottery Ticket; Valibame Vaa; Vaa Kanna Vaa; Hitler Umanath; Agaya Gangai; Alolam; Era Vizhi Kaviyangal; Gopurangal Saivathillai; Kavithai Malar; Kelviyum Nane Bathilum Nane; Mangal Nila; Poolapallaki; 1983: Adutha Varisu; Anandakummi; Andha Sila Natkal; Anney Anney; Ayiram Nilave Vaa; Bhagavathipuram Railway Gate; Devi Sridevi; Ennaipar En Azhagai Paar; Ethanai Konam Ethanai Parvai; Ilamai Kalangal; Indru Nee Nalai Naan; Inimai Idho Idho; Jyothi; Kan Sivanthal Man Sivakkum; Kokkarako; Malaiyur Mambattiyan; Manaivi Solle Mandiram; Mann Vasanai; Mellappesungal; Mundhanai Mudichu; Muthu Engal Sotthu; Oru Odai Nadhiyagiradhu; Payum Puli; Ragangal Maruvathillai; Sattai Illatha Pambaram; Soorakottai Singhakutty; Thanga Magan; Thoongathe Thambi Thoongathe; Urangatha Ninaivugal; Veetile Raman Veliyele Krishnan; Vellai Roja; Yuga Dharmam; Pallavi Anupallavi; Nyaya Gedditu; Aa Rathri; Oomakuyil; Pinninvalu; Sandhyakku Virinja Poovu; Sadma; Abhilasha (Tel); Mantrigari Viyyankudu; Rajakumar; Sagara Sangamam; Oppantham; 1984: Alaya Deepam; Ambigai Neril Vandhal; Anbe Odi Vaa; Anbulla Malare; Anbulla Rajnikant; Pudhumai Penn; Dhavani Kanavugal; Enakkul Oruvan; Ezhuthantha Sattangal; Ingeyum Oru Gangai; January 1; Kayi Kodukkum Kayi; Kairasikaran; Komberi Mookan; Kuva Kuva Vathukal; Magudi; Meendum Oru Kadhal Kadai; Mudivalla Arambham; Nalai Onadu Naal; Naan Mahaan Alla; Naan Padum Padal; Nalla Naal; Nallavanukku Nallavan; Neengal Kettavai; Nee Thodum Pothu; Neram Nalla Neram; Nilavu Suduvathillai; Nyayam; Nooravathunaal; O Mani Mane; Poovilangu; Pozhudu Vidinachu; Sanganatham; Thalaiyana Mandiram; Thambikku Entha Ooru; Thangamdi Thangam; 24 Mani Neram/24 Hours; Unnai Naan Santhithan; Vaidehi Kathirunthal; Vazhkai; Vellai Pura Ondru; Nagara Mahime; Accident; Mangalam Nerunne; My Dear Kuttichathan/Chhota Chetan; Onnanu Nammal; Unaroo; Challenge; Gadusu Pindam; Ithe Naa Saval; Jalsarayudu; Mayadari Mogudu; Merupu Dadi; Noorava Roju; Nuvva Nena/Neeya Nanna; Prema Sangamam; Sahasame Jeevitham; Sitara; Takkaridonga; Tiger Rajani; Veerabhadrulu; Etho Mogam; Kalyana Kanavugal; Thavani Kanavukal; 1985: Aan Pavam; Aduthathu Albert; Alai Osai; Amudha Ganam; Anbin Mukavari; Andha Oru Nimidam; Annai Bhoomi; Chinna Veedu; Eetti; En Selvame; Hello Yaar Pesarathu; Idaya Koyil; Japanil Kalyanaraman; Kakki Chattai; Kanni Rasi; Ketti Malam; Kumkuma Chimizh; Malargal Naniginrana; Muthal Mariyathai; Nane Raja Nane Mandiri; Naan Sigappu Manithan; Nallathambi; Neethiyin Marupakkam; Oru 108

Kaithiyin Diary; Padikkadhavan; Padikkatha Panayar; Pagal Nilavu; Pillai Nila; Pudhiya Theerpu; Raja Rishi; Selvi; Sindhu Bhairavi; Shri Raghavendrar; Thanga Mana; Thendrale Ennai Thodu; Udaya Geetham; Unnai Thedi Varuven; Un Kannil Neer Vazhindal; Urimai; Uyarntha Ullam; Ajeya; Namma Bhoomi; Mera Inteqam; Anveshana; Illali Sapadham; Jalsa Bullodu; Khooni; Kirathakudu; Mangalya Bandham; Monagadu Mosagadu; Muthyala Jallu; Jwala; Praja Poratam; Preminchu Pelladu; Rahasya Hanthakudu; Shivabhakta Naga Shakti; Shri Shirdi Saibaba Mahatyam; Geetanjali; Poove Poo Chooda Va; Yathra; Namma Bhoomi; 1986: Satya Jyothi; Jadu Nagari; Amman Koil Kizhakkale; Aruvadainal; Ananda Kannir; Iravu Pookkal; Isai Padum Thendrai; Unakkagave Vazhkiran; Enakku Nane Needipathi; Engal Thaikulame Varuga; Kannukku Mai Ezhuthu; Karimedi Karivayan; Kalamellam Un Mediyil; Kodai Malai; Sadhanai; December Pookkal; Dharmapatni; Thaluvatha Kaikal; Thaikku Oru Thalattu; Nam Ooru Nalla Ooru; Natpu; Nanum Oru Thozhilali; Neethana Anda Kuyil; Punnagai Mannan; Paru Paru Pattinam Paru; Palaivana Rojakkal; Maragatha Veenai; Mandhira Punnagai; Maaveeran; Mr Bharat (Ta); Mudhal Vasantham; Murattu Karangal; Mella Thirandathu Kathavu; Mouna Ragam; Yaro Ezhuthia Kavithai; Vikram; Vidunja Kalyanam; 1987: Poovizhi Vasalile; Ninaikka Therindha Maname; Ullam Kavarntha Kalvan; Teertha Karayanile; Vazhgai Valarga; Nayakan; Puyal Padum Pattu; Kalyana Kacheri; Anand; Iniya Uravu Poothathu; Manadhil Urudhi Vendhum; Sankeerthana; Aradhana; Khaidi; Andarikante Ghanudu; Rendu Thokala Titta; Kamagni; Ore Oru Gramathile; Veedu; Idhu Oru Thodarkathai; Enga Ooru Pattukaran; Kadamai Kanniyam Kattupadu; Kadhal Parisu; Krishnan Vandhan; Sirai Paravai; Chinna Kuyil Padhutthu; Ninaive Oru Sangeetham; Thoorathu Pachai; Padu Nilave; Persollum Pillai; Mangai Oru Gangai; Irattaival Kuruvi; Velaikkaran; Jalli Kattu; 1988: Shenbagame Shenbagame; En Uyir Kannamma; Rasave Unnai Nambi; Satya; Irandil Onru; Oruvar Vazhum Alayam; Solla Thudikuthu Manasu; En Jeevan Paduthu; En Bommu Kutti Ammavukku; Guru Shishyan; Agni Nakshatram; Therkkithi Kallan; Pasaparaivaigal; Parthal Pasu; Poonthotha Kavalkaran; Soora Samharam; Ennai Veetu Pogathe; Naan Sonnadhe Sattam; Unnal Mudiyum Thambi; Illam; Enga Ooru Kavalkaran; Idhu Engal Needhi; Manamagale Vaa; Dharmathin Thalaivan; Padatha Thenikkal; Thayam Onnu; Moonnam Pakkam; Maharshi; Rudraveena; Abhinandana; Shri Kanakamahalaxmi Recording Dance Troupe; Jamadagni; Swarna Kamalam; Varasoduchadu; Rakthabhisekham; En Vazhi Thani Vazhi; 1989: Ennai Petha Rasa; En Purushanthan Enakkum Mattumthan; Varusham 16; En Uyir Thozhan; Rajadhi Raja; Thenral Sudum; Pongivarum Kaveri; Pattukoru Thalaivan; Pandinattu Thangam; Apoorva Sahodarargal/Appu Raja; Ninaivu Chinnam; Shiva (Ta); Shiva (Te); Enga Ooru Mappillai; Poruthanthu Potham; Annanukkey Jey; Raja Rajathan; Kadhal Oyvathillai;

Pickpocket; Chinnappadas; Karagatta Karan; Ponmana Selvan; Dharmam Vellum; Vadhiyar Veetu Pillai; Mappillai; Pasa Mazhai; Anbu Kattalai; Padicha Pullai; Kaiveesu Amma Kaiveesu; Pudhu Pudhu Arthangal; Thiruppumunai; Vetri Vizha; Thangamana Rasa; Mahadev; Garijinchina Ganga; Prema; Chettukinda Pleader; Geetanjali; Rudra Neta; Gopalraogari Abbayi; Ashoka Chakravarthi; Indrudu Chandrudu; Kondaveeti Donga; 1990: Anjali; Arangetra Velai; Adisaya Piravi; Urudhimozhi; Ooru Vittu Oru Vandhu; Engatta Modathe; En Oyir Tholan; Oru Pudhiya Kadhai; Kavalukku Kettikaran; Kizhakku Vasal; Kiladi Kanmani; Jagadeka Veerudu Atilokasundari; Kshatriyan; Thalattu Padava; Nadigan; Nilapennay; Panakkaran; Pudhu Pattu; Pattukku Naan Adimai; Pulan Visaranai; Periaveetu Pannaikaran; Pondatti Thevai; Michael Madana Kamarajan; My Dear Marthandan; Mounam Sammadham; Raja Kaiye Vacha; Vellaya Thevan; Velai Kidaichiruchu; Bobbili Raja; 1991: Aditya 369; Nirnayam; Chinna Gounder; Chinna Thambi; En Rasavin Manisile; 1992: Thevar Magan; A Okati Adakku; Killer; Papayude Sontham Appoose; 1994: Magalir Mattum; Sammohanam; Adharma; Mogha Mull; 1995: Sati Leelavathi. Ilangovan see Elangovan

Imperial Films Company Est: 1926. Successor to the Majestic and Royal Art Film companies set up by Ardeshir Irani as a diversification of his exhibition interests in partnership with Esoofally, Mohammed Ali and Dawoodji Rangwala. Organised as a vertically integrated combine with its own exhibition infrastructure. Started following the decline of Kohinoor, it continued many of the latter’s Mohanlal Dave-inspired genres, often with the same stars and film-makers. Imperial became closely associated with the costumed historical genre launched with Anarkali (1928), shot and released almost overnight in direct competition to Charu Roy’s The Loves of a Mughal Prince (1928). Irani also rushed out Alam Ara (1931), released as India’s first full talkie narrowly beating Madan Theatres’ Shirin Farhad (1931). Imperial was the first studio to shoot scenes at night (in Khwab-eHasti, 1929) using incandescent lamps. It owned India’s top silent star, Sulochana, and promoted her along with Zubeida, Jilloo and, for a while, the young Prithviraj Kapoor. This was perhaps the first major instance of a deliberate manufacturing of a star-cult as a marketing strategy. Top Imperial film-makers include R.S. Choudhury, B.P. Mishra and Mohan Bhavnani, whose film-making set the house style, as did Nandlal Jaswantlal’s sound films. A fair number of the studio’s talkies were remakes of its own silent hits with Sulochana (Anarkali, 1928 & 1935), Wildcat of Bombay (1927) became Bambai Ki Billi (1936), etc. It made films in at least nine languages: Hindi, Gujarati, Marathi, Tamil, Telugu, Burmese, Malay, Pushtu and Urdu. The first Iranian sound film, Dukhtar-e-Lur (aka Dokhtare Lor Ya Irane Diruz Va Emruz, 1932)

Islam, Kazi Nazrul

was also made here. Kisan Kanya (1937) by Gidwani was India’s first indigenously manufactured colour film, made with the Cinecolour process. When it closed in 1938, its economic and generic inheritance was continued by Sagar Movietone.

Indian Kinema Arts Silent studio; Est: 1927 in Calcutta by exhibitor Ghanshyamdas Chokhani. First film was the influential Punarjanma (1927) scripted by Premankur Atorthy and shot by Nitin Bose, the début of a combination that later launched International Filmcraft with Chasher Meye (1931). With P.C. Barua’s Barua Pics and Dhiren Ganguly’s British Dominion Films, this studio is a direct predecessor of the New Theatres. Following the advent of New Theatres (1931), it was taken over by B.D. Rawal and converted into a studio facility for hire.

Indian Peoples’ Theatre Association Theatre movement informally affiliated to the CPI; launched as an All-India front in Bombay (1943) with a manifesto calling for a ‘ defence of culture against Imperialism and Fascism’. While its immediate antecedents were in the PWA (1936) and thus in the European antiFascist movements of the 30s, the front found its identity with Sombhu Mitra’s staging of Bijon Bhattacharya’s play Nabanna (1943) and with Jyotindra Moitra’s song series Nabajibaner Gaan (1944). Both works were based on the Bengal famine of 1943. Subsequent work included travelling musical and theatre groups, predominantly in context of 40s CPI-led struggles in Bengal, Andhra (Telangana) and Kerala. Through the 40s and early 50s, it grew into the only instance of a cultural avant-garde in contemporary Indian history. It was active also in Punjab, Assam (see Jyotiprasad Agarwala and Bhupen Hazarika), Orissa (see K. Pattanayak) and AP (the Praja Natya Mandali, which also made one film, Raja Rao’s Puttillu, 1953), despite a nearprogrammatic emphasis on reclaiming the popular vernacular by using local folk and occasionally popular modes of performance. The strategy’s major strength lay in enabling several regional movements to forge new links and to reinvent their own local traditions, e.g. in Kerala, where the Kerala Peoples’ Arts Club (KPAC) played a key role in the CP’s organisation of the peasantry in Malabar and North Travancore leading to the insurrection against the erstwhile Travancore State (194650). Radical theatre movements around e.g. Thoppil Bhasi’s plays also traced an ancestry via the Young Namboodiri movements of the 30s (with V.T. Bhattathirippad) to the Yogakshema Sabha (Est: 1908) and to the major early 20th C. poet Kumaran Asan. The less activist but equally influential aspect of the front was in the major urban centres with e.g. the work of playwright-film-maker K.A. Abbas and dancer Uday Shankar. For a brief period following WW2 and in the early years of Independence, virtually the entire cultural

intelligentsia was associated with or influenced by IPTA/PWA initiatives, possibly because it was seen as the ‘ only cultural organisation engaged in serious creative activity’ (Sudhi Pradhan, 1979). The IPTA’s impact on cinema includes the collective effort of Dharti Ke Lal (1946) mobilising actors Balraj Sahni and Sombhu Mitra, musician Ravi Shankar and writer-scenarist Krishan Chander; Neecha Nagar (1946: cf. Chetan Anand); the plays of Inder Raj Anand staged by Prithviraj Kapoor which led to Raj Kapoor’s film team with e.g. scenarist Abbas and music directors Shankar-Jaikishen. The IPTA also supported some independently made films: e.g. Shantaram’s Dr Kotnis Ki Amar Kahani (1946). In Bengal, its influence on film was mediated through Manoj Bhattacharya’s Tathapi and Nemai Ghosh’s Chinnamul (both 1950), which represent Ghatak’s and Bijon Bhattacharya’s first encounters with film. Other Bengali films connected with the IPTA include Bimal Roy’s Udayer Pathey/ Hamrahi (1944); Satyen Bose’s Bhor Hoye Elo (1953) and Rickshawalla (1955) and Sushil Majumdar’s Dukhir Iman (1954). In Kerala, the key event for the IPTA style’s transition to film was Neelakuyil (1954) by Ramu Kariat and P. Bhaskaran though the KPAC tradition itself was best exemplified by Thoppil Bhasi’s films and scripts.

studio, Imperial Film (1926). A ‘mogul’ in the mould of the big Hollywood studio bosses; credited with between 225 and 250 productions in his lifetime, about half in the silent era, and talkies in nine languages including Farsi (Dukhtar-e-Lur, the first Iranian sound film). Early screen directions often jointly credited to Naval Gandhi but took rare solo directorial credit for India’s first full sound feature, Alam Ara, for which, having imported a sound technician from Hollywood (Wilford Deming), he finally recorded most of the sound himself. Bought rights to Cinecolour process and set up colour laboratory, producing India’s first indigenously processed colour film Kisan Kanya (1937). Produced only one film after Imperial went into liquidation in 1938 (Pujari, 1946) but remained active member of the Indian Motion Picture Producers Association (IMPPA) of which he had been, in 1933, its first president. In 1974, Kennedy Bridge in Bombay was renamed Ardeshir Bridge and his Jyoti Studios (Est: 1939) passed to his son, Shapur A. Irani. FILMOGRAPHY: 1924: Mumbai Ni Sethani; Shahjehan; Paap No Fej; 1925: Navalsha Hirji (all St); 1931: Alam Ara; 1933: Dukhtare-Lur.

Ishara, Babu Ram Information Films of India Est: 1943 as a successor to the Film Advisory Board. Launched as producer of war propaganda documentaries, shorts and the Indian News Parade (ancestor to Films Division’s current Indian News Review). Started by the British-Indian government, it required all exhibitors to include up to 2000 ft of ‘Government-approved film’ in each screening. This law was incorporated as an amendment to the Defence of India Act (Rule 44A). In the four years when the IFI was in force (i.e. before it yielded to the Films Division), its chief producer was Ezra Mir and the producer of the Indian News Parade was William J. Moylan. It produced c.170 shorts in addition to the newsreels before it closed in 1946.

Irani, Ardeshir Marwan (1886-1969) Director and producer in several languages; born in Pune. Studied at the J.J. School of Art in Bombay; teacher and kerosene inspector before joining his father in the phonograph and musical instruments trade in Bombay. Entered film as exhibitor representing Western Indian interests of Universal Film. Partnered Abdulally Esoofally in exhibition interests launched with acquisition of Alexandra and Majestic theatres (1914). The partnership lasted 55 years. Initially went into film production to keep distribution outlets supplied. Launched Star Film (1920) in partnership with Bhogilal K.M. Dave, releasing their first film, Manilal Joshi’s Veer Abhimanyu in 1922. They became Majestic Film (1923), then Royal Art Studio (1925) and finally the major silent era

Hindi director born in Una, Himachal Pradesh, as Roshanlal Sharma. Went to Bombay aged 16 to enter the film industry. Late 60s scenarist and dialogue writer in Hindi for Dulal Guha, B.K. Adarsh, etc. Early 70s films (Chetna, Charitra) sparked major censorship debates over nudity and ‘ artistic licence’ of exploitation cineastes, particularly because of their art-house claims (cf. New Indian Cinema). His work indirectly led to the governmental guidelines addressed to the Censor Board (1979) directing the deletion of ‘ scenes which have the effect of justifying or glorifying drinking [and of] vulgarity, obscenity and depravity’. Prolific scenarist; also wrote his own films. FILMOGRAPHY: 1969: Insaaf Ka Mandir; 1970: Chetna; Gunah Aur Kanoon; 1971: Man Tera Tan Mera; 1972: Ek Nazar; Maan Jaiye; Milap; Zaroorat; 1973: Charitra; Dil Ki Raahein; Ek Nao Do Kinare; Hathi Ke Daant; Nai Duniya Naye Log; 1974: Bazaar Band Karo; Dawat; Prem Shastra; 1975: Kaagaz Ki Nao; 1978: Pal Do Pal Ka Saath; Rahu Ketu; 1979: Ghar Ki Laaj; 1980: Jise Tu Kabool Karle; Kaaran; 1981: Khara Khota; 1982: Log Kya Kahenge; 1983: Jai Baba Amarnath; 1984: Hum Do Hamare Do; Aurat Ka Inteqam; 1985: Sautela Pati; 1986: Aurat; 1987: Besahara; Sila; 1988: Woh Phir Aayegi; 1994: Janam Se Pehle; 1995: Hukumnama.

Islam, Kazi Nazrul (1889-1976) Composer and songwriter born in Burdwan Dist., Bengal. With Tagore he was the major influence on popular Bengali music in the 20th C. Known as the Bidrohi Kavi or Rebel Poet and directly associated with radical nationalist movements (e.g. through the journal 109

Iyer, Ganapathy Venkatramana

Dhoomketu which he edited in 1922, leading to his imprisonment on a charge of sedition), his poetry constitutes the first radical intervention into Hindu and Muslim devotional music, e.g. his famous addresses to the goddess Kali, his ghazal compilations (Chokher Chatak, 1929) and Islamic devotionals (Zulfikar, 1932). Much of his music, continued by the IPTA’s Bengali song repertoire, was polemically seen as a radical-romantic use of the ‘ tradition’ (e.g. Salil Choudhury, 1955). One of the first composer-writers to sign contracts with major record companies in Bengal (for Megaphone and Senola and later HMV) and with the Indian Broadcasting Corp., opening up new employment opportunities to a generation of younger composers such as Anil Biswas, S.D. Burman, Kamal Dasgupta and even Kishore Kumar (whose song Ai ek dui tran char gili gili/bam chick boob chick badhke bol in Kehte Hain Mujhko Raja, 1975, adapts Islam’s famous Cham chiki ude gelo). Created an urban variation of tribal jhumur music for Sailajananda Mukherjee’s Pataal Puri and wrote the songs for Nandini (1941) and Dikshul (1943). Some sources credit him as director for Dhruva, in which he played the Hindu sage Narad. Started Bengal Tiger Pics with Abbasuddin Ahmed. Their film of Islam’s novel Madina remained unfinished. FILMOGRAPHY (* also act): 1934: Dhruva*; 1935: Pataal Puri; 1936: Graher Pher; 1938: Gora; 1942: Chowringhee.

Iyer, Ganapathy Venkatramana (b. 1917) Kannada director born in Nanjangud, Karnataka. Also major lyricist, scenarist, producer and actor, nicknamed ‘ the barefoot director’. Belongs to family of temple priests in

old Mysore. Started in theatre in 1928. Career in two phases: actor-playwright for Gubbi Veeranna, scenarist for several key historicals starring Rajkumar, film-maker (usually with co-director T.V. Singh Thakore) and soughtafter lyricist-scenarist for c.65 Kannada films; then, after Reddy’s Samskara (1970), promoter of art-house cinema. Produced Karnad and Karanth’s Vamsha Vriksha (1971); directed Hamsa Geethe and first Sanskrit feature, Adi Shankaracharya. Later made another, Bhagavad Geeta. Culturally the two periods are closely linked: his recent Saint films argue for a revival of brahminical orthodoxy and Advaita philosophy to recover ‘ ancient truths’, thus returning to themes inherent in mythologicals derived from feudalbrahminical literature, music and theatre under royal patronage around the turn of the century. Early scripts for Rajkumar (e.g. Ranadheera Kanteerava, 1960) were part of a populist effort to reposition South India’s feudalism in terms of Karnataka’s regional-chauvinist movements from mid-40s onwards. His wordy prose socials, e.g. Bhoodana, and the use of classical Carnatic music in Hamsa Geethe are part of an effort to update old Mysore’s brahminical art forms seen as the pinnacle of achievement in conservative views of Karnataka’s cultural history. Also acted in e.g. Radha Ramana (1943), Bedara Kannappa (1954), Bhakta Mallikarjuna, Mahakavi Kalidasa, Sodari (all 1955), Sadarame/ Sadarama (1956), Kantheredu Nodu (1961), and Hemavathi (1977). Published Mooru Chitra Mooru Daari (1984). FILMOGRAPHY: 1962: Bhoodana; Thayi Karulu/Thayin Karunai; 1963: Lawyara Magalu; Bangari; 1964: Post Master; 1966: Kiladi Ranga; 1967: Rajashekhara; 1968: Mysore Tonga; Nane Bhagyavati; 1969: Chowkada Deepa; 1975: Hamsa Geethe/ Aakhri Geet; 1976: Nalegalannu

Rajkumar (right) in G.V. Iyer’s Kiladi Ranga (1966) 110

Maduvavaru; 1977: Kudre Motte; 1983: Adi Shankaracharya; 1986: Madhvacharya; 1989: Shri Ramanujacharya; Wall Poster; 1992: Bhagavad Geeta.

Jaddanbai (b. 1892) Hindi-Urdu director, singer, composer and actress born in Allahabad, UP. Joined Playart Phototone in Lahore (1932); later set up Sangeet Films (1936), writing, scoring and directing its films. Sang in Hindi and in Punjabi films such as Insaan Ya Shaitan, Seva Sadan, Talash-e-Haq and Raja Gopichand, also scoring the last two films. Scripted Anjuman (1948). Mother of 50s/60s Hindi superstar Nargis. FILMOGRAPHY (* act only): 1933: Raja Gopichand*; Insaan Ya Shaitan*; 1934: Prem Pareeksha*; Seva Sadan*; Naachwali*; 1935: Talash-e-Haq*; 1936: Hridaya Manthan; Madam Fashion; 1937: Jeevan Swapna; Moti Ka Haar.

Jaffrey, Saeed (b. 1929) Internationaly successful actor born in Maler Kotla in Punjab. His father worked in the Indian Medical service. Degree in history in Allahabad; worked for AIR (1951-6); formed English theatre company, the Unity Theatre, in New Delhi (1951). Worked for TV in India (1955-6). Studied at RADA in London (1956) and at the Catholic University of America. Worked for United Nations Radio and at the India Tourist Office in the USA (1958-60). Toured Shakespeare across the USA and joined the Actors’ Studio in New York. Extensive stage career in the USA and in Great Britain (1966). Cartoonist for New York Mirror. Wrote, produced and narrated Reflections of India for WQXR radio (1961-2). Made a recording of his poetry readings, Adventures in Appreciation. Hindi début in Ray’s Shatranj Ke Khiladi. Acts in many commercial Hindi films often using the Lucknowi dialect. Narrated early Merchant-Ivory shorts and appeared in their features. Numerous TV appearances in Britain, including his own series Tandoori Nights (1985-7). Made a big impact in the innovative TV series Gangsters and in the British TV film, My Beautiful Launderette. FILMOGRAPHY: 1969: Callan: The Worst Soldier I Ever Saw (TV); The Guru; View from the Window (TV); The Perfumed Garden; 1971: The Horsemen; 1972: The Sun Rises in the East (TV); 1974: The Wilby Conspiracy; 1975: The Man Who Would Be King; 1976: Gangsters (TV); 1977: Shatranj Ke Khiladi; 1978: Hullabaloo over Georgie and Bonnie’s Pictures; The Last Giraffe; Destiny (TV); 1979: Tales of the Unexpected: Poison (TV); Minder: The Bengal Tiger (TV); Ek Baar Phir; 1980: We Think the World of You (TV); Staying On (TV); 1981: Chashme Buddoor; Sphinx; 1982: Star; Gandhi; Courtesans of Bombay; Masoom; 1983: The Jewel in the Crown (TV); Kisise Na Kehna; Romance, Romance; Agaman; Ek Din Bahu Ka; Mandi; Cricketer; 1984: A Passage to India; The Far Pavilions

Jagirdar, Gajanan

(TV); Mashaal; Bhavna; The Razor’s Edge; Le Soleil se leve a l’est; 1985: Sagar; Phir Aayi Barsaat; My Beautiful Laundrette (TV); Far from the Kama Sutra (TV); White Lies (TV); Down With Oswald Pick (TV); Far from the Ganges (TV); Film Fare (TV); Ram Teri Ganga Maili; Jaanoo; Karishma Kudrat Ka; Tandoori Nights (TV); 1986: Mohammed’s Daughter (Sh); Qatl; Jalwa; Kala Dhandha Goray Log; 1987: Awaam; Khudgarz; Aulad; Adalat; Isi Bahane (TV); Tamas (TV); Killing on the Exchange (TV); 1988: Vijay; Khoon Bhari Maang; Just Ask for Diamond; Eeshwar; Kab Tak Chup Rahungi; Hero Hiralal; The Deceivers; Partition (TV); 1989: Ram Lakhan; Daata; Aakhri Gulam; Hisab Khoon Ka; Chaalbaaz; Hard Cases (TV); Manika, Une vie plus tard; Romancing the Taj (TV); 1990: Aandhiyan; Yaadon Ka Mausam; Sindoor Ki Awaaz; Solah Satra; Diwana Mujhsa Nahin; Dil; Naya Khoon; Shaandaar; After Midnight; Ghar Ho To Asia; Patthar Ke Insaan; 1991: Ajooba; Masala; Harum Scarum (TV); Rumpole and the Quacks (TV); Gunehgaar Kaun; Henna; Indrajit; Yaara Dildara; 1992: Vartmaan; Suryavanshi; Laatsaab; Nishchay; 1993: Balma; Guddu; Anmol; Chalte Chalte (TV); Aashiq Awara; Aaina; 15th August; Ek Hi Raasta; Aulad Ke Dushman; Little Napoleons (TV); 1994: Param Veer Chakra; Dilwale; Bali Umar Ko Salaam; Salami; Yeh Dillagi; 1995: Sauda; Vartaman; Jai Vikranta; Param Veer Chakra; Prem; Saajan Ki Baahon Mein; Veergati; Kartavya; Angrakshak; Gambler; Trimurti.

Jaggaiah, Kongara (b. 1926) Telugu actor born in Morampudi, Tenali taluk, AP. Graduated from Andhra Christian College, Guntur, where he staged amateur plays with NTR. Schoolteacher in Duggirala while working with NTR’s National Art Theatre, e.g. his best-known play, Chesina Papam (1946). Sanskrit scholar and student of Jampala Venkata Narasimham. Activist with the Navya Sahitya Parishat (1942) and the PWA (until 1949). Telugu newsreader at AIR, New Delhi. Début in H.V. Babu’s Adarsham. Lead role in Gopichand’s Priyuralu. Appeared regularly in Telugu films mainly playing the second lead to heroes like A. Nageshwara Rao (Ardhangi, Dr Chakravarthi) until the 70s. Known for his classically accented oratory. Character actor in 80s melodrama, often in heavily made up grandfather roles. Produced two films Padandi Munduku and Shabash Papanna. Also known for translations of Rabindra Sangeet into Telugu and for his compilation of Acharya Athreya’s work. Member of Parliament representing the Congress (O) from the Ongole constituency, AP, in 1967. FILMOGRAPHY: 1952: Adarsham; Priyuralu; 1954: Bangaru Papa; 1955: Ante Kavali; Beedala Asti; Ardhangi/Pennin Perumai; Pasupu Kumkuma; Santosham/Naya Admi; Donga Ramudu; 1956: Muddubidda; Melukolupu; Balasanyasamma Katha; 1957: Repu Neede; Aalu Magalu; Peddarikalu; Veera Kankanam; Bhale Bhava; Varudukavali/ Manamagal Thevai; Bhale Ammayilu; MLA; 1958: Anna Thamudu; Atta Okinti Kodale;

Shri Krishna Garudi; Dongalunnaru Jagratha; Mundadugu; Appu Chesi Pappu Koodu/ Kadan Vangi Kalyanam; 1959: Koothuru Kapuram; Bhagya Devatha; 1960: Renukadevi Mahatyam; Kuladaivam; Dharmane Jayam; Pelli Kanuka; Kumkumarekha; Jalsarayudu; Annapurna; Samajam; 1961: Velugu Needulu; Kanna Koduku; Taxi Ramudu; Intiki Deepam Illale; Pellikani Pillalu; 1962: Padandi Munduku; Gali Medalu; Aradhana; Appagintalu; Chitti Tamudu; Constable Koothuru; 1963: Eedu Jodu; Anubandhalu; Manchi Rojulu Lostai; Thobuttuvulu; 1964: Poojapalam; Atmabalam; Gudigantalu; Peetalameeda Pelli; Dr Chakravarthi; 1965: Uyyala Jampala; Chaduvukonna Bharya; Keelu Bommalu; Antastulu; Preminchi Choodu; Manasulu Mamathalu; Veelunama; 1966: Manase Mandiram; Ame Evaru; Astiparulu; 1967: Pranamithrulu; 1968: Bandhipotu Dongalu; Chinnari Papalu; Chuttarikalu; Gramadevathulu; Kalasina Manushulu; Papakosam; Veeranjaneya; 1969: Ardha Rathri; Dharmapatni; Jarigina Katha; Sepoy Chinnaiah; 1970: Talli Tandrulu; Yamalokapu Goodachari; Kodalu Diddina Kapuram; Drohi; Manasu Mangalyam; Maro Prapancham; 1971: Jeevitha Chakram; Vintha Samsaram; Suputhrudu; Patindalla Bangaram; Raitu Bidda; Bangaru Talli; Naa Thammudu; Chinnanati Snehitulu; Ramalayam; Talli Kuthulu; Kalyana Mandapam; Bharya Biddalu; 1972: Collector Janaki; Shabash Papanna; Prajanayakudu; Shabash Baby, Badi Panthulu; Koduku Kodalu; Balamithrula Katha; Bangaru Babu; 1973: Ramrajyam; Nindu Kutumbam; Devudu Chesina Manushulu; Ramude Devudu; Vintha Katha; Memu Manushulame; Kaidi Baba; Marapurani Manishi; Meena; 1974: Mangalya Bhagyam; Bhoomikosam; Manchi Manushulu; Devadasu, Deeksha; Gali Patalu; Kode Naagu; Peddalu Marali; Alluri Seetaramaraju; Tulasi; Manushulu Matti Bommalu; Harathi; Dora Babu; 1975: Eduruleni Manishi; Kavitha; Pellikani Thandri; Ramuni Minchina Ramudu; Samsaram; Manasakshi; 1976: Aradhana; Rama Rajyamlo Raktha Pasam; Oka Deepam Veligindhi; Devude Gelichadu; Raja; Peddanayya; Muthyala Pallaki; Shri Rajeshwari Vilas Coffee Club; Uttamuralu; 1977: Bangaru Bommalu; Adavi Ramudu; Raja Ramesh; Jeevana Theeralu; Panchayathi; Premalekhalu; Edureetha; Gadusu Ammayi; Jeevithamlo Vasantham; 1978: Dongala Veta; KD No.1; Karunamayudu; Lambadolla Ramadasu; Sahasavanthudu; Vichitra Jeevitham; Ramakrishnulu; Yuga Purushudu; Shri Rama Raksha; Moodu Puvvulu Aaru Kayalu; 1979: Ramabanam; Maavari Manchithanam; Judagadu; Yugandhar; Samajaniki Saval; Mangala Toranalu; Vetagadu; Ra Ra Krishnaiah; 1980: Edantastulameda; Bhale Krishnudu; Kalyana Chakravarthi; Ram Robert Rahim; Shri Vasavi Kannika Parameshwari Mahatyam; Sandhya; Ragile Jwala; Srishti Rahasyulu; Manavude Mahaniyudu; Aatagadu; Bommala Koluvu; 1981: Talli Kodakala Anubandham; Guru Shishyulu; Tiruguleni Manishi; Nyayam Kavali; Jeevitha Ratham; Rani Kasularangamma; Seethakoka Chilaka;

Lakshmi; Aggirava; Antham Kadidi Arambham; Mayadari Alludu; Ramakrishnamanulu; 1982: Megha Sandesam; Gopala Krishnudu; Dharma Vadi; Bobbili Puli; Edi Nyayam Edi Dharmam; Eenadu; Jagannatha Rathachakralu; Naa Desam; Prema Sankellu; Madhura Swapnam; Tingu Rangadu; Yamakinkarudu; 1983: Agni Samadhi; Chanda Sasanudu; Dharma Poratam; Koteeshwarudu; Poratham; Rama Rajyamlo Bheemaraju; Sivudu Sivudu Sivudu; Yuddha Bhoomi; Bandhulu Anubandhulu; 1984: Kanchu Kagada; Suvarna Sundari; Anubandham; Babulugadi Debba; Disco King; Grihalakshmi; Jagan; Mr Vijay; Naagu; Palnati Puli; Raaraju; Ramayanamlo Bhagavatham; Sahasame Jeevitham; Swati; Udanthudu; Alaya Deepam; 1985: Kirathakudu; Krishnagaradi; Uriki Soggadu; Palnati Simham; Thirugubatu; Agni Parvatham; Nyayam Meere Cheppali; Maha Sangramam; Lanchavatharam; Rechukka; Bharya Bharthala Bandham; Maharaju; Pachani Kapuram; Illale Devata; Adavi Donga; Vijeta; Mahamanishi; Edadugula Bandham; 1988: Inspector Pratap; Tiraga Bidda Telugu Bidda; Prema Kiritam; Ashwathama; Jeevana Ganga; Ramudu Bheemudu; Rakthabhisekham; Dharma Teja; 1989: Mamatala Kovela; Bala Gopaludu; Adarshavanthudu; Ajatashatru; 1990: Alludugaru.

Jagirdar, Gajanan (1907-88) First major freelance director-character actor in Marathi and Hindi cinema. Born in Amravati. Child actor on amateur stage. Started Arun Players in Pune and staged Chekov’s Cherry Orchard and Harindranath Chattopadhyay’s Returned from Abroad. Claimed Ernst Lubitsch’s The Patriot (1928) as a major influence. Started in films as writer of English intertitles at Prabhat; then bit actor. Apprenticed to Bhalji Pendharkar. Made films for Master Vinayak’s Huns Pictures, briefly at Minerva Movietone as scenarist for Sohrab Modi (Meetha Zaher, Talaaq, etc.) and at P.K. Atre’s company. Best-known film: Ramshastri (at Prabhat), taking over the direction from Raja Nene and Bedekar as well as playing the lead role. Main performance was as the Muslim patriarch in Shantaram’s Shejari. Appointed first director of the FTII (1960) and became well-known pedagogue applying e.g. Stanislavski’s theories to local conditions in a book about acting (1983). Published two autobiographies (1971 & 1986). Made a TV serial, Swami, on the life of Madhavrao Peshwa, celebrating Marathi chauvinism. FILMOGRAPHY (* also d/** only d): 1932: Jalti Nishani/Agnikankan; 1934: Sinhasan**; 1936: Honhar*; Aseer-e-Hawas; 1937: Begunah**; 1938: Umaji Naik**; Meetha Zaher; Talaaq; 1940: Main Hari**; 1941: Payachi Dasi/Charnon Ki Dasi*; Shejari/Padosi; 1942: Vasantsena*; 1943: Kanoon; 1944: Ramshastri*; Kiran*; Anban; 1945: Kaise Kahun; 1946: Jhumke; Shatranj; Behram Khan*; 1947: Jail Yatra*; 1948: Dhanyavaad*; 1950: Birha Ki Raat*; Sabak; 111

Jamuna, Nippani

Gajanan Jagirdar in Ramshastri (1944) Pagle; 1952: Chhatrapati Shivaji; 1953: Armaan; Mahatma; 1954: Maan; Mallika-eAlam Nurjehan; Oon Paoos; Angarey; Mahatma Kabir**; 1955: Ghar Ghar Mein Diwali*; 1956: Chhoo Mantar; Zindagi Ke Mele; Dassehra; 1957: Paying Guest; Aparadhi Kaun; Talash; Yahudi Ki Ladki; Zamana; 1958: Taxi Stand**; Trolley Driver*; Dulhan; Karigar; Raj Tilak; 1959: Qaidi No. 911; Chacha Zindabad; 1960: Babar; Hum Hindustani; Umaji Naik**; 1961: Shahir Parashuram; Vaijayanti*; Hum Dono; Tanhaai; 1962: Main Chup Rahungi; Aarti; 1963: Chhota Jawan; Sukhachi Savli*; Grihasthi; 1964: Ek Don Teen; Sarfarosh; 1965: Yugo Yugo Mi Vaat Pahili; Ek Saal Pahele; Guide; Kajal; Main Hoon Alladdin; Tu Hi Meri Zindagi; 1966: Dillagi; Suraj; Amrapali; Chhota Bhai; Hum Kahan Ja Rahe Hain; Shankar Khan; Bandar Mera Saathi; 1967: Mera Munna; 1968: Farishta; Dil Aur Mohabbat; Humsaya; Mangalsutra; Jhuk Gaya Aasmaan; 1969: Admi Aur Insaan; Beti Tumhare Jaisi; Saajan; Anmol Moti; Ittefaq; Nai Zindagi; Paisa Ya Pyar; 1970: Insaan Aur Shaitan; Poraki; Ti Mi Navhech; Dr X; Devi; Ghar Ghar Ki Kahani; Jeevan Mrityu; Raaton Ka Raja; Jwala; 1971: Nate Jadle Don Jivache; Donhi Gharcha Pahuna*; Hulchul; 1972: Sub Ka Saathi; Aai Mi Kuthe Jau?; Zindagi Zindagi; 1973: Aa Gale Lag Jaa; Bandhe Haath; Chori Chori; Garibi Hatao; Naina; Sonal; 1974: Raja Shivachhatrapati; Ashiana; Badi Maa; Hamrahi; Woh Main Nahin; Mera Vachan Gita Ki Kasam; 1975: Badnaam; Mutthi Bhar Chawal; 1976: Aaj Ka Yeh Ghar; Gumrah; Meera Shyam; Raksha Bandhan; 1977: Admi Sadak Ka; Aankh Ka Tara; Paradh; Imaan Dharam; Ram Bharose; Chhota Baap; Dhoop Chhaon; Do Dilwale; Mandir Masjid; Naami Chor; Shankar Hussain; 1978: Anjaam; Des Pardes; Karmayogi; Dost Asava Tar Asa; 1979: Maan Apmaan; Naiya; Saanch Ko Aanch Nahin; 1980: Deva Pudhe Manoos; Mantryanchi 112

Soon; Paij; 1981: Umrao Jaan; Dahshat; Sher Shivaji; 1983: Rishta Kaagaz Ka; Lal Chunaria; Love In Goa; 1984: Bhool; 1986: Aap Ke Saath; Yeh Preet Na Hogi Kam; Sutradhar; 1988: Swami** (TV).

Jamuna, Nippani (b. 1937) Telugu actress, also worked in Hindi, Tamil and Kannada. Born in Hampi, Karnataka; educated in Duggirala. Associated with the stage group Praja Natya Mandali, e.g. the play Maabhoomi. Screen début in her colleague Raja Rao’s film, Puttillu. Early films with Tilak and Chanakya (e.g. Anta Manavalle). Famous roles in Missamma, and in Bangaru Talli, the Telugu remake of Mehboob’s opus Mother India (1957). First Hindi starring role in Prasad’s comedy, Miss Mary. FILMOGRAPHY: 1953: Puttillu; 1954: Anta Manavalle; Iddaru Pellalu; Maa Gopi; Menarikam; Nirupedalu; Vaddante Dabbu; Bangaru Papa; 1955: Santosham/Naya Admi; Vadinagari Gajulu; Donga Ramudu; Missamma/Missiamma; 1956: Tenali Ramakrishna; Chintamani; Nagula Chaviti/ Adarshasati; 1957: Bhagya Rekha; Veera Kankanam; Dongalo Dora; Vinayaka Chaviti; Sati Ansuya; Miss Mary; Tangamalai Rahasyam; 1958: Bhukailasa; Bommalapelli/ Bommai Kalyanam; Pellinati Pramanalu; Shri Krishnamaya; Appu Chesi Pappu Koodu; 1959: Koothuru Kapuram; Maa Inti Mahalakshmi/Enga Veetu Mahalakshmi; Sipayi Kooturu; Vachina Kodalu Nachindi; Vazhkai Oppantham; Nalla Theerpu; Naradhar Kalyanam; Kanniraindha Kanavan; Thayi Magalukku Kattiya Thali; 1960: Kadavunin Kuzhandai; Dharmane Jayam; Mahakavi Kalidasa; Annapurna; Jalsarayudu; 1961: Usha Parinayam; Krishna Prema; Pellikani Pillalu; 1962: Gul-e-Bakavali Katha; Pelli Thambulam/Nishchaya Thambulam; Gundamma Katha/Manidan

Maravalli; 1963: Thobuttuvulu; Nadi Aada Janma; Moogamanasulu; 1964: Murali Krishna; Manchi Manishi; Bobbili Yuddham; Poojapalam; 1965: CID; Dorikite Dongalu; Mangamma Sapatham; Keelu Bommalu; Todu Needa; 1966: Shri Krishna Pandaviyam; Palnati Yuddham; Navarathri; Srikakula Andhra Mahavishnu Katha; Sangeetalakshmi; Shri Krishna Tulabharam; Letamanasulu; Adugu Jadalu; Ramu; 1967: Chadarangam; Poolarangudu; Upayamlo Apayam; 1968: Paala Manasulu; Sati Arundhati; Amayukudu; Chinnari Papalu; Challani Needa; Bangaru Sankellu; Pelliroju; Bandhipotu Dongalu; 1969: Ekaveera; Muhurtabalam; 1970: Aada Janma; Manasu Mangalyam; Maro Prapancham; 1971: Bangaru Talli; Mattilo Manikyam; Pavitra Hridayalu; Ramalayam; Sati Ansuya; Shrimanthudu; 1972: Atthanu Diddina Kodalu; Collector Janaki; Maa Inti Kodalu; Vintha Dampathulu; Sampoorna Ramayanam; Menakodalu; Pandanti Kapuram; 1973: Pasi Hridayalu; Mamatha; Dabbuku Lokam Dasoham; Bangaru Manushulu; Dhanama? Daivama?; Inti Dongalu; Memu Manushulame; Nindu Kutumbam; Snehabandham; 1974: Peddalu Marali; Manushulu Matti Bommalu; Deergha Sumangali; Deeksha; Gauri; Bhoomikosam; 1975: Vanaja Girija; Moguda Pellamma; Yashoda Krishna; Parivarthana; Bharati; Anuragalu; Samsaram; Ee Kalam Dampathulu; 1976: America Ammayi; Manishi Mrugham; Seeta Kalyanam; 1977: Chanakya Chandragupta; Gadusu Pillodu; Sati Savitri; Seeta Rama Vanavasu; 1978: Akbar Saleem Anarkali; Shri Rama Pattabhishekham; Katakatala Rudraiah; 1979: Bangaru Chellalu; Shrimad Virata Parvam; 1980: Shri Vinayaka Vijayam; 1987: Mandala Dheesudu.

Janaki, S. (b. 1938) South Indian singer born in Pallapatla, Guntur Dist., AP. Made her reputation with an AIR prize (1956) and became a staff artist at AVM (1957). Broke through in Tamil cinema under T. Chalapathi Rao and in Telugu via a duet with singer Ghantasala performing under the musical direction of Pendyala. Has sung over 13,000 songs in 12 languages.

Janaki, Sowcar (b. 1922) Telugu, Tamil, Kannada and Hindi actress, originally Shankaramanchi Janaki. Born in the 24 Parganas Dist., Bengal. Acted in several radio plays when a child. Married aged 15; separated soon after and sought a career in films as a single parent. Discovered by L.V. Prasad, whom she considers her mentor, and made her début in Shavukaru. Although the film wasn’t a hit, she appended its title to her name ever since. Made her Tamil début at Modern Theatres, in the Bharatidasan scripted Valayapathi. Often paired in 50s Tamil films with M.R. Radha (e.g. Nalla Idathu Sambandham). Also acted in Tamil plays, e.g. by K. Balachander. Produced and acted in Balachander’s melodrama Kaviya Thalaivi, followed by Krishnan-Panju’s Ranga

Jayamma, B.

Rattinam. Her sister, Krishnakumari, was also a noted Tamil, Kannada and Telugu star, and granddaughter Vaishnavi joined films in the late 80s. FILMOGRAPHY: 1950: Shavukaru; 1952: Adarsham; Valayapathi; 1953: Prapancham; Pichhipullaiah; 1954: Vaddante Dabbu; Devasundari; 1955: Cherapakura Chedevu; Kanyadanam; Pasupu Kumkuma; Rojulu Marayi/Kalam Maripochu; Kanyasulkam; 1956: Nagula Chaviti/Adarshasati; Bhagya Chakra; Bhagyodaya; Sadarame/Sadarama; 1957: Aalu Magalu; Bhale Bhava; Ratnagiri Rahasya/Tangamalai Rahasyam; Bhagya Rekha; 1958: Nalla Idathu Sambandham; School Master/Badi Panthulu; Anna Thamudu; Ganga Gauri Samvadam; Ettuku Pai Ettu; 1959: Abalai Anjugam; Mahishasura Mardini/ Durga Mata; 1960: Naan Kanda Sorgam; Kodeduddulu Ekaramnela; Mohabbat Ki Jeet; 1961: Batasari/Kanal Neer; 1962: Manchi Manushulu/Penn Manam; Daivaleele; Parthal Pasi Theerum; 1963: Kanya Ratna; Gauri; Malli Madhuve; Sati Shakthi; Paar Magale Paar; Saaku Magalu/Pempudu Koothuru; Savati Koduku; Devasundari; 1964: Deshadrohulu; Peetalameeda Pelli; Dr Chakravarthi; Navakoti Narayana; 1965: Naanal; 1966: Motor Sundaram Pillai; Mahakavi Kalidas; 1967: Thaikku Thalaimagan; Bhama Vijayam/Bhale Kodalu; 1968: Manchi Kutumbam; Teen Bahuraniyan; Chinnari Papalu; Undamma Bottupeduta; Ethir Neechal; Lakshmi Kalyanam; Uyarntha Manithan; Chakram; 1969: Kaval Daivam; Thunaivan; Iru Kodukal; 1970: Rendu Kutumbala Katha; Nadu Iravil; Kasturi Tilakam; Kaviya Thalaivi; 1971: Ranga Rattinam; 1972: Prajanayakudu; Appa Tata; Thiruneelakantar; Daivam; Thanga Thurai; Neethi; 1973: Prarthanai; School Master; Engal Thanga Raja; Khaidi Baba; Padmavyuham; 1974: Sorgathil Thirumanam; Kaliyuga Kannan; 1975: Cinema Paithiyam; Manithanum Daivamagalam; Nalla Marumagal; Uravukku Kayi Koduppam; Balipeetam; Devudulanti Manishi; Naaku Swatantram Vachindi; Vemulavada Bhimakavi; 1976: Manasakshi; Premabandham; Athirishtam Azhaikkirathu; Dashavatharam; Idaya Malar; Nalla Penmani; Perum Pukazhum; 1977: Olimayamana Ethirkalam; Adrushtavanthuralu; Oka Talli Katha; 1978: Anbin Alaigal; Kannan Oru Kai Kuzhanthai; 1979: Pattakathi Bhairavan; Samajaniki Saval; 1980: Arada Gaya; Ellam En Kairasi; Shanti; 1981: Thillu Mullu; Jagamondi; Varaala Abbayi; 1982: Mamiyara Marumagala; 1983: Rajakumar; Engalalum Mudiyum; 1984: Chiranjeevi; Kayi Kodukkum Kayi; 1987: Brahma Nayudu; Sardar Krishnama Nayudu; Gauthami; Vairagyam; 1988: Murali Krishnudu; Adade Adharam; 1989: Geetanjali.

Jaswantlal, Nandlal (1906-61) Hindi director born in Bardoli, Surat. Son of Jaswantlal Mehta, administrative officer at Kohinoor. Started career as Kohinoor Studio employee (1924). Assisted Chandulal Shah (1926-9) and directed films for Ranjit Studio

(1929-33). Silent star scenarist Mohanlal Dave apparently joined Ranjit solely to be able to work with Jaswantlal. Left to make a tour of Europe (1934); then joined Imperial (1934-6) where he directed Sulochana in several remakes of her own R.S. Choudhury and Bhavnani silent hits. Worked briefly in Madras running a film laboratory (1937), then returned to direction. Silent work influenced by Gandhian nationalism. Best known for his later Filmistan musicals: Anarkali (with Bina Rai and music by C. Ramchandra) and Nagin (with Vyjayanthimala), one of the biggest post-Independence musical hits. Admired for his sophisticated lighting (with cameraman Pandurang Naik). Used extreme close-ups and unusual angles creating disjointed but dramatic and sensual spaces (e.g. the beginning of Anarkali). Last film Akeli Mat Jaiyo was completed by Chandulal Shah. Apparently filmed many of the famous song sequences of M. Sadiq’s musical Taj Mahal (1963). FILMOGRAPHY: 1929: Jawani Diwani; Pardesi Saiyan; 1930: Pahadi Kanya; 1931: Premi Jogan; Ghunghatwali (all St); 1933: Pardesi Preetam; 1934: Indira MA; Kashmeera; 1935: Pujarini; 1936: Bambai Ki Billi; Jungle Queen; 1939: Jeevan Saathi; 1941: Kamadhenu; 1943: Pratigya; 1944: Kadambari; 1945: Amrapali; 1947: Sati Toral; Veerangana; 1951: Sanam; 1953: Anarkali; 1954: Nagin; 1956: Taj; 1957: Champakali; 1963: Akeli Mat Jaiyo.

Jayalalitha Jayaram (b. 1948) Tamil, Telugu and Kannada star, now better known as a politician. Born in Mysore, the daughter of screen star Sandhya. Learnt the Bharat Natyam. Claims that she wanted to study law, but dropped out of school to follow her aunt Vidyavati (who acted in e.g. En Veedu/Naa Illu, 1953) into films to support her family. Début in Shankar V. Giri’s English film Epistle. Early career in Kannada where her second film, Chinnada Gombe, was a major hit. Introduced to Tamil by C.V. Sridhar (Vennira Adai). Telugu début in Manasulu Mamathalu, but became a star in that language playing the vampish lead in G. Krishna’s James Bond-type hit Goodachari 116. First film with MGR, the star most closely associated with both her cinematic and political careers, is Panthulu’s Ayirathil Oruvan, followed by M.A. Thirumugham’s Kannithai. She is a crucial element in MGR’s films, esp. 1968-70 when she was at the pinnacle of her career and featured in almost every MGR film, usually to allow the proletarian hero to move across class barriers (e.g. Nam Naadu, Mattukkara Velan). Left films about the same time as MGR, after which she wrote for Cho’s fortnightly Tughlaq until MGR made her an important member of his All-India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (1981). After MGR’s death became embroiled in a bitter rivalry with MGR’s wife V.N. Janaki over the leadership of the party, which she eventually led to victory, becoming Chief Minister (1991-6). She was briefly imprisoned after her electoral defeat in 1996 for possessing ‘wealth disproportionate to her known sources of income’. Made a comeback in films playing ‘herself’ (as a

politician/Chief Minister) in Neenga Nalla Erukkanum, delivering a message on prohibition. FILMOGRAPHY: 1961: Epistle; Shrishaila Mahatme; 1963:Manchi Roju Lostai; 1964: Chinnada Gombe; Mane Aliya; Amarashilpi Jakanachari; 1965: Vennira Adai; Nanna Kartavya; Ayirathil Oruvan; Nee; Manasulu Mamathalu; Kannithai; Mavana Magalu; 1966: Motor Sundaram Pillai; Muharassi; Yar Nee; Kumari Penn; Chandrodyam; Thanipiravi; Major Chandrakant; Gauri Kalyanam; Mani Makudam; Badukuva Daari; Goodachari 116; Ame Evaru; Astiparulu; Navarathri; Kanni Pilla(?); 1967: Thaikku Thalaimagan; Kandan Karunai; Arasa Kattali; Madi Veetu Mappilai; Raja Veetu Pillai; Kavalkaran; Naan; Gopaludu Bhoopaludu; Chikkadu Dorakudu; 1968: Rahasiya Police 115; Andru Kanda Mukham; There Thiruvizha; Kudiruntha Koil; Galatta Kalyanam; Panakara Pillai; Kannan En Kathalan; Moonrezuthu; Bommalattam; Pudhiya Bhoomi; Kanavan; Muthu Chippi; Enga Ooru Raja; Kadhal Vaghanam; Oli Vilakku; Sukha Dukhalu; Niluvu Dopidi; Brahmachari; Tikka Shankaraiah; Baghdad Gajadonga; Izzat; Attagaru Kottakodalu; 1969: Adimai Penn; Gurudakshinai; Daivamagan; Nam Naadu; Shri Rama Katha; Adrushtavanthalu; Katha Nayakudu; Gandikota Rahasyam; Adarsha Kutumbam; Kadaladu Vadaladu; Mattukkara Velan; 1970: Enga Mama; En Annan; Engal Thangam; Engiruthu Vandhal; Thedi Vantha Mappillai; Anadhai Anandan; Pathukappu; Akkachellelu; Alibaba 40 Dongalu; Shri Krishna Vijayam; Dharmadatha; 1971: Kumari Kottam; Sumathi En Sundari; Savale Samali; Thanga Gopuram; Annai Velanganni; Adi Parasakthi; Neerum Neruppum; Oru Thai Makkal; Bharya Biddalu; Shri Krishna Satya; 1972: Raja; Thikkutheriyatha Kattil; Raman Thediya Seethai; Pattikada Pattanama; Dharmam Engay; Annamitta Kai; Shakti Leela; Neethi; Akka Tammudu; Devudamma; 1973: Ganga Gauri; Vandhale Magarasi; Suryakanthi; Pattikatu Ponnaiah; Baghdad Perazhagi; Devudu Chesina Manushulu; Dr Babu; Jesus; 1974: Thirumangalyam; Thayi; Vairam; Anbu Thangai; Anbai Thedi; Premalu Pellilu; 1975: Avalukku Ayiram Kangal; Avanthan Manithan; Pattam Bharathamum; Yarukkum Vetkamillai; 1976: Chitra Pournami; Kanavan Manaivi; 1977: Shri Krishna Leela; Unnai Chutrumugalam; 1980: Nadhiyai Thedi Vandha Kadal; 1992: Neenga Nalla Erukkanu.

Jayamma, B. (1915-88) First star of Kannada cinema and singer with classical training. Born in Chikmagalur, Karnataka. Started aged 7 on the Company Natak stage in Gubbi Veeranna’s theatre troupe, where she worked with her niece, B. Sundaramma, the group’s star actress. Became lead actress in 1928 and played Draupadi on stage in their big-budget spectacular, Kurukshetra (1934). Entered films in Veerannaproduced films directed by Belgian Raphael Algoet, Y.V. Rao, S. Soundararajan and H.L.N. Simha, mostly in adaptations of the 113

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Gubbi Co. stage mythologicals. Also played major roles in 40s Vauhini films in Telugu. Made a late 60s comeback, playing e.g. the haughty queen mother of hero Rajkumar in Immadi Pulakesi. FILMOGRAPHY: 1931: His Love Affair; 1932: Hari Maya (both St); 1935: Sadarame; 1938: Gul-e-Bakavali; 1941: Subhadra; 1942: Jeevana Nataka; 1944: Bhartrahari (Ta); 1945: Hemareddy Mallamma; Swargaseema; 1946: Lavangi; Thyagayya; 1947: Brahma Ratham; 1949: Natya Rani; Mangayar Karasi; 1950: Raja Vikrama; 1951: Mantradandam; 1953: Gunasagari/Sathya Shodhanai; Gumasta; Jaladurga/Karkottai; 1958: Anna Thangi; 1965: Mavana Magalu; 1966: Prema Mayi; 1967: Immadi Pulakesi; 1968: Anna Thamma; Bedi Bandhavalu; 1970: Mukti; 1971: Sakshatkara. Jayoo Nachiket see Jayoo and Nachiket Patwardhan

Jaywant, Nalini (b. 1926) Actress born in Bombay; cousin of Shobhana Samarth. Début aged 13. In Mehboob’s Bahen she sang the Wajahat Mirza duet, Nahin

khate hain bhaiyya mere paan, with Sheikh Mukhtar, central to the film’s incest theme. A Filmfare cameramen’s poll voted her the most photogenic Indian actress ever. In her bestknown work she usually functioned as the one who embraces life in counterpoint to the otherwise ‘ realistic’ melodrama of R.S. Choudhury, Mehboob and Mahesh Kaul (e.g. Naujawan). Later she developed a curiously autonomous, guilt-free performative style (e.g. the Navketan thriller Kala Pani). Her association with realism was extended by Ramesh Saigal, Bimal Roy and most notably Zia Sarhadi’s Awaaz, while films with Kardar (Jadu), Mahesh Kaul (Naujawan, esp. the number Thandi hawaien) and Subodh Mukherjee developed the alternate musical persona exemplified by the 50s Filmistan musicals with Dev Anand (e.g. Munimji). Often partnered Ashok Kumar in 1950-2 after their success in Filmistan’s Samadhi and Sangram at Bombay Talkies. FILMOGRAPHY: 1941: Radhika; Nirdosh; Bahen; 1942: Aankh Micholi; 1943: Adab Arz; 1946: Phir Bhi Apna Hai; 1948: Anokha Pyar; Gunjan; Varasdar; 1949: Chakori; 1950: Aankhen; Hindustan Hamara; Muqaddar; Samadhi; Sangram; 1951: Ek Nazar; Jadu;

Ashok Kumar and Nalini Jaywant in Kafila (1952) 114

Nand Kishore; Naujawan; 1952: Do Raha; Kafila; Naubahar; Saloni; Jalpari; Rahi; 1953: Shikast; 1954: Baap Beti; Kavi; Lakeeren; Mehbooba; Naaz; Nastik; 1955: Chingari; Jai Mahadev; Lagan; Munimji; Railway Platform; Raj Kanya; 1956: Aan Baan; Awaaz; Durgesh Nandini; Fifty-Fifty; Hum Sub Chor Hain; Insaaf; Twenty-Sixth January; Sudarshan Chakra; 1957: Kitna Badal Gaya Insaan; Miss Bombay; Mr X; Neel Mani; Sheroo; 1958: Kala Pani; Milan; 1959: Maa Ke Aansoo; 1960: Mukti; 1961: Amar Rahe Yeh Pyar; Senapati; 1962: Girls’ Hostel; Zindagi Aur Hum; 1965: Bombay Race Course; 1980: Bandish; 1983: Nastik.

Jeetendra (b. 1942) Major 70s Hindi star with Rajesh Khanna in an era dominated by love stories preceding Bachchan. Original name Ravi Kapoor. Introduced in Shantaram’s late 50s/60s musicals, his early work was in mid-budget Bproductions, often dancing in white, patentleather shoes. He made a serious attempt to change his image by sticking on a moustache in 70s Gulzar films (e.g. Kinara and Khushboo) and playing a male Julie Andrews in the Sound of Music adaptation, Parichay. Later work pioneered a more financially efficient but formally impoverished industrial cinema in Madras, e.g. films by K. Raghavendra Rao (Himmatwala, Jaani Dost), K. Bapaiah (Mawaali, Maqsad) and Dasari Narayana Rao (Justice Choudhury, Prem Tapasya). FILMOGRAPHY: 1959: Navrang; 1963: Sehra; 1964: Dulha Dulhan; Geet Gaya Pattharone; 1966: Dillagi; 1967: Boond Jo Ban Gaye Moti; Farz; Gunahon Ka Devta; Parivar; 1968: Aulad; Mere Huzoor; Suhaag Raat; 1969: Anmol Moti; Badi Didi; Dharti Kahe Pukar Ke; Do Bhai; Jeene Ki Raah; Jigri Dost; Vishwas; Waris; 1970: Himmat; Humjoli; Maa Aur Mamta; Naya Raasta; Mere Humsafar; Khilona; Jawab; 1971: Chahat; Kathputli; Banphool; Bikhare Moti; Caravan; Ek Nari Ek Brahmachari; Yaar Mere; 1972: Bhai Ho To Aisa; Ek Bechara; Ek Hasina Do Diwane; Parichay; Roop Tera Mastana; Shadi Ke Baad; Sazaa; 1973: Anokhi Ada; Chori Chori; Gehri Chaal; Jaise Ko Taisa; 1974: Bidaai; Dulhan; Roti; 1975: Aakhri Dao; Khushboo; Rani Aur Lalpari; Umar Qaid; 1976: Sankoch; Santan; Udhaar Ka Sindoor; Nagin; 1977: Palkon Ki Chhaon Mein; Apnapan; Dharam Veer; Ek Hi Raasta; Dildaar; Jai Vijay; Kasam Khoon Ki; Kinara; Priyatama; Zamanat; 1978: Badalte Rishte; Chowki No. 11; Dil Aur Deewar; Karmayogi; Swarg Narak; Tumhari Kasam; Nalayak; 1979: Love In Canada; Aatish; Hum Tere Aashiq Hain; Jaani Dushman; Khandaan; Lok Parlok; Jaandaar; Naya Bakra; The Gold Medal; 1980: Aap Ke Diwane; Asha; Jal Mahal; Judaai; Jyoti Bane Jwala; Maang Bharo Sajana; Neeyat; Nishana; Waqt Ki Deewar; Takkar; The Burning Train; 1981: Ek Hi Bhool; Jyoti; Khoon Aur Pani; Khoon Ka Rishta; Raaste Pyar Ke; Meri Awaaz Suno; Pyaasa Sawan; Raksha; Shaaka; Sharada; Chorni; Mosambi Narangi; 1982: Jeevan Dhara; Anokha Bandhan; Apna Bana

Kallol Group

Lo; Badle Ki Aag; Deedar-e-Yaar; Farz Aur Kanoon; Dharam Kanta; Insaan; Jiyo Aur Jeene Do; Mehndi Rang Layegi; Samrat; Justice Choudhury; 1983: Arpan; Himmatwala; Jaani Dost; Mawaali; Nishan; Prem Tapasya; 1984: Akalmand; Haisiyat; Kaamyaab; Maqsad; Qaidi; Tohfa; Yeh Desh; Zakhmi Sher; 1985: Balidan; Haqeeqat; Hoshiyar; Locket; Mera Saathi; Pataal Bhairavi; Sanjog; Sarfarosh; 1986: Aag Aur Shola; Aisa Pyar Kahan; Bond 303; Dosti Dushmani; Dharam Adhikari; Ghar Sansar; Jaal; Sada Suhagan; Sinhasan; Suhagan; Swarg Se Sundar; 1987: Apne Apne; Aulad; Himmat Aur Mehnat; Insaaf Ki Pukar; Jaan Hatheli Pe; Khudgarz; Madadgaar; Majaal; Sindoor; New Delhi; 1988: Mulzim; Tamacha; Kanwarlal; Sone Pe Suhaaga; Mar Mitenge; 1989: Aag Se Khelenge; Nafrat Ki Aandhi; Aasmaan Se Ooncha; Dav Pech; Kasam Vardi Ki; Souten Ki Beti; Majboor; 1990: Taqdeer Ka Tamasha; Zehreelay; Amiri Garibi; Hatimtai; Mera Pati Sirf Mera Hai; Shesh Naag; Nyay Anyay; Agnikaal; Aaj Ka Shahenshah; Thanedar; 1991: Shiv-Ram; Ranabhoomi; Sapnon Ka Mandir; Maa; Dil Ashna Hai; 1992: Insaaf Ki Devi; Sone Ki Lanka; Yeh Raat Phir Na Aayegi; 1993: Aaj Ki Aurat; Prateeksha; Geetanjali (H); Bhookamp; Rang; Admi Khilona Hai; Tahqiqaat; Aansoo Bane Angarey; Khalnayika; Santan; Chauraha; 1994: Udhaar Ki Zindagi; Ghar Ki Izzat; 1995: Janam Kundali; Paapi Devata; Zamana Deewana; Kalyug Ke Avatar; Hum Sub Chor Hain.

Jha, Prakash (b. 1952) Hindi director born in Champaran, Bihar. Briefly trained as editor at the FTII (1976), dropped out and made documentaries. Faces after the Storm, on Biharsharif riots, was unofficially banned. First feature Hip Hip Hurray within 60s Hollywood schoolboycheerleader genre. Sees himself as a political film-maker. Briefly married to the actress Deepti Naval (1984). FILMOGRAPHY: 1976: Rhythms of a Land and its People (Doc); 1977: Darpok Ki Dosti (Sh); 1978: Friends Together (Doc); 1979: Ode to the Child (Sh); 1981: Pas de deux (Doc); 1982: Faces after the Storm (Doc); 1983: Shri Vatsa (Sh); May I Think Sir? (Doc); 1984: Hip Hip Hurray; Damul; 1987: Ek Aur Itihas (Doc); Looking Back (Doc); Parinati; 1988: An Expression (Sh); 1989: Katha Madhopur Ki (Sh); 1990: Mungerilal Ke Haseen Sapne (TV); Tribal Festival (Doc); 1994: Didi.

Joshi, Manilal (1893-1927) Major silent director and one of the first to stand up for authorial rights of film directors. Also initiated the convention of giving onscreen credit to cast and crew. Former schoolteacher in Bombay, apprenticed to cameraman V.B. Joshi at Kohinoor Studio (1920). Turned film-maker at Ardeshir Irani’s Star Film (1922) with Veer Abhimanyu, apparently containing Indian cinema’s first flashbacks. His first independent production house (Swastika Film; Est: 1923) failed; then set up Ashoka Pics (1924) and made Prithvi

Vallabh. Its success encouraged others to go independent as well. Worked for Kohinoor and took over production of its sister company, Laxmi Films (1925). Major film directors who worked with him around this time inc. B.P. Mishra and R.S. Choudhury (with Prithvi Vallabh and until the closure of Laxmi), and Chandulal Shah (who joined films at Laxmi). Made Mojili Mumbai, about the decadence of the urban Westernised bourgeoisie, one of the first films in a contemporary setting. Also worked briefly at Sharda Studio and at Vazir Haji’s Excelsior Film (1927). Films distinguished by careful cinematography and for ‘popularising the social’ (Bharucha, 1938). FILMOGRAPHY: 1922: Veer Abhimanyu; Raja Parikshit; Ratnavali; 1923: Sati No Sraap; Kirat Arjun; 1924: Prithvi Vallabh; 1925: Indrasabha; Raj Yogi; Desh Na Dushman; Veer Kunal; Mojili Mumbai; Devadasi; Suvarna; Khandani Khavis; Kala Chor; Sati Simantini; 1926: Jungle Ni Jadibuti; Ajabkumari; Ratan Manjari; Dulari; Kashmeera; 1927: Nanand Bhojai; Parsa Eblis; Shrimati Nalini; Laila Majnu; Lohika Lilam; Prem Ni Pratima (all St).

Kale, Keshav Narayan (1904-74) Marathi and Hindi director born in Dayal, Ratnagiri Dist., Maharashtra. Studied English at St. Xavier’s College, Bombay (1924-8). Started as a journalist. Noted Marathi literary and theatre critic associated with radical journals Ratnakar, Yashwant and Pratibha. Co-founded vanguard theatre group Natyamanwantar (cf. Date and Bhole) in 1933, claiming influence of Ibsen, Shaw and Stanislavski (whose theoretical writings he translated into Marathi). As the group’s ideologue, actor and playwright, emphasised the absence of a performance theory in Marathi theatre and sought to rewrite its history in terms of acting and emotionality. Joined cinema as actor (1926) with S.N. Patankar, later worked at Imperial and Ranjit Studios. Left cinema to study law (19314). Hired as scenarist for Prabhat (1934). Wrote dialogue and lyrics for Dharmatma, giving this Saint film a political thrust by drawing analogies between Sant Eknath and Gandhi and by deflecting the mandatory miracle scenes towards more social concerns. Provided the lyrics for Chandrasena and the script for Amar Jyoti. Turned director at Prabhat in 1937 and made best-known film Mazha Mulga as fictional autobiography about the struggles of a young radical writer. Worked with humourist P.K. Atre and filmed two of his screenplays (Lapandav, Baeelweda). Devoted himself to the theatre (1943-53) before making more films. Published a number of books, e.g. several essays on film theory and a volume of poetry, Sahakarmanjari (1932). First Professor of Film Appreciation at the FTII in early 60s. Worked on the Marathi journal, Sahitya Patrika. FILMOGRAPHY (* act only): 1926: Satyavijaya*; 1928: Pataal Ketu*; Jagadguru Shrimad Shankaracharya*; 1929: Bhikharan*; Jai Somnath*; Pati Patni* (all St);

1932: Marathyatil Dulhi/Amar Shaheed*; 1935: Dharmatma*; 1936: Amar Jyoti*; 1937: Wahan; 1938: Mazha Mulga/Mera Ladka; 1940: Lapandav; 1943: Baeelweda; 1953: Ammaldar; Bolavita Dhani*; 1959: Didi.

Kalingrao, P. (1914-81) Singer and music director. Major influence on the introduction of bhava geet (light classical music) into popular Kannada music with several HMV and Columbia singles using the medieval Saint poetry of Purandaradasa and contemporary poetry including Masti Venkatesha Iyengar, Ku.Vem.Pu. and D.R. Bendre. The son of Yakshagana performer Pandaveshwara Puttaiah, he worked since childhood on the Company Natak stage with the Ambikaprasada Natak Mandali. Composed film music for H.L.N. Simha (Abba! A Hudgi, 1959), Kemparaj Urs (Bhakta Ramadas, 1948), and C.V. Raju (Krishnaleele, 1947; Shri Krishna, 1953; Natashekhara, 1954). Also acted in the Kannada film Vasantsena (1941) and scored the Malayalam one, Sasidharan (1950).

Kalki (1899-1954) Pen name of the noted Tamil novelist R. Krishnamurthy. Left school to join Gandhi’s non-co-operation agitations (1921) and was jailed several times by the British. Journalist for Navashakti, then for the famous Ananda Vikatan owned by S.S. Vasan, where he published some of his best-known stories. Scripted K. Subramanyam’s seminal Thyagabhoomi (1939), simultaneously publishing a novelised version in Ananda Vikatan with stills of the film and a racy text about ‘a thwarted woman dishing it back to her husband in later years’ (C.S. Lakshmi, 1984). His many contributions to the journal and to his own periodical, Kalki, are mainly reformist stories and Walter Scott-type historicals, largely determining the iconography of Gemini’s historicals. Apparently, M.S. Subbulakshmi used her earnings from Savithri (1941) to finance Kalki. Several of his novels were filmed, e.g. Kalvanin Kadhali (1955), Ponvayal (1954) and Parthiban Kanavu (1960). As a popular lyricist, he wrote songs for M.S. Subbulakshmi in Duncan’s Meera (1945), including the song Katrinile varum geetham. Together with writers of the famous Manikodi group (e.g. B.S. Ramaiah) and with director K. Subramanyam, Kalki is one of the pro-Congress film people in the pre-DMK Film period to call for a more responsible attitude to film and to draw attention to the medium’s political potential. His reviews of early Tamil films are collected in his book Kalaichelvam (1956).

Kallol Group The first literary collective to influence cinema in Bengal was the group around the journal Bharati (Est: 1877). Founded by Dwijendranath Tagore and others as the Tagore clan’s house journal, it published a history of the Bengali 115

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cinema in 1923. The journal’s writers Premankur Atorthy, Hemendra Kumar Roy, Narendra Dev and Sourindramohan Mukherjee were the first to write seriously for and about cinema, eventually becoming film-makers. The second group, launched in 1923 by the Bengali journal Kallol, came to be known as the Kallol Group. Its immediate predecessor was the Four Arts Club which published Jharer Dola (1922) with stories by Dinesh Ranjan Das, Gokulchandra Nag, Suniti Devi and Manindralal Basu. Kallol, edited by Dinesh Ranjan Das, was followed by other journals, notably Kalikalam (1926) and Pragati (1927). Collectively they defined a literary realism contextualised by 20s peasant agitations and urban unemployment, self-consciously transgressive of the middle-class norms, e.g. through their interest in popular industrialised fictional forms. In Tagore’s Shesher Kabita (1929) he summarised their critique of his work via the Westernised wastrel Amit Raye, who attacks Tagore for his inability to show the cruel aspects of sexuality, and his limitations in portraying the dispossessed in their true colours (allegations attributed to poet Buddhadev Bose). Malini Bhattacharya wrote (1988) that their ‘ sound and fury [d]id not produce anything like a formal breakthrough leading to a fictional discourse [other than] demanding a greater representation in fiction of problems pertaining to [p]easants, workers and women’. However the movement signified an era that also saw the first Bengali translations of Thomas Mann, Tolstoy, Proust, Romain Rolland, Gorky and Knut Hamsun, and the emergence of writers like Jibanananda Das, Bishnu Dey and Buddhadev Bose. The movement directly touched the cinema when Dinesh Ranjan Das became a film-maker at British Dominion (Kamaner Aagun, 1930) and later at New Theatres (Abasheshe, 1935), followed by writers Premendra Mitra and Sailajananda Mukherjee, first as scenarists and then as successful directors. The realist emphasis in some of their films has been seen as a precedent for IPTA-inspired films in 50s

Kalpana in Gejje Pooje (1970) 116

Bengal. The modernist tendency in Kallol’s work was later consolidated by the journals Parichay (1931) and Kavita (1935).

Kalpana (?-1979) 60s Kannada star who formed the top screen duo with Rajkumar in Kannada film history. Born in Mangalore. Trained in classical dance by Shri Vittal Shetty; stage actress while at university in Mangalore with the Bellari Lalithamma Nataka Mandali. Started under Panthulu’s direction (Saaku Magalu, Chinnada Gombe) but Puttanna Kanagal moulded her career after her breakthrough in his Bellimoda. In several key roles she embodied the ‘ woman’ as imaged in the Kannada author Triveni’s romantic fictions. Her tragic roles (Gejje Pooje, Sharapanjara, in Lakshminarayan/Chaduranga socials) helped define a cinema derived from popular literature (cf. Navya Movement) and pulp fiction. Also acted in mythologicals by Hunsur Krishnamurthy where her distinctive tragic style, (e.g. Shri Kannika Parameshwari Kathe) departs from the norms set by her predecessor, Leelavathi. Committed suicide in a lonely traveller’s bungalow in Gotur, Karnataka. FILMOGRAPHY: 1963: Saaku Magalu; 1964: Chinnada Gombe; Nandi; 1965: Kavaleradu Kulavondu; 1966: Mantralaya Mahatme; Shri Kannika Parameshwari Kathe; Sadhu Mirandal; Madras To Pondicherry; Mayor Nair; 1967: Pattathu Rani; Padavidhara; Bellimoda; Bangarada Hoovu; Dhanapishachi; Immadi Pulakesi; Premakku Permitte; 1968: Gandhinagara; Mahasati Arundhati; Sarvamangala; Hannele Chiguridaga; Anandakanda; Anna Thamma; Hoovu Mullu; Manninamaga; 1969: Odahuttidavaru; Kappu Bilapu; Uyyale; Mathru Bhoomi; Kaanike; Mukunda Chandra; Brindavana; 1970: Gejje Pooje; Arishina Kumkuma; Anirikshita; Pratikara; Karulina Kare; Lakshmi Saraswathi; Vagdhana; Namma

Mane; Seeta; Devara Makkalu; Mukti; 1971: Ondekula Ondedaiva; Sharapanjara; Bhale Adrushtavo Adrushta; Sothu Geddavalu; Kulagaurava; 1972: Nari Munidare Mari; Subhadra Kalyanam; Uttara Dakshina; Yavajanmada Maitri; Na Mechida Huduga; Jeevana Jokaali; Goodu Putani; Menakodalu; Mareyada Deepavali; 1973: Bidugade; Triveni; Gandhadagudi; Kesarina Kamala; Andala Ramudu; 1974: Tulasi; Eradu Kanasu; Idu Namma Desha; 1975: Dari Tappida Maga; Beluvalada Madilalli; Nireekshe; Asthi Kosam; Kotalo Paga; Maya Machhindra (Tel); Ramuni Minchina Ramudu; 1976: Bayalu Dari; Vijayavani; Rajanarthakiya Rahasya; 1978: Sandarbha; Vamsa Jyothi; Maleya Makkalu.

Kalyanasundaram, Pattukotai (1930-59) Tamil lyricist, born in Pattukotai, TN. Son of folk composer Arunachalam Pillai. Worked as farmer and labourer in salt flats, later as organiser of the peasantry in the Thanjavur delta. One of his early poems was used in a play, Kannin Manigal, staged at the Tamil Nadu Farmers’ Conference, Dindigul (1954). His best-known work was in C.V. Sridhar’s Kalyana Parisu (1959). His last film was A. Kasilingam’s Kalai Arasi (1963). Wrote 196 often propagandist songs in over 55 films in a brief 9-year career, many of them for MGR’s films. Although his lyrics bore the stamp of Pa. Jeevanandan’s brand of Marxism, they also showed the vitality of the folk idiom and the reformist ardour derived from poets like Subramanya Bharati and Bharatidasan. Published his poetry extensively in journals like Janasakthi. His biography is by P.E. Balakrishnan (1965).

Kalyanji-Anandji aka Kalyanji Veerji Shah (b. 1928) and Anandji Veerjee Shah (b. 1933). Music composers; started career as musicians in film orchestras and conductors of live bands. The elder brother, Kalyanji, a freelance musician, pioneered a virtual revolution in film music when he imported a claviolin and first played it to get the sinuous snake music composed by Hemanta Mukherjee in Nagin (1954), the first instance of electronic instrumentation in Hindi film. He started as music director for Babubhai Mistri and Ravindra Dave. Subsequent electronics-dominated music for films by Dave, Manmohan Desai and Prakash Mehra was central to musicals with Shammi Kapoor (Bluff Master), Rajesh Khanna (Sachcha Jhutha, Bandhan) and Bachchan (Don, Muqaddar Ka Sikandar, Zanjeer), preceding e.g. Bappi Lahiri and Ilaiyaraja. Their music for Saraiya’s Saraswatichandra was a big hit. Currently known more for their live concerts in India, at Madison Square Garden in New York, the Wembley Arena in London and in South Africa, often featuring Bachchan in stage extravaganzas. Had a major recent success with Rajiv Rai’s Tridev, its song Oye oye becoming one of the most popular in 80s Hindi cinema.

Kamalahasan

FILMOGRAPHIES: Kalyanji: 1958: Samrat Chandragupta; Post Box 999; 1959: Bedard Zamana Kya Jaane; Chandrasena; Ghar Ghar Ki Baat; O Tera Kya Kehana. KalyanjiAnandji: 1959: Madari; Satta Bazaar; 1960: Chhalia; Delhi Junction; Dil Bhi Tera Hum Bhi Tere; 1961: Passport; Pyaase Panchhi; 1962: Gangu; Mehndi Lagi Mere Haath; 1963: Bluff Master; Kahin Pyar Na Ho Jaye; Phool Bane Angarey; Sunehri Nagin; Akhand Saubhagyavati; 1964: Birju Ustad; Dulha Dulhan; Ishara; Ji Chahta Hai; Majboor; 1965: Himalay Ki God Mein; Jab Jab Phool Khile; Johar Mehmood In Goa; Purnima; Saheli; 1966: Johar In Kashmir; Preet Na Jane Reet; 1967: Aamne Samne; Dil Ne Pukara; Mera Munna; Parivar; Raaz; Upkaar; 1968: Baazi; Hasina Maan Jayegi; Juari; Saraswatichandra; Suhaag Raat; Teen Bahuraniyan; 1969: Bandhan; Ek Shriman Ek Shrimati; Mahal; Nannha Farishta; Raja Saab; Tamanna; Vishwas; 1970: Aansoo Aur Muskaan; Geet; Ghar Ghar Ki Kahani; Gopi; Holi Aayee Re; Johnny Mera Naam; Kab Kyon Aur Kahan; Mere Humsafar; Priya; Purab Aur Paschim; Sachcha Jhutha; Safar; Yaadgaar; 1971: Chhoti Bahu; Hum Tum Aur Woh; Joi Bangla Desh; Johar Mehmood In Hong Kong; Kathputli; Maryada; Paras; Preet Ki Dori; Rakhwala; Upaasna; Kangan; 1972: Anokhi Pehchan; Aparadh; Ek Hasina Do Diwane; Hari Darshan; Jaanwar Aur Insaan; Joru Ka Gulam; Lalkaar; Malik; Manavata; Sub Ka Saathi; Victoria No 203; 1973: Agni Rekha; Banarasi Babu; Blackmail; Ek Kunwari Ek Kunwara; Gulam Begum Badshah; Heera; Kahani Kismat Ki; Kashmakash; Samjhauta; Zanjeer; Raja Kaka; 1974: Albeli; Anjaan Raahein; Chattan Singh; Five Rifles; Haath Ki Safai; Har Har Mahadev; Hamrahi; Jeevan Sangram; Kasauti; Kora Kagaz; Paap Aur Punya; Patthar Aur Payal; Shubh Din; Vardan; Vachan; 1975: Anokha; Apne Dushman; Bhoola Bhatka; Chori Mera Kaam; Dharmatma; Do Thug; Faraar; Himalay Se Ooncha; Mounto; Raffoo Chakkar; Uljhan; Zorro; 1976: Adalat (H); Bairaag; Do Anjaane; Do Shatru; Bajrang Bali; Ek Se Badkhar Ek; Hera Pheri; Kabeela; Kalicharan; Khan Dost; Lagaam; Rangila Ratan; Sankoch; Shankar Shambhu; 1977: Aakhri Goli; Chakkar Pe Chakkar; Chalu Mera Naam; Darinda; Farishta Ya Qatil; Hatyara; Hira Aur Patthar; Kalabaaz; Kasam Khoon Ki; Khel Khiladi Ka; Khel Kismat Ka; Khoon Pasina; Kulavadhu; Naami Chor; Yaaron Ka Yaar; 1978: Aakhri Daku; Anjaam; Anjane Mein; Atithi; Besharam; Chor Ke Ghar Chor; Do Musafir; Don; Ganga Ki Saugandh; Karmayogi; Muqaddar Ka Sikandar; Nasbandi; Rahu Ketu; Trishna; Nalayak; 1979: Ahimsa; Bagula Bhagat; Guru Ho Jaa Shuru; Jaandaar; 1980: Qurbani; Desh Drohi; Bombay 405 Miles; Jwalamukhi; Kashish; Neeyat; Sau Din Saas Ke; 1981: Aakhri Mujra; Commander; Haqdaar; Itni Si Baat; Qatilon Ke Qatil; Khoon Ka Rishta; Krodhi; Lawaris; Main Aur Mera Hathi; Professor Pyarelal; Yeh Rishta Na Toote; 1982: Khush Naseeb; Raj Mahal; Rustom; Vidhata; Log Kya Kahenge; 1983: Ghunghroo; Haadsa; Kalakaar; Nastik; Taqdeer; 1984: Dharam Aur Kanoon; Raj Tilak; Yahan Wahan; Bandh Honth; Ek Chitthi Pyar Bhari; 1985: Karishma Kudrat Ka; Pighalta Aasmaan; Yudh; Pahunche Huye Log; 1986:

Baat Ban Jaye; Chameli Ki Shaadi; Jaanbaaz; Mangal Dada; Nasihat; Sultanat; Jhanjhar; Imaandar; 1987: Hirasat; Kalyug Aur Ramayan; Thikana; 1988: Falak; Sherni; Mohabbat Ke Dushman; Rukhsat; Mahaveera; Saazish; 1989: Izhaar; Daata; Tridev; Jadugar; 1990: Pyar Ka Toofan; CID; Naache Nagin Gali Gali; Ghar Parivar; Iraada; 1991: Kaun Kare Qurbani; Pratigyabadh; Dharam-Sankat; 1994: Ulfat Ki Nayi Manzilen.

Kamalabai, Surabhi (b. 1913) Telugu actress born in the famed Surabhi Theatres troupe of AP: her mother developed labour pains during a show, absented herself briefly and then the troupe presented the newly born infant to the audience. Kamalabai became a top actress with Surabhi; film début when H.M. Reddy hired the troupe for Telugu cinema’s first sound film, Bhakta Prahlada. Worked in the Telugu films of the Sagar Studio (Bombay) and East India Film (Calcutta). Also in the film version of Bellari Raghava’s stage classic Draupadi Manasamrakshanam. Starred alongside C.S.R. Anjaneyulu in the Saint film, Tukaram. Later acted middle-aged women in Telugu and Tamil films. FILMOGRAPHY: 1931: Bhakta Prahlada; 1932: Paduka Pattabhishekham; Shakuntala; 1933: Savithri; Prithvi Putra; 1936: Draupadi Manasamrakshanam; 1937: Tukaram; 1938: Bhakta Jayadeva; 1942: Patni; 1948: Chandralekha; 1949: Keelugurram/Maya Kudhirai; 1951: Patala Bhairavi/Pataal Bhairavi; Mangala; 1952: Manavati; Prema/Kathal; 1953: Rohini; Vayyari Bhama; Ammalakalu/ Marumagal; 1955: Vijayagauri; 1959: Shabash Ramudu; 1961: Velugu Needalu; 1968: Umachandi Gauri Shankarula Katha.

Kamalahasan (b. 1954) Tamil star and a major figure in Malayalam, Telugu and briefly in Hindi cinemas. Born in Paramakudi near Madurai Dist., TN. Joined films aged 6 in Bhimsingh’s Tamil films (Kalathur Kannamma, Parthal Pasi Theerum) and in Sethumadhavan’s Malayalam Kannum Karalum. Rediscovered as an adult by K. Balachander (Arangetram), featuring regularly in the director’s 70s films, in his Telugu hit Maro Charithra, and in its equally successful Hindi remake (Kamalahasan’s Hindi début) Ek Duuje Ke Liye. Tried to shift to Hindi cinema, playing the Chaplinesque hero in Ramesh Sippy’s love triangle Sagar, but was not successful. Acted in some of I.V. Sasi’s Malayalam films but broke away from his established image in K. Vishwanath’s Sagara Sangamam, astounding viewers with his dancing skills in the difficult Bharat Natyam style (he was trained as a dancer by K.J. Sarasa and had worked as a choreographer in films). Following the ribald, wordless comedy Pushpak, he imposed yet another image with the Brando-inspired starring role in Nayakan. Since then performed, like De Niro, major physical transformations (e.g. the dwarf in Apoorva Sahodarargal), combining a light

‘heroic’ style with a heavier naturalism for older characters. Started his own production unit with Raja Parvai. Has produced some (under his Rajkamal prod.) and scripted or shared script credit for several of his recent films: (Apoorva Sahodarargal, Guna, Mahanadhi). Acted with Sivaji Ganesan in another Godfather adaptation, Thevar Magan, which he scripted and produced as well. The film allowed Kamalahasan to return to the theme of feudal landlords in his native Madurai landscape which, he claimed, recalls Sicily. FILMOGRAPHY: 1960: Kalathur Kannamma; 1961: Thayilla Pillai; 1962: Parthal Pasi Theerum; Patha Kannikkai; Kannum Karalum; 1963: Vanambadi; Ananda Jyoti; 1972: Kanna Nalama; 1973: Arangetram; Sollathen Ninaikiran; 1974: Paruvakalam; Gumastavin Magal; Nan Avanillai; Panathukkaga; Aval Oru Thodarkathai; Kanyakumari; Vishnu Vijayam; 1975: Ayirathil Oruthi; Antharangam; Apoorva Ragangal; Cinema Paithiyam; Malai Sooda Va; Melnattu Marumagal; Pattam Poochi; Pattikatu Raja; Thangathile Vairam; Then Sindhuthe Vanam; Jnan Ninne Premikkunu; Thiruvonam; Mattoru Seeta; Rasaleela; 1976: Idaya Malar; Kumara Vijayam; Lalitha; Manmatha Leelai; Moham Muppathu Varusham; Moondru Mudichu; Oru Udhappu Kann Simittukirathu; Sathyam; Unarchikal; Agnipushpan; Appooppan; Aruthu; Samasya; Swimming Pool; Ponn; Nee Ente Lahari; Sivathandavam; Ashirvadam; Madhura Swapnam; Kuttavum Sitshayum; Anthuleni Katha; 1977: Aadu Puli Atham; Avargal; Naam Pirandha Maan; Pathinaru Vayathinile; Uyarnthavargal; Unnai Chutrumugalam; Sridevi; Ashtamangalyam; Nirai Kudam; Ormakal Marikkumo; Anandam Paramanandam; Satyavan Savithri; Adyapadam; Madanolsavam; Kokila; Kabita; 1978: Aval Appadithan; Chattam En Kaiyil; Elamai Vunjaladugiradhu; Manitharil Ithanai Nirangala; Nizhal Nijamkirathu; Paruvamazhai; Sigappu Rojakkal; Maro Charithra; Vayasu Pilichindi; Sommokadidhi Sokokadidhi; Kathrina Nimisham; Anumodhanam; Vayanadan Thampan; Yeetta; Padakkudhira; Thappu Thalangal; 1979: Azhiyada Kolangal; Neeya; Sigappukkal Mookuthi; Ninaithale Inikkum; Thayillamal Nannilai; Kalyanaraman; Mangala Vadyam; Neela Malargal; Allavudeenum Albutha Velakkum/Allavudeenum Arputha Vilakkum; Andamaina Anubhavam; Idi Kathakadu; 1980: Ullasa Paravaigal; Guru; Varumayin Niram Sigappu; Maria My Darling; Kalyana Jyothi; Satyavanthudu; Natchatiram; 1981: Meendum Kokila; Rama Lakshman; Raja Parvai; Kadal Meengal; Ellam Inbamayam; Tik Tik Tik; Saval; Akali Rajyam; Ek Duuje Ke Liye; Do Dil Diwane; Prema Pichhi; Shankarlal; Thillu Mullu; 1982: Simla Special; Pagadai Pannirendu; Vazhve Mayam; Moondram Pirai; Sahalakala Vallavan; Sanam Teri Kasam; Yeh To Kamaal Ho Gaya; Dil Ka Sathi Dil; Pyara Tarana; Andhiveyilille Ponnu; Ezham Rathri; Afsana Do Dilon Ka; Agni Satchi; Mattuvin Chattangale; Premabhishekham; Nandri Meendum Varuga; 117

Kambadasan

Rani Theni; 1983: Thoongathe Thambi Thoongathe; Uruvavugal Maralam; Chattam; Sagara Sangamam; Snehabandham; Zara Si Zindagi; Sadma; Snehabhishekham; Benki Alli Aralida Hoovu; Poikkal Kuthirai; 1984: Ek Nai Paheli; Enakkul Oruvan; Yeh Desh; Yaadgaar; Raj Tilak; Karishma; Jalsarayudu; Sahasa Simham; Oru Kaithiyin Diary; 1985: Andha Oru Nimidam; Japanil Kalyanaraman; Kakki Chattai; Mangamma Sapatham; Meendum Parasakthi; Uyarntha Ullam; Sagar; Giraftaar; Swati Muthyam; Jalsa Bullodu; Dekha Pyar Tumhara; 1986: Manakanakku; Vikram (Tam); Punnagai Mannan; Oka Radha Idduru Krishnulu; Nanum Oru Thozhilali; December Pookkal; 1987: Persollum Pillai; Nayakan; Vrutham; Pushpak/Pushpak Vimana/Pesum Padum; Kathal Parisu; Kadamai Kanniyam Kattupadu; 1988: Sathya; Soora Samharam; Unnal Mudiyum Thambi; 1989: Apoorva Sahodarargal/Appu Raja; Vetri Vizha; Indrudu Chandrudu; Chanakyam/Chanakyan; 1990: Michael Madana Kamarajan; My Dear Marthandan; 1991: Guna; Singaravelan; Sivaranjani; 1992: Thevar Magan; 1993: Maharasan; Kalaingnan; Mahanadhi; 1994: Nammavar; Magalir Mattum; 1995: Kurudhippunal; Shubha Sankalpam; Sati Leelavathi.

Kambadasan Tamil lyricist; born as C.S. Rajappa in Villayanur near Pondicherry. Stage actor, musician and lyric writer introduced to the theatre by P. Sambandam Mudaliar. Film début in Fram Sethna’s Vamana Avataram (1939), and wrote dialogue/lyrics for Balkrishna Narayan Rao’s Salivahanan (1944). Became a leading lyricist with the success of Arul tharum deva mathave in Nagoor/Taliath’s Gnanasoundari (1948) and with Jiten Bannerjee’s Mangayar Karasi (1949), esp. the song Parthal pasi theerum sung by P.U. Chinappa. These and other songs were among the early musical hits to achieve an independent popularity on disc. Also wrote the hits of Vanaratham (1956), a dubbed Tamil version of S.U. Sunny’s Udan Khatola (1955) with Naushad’s music.

Kambhar, Chandrasekhar (b. 1937) Kannada director born in Belgaum Dist., Karnataka. Noted Kannada poet, folklorist and playwright (Jokumaraswamy, 1972; Sambhasiva, 1985; Siri Sampige, 1986, written in the Yakshagana idiom); author of a dictionary of Kannada folklore (1984). Fulbright Scholar (1968) and lecturer at the Universities of Chicago and Bangalore. ViceChancellor of the newly established university at Hampi, Karnataka. Advocate of a depoliticised folk revivalism particularly strong in Karnataka theatre (cf. B.V. Karanth) and literature since the early 70s. Extended his views into features and documentaries when, with other Kannada writers and theatre directors, he turned to film in the late 70s (cf. Navya Movement). FILMOGRAPHY (* also act/** only music): 1977: Udugore**; 1978: Sandarbha**; Kaadu 118

Kudure*; 1981: Sangeetha*; 1989: Kote Udugore**; 1990: Hasiru Kaibisi Karedavo. Kameshwara Rao, Kamalakara see Rao, Kamalakara Kameshwara

Kanagal,Subraveshti Ramaswamy Puttanna (1933-85) Kannada director born in Kanagal, Karnataka; also worked in Malayalam (signing S.R. Puttanna) and in Hindi. Graduated in Mysore. Younger brother of noted Kannada theatre personality Kanagal Prabhakara Sastry. Later employed as an actor in Soorat Ashwath’s Kala Sangha stage company. Also worked as still photographer in Mysore. Joined Panthulu as assistant (Ratnagiri Rahasya, 1957). Successful Kannada cineaste in the late 60s and 70s, and the first to achieve a mass audience among the urban middle class. Sometimes hailed as predecessor to 70s Navya Movement-inspired cinema that followed Samskara (1970). Early work in Malayalam elaborated Panthulu’s definition of the progressive social (e.g. the remake of School Master). After the first Kannada film, Bellimoda, this was modulated into a variant of reformist fiction drawn from sentimental novellas and short stories: writers like M.K. Indira (Gejje Pooje) Ta Ra Su, Triveni, etc. Classic formula usually privileges family unit shown coping with traumatic crises, often focusing on women characters. Later work, in colour and post-Nagara Haavu (remade in Hindi as Zehreela Insaan) developed hallucinatory psychodrama, psychological realism being replaced by a destructive passion often characterised as a sense of being ‘ possessed’ from within. The sheer duration of his films (averaging over 3 hrs) reinforces the sense of heightened emotionality, juxtaposed with very mobile, often highly subjective camera movements. Noted for authoritarian directorial style and for introducing new acting talent (Kalpana, Arathi, Shivaram, etc). Set up his own company in 1977. FILMOGRAPHY: 1964: School Master; Kalanjukuttiya Thangam; 1965: Chettathi; Pakkalo Bellem; 1966: Puchakanni; Mayor Nair; 1967: Swapnabhoomi; Bellimoda; 1968: Teacheramma; 1969: Mallammana Pavada; Kappu Bilapu; 1970: Gejje Pooje; Karulina Kare; Iddaru Ammayilu; 1971: Sharapanjara; Sakshatkara; Sudurum Sudavalliyum; Irulum Valiyum; 1972: Nagara Haavu; 1973: Edakallu Guddada Mele; 1974: Upasane; Zehreela Insaan; 1975: Shubhamangala; Bili Hendthi; Katha Sangama; 1976: Collegeranga; Phalithamsha; 1978: Paduvarahalli Pandavaru; 1979: Dharmasere; 1981: Ranganayaki; 1982: Manasa Sarovara; 1983: Dharanimandala Madhyadolage; 1984: Amrutha Galige; Runamukthalu; 1985: Masanada Hoovu.

Kanam, E. J. (1926-87) Malayalam writer born in Kottayam, Kerala. Schoolteacher; later journalist; known mainly for introducing sentimental middle-class pulp fiction known as paingili into Malayalam,

which became a staple source for the work of e.g. Kunchako, P. Subramanyam, M. Krishnan Nair and P.A. Thomas. Film début at Kunchako’s Udaya Studios with the story for Bharya (1962). Other notable films include Kunchako’s Thirichadi (1968) and Dattuputhran (1970); P. Subramanyam’s Kaliyodam (1965), Puthri, Kattumallika and Priyatama (all 1966), Adhyapika (1968) and Swargaputhri (1973). Worked for P.G. Vishwambaran in the early 80s: Himavahini (1983), Sandhyakenthinu Sindhuram and Thirakkil Alpa Samayam (both 1984).

Kanchanmala (1923-81) Telugu actress born in coastal AP. Stage star in Telugu; then entered cinema at Sagar Studio, Bombay, with a minor role in Veer Abhimanyu. After her 2nd film, at Calcutta’s Aurora, Ahindra Choudhury’s Vipranarayana, broke through in H.M. Reddy’s Grihalakshmi, where her sexually charged performance as the dancer Madhuri next to Kannamba’s role as the suffering wife solicited a kind of male voyeurism later exploited in Vauhini’s 40s socials. Played the victimised wife in B.N. Reddi’s nationalist Vande Mataram; also appeared in reformist socials by e.g. Ramabrahmam (Malapilla, Illalu) and sang duets with composer Ogirala in Y.V. Rao’s Malli Pelli. Played the major role of the wicked stepmother in Gemini’s Balangamma, after which a legal dispute with the studio boss S.S. Vasan effectively put her career in limbo for almost a decade. Her acting style was later extended by stars like Kamala Kotnis and Bhanumati. FILMOGRAPHY: 1935: Shri Krishna Tulabharam; 1936: Veer Abhimanyu; 1937: Vipranarayana; 1938: Grihalakshmi; Malapilla; 1939: Vande Mataram; Malli Pelli; 1940: Mahiravana; Illalu; 1942: Balanagamma; 1963: Nartanasala.

Kannadasan (1927-81) Prodigious Tamil poet, lyricist (over 5000 film songs) and producer. Key figure in the early DMK Film propaganda genre, often credited with reintroducing a classical Tamil literary ‘tradition’ to contemporary film audiences. Born as A.S. Muthaiah in Amaravatipudur, TN. Joined the journal Tirumakal (1944) which published his first poems. Published his own journals, the weekly Tenral, the monthly Mullai and the film journal Tenral Tirai; also edited the monthly Kannadasan and newspaper Katitam. Joined Modern Theatres’ story department (1947). Début as lyricist for Ramnoth’s Kanniyin Kathali (1949) but worked mainly as a dialogue writer until G.R. Rao’s Illara Jyothi (1954). Joined the DMK (1947-64); responsible for some of their main propaganda lyrics in e.g. N.S. Krishnan’s Panam (1952), T.R. Sundaram’s Thirumbi Paar (1953) and Yoganand’s MGR classic Madurai Veeran (1956). Founded Kannadasan Pics producing Malai Itta Mangai (1958), Sivagangai Seemai (1959), Kavalai Illatha Manithan (1960), Vanambadi (1963),

Kapoor, Raj

etc. Became an independent star attraction after his successful lyrics in Bhimsingh’s early films, usually set to music by the Vishwanathan-Ramamurthy team (e.g. Ponal pokattum poda in Palum Pazhamum, 1961). Left the DMK after an argument with Karunanidhi, an incident often cited to indicate the degree to which personal rivalries between film people affected the DMK Party structure. Kannadasan later became a member of the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee. One of his last films is Balu Mahendra’s Moondram Pirai (1982). Other writings include 21 novels, 10 volumes of religious discourses and over 4000 poems (cf. Kannadasan, 1970).

Kannamba, Pasupuleti (1912-64) Telugu and Tamil actress and singer. Started on the stage at the Rajarajeshwari Natya Mandali and was largely responsible for the group’s initial popularity along with her mentor (and later husband), stage and film director Kadaru Nagabhushanam. Film début in the screen version of their play Harishchandra, initially filmed by Prafulla Ghosh and remade by Nagabhushanam himself in 1943. Continued in film versions of their plays with acclaimed music scores: H.V. Babu’s Draupadi Vastrapaharanam and Kanakatara. Played the destitute wife in H.M. Reddy’s Grihalakshmi, incarnating its rational reformism with her passionate denunciation of God and religious notions of truth. Later associated with emphatic acting in e.g. Talliprema and Mayalokam, also playing Sivaji Ganesan’s mother in Manohara and MGR’s mother in Thaikupinn Tharam. Best known for the title role in Kannagi. Some of her still popular music has been reissued by the musicologist V.A.K. Ranga Rao. FILMOGRAPHY: 1935: Harishchandra; 1936: Draupadi Vastrapaharanam; 1937: Kanakatara; 1938: Grihalakshmi; 1940: Chandika; Bhoja Kalidasa; Krishnan Thoothu; 1941: Ashok Kumar; Talliprema; 1942: Kannagi; Sumati; 1943: Harishchandra; 1944: Mahamaya; 1945: Mayalokam; Maya Machhindra; Paduka Pattabhishekham; 1947: Daiva Neethi; Tulasi Jalandhar; Palnati Yuddham; Nam Iruvar; 1949: Mangayar Karasi; Navajeevanam; 1950: Laila Majnu; 1952: Pedaraitu; Moonru Pillaigal/Mugguru Kodukulu; 1954: Manohara; Sati Sakkubai; 1955: Anarkali; Vadina; 1956: Naga Panchami; Thaikku Pinn Tharam; 1957: Makkalai Petra Maharasi; Kutumba Gauravam; 1958: Aadapettanam; Avan Amaran; 1959: Pelli Meeda Pelli; Uzhavukkum Thozhilukkum Vandhanai Seivom; Vazha Vaitha Daivam; Raja Sevai; Raja Mukutam; 1960: Dharmane Jayam; Jalsarayudu; Abhimanam; 1961: Usha Parinayam; Intiki Deepam Illale; Pelli Pilupu; Krishna Kuchela; Jagadeka Veeruni Katha/ Jagathala Prathapan; 1962: Pelli Thambulam; Dakshayagnam; Swarnamanjari; Nuvva Nena; Atmabandhuvu; 1963: Paruvu Pratishthalu; Apta Mithrulu; 1964: Bangaru Timmaraju; Ramadasu; 1965: Keelu Bommalu.

Kapoor, Prithviraj (1906-72) Revered actor born in Peshawar (now Pakistan) as Prithvinath Kapoor. Son of a police officer. Earned a major reputation on the amateur stage in Lyallpur and Peshawar. Interrupted law studies to join Imperial (1929). Acted in several B.P. Mishra adventure and love stories (e.g. Cinema Girl, opposite Ermeline, India’s version of Clara Bow). Starred in India’s first sound film, Alam Ara. He impressed with a perfect speaking voice (he never sang). Then joined the Grant Anderson theatre company and performed Shakespeare in English, with special acclaim for his Laertes in Hamlet. Worked in New Theatres (1933-9), playing the hero in Hindi versions (Durgadas Bannerjee often playing the same role in Bengali) of its hit bilinguals. Broke through with Debaki Bose’s Rajrani Meera and as Rama in Seeta opposite Durga Khote. Vidyapati was his crowning achievement in Calcutta. Chandulal Shah hired him for the Ranjit Studio (1938-40) in Bombay, where he acted in some remarkable melodramas with Kardar (e.g. Pagal) and Chaturbhuj Doshi (Adhuri Kahani). Bestknown performance as freelance actor was in the title role of Alexander the Great in Sohrab Modi’s military epic Sikandar. The film heightened his enduring reputation, enhanced by the role of Emperor Akbar in Mughal-eAzam, as the embodiment of Mughal royalty in Hindi-Urdu cinema (spoofed by K. Shankar’s Rajkumar). Invested his earnings in the Hindi theatre, setting up Prithvi Theatres (1944) where he produced plays while shooting films at night. Mounted a major play against Partition, Inder Raj Anand’s Deewar (1945) which earned him death threats from Islamic fundamentalists. He persisted with antisectarian politics, producing the technically and artistically masterful plays Pathan (1947) and Gaddar (1948). Launched many new talents through Prithvi Theatres, including Ramanand Sagar (Kalakaar, 1952), music directors Shankar-Jaikishen and Ram Ganguly (who scored Aag, 1948), all of whom were later key members of Raj Kapoor film units. Also launched his sons Raj, Shammi and Shashi. His main performances of the 50s: in Shantaram’s Dahej and in his son’s Awara, which ended on a dramatic confrontation between the fictional father and son played by a real father and son. Kal Aaj Aur Kal featured three generations of Kapoors in a celebration of feudal patriarchy. While directing Paisa, adapted from a Prithvi Theatres play of 1954, he lost his voice, which never regained its full sonorousness. Had to close his theatre and reduce his film work. In the late 60s and 70s acted in several Hindi and some Punjabi mythologicals. Played the patriarchal lead in the Saint film Nanak Naam Jahaaz Hai, credited with the revival of the Punjabi film industry. Died of cancer in 1972. FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1930: Cinema Girl; Prince Vijaykumar; Sher-e-Arab; 1931: Namak Haram Kon; Bar Ke Pobar; Golibar; Toofan (all St); Alam Ara; Draupadi; 1932: Dagabaaz Ashiq; 1933: Rajrani Meera; 1934: Daku Mansoor; Ramayan; Seeta; 1935: Inquilab; Josh-e-Inteqam; Swarg Ki Seedhi;

1936: Grihadah/Manzil; 1937: Milap; President; Vidyapati; Jeevan Prabhat; Anath Ashram; 1938: Abhagin; Dushman; 1939: Adhuri Kahani; Sapera; 1940: Aaj Ka Hindustan; Deepak; Chingari; Pagal; Sajani; 1941: Raj Nartaki/Court Dancer; Sikandar; 1942: Ujala; Ek Raat; 1943: Aankh Ki Sharam; Bhalai; Gauri; Ishara; Vish Kanya; 1944: Maharathi Karna; Phool; 1945: Devadasi; Nala Damayanti; Shri Krishnarjun Yuddha; Vikramaditya; 1946: Prithviraj Samyukta; Valmiki; 1947: Parashuram; 1948: Azadi Ki Raah Par; 1950: Dahej; Hindustan Hamara; 1951: Awara; Deepak; 1952: Anandmath; Chhatrapati Shivaji; Insaan; 1953: Aag Ka Dariya; 1954: Ehsan; 1957: Paisa*; Pardesi; 1958: Lajwanti; 1960: Mughal-e-Azam; 1961: Senapati; 1963: Harishchandra Taramati; Pyar Kiya To Darna Kya; Rustom Sohrab; Gujree; 1964: Ghazal; Jahan Ara; Rajkumar; Zindagi; 1965: Aasmaan Mahal; Jaanwar; Jahan Sati Wahan Bhagwan; Khakaan; Lutera; Shri Ram Bharat Milap; Sikandar-e-Azam; 1966: Daku Mangal Singh; Insaaf; Lal Bangla; Love And Murder; Shankar Khan; Sher Afghan; Yeh Raat Phir Na Aayegi; 1967: Shamsheer; 1968: Balaram Shri Krishna; Teen Bahuraniyan; 1969: Insaaf Ka Mandir; Nai Zindagi; Sati Sulochana; Nanak Naam Jahaaz Hai; 1970: Ek Nannhi Munni Ladki Thi; Gunah Aur Kanoon; Heer Ranjha; 1971: Kal Aaj Aur Kal; Padosi; Sakshatkara; Nanak Dukhiya Sab Sansar; 1972: Mele Mitran De; Bankelal; Naag Panchami; 1973: Naya Nasha; 1976: Bombay By Nite.

Kapoor, Raj (1924-88) Hindi megastar, producer, director and allround showman. Born in Peshawar (now Pakistan) as Ranbirraj Kapoor; son of actor Prithviraj Kapoor. Worked with his father as stage actor, prod. manager and art director. First film role aged 11. Started as clapper-boy at Bombay Talkies; then assistant director there and at Ranjit (1946). Set up R.K. Films (1948) to make Aag. Expanded into a full-scale studio at Chembur in Bombay (1950), continuing with Mehboob, Kardar and Sohrab Modi the

Raj Kapoor in Main Nashe Mein Hoon (1959) 119

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studio tradition into the post-Independence period. Screen persona makes repeated references to Chaplin’s tramp, but Kapoor also asserted his debt to Capra (their first meeting is recorded in Capra’s autobiography) and to De Sica (esp. Miracolo a Milano, 1950). The earlier films, esp. Awara and Shri 420 scripted by K.A. Abbas, evince a sentimental approach to social reform, presenting political Independence as a loss of innocence in exchange for stability, condensed into the persona of the mother/lover as played by Nargis. With their elaborate sets, fine camerawork and music (usually composed by Shankar-Jaikishen and written by Shailendra and Hasrat Jaipuri), the films achieved immense popularity throughout India, in the USSR and in the Middle East. Although Boot Polish was credited to Prakash Arora, one of his assistants, most of the film’s final version was attributable to Kapoor. Also produced his classic performance in Jagte Raho/Ek Din Raatre. Sangam, his first colour film, used locations in exotic Europe. Became more sexually explicit in the 70s after the box-office failure of his ambitious Mera Naam Joker, a maudlin epic inspired by Limelight (1951) which took 6 years to make. Bobby introduced Dimple Kapadia as star opposite Rishi Kapoor. The combination of sentimentalism with lush stylisation and steamy sexuality (presented with moral indignation) in his later work recalls Cecil B. DeMille. Kidar Sharma (1952) described Raj Kapoor as an example of ‘The director with the Cave Man conception of love.’ Mahesh Bhatt (1993) described him as ‘An audacious film-maker who displayed the feverish carnality of a schoolboy in most of his films.’ Produced his own directions.

Originally Shamsher Raj Kapoor. Actor born in Bombay, younger brother of Raj Kapoor. Employed in his father Prithviraj Kapoor’s Prithvi Theatres 1948-52. Introduced in mildly successful swashbuckling imitations of Errol Flynn in a phase that he later described as ‘playing a male starlet’. With Tumsa Nahin Dekha he shaved his pencil moustache and started evoking James Dean and Elvis Presley (e.g. Baar baar dekho in China Town) following the more freewheeling approach elaborated by Dev Anand. This style set the tone for Filmistan’s late 50s films, e.g. Shakti Samanta’s b&w whodunits and colour romances, laying the foundations for Manmohan Desai’s later appeal to an urban lumpen culture in e.g. Bluff Master. Kapoor often played a spoiled, rich lad who wins over the girl but also gets embroiled in gang rackets or family feuds, all of which are solved by beating up the villain. Most remarkable performance in Junglee. Presided over the Hindi cinema’s first consistent attempts to address a Westernised teenage audience with songs invoking Western rock, often picturised in discotheques. These were the prototypes of a 60s consumerist cinema that, in Manmohan Desai’s words, consisted entirely of ‘highlights’, i.e. loosely strung together, dramatically selfcontained episodes. His 70s directorial efforts include a Hindi remake of Irma La Douce, 1963 (Manoranjan). Married Geeta Bali in1955. Remarried after her death. Since the mid-70s has often appeared in bearded, middle-aged character parts and also in television serials. Produced a video entertainment magazine called ‘Shammi Kapoor Presents Manoranjan’. Chairman of the Internet Users Club of India.

FILMOGRAPHY (* also d/** only d): 1935: Inquilab; 1943: Hamari Baat; Gauri; 1946: Valmiki (H); 1947: Neel Kamal; Dil Ki Rani; Chittor Vijay; Jail Yatra; 1948: Gopinath; Amar Prem; Aag*; 1949: Barsaat*; Andaz; Sunehre Din; Parivartan; 1950: Banwra; Banwre Nain; Dastaan; Jaan Pehchan; Pyar; Sargam; 1951: Awara*; 1952: Amber; Ashiana; Anhonee; Bewafa; 1953: Dhun; Paapi; Aah; 1954: Boot Polish; 1955: Shri 420*; 1956: Jagte Raho/Ek Din Raatre; Chori Chori; 1957: Sharada; 1958: Parvarish; Phir Subah Hogi; 1959: Anari; Char Dil Char Raahein; Do Ustad; Kanhaiya; Main Nashe Mein Hoon; 1960: Jis Desh Mein Ganga Behti Hai; Chhalia; Shriman Satyavadi; 1961: Nazrana; 1962: Aashiq; 1963: Dil Hi To Hai; Ek Dil Sau Afsane; 1964: Sangam*; Dulha Dulhan; 1966: Teesri Kasam; 1967: Around the World; Diwana; 1968: Sapnon Ka Saudagar; 1970: Mera Naam Joker*; 1971: Kal Aaj Aur Kal; 1973: Bobby**; Mera Desh Mera Dharam; 1975: Do Jasoos; Dharam Karam; 1976: Khan Dost; 1977: Chandi Sona; 1978: Satyam Shivam Sundaram**; Naukri; 1980: Abdullah; 1981: Naseeb; Gopichand Jasoos; Vakil Babu; 1982: Chor Mandli; Prem Rog**; 1985: Ram Teri Ganga Maili**; 1990: Dhadaka.

FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1953: Gul Sanobar; Jeevan Jyoti; Laila Majnu; Rail Ka Dibba; Thokar; 1954: Chor Bazaar; Ehsan; Mehbooba; Shama Parwana; 1955: Daku; Miss Coca Cola; Naqab; Tangewali; 1956: Hum Sub Chor Hain; Mem Sahib; Rangeen Raatein; Sipahsalaar; 1957: Coffee House; Mirza Sahiban; Maharani; Tumsa Nahin Dekha; 1958: Mujrim; 1959: Dil Deke Dekho; Mohar; Raat Ke Rahi; Ujala; Char Dil Char Raahein; Sahil; 1960: Basant; College Girl; Singapore; 1961: Boy Friend; Junglee; 1962: China Town; Dil Tera Diwana; Professor; Vallah Kya Baat Hai; 1963: Bluff Master; Pyar Kiya To Darna Kya; Shaheed Bhagat Singh; 1964: Kashmir Ki Kali; Rajkumar; 1965: Jaanwar; 1966: Badtameez; Teesri Manzil; Preet Na Jane Reet; 1967: An Evening in Paris; Laat Saheb; 1968: Brahmachari; 1969: Prince; Sachaai; Tumse Achha Kaun Hai; 1970: Pagla Kahin Ka; 1971: Andaz; Jaane Anjane; Preetam; Jawan Mohabbat; 1974: Manoranjan*; Chhote Sarkar; 1975: Salaakhen; Zameer; 1976: Bandalbaaz*; 1977: Mama Bhanja; Parvarish; 1978: Shalimar; 1979: Ahsaas; Meera; 1981: Ahista Ahista; Armaan; Harjaai; Professor Pyarelal; Naseeb; Rocky; Biwi-o-Biwi; 1982: Yeh Vaada Raha; Desh Premi; Prem Rog; Vidhata; 1983: Betaab; Ek Jaan Hain Hum; Hero; Romance; Aan Aur Shaan; Wanted; 1984: Sohni

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Mahiwal (H); 1985: Badal; Balidan; Ek Se Bhale Do; Ram Tere Kitne Naam; 1986: Allah Rakha; Kala Dhandha Goray Log; Karamdaata; Ghar Sansar; 1987: Himmat Aur Mehnat; Hukumat; Ijaazat; 1989: Daata; Bade Ghar Ki Beti; Mohabbat Ka Paigam; Batwara; 1990: Dhadaka; 1991: Ajooba; Mast Kalandar; Lakshmanrekha; 1992: Nishchay; Humshakal; Tahalka; Chamatkar (H); Heer Ranjha; Khule Aam; Mahashay; 1993: Gardish; Aaja Meri Jaan; Dosti Ki Saugandh; Tum Karo Vaada; 1994: Pyar Ka Rog; Premyog; Rock Dancer.

Kapoor, Shashi (b. 1938) Hindi star, producer and director; son of Prithviraj Kapoor and younger brother of Raj and Shammi Kapoor. Started on the stage aged 6 in his father’s production of Shakuntala (1944). Also acted the child, Raj, in Aag and in Awara. Abandoned studies and worked for Prithvi Theatres; then met Geoffrey Kendall’s touring theatrical group Shakespeareana (which toured India between 1953-6) and joined them in Bangalore, playing Shakespeare in English and eventually marrying actress Jennifer Kendall. Turned to film in 1960. Started working with Merchant-Ivory prod. with The Householder (1963). Achieved a reputation in the West (which peaked as he played the title role in Conrad Rooks’s Siddhartha) and stardom in Indian love stories after Jab Jab Phool Khile, often starring opposite Asha Parekh and Sharmila Tagore. Increasingly caught up in dramatically undemanding films and later played the second principal role in a series of Bachchan films following the success of their Deewar (Kabhi Kabhie, Trishul, Kala Patthar, Shaan). Set up his own company, Film-Valas, to distribute MerchantIvory’s Bombay Talkie, branching into production in 1978 with Benegal’s Junoon and Kalyug as well as Aparna Sen’s 36 Chowringhee Lane (1981) and Girish Karnad’s Utsav. Regularly acted in British productions. As an actor he was not often given the chance to stretch himself and his image remains that of a lighthearted, slightly cynical seducer. His major cultural achievements are the works he produced and the revival of the Prithvi Theatre in Bombay in honour of his father. Directed one film, Ajooba, an Indo-Soviet production starring Bachchan in an Arabian Nights spectacular. Returned from semi-retirement to play the ageing Urdu poet in Ismail Merchant’s In Custody. Appeared in episodes of the satirical TV series Siyasat as a Chief Minister. Not to be confused with the older Hindi actor, Shashi Kapoor, who acted mostly in mythologicals. FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1948: Aag; 1950: Sangram; Samadhi; 1951: Awara; 1961: Char Diwari; Dharmaputra; 1962: Prem Patra; Mehndi Lagi Mere Haath; 1963: Holiday In Bombay; The Householder; Yeh Dil Kisko Doon; 1964: Benazir; 1965: Jab Jab Phool Khile; Mohabbat Isko Kehte Hain; Waqt; Shakespeare Wallah; 1966: Biradari; Neend Hamari Khwab Tumhare; Pyar Kiye Jaa; 1967: Pretty Polly; Aamne Samne; Dil Ne Pukara; 1968: Hasina Maan Jayegi; Juari; Kanyadaan; 1969: Ek Shriman Ek Shrimati;

Kardar, Abdul Rashid

Jahan Pyar Mile; Pyar Ka Mausam; Raja Saab; 1970: Bombay Talkie; Abhinetri; My Love; Rootha Na Karo; Suhana Safar; 1971: Patanga; Sharmilee; 1972: Jaanwar Aur Insaan; 1973: Aa Gale Lag Jaa; Chori Chori; Naina; Mr Romeo; 1974: Chor Machaye Shor; Insaniyat; Jeevan Sangram; Paap Aur Punya; Vachan; Roti Kapda Aur Makaan; 1975: Anari; Chori Mera Kaam; Deewar; Prem Kahani; Salaakhen; 1976: Aap Beeti; Deewangee; Fakira; Koi Jeeta Koi Haara; Shankar Dada; Naach Utha Sansar; Kabhi Kabhie; 1977: Chakkar Pe Chakkar; Chor Sipahi; Doosra Admi; Farishta Ya Qatil; Heera Aur Patthar; Imaan Dharam; Mukti (H); 1978: Ahuti; Amar Shakti; Apna Khoon; Atithi; Do Musafir; Heeralal Pannalal; Muqaddar; Phaansi; Rahu Ketu; Satyam Shivam Sundaram; Trishna; Trishul; Junoon; Siddhartha; 1979: Ahsaas; Kali Ghata; Duniya Meri Jeb Mein; Gautam Govinda; Kala Patthar; Suhaag; 1980: Do Aur Do Paanch; Ganga Aur Suraj; Kala Pani; Neeyat; Shaan; Swayamvar; Kalyug; 1981: Basera; Ek Aur Ek Gyarah; Kranti (H); Krodhi; Maan Gaye Ustad; Silsila; Vakil Babu; 1982: Bezubaan; Namak Halal; Saval (H); Vijeta; 1983: Bandhan Kachche Dhaagon Ka; Ghunghroo; Heat And Dust; 1984: Pakhandi; Ghar Ek Mandir; Zameen Aasmaan; Swati (H); Yaadon Ki Zanjeer; Utsav; Bandh Honth; 1985: Aandhi Toofan; Alag Alag; Bepanah; Bhawani Junction; Pighalta Aasmaan; New Delhi Times; 1986: Anjaam; Aurat; Door Desh; Pyar Ki Jeet; Karamdata; Ek Main Aur Ek Tu; Ilzaam; 1987: Maa Beti; Ijaazat; Naam-oNishan; Sindoor; Ghar Ka Sukh; Sammy And Rosie Get Laid; Chakma; 1988: Commando; Hum To Chale Pardes; Farz Ki Jung; The Deceivers; Meri Zabaan; Aakhri Muqabala; 1989: Bandook Dahej Ke Seene Par; Apna Ghar; Desh Ke Dushman; Mera Muqaddar; Mera Farz; Tauheen; Oonch Neech Beech; Gair Kanooni; Clerk; 1991: Ajooba*; Raeeszada; Akela; 1992: Siyasat; 1993: In Custody/ Muhafiz.

Kapur, Shekhar (b. 1945) Aka Chandrasekhar Kapur; actor and director born in Lahore. Nephew of Dev and Vijay Anand. Educated in New Delhi. Chartered accountant and management consultant in London. Entered Hindi films as actor. Directorial début with Masoom, a low-budget, Hollywood-inspired melodrama using techniques derived from advertising films. Also directed the ‘curry’ western, Joshilay (resigning before it was complete; final version, released in 1989, was credited to the producer, Sibte Hasan Rizvi) and the special-effects-laden Mr India. Compered a controversial Channel 4 (UK) TV discussion programme, On The Other Hand. Made many advertising films and is a noted fashion model. Several of his big Hindi productions have been delayed, leading to a reputation for an expansive, slow-working style. However, Bandit Queen, constituting a departure from his earlier work, fictionalised the life of Phoolan Devi for Channel 4 in London, based on Mala Sen’s book. The film caused a major censorship controversy, following accusations of defamation by

Phoolan Devi herself and of exploitation by feminist and other independent groups. Also directed the first episodes of the TV series Tahqiqat, starring Vijay Anand as Sam the Detective. FILMOGRAPHY (* only d): 1974: Ishq Ishq Ishq; 1975: Jaan Hazir Hai; 1978: Pal Do Pal Ka Saath; Toote Khilone; 1979: Jeena Yahan; 1980: Bhula Na Dena; 1982: Masoom*; Bindiya Chamkegi; 1985: Joshilay*; Khandaan (TV); 1987: Mr India*; 1988: Swayamsiddha (TV); Falak; 1989: Gawahi; Udaan (TV); Mahanagar (TV); 1989: Nazar; 1990: Drishti; 1992: Saatwan Asmaan; 1994: Bandit Queen*; Tahqiqat (TV).

Kar, Ajoy (1914-85) Bengali director and cameraman born in Calcutta. Left college to become a professional photographer (1931); assistant cameraman to Jatin Das at East India Film (1935) and cinematographer at Indrapuri Studios, Calcutta (1938). Shot over 80 features. Became director in the Sabhyasachi collective with Binoy Chatterjee (scripts), Jatin Datta (sound), Kamal Ganguly (editor), Bishnu Chakraborty (art d), Bimal Ghosh (prod. controller) and actress Kanan Devi. Signed first 3 films as Sabhyasachi. Made several films based on Rabindranath Tagore and Saratchandra Chatterjee novels. Crucial figure in reformist Bengali prose cinema of late 50s and 60s surrounding Uttam Kumar (cf. the classic Saptapadi). Founded India Film Laboratory in Calcutta (1957). Studied colour film technology in the USA (1976). Work often located on the cusp between literary respectability and broad melodrama (e.g. Malyadaan, adapting Tagore to tell the story of a dull orphan girl growing into womanhood). FILMOGRAPHY: 1949: Ananya; Bamuner Meye; 1950: Mejdidi; 1951: Jighansa; 1954: Grihapravesh; 1955: Sajghar; Paresh; 1956: Shyamali; 1957: Bardidi; Harano Sur; 1959: Khelaghar; 1960: Suno Baro Nari; 1961: Saptapadi; 1962: Atal Jaler Ahwan; 1963: Saat Pake Bandha; Barnali; 1964: Prabhater Rang; 1966: Kanch Kata Hirey; 1969: Parineeta; 1971: Malyadaan; 1973: Kaya Hiner Kahini; 1976: Datta; 1979: Nauka Dubi; 1984: Bishabriksha; Madhuban.

Karanth, Babukodi Venkatramana (b. 1929) Kannada director born in Bangalore. Aged 7, acted the title role in Kuvempu’s play Nanna Gopala. Joined Gubbi Veeranna’s Gubbi Company in 1944. Embarked on a postgraduate degree in Hindi and studied music in Benares. Also studied at the National School of Drama (1963). School teacher in Delhi while working with the Dishantar theatre group. Stage productions in Kannada of Oedipus (adapted by P. Lankesh), Girish Karnad’s Hayavadana and Kambhar’s Jokumaraswamy (all in 1971) for his own theatre group Benaka. Introduced folk idioms borrowed from the Yakshagana to the stage,

pioneering a trend later associated with cultural indigenism. Director of the National School of Drama (1978-81), and of Repertory at Bharat Bhavan, Bhopal (1981-6). He had to leave following allegations of having tried to burn alive one of the company’s actresses. Returned to his native Karnataka where he runs the state’s repertory company, Rangayana. Most of his film-making was partnered by Karnad, except for Chomana Dudi. Scored several films, e.g. G.V. Iyer’s Hamsa Geethe (1975), Mrinal Sen’s Parashuram (1978), Ek Din Pratidin (1979) and Kharij (1982), M.S. Sathyu’s Kanneshwara Rama (1977, also act), Girish Kasaravalli’s Ghattashraddha (1977), Akramana (1980), Mooru Darigalu (1981), Tabarana Kathe (1986) and Bannada Vesha (1988), Katte Ramachandra’s Arivu (1979), the children’s film Hangama Bombay Ishtyle (1978) and his wife Prema Karanth’s Phaniyamma (1982). FILMOGRAPHY (* also act): 1971: Vamsha Vriksha*; 1975: Chomana Dudi; Kalla Kalla Bachitko/Chor Chor Chhupja; 1977: Tabbaliyu Neenade Magane/Godhuli.

Karanth, Prema (b. 1936) Kannada director born in Bangalore. Brought up by grandparents in a small Karnataka village in Kolar District. Wrote stories and articles for children’s magazine, Chandamama. Wellknown director on Kannada stage noted particularly for children’s theatre (e.g. Kambhar’s Alibaba and the Forty Thieves, 1978). Studied at Benares University and graduated in direction at National School of Drama (1971), worked in Delhi-based theatre groups Yatrik and Dishantar, and in husband B.V. Karanth’s Benaka in Bangalore (1975). Did costumes for over 120 plays in English, Hindi and Kannada. Assisted Karnad and Karanth on Tabbaliyu Neenade Magane/ Godhuli (1977), G.V. Iyer on Kudre Motte, in which she also acted. Worked at the Adarsh Film Institute with Kasaravalli. FILMOGRAPHY (* only act): 1977: Kudre Motte*; 1982: Amara Madhura Prema*; Phaniyamma; 1983: Simhasana*; 1985: The Jewel of Manipur: Part 1 (Doc); 1986: The Jewel of Manipur: Part 2 (Doc); 1988: Appiko (Doc); 1989: Nakkala Rajkumari; 1990: Sapne Huye Sakaar (Doc).

Kardar, Abdul Rashid (1904-89) Hindi-Urdu director born into Lahore’s landed gentry; affectionately known as ‘Miyanji’. Considered a promising painter and still photographer. Moved to Bombay (1922) to work at Kohinoor. Did poster-paintings at Sharda Studio. Acted in a few films but, unable to get directorial assignment, returned to Lahore. Joined B.R. Oberai’s Pioneer Prod. as actor. Started United Players Corp. (1928), which, with partners Kardar and Hakim Ramprashad, grew into Playart Phototone. Although an important event in the early history of Lahore cinema, Kardar made only one film there (Heer Ranjha). Moved to Calcutta (1933) and became top director for 121

Kariat, Ramu

East India Film (1933-6); then to Bombay (Ranjit and National Studios). Bought CIRCO Studio to launch the Kardar Studios with Sharada. It closed in 1968 despite an allindustry rescue effort. Started Musical Pics (1950). Launched directors M. Sadiq (who later directed Guru Dutt in Chaudhvin Ka Chand, 1960) and S.U. Sunny. Made his best-known films in 1940, a series of psychodramas attempting to match the realism of Urdu literature (Pagal, Holi, Pooja). Then moved to portmanteau musicals featuring his regular composer Naushad, including comedy spoofs with Kishore Kumar (Baap Re Baap). Apparently Dastaan was based on the US film Enchantment (1948), Jadu on Raoul Walsh’s The Loves of Carmen (1927) and Baghi Sipahi on R.V. Lee’s Cardinal Richlieu (1935). His comeback with Dil Diya Dard Liya went wrong and Dilip Kumar ended up directing the movie credited to Kardar. FILMOGRAPHY (* also act/** act only): 1929: Husn Ka Daku*; Heer Ranjha**; 1930: Sarfarosh; Safdar Jung; Farebi Shahzada; 1931: Khooni Katar*; Awara Raqasa; Kismet ki Hera Pheri**; Farebi Daku (all St); 1932: Heer Ranjha; 1933: Aurat Ka Pyar; Abe Hayat**; 1934: Seeta**; Chandragupta; Sultana; 1935: 1936: Baghi Sipahi; 1937: Mandir; Milap; 1938: Baghban; 1939: Thokar; 1940: Holi; Pagal; Pooja; 1941: Swami; 1942: Nai Duniya; Sharada; 1943: Kanoon; Sanjog; 1944: Pehle Aap; 1945: Sanyasi; 1946: Shahjehan; 1947: Dard; 1949: Dillagi; Dulari; 1950: Dastaan; 1951: Jadu; 1952: Diwana; 1953: Dil-e-Nadaan; 1955: Baap Re Baap; Yasmin; 1958: Do Phool; 1966: Dil Diya Dard Liya; 1975: Mere Sartaj.

Kariat, Ramu (1927-79) Malayalam director born in Engandiyur, Trichur Dist., Kerala, into a farming family. Started writing poetry and prose as a teenager for the weekly Mathrubhoomi. Assisted Vimal Kumar and P.R.S. Pillai on Thiramala (1953). First film, Neelakuyil (co-d with P. Bhaskaran), started independent cinema in Kerala. Member of the CPI. Early work is in context of the broad cultural renaissance spearheaded by the Kerala Peoples’ Arts Club (see IPTA), indebted to the 40s CPI-led uprising against Travancore State. Several major writers entered film through Kariat, e.g. Thakazhy Shivashankar Pillai (author of Chemmeen), Uroob (who scripted Neelakuyil), playwrights Thoppil Bhasi, K.T. Mohammed and S.L. Puram Sadanandan. Opened up new areas in Malayalam film with work strongly imbued with lyrical, even mystical feelings about a newly discovered sense of community through subjects often placed among fisherfolk and villagers. Briefly a Kerala MP. Finished shooting the Telugu film Kondagali before his death, but it remained unedited. His Chemmeen was later re-released in a Hindi-dubbed version called Chemmeen Lahren (1980). Acted in Bhaskaran’s Rarichan Enna Pauran (1956). Also produced M. Lakshmanan’s Tamil film Kannamma (1972). His last film, Karumbu, was completed later by K. Vijayan and released in 1984. 122

FILMOGRAPHY: 1954: Neelakuyil; 1956: Bharata Natyam (Doc); 1957: Minnaminungu; 1961: Mudiyanaya Puthran; 1963: Moodupadam; 1965: Chemmeen; 1968: Ezhu Rathrikal; 1970: Abhayam; 1972: Maya; 1973: Manavallakurchi: My Village (Doc); 1974: Nellu; 1976: Dweep; 1978: Ammuvinte Attinkutty; Kondagali; 1979: Karumbu; 1980: Malankattu.

Karnad, Girish Raghunath (b. 1938) Kannada and Hindi actor and director. Born in Matheran, Maharashtra, into medical family. Educated in English and Marathi but wrote in Kannada. Graduated in mathematics and statistics (1958). Rhodes Scholar, Oxford University (1960-3), later President of the Oxford Union Society (1963). Wrote first play Yayati (1961) in England. Manager of Oxford University Press in Madras (1963-70). Known mainly as playwright (also wrote: Tughlaq, 1964; Hayavadana, 1971; Anjumallige, 1977; Hittina Hunja, 1980; Nagamandala, 1986), where he is often considered part of a new post-Independence theatre movement with Badal Sircar, Mohan Rakesh and Vijay Tendulkar. Unlike the others, his plays are generally mythologicals informed by psychoanalytic symbology (Hayavadana, Nagamandala). Homi Bhabha fellowship for creative work in folk theatre (1970-2). Joined film as scenarist and lead actor for Samskara. First film as director, Vamsha Vriksha (with B.V. Karanth, the director of his stage plays), in the wake of Samskara’s success. Moved to Hindi film to work with Benegal as actor and scenarist (Nishant, 1975; Manthan, 1976, and the script of Kalyug, 1980). Since then has been a prolific actor in Hindi film and on television. Made one big-budget Hindi film for

Girish Karnad in Swami (1977)

Shashi Kapoor, Utsav. First director of autonomous FTII (1974-5). President of the Karnataka State Nataka Akademi (1976-8) and of the Sangeet Natak Akademi (1988-93). His best-known film, Kaadu, placed him, with Benegal, squarely within New Indian Cinema’s ruralism, although he also made the martial-arts adventure movie Ondanondu Kaladalli inspired by Kurosawa. Scripted his own films. FILMOGRAPHY (* only d/** also d): 1970: Samskara; 1971: Vamsha Vriksha**; 1973: D.R. Bendre* (Doc); Kaadu*; Jadu Ka Shankh; 1975: Nishant; 1976: Manthan; Kanakambara; 1977: Swami; Jeevanmukt; Tabbaliyu Neenade Magane/Godhuli*; 1978: Ondanondu Kaladalli*; 1979: Ratnadeep; 1980: Anveshane; Asha; Apne Paraye; Man Pasand; 1981: Paanch Qaidi; Shama; Umbartha/Subah; Kitapatti; 1982: Teri Kasam; Aparoopa/Apeksha; 1983: Ananda Bhairavi; Ek Baar Chale Aao; Sampark; Divorce; 1984: Utsav*; Tarang; Woh Ghar* (TV); Khoon Aur Sazaa; 1985: Meri Jung; Sur Sangam; Nee Thanda Kanike; Khandaan (TV); Pyari Bhabhi; 1986: Nilakurinhi Poothappol; Naan Adimai Illai; Sutradhar; Nenapina Doni; 1987: Swami; 1988: Akarshan; Kadina Benki; Kanaka Purandaradasa* (Doc); Mil Gayi Manzil Mujhe; 1989: Lamp in the Niche* (Parts 1&2) (Doc); 1990: Santha Shishunala Shareefa; Sara Jahan Hamara (TV); 1991: Swami and Friends (TV); Mysore Mallige; Jawahar; Guna; 1992: Cheluvi**; 1994: Kadhalan; Poornasatya. Karnataki, Vinayak see Vinayak, Master

Karun, Shaji Narayanan (b. 1952) Malayalam director born in Perinad Taluk, Quilon district, Kerala. Well-known cameraman, notably for Aravindan’s films but

Kaul, Mani R.

also for K.G. George and M.T. Vasudevan Nair. Graduate from the FTII’s cinematography course (1974). Directorial début, Piravi, was widely discussed in India and abroad. His camerawork (e.g. for Aravindan) virtually defines the look of Kerala’s New Indian Cinema with its soft, half-light effects that, in the black and white period, played a role reminiscent of Subrata Mitra’s work in 60s Bengali film. Colour work tends to suppress primary colours, their harsh introduction symbolising degeneracy or corruption. Also made several documentaries, e.g. Kerala Carnival, Manishada, Drishya Kerala, Kannikal etc.

Kasaravalli, Girish (b. 1949) Kannada director born in Kasaravalli village, Karnataka. Degree in pharmacology (1971). Even before graduating from the FTII (1975) had virtually taken over direction of Nagabharana’s Grahana (1978). First feature, Ghattashraddha, in the wake of Samskara (1970) and based on U.R. Ananthamurthy’s writing, extended the anti-brahminism of the literary Navya Movement. Principal of Adarsh Film Institute, Bangalore; edited a Kannada anthology on film theory with essays by Eisenstein, Kracauer, Bazin, Metz, Wollen et al (1983).

Karunanidhi, Muthuvel (b. 1924)

FILMOGRAPHY: 1975: Avashesh (Sh); Anya (Sh); 1977: Ghattashraddha; 1980: Akramana; 1981: Mooru Darigalu; 1986: Tabarana Kathe; Glowing Embers (Doc); 1988: Bannada Vesha (TV); 1989: Mane/Ek Ghar.

Tamil scenarist and DMK politician born in Tirukkuvalai, Tanjore Dist., TN. Political activist with the Dravidar Kazhagam (DK) from the age of 14; left school to become C.N. Annadurai’s assistant and worked on Periyar E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker’s paper, Kudiarasu. Led the 1953 Kallakkudi riots in which the DMK protested against the renaming of a railway station after a North Indian industrialist. Elected to the Tamil Nadu State Assembly in 1957 on a DMK ticket. Key figure in the anti-Hindi agitation of 1965, for which he was imprisoned. Minister for Public Works and Transport under Annadurai when the DMK was elected in 1967. Chief Minister in 1969 following Annadurai’s death; defeated by his former protégé MGR in 1977. Returned to power (1988), but was dismissed by the Congress (I)-backed minority government in 1990; in the 1991 election, following Rajiv Gandhi’s assassination, his party lost every seat in the state assembly except his own. Defeated Jayalalitha and returned to power in 1996. Film début at the Jupiter Studio, co-scripting A. Kasilingam’s Abhimanyu (1948) with A.S.A. Sami. First DMK film: Manthiri Kumari for T.R. Sundaram (1950). Wrote Kasilingam’s Maruthanattu Ilavarasi (1950), three films for L.V. Prasad (Manohara, 1954; Thayilla Pillai, 1961; Iruvar Ullam, 1963) and his best-known film, Krishnan-Panju’s Parasakthi (1952). According to Ka. Thirunavukkarasu (1990), he scripted 57 films, e.g. S.M. Sreeramulu Naidu’s MGR hit Malaikallan (1954), Kasilingam’s Sivaji Ganesan film Rangoon Radha (1956) based on Annadurai’s novel, and P. Neelakantan’s Poompuhar (1964) and Poomalai (1965). Also wrote c.50 short stories (e.g. Kuppai Thothi/Dustbin), many speeches, commentaries on Tamil literature and a speculative archaeology of the Tamil language tracing it to the Sangam poets and the Indus Valley. Columnist for the daily Murasoli and the journal Kumkumam. Turned producer with Mekala Pics, initially with MGR, MGR’s wife V.N. Janaki and P.S. Veerappa (Naam, 1953); the partnership soon broke up leaving Karunanidhi proprietor with Murasoli Maran, the duo later expanding into the popular SUNTV Tamil cable channel.

Scenarist and best-known early 20th C. UrduHindi playwright of enormously influential Parsee theatre plays. On contract to the Alfred Theatre in Bombay (1901-5) and then (after 1916) to the Madan Theatres’ Elphinstone and Corinthian companies in Calcutta, providing adaptations of Shakespeare (A Winter’s Tale became Mureed-e-Kash, 1899; Measure for Measure became Shaheed-e-Naaz aka Achhuta Daman in Hindi, 1902; King John became Saeed-e-Havas, 1907; Macbeth was Khwab-eHasti). Made a big impact with his linguistic transpositions of Shakespearean tragedy’s feudal elements of blood ties and blood feuds, honour, sacrifice and destiny into Farsi, Arabic (he knew both languages) and Moorish legends, simultaneously taking on board the European baroque’s Orientalist treatment of such sources. He extended his Shakespearean matrix to several partially original plays like Meethi Churi (1902), Safed Khoon (influenced by King Lear, 1907) and his best-known play, Yahudi Ki Ladki (1915), all of which were repeatedly filmed in the silent and early sound periods. His initial writing style followed the post-Indrasabha convention of mixing Urdu prose and poetry with Hindustani music. Later, with plays like Pehla Pyar (1911) and Van Devi (1916), he started writing in Hindustani, shifting away from historicals into socials and Pauranic mythologicals treated in the social genre: Bhishma (1925: filmed under his direction in 1933s), Seeta Banwas (1927). This linguistic and generic convergence helped, through his scripts, shape the films of Madan Theatres (Pati Bhakti, 1922; Paper Parinam, 1924; Dharmapatni, 1926; Aankh Ka Nasha, 1928 and Bharati Balak, 1931, which he also directed) and formed the persona of New Theatres’ famed tragedian, K.L. Saigal, scripting his influential Chandidas (1934), Yahudi Ki Ladki (1933) and writing his lyrics (e.g. Prem nagar mein banaoongi ghar main and Dukh ab din beetat nain). Turki Hoor, staged 1922 and filmed by J.J. Madan (1924), cast the male Narmada Shankar in the female lead, leading to censorship and the deletion of one scene.

FILMOGRAPHY: 1974: Lady of the Landing (Sh); 1988: Piravi; 1994: Swaham.

Kashmiri, Aga Hashr (1879-1935)

Kathavachak, Radheshyam (b. 1890) Writer born in Bareilly. Major 1920s Parsee theatre playwright, e.g. for New Alfred Co. In plays like Shri Krishnavtar (1926), Rukmini Mangal (1927) and Shravan Kumar (1928) he more or less invented the mythological in its familiar Hindi film version, still practised in e.g. Sagar’s TV serial, Ramayan (1986-8). Established as the most successful playwright of his generation with the hit Abhimanyu (New Alfred, 1916), whose book was a bestseller. He drew upon his strong familial roots in the performative traditions of the Ramleela and pioneered the mediation of Northern and Central Indian folk performances into the later mass cultural manifestation of the genre in Hindi cinema. Unlike e.g. Betaab, he made few claims for classicism beyond that of writing in ‘pure’ Hindi (as distinct from Urdu). He attempted to link up with the devotional rather than with the spectacular and addressed a proletarian audience through the publications of his Radheshyam Press in Bareilly. Worked briefly for Madan Theatres as scenarist and songwriter and freelanced often for former New Alfred colleagues. His autobiography (1957) is considered a classic description of the early 20th C. commercial theatre and also gives a first-hand description of the Madan film factory. Also scripted or wrote lyrics for Bhavnani’s Shakuntala (1931), Dhrupad Rai’s Shri Satyanarayan (1935), Varma’s Usha Haran (1940), Sohrab Modi’s Jhansi Ki Rani (1953) and Sharad Desai’s Shravan Kumar (1960).

Kaul, Mahesh (1911-72) Hindi director born in Lahore. Educated at Moni College, Nagpur, and worked as a journalist and as branch manager of a bank. Entered films as lyricist and dialogue writer. Début as actor in Abbas-scripted Naya Sansar. Played Dronacharya in Altekar’s mythological, Mahatma Vidur. Also produced his third film as director, Gopinath, featuring Raj Kapoor in one of his first major roles alongside IPTA actress Tripti Mitra. The film presents an influential version of a starkly realist acting idiom in 40s Hindi political melodrama. Worked briefly in Filmistan in mid-50s. Directed Guru Dutt in Sautela Bhai and played the crusty colonial father-in-law in Kaagaz Ke Phool. Scripted Daryani’s Dukh Sukh (1974). Uncle of Mani Kaul. FILMOGRAPHY (* act only): 1941: Naya Sansar*; 1942: Apna Ghar/Aple Ghar*; 1943: Mahatma Vidur*; Angoori; 1944: Paristan; 1948: Gopinath; 1951: Naujawan; 1953: Jeevan Jyoti; 1957: Abhimaan; 1958: Aakhri Dao; Talaaq; 1959: Kaagaz Ke Phool*; 1961: Pyar Ki Pyaas; 1962: Sautela Bhai; 1967: Diwana; Palki; 1968: Sapnon Ka Saudagar; 1969: Raakhi Raakhi; 1971: Tere Mere Sapne*; 1973: Agni Rekha.

Kaul, Mani R. (b. 1942) Director born in Jodhpur, Rajasthan. Graduate from University of Jaipur (1963) and from the 123

K.D. Brothers

several shots of Gandhi and Maulana Shaukat Ali. By the early 20s, K.D. Brothers mainly dealt with newsreels such as Chimanlal Luhar’s early work. Probably starting with tent bioscopes, by the early 20s their interests expanded to include two of Bombay’s frontline theatres, the Globe and the West End. An advertisement saying that the West End would release ‘no serial and no Indian film’ while the Globe would show the ‘best of serial chapter plays and the pick of Indian productions’, clearly reveals their twin distribution interests. Among the Indian films they distributed, within India and abroad (foreign distribution was for a while controlled by A. Narayanan) were Hindustan Cinema and Bharat films, the first two Dhiren Ganguly films and Suchet Singh’s Narasinh Mehta (1920).

Khan, Shah Rukh (b. 1965)

Mani Kaul working on Idiot (1991) FTII (1966) where he was taught by Ghatak. Nephew of Mahesh Kaul. Often acted in Film Institute student films in the mid-60s, and appeared as actor in Basu Chatterjee’s Sara Akash (1969). Received Jawaharlal Nehru Fellowship (1974-6). Part of the YUKT Collective that made Ghashiram Kotwal. Prominent cultural activist and organiser, often making common cause with Shahani in efforts to extend the range of Indian film cultures, and significant teacher of a new generation of FTII graduates, some of whom became key members of his film unit. First film, Uski Roti, is a cinematic exploration of narrative space and volume, defining much of New Indian Cinema’s formal vocabulary. Since Satah Se Uthata Admi, based on Hindi poet G.M. Muktibodh, made features on e.g. Dhrupad music and on terracotta artisans, emphasising improvised reconstruction of available material. Edits his colour films first in b&w, having printed every single take. Later work strongly influenced by his study of Dhrupad music with Ustad Zia Mohiyuddin Dagar and of Anandvardhan’s Dhwanyaloka, a 9th C. Sanskrit text on aesthetics exploring states of conscious perception while positing language as possessing a specific, suggestive dimension beyond its denotative or metaphoric faculties. Developing aspects of classical music theories, particularly the Sangeet Samay Saar (14th C.), Kaul emphasises the value of what is absent the varjit, the forbidden - as perennially in ‘argument’ (vivadi) with what is narratively present. The evanescent moment of creation is posed at the point where human action simultaneously registers what exists and in the process, produces something unprecedented. His elaborate theory of contemporary aesthetic practice, ‘Seen From Nowhere’, was presented in the cultural historian Kapila Vatsyayan’s seminar Inner Space, Outer Space (Indira Gandhi National Centre For Art) and published 124

in the book Concepts of Space: Ancient and Modern. Among various non-Indian sources, has drawn from haiku poetry, the nouveau roman, mannerist painting, Bresson and Ozu. Recent return to fiction cinema draws mainly from Dostoevsky (Nazar, Idiot). Refused to sign the documentary Historical Sketch of Indian Women during the Emergency when its producers, Films Division, required him to change the last shot and the commentary. FILMOGRAPHY: 1967: Yatrik (Sh); 6.40 p.m. (Sh); Homage to the Teacher (Sh); 1968: Forms and Design (Doc); 1969: Uski Roti; 1970: During and after Air Raid (Doc); 1971: Ashad Ka Ek Din; 1973: Duvidha; 1974: The Nomad Puppeteers (Doc); 1975: Historical Sketch of Indian Women (Doc; uncredited); 1976: Chitrakathi (Doc); Ghashiram Kotwal; 1979: Arrival (Doc); 1980: Satah Se Uthata Admi; 1981: Desert of a Thousand Lines (Sh); 1982: Dhrupad; 1984: Mati Manas; 1988: Before My Eyes (Doc); 1989: Siddheshwari; Nazar; 1991: Idiot; 1994:The Cloud Door (Sh).

K.D. Brothers Often described as India’s largest film importers in the early silent era, the company, not well documented because of its early closure, was apparently owned by Krishnadas Dwarkadas. By 1917 the company was well known as importers of projectors and raw stock, with branches in Calcutta and Benares. Its advertised film imports in the Bombay Chronicle include William Fox’s A Wife’s Sacrifice (1919), the Gaumont Gazette and, in 1921, independently made newsreels showing events connected with the Swadeshi agitations: e.g. Collecting Foreign Clothes in the Streets of Bombay, Enthusiasts on their way to the Bonfire near the Elphinstone Mills and

Major 90s Hindi star. Former stage actor in New Delhi, debuted on television in the serial Circus. First screen role playing Raghujan in Mani Kaul’s Idiot. In his early starring roles he often played unconventional ‘negative’ roles, e.g. in Baazigar and Darr. Alongside his mainstream productions, also acts regularly features in Ketan Mehta, Aziz Mirza and Kundan Shah films, some of which he has also distributed. FILMOGRAPHY: 1991: Idiot; Dil Ashna Hai; 1992: Diwana; Chamatkar; Raju Ban Gaya Gentleman; Maya Memsaab; 1993: King Uncle; Bazigar; Darr; Kabhi Haan Kabhi Naa; 1994: Anjaam; 1995: Karan Arjun; Zamana Deewana; Oh Darling Yeh Hai India!; Guddu; Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge; Ram Jaane; Trimurti.

Khandekar, Vishnu Sakharam (1898-1976) Influential Marathi writer and essayist born in Sangli, Maharashtra. Closely associated with the progressive, secular tradition of the reformist G.G. Agarkar. A former schoolteacher, his bestknown novels (Ulka, 1934; Hirva Chafa, 1938; Pandhre Dhag, 1939) are often deliberately pedagogical, with characters presented as social ‘types’ in situations devised as guides to morally correct behaviour. Wrote several original scripts, e.g. for Master Vinayak (Jwala, 1938; Amrit and Junnarkar’s Sangam, both 1941) some of which he later novelised (Rikama Devhara based on Devata, 1939; Sukhacha Shodh, 1939, etc.). His literary world is ‘peopled on the one side by ambitious men who have lost their humanity and, on the other, by the poor [w]ho suffer but never lose their humaneness; poverty is always perceived as a social consequence of crippling ambition’ (Mordekar, Aug 1941). His stories are high melodrama full of sacrifices bravely borne, passionate revenge and holy sin in extraordinarily convoluted plots (Chhaya, 1936; Mazhe Bal, 1943), exerting a strong influence in Marathi cinema, e.g. on Raja Paranjpe/G.D. Madgulkar. Based scripts on C.V. Joshi’s popular political satires featuring the bumbling duo Gundyabhau and

Khote, Durga

Chimanrao: Lagna Pahave Karun (1940) and Sarkari Pahune (1942). Scripted C. Raghuvir’s Soneri Savli (1953), Madhav Shinde’s Antaricha Diva (1960), Mansala Pankh Astaat (1961) and Sunbai (1962; also providing the lyrics together with Shanta Shelke).

Khanna, Rajesh (b. 1942) Originally Jatin Khanna. The first of the late 60s/early 70s Hindi superstars with a big impact on the industry, later equalled only by Bachchan. His late 60s roles were often lowbudget genre films (e.g. Yash Chopra’s thriller Ittefaq). Broke through in two popular love stories made and released simultaneously: Aradhana and Do Raaste, which shaped his film persona, later elaborated by Shakti Samanta. His image is traceable to Gulshan Nanda’s novelettes generated in the context of the industrialisation of 60s Hindi publishing pioneered by Mitra Prakashan’s best-selling journal, Manohar Kahaniyan, in Allahabad, and its numerous imitations aiming serials at less-educated readers. In the 70s, he often played a social orphan (Hathi Mere Saathi) deprived of maternal love and stricken by some existential malaise (Amar Prem) driving him to depravity (Dushman, Kati Patang) from which the heroine and foster-mother rescue him, usually by naming him as their protector. Often partnered by Sharmila Tagore or Mumtaz in his best-known films. His image of the innocent in a big bad world extended also to famous roles as a man who laughs to cover up some internal tragedy (Anand, Andaz). This approach influenced film-makers like Yash Chopra, but it was quickly overtaken in the mid-70s by Bachchan, making Khanna’s style an anachronism in the 80s. Stood for election as a Congress (I) candidate in Delhi, almost defeating the rightwing BJP leader, L.K. Advani. In a by-election he defeated the film star Shatrughan Sinha (who now represented the BJP) and became an MP. FILMOGRAPHY: 1966: Aakhri Khat; 1967: Baharon Ke Sapne; Raaz; Aurat; 1969: Aradhana; Bandhan; Do Raaste; Doli; Ittefaq; Khamoshi; 1970: Aan Milo Sajna; Anand; Kati Patang; Sachcha Jhutha; Safar; The Train; 1971: Amar Prem; Andaz; Badnaam Farishte; Chhoti Bahu; Dushman; Hathi Mere Saathi; Maryada; Mehboob Ki Mehndi; 1972: Apna Desh; Anuraag; Bawarchi; Dil Daulat Duniya; Joru Ka Gulam; Malik; Mere Jeevan Saathi; Shehzada; 1973: Avishkar; Daag; Namak Haram; Raja Rani; 1974: Aaina; Aap Ki Kasam; Ajnabi; Humshakal; Prem Nagar; Roti; 1975: Akraman; Prem Kahani; 1976: Bandalbaaz; Maha Chor; Mehbooba; Tyaag; Ginny Aur Johnny; 1977: Anurodh; Chalta Purza; Chhaila Babu; Karm; Palkon Ki Chhaon Mein; Tinku; Aashiq Hoon Baharon Ka; 1978: Bhola Bhala; Prem Bandhan; Chakravyuha; Naukri; 1979: Amar Deep; Janata Havaldar; Muqabala; 1980: Bandish; Phir Wohi Raat; Red Rose; Thodisi Bewafayi; Aanchal; 1981: Dard; Dhanwan; Fifty-Fifty; Kudrat; Dil-eNadaan; 1982: Ashanti; Dharam Kanta;

Rajput; Suraag; Jaanwar; 1983: Agar Tum Na Hote; Avatar; Nishan; Souten; Babu; 1984: Aaj Ka MLA Ramavatar; Asha Jyoti; Awaaz; Maqsad; Naya Kadam; Paapi Pet Ka Sawaal Hai; Durga; Hum Dono; Dharam Aur Kanoon; 1985: Alag Alag; Aakhir Kyon; Awara Baap; Bewafai; Insaaf Main Karoonga; Masterji; Oonche Log; Zamana; 1986: Adhikar; Amrit; Angarey; Anokha Rishta; Mohabbat Ki Kasam; Nasihat; Shatru; 1987: Gora; Awaam; Nazrana; Seetapur Ki Geeta; 1988: Vijay; Woh Phir Aayegi; 1989: Paap Ka Ant; Mamata Ki Chhaon Mein; Main Tera Dushman; Ghar Ka Chirag; 1990: Ghar Parivar; Swarg; 1991: Rupaye Dus Karod.

Khayyam, Mohammed Zahur (b. 1927) Hindi music director born in Jullundur. Studied for a while with Pandit Amarnath and with music directors Husnlal-Bhagatram. Went to Bombay to become a film actor, then worked in Lahore. Early films composed in association with Aziz Khan, Bulo C. Rani et al. Worked at Ranjit Studio. Sang a duet in Akhtar Hussein’s Romeo and Juliet (1947) and acted in S.D. Narang’s Yeh Hai Zindagi (1947). First independent composing assignment, Zia Sarhadi’s Footpath, including the hit Shyame-gam ki kasam sung by Talat Mahmood. Worked extensively in the traditional ghazal format. His collaboration with Sahir Ludhianvi on songs satirising Nehruite politics in Phir Subah Hogi (Chin-o-Arab hamara and Woh subah kabhi to aayegi) are definitive of 50s Hindi cinema’s engagement with existential realism. Made a comeback with the hit love songs of Yash Chopra’s Kabhi Kabhie and Muzaffar Ali’s Urdu period movie, Umrao Jaan. Also did music for Esmayeel Shroff’s love stories in the 80s. Credited as ‘Sharmaji’ on his first 4 films. Har Mandir Singh’s Geet Kosh suggests he also scored a film called Hum Hain Rahi Pyar Ke in the 60s. FILMOGRAPHY: 1948: Heer Ranjha; 1949: Parda; 1950: Biwi; 1951: Pyar Ki Baatein; 1953: Footpath; 1954: Dhobi Doctor; Gul Bahar; 1955: Tatar Ka Chor; 1958: Lala Rukh; Phir Subah Hogi; 1960: Barood; Bambai Ki Billi; 1961: Shola Aur Shabnam; 1964: Shagun; 1965: Mohabbat Isko Kehte Hain; 1966: Aakhri Khat; 1967: Mera Bhai Mera Dushman; 1974: Pyaase Dil; Sankalp; 1975: Sandhya; Mutthi Bhar Chawal; 1976: Kabhi Kabhie; 1977: Shankar Hussain; 1978: Trishul; 1979: Meena Kumari Ki Amar Kahani; Noorie; Khandaan; Chambal Ki Kasam; 1980: Thodisi Bewafayi; 1981: Ahista Ahista; Dard; Nakhuda; Umrao Jaan; Dil-eNadaan; 1982: Bazaar; Banwri; Dil Aakhir Dil Hai; Saval (H); 1983: Mehndi; Razia Sultan; 1984: Lorie; 1985: Bepanah; Tere Shaher Mein; 1986: Anjuman; 1988: Parbat Ke Us Paar; Ek Naya Rishta; 1989: Jaan-eWafaa; 1990: Jawani Zindabad.

Khosla, Raj (1925-91) Hindi director born in Ludhiana, Punjab. Family moved to Bombay (1934). Studied

music from an early age and learned singing under Pandit Jagannath Prasad. Graduated in history and economics from Elphinstone College; arts degree from Bombay University. Joined AIR as singer (1946). Dev Anand made him assistant to Guru Dutt who gave him first major directorial assignment, CID. Acted a small role in Dutt’s Jaal (1952). Worked for Navketan and Filmalaya. Production partnership with cameraman Jal Mistry, Naya Films (e.g. Bambai Ka Babu, about incest). Then solo with Raj Khosla Films (1967). His Do Raaste helped make Rajesh Khanna a superstar. Returned in late 70s to the themes of bravely borne suffering, mainly addressing female audiences, which is unusual in recent Hindi cinema (Main Tulsi Tere Aangan Ki; Teri Maang Sitaron Se Bhar Doon, etc.). Known for inventive song picturisations, a skill he learnt from Guru Dutt. Also producer (e.g. Do Chor, 1972). FILMOGRAPHY: 1955: Milap; 1956: CID; 1958: Kala Pani; Solva Saal; 1960: Bambai Ka Babu; 1962: Ek Musafir Ek Hasina; 1964: Woh Kaun Thi; 1966: Do Badan; Mera Saaya; 1967: Anita; 1969: Chirag; Do Raaste; 1971: Mera Gaon Mera Desh; 1973: Kachche Dhaage; Shareef Badmash; 1975: Prem Kahani; 1976: Nehle Pe Dehla; 1978: Main Tulsi Tere Aangan Ki; 1980: Do Premi; Dostana; 1981: Daasi; 1982: Teri Maang Sitaron Se Bhar Doon; 1984: Mera Dost Mera Dushman; Sunny; Mati Mange Khoon; 1988: Naqab.

Khote, Durga (1905-91) The first Marathi star to catapult to All-India film popularity. Born into an élite Maharashtra family in Bombay; educated in Cathedral School and influenced by Avantikabai Gokhale who helped put feminist issues on to the nationalist agenda. Her class background, unusual for an actress, allowed her to assume different images from the conventional Sangeet Natak stereotypes. Acted in Bhavnani’s Farebi Jaal but effectively introduced in Prabhat’s first sound film, Ayodhyecha Raja/Ayodhya Ka Raja. She then shifted to New Theatres to work with Debaki Bose, being the only actress featuring simultaneously in the two leading studios. As the queen in Shantaram’s Maya Machindra, with the Cheetah at her feet or in her most famous early role as the pirate in Amar Jyoti, she recalled the Talmadge sisters or Mary Pickford. Following her role in Atre’s Payachi Dasi, she settled down to a long career as character actress (e.g. as queen mother in Mughal-e-Azam) and did some theatre, being associated for a while with the IPTA (she acted in their production of Andolan to replenish the Gandhi Fund). Also acted in and directed some Marathi plays, starting with Bhaubandhaki. Started Durga Khote Prod. for advertising and short films, run by her daughter-in-law, Tina Khote. Wrote an autobiography, Mee Durga Khote (1982). FILMOGRAPHY: 1931: Farebi Jaal; 1932: Ayodhyecha Raja/Ayodhya Ka Raja; Maya Machhindra; 1933: Patit Pawan; 125

Kohinoor Film Company

Kohinoor Film Company

Durga Khote in Bharat Bhet (1942)

Rajrani Meera; 1934: Seeta; 1935: Jeevan Natak; Inquilab; 1936: Amar Jyoti; 1937: Pratibha; Kal Ki Baat; 1938: Nandakumar (Mar); Savangadi/Saathi; 1939: Adhuri Kahani; 1940: Narsi Bhagat; Geeta; Raigad; 1941: Payachi Dasi/Charnon Ki Dasi; 1942: Bharat Milap/Bharat Bhet; Vijay; 1943: Qurbani; Mahasati Ansuya; Prithvi Vallabh; Tasveer; Zameen; Mahatma Vidur; 1944: Dil Ki Baat; Maharathi Karna; Phool; 1945: Lakhrani; Pannadai; Veer Kunal; Village Girl; 1946: Rukmini Swayamvar; Daasi Ya Maa; Hum Ek Hain; Maharani Meenal Devi; 1948: Anjuman; Moruchi Mavshi; Seeta Swayamvar; 1949: Maya Bazaar; Jeet; Singaar; 1950: Alakh Niranjan; Hamara Ghar; Magroor; Mi Daru Sodli; Shri Krishna Darshan; Surajmukhi; Har Har Mahadev; Hindustan Hamara; Nishana; Veer Bhimsen; Beqasoor; Kalyan Khajina; 1951: Jashaas Tase; Aaram; Hamari Shaan; Humlog; Malati Madhav; Muraliwala; Nai Zindagi; Nand Kishore; Sagar; Sazaa; 1952: Aandhiyan; Hyderabad Ki Nazneen; Lal Kunwar; Indrasan; Mordhwaj; Sandesh; Narveer Tanaji; 1953: Anand Bhavan; Chacha Choudhury; Dharmapatni; Mashuqa; Naulakha Haar; Shikast; Naag Panchami; Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu; Malkin; 1954: Laila; Ramayan; Lakeeren; Mirza Ghalib; Khel Chalala Nashibacha; Jhanjavaat; 1955: Hasina; Adl-eJehangir; Madh Bhare Nain; Shri Ganesh Vivah; Jagadguru Shankaracharya; 1956: Dwarkadheesh; Insaaf; Parivar; Patrani; 126

Harihar Bhakti; Rajdhani; 1957: Bade Sarkar; Bhabhi; Mera Salaam; Musafir; Ram Hanuman Yuddha; Talash; 1958: Gopichand; Raj Tilak; 1959: Ardhangini; Maine Jeena Seekh Liya; Ghar Ghar Ki Baat; 1960: Love in Simla; Mughal-e-Azam; Parakh; Usne Kaha Tha; Umaj Padel Tar; 1961: Bhabhi Ki Chudiyan; Do Bhai; Ek Ladki Saat Ladke; Senapati; Kismat Palat Ke Dekh; 1962: Main Shaadi Karne Chala; Manmauji; Rangoli; 1963: Mujhe Jeene Do; The Householder; 1964: Benazir; Door Ki Awaz; Kaise Kahun; Tere Dwar Khada Bhagwan; Masterji (also d); 1965: Do Dil; Raigadacha Rajbandi; Kajal; Purnima; Janam Janam Ke Saathi; 1966: Anupama; Dadi Maa; Devar; Pyar Mohabbat; Sagaai; 1967: Chandan Ka Palna; 1968: Jhuk Gaya Aasmaan; Sangharsh; Sapnon Ka Saudagar; 1969: Dharti Kahe Pukar Ke; Jeene Ki Raah; Mera Dost; Pyar Ka Sapna; Ek Phool Do Mali; 1970: Dhartichi Lekre; Gopi; Dev Manoos; Khilona; Umang; 1971: Banphool; Dharti Ki God Mein; Ek Nari Ek Brahmachari; 1972: Bawarchi; Mangetar; Mere Bhaiya; Shararat; Raja Jani; 1973: Abhimaan; Agni Rekha; Bobby; Door Nahin Manzil; Namak Haram; Sone Ke Haath; Paanch Dushman; 1974: Insaniyat; Bidaai; Dil Diwana; 1975: Biwi Kiraye Ki; Chaitali; Do Thug; Kala Sona; Khushboo; Vandana; 1976: Bajrang Bali; Jaaneman; Rangila Ratan; Shaque; 1977: Chacha Bhatija; Chor Sipahi; Darling Darling; Do Chehre; Naami Chor; Paheli; Paapi; Saheb Bahadur; 1980: Karz.

Est: 1919. India’s largest and most influential silent studio. Preceded by S.N. Patankar’s Patankar Friends & Co., where Kohinoor proprietor D.N. Sampat (1884-1958) entered film production, and followed by the Krishna, Sharda and Imperial Studios, it was until 1928 the place where Indian cinema turned professional. Launched in partnership with Maneklal Patel, then an Ahmedabad exhibitor, some of the studio’s first films were documentaries informed mainly by Sampat’s Gandhian adherences, e.g. the film of the Ali brothers’ arrival (1920) and Horniman’s return to Bombay after release from prison (1925). Also known in this period for topicals and newsreels, incl. e.g. Bodhgaya-Benares, Taj Mahal and St. Xavier’s Exposition. Early Kanjibhai Rathod films were restricted to Bombay and Western Indian exhibition outlets but the studio made a national impact in the wake of the notoriety generated by the banning of the nationalist Bhakta Vidur (1921), followed by the success of Gul-eBakavali and Kala Naag (both 1924), all aimed at a pan-Indian audience. The big breakthrough was the appointment of independent distribution agents, Bachubhai Bhagubhai, who bought rights to all their films. By 1925 the studio’s monthly booking revenue exceeded Rs 50,000. The idea of the Hollywood-style film factory with several simultaneous productions, of story sessions and the building of star careers, transformed the production practices of the till then Phalke-dominated notion of a studio as a family-based cottage industry. Early cameramen incl. V.B. Joshi and D.D. Dabke. Although Kohinoor’s surviving publicity pamphlets indicate only one overdetermining authorial presence, writer Mohanlal Dave (until Manilal Joshi shifted the practice by writing his own screenplays and giving a full list of credits, even the actors were rarely mentioned and almost never the director), it was nevertheless the place where the star system was born with Moti and Jamna and where the silent cinema’s most successful filmmaker, Homi Master, did his best-known films. Tara, Khalil, Raja Sandow and Zubeida started there, as did Sulochana in Bhavnani’s Veer Bala (1925). Other major Kohinoor figures include Chimanlal Luhar, Harshadrai Mehta, cameraman Pandurang Naik, Gohar, V.M. Vyas, Haribhai Desai (later of Surya Film) and Ranjit proprietor Chandulal Shah. Virtually the entire Imperial stable of directors, including R.S. Choudhury, Bhavnani, Nandlal Jaswantlal and R.N. Vaidya came from Kohinoor. After a fire virtually destroyed the studio in 1923, Maneklal Patel pulled out to start Krishna, and after 1928 Devare was mostly responsible for the studio’s new incarnation as the employee-run co-operative venture Kohinoor United Artists. A key figure in the studio’s later years was cameramandirector N.G. Devare. It closed in 1932.

Koirala, Manisha Hindi actress of Nepali origin; grand-daughter of former Nepali Prime Minister G.P. Koirala.

Krishna, Ghantamneni sivarama

Debut in Subhash Ghai’s Saudagar made her a star, but she only consolidated her reputation as an actress following performances in 1942: A Love Story and Bombay. Has performed in several late 90s films with equal fluency in both the Hindi commercial mainstream as well as in challenging roles (e.g. in Akele Hum Akele Tum, adapting Robert Benton’s Kramer Versus Kramer, 1979). FILMOGRAPHY: 1991: Saudagar; First Love Letter; 1992: Yalgaar; 1993: Dhanwan; Insaniyat Ka Devata; Anmol; 1994: Milan; 1942: A Love Story; Sangdil Sanam; Criminal; Manjdhar; 1995: Bombay; Anokha Andaz; Guddu; Ram Shastra; Akele Hum Akele Tum; Ramshastra.

Kolhapur Cinetone A rare instance of a film studio funded directly by feudal royalty. Amid the popular cultural renaissance in the first decades of the 20th C. around the court of the Shahu Maharaj at Kolhapur, Baburao Painter’s Maharashtra Film was already a showpiece. When V. Shantaram, Damle-Fattelal and Baburao Pendharkar left to start Prabhat in 1929, and later when Painter himself resigned to seal the fate of Maharashtra Film, numerous efforts were made by the Shahu Maharaj himself to continue the tradition that had earned Kolhapur the title of the ‘Hollywood of Marathi film’. The family started the Shalini Cinetone exclusively to keep Painter employed. In 1933, when Prabhat moved to Pune, they launched Kolhapur Cinetone as its rival, enticing Baburao Pendharkar, Bhalji Pendharkar and Master Vinayak to quit Prabhat and to take over this new venture. Apart from Bhalji Pendharkar’s mythological, Akashwani (1934) and Vinayak’s début feature Vilasi Ishwar (1935), the other notable production before the studio closed is Dadasaheb Phalke’s only sound film, his intended magnum opus, Gangavataran (1937).

Komala, A. P. (b. 1934) One of the most popular singers in Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam and Kannada film. Classically trained in the Carnatic style. Début with Chittor V. Nagaiah’s film, Thyagayya (1946).

Kondke, Dada (1932-98) Marathi and Hindi director-actor born in Bombay. Employed as a millworker. Started in Vidushaka roles (‘the fool’) in Marathi lok natya, a bawdy working-class adaptation of Tamasha, e.g. his classic performance in the most famous play of the genre, Vasant Sabnis’s Vichha Majhi Puri Kara (1965). The Tamasha was first adapted to film in 40s Marathi cinema (Lokshahir Ramjoshi, 1947; Sangtye Aika, 1959) but Kondke took it to extremes. His film titles and dialogues are famous for their vulgarity and inventiveness. Often cast Usha Chavan as his leading lady. Début with Bhalji Pendharkar in Tambdi Mati. Started producing films with Govind Kulkarni’s Songadya (1971). Turned director in 1975.

Had censorship trouble during the Emergency with Ram Ram Gangaram (originally called Gangaram Veeskalmi), intended as a spoof of the Twenty-point Economic Programme. It was remade by Mehul Kumar in Gujarati as Ram Ram Amtharam, as was Pandu Havaldar, which became Chandu Jamadar. Currently a vocal supporter of the Hindu communalist party based in Bombay, Shiv Sena. Acted in his own directions. FILMOGRAPHY (* act only): 1969: Tambdi Mati*; 1971: Songadya*; 1972: Ekta Jeev Sadashiv*; 1973: Andhala Marto Dola*; 1975: Pandu Havaldar; 1976: Tumcha Amcha Jamla; 1977: Ram Ram Gangaram; Chandu Jamadar*; 1978: Bot Lavin Tithe Gudgudlya; 1980: Hyoch Navara Pahije; 1981: Ram Ram Amtharam*; Ganimi Kava*; 1982: Ali Angavar; 1984: Tere Mere Beech Mein; 1986: Andheri Raat Mein Diya Tere Haath Mein; 1987: Muka Ghya Muka; 1988: Mala Gheoon Chala; Aage Ki Soch; 1989: Khol De Meri Zabaan; 1990: Palva Palvi; 1992: Yevu Ka Gharat; 1994: Sasarcha Dhotar.

Kosaraju Raghavaiah Choudhury (1905-87) Prolific Telugu lyricist born in Appikatla, Guntur Dist., AP. Influenced by Kondamudi Narasimham Panthulu, in whose play based on the Ramayana he acted when still in his teens. Worked as a journalist in the Raitu Patrika where he met the composer Samudrala Raghavacharya and the director Ramabrahmam. Published his first poetry anthology, Kadagandlu. Turned to film lyrics with Raitu Bidda (1939), including the song Nidramelkonara tammuda. Returned to films with humorous lyrics for K.V. Reddy’s Pedda Manushulu (1954), followed by one of his most famous songs, Jebulu bomma je jela bomma (in B.A. Subba Rao’s Raju Peda, 1954). Known for his earthy poetry, often referring to popular morality tales. Wrote lyrics for c.350 films.

Kottarakkara, Kuttan Pillai (b. 1924) Scenarist, dialogue writer and one of the most successful producers in 70s Malayalam cinema. Born in Kottarakkara, Kerala. Stage actor aged 8. Début in 1950 as film actor (Atmasakhi, 1950; Ponkathir, 1953; Avakashi, 1954). Dialogues for Ponkathir were followed with scripts for over 25 films, after which he débuted as producer with the Tamil film Parisu (1963), directed by Yoganand and starring MGR. Concentrated on producing films which he scripts himself, making c.50 films in three languages (Malayalam, Kannada and Tamil), mainly love stories and suspense dramas. Noted scripts include the Sivaji Ganesan hit Pasamalar (1961). Kottarakkara Sridharan Nair see Nair, Kottarakkara Sridharan

Krishen, Pradip (b. 1949) Hindi and English director born in New Delhi. Educated at Mayo College and St. Stephen’s College (1966-9), then at Balliol, Oxford (196971). Taught history at Ramjas College, New Delhi (1971-6). Started his film career when he bought a Bell & Howell 16mm camera (1973); briefly apprenticed to Shyam Benegal (1973). Assisted Georges Luneau (Ballade de Babuji, 1975); then worked with the private Delhibased TVNF company producing 81 popular sci-fi films of 15’ each, shooting and directing some of them himself. Freelance documentarist with Grapevine Media. Début feature in Hindi, Massey Sahib, which was four years in the making; next two films were in English, sponsored by TV and aimed at an international market. Edited a special issue of the India International Centre Quarterly (March 1980) on cinema. Electric Moon is a UK production, mainly for Channel 4 in London. FILMOGRAPHY: 1977: The Social Life of the Honey Bee; Medicinal Drugs; Reinventing the Wheel; King Coal; Reading the Moon Rocks; 1978: The Birth of the Himalayas; The Silicone Chip; Lovesongs; Nestmates; 1979: Glass; Why Birds Sing; The Age of the Earth; 1981: By Word of Mouth (all Sh); 1985: Massey Sahib; 1988: In Which Annie Gives It Those Ones (TV); 1991: Electric Moon (TV).

Krishna Film Company Silent studio; Est: 1924 as a diversification of the Krishna Film Laboratory in Bombay by Maneklal Patel, a former exhibitor in Ahmedabad, scenarist (usually under name of Krishna Kumar), film-maker and partner in the Kohinoor Studio. Among the most successful of Kohinoor’s offshoots, they made 44 films 1925-31, including works by Luhar’s partner Harshadrai Mehta, Kanjibhai Rathod, Mohanlal Shah, A.P. Kapur and Prafulla Ghosh, cameramen Gordhanbhai Patel and Ambalal Patel and actors such as Gulab, Ermeline, Nandram and Rampiary. Its most famous silent productions were Prafulla Ghosh’s mammoth 4-part serial, Hatimtai (1929), the muchdiscussed (e.g. by the 1928 Cinematograph Committee) Janjirne Jankare (1927) and the K.M. Munshi story Kono Vank? The studio made a major financial investment in sound as Krishnatone, making 5 talkies in 1931 (4 by Rathod), but it closed in 1935 following major litigation concerning their last film, Fashionable India (1935), with financiers Kapurchand & Co. and the agency supplying imported film stock. In the silent days, Krishna filmed the work of several noted Gujarati novelists, e.g. Narayanji Vassanji Thakker, Gopalji Delwadakar, Shaida, K.M. Munshi, Champshi Udeshi and Ramanlal Desai, and also hired some of them as scenarists.

Krishna, Ghantamneni sivarama (b. 1943) Telugu actor, producer and director born in Tenali taluk, Guntur, AP. Educated in Tenali; graduated from the Eluru C.R. Reddy College. 127

Krishnakant

Stage actor before joining films. First break in Adurthi Subba Rao’s all-new-faces film Thene Manasulu, playing the second lead. Achieved critical acclaim in Bapu’s Saakshi, working for the first time with his future wife, actress-filmmaker Vijayanirmala. Became a top Telugu star with the influential hit, Goodachari 116 (remade in Hindi as Farz, 1967), a James Bondtype thriller. Known mainly for thrillers and police dramas, including remakes of Hollywood films. In the 70s he starred in over a dozen films annually. Established the Padmalaya Films prod. co. which grew into the famous Padmalaya Studio in Hyderabad, one of the largest and most elaborately equipped studios in the country. With Mosagalluku Mosagadu, he introduced aspects of the Italian western into Telugu cinema. Ventured successfully into Hindi with the Jeetendra and Sridevi film Himmatwala (1983), but could not repeat the success with Sinhasan/ Simhasanam, a big-budget flop starring Jeetendra in the Hindi and himself in the Telugu versions. Elected MP in 1989 for the Congress (I), but lost his seat in 1991. Made Praja Pratinidhi and Sahasame Naa Upiri as campaign films, attacking his former colleague NTR’s rule in AP. FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1965: Thene Manasulu; 1966: Kanne Manasulu; Goodachari 116; 1967: Iddaru Monagallu; Saakshi; Marupurani Katha; Stree Janma; Upayamlo Apayam; Private Master; Ave Kallu; 1968: Asadhyulu; Niluvu Dopidi; Manchi Kutumbam; Sircar Express; Amayukudu; Attagaru Kottakodalu; Lakshminivasam; Nenante Nene; Undamma Bottupeduta; Chellelikosam; Vintha Kapuram; 1969: Manchi Mithrulu; Love in Andhra; Bhale Abbayilu; Bommalu Cheppina Katha; Mahabaludu; Shabash Satyam; Astulu Antastulu; Takkaridonga Chakkanichukka; Vichitra Kutumbam; Muhurtabalam; Jarigina Katha; Jagath Kiladilu; Anna Dammulu; Karpura Arathi; Bandhipotu Bhimanna; 1970: Akkachellelu; Maa Nanna Nirdoshi; Malli Pelli; Vidhi Vilasam; Amma Kosam; Talli Bottu; Pelli Sambandham; Pelli Koothuru; Maa Manchi Akkaiah; Pagasadhishta; Agni Pareeksha; Akhantudu; Pachani Samsaram; Rendu Kutumbala Katha; Alludu Menalludu; 1971: Andariki Monagadu; Prema Jeevalu; Master Kiladi; Attalu Kodallu; Pattu Kunte Laksha; Nammaka Drohulu; Anuradha; Bangaru Kutumbam; Mosagalluku Mosagadu; Nenu Manishine; Chalaki Rani Kiladi Raja; James Bond 777; 1972: Monagadosthunnadu Jagratha; Raj Mahal; Anta Mana Manchike; Maavoori Monagallu; Goodu Putani; Hanthakulu Devanthakulu; Kodalu Pilla; Menakodalu; Bhale Mosagadu; Pandanti Kapuram; Nijam Nirupishta; Abbaigaru Ammaigaru; Kathula Rathaiah; Maa Inti Velugu; Prajanayakudu; Marapurani Talli; Illu Illalu; Manchivallaku Manchivadu; 1973: Malamma Katha; Talli Kodukulu; Nindu Kutumbam; Sreevaru Maavaru; Puttinillu Mettinillu; Snehabandham; Neramu Siksha; Devudu Chesina Manushulu; Mamatha; Mayadari Malligadu; Pasi Hridayalu; Vintha Katha; Ganga Manga; Meena; 1974: Gali Patalu; Peddalu Marali; Uttama Illalu; Alluri 128

Seetaramaraju; Manushulu Matti Bommalu; Radhamma Pelli; Adambaralu Anubandhalu; Gauri; Deergha Sumangali; Intinti Katha; Dhanavanthulu Gunavanthulu; Satyaniki Sankellu; Devadasu; 1975: Raktha Sambandhalu; Santhanam Saubhagyam; Abhimanavathi; Kotha Kapuram; Saubhagyavati; Chikati Velugulu; Gajula Kishtayya; Devudulanti Manishi; Padi Pantalu; 1976: Shri Rajeshwari Vilas Coffee Club; Manavoori Katha; Rama Rajyamlo Raktha Pasam; Kolleti Kapuram; Bhale Dongalu; Devude Gelichadu; Manasakshi; 1977: Kurukshetramu; Savasagallu; Eenati Bandham Yenatido; Janma Janmala Bandham; Panchayathi; Dongalaku Donga; Manushulu Chesina Dongalu; Indra Dhanushu; 1978: Patnavasam; Allari Bullodu; Anna Dammula Saval; Agent Gopi; Dongala Dopidi; Mugguru Muggure; Chal Mohanaranga; Dongala Veta; Simha Garjana; Cheppindi Cheshta; Kumara Raja; Atanikante Ghanudu; Moodu Puvvulu Aaru Kayalu; 1979: Viyalavari Kayalu; Hema Hemeelu; Dongalaku Saval; Kotha Alludu; Evadabba Somu; Mande Gundelu; Mutthaiduva; Sankhu Teertham; Buripalem Bullodu; Captain Krishna; Samajaniki Saval; Hum Bhi Kuch Kam Nahin; 1980: Bhale Krishnudu; Devudichina Koduku; Kothapeda Rowdy; Gharana Donga; Mama Allula Saval; Adrushtavanthudu; Ram Robert Rahim; Sirimalle Navvindi; Chuttalunnaru Jagratha; Ragile Hrudayalu; Kiladi Krishnudu; Bandodu Gundamma; Hare Krishna Hello Radha; Maa Inti Devatha; Ammayi Mogudu Mamaku Yamadu; Allari Bhava; Bangaru Bhava; Raktha Sambandham; 1981: Urinki Monagadu; Todu Dongalu; Guru Shishyulu; Bhogimanthulu; Boga Bhagyalu; Gadasari Attaha Sogasari Kodalu; Jatagadu; Antham Kadidi Arambham; Mayadari Alludu; Nayadugarabbai; Rahasya Goodachari; 1982: Bangaru Bhoomi; Bangaru Koduku; Krishnarajunulu; Doctor Cineactor; Nivurigappina Nippu; Prema Nakshatram; Vayyari Bhamulu Vagalamari Bharthulu; Jagannatha Rathachakralu; Pagabattina Simham; Krishnavataram; Ekalavya; Shamsher Shankar; Kalavari Samsaram; Eenadu (Tel); Kannodu Kann*; 1983: Bezwada Bebbuli; Urantha Sankranthi; Mundadugu; Kirai Kotigadu; Chattaniki Veyi Kallu; Adavi Simhalu; Siripuram Monagadu; Amayakudu Kadhu Asadhyudu; Rama Rajyamlo Bheemaraju; Shakti; Praja Rajyam; Lanke Bindelu; Poratham; 1984: Iddaru Dongalu; Yuddham; Pulijudam; Mukhya Mantri; Nayakulaku Saval; Kirai Alludu; Bangaru Kapuram; Udanthudu; Kanchu Kagada; Dongalu Baboi Dongalu; 1985: Agni Parvatham; Maha Sangramam; Andarikante Monagadu; Palnati Simham; Vajrayudham; Pachani Kapuram; Surya Chandra; Krishnagaradi; Devalayam*; Mahamanishi; Vande Mataram*; 1986: Brahmastham; Sinhasan/Simhasanam*; Khaidi Rudraiah; Krishna Paramatma; Pratibhavanthudu; Jayam Manade; Parasuramudu; Naa Pilupe Prabhanjanam*; Shantinivasam; 1987: Sardar Krishnama Nayudu; Muddayi; Dongoduchhadu; Makutamleni Maharaju;

Dongagaru Swagatham; Muddubidda; Maavoori Maagadu; Thene Manasulu; Vishwanatha Nayakudu; Savkharavam*; 1988: Dorakani Donga; Kaliyuga Karnudu*; Chuttalabbai; Rowdy No. 1; Jamadagni; Ashwathama; Agni Keratalu; Maharajashri Mayagadu; Praja Pratinidhi; Mugguru Kodukulu*; 1989: Prajala Manishi*; Rajakiya Chadarangam; Atta Mechina Alludu; Manchi Kutumbam; Goodachari 117; Sahasame Naa Upiri; Ajatashatru; Sarvabhowmudu; Rickshawala*; Goonda Rajyam; Parthudu; Koduku Diddina Kapuram*; Inspector Rudra*; 1990: Anna Thamudu*; 1991: Paramashivudu; Naa Ille Naa Swargam; Nagastharam*; Indra Bhavanam*; Alludu Diddina Kapuram*; 1992: Pachani Samsaram; 1993: Varasudu; 1994: Gharana Alludu; Doragariki Donga Pellam; Yes Nenante Nene; Hello Alludu; Police Alludu; 1995: Amma Donga; Super Mogudu; Dear Brother; Real Hero.

Krishnakant (b. 1922) Gujarati and Hindi actor and director born in Howrah, Bengal, as Krishnakant Maganlal Bukhanwala. Son of a textile engineer; educated in Surat and in Bombay. Obtained a diploma in radio and electrical engineering (1940); then joined the Rooptara Studio in Bombay, working in the sound department. Assisted Nitin Bose for five years, then worked with Aravind Sen on Muqaddar (also acting in it) and with Subodh Mukherjee (Paying Guest, 1957). First major acting role in Phani Majumdar’s Andolan; other notable roles are a paralytic in Amiya Chakravarty’s Patita and the villain in Shakti Samanta’s Detective. Left films in the late 50s to concentrate on Gujarati theatre work (e.g. Pravin Joshi’s Manas Name Karigar) mainly with Harkrishen Mehta’s group. Returned to cinema in the early 70s; turned to direction with Dakurani Ganga, adapting Mehta’s novel Pravaha Paltavyo. Directed a series of Gujarati films based on plays or films from other languages: e.g. Visamo based on Harkrishen Mehta’s play, in which he acted the role of an old teacher, recalling Paranjpe’s Oon Paoos (1954) and Panthulu’s School Master (1958). Also adapted Anant Mane’s Manini (1961) as Maa Dikri. With these films he introduced a novel style of urban entertainment to Gujarati cinema, although relying on conventional reformist melodrama plots about the joint family, the generation gap and the exploitation of women. Also noted actor on Hindi and Gujarati television. FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1943: Paraya Dhan; 1950: Chor, Muqaddar; Mashaal; 1951: Andolan; 1952: Daag; Tamasha; Zalzala; 1953: Patita; 1954: Baadbaan; Dhobi Doctor; Naukri; 1955: Faraar; Subse Bada Rupaiya; Ghar Ghar Mein Diwali; Seema; 1956: Sailaab; Jagte Raho; Patrani; Sudarshan Chakra; Dhola Maru; 1957: Agra Road; Bandi; Begunah; Hum Panchhi Ek Dal Ke; Yahudi Ki Ladki; Bhabhi; 1958: Ghar Sansar; Detective; Howrah Bridge; Mehndi; Parvarish; Post Box 999; Delhi Ka Thug;

Krishnan-Panju: R. Krishnan

1959: Insaan Jaag Utha; Satta Bazaar; Madhu; Ghar Ghar Ki Baat; Jaalsaaz; 1960: Jaali Note; 1961: Tanhaai; 1963: Jivno Jugari; Vanraj Chavdo; 1969: Do Raaste; Kanku; 1971: Duniya Kya Jaane; Hathi Mere Saathi; Pyar Ki Kahani; Sharmilee; Paraya Dhan; 1972: Mere Jeevan Saathi; Do Chor; Annadata; Gunsundari No Ghar Sansar; 1973: Gaai Aur Gori; Suraj Aur Chanda; Mr Romeo; Manchali; 1974: Parinay; Ajnabi; Trimurti; Vardan; Aarop; 1975: Anari; Kala Sona; Sant Surdas; 1976: Deewangee; Koi Jeeta Koi Haara; Sajjo Rani; Dakurani Ganga*; 1977: Jagriti; Kulavadhu*; 1978: Khoon Ki Pukar; Visamo*; Maa Dikri*; Ghar Sansar*; 1979: Sonba Ane Rupba*; 1980: Maniyaro*; Meru Mulande*; Jog Sanjog*; 1981: Hotel; 1982: Prem Lagna*; Dharmo*; Jawabdaar*; 1983: Main Awara Hoon; Poojana Phool; 1986: Teesra Kinara*; Chhota Admi*; 1988: Kharidar.

Krishnamurthy, Hunsur (b. 1914) Born in Hunsur, Karnataka. Kannada and Telugu director of stage-inspired mythologicals, often starring Rajkumar. While writing Company Natak plays (e.g. Swarga Samrajya) for Bangalore-based Bharat Natak, also worked as scenarist, esp. for Vijaya Studio, remaking L.V. Prasad’s hit Pelli Chesi Choodu (1952) in Kannada as Madhuve Madi Nodu. Began as bit actor at Bombay Talkies; briefly with Bal Gandharva’s theatre troupe, then with Veeranna and Mohammed Peer’s Chandrakala Natak where, with Panthulu, he assisted Simha on Samsara Nauka (1936). Like Panthulu, from 1958 directed mid-budget morality plays. Claimed that mythological genre commanded better budgets, allowed greater emotional freedom and called for more directorial inventiveness than the socials. Helped redefine the Rajkumar persona from his earlier historicals into narratively freer near mythic fantasies ruled by destiny and the individual quest for eternal goodness. Script credits include: Hemareddy Malamma (1945; also act); Krishnaleele (1947); Jagan Mohini (1951); Nala Damayanti (1957); Bangarada Manushya (1972) and Boothayyana Maga Ayyu (1974). Also acted in Muttaide Bhagya (1956). His biography was written by Shyama Sundar Kulkarni (1988). FILMOGRAPHY: 1958: Shri Krishna Garudi; 1960: Ashasundari/Ramasundari; 1961: Mera Suhaag; 1962: Ratnamanjari; 1964: Veera Sankalpa; 1965: Satya Harishchandra; Madhuve Madi Nodu; 1966: Shri Kannika Parameshwari Kathe; 1967: Devuni Gelichina Manavudu/Devara Gedda Manava; 1968: Addadari; 1971: Vishakanya; 1972: Jaga Mechida Maga; 1974: Bhakta Kumbhara; 1975: Mantra Shakti; 1977: Babruvahana; Veera Sindhoora Lakshmana; 1979:Kurubara Lakkanu Elizabeth Raniau; 1980: Bhakta Siriyala; Guru Sarvabhowma Shri Raghavendra Karune; 1981: Edeyuru Siddhalingeshwara/Siddhalingeshwara Mahima; Shiva Mahima; 1982: Bhakta Dnyanadeva; 1984: Shivakanya/Shivakanye; 1985: Shiva Kotta Saubhagya.

Krishnan, Nagerkoyil Sudalaimuthu (1905-57) Legendary Tamil film comedian, stage actor and political activist. Born in Nagerkoyil, in former Travancore. Joined the TKS Brothers drama troupe aged 17, replacing the comedian and film star M.R. Swaminathan (seen in e.g. 1000 Thalaivangi Apoorva Chintamani, 1947). Was already a noted stage star when débuting in the TKS Brothers production of Raja Sandow’s Menaka. Early films with Sandow (Vasantsena, Chandrakantha) where he met his wife and long-term comedy partner T.A. Mathuram (1918-1974). Played the lead role in Alibabavum 40 Thirudargalum, establishing his distinctive brand of comedy. Classic screen image developed Kattiyankaran folk theatre conventions with a separate sub-plot and spoken dialect as opposed to the high-flown Elangovan-type language (e.g. playing fishermen with T.S. Dorairaj in Shakuntalai; Mudhal Thedi). In this style, the comedian can address the audience directly and allude to topical events (e.g. his funny song in Paithiakaran, referring to his jail sentence; his lines in the costumed period movie Amarakavi referring to a recent visit to the USSR). The style is enhanced by the comic but politically strident lyrics of Udumalai Narayana Kavi, written specially for Krishnan (e.g. Nallathambi). Initially a Marxist sympathiser and a friend of Pa. Jeevanandan (whom he sheltered when the CP was banned), Krishnan became first a nationalist and then a DMK supporter, producing C.N. Annadurai’s DMK Film Nallathambi, directing Panam and acting in the Karunanidhi-scripted Raja Rani and Rangoon Radha. Together with M.K. Thyagaraja Bhagavathar, he was convicted of murdering the gossip columnist Lakshmikantan although he proclaimed his innocence all his life. His wife started the N.S.K. Nataka (aka Eneskay Nataka Sabha) staging plays mainly directed by and featuring the star S.V. Sahasranamam. Their best-known play is P. Neelakantan’s nationalistic Nam Iruvar, later filmed (1947) by the AVM Studio. The company débuted in film production with Paithiakaran; their best-known productions are Nallathambi and the Krishnan-directed Manamagal and Panam. Panam, a major DMK film, featured the Parasakthi (1952) combination of writer Karunanidhi and star Ganesan while Krishnan sang a pro-DMK song. It also featured documentary footage of a DMK Party conference. Biography by Narayanan (1992). FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1935: Menaka; 1936: Vasantsena; Chandrakantha; Sati Leelavathi; 1937: Ambikapathy; Balamani; 1938: Dakshayagnam; 1939: Thiruneelakantar; Maya Machhindra; Manikavasagar; Ramalinga Swamigal; Rambayin Kadhal; Sirikathe; Ananda Ashramam; Prahlada; 1940: Bhakta Tulsidas; Naveena Tenali Raman; Parasuramar; Naveena Vikramadithan; Budhiman Balwan Ivan; Kalamegham; Mani Mekalai; Bhuloka Rambha; Shakuntalai; Uthama Puthran; 1941: Alibabavum 40 Thirudargalum; Ezhanda Kadal; Ashok Kumar; Vedavathi; Aryamala;

Krishnapidaran; Chandrahari; 1942: Kannagi; Prithvirajan; Sivalinga Satchi; Manonmani; 1943: Arundhati; Sivakavi; Mangamma Sapatham; Bhagya Lakshmi; 1944: Burma Rani; Mahamaya; Bhartrahari (Tam); Jagathala Prathapan; Prabhavati; Poompavai; Raja Rajeshwari; Haridas; Salivahanan; Kalikala Minor; Palli Natakam; Soora Puli; 1945: Paranjoti; Bhakta Kalathi; Srivalli; 1946: Pankajavalli; 1947: Paithiakaran; Kannika; 1948: Devadasi; Chandralekha; Krishna Bhakti; 1949: Nallathambi; Ratnakumar; Mangayar Karasi; Inbavalli; Pavalakkodi; 1950: Laila Majnu; Parijatham; 1951: Manamagal/Pelli Koothuru*; Vanasundari; 1952: Panam*; Amarakavi; 1954: Nallakalam; 1955: Mudhal Thedi; Kaveri; Nam Kuzhandai; Dr Savithri; Stree Ratna; 1956: Raja Rani; Nannambikkai; Asai; Madurai Veeran; Kannin Manigal; Kudumba Vilakku; Rangoon Radha; 1957: Chakravarthi Thirumagal; Pudhu Vazhvu; Yar Paiyan; Ambikapathy; 1959: Thangapathumai; 1960: Raja Desingu; Thozhan; 1961: Arasilankumari.

Krishnan-Panju: R. Krishnan (b. 1909) and S. Panju (b. 1915) Duo of Tamil melodrama directors and producers. Krishnan was born in Madras, Panju in Umayalapuram, Thanjavur. Krishnan began as a laboratory assistant in 1934 while Panju assisted Duncan on Sati Leelavathi (1936). Both left Duncan for Premier Cinetone in Coimbatore, where Panju also worked independently as an editor. They made their joint début in Coimbatore (Poompavai). Their third film was for N.S. Krishnan with S.V. Sahasranamam’s script (Paithiakaran), followed by Krishnan’s major DMK Film, Nallathambi, and the even more significant Parasakthi. Mainly associated with the AVM Studio, directing some of its main Hindi hits, e.g. Bhabhi, Barkha, Bindiya, Shadi etc. Also worked in Telugu. FILMOGRAPHY: 1944: Poompavai; 1946: Pankajavalli; 1947: Paithiakaran; 1949: Nallathambi; Ratnakumar; 1952: Parasakthi; 1953: Kangal; 1954: Ratha Kanneer; 1955: Sant Sakhu; 1956: Kuladaivam; 1957: Bhabhi; Pudhuvayal; 1959: Barkha; Mamiyar Meetriya Marumagal; 1960: Bindiya; Daiva Piravi; Thilakam; 1961: Suhaag Sindoor; 1962: Manmauji; Shadi; Annai/Penchina Prema; 1963: Kumkumam; 1964: Mera Kasoor Kya Hai; Server Sundaram; Vazhkai Vazhvadarke; 1965: Kuzhanthiyum Daviamum; 1966: Laadla; Letamanasulu; Petral Than Pillayya; 1968: Do Kaliyan; Uyarntha Manithan; 1969: Annaiyum Pithavum; 1970: Anadhai Anandan; Engal Thangam; 1971: Main Sundar Hoon; Ranga Rattinam; 1972: Akka Tammudu; Idaya Veenai; Pillaiyo Pillai; 1973: Pookkari; 1974: Shandaar; Kaliyuga Kannan; Pathumatha Bandham; 1975: Kashmir Bullodu; Anaya Vilakku; Vazhanthu Kattukiran; 1976: Enna Thavam Saithen; Ilaya Thalaimurai; Vazhvu En Pakkam; 1977: Chakravarthi; Sonnathai Seivan; 1978: Annapoorni; Pare Solla Oru Pillai; 1979: 129

Krishnarao, Arakalagudu Narasinga Rao

Nadagame Ulagam; Neela Malargal; Velli Ratham; Nenjukku Needhi; 1980: Mangala Nayaki; 1985: Malarum Ninaivugal.

Krishnarao, Arakalagudu Narasinga Rao (1908-71) Aka A.Na.Kru; scenarist and prolific Kannada novelist, playwright and essayist with c.250 published titles. A major regional chauvinist ideologue in Karnataka. Initially associated with the professional Company Natak. After books like Udayaraga (1924), a thinly disguised fictional biography of Bengal School painter Nandalal Bose, and several others featuring anxiety-ridden artists as central protagonists, he tended more towards the ‘modern’ within the anglophile Amateur Dramatic Association and the literary Pragatisila movement derived from the PWA. Used influential cultural platforms such as the Madhol conference (1945) of the Kannada Ekikaran Parishat (the Kannada unification movement) to deflect most debates about progressivism and modernism towards discussions of Karnatakatva (‘Kannada-ness’), usually by appealing to ‘the masses’ whose ‘point of view’ was said to be ignored by writers speaking about and addressing an urban middle class (Krishnarao, 1944). This equation of political regionalism with cultural populism was later developed most notably by the films of Rajkumar. Wrote a major Veeranna film, Jeevana Nataka (1942), the original book on which the Kannada film Sandhya Raga (1966) is based, and the script of B.R. Panthulu’s historical Shri Krishnadevaraya (1970). Wrote a novel about his experiences in the film industry, Chitra Vichitra (1952) and a critical study of Ravi Varma (1932). Also scripted Stree Ratna for K. Subramanyam (1955).

Krishnarao Phulambrikar, Master (1891-1974) Music composer and actor born in Alandi, Maharashtra. Trained by Bhaskarbua Bakhle in music school Bharat Gayan Samaj. Employed by Bal Gandharva’s Gandharva Natak Mandali as male lead and composer. With Govindrao Tembe, he helped shape Bal Gandharva’s enormously influential populist versions of North Indian classical music. Entered film at Prabhat Studio with Bal Gandharva in Shantaram’s Dharmatma and stayed on to do several films, developing a reputation as an orthodox Sangeet Natak classicist, distinguishing him from his Prabhat contemporary, Keshavrao Bhole. His songs for Manoos/Admi (esp. Hublikar’s seduction number, Ab kis liye kal ki baat) and the musical spoofs of Bombay Talkies and New Theatres were among the few original compositions when, particularly at Prabhat, most songs drew on the repertoire of traditional gharanas (notably the Jaipur gharana). His only success after the studio era was at Rajkamal in Mali, also playing the lead role. FILMOGRAPHY (* also act): 1935: Dharmatma; 1936: Amar Jyoti; 1937: 130

Sadhvi Meerabai; Wahan; 1938: Gopal Krishna; 1939: Manoos/Admi; 1941: Shejari/Padosi; 1942: Vasantsena; 1944: Bhakticha Mala/Mali*; 1945: Lakhrani; 1947: Meri Amanat (act only); 1949: Sant Ramdas; 1953: Tai Teleen; 1959: Keechaka Vadha; 1962: Vithu Mazha Lekurvala. Krishna Shastry, Devulapalli see Sastry, Devulapalli Krishna

Krishnaveni, C. (b. 1924) Telugu/Tamil actress and producer born in Rajahmundhry, AP. Child actress in stage plays. Débuted in the title role of C. Pullaiah’s children’s film, Ansuya. Acted in Telugu and Tamil films, but it was again Pullaiah who cast her in Gollabhama. Actorial reputation based mainly on roles in Lakshmamma, Mana Desam and Perantalu. Married the Rajah of Mirzapur (1941), founder of the Jaya Films Studio (1940) in Teynampet, Madras. This later became the famous Shobhanachala Studio, launched with L.V. Prasad’s political melodrama Mana Desam. Turned producer with MRA Prod. Only Tamil film is Kamavalli. Introduced composers Ghantasala Venkateshwara Rao (Mana Desam) and Ramesh Naidu (Dampatyam, 1957). Sang classic songs in Gollabhama (Bhoopati jampitiyin, Ravoyi jeevanajyoti) and a hit duet with M.S. Rama Rao in Mana Desam (Emito ee anubandham). Sang playback in Keelugurram, 1949, directed by her husband. Produced several films, e.g. Lakshmamma, Perantalu, Dampatyam and Yamanukku Yaman (1980). Returned to the stage in the late 50s. FILMOGRAPHY: 1936: Ansuya; Dhruva; 1937: Mohini Rugmangada; 1938: Kacha Devayani; 1939: Mahananda; 1940: Jeevana Jyoti; 1941: Dakshayagnam; 1944: Bhishma; 1947: Gollabhama; 1948: Madalasa; Kamavalli; 1949: Dharmangada; Mana Desam; 1950: Lakshmamma; 1951: Perantalu; 1952: Savasam. Kulkarni, Datta Keshav see Datta Keshav Kulkarni

Kumar, Anup (b. 1932) Bengali actor born in Calcutta; son of singer and stage composer Dhirendranath Das. Début as child actor in Dhiren Ganguly’s unreleased Halkatha. First major role in Kaliprasad Ghosh’s Dhatri Debata. A prolific genre performer, often as the hero’s comic counterpart. Belongs to the second generation of Bengali comedians with Bhanu Bannerjee, Robi Ghosh and Jahar Roy. Acted with Tapan Sinha (Tonsil, Kalamati, Ek Je Chhilo Desh) in early Mrinal Sen films (Abasheshe, Pratinidhi), and for Tarafdar (Agnisikha, Jiban Kahini). A regular member of the Tarun Majumdar and Dinen Gupta film units. Routine career occasionally enlivened by critically acclaimed roles, e.g. in Yatrik’s Palatak and Majumdar’s Balika Bodhu. Stage début at Star Theatres (1949) in Bejoynagar and Samudragupta. Acted with Sisir Bhaduri

in the play Takht-e-Taus (1951). Later worked at the Bishwaroopa theatre. Also directed plays, e.g. Aghatan (1978). Not to be confused with the popular Hindi comedian Anoop Kumar, the brother of Ashok and Kishore Kumar. FILMOGRAPHY: 1934: Halkatha; 1946: Sangram; 1948: Dhatri Debata; Bankalekha; 1949: Sankalpa; Krishna Kaveri; Sakshigopal; 1950: Vidyasagar; Maryada; 1951: Bhakta Raghunath; Barjatri; 1952: Pasher Bari; Rani; 1953: Banser Kella; Sosur Bari; Rami Chandidas; Adrishya Manush; 1954: Aaj Sandhya; Mahila Mahal; Ae Satyi; Annapurnar Mandir; Agni Pareeksha; Nilshari; 1955: Rani Rashmoni; Bidhilipi; Joymakali Boarding; Kankabatir Ghat; Mejo Bou; Anupama; 1956: Sinthir Sindoor; Sagarika; Tonsil; Ekti Raat; Asamapta; Shyamali; Madan Mohan; Nagardola; 1957: Ulka; Ratri Sheshey; Adarsha Hindu Hotel; Prithibi Amar Chai; Surer Parashey; Rastar Chhele; Kancha-Mithey; Punar Milan; Ogo Sunchho; Garer Math; Pathe Holo Deri; Janmatithi; 1958: Priya (B); Kalamati; Daktar Babu; Leela Kanka; Marmabani; 1959: Nauka Bilash; Derso Khokhar Kando; Shashi Babur Sansar; Gali Theke Rajpath; 1960: Dui Bechara; Prabesh Nishedh; Biyer Khata; Natun Fasal; Baishey Shravan; 1961: Mr & Mrs Choudhury; Bishkanya; Arghya; Kanchanmulya; Kathin Maya; Aaj Kal Parshu; Ahwan; Maa; Kanamachi; 1962: Agnisikha; Shesh Chinha; Abhisarika; Banarasi; Shubha Drishti; Abasheshe; 1963: Barnachora; Sat Bhai; High Heel; Palatak; Dui Nari; Kanchan Kanya; Shreyasi; 1964: Pratinidhi; Ta Holey; Jiban Kahini; Kashtipathar; Binsati Janani; 1965: Alor Pipasa; Mahalagna; Antaral; Jaya; Ek Tuku Basa; Dinanter Alo; Dolna; Mukhujey Paribar; Tapasi; 1966: Kalanki Raat; Nutan Jiban; Shesh Tin Din; Uttar Purush; Rajdrohi; Mayabini Lane; 1967: Hathat Dekha; Kheya; 1968: Baluchari; Boudi; Chhoto Jignasa; Garh Nasimpur; Jiban Sangeet; Teen Adhyay; 1969: Bibaha Bibhrat; Dadu; Duranta Charai; Panna Hirey Chunni; Pita Putra; 1970: Samanaral; Aleyar Alo; Kalankita Nayak; Ae Korechho Bhalo; Nishipadma; Manjari Opera; 1971: Anya Mati Anya Rang; Nimantran; Pratham Basanta; Attatar Din Pare; 1972: Jiban Sangram; Basanta Bilap; Biraj Bou; Naya Michhil; Shesh Parba; Natun Diner Alo; Sabari; 1973: Pranta Rekha; Daabi; Ek Je Chhilo Bagh; 1974: Phuleshwari; Sangini; Thagini; Mouchak; Phulu Thakurma; Swikarokti; 1975: Nishi Mrigaya; Raag Anuraag; Sei Chokh; Phool Sajya; Tin Pari Chhoy Premik; Harano Prapti Niruddesh; 1976: Chander Kachhakachhi; Ajasra Dhanyabad; Ek Je Chhilo Desh; Pratisruti; Ananda Mela; Mrigaya; 1977: Baba Taraknath; Babu Moshai; Bhola Moira; Ae Prithibi Pantha Niwas; Pratima; Sanai; Proxy; Golap Bou; 1978: Dak Diye Jai; Nadi Theke Sagare; Tusi; Niskriti; Tilottama; 1979: Devdas; Chirantan; Ghatkali; Pipasa; Shahar Theke Dooray; 1980: Dadar Kirti; 1981: Pratishodh; Swami Stri; Sei Sur; Subarnalata; Meghmukti; Khelar Putul; Maa Bhawani Maa Amar; Rabibar; 1982: Sathe Satyam; Bodhan; Preyasi; Mayer Ashirbad; Amrita Kumbher Sandhaney; Iman Kalyan; Sonar Bangla;

Kumar Ganguly, Ashok

Prafulla; 1983: Abhinay Nay; Ae Chhilo Mone; Amar Geeti; Arpita; Indira; Jiban Maran; Jyotsna Ratri; Nishi Bhor; Prayashchitta; Samapti; Srinkhal; Sansarer Itikatha; Mohaney Dike; 1984: Harishchandra Shaibya; Lal Golap; Rashifal; Shatru; Shorgol; Agni Shuddhi; Ahuti; Surya Trishna; 1985: Amar Prithibi; Baikunther Will; Bhalobasha Bhalobasha; Neelkantha; Putulghar; Sandhya Pradeep; Till Theke Tal; 1986: Swarga Sukh; Anurager Choa; Urbashe; Ashirwad; Daktar Bou; Abhishap; Dui Adhyay; 1987: Bidrohi; Raj Purush; Swarnamoir Thikana; Radha Rani; Sargam; Abir; Dabar Chal; Arpan; Lalan Fakir; Mahamilan; Mouna Mukher; Ekanto Apon; Dolonchapa; 1988: Kalankini Nayika; Channachara; Boba Sanai; Kidnap; Antaranga; Tumi Koto Sundar; Debibaran; Agaman; Surer Akashe; Dena Paona; 1989: Shatarupa; Mangaldip; Aparanher Alo; Asha; Abhisar; Jankar; Amar Shapath; Aghaton Ajo Ghatey; Chhandaneer; Asha-o-Bhalobasha; Garmil; 1990: Anuraag; Apon Amar Apon; Raktorin; Debata; 1991: Ahankar; Raj Nartaki; Nilimai Neel; Path-o-Prasad; Bourani; Abhagini; Pati Param Guru; Sajani Go Sajani; Ek Pashla Brishti; 1992: Anutap; Rupaban Kanya; Pennam Calcutta; Priya; Indrajit; Mahashay; Satya Mithya; Nabarupa; 1993: Mon Mane Na; Maya Mamata; Krantikaal; Bhranta Pathik; Shraddhanjali; Prithibir Shesh Station; Tapasya; 1994: Tobu Mone Rekho; Atikram; Geet Sangeet; Ami-o-Maa; Kothachilo; Lal Pan Bibi; 1995: Sangharsha; Mashaal; Mejo Bou; Sansar Sangram.

Kumar Ganguly, Ashok (b. 1911) Hindi star and producer; nicknamed Dadamoni. Born in Bhagalpur, Bihar; the son of a lawyer and deputy magistrate. Originally called Kumudlal Kunjilal Ganguly. Grew up in Khandwa. Briefly studied law in Calcutta, then joined his mentor and future brother-in-law, Shashadhar Mukherji, at Bombay Talkies, first as laboratory assistant. He was cast in the lead opposite Devika Rani in Jeevan Naiya and

Achhut Kanya. Acted in several notable films with her and then with Leela Chitnis (the hits Bandhan, Kangan and Jhoola). After Himansu Rai’s death (1940), he enjoyed the protection of Mukherji, who co-managed the studio with Devika Rani. Broke through as the Bogartian journalist in the Abbas-scripted Naya Sansar. Other classic roles include the title role in Mehboob’s Humayun and the double role of magistrate and playboy in Afsana. His most famous role was in Kismet as the gracefully cigarette-smoking anti-hero, showing that Hindi cinema had quickly assimilated Hollywood’s film noir style. Set up Filmistan (1943) with S. Mukherji, Gyan Mukherjee and Rai Bahadur Chunilal. He later returned to Bombay Talkies as production chief. Directed some of their films (e.g. Eight Days) but never took the official credit. Joined with his brothers Kishore and Anup Kumar in the comedies Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi and Chalti Ka Naam Zindagi. In the 60s freelanced as character actor, often playing a sympathetic parent (e.g. Mili). According to Tapan Sinha, with whom he first acted in Hatey Bazarey, ‘he was the first to apply “normal” acting in our industry; until Ashok Kumar we had jatra-style acting or screen acting that followed theatrical trends. [H]e is the man who showed that film acting is something else. He began to speak and to behave normally.’ He excelled in Robin Hood-type roles with sparse dialogues and his way of holding a cigarette in Kismet became a trade-mark. He anchored the TV soap Humlog and appeared in many TV serials. His image is a generic icon virtually autonomous from the plot, at first representing Bombay Talkies’ version of Indian modernity and then underpinning Filmistan’s commitment to the mass entertainment formula. FILMOGRAPHY: 1936: Jeevan Naiya; Achhut Kanya; Janmabhoomi; 1937: Izzat; Prem Kahani; Savitri; 1938: Nirmala; Vachan; 1939: Kangan; 1940: Azad; Bandhan; 1941: Anjaan; Jhoola; Naya Sansar; 1943: Angoothi; Kismet; Najma;

Ashok Kumar in Isi Ka Naam Duniya Hai (1962)

1944: Chal Chal Re Naujawan; Kiran; 1945: Begum; Humayun; 1946: Eight Days; Shikari; Uttara Abhimanyu; 1947: Saajan; Chandrasekhar; 1948: Padmini; 1949: Mahal; 1950: Adhi Raat; Khiladi; Mashaal; Nishana; Samadhi; Sangram; 1951: Afsana; Deedar; 1952: Betaab; Bewafa; Jalpari; Kafila; Naubahar; Poonam; Raag Rang; Saloni; Tamasha; 1953: Nagma; Parineeta; Shamsheer; Sholay; 1954: Baadbaan; Lakeeren; Naaz; Samaj; 1955: Bandish; Sardar; 1956: Bhai Bhai; Ek Hi Raasta; Inspector; Shatranj; 1957: Bandi; Ek Saal; Jeevan Saathi; Mr X; Sheroo; Talaash; Ustad; 1958: Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi; Farishta; Howrah Bridge; Karigar; Night Club; Ragini; Savera; Sitaron Se Aage; 1959: Baap Bete; Bedard Zamana Kya Jaane; Daaka; Dhool Ka Phool; Kangan; Naach Ghar; Nai Raahein; 1960: Aanchal; Kala Admi; Kalpana; Kanoon; Masoom; Hospital; 1961: Dark Street; Flat No. 9; Warrant; 1962: Aarti; Bezubaan; Burma Road; Hong Kong; Isi Ka Naam Duniya Hai; Mehndi Lagi Mere Haath; Naqli Nawab; Private Secretary; Raakhi; Ummeed; 1963: Aaj Aur Kal; Bandini; Grihasthi; Gumrah; Mere Mehboob; Meri Soorat Teri Aankhen; Ustadonke Ustad; Yeh Raaste Hain Pyar Ke; 1964: Benazir; Chitralekha; Dooj Ka Chand; Phoolon Ki Sej; Pooja Ke Phool; 1965: Shevatcha Malusara; Adhi Raat Ke Baad; Akashdeep; Bahu Beti; Bheegi Raat; Chand Aur Suraj; Naya Kanoon; Oonche Log; 1966: Afsana; Dadi Maa; Mamata; Yeh Zindagi Kitni Haseen Hai; Toofan Mein Pyar Kahan; 1967: Jewel Thief; Meharbaan; Bahu Begum; Nai Roshni; Hatey Bazarey; 1968: Aabroo; Ashirwad; Dil Aur Mohabbat; Ek Kali Muskayi; Sadhu Aur Shaitan; 1969: Aradhana; Aansoo Ban Gaye Phool; Bhai Bahen; Do Bhai; Inteqam; Paisa Ya Pyar; Pyar Ka Sapna; Satyakam; 1970: Jawab; Maa Aur Mamta; Purab Aur Paschim; Safar; Sharafat; 1971: Adhikar; Door Ka Rahi; Naya Zamana; Ganga Tera Pani Amrit; Hum Tum Aur Woh; Kangan; Pakeezah; Guddi; 1972: Rani Mera Naam; Anuraag; Dil Daulat Duniya; Malik; Raakhi Aur Hathkadi; Sa Re Ga Ma Pa; Sazaa; Victoria No. 203; Zameen Aasmaan; Zindagi Zindagi; 1973: Bada Kabutar; Dhund; Do Phool; Hifazat; Taxi Driver; 1974: Do Aankhen; Dulhan; Khoon Ki Keemat; Paise Ki Gudiya; Prem Nagar; Ujala Hi Ujala; Badhti Ka Naam Daadhi; 1975: Love in Bombay; Akraman; Chhotisi Baat; Chori Mera Kaam; Dafaa 302; Ek Mahal Ho Sapnon Ka; Mili; Uljhan; 1976: Aap Beeti; Arjun Pandit; Barood; Bhanwar; Ek Se Badkhar Ek; Harfan Maula; Mazdoor Zindabad; Rangila Ratan; Shankar Dada; Santan; 1977: Anand Ashram; Anurodh; Chala Murari Hero Banne; Dream Girl; Hira Aur Patthar; Jadu Tona; Khatta Meetha; Mastan Dada; Prayashchit; Safed Jhooth; Premi Gangaram; 1978: Anmol Tasveer; Anpadh; Apna Khoon; Chor Ke Ghar Chor; Dil Aur Deewar; Do Musafir; Mehfil; Phool Khile Hain Gulshan Gulshan; Tumhare Liye; 1979: Bagula Bhagat; Guru Ho Jaa Shuru; Janata Havaldar; Amar Deep; Salaam Memsaab; 1980: Khwab; Aakhri Insaaf; Aap Ke Diwane; Judaai; Khubsoorat; Nazrana Pyar Ka; Sau Din Saas Ke; Saajan Mere Main Saajan Ki; Takkar; Jyoti Bane Jwala; 1981: 131

Kumar, Dilip

Chalti Ka Naam Zindagi; Jyoti; Jail Yatra; Maan Gaye Ustad; Yeh Kaisa Nasha Hai; Shaukeen; 1982: Sambandh; Anokha Bandhan; Chor Mandli; Dial 100; Dushmani; Heeron Ka Chor; Mehndi Rang Layegi; Patthar Ki Lakeer; Dard Ka Rishta; 1983: Haadsa; Bekaraar; Farishta; Raja Aur Rana; Love In Goa; Farz Ki Keemat; Mahaan; Chor Police; Prem Tapasya; Shilalipi; Kaya Palat; Pasand Apni Apni; 1984: Hum Rahe Na Hum; Akalmand; Duniya; Grihasthi; Durga; Humlog (TV); Ram Tera Desh; 1985: Bhago Bhoot Aaya; Ek Daku Shaher Mein; Tawaif; Phir Aayi Barsaat; 1986: Amma; Inteqam Ki Aag; Pyar Kiya Hai Pyar Karenge; Shatru; Qatl; Dada Dadi Ki Kahaniyan (TV); Pyar Ki Jeet; Woh Din Aayega; Bhim Bhawani (TV); 1987: Awaam; Hifazat; Mr India; Watan Ke Rakhwale; Jawab Hum Denge; 1988: Inteqam; 1989: Clerk; Sachaai Ki Taaqat; Mamata Ki Chhaon Mein; Maut Ki Sazaa; Dana Pani; Majboor; 1991: Hamla; 1994: Yuhi Kabhi; 1995: Jamla Ho Jamla.

Kumar, Dilip (b. 1922) Hindi-Urdu cinema’s top 50s and 60s star. Born in Peshawar (now Pakistan) as Yusuf Khan in a Pathan family of 12 children. They moved to Maharashtra as fruit merchants. Worked in a British army canteen in Bombay (1940). Devika Rani claimed to have recruited him for Bombay Talkies. A noted Hindi novelist, Bhagwati Charan Varma, renamed him Dilip Kumar. Attained stardom with Jugnu. Achieved an enduring reputation for naturalist acting although he claims to have followed in the footsteps of Motilal. Andaz brought him superstardom and he acted again with Nargis in Jogan. Presented, e.g. in Footpath, as an exponent of indigenous neo-realism. His style developed tragic dimensions, e.g. in the Oedipal drama Deedar, where he blinds himself, and in Devdas, as the lovesick aristocrat. Eventually decided to change to a more swashbuckling image with Aan, Azad, Insaniyat, Kohinoor, etc., apparently on advice of his psychoanalyst, although he kept his romantic image going as well. Like his contemporary Raj Kapoor, his filmic identity offered a complex cultural/psychological terrain displaying the anxieties of Independence and the nostalgias of a prePartition childhood. Unlike Kapoor, Dilip Kumar’s naturalist underplaying often presented him as an innocent loner caught in and destroyed by conflicting social pressures, as in the only film he did with Raj Kapoor, Andaz, a classic drama of male guilt paid for by the woman. His acting was used mainly to address issues of identity in the Hindi films of Bengali directors: Nitin Bose’s Deedar and Ganga Jumna, Bimal Roy’s Madhumati and Tapan Sinha’s Sagina Mahato, after which he stopped acting for 8 years. Married actress Saira Banu of Junglee (1961) fame. Made a comeback with Kranti and esp. with Shakti, starring opposite Bachchan in a larger-thanlife role confirming his legendary star status. Recent films with Subhash Ghai (Karma, Saudagar). Although he virtually directed some of his films (e.g. Ganga Jumna, Dil Diya Dard Liya) his first official directorial credit is for Kalinga (in prod.). 132

FILMOGRAPHY: 1944: Jwar Bhata; 1945: Pratima; 1946: Milan; 1947: Jugnu; 1948: Anokha Pyar; Ghar Ki Izzat; Nadiya Ke Paar; Mela; Shaheed; 1949: Andaz; Shabnam; 1950: Arzoo; Babul; Jogan; 1951: Hulchul; Tarana; Deedar; 1952: Aan; Daag; Sangdil; 1953: Footpath; Shikast; 1954: Amar; 1955: Azad; Devdas; Insaniyat; Udan Khatola; 1957: Musafir; Naya Daur; 1958: Madhumati; Yahudi; 1959: Paigham; 1960: Kohinoor; Mughal-e-Azam; 1961: Ganga Jumna; 1964: Leader; 1966: Dil Diya Dard Liya; Pari; 1967: Ram Aur Shyam; 1968: Sadhu Aur Shaitan; Admi; Sangharsh; 1970: Gopi; Sagina Mahato; 1972: Anokha Milan; Dastaan; 1974: Sagina; Phir Kab Milogi; 1976: Bairaag; 1981: Kranti; 1982: Shakti; Vidhata; 1983: Mazdoor; 1984: Duniya; Mashaal; 1986: Dharam Adhikari; Karma; 1989: Kanoon Apna Apna; 1990: Izzatdar; 1991: Saudagar. Kumar, Hemant see Mukherjee, Hemanta

Kumar, Kalyana (b. 1936) Kannada star; also acted in Telugu and Tamil films. Original name: Chokkanna. Born in Bangalore. Achieved stardom with his first film, Natashekhara. Hero in 60s Kannada-Telugu bilinguals by B. Vittalacharya, Nagendra Rao and Panthulu. Regular actor in early G.V. Iyer films (Bhoodana, Thayi Karulu, Lawyara Magalu, Bangari). Most famous Kannada roles in Amarashilpi Jakanachari and Bellimoda; best-known Tamil role: Nenjil Ore Alayam. Turned director in the late 60s; also produced and directed stage plays (e.g. Ramu Nanna Thamma, Chikamma), often written by his wife, Revathi. Directed Love in Bangalore under the pseudonym Sampath Kumar. FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1954: Natashekhara; 1956: Bhagya Chakra; Muttaide Bhagya; Ohileshwara; Sadarame; 1957: Bettada Kalla; Premada Putri; Rayara Sose; 1958: Bhukailasa; 1959: Manegebanda Mahalakshmi; 1960: Kadavunin Kuzhandai; 1961: Thayilla Pillai; 1962: Nenjil Ore Alayam; Bhoodana; Daivaleele; Devasundari; Galigopura/Gali Medalu; Thayi Karulu/Thayin Karunai; Thendral Veesum; Shriman Petra Selvangal; Azhagu Nila; Pasam; 1963: Lawyara Magalu; Bangari; Kaduvulai Kandan; Mani Osai; Nenjam Marappathillai; Neenkada Ninaivu; Yarukku Sontham; 1964: Amarashilpi Jakanachari; Chinnada Gombe; Mane Aliya; 1965: Beretha Jeeva; Nanna Kartavya; Balarajana Kathe; Mavana Magalu; 1966: Endu Ninnavane*; Love in Bangalore*; Badukuva Daari; Subba Sastry; 1967: Bellimoda; Muddu Meena; Premakku Permitte; Kallu Sakkare*; 1968: Pravasi Mandira*; Arunodaya; Manku Dinne; Mysore Tonga; Mammathe; Bedi Bandhavalu; Anandakanda; Anna Thamma; Nane Bhagyavati; Attegondukala Sosegondukala; 1969: Odahuttidavaru; Niraparadhi; Kannu Muchale; Mukunda Chandra; 1970: Arishina Kumkuma; Aparajithe; 1971: Papa Punya; Sedina Kidi; Amara Bharathi; 1974: Avalukku Nihar Avale; 1975: Katha Sangama; 1976: Collegeranga; Tulasi; 1977: Mugdha Manava;

Banashankari; Subhashaya; Udugore; 1978: Anuragha Bandhana; 1979: Maralu Sarapani; 1980: Mother; 1983: Thayiya Nudi; Chinnadanta Maga; Simha Garajane; 1984: Nagabekamma Nagabeku; Shubha Muhurta; Guru Bhakti; Police Papanna; Avala Antaranga; Marali Goodige; 1985: Pudhu Yugam; Thayi Thande; Kiladi Aliya; Bangalooru Rathriyalli; Devarelliddane; Lakshmi Kataksha; 1986: Thavaru Mane; Usha; 1987: Thaliya Aane; 1988: Sarkarai Pandal; Oorigittakolli; 1989: Thaligagi; Shri Satyanarayana Poojaphala; 1990: Bannada Gejje; 1992: Mana Gedda Maga; 1994: Mahashakti Maye*; 1995: Ganayogi Panchakshara; Puttmalli; Hethavaru.

Kumar, Kishore (1929-87) Actor, singer, director, music director and producer born in Khandwa, MP. Moved to Bombay and featured occasionally in Saraswati Devi’s chorus at Bombay Talkies where elder brother Ashok Kumar was the top star. Imitated his hero, K.L. Saigal, e.g. in the Khemchand Prakash song in Rimjhim (1949). Early reputation as an actor who sang his own songs mostly in slapstick comedies, often playing the unemployed youth (Musafir, Naukri). After New Delhi and Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi, gained recognition for off-beat humour and for providing a new musical sound. His career as India’s most famous male playback singer, certainly in the 70s, was effectively launched when he became Dev Anand’s singing voice with Ziddi (Marne ki duaayen) and Munimji (1955: Jeevan ke safar). Formally untrained, he assimilated jazzscat fragmented musical notes into a rhythmic sequence and, once its beat was established, departed from the pattern and combined notes and words/syllables into new kinds of musical harmony in the 50s (largely restricted to melody with the singer following the instrumentation). Composer Kalyanji, with whom Kishore Kumar pioneered the use of electronic music, said that his riyaz (practice) lay more in his skills as a mimic rather than in technique. His songs spanned many genres: Ina mina dika was the pinnacle of a USderived popular song introduced by C. Ramchandra in the 50s; he sang several ‘sad’ numbers, esp. in films he directed and which, contrary to his image, were often tragedies (e.g. the song A chal ke tujhe in Door Gagan Ki Chhaon Mein); practised yodelling in the title song of Jhumroo and continued in later films; sang about his income-tax harassment during the Emergency and once, the legend goes, he set the Malthusian theory of population to music. Also evoked a tradition of Bengali comic songs of e.g. comedians Nabadwip Haldar and Tulsi Chakraborty, some of Kazi Nazrul Islam’s compositions, and later music of Ranjit Roy. The unpredictability of his musical sequencing was translated into his performances where the slapstick comedy of Baap Re Baap, Half Ticket, New Delhi and Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi have been seen as one of the Hindi cinema’s precedents of postmodernism: the apparently ‘tribal’ music of Jhumroo is a pastiche of Tequila; in Half Ticket, the classic chase

Kumar, Rajendra

sequence has hero and villain dancing in Nautanki garb and in a freewheeling Slavic harvest number. His approach echoes Danny Kaye’s style of comedy, but the performative idiom is largely original although he refused to claim auteur status. The songs, however, fall into two fairly distinct periods: one as Dev Anand’s singing voice, the other as Rajesh Khanna’s playback voice after Aradhana (1969), leading to classic Bachchan numbers including the Don (1978) song, Khaike pan banarasvala. In the 80s gave huge public concerts in India and abroad. His Madison Square Garden concert became a best seller on cassette. His son, Amit Kumar, is currently a top singer in Hindi films. FILMOGRAPHY (* also d & music d/** also music d): 1946: Shikari; 1947: Shehnai; 1948: Sati Vijaya; Ziddi; 1950: Muqaddar; 1951: Andolan; 1952: Cham Chama Cham; Tamasha; 1953: Faraib; Ladki; Lehren; 1954: Adhikar; Dhobi Doctor; Ilzaam; Miss Mala; Naukri; Pehli Jhalak; 1955: Baap Re Baap; Char Paise; Madh Bhare Nain; Rukhsana; 1956: Aabroo; Bhagambhag; Bhai Bhai; Dhake Ki Malmal; Mem Sahib; Naya Andaz; New Delhi; Parivar; Paisa Hi Paisa; 1957: Miss Mary; Aasha; Bandi; Begunah; Musafir; 1958: Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi; Chandan; Delhi Ka Thug; Kabhi Andhera Kabhi Ujala; Ragini; Lookochuri; 1959: Chacha Zindabad; Jaalsaaz; Shararat; 1960: Apna Haath Jagannath; Bewaqoof; Girl Friend; Mehlon Ke Khwab; 1961: Jhumroo**; Karodpati; Madhya Rater Tara; 1962: Bambai Ka Chor; Half Ticket; Manmauji; Naughty Boy; Rangoli; 1963: Ek Raaz; 1964: Door Gagan Ki Chhaon Mein*; Baghi Shahzada; Mr X In Bombay; Daal Mein Kala; Ganga Ki Lehren; 1965: Hum Sub Ustad Hain; Shriman Funtoosh; Ek Tuku Chhoya Lage; 1966: Akalmand; Ladka Ladki; Pyar Kiye Jaa; 1967: Hum Do Daku*; Dustu Prajapati; Albela Mastana; Duniya Nachegi; 1968: Do Dooni Char; Hai Mera Dil; Padosan; Sadhu Aur Shaitan; Shrimanji; Payal Ki Jhankaar; 1970: Aansoo Aur Muskaan; 1971: Door Ka Rahi*; Hangama; 1972: Pyar Diwana; Bombay To Goa; Zameen Aasmaan**; 1974: Badhti Ka Naam Daadhi*; 1978: Ek Baap Chhe Bete; Shabash Daddy*; 1981: Chalti Ka Naam Zindagi*; 1982: Door Wadiyon Mein Kahin*; 1989: Mamata Ki Chhaon Mein (d only, completed by Amit Kumar).

with the commercially attractive scenes of the abhorred debauchery (e.g. Purab Aur Paschim). Prominent campaigner for the fanatic Hindu communalist Bhartiya Janata Party in 1991 elections. Also acted in his productions. FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1957: Fashion; 1958: Panchayat; Sahara; 1959: Chand; 1960: Sunehri Raatein; 1961: Kaanch Ki Gudiya; Piya Milan Ki Aas; Reshmi Rumal; Suhaag Sindoor; 1962: Apna Banake Dekho; Banarasi Thug; Dr Vidya; Hariyali Aur Raasta; Maa Beta; Naqli Nawab; Shadi; 1963: Ghar Basake Dekho; Grihasthi; 1964: Apne Huye Paraye; Phoolon Ki Sej; Woh Kaun Thi; 1965: Bedaag; Gumnaam; Himalay Ki God Mein; Poonam Ki Raat; Shaheed; 1966: Picnic; Do Badan; Sawan Ki Ghata; 1967: Upkaar*; Anita; Patthar Ke Sanam; 1968: Admi; Neel Kamal; 1969: Saajan; 1970: Purab Aur Paschim*; Mera Naam Joker; Pehchan; Yaadgaar; 1971: Balidan; 1972: Shor*; Beimaan; 1974: Roti Kapda Aur Makaan*; 1975: Sanyasi; Amanat; 1976: Das Numbri; 1977: Shirdi Ke Sai Baba; 1981: Kranti*; 1987: Kalyug Aur Ramayan; 1989: Clerk*; Santosh; Deshwasi; 1995: Maidan-e-Jung.

Kumar, Mehul (b. 1949) Gujarati and Hindi director, aka Mohammed Baloch. Born in Jamnagar; graduated from Bombay University and worked as a journalist, including film reviews in the magazine Chitarang. Involved in Gujarati theatre (19745), then assistant to Chandrakant Sangani (1975-6) and to Tahir Hussain. His début is a Gujarati remake of Dada Kondke’s spectacularly successful lowbrow Marathi comedy, Pandu Havaldar (1975). 80s work mainly in mid-budget Hindi masala films, introducing this formula into Gujarati and achieving a broader acceptance and larger

budgets. Marte Dam Tak, featuring the senior star Raaj Kumar alongside Govinda, made him one of the best-known vendetta action directors. He then yoked this genre successfully to a highly rhetorical story about nationalism to make the biggest Hindi hit of 1992, Tiranga, getting Raaj Kumar to act with the younger character actor, Nana Patekar. FILMOGRAPHY: 1977: Chandu Jamadar; Janam Janamna Saathi/Phir Janam Lenge Hum; 1978: Kanchan Ane Ganga; 1979: Rajputani; 1981: Ranchandi; Garvi Naar Gujaratni; Gamdeni Gori; Kanchan Aur Ganga; 1982: Maa Vina Suno Sansar; Dholi; Anokha Bandhan; Naseeb No Khel; 1983: Dhola Maru; Maradno Mandvo; 1984: Hiranne Kanthe; Love Marriage; 1985: Meru Malan; Preet Na Karsho Koi; Bhauji Maay; 1986: Sayba Mora; Ujali Meraman; 1987: Marte Dam Tak; 1989: Na Insaafi; Nafrat Ki Aandhi; Jungbaaz; Aasmaan Se Ooncha; 1990: Paap Ki Aandhi; Mandano Mor; 1991: Meet Mere Man Ke; 1992: Tiranga; 1993: Aansoo Bane Angarey; 1994: Krantiveer.

Kumar, Rajendra (b. 1929) 60s Hindi film star, esp. in musical romances. Born R.K. Tuli in Sialkot, West Punjab. Film début as assistant to director H.S. Rawail and played a small role in his Patanga. Introduced by Kidar Sharma in Jogan, followed by a leading part in Awaaz; first major starring role in the V. Shantaram production Toofan Aur Diya. Early films capitalised on his resemblance to Dilip Kumar. In his early films, he is remembered as the straight man who throws into relief the histrionics of the other actors: e.g. Mala Sinha as the betrayed woman in Dhool Ka Phool; the rebellious Sunil Dutt contesting familial authority along with feudal oppression in Mother India; Ashok Kumar as the court judge suspected of

Kumar, Manoj (b. 1937) Hindi actor, director and producer born in Abbotabad, North West Frontier Province (now Pakistan) as Hari Krishna Goswami. Went to India on Partition and lived in a refugee camp near Delhi. Début as actor in his cousin Lekhraj Bhakri’s films. Broke through with Kaanch Ki Gudiya and Hariyali Aur Raasta. Wellknown hero in 60s commercial Hindi socials, e.g. as Bhagat Singh in the biopic Shaheed. Worked as a ghost director before his official début. Described his directorial début, Upkaar, as a ‘16000-foot-long celluloid flag of India’. Indulges in national chauvinism, contrasting son-of-the-soil goodness with Western evil, providing moral lessons together

Mala Sinha and Rajendra Kumar in Dhool Ka Phool (1959) 133

Kumar, Udaya

murder in Kanoon; the other man in the Raj Kapoor love triangle, Sangam; the doctor who treats the cancer-affected husband (Raaj Kumar) of his former lover Meena Kumari in Sridhar’s Dil Ek Mandir. However, his musicals in the 60s were more popular and he was often called ‘the Jubilee hero’ because his films would have a ‘jubilee’ run. In the 80s he launched his son Kumar Gaurav, effectively directing his début feature, Love Story (1981). FILMOGRAPHY: 1949: Patanga; 1950: Jogan; 1955: Vachan; 1956: Awaaz; Toofan Aur Diya; 1957: Duniya Rang Rangili; Mother India; Ek Jhalak; 1958: Devar Bhabhi; Ghar Sansar; Khazanchi; Talaaq; 1959: Chirag Kahan Roshni Kahan; Do Behnen; Dhool Ka Phool; Goonj Uthi Shehnai; Santan; 1960: Kanoon; Maa Baap; Patang; Mehndi Rang Lagyo; 1961: Aas Ka Panchhi; Amar Rahe Yeh Pyar; Gharana; Pyar Ka Sagar; Sasural; Zindagi Aur Khwab; 1963: Akeli Mat Jaiyo; Dil Ek Mandir; Gehra Daag; Hamrahi; Mere Mehboob; 1964: Aayi Milan Ki Bela; Sangam; Zindagi; 1965: Arzoo; 1966: Suraj; 1967: Aman; Palki; 1968: Jhuk Gaya Aasmaan; Saathi; 1969: Anjaana; Shatranj; Talash; 1970: Dharti; Ganwaar; Geet; Mera Naam Joker; 1971: Aap Aye Bahar Ayi; 1972: Aan Baan; Gaon Hamara Shaher Tumhara; Gora Aur Kala; Lalkaar; Tangewala; 1975: Do Jasoos; Rani Aur Lalpari; Sunehra Sansar; 1976: Mazdoor Zindabad; 1977: Shirdi Ke Sai Baba; Daku Aur Mahatma; Do Sholay; 1978: Ahuti; Saajan Bina Suhagan; Sone Ka Dil Lohe Ke Haath; 1979: Bin Phere Hum Tere; 1980: Badla Aur Balidan; Dhan Daulat; O Bewafa; Gunehgaar; Saajan Ki Saheli; 1981: Love Story; Yeh Rishta Na Toote; 1982: Rustom; 1983: Lovers; 1988: Main Tere Liye; 1989: Clerk; 1993: Phool. Kumar, Sampath see Kumar, Kalyana

Kumar, Udaya (1930-86) Kannada actor, originally named Suryanarayana, born in Palkad, Salem. Worked for several years in the Gandhian Bharat Seva Dal. Employed as a physical training teacher. Joined Gubbi Veeranna’s stage company. Early heroic roles in Kannada films later became more nuanced villainous characters, often counterpointing Rajkumar’s heroic persona in historicals and mythologicals. Produced Ide Mahasudina and scripted C.S. Rao’s Shri Renukadevi Mahatme. Also known as playwright (e.g. Bhakta Kanakadasa, Tapasvi Ravana, Inspector Taranath, etc.), novelist and essayist with 8 prose anthologies (e.g. Akshara Brahma, Kavi Charithre). Started the Udaya Kala Niketan acting school (1983). FILMOGRAPHY: 1956: Bhagyodaya; Daiva Sankalpa; Panchrathna; 1957: Bettada Kalla; Premada Putri/Preme Daivam; Ratnagiri Rahasya; Varadakshine; 1958: Bhakta Prahlada; Mane Thumbida Hennu; School Master/Badi Pantalu; 1959: Mahishasura Mardini; Veer Bhaskaradu; 1960: Shivalinga Sakshi; Bhakta Kanakadasa; Dashavatara; Ivan Avanethan; Yanai Pagan; 1961: Raja Satya Vrata; Vijayanagarada Veeraputra; 134

Mahout; 1962: Bhoodana; Ratnamanjari; Thayi Karulu; Vidhi Vilasa; 1963: Nanda Deepa; Malli Madhuve; Bevu Bella; Veera Kesari/Bandhipotu; Mana Mechhida Madadi; Chandrakumara; Sant Tukaram; Shri Ramanjaneya Yuddha; 1964: Chandavalliya Tota; Kalavati; Amarashilpi Jakanachari; Nandi; 1965: Kavaleradu Kulavondu; Chandrahasa; Vatsalya; Satya Harishchandra; Veera Vikrama; Ide Mahasudina; Bettada Huli; Sati Savitri; Miss Leelavathi; Madhuve Madi Nodu; Pativrata; 1966: Mane Katti Nodu; Mantralaya Mahatme; Kathari Veera; Badukuva Daari; Deva Manava; Madhu Malathi; Mohini Bhasmasura (K); Sandhya Raga; 1967: Padavidhara; Parvathi Kalyana; Sati Sukanya; Rajashekhara; Rajadurgada Rahasya; Bangarada Hoovu; Chakra Teertha; Immadi Pulakesi; 1968: Jedara Bale; Matheye Maha Mandira; Arunodaya; Mahasati Arundhati; Mysore Tonga; Anna Thamma; Namma Ooru; Nane Bhagyavati; Dhumketu; Simha Swapna; Hoovu Mullu; 1969: Odahuttidavaru; Madhura Milana; Shiva Bhakta; Bhagirathi; Makkale Manege Manikya; Madhuve! Madhuve!! Madhuve!!!; Kalpa Vruksha; Ade Hridaya Ade Mamathe; Mathru Bhoomi; Chaduranga; Mukunda Chandra; Bhale Basava; 1970: Mukti; Rangamahal Rahasya; Pratikara; Kallara Kala; Hasiru Thorana; Takka! Bitre Sikka!!; Mrityu Panjaradalli Goodachari 555; Modala Rathri; Sedige Sedu; Aaru Mooru Ombattu; 1971: Sidila Mari; Purnima; Signalman Siddappa; Samshayaphala; Jatakarathna Gunda Joisa; Kasidre Kailasa; Bhale Bhaskar; Mahadimane; Bhale Rani; 1972: Nari Munidare Mari; Kulla Agent 000; Kaanch Aur Heera; 1973: Triveni; Bharathada Rathna; Cowboy Kulla; Mannina Magalu; Premapasha; Bettada Bhairava; 1974: Chamundeshwari Mahime; Nanu Baalabeku; 1975: Jagruthi; Sarpa Kavalu; Mantra Shakti; Ashirwada; Bili Hendthi; 1976: Sutrada Bombe; Rajanarthakiya Rahasya; 1977: Shri Renukadevi Mahatme; Girikanye; Srimanthana Magalu; Hemavathi; Shani Prabhava; Banashankari; 1978: Devadasi; Matu Tappada Maga; Bhale Huduga; Madhura Sangama; Parasuraman; 1979: Putani Agents 1-2-3/Agent 1-2-3; Bhoolokadalli Yamaraja; 1980: Maria My Darling; Vajrada Jalapata; Mugana Sedu; 1981: Thayiya Madilalli; Kulaputra; Garjane; 1982: Kempu Hori; Sahasa Simha; Mava Sose Saval; Chellida Rakta; 1983: Devara Tirpu; Kalluveene Nudiyitu; Nodi Swamy Navirodu Hige; Maha Maharaju; Bhayankara Bhasmasura; 1984: Maryade Mahalu; Agni Gundam; Bharyamani; 1985: Pitamah; Vish Kanya; Lakshmi Kataksha.

Kumar, Uttam (1926-80) Bengali superstar who at times was the Tollygunge-based Bengali film industry. Real name: Arun Kumar Chatterjee. Employed as a clerk in the port commissioner’s office, Calcutta, before joining films. Briefly stage actor at the Star Theatre (e.g. in Shyamali, 1953, filmed in 1956). Début as extra in uncompleted Mayadore. Broke with the prevailing theatrical acting styles and achieved

stardom with Nirmal Dey’s Sharey Chuattar, which also initiated his famed co-starring films with Suchitra Sen: they featured in some of the most spectacular Bengali melodramas made by Naresh Mitra, Sushil Majumdar, Ajoy Kar and the Agradoot and Agragami units, epitomising the genre of the soft-focus musical romance (with Hemanta Mukherjee as his regular playback voice). Melodramas of suffering, betrayal and the struggle for truth (cf. Sagarika, Saptapadi) made an embattled literary tradition (with a bhadralok middle-class identity and an apolitical humanist philosophy) popular again after a long history of radical attacks on the Bengali novel. In e.g. Kartick Chattopadhyay’s Saheb Bibi Golam and in the Ajoy Kar and Tapan Sinha films, the Uttam Kumar persona abandoned many conservative tenets of this tradition while receiving an unprecedented degree of mass adulation. S. Ray presented his version of the phenomenon in Nayak, which many saw as the star’s autobiography. The two also worked together in Chidiakhana. His biographer Gourangaprasad Ghosh claimed that when his effort to go ‘national’ with the Hindi film Chotisi Mulaqat proved a failure, he finally turned into an actor of mass-produced romances. Except for Amanush, his Hindi films were mostly unsuccessful. His last film, Ogo Bodhu Sundari, a version of My Fair Lady, was completed with another actor. Wrote his autobiography (1979). FILMOGRAPHY (* also d/** also music d): 1948: Drishtidaan; 1949: Mayadore (incomplete); Kamana; 1950: Maryada; 1951: Ore Jatri; Sahajatri; Nastaneer; 1952: Sanjibani; Basu Parivar; Kar Papey; 1953: Sharey Chuattar; Lakh Taka; Nabin Yatra; Bou Thakuranir Haat; 1954: Moner Mayur; Ora Thake Odhare; Champadangar Bou; Kalyani; Maraner Pare; Sadanander Mela; Annapurnar Mandir; Agni Pareeksha; Bokul; Grihapravesh; Mantra Shakti; 1955: Sanjher Pradeep; Anupama; Raikamal; Devatra; Shap Mochan; Bidhilipi; Hrad; Upahar; Kankabatir Ghat; Bratacharini; Sabar Uparey; 1956: Raat Bhore; Sagarika; Saheb Bibi Golam; LakshaHira; Chirakumar Sabha; Ekti Raat; Shankar Narayan Bank; Shyamali; Trijama; Putrabadhu; Shilpi; Nabajanma; 1957: Haar Jeet; Bardidi; Yatra Holo Suru; Prithibi Amar Chai; Taser Ghar; Surer Parashey; Punar Milan; Harano Sur; Abhoyer Biye; Chandranath; Pathe Holo Deri; Jiban Trishna; 1958: Rajalakshmi-o-Shrikanta; Bandhu; Manmoyee Girls’ School; Daktar Babu; Shikar; Indrani; Joutuk; Surya Toran; 1959: Marutirtha Hinglaj; Chaowa-Pawa; Bicharak; Pushpadhanu; Gali Theke Rajpath; Khelaghar; Sonar Harin; Abak Prithvi; 1960: Maya Mriga; Raja-Saja; Kuhak; Uttar Megh; Haat Baraley Bandhu; Khokha Babur Pratyabartan; Sakher Chor; Saharer Itikatha; Suno Baro Nari; 1961: Sathi Hara; Agni Sanskar; Jhinder Bandi; Necklace; Saptapadi; Dui Bhai; 1962: Bipasha; Shiulibari; Kanna; 1963: SheshAnka; Nisithe; Uttarayan; Bhranti Bilas; Surya Sikha; Deya Neya; 1964: Bibhas; Jotugriha; Natun Tirtha; Momer Alo; Lal Patthar; 1965: Thana Theke Aschhi; Raj Kanya; Surya Tapa; Kal Tumi Aleya**; 1966: Sudhu Ekti

Kunchako

Bachhar*; Nayak; Rajdrohi; Sankha Bela; 1967: Antony Firingee; Chidiakhana; Grihadah; Jiban Mrityu; Nayika Sangbad; Chhotisi Mulaqat; 1968: Chowringhee; Kokhono Megh; Teen Adhyay; Garh Nasimpur; 1969: Aparichita; Chiradiner; Kamallata; Mon-Niye; Sabarmati; Shuk Sari; 1970: Kalankita Nayak; Bilambita Lay; Duti Mon; Nishipadma; Manjari Opera; Rajkumari; 1971: Chhadmabeshi; Dhanyi Meye; Ekhane Pinjar; Jay Jayanti; Jiban Jignasa; Nabaraag; 1972: Alo Amar Alo; Andha Atit; Biraj Bou; Chinnapatra; Haar Mana Haar; Memsahib; Stree; 1973: Kaya Hiner Kahini; Rater Rajanigandha; Roudra Chhaya; Sonar Khancha; Bon Palashir Padabali*; Rodon Bhora Basanta; 1974: Alor Thikana; Amanush; Bikele Bhorer Phool; Jadu Bansha; Jadi Jantem; Rakta Tilak; Mouchak; 1975: Ami Sey-o-Sekha; Agniswar; Bagh Bandi Khela; Kajal Lata; Nagar Darpane; Priya Bandhabi; Sanyasi Raja; Sei Chokh; Sabhyasachi**; 1976: Banhi Sikha; Chander Kachhakachhi; Mom Batti; Nidhi Ram Sardar; Rajbansha; Hotel Snow Fox; Ananda Mela; Asadharan; 1977: Bhola Moira; Jaal Sanyasi; Sister; Anand Ashram; Kitaab; Brajabuli; 1978: Bandi; Dhanraj Tamang; Dui Purush; Nishan; 1979: Dooriyan; Devdas; Nabadiganta; Samadhan; Srikanter Will; Sunayani; 1980: Aro Ekjan; Darpachurna; Dui Prithibi; Pankhiraj; Raja Saheb; Raj Nandini; 1981: Plot No 5; Kalankini Kankabati*; Khana Baraha; Pratishodh; Ogo Bodhu Sundari; Surya Sakhi; 1982: Desh Premi; Iman Kalyan; 1987: Mera Karam Mera Dharam.

Kumaran, K. P. (b. 1938) Malayalam director born in Kathuparamba, North Kerala. Actively associated with the experimental theatre movements of the early 60s, staging and acting in C.J. Thomas’ plays;

helped found the Chitralekha Film Society (1965). Film début with an experimental 100second short, Rock, made for Asia ’72. Coscripted Adoor Gopalakrishnan’s Swayamvaram (1972). Feature début Atithi adapted his own play. Also made several documentaries (Oru Chuvadu Munnottu, Kerala Thanimayude Thalam, Oru Thuli Velicham and the video film An Unmistakable Identity, aka India:Continuity and Change). and TV programmes for PTI-TV (New Delhi). FILMOGRAPHY: 1972:Rock (Sh); 1974: Atithi; 1976: Lakshmi Vijayam; 1979: Thenthulli; Adipapam; 1982: Kattile Pattu; 1985: Neram Pularumbol; 1988: Rukmini.

Kumari, Meena (1933-72) Hindi-Urdu star born in Bombay; daughter of the Parsee theatre actor, singer and music teacher Ali Bux and the dancer Iqbal Begum. Having hit upon hard times and living near the Rooptara Studios, Ali Bux sought to get his three daughters into films. The middle daughter, Mahajabeen, was hired aged 6, renamed Baby Meena and cast by Vijay Bhatt in Leatherface. Later, for Bhatt’s big musical Baiju Bawra, she was named Meena Kumari. Acted in mythologicals by e.g. Homi Wadia and Nanabhai Bhatt. Best known in the 50s for comedies (Miss Mary) and socials (Parineeta), even appearing in Do Bigha Zameen. Her main persona was constructed via Kamal Amrohi’s Daera, Bimal Roy’s Yahudi and Guru Dutt’ Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam, culminating in her most famous film, Pakeezah. Deploying the image of the ‘innocent’ courtesan first developed by Zubeida, her arched body, limpid eyes and tremulous voice combined with the lavish sets and costumes to create the classic image of the exotic Oriental, an icon achieved by mixing the Urdu stage historical with European neo-

classical ornamentation (cf. Aga Hashr Kashmiri), e.g. in the mise en scene of the Na jao saiyan song in Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam. Married Amrohi, director of her best work, but then broke with him in 1964. The couple eventually completed the film they had jointly conceived, Pakeezah, in 1971 just before her death. Her off-screen life extended her image as the lovelorn woman who drowns her passion in drink. Wrote poems in Urdu using the pen-name Naaz, a collection of which, Tanha Chand [The Solitary Moon], compiled by Gulzar, was published after her death. In their Women Writing in India (vol. 2, 1993), which includes one of the star’s poems, Susie Tharu and K. Lalitha describe her as ‘an exceptionally beautiful and talented actress, always dressed in white’, and they quote Afeefa Banu’s comment that she is ‘an object of fantasy and a motif of melancholy’. FILMOGRAPHY: 1939: Leatherface; 1940: Ek Hi Bhool; Pooja; 1941: Kasauti; Bahen; Nai Roshni; 1942: Garib; 1943: Pratigya; 1944: Lal Haveli; 1946: Bachchon Ka Khel; Duniya Ek Sarai; 1947: Piya Ghar Aaja; 1948: Bichhade Balam; 1949: Veer Ghatotkach; 1950: Magroor; Shri Ganesh Mahima; Hamara Ghar; 1951: Hanuman Pataal Vijay; Lakshmi Narayan; Madhosh; Sanam; 1952: Alladdin And The Wonderful Lamp; Baiju Bawra; Tamasha; 1953: Daera; Dana Pani; Do Bigha Zameen; Footpath; Naulakha Haar; Parineeta; 1954: Baadbaan; Chandni Chowk; Ilzaam; 1955: Adl-e-Jehangir; Azad; Bandish; Rukhsana; 1956: Bandhan; Ek Hi Raasta; Halaku; Mem Sahib; Naya Andaz; Shatranj; 1957: Miss Mary; Sharada; 1958: Farishta; Sahara; Savera; Yahudi; 1959: Ardhangini; Chand; Char Dil Char Raahein; Chirag Kahan Roshni Kahan; Jagir; Madhu; Satta Bazaar; Shararat; 1960: Bahana; Dil Apna Aur Preet Parayi; Kohinoor; 1961: Bhabhi Ki Chudiyan; Pyar Ka Sagar; Zindagi Aur Khwab; 1962: Aarti; Main Chup Rahungi; Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam; 1963: Akeli Mat Jaiyo; Dil Ek Mandir; Kinare Kinare; 1964: Benazir; Chitralekha; Ghazal; Main Bhi Ladki Hoon; Sanjh Aur Savera; 1965: Bheegi Raat; Kajal; Purnima; 1966: Phool Aur Patthar; Pinjre Ke Panchhi; 1967: Bahu Begum; Chandan Ka Palna; Manjhli Didi; Noorjehan; 1968: Abhilasha; Baharon Ki Manzil; 1970: Jawab; Saat Phere; 1971: Dushman; Mere Apne; Pakeezah; 1972: Gomti Ke Kinare. Kumari, Usha see Vijayanirmala

Kunchako (1912-76)

Master Aziz and Meena Kumari in Bhabhi Ki Chudiyan (1961)

Malayalam director and major producer born in Alleppey. One of the founders of the Kerala film industry when he set up his Udaya Studio (1947) in Alleppey and made Vellinakshatram (1949). Scripted M.R.S. Mani’s Kidappadam (1954). Long-time partner K.V. Koshy (they ran K & K Prod.) claimed in his autobiography (1968) to have followed the Telugu film-maker B.N. Reddi’s example and brought respectability to Malayalam cinema mainly by distancing themselves from Tamil film’s dominant genre conventions. Collaborated 135

Kurup, O. N. V.

closely with scenarists Muthukulam Raghavan Pillai and K.P. Kottarakkara. This period provided the first Malayalam film stars, including Augustine Joseph and Sebastian Kunju Kunju Bhagavar (actor-singers from the professional theatre), Thikkurissi Sukumaran Nair and Kottarakkara Sridharan Nair. In the 60s the earlier stageinspired cinema was replaced by megastar Prem Nazir’s work. Films directed ranged across genres such as thrillers with barely concealed references to major scandals (Mainatharuvi Kola Case), political films (Pazhassi Raja, Jail, Punnapra Vyalar) and S.P. Pillai comedies (Neelisally et al., forerunners of the Adoor Bhasi style). Later films referred to literary melodrama tradition known in local parlance as the paingili novel. Also made and produced mythologicals. FILMOGRAPHY: 1960: Umma; Seeta; Neelisally; 1961: Unniyarcha; Krishna Kuchela; 1962: Palattukoman; Bharya; 1963: Kadalamma; Rebecca; 1964: Pazhassi Raja; Ayesha; 1965: Inapravugal; Shakuntala; 1966: Jail; Anarkali; Tilottama; 1967: Mainatharuvi Kola Case; Kasavuthattam; 1968: Thirichadi; Punnapra Vyalar; Kodungalluramma; 1969: Susie; 1970: Pearl View; Dattuputhran; Othenente Makan; 1971: Panchavan Kadal; 1972: Aromalunni; Postmane Kananilla; 1973: Ponnapuram Kotta; Thenaruvi; Pavangal Pennungal; 1974: Durga; Thumbolarcha; 1975: Neela Ponman; Cheenavala; Dharmakshetre Kurukshetre; Manishada; 1976: Chennai Valarthiya Kutty; Mallanum Mathevanum; 1977: Kannappanunni.

Kurup, O. N. V. (b. 1931) Songwriter. With Vyalar Rama Varma and P. Bhaskaran, he formed the troika ruling Malayalam film song since the early 50s. Like the others, he was rooted in the Kerala Peoples Arts Club’s radical theatre, for which he wrote some of its most famous songs: Balikutterangale, Aa malar poikayil (both scored by Devarajan) and Madala poopoloru (scored by Salil Choudhury). Although he shares the pervasive influence of postChangampuzha ‘romantic’ poetry, his bestknown early work in both his independent poetry (e.g. the anthologies Samarattinte Santatikal/Offspring of the Revolution, 1951; Mattuvin Chattangale/Change the Laws, 1955) and in his film writing, is more militant than that of his 2 colleagues.

Lahiri, Bappi Extremely prolific music composer sometimes referred to as the R.D. Burman of B movies. Early work in Bengali cinema. Had a major success with Mithun Chakraborty’s disco films directed by B. Subhash (Disco Dancer, Dance Dance). His scores, including for all the Ramsay horror films (Aur Kaun, Saboot) rely on electronic instrumentation and display an open rejection of originality. His work, often made on a shoestring for South Indian directors, is cited as the emblem of bad taste in mass culture. In some Bengali films, notably 136

Anjan Choudhury’s Guru Dakshina, he caused a sensation with compositions based on classical Indian music. FILMOGRAPHY: 1969: Dadu; 1972: Janatar Adalat; 1973: Nannha Shikari; Charitra; 1974: Bazaar Band Karo; 1975: Zakhmi; 1976: Chalte Chalte; Sangram; 1977: Aap Ki Khatir; Haiwan; Paapi; Phir Janam Lenge Hum; Pratima Aur Payal; 1978: College Girl; Dil Se Mile Dil; Khoon Ki Pukar; Toote Khilone; Tere Pyar Mein; 1979: Shiksha; Aangan Ki Kali; Ahsaas; Aur Kaun; Do Hawaldar; Iqraar; Jaan-e-Bahar; Lahu Ke Do Rang; Suraksha; Manokamna; 1980: Apne Paraye; Agreement; Ek Baar Kaho; Humkadam; Kismet; Morcha; Patita; Pyara Dushman; Saboot; Taxi Chor; Bhula Na Dena; Guest House; 1981: Armaan; Dahshat; Jeene Ki Arzoo; Jyoti; Laparwah; Paanch Qaidi; Sahas; Wardat; Maa Bipat Tarini Chandi; Ogo Bodhu Sundari; Nai Imarat; Josh; Hathkadi; Dulha Bikta Hai; 1982: Gumsum; Dial 100; Disco Dancer; Do Ustad; Namak Halal; Sambandh; Saugandh; Suraag; Taqdeer Ka Badshah; Farz Aur Kanoon; Pyaas; Justice Choudhury; Shiv Charan; 1983: Do Gulab; Doosri Dulhan; Faraib; Film Hi Film; Himmatwala; Humse Na Jeeta Koi; Jaani Dost; Jeet Hamari; Karate; Kisise Na Kehna; Lalach; Love in Goa; Mawaali; Naukar Biwi Ka; Pasand Apni Apni; Wanted; Raja Aur Rana; Ek Din Bahu Ka; DuJanay; Protidan; Apoorva Sahodarigal; 1984: Tarkeeb; Aaj Ka MLA Ramavatar; Bhavna; Gangvaa; Haisiyat; Hum Rahe Na Hum; Kaamyaab; Kasam Paida Karne Wale Ki; Maqsad; Meri Adalat; Naya Kadam; Pet Pyar Aur Paap; Qaidi; Shapath; Sharabi; Tohfa; Yaadgaar; Waqt Ki Pukar; Kamla; Teri Baahon Mein; Shravan Kumar; Sheeshe Ka Ghar; 1985: Thavam; Uttarayan; Aaj Ka Daur; Aandhi Toofan; Aitbaar; Badal; Balidan; Bandhan Anjana; Bewafai; Bhawani Junction; Giraftaar; Haqeeqat; Haveli; Hoshiyar; Insaaf Main Karoonga; Karm Yudh; Lover Boy; Maa Kasam; Maha Shaktiman/ Maharudra; Mahaguru; Masterji; Mera Saathi; Mohabbat; Pataal Bhairavi; Pyari Behna; Saamri; Saheb; Salma; Tarzan; Wafadaar; Antaraley; Shart; Locket; Kala Suraj; 1986: Urbashe; Jhoothi; Adhikar; Avinash; Dharam Adhikari; Dilwala; Ilzaam; Insaaf Ki Awaaz; Kirayedaar; Kismatwala; Main Balwan; Mera Dharam; Muddat; Sheesha; Sinhasan; Suhagan; 1987: Thene Manasulu; Savkharavam; Samrat; Pratikar; Amor Sangi; Guru Dakshina; Aag Hi Aag; Dak Bangla; Dance Dance; Diljala; Himmat Aur Mehnat; Majaal; Mera Yaar Mera Dushman; Param Dharam; Pyar Karke Dekho; Pyar Ke Kabil; Sadak Chhaap; Satyamev Jayate; Sheela; Muqaddar Ka Faisla; Collector Vijaya; 1988: Manmadha Samrajyam; Antaranga; Debibaran; Pratik; Aaj Ke Angarey; Ghar Ghar Ki Kahani; Hatya; Kab Tak Chup Rahungi; Kasam; Mulzim; Paap Ki Duniya; Tamacha; Veerana; Waqt Ki Awaaz; Commando; Kanwarlal; Halaal Ki Kamai; Mardangi; Sone Pe Suhaaga; Gunahon Ka Faisla; Sagar Sangam; Zakhmi Aurat; Mera Shikar; Farz Ki Jung; 1989: Sachche Ka Bol Bala; Guru (H); Gair Kanooni; Hum Intezar Karenge; Kahan Hai Kanoon; Paanch Paapi; Prem Pratigya;

Garibon Ka Daata; Hum Bhi Insaan Hain; Na-Insaafi; Aakhri Gulam; Mitti Aur Sona; Gentleman; Love Love Love; Mohabbat Ka Paigam; Sikka; Gola Barood; Khoj; Kasam Vardi Ki; Kanoon Apna Apna; Zakhm; Paap Ka Ant; Nafrat Ki Aandhi; Asha-o-Bhalobasha; Sansar; Amar Tumi; Agni Trishna; Mangaldip; Amor Prem; Pronami Tomai; Ghar Ka Chirag; Aag Ka Gola; Khooni Murda; Kali Ganga; Saaya; Tauheen; Chokher Aloye; Nayanmoni; 1990: Aandhiyan; Pyar Ke Naam Qurban; Shandaar; Shaitani Ilaaka; Awaragardi; Ghar Ho To Aisa; Nakabandi; Awwal Number; Shera Shamshera; Ghayal; Haar Jeet; Aaj Ka Arjun; Sailaab; Roti Ki Keemat; Aaj Ka Shahenshah; Karishma Kali Ka; Thanedar; Din Dahade; Raktorin; Mandira; Badnaam; Patthar Ke Insaan; Raeeszada; Balidan; Dokyala Taap Nahi (also act.); 1991: Dushman Devata; Hafta Bandh; Naachnewale Ganewale; Phool Bane Angarey; Pratikaar; Pratigyabadh; Farishte; Yodha; Numbri Admi; First Love Letter; Vishkanya; Kohraa; Hai Meri Jaan; Jungle Beauty; Rupaye Dus Karod; Swarg Jaisa Ghar; Sau Karod; Gang Leader; Ahankar; Antarer Bhalobasha; 1992: Insaaf Ki Devi; Shola Aur Shabnam; Sanam Tere Hain Hum; Naseebwala; Zindagi Ek Jua; Tyaagi; Police Aur Mujrim; Isi Ka Naam Zindagi; Kisme Kitna Hai Dum; Geet; Raktalekha; Apon Ghar; Anutap; Surer Bhubane; Priya; 1993: Kundan; Aaj Ki Aurat; Aankhen; Aaj Ki Taaqat; Bomb Blast; Geetanjali (H); Izzat Ki Roti; Policewala; Veerta; Aag Ka Toofan; Dalaal; Rakter Saad; Tomar Rakte Amar Sohag; 1994: Thanedarni; Aag Aur Chingari; Bali Umar Ko Salaam; Andaz; Parmatma; Pyar Ka Rog; Janata Ki Adalat; Brahma; Amanat; Mr Azad; Pratyaghat; Kothachilo; Raktanadir Dhara; Phiriye Dao; Dhusar Godhuli; Neelanjana; Lal Pan Bibi; 1995: Maidan-e-Jung; Policewala Gunda; Aatank Hi Aatank; Diya Aur Toofan; Hum Sub Chor Hain; Rock Dancer; Sangharsha; Prem Sanghat.

Lahiri, Nirendranath (1908-72) Bengali and Hindi director born in Calcutta. Started as actor in P.C. Barua’s studio (Ekada, 1932); assisted Barua at New Theatres. Music director for Ashiana, Tarubala and Annapurnar Mandir (all 1936), and acted in Debaki Bose’s Abhinav (1940) before turning director. Best-known films based on writers associated with progressive Kallol literature (e.g. Bhabhi-Kaal by Premendra Mitra). Themes often invoke nationalist idealism (Garmil, Bhabi-Kaal). Also filmed Saratchandra Chatterjee’s novels (e.g. Palli Samaj, Subhadra). FILMOGRAPHY (* also music d): 1940:Byabadhan; 1942: Mahakavi Kalidas; Garmil; 1943: Sahadharmini; Dampati; 1944: Anban; 1945: Bhabhi-Kaal; Banphool; 1946: Arabian Nights; 1948: Sadharan Meye; Jayjatra/Vijay Yatra; 1949: Niruddesh; Singhdwar; 1950: Garabini; 1952: Palli Samaj; Subhadra; 1953: Kajari*; Lakh Taka*; 1954: Shobha; Kalyani; Jadubhatta; 1955: Devimalini; 1956: Bhola Master; Shankar Narayan Bank; 1957: Madhu Malati; Bara Maa; Prithibi Amar Chai; 1958: Tansen;

Laxmikant-Pyarelal

Indrani; 1959: Chhabi; 1966: Rajdrohi; 1983: Raat Dastay.

Lajmi, Kalpana (b. 1954) Hindi director based in Bombay; niece of Guru Dutt. Assistant to Benegal (1974-82). Started assisting Bhupen Hazarika (1977) and has consistently collaborated with him since then, managing his career from 1982 onwards. Directorial début with a portrait of Dhiren Ganguly; made several documentaries and promotionals before her feature début with Ek Pal. Directed the 13-episode TV series Lohit Kinare, adapting Assamese short stories. FILMOGRAPHY: 1978: D.G. Movie Pioneer (Doc); 1979: A Work Study in Tea Plucking (Doc); 1981: Along the Brahmaputra (Doc); 1986: Ek Pal; 1988: Lohit Kinare (TV); 1992: Rudaali. Lakshmikant-Pyarelal see Laxmikant-Pyarelal

Lakshminarayan, N. (?-1991) Kannada director born in Srirangapatna, Karnataka. First explicitly experimental filmmaker in Kannada with wordless short Bliss. Studied cinematography in Bangalore. Early career as apprentice to his uncle, B.R. Krishnamurthy; then to R. Nagendra Rao. Claimed influence of De Sica and Satyajit Ray in first attempts at art cinema in Kannada, prior to the Navya Movement-inspired notion of film as an extension of literature. His melodramatically inclined work claims roots in psychological realism. His Nandi was a big success and launched Kalpana as a star. FILMOGRAPHY: 1961: Bliss (Sh); 1964: Nandi; 1969: Uyyale; 1970: Mukti; 1973: Abachurina Post Office; 1979: Muyyi; 1985: Bettada Hoovu; 1987: Belaku. Lakshminarayan, Sattiraju see Bapu

Lakshmirajyam (1922-87) Telugu actress and producer born near Vijaywada, AP, into a family of stage performers. Joined the Ramatilakam-Pulipati stage company in Vijaywada. Studied music, including the folk Harikatha style, from composer Saluri Rajeswara Rao. First break in Calcutta in C. Pullaiah’s Shri Krishna Tulabharam. Acted in mythologicals, e.g. Radha in Shri Krishna Leelalu, Maya Bazaar, etc. After Illalu, was associated prominently in melodramas by Ramabrahmam in e.g. Apavadu and Panthulamma, L.V. Prasad and K.V. Reddy. Turned producer with Rajyam Prod. (1952) and made films like Daasi, Nartanasala, Shakuntala and Rangeli Raja. FILMOGRAPHY: 1935: Shri Krishna Tulabharam; Shri Krishna Leelalu; 1936: Maya Bazaar; 1939: Amma; 1940: Illalu; 1941: Apavadu; 1943: Panthulamma; 1946: Mangalsutram; Narada Naradi; 1948: Drohi; 1949: Gunsundari Katha; 1950: Paramanandayya Sishyulu Katha; Samsaram; 1951: Agni Pareeksha;

Akasharaju; Mayalamari; Mayapilla; 1952: Daasi; Prajaseva; 1954: Raju Peda; 1956: Harishchandra; 1958: Ettuku Pai Ettu; 1960: Vimala; 1963: Nartanasala; Iruvar Ullam; 1966: Shakuntala; 1968: Govula Gopanna; 1971: Rangeli Raja.

Lankesh, P. (b. 1935) Kannada director born in Shimoga Dist., Karnataka. Also major Kannada novelist, poet and playwright. His novel, Biruku (1967), ranks with Ananthamurthy’s Samskara (1966) as the pinnacle of the Navya Movement. Acted in film version of Samskara (1970). Other noted works: Kereya Niranu Kerege Chelli (short stories, 1964), Bitchhu (poems, 1967), Sankranthi (play, 1973). Films continue his literary enterprise. Co-scripted Kambhar’s Sangeetha (1981). Vociferous political commentator and owner-editor of the downmarket weekly tabloid Lankesh Patrike (Est: 1980). Established his own political party to fight the general elections of 1989. FILMOGRAPHY (* also act): 1976: Pallavi*; 1977: Anurupa; 1979: Khandavideko Mamsavideko; 1980: Ellindalo Bandavaru.

Laxmikant-Pyarelal [Laxmikant Shantaram Kudalkar (1937-98)] and Pyarelal Ramprasad Sharma (b. 1940) Music composers at the top of their profession in the 70s and 80s. Composed the two biggest hit songs of the late 80s, Ek do teen (from Tezaab) and the Bachchan number Jumma chumma (from Hum). Both musicians started as performers in orchestras, becoming arrangers for Hindi film music, which often included ghosting for composers. Laxmikant learnt the violin with Husnlal while Pyarelal learnt music from the Goan music teacher, Anthony Gonsalves (a memory celebrated in his score for Amar Akbar Anthony). Pyarelal assisted Bulo C. Rani at Ranjit; both assisted Naushad, C. Ramchandra and KalyanjiAnandji. Their first film as music directors, Parasmani, yielded a major hit, Hansta hua nurani chehra. Broke through with Milan and the Lata Mangeshkar/Mukesh hit, Sawan ka mahina. Real success came in the 70s with their Rajesh Khanna films (Dushman, Hathi Mere Saathi, Do Raaste) and with Raj Kapoor’s Bobby. Since then they have worked on many Manmohan Desai films (Dharam Veer, Naseeb), Shekhar Kapur’s Mr India and the film that breathed new life into their career, Tezaab, followed by Hum. They tend to ascribe their success to their integration of classical Indian and folk rhythms with electronic synthesisers. The lyrics of their songs are frequently written by Anand Bakshi. FILMOGRAPHY: 1963: Parasmani; Harishchandra Taramati; 1964: Aaya Toofan; Dosti; Mr X in Bombay; Sant Dnyaneshwar; Sati Savitri; 1965: Boxer; Hum Sub Ustad Hain; Lutera; Shriman Funtoosh; 1966: Aasra; Aaye Din Bahar Ke; Chhota Bhai; Daku

Mangal Singh; Dillagi; Laadla; Mere Lal; Naag Mandir; Pyar Kiye Jaa; Sau Saal Baad; 1967: Anita; Milan Ki Raat; Chhaila Babu; Duniya Nachegi; Farz; Jaal; Milan; Night in London; Patthar Ke Sanam; Shagird; Taqdeer; 1968: Baharon Ki Manzil; Izzat; Mere Humdum Mere Dost; Raja Aur Runk; Sadhu Aur Shaitan; Spy in Rome; 1969: Aansoo Ban Gaye Phool; Anjaana; Aaya Sawan Jhoom Ke; Dharti Kahe Pukar Ke; Do Bhai; Do Raaste; Inteqam; Jeene Ki Raah; Jigri Dost; Madhavi; Mera Dost; Meri Bhabhi; Pyaasi Shyam; Saajan; Satyakam; Shart; Wapas; 1970: Aan Milo Sajna; Abhinetri; Bachpan; Darpan; Devi; Himmat; Humjoli; Jawab; Jeevan Mrityu; Khilona; Maa Aur Mamta; Man Ki Aankhen; Mastana; Pushpanjali; Sharafat; Suhana Safar; 1971: Aap Aye Bahar Ayi; Banphool; Bikhare Moti; Chahat; Dushman; Hathi Mere Saathi; Haseenon Ka Devta; Jal Bin Machhli Nritya Bin Bijli; Lagan; Man Mandir; Mehboob Ke Mehndi; Mera Gaon Mera Desh; Uphaar; Woh Din Yaad Karo; 1972: Buniyaad; Dastaan; Ek Bechara; Ek Nazar; Gaon Hamara Shaher Tumhara; Gora Aur Kala; Haar Jeet; Jeet; Mom Ki Gudiya; Piya Ka Ghar; Raaste Ka Patthar; Raja Jani; Shadi Ke Baad; Shor; Subah-o-Shyam; Wafaa; Roop Tera Mastana; 1973: Anhonee; Anokhi Ada; Barkha Bahar; Bobby; Daag; Gaddar; Gaai Aur Gori; Gehri Chaal; Insaaf; Jalte Badan; Jwar Bhata; Kachche Dhaage; Kahani Hum Sub Ki; Loafer; Manchali; Nirdosh; Keemat; Suraj Aur Chanda; Sweekar; 1974: Amir Garib; Badla; Bidaai; The Cheat; Dost; Dulhan; Duniya Ka Mela; Free Love; Geeta Mera Naam; Imtehan; Jurm Aur Sazaa; Majboor; Naya Din Nayi Raat; Nirmaan; Pagli; Paise Ki Gudiya; Prem Shastra; Roti; Roti Kapda Aur Makaan; Shandaar; Vaada Tera Vaada; Pocketmaar; Sauda; 1975: Aakhri Dao; Akraman; Anari; Apne Rang Hazaar; Chaitali; Dafaa 302; Lafange; Mere Sajna; Ponga Pandit; Pratigya; Prem Kahani; Sewak; Zinda Dil; Zindagi Aur Toofan; Natak; 1976: Aaj Ka Mahatma; Aap Beeti; Charas; Do Ladkiyan; Das Numbri; Jaaneman; Koi Jeeta Koi Haara; Maa; Nagin; Santan; Naach Utha Sansar; 1977: Adha Din Adhi Raat; Aashiq Hoon Baharon Ka; Amar Akbar Anthony; Anurodh; Apnapan; Chacha Bhatija; Chhaila Babu; Chhota Baap; Chor Sipahi; Dharam Veer; Dildaar; Dream Girl; Imaan Dharam; Jagriti; Kachcha Chor; Kali Raat; Mastan Dada; Ooparwala Jaane; Palkon Ki Chhaon Mein; Parvarish; Thief of Baghdad; Tinku; Prayashchit; 1978: Ahuti; Amar Shakti; Badalte Rishte; Daku Aur Jawan; Dil Aur Deewar; Kala Admi; Main Tulsi Tere Aangan Ki; Phansi; Phool Khile Hain Gulshan Gulshan; Prem Bandhan; Satyam Shivam Sundaram; Sawan Ke Geet; Chakravyuha; 1979: Amar Deep; Dil Ka Heera; Gautam Govinda; Jaani Dushman; Kartavya; Lok Parlok; Maan Apmaan; Magroor; Muqabala; Prem Vivah; Sargam; Suhaag; Yuvraaj; Zalim; Kali Ghata; Chunauti; 1980: Asha; Bandish; Berahem; Choron Ki Baraat; Do Premi; Dostana; Ganga Aur Suraj; Gehrayee; Judaai; Jyoti Bane Jwala; Kala Pani; Karz; Maang Bharo Sajana; Nishana; Patthar Se Takkar; Ram Balram; Yari Dushmani; Hum Paanch; Waqt Ki Deewar; Aas Paas; 1981: Ek Aur Ek Gyarah; Ek Duuje Ke Liye; Ek Hi Bhool; Fifty137

Leela, P.

Fifty; Khoon Aur Pani; Khuda Kasam; Kranti; Krodhi; Ladies’ Tailor; Meri Awaaz Suno; Naseeb; Pyaasa Sawan; Sharada; Vakil Babu; Raaste Pyar Ke; 1982: Apna Bana Lo; Badle Ki Aag; Baghavat; Deedar-e-Yaar; Do Dishayen; Desh Premi; Ghazab; Insaan; Jeevan Dhara; Jiyo Aur Jeene Do; Main Inteqam Loonga; Mehndi Rang Layegi; Prem Rog; Rajput; Samrat; Taaqat; Teesri Aankh; Teri Maang Sitaron Se Bhar Doon; Davedar; Farz Aur Kanoon; Jaanwar; 1983: Andha Kanoon; Arpan; Avatar; Bekaraar; Coolie; Hero; Mujhe Insaaf Chahiye; Prem Tapasya; Woh Saat Din; Yeh Ishq Nahin Asaan; Zara Si Zindagi; Agami Kal; 1984: Asha Jyoti; Akalmand; All Rounder; Baazi; Ek Nai Paheli; Ghar Ek Mandir; Inquilab; Jeene Nahin Doonga; John Jani Janardhan; Bad Aur Badnaam; Do Dilon Ki Dastaan; Mera Faisla; Sharara; Zakhmi Sher; Utsav; Pyar Jhukta Nahin; Mera Dost Mera Dushman; Khazana; Pakhandi; Kahan Tak Aasmaan Hai; 1985: Dekha Pyar Tumhara; Ghulami; Jaanoo; Jawab; Kali Basti; Mera Ghar Mere Bachche; Mera Jawab; Meri Jung; Patthar Dil; Sanjog; Sarfarosh; Sur Sangam; Teri Meherbaniyan; Yaadon Ki Kasam; Triveni; Aakhri Raasta; 1986: Swati; Aag Aur Shola; Aap Ke Saath; Aisa Pyar Kahan; Amrit; Anjaam; Asli Naqli; Dosti Dushmani; Kala Dhandha Goray Log; Love 86; Mazloom; Naache Mayuri; Naam; Nagina; Naseeb Apna Apna; Pyar Kiya Hai Pyar Karenge; Qatl; Sada Suhagan; Swarg Se Sundar; Karma; Loha; 1987: Sansar; Aulad; Hukumat; Insaaf; Insaaf Kaun Karega; Insaaf Ki Pukar; Jaan Hatheli Pe; Jawab Hum Denge; Kudrat Ka Kanoon; Madadgaar; Mard Ki Zabaan; Mera Karam Mera Dharam; Mr India; Nazrana; Parivar; Sindoor; Uttar Dakshin; Watan Ke Rakhwale; 1988: Charnon Ki Saugandh; Khatron Ke Khiladi; Pyar Ka Mandir; Pyar Mohabbat; Ram Avatar; Shoorveer; Hamara Khandaan; Biwi Ho To Aisi; Dayavan; Ganga Tere Desh Mein; Tezaab; Janam Janam; Mar Mitenge; Agni; Do Waqt Ki Roti; Inteqam; Qatil; Bees Saal Baad; Eeshwar; Yateem; 1989: Gharana; Oonch Neech Beech; Elaan-e-Jung; Nigahen; Santosh; Shehzade; Bhrashtachar; Chaalbaaz; Do Qaidi; Hathyar; Main Tera Dushman; Suryaa; Dost Garibon Ka; Ram Lakhan; Kasam Suhaag Ki; Pati Parmeshwar; Bade Ghar Ki Beti; Paraya Ghar; Sachaai Ki Taaqat; Batwara; Naag Nagin; Majboor; Sahebzade; Deshwasi; 1990: Paap Ki Aandhi; Krodh; Pyar Ka Devata; Pyar Ka Karz; Pyar Ka Toofan; Sanam Bewafa; Sher Dil; Shesh Naag; Azad Desh Ke Gulam; Hatimtai; Jeevan Ek Sangharsh; Izzatdar; Krodh; Amiri Garibi; Atishbaaz; Agneepath; Pati Patni Aur Tawaif; Humse Na Takrana; Veeru Dada; Amba; Jamai Raja; Qayamat Ki Raat; Khilaaf; Kanoon Ki Zanjeer; 1991: Ajooba; Benaam Badshah; Do Matwale; Pyar Hua Chori Chori; Qurban; Hum; Narasimha; Khoon Ka Karz; Mast Kalandar; Ranabhoomi; Shankara; Akela; Banjaran; Sapnon Ka Mandir; Lakshmanrekha; 1992: Prem Diwani; Humshakal; Heer Ranjha; Angar; Aparadhi; Tiranga; Kshatriya; Roop Ki Rani Choron Ka Raja; 1993: Dil Hi To Hai; Yugandhar; Aashiq Awara; Badi Bahen; Khalnayak; Dil Hai Betaab; Gumrah; Chahoonga Main Tujhe; 138

Bedardi; 1994: Insaaf Apne Lahoo Se; Tejaswini; Chauraha; Mohabbat Ki Arzoo; 1995: Prem; Paapi Devata; Dilbar; Trimurti.

Leela, P. (b. 1933) Together with P. Susheela, Leela is one of the main South Indian singers, with many hits since the late 40s in Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu and Kannada. Born in Chittor, North Kerala. Film début in Kankanam (1947); broke through with songs in Gunsundari Katha (1949). Playback singer in more than 400 films. Has been on a long-term contract with Columbia Gramophone, releasing over 250 records for their label. Made numerous radio appearances in Madras.

Leelavathi (b. 1938) Versatile Kannada actress born in Mangalore, Karnataka. Joined M.V. Subbaiah Naidu’s stage group aged 3. Was a well-known Kannada stage actress when she débuted in film as the comedienne in Bhakta Prahlada. Her first lead role was in Mangalya Yoga. Achieved stardom as Rani Honamma, her first film with Rajkumar, going on to do c.20 more films with him, dominating Kannada cinema for over a decade. Acted in melodramas for Kanagal (Gejje Pooje, Sharapanjara) and developed into a dramatically intense actress, often cast as a mother; also known for light comedy. FILMOGRAPHY: 1958: Bhakta Prahlada; Mangalya Yoga; 1959: Dharma Vijaya; Raja Malaya Simhan; Jagajyothi Basaveshwara; Abba! A Hudgi; 1960: Ranadheera Kanteerava; Dashavtara; Rani Honamma; 1961: Kaivara Mahatme; Kantheredu Nodu; Kittur Chanamma; 1962: Bhoodana; Galigopura; Karuneye Kutumbada Kannu; Ratnamanjari; Vidhi Vilasa; Valar Pirai; Sumaithangi; 1963: Nanda Deepa; Kanya Ratna; Jeevana Taranga; Malli Madhuve; Kulavadhu; Kalitharu Henne; Bevu Bella; Veera Kesari/Bandhipotu; Valmiki; Mana Mechhida Madadi; Sant Tukaram; 1964: Marmayogi; Shivarathri Mahatme; Tumbidakoda; 1965: Naga Pooja; Chandrahasa; Vatsalya; Veera Vikrama; Ide Mahasudina; Madhuve Madi Nodu; 1966: Thoogu Deepa; Prema Mayi; Paduka Pattabhishekham; Mohini Bhasmasura; 1967: Gange Gauri; 1968: Bhagya Devathe; Mammathe; Anna Thamma; Attegondukala Sosegondukala; 1969: Kalpa Vruksha; Brindavana; 1970: Gejje Pooje; Aparajite; Boregowda Bangaloruge Banda; Sukha Samsara; Aaru Mooru Ombattu; 1971: Sharapanjara; Signalman Siddappa; Sothu Geddavalu; Sipayi Ramu; 1972: Naa Mechida Huduga; Nagara Haavu; Dharmapatni; 1973: Sahadharmini; Muruvare Vajragalu; Premapasha; 1974: Upasane; Maha Thyaga; Bhakta Kumbhara; Professor Huchuraya; Maga Mommaga; Naan Avanillai; Aval Oru Thodarkathai/Aval Oru Thodarkatha; Devara Gudi; Idu Namma Desha; 1975: Koodi Balona; Kalla Kulla; Bhagya Jyothi; Bili Hendthi; Hennu Samsarada Kannu; Katha Sangama; Hosilu Mettida Hennu; 1976: Makkala

Bhagya; Bangarada Gudi; Collegeranga; Na Ninna Mareyalare; Phalithamsha; 1977: Deepa; Dhanalakshmi; Mugdha Manava; Kumkuma Rakshe; Veera Sindhoora Lakshmana; Avargal; 1978: Devadasi; Kiladi Kittu; Matu Tappada Maga; Kiladi Jodi; Gammathu Goodacharulu; Vasanthalakshmi; 1979: Karthika Deepam; Idi Kathakadu; Na Ninna Bidalare; Pakka Kalla; Vijaya Vikram; Savathiya Neralu; 1980: Nanna Rosha Nooru Varusha; Kulla Kulli; Auto Raja; Subbi Subakka Suvvalali; Namma Mane Sose; Simha Jodi; Vasantha Geethe; Nyaya Neethi Dharma; Jatara; Kappu Kola; Mr Rajanikant; 1981: Thayiya Madilalli; Kulaputra; Hana Balavo Jana Balavo; Edeyuru Siddhalingeshwara/ Siddalingeshwara Mahima; Leader Vishwanath; Bhoomige Banda Bhagavanta; Devara Aata; Galimathu; Garjane; Mane Mane Kathe; Mareyada Haadu; Muniyana Madari; Prema Pallavi; Shikari; Snehitara Saval; Bhagyavanthedi; 1982: Chellida Rakta; Gunanodi Hennu Kodu; Then Sittukkal; 1983: Sididedda Sahodara; Mududida Tavare Aralitu; Samarpane; 1984: Shravana Banthu; Endina Ramayana; Chanakya; Olavu Moodidaga; 1985: Balondu Uyyale; Ajeya; Nanu Nanna Hendthi; Pudhir; Hosa Baalu; Savira Sullu; Balondu Uyyale; Giri Bale; Jwalamukhi; Lakshmi Kataksha; Sneha Sambandha; 1986: Bettada Thayi; Katha Nayaka; KD No 1; Mrigalaya; Seelu Nakshatra; 1987: Premaloka; Olavina Udugore; Huli Hebbuli; 1988: Varna Chakra; 1989: Yuga Purusha; Gagana; Abhimana; Doctor Krishna; 1990: Golmaal Radhakrishna; Tiger Gangu; Golmaal Bhaga II; 1992: Nanjunda.

Ludhianvi, Sahir (1921-80) Urdu lyricist and major poet born in Ludhiana. Originally called Abdul Hayee. Author of two anthologies (Talkhian, 1945, and Parchaiyan) and several books, including Ao Koi Khawab Banen and Gaata Jaye Banjara. Member of the PWA. Worked extensively as a journalist, editing the journal Adab-e-Latif, and briefly Pritlari and Shahrab in Delhi. Moved to Bombay (1949) and débuted in films with Mahesh Kaul’s Naujawan (1951). First major success was with Guru Dutt’s Baazi (1951). Worked with Navketan productions and formed a team with composer S.D. Burman (e.g. Taxi Driver, 1954). Transferred the progressive Urdu literature exemplified by poet Faiz Ahmed Faiz to the Hindi film lyric, e.g. the songs in Naya Daur (1957, esp. Saathi haath badhana), Phir Subah Hogi (1958, esp. Woh subah kabhi to aayegi) and all the classic songs of Pyaasa (1957). Also claimed the influence of Mayakovsky and Neruda. His songs continue to influence all forms of radical music (e.g. that of street theatre groups) while remaining popular favourites.

Luhar, Chimanlal Muljibhoy (1901-48) Hindi director. Chemistry graduate from Bombay University. Noted author and critic in early 1920s, e.g. in journals like Vismi Sadi, Navchetan and Bombay Chronicle. Started

Madhu

career as laboratory assistant at Kohinoor Studio in the 20s. Became noted cameraman working e.g. for several documentaries with Bombay-based production unit K.D. Brothers, apparently under tutelage of an English cameraman affiliated to the Prince of Wales’s official entourage during his tour of India. Following a brief stint at Saurashtra Film in Rajkot (1925), and a longer one at Krishna Film, where he shot around 20 films, he joined Sharda with Dagabaaz Duniya (1926). His later films at Sharda included several Master Vithal stunt movies (e.g. Gul Badan, Kanak Kanta, both 1928). Wrote and shot Harshadrai Mehta’s costumed spectacle Janjirne Jankare (1927), praised by the ICC Report. Turned producer (1931) with partner Harshadrai Mehta (Mehta-Luhar Prod.) continuing in the Master Vithal vein of stunt and adventure thrillers starring Navinchandra. Then a partner in Sharda (1933) and a director at Sagar (1934-40), where he began signing his name to his films and introduced the stunt genre. Later directed Prakash Pics (1941-6). FILMOGRAPHY: 1932: Sassi Punnu; 1935: Silver King; Talash-e-Haq; 1936: Do Diwane/Be Kharab Jan; 1937: Captain Kirti Kumar; 1938: Dynamite; 1939: Kaun Kisika; Seva Samaj; 1940: Saubhagya; 1941: Darshan; 1942: Station Master; 1943: School Master; 1944: Us Paar; 1946: Bindiya.

Madan Theatres Giant distribution corporation and studio which dominated India’s silent cinema. Built by Jamshedji Framji Madan (1856-1923) into one of the country’s premier Parsee theatre companies. J.F. Madan came from a middleclass Bombay Parsee family of theatre enthusiasts: his brother Khurshedji was a partner in the Original Victoria Theatrical Club while Jamshedji and another brother, Pestonji, started as actors. Jamshedji acted in Nusserwanji Parekh’s Sulemani Shamsher (1873, produced by Elphinstone), while Pestonjee played lead roles in two famous plays, Eduljee Khori’s Gul-e-Bakavali and Jehangir, staged by Dadabhai Thunthi. In the 1890s, J.F. Madan bought two prominent theatre companies, the Elphinstone and the Khatau-Alfred, including their creative staff and the rights to their repertoire. Shifted his base to Calcutta in 1902, establishing J.F. Madan & Sons (maintaining his other interests like pharmaceuticals). By 1919, J.F. Madan & Sons had become the joint stock company Madan Theatres, running the Elphinstone Theatrical Co. (expanding from the Elphinstone Picture Palace and the ancestor of the Elphinstone Bioscope) and its flagship organisation, the Corinthian Theatre. They employed several of the leading Urdu-Hindi playwrights (Kashmiri, Betaab) and stars (Patience Cooper, Seeta Devi). Some historians claim that J.F. Madan started showing films in a tent bioscope in 1902 on the Calcutta maidan, but it is more likely that the Madans did not seriously get into film until 1905, financing some of Jyotish Sarkar’s documentaries (e.g. Great

Bengal Partition Movement, 1905) which they presented at the Elphinstone. In 1907 the Elphinstone followed the Minerva and Star theatres (see Hiralal Sen) and went into exhibition and distribution, winning the agency rights for Pathé, who also represented First National. They expanded by buying or leasing theatres located in urban areas with European residents, commanding higher ticket prices and catering to the British armed forces before and during WW1. On J.F. Madan’s death, the third of his five sons, Jeejeebhoy Jamshedji Madan, took over and expanded the empire, continuing to direct some of the company’s films. By 1927 the Madan distribution chain controlled c.1/2 of India’s permanent cinemas. At their peak they owned 172 theatres and earned half the national box office. Up to WW1 they showed mainly British films supplied by the Rangoon-based London Film, but after the war they imported Metro and United Artists product, mostly bought ‘blind’ with rights for the entire subcontinent. Many of these they appear to have distributed as their own productions, e.g. Wages of Sin (1924) and Flame of Love (1926), which Virchand Dharamsey’s recent filmography of silent cinema (Light of Asia, 1994) identifies as imports, contrary to the claims made in their initial advertising. By the mid-20s they were the first of the five major importers of Hollywood films, followed by Pathé, Universal, Globe and Pancholi’s Empire distributors. In the silent era, their exhibition and distribution were more important than their production work, mainly making shorts for export until Satyavadi Raja Harishchandra (1917) and Dotiwala’s Bilwamangal (1919; the first Bengali feature) both proved successful. Their early features were mainly filmed plays, converting their playwrights into scenarists and their actors into stars. Many were directed by C. Legrand, formerly a Pathé man, and later by Jyotish Bannerjee. Claimed to have done international co-productions, although Savitri (1923) made by Giorgio Mannini for Cines in Rome and starring Rina De Liguoro opposite Angelo Ferrari, probably was not co-produced but only released by Madan. However, he did work with the Italian cineaste E.D. Liguoro and cameraman T. Marconi. In the early 20s, the Madans also acquired the rights to the major 19th C. Bengali novelist Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay’s writings, forming the basis of their ‘literary film’ genre which came to dominate Bengali cinema for several decades. By the end of the silent era the group had become too large for its managerial structure. It invested heavily into sound after it premiered Universal’s Melody of Love at the Elphinstone Bioscope (1928) and made the expensive Shirin Farhad (1931, narrowly beaten by Alam Ara as India’s first sound film), Amar Choudhury’s Jamai Sasthi (1931, the first Bengali sound feature) and Indrasabha (1932). Their closure in the late 30s is usually blamed on a failed deal with Columbia but this may only have put the final seal on a decline caused by crippling sound conversion costs, the stabilisation of film imports and the spread of the more efficient managing-agency system able to attract more speculative financing.

Madgulkar, Gajanan Digambar (1919-77) Marathi scenarist, songwriter, actor and poet. First film as lyric writer: Bedekar’s Pahila Palna (1942), which was also his acting début. Achieved prominence in the 50s via his popular film songs on the radio and on discs which, following the spread of playback, evolved the bhava geet: orchestrated songs of about three minutes duration using simple emotive lyrics. His texts were mainly sung and orchestrated by Sudhir Phadke, their Geet Ramayan record series of 1957 remaining very popular with the Marathi middle class and a precursor of the 70s bhajan craze. Often wrote for Raja Paranjpe (Jivacha Sakha, 1948; Pudhcha Paool, 1950; Lakhachi Goshta and Pedgaonche Shahane, both 1952; Oon Paoos, 1954; Ganget Ghoda Nhala, 1955; Andhala Magto Ek Dola and Deoghar, both 1956; Pathlaag, 1964). This work dominated the Marathi cinema in the 50s and 60s and is associated with the shift, on the formation of the state of Maharashtra, to a concern with Marathi identity accompanied by the creation of industrial infrastructures (and audiences) based on regional capital. First script, Shantaram’s Lokshahir Ramjoshi/ Matwala Shayar Ramjoshi (1947; also act), launched the gramin chitrapat genre of ‘rural’ film typically using dialect, located in a village and telling of a power struggle between a good peasant lad and an evil sarpanch (village elder). Also wrote scripts for Dinkar D. Patil, the best-known Marathi director in the genre (Baap Mazha Brahmachari and Prem Andhala Asta, both 1962). However, where Patil used the genre as an indigenous version of the western, Madgulkar’s scripts conveyed a sense of political awareness in line with e.g. Vyankatesh Madgulkar’s stories about rural characters. Wrote prose melodramas, e.g. for Dharmadhikari (e.g. Bala Jo Jo Re, 1951; Stree Janma Hi Tujhi Kahani, 1952). Also adapted mythologicals and historicals to the studios’ industrial requirements (e.g. Maya Bazaar, 1949; Shri Krishna Darshan, 1950; Narveer Tanaji, 1952). Acted in e.g. Pedgaonche Shahane, Jeet Kiski (both 1952), Banwasi, Adalat (both 1948).

Madhu Malayalam actor and director introduced by Kariat and Bhaskaran in the early 1960s. Originally Madhavan Nair, born in Trivandrum, Kerala. Graduate of the Benares Hindu University, later diploma in acting from the National School of Drama. Together with Sathyan and Prem Nazir, he defined Malayali machismo in commercial productions, often playing the sad and suffering lover. After Chemmeen, which gave him a reputation as a character actor, acted regularly in independent productions (e.g. P.N. Menon’s Olavum Theeravum, Adoor Gopalakrishnan’s Swayamvaram). In recent films like Ottayadi Paathakal he became better known for his emphatic playing than for his more numerous conventional starring roles. His ‘offbeat’ reputation was enhanced by his first 139

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directorial effort, Priya, featuring Bengali actress Lili Chakraborty, which received much critical attention in Kerala. An admirer of Bengali culture, he chose to play the Bengali commando in Abbas’ national integration war movie Saat Hindustani. Founded the Uma Studio, Trivandrum. Known in the 90s for producing children’s films. FILMOGRAPHY (* also d): 1963: Moodupadam; Ninamaninja Kalpadukal; Ammeye Kannan; 1964: Thacholi Othenan; Kuttikkuppayam; Manavatti; Adya Kiranangal; Bhargavi Nilayam; 1965: Zubaida; Kaliyodam; Kalyanaphoto; Ammu; Mayavi; Jeevitha Yatra; Kattupookal; Pattu Thoovala; Murappennu; Thommente Makkal; Sarpakadu; Chemmeen; 1966: Manikya Kottaram; Puthri; Archana; Karuna; Tilottama; 1967: Ramanan; Udyogastha; Lady Doctor; Karutharathrigal; Aval; Kadhija; Anveshichu Kandatiyilla; Ashwamedham; Nagarame Nandi; Chekuthante Kotta; Ollathu Mathi; 1968: Viplavakarikal; Karutha Pournami; Manaswini; Vazhipizhacha Santhathi; Kadal; Thulabharam; Ragini; Adhyapika; 1969: Vila Kuranja Manushyar; Veetu Mrugham; Almaram; Janmabhoomi; Kuruthikalam; Nadhi; Velliyazhcha; Virunnukari; Saat Hindustani; Olavum Theeravum; 1970: Ambalapravu; Palunku Pathram; Stree; Bhikara Nimishankal; Thurakatha Vathil; Abhayam; Nilakatha Chalanangal; Swapnangal; Kakathampurati; Priya*; 1971: Karakanakadal; Line Bus; Ummanchu; Sindooracheppu*; Vilakku Vangiya Veena; Kochaniyathi; Vithukal; Moonnupukkal; Abhijathyam; Inquilab Zindabad; Sarasayya; 1972: Preethi; Chemparathi; Aradi Manninte Janmi; Panimudakku; Devi; Manushya Bandhangal; Nadan Premam; Pulliman; Ini Oru Janmam Tharu; Gandharvakshetram; Azhimukham; Snehadeepame Mizhi Thurakku; Swayamvaram; Putrakameshti; Lakshyam; Teerthayatra; Sathi*; 1973: Enippadikal; Thiruvabharanam; Udayam; Chenda; Manushya Puthran; Police Ariyaruthu; Swapnam; Soundarya Pooja; Kaadu (Mal); Nakhangal; Chukku; Yamini; Divya Darshanam; Thekkan Kattu; Madhavikutty; Swargaputhri; 1974: Oru Pidi Ari; Yauvanam; Bhoomidevi Pushpiniyayi; Swarna Malsiyam; Manyashri Vishwamithran*; Neela Kannukal*; Mazhakkaru; 1975: Sammanam; Sindhu; Akkaldama*; Kamam Krodham Moham*; Omana Kunju; 1976: Dheere Sameere Yamuna Theere*; Theekkanal*; Amma; Aparadhi; Hridayam Oru Kshetram; Kanyadanam; Manasa Veena; Muthu; Nurayum Pathayum; Samasya; Themmadi Velappan; Yakshaganam; 1977: A Nimisham; Akale Akasam; Itha Ivide Vare; Jalatarangam; Kaithapoova; Kavilamma; Nalumani Pookkal; Needhi Peedham; Poojakkedukatha Pookkal; Rowdy Rajamma; Santha Oru Devatha; Saritha; Vidarunna Mottugal; Yuddha Kandam; Aradhana*; 1978: Agni; Asthamayam; Avar Jeevikkunu; Beena; Ee Manohara Theeram; Jnan Jnan Mathram; Ithanende Vazhi; Itha Oru Manushyan; Kanyaka; Randu Penkuttikal; Rowdy Ramu; 140

Simantini; Snehathinte Mukhangal; Snehikkan Samayamilla; Society Lady; Uthrada Rathri; Vadagaikku Oru Hridayam; Yeetta; 1979: Ward No. 7; Kaliyankattu Nili; Sudhikalasham; Edavazhiyile Pucha Mindappucha; Enikku Jnan Swantham; Hridayathinte Nirangal; Kayalum Kayarum; Krishna Parunthu; Simhachanam; Oru Ragam Pala Thalam; Jeevitham Oru Ganam; Pratiksha; Anubhavangale Nandi; Agni Parvatham; Iniyethra Sandhyakal; Kathirmandapam; Manushiyan; Prabhata Sandhya; Pushyaragam; Venalil Oru Mazha; 1980: Pratishodh; Muthichippikal; Ambala Vilakku; Akalangalil Abhayam; Rajanigandhi; Ithile Vannavar; Meen; Swantham Enna Padam; Deepam; Theeram Thedunnavar; Vaiki Vanna Vasantham; Enna Jnan Thedunnu; Theekadal; Yagam; 1981: Pinneyum Pookunna Kadu; Arikkari Ammu; Dhandha Gopuram; Thusharam; Archana Teacher; Orikkalkoodi; Akramanam; Grihalakshmi; Ira Thedunna Manushyan; Kolilakkam; Raktham; Sambhavam; Tharavu; 1982: Kartavyam; Jnan Ekananu; Arambham; Ayudham; Padayottam; 1983: Bandham; Ana; Adhipathyam; Angam; Arabikadal; Kodungattu; Mortuary; Nanayam; Paalam; Passport; Pinninvalu; Rathi Layam; Samrambham; Yuddham; 1984: Alakadalinakkare; Ariyatha Veethigal; Attuvanchi Ulanjappol; Chakkarauma; Edavellakku Sesham; Ithiri Poove Chuvannapoove; Jeevitham; Kurisuyuddham; Manase Ninakku Mangalam; Oru Painkillikatha; Thirakkil Alpa Samayam; Vellom; 1985: Ayanam; Chorakku Chora; Evide Ee Theerath; Guruji Oru Vakku; Janakeeya Kodathi; Kannaram Pothi Pothi; Katha Ithuvare; Orikkal Oridathu; Pachavelicham; 1986: Oru Yuga Sandhya*; Udayam Padinjaru*; 1988: Simon Peter Ninakku Vendi; Aparan; Oozham; Witness; Athirthigal; Oru Sayahnathinte Swapnam; Unnikrishnante Adyathe Christmas; Ayarthi Thollayirathi Irupathonnu; 1989: Mudra; Devdas; Jathakam; Naduvazhigal; Adikkurippu*; 1990: Ottayadi Paathakal; Mounam Sammadham*; 1991: Kadalora Kattu; Abhayam; Gothram; 1992: Chambalkulam Thachan; 1993: Ekalaivan; Sabarimalayil Thanka Sooryodhayam; 1994: Malappuram Haji Mahanaya Joji; 1995: Simhavaalan Menon; Manikya Chempazhukka; Kattile Thadi Thevarude Aana.

Madhubala and Raj Kapoor in Do Ustad (1959) Dhake Ki Malmal, Half Ticket, Jhumroo) and in Guru Dutt’s Mr and Mrs ’55. Also played in Shakti Samanta (Howrah Bridge) and Dev Anand (Kala Pani) whodunits. Produced D.N. Madhok’s Naata through her own Madhubala Co. Often nostalgically considered the greatest and most glamorous star of the 50s Hindi musical, probably because she died before she was relegated to supporting roles like Nutan and Waheeda Rehman. Had started directing Farz Aur Ishq just before she died. FILMOGRAPHY: 1942: Basant; 1944: Mumtaz Mahal; 1945: Dhanna Bhagat; 1946: Phulwari; Pujari; 1947: Khubsoorat Duniya; Neel Kamal; Chittor Vijay; Dil Ki Rani; Mere Bhagwan; 1948: Amar Prem; Lal Dupatta; Parai Aag; 1949: Daulat; Dulari; Imtehan; Aparadhi; Mahal; Paras; Neki Aur Badi; Singaar; Sipahiya; 1950: Beqasoor; Hanste Aansoo; Madhubala; Nirala; Nishana; Pardes; 1951: Aaram; Badal; Khazana; Nadaan; Nazneen; Saiyan; Tarana; 1952: Sangdil; Saqi; 1953: Armaan; Rail Ka Dibba; 1954: Amar; Bahut Din Huye; 1955: Mr and Mrs ’55; Naata; Naqab; Tirandaz; 1956: Dhake Ki Malmal; Rajhaath; Shirin Farhad; 1957: Ek Saal; Yahudi Ki Ladki; Gateway of India; 1958: Baghi Sipahi; Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi; Howrah Bridge; Kala Pani; Phagun; Police; 1959: Do Ustad; Insaan Jaag Utha; Kal Hamara Hai; 1960: Barsaat Ki Raat; Jaali Note; Mehlon Ke Khwab; Mughal-e-Azam; 1961: Boy Friend; Jhumroo; Passport; 1962: Half Ticket; 1964: Sharabi; 1970: Jwala.

Madhubala (1933-69) Screen name of the Hindi-Urdu actress Begum Mumtaz Jehan. Born in Delhi, she started as Baby Mumtaz at Bombay Talkies (Basant). Her first major hit was in Kidar Sharma’s Neel Kamal, starring opposite Raj Kapoor, but her distinct persona was concretised in Lal Dupatta and in Kamal Amrohi’s ghost story, Mahal, playing the gardener’s daughter. Often acted with Dilip Kumar, e.g. Amar and her most famous performance as Anarkali, ‘the living creation of Mughal sculptors’, in Mughal-eAzam. Her most durable reputation rested on musical comedies, esp. with her husband Kishore Kumar (Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi,

Mahapatra, Manmohan (b. 1951) First Oriya art-house director; later made ruralist melodramas. Graduate from Utkal University, then from the FTII (1975). Début feature was a critical success, establishing the landscape of feudal Orissa as the setting for most of his films. His most acclaimed films are Neerab Jhada and Klanta Aparanha. Early films present a bleak and cynically tragic view which, according to the director, emanates from local conditions, although the cinematic idiom deployed is similar to that of the Assamese director Bhabendranath Saikia.

Majumdar, Phani

FILMOGRAPHY: 1975: Anti-Memoirs (Sh); 1982: Seeta Raati; Voices of Silence (Sh); 1983: Konarak: The Sun Temple (Sh); 1984: Neerab Jhada; 1985: Klanta Aparanha; 1986: Trisandhya; Kuhuri; 1987: Majhi Pahacha; 1988: Kichu Smriti Kichu Anubhooti; Nishitha Swapna; 1989: Tathapi; Andha Diganta; 1990: Agni Veena; 1992: Bhinna Samaya;

Mahapatra, Nirad Oriya director born in Bhadrak. Educated in Bhubaneshwar. Interrupted his studies in political science to attend the FTII. Graduated (1971) and returned to Orissa but found no opportunity to make films. Lectured at the FTII (1972-4). Writer and film society organiser in Pune, Bombay and Orissa. Editor of Oriya film journal, Mana Phasal. Returned to live in Bhubaneshwar, where his first feature Maya Miriga was a major critical success. FILMOGRAPHY: 1971: Sunmica (Sh); Confrontation (Doc); 1975: Dhauligiri Shantistupa (Sh); 1978: The Story of Cement (Doc); 1983: Maya Miriga; 1986: Chhau Dances of Mayurbhanj (Doc); 1987: Pat Paintings of Orissa (Doc); 1988: The Vanishing Forests (Doc); 1990: New Horizon (Doc); 1991: Aparajita (Doc).

Maharashtra Film Company Set up in 1918 by Baburao Painter in Kolhapur with a home-made camera, initial capital of Rs 15,000 from Tanibai Kagalkar and a dedicated team of disciples. Their first successful production was Sairandhri (1920), eliciting praise from B.G. Tilak. Sardar Nesrikar persuaded the Shahu Maharaj to give him land, an electric generator and equipment. A contemporary of Phalke’s Hindustan Film, Maharashtra Film made a greater impact on the Marathi cinema with the first films of V. Shantaram (Netaji Palkar, 1927), DamleFattelal (Maharathi Karna, 1928) and Bhalji Pendharkar (Rani Rupmati, 1931). After 26 films, the studio lost Shantaram, Damle, Fattelal and Baburao Pendharkar who set up Prabhat in 1929. Painter left in 1930 and joined Shalini Cinetone, set up for him by the Kolhapur royal family. The company closed in 1932 after some expensive disasters: Moti Gidwani’s Nisha Sundari (1929) and Baburao Patel’s Kismet (1932).

Mahendra, Balu (b. 1946) Tamil cameraman and director, born in Sri Lanka as Benjamin Mahendra. Son of a college professor. Voracious film viewer; developed an early interest in photography. Graduated from London University and from the FTII (1969) as cinematographer, going on to shoot Nellu (1974) for Kariat. Pioneered innovative camera style for colour in South India. Worked mainly in the Malayalam avant-garde shooting films for Sethumadhavan and P.N. Menon, Telugu directors Bapu and K. Vishwanath and Tamil director J. Mahendran. Made his first film in Kannada (Kokila); later work mainly in

Malayalam and Tamil. Regards his Malayalam films, made with greater freedom in a less demanding economic system, as his personal work. Pioneered a new brand of Tamil art cinema with Veedu and Sandhya Ragam. Films have a strong literary base but rely on sharply defined visuals (often using natural light) sparse dialogue and few characters. The greater emphasis on cinematicism, making dialogue secondary to visual, cleared the way for Mani Rathnam’s films. Shot Rathnam’s debut Pallavi Anupallavi. His moral tales are often concerned with the status of women (Kokila), the aged (Sandhya Ragam), sexual violence (his most famous film, Moondram Pirai) or bureaucracy (Veedu). Although he claims an affiliation with the realism of De Sica and Satyajit Ray, film-maker and critic K. Hariharan points to similarities with the French New Wave’s fascination with the American cinema from which Mahendra borrowed themes and stylistic devices: Moodupani was based on Psycho (1960); Olangal borrows from Dick Richards’ Man, Woman and Child (1982); Irattaival Kuruvi is based partly on Blake Edwards’s Micki and Maude (1984) and Azhiyada Kolangal borrows from Summer of ’42 (1971). The emphasis on psychological realism at times combines with popular elements such as calendar art and novelettes (e.g. the climactic scene of Moondram Pirai). Writes, edits and shoots own films as well as closely controlling make-up, costumes, etc. FILMOGRAPHY: 1977: Kokila; 1979: Azhiyada Kolangal; 1980: Moodupani; Manju Moodal Manju; 1982: Moondram Pirai; Nireekshana; Olangal; 1983: Sadma; Oomakuyil; 1984: Neengal Kettavai; 1985: Un Kannil Neer Vazhindal; Yathra; 1987: Rendu Thokala Titta; Irattaival Kuruvi; Veedu; 1989: Sandhya Ragam; 1991: Vanna Vanna Pookkal; Chakravyuham; 1993: Marupadiyam; 1995: Sati Leelavathi.

Mahendran, J. (b. 1939) Popular 80s Tamil playwright and director, originally J. Alexander; born in Madras. Graduated from Madras University. Assistant editor of Cho Ramaswamy’s political fortnightly Tughlaq; author of stage hits Thanga Padakkam and Rishimoolam (1978). His story Sivakamyin Selvan was filmed by C.V. Rajendran (1974). Script début adapting Thanga Padakkam, filmed by P. Madhavan (1974). Assisted director A. Kasilingam. First film: Mullum Malarum, shot by Balu Mahendra from a story by Umachandran in which hero Rajnikant exerts an infantile domination over his sister’s life. Early work, including adaptations from Tamil literature (e.g. Udhiri Pookal is based on Pudumaipithan’s story Sittranai), often portrayed women facing loveless marriages (cf. Puttadha Poothukkal, in which a married woman has an affair and gets pregnant, her child being accepted by her impotent husband). FILMOGRAPHY: 1978: Mullum Malarum; 1979: Udhiri Pookal; Puttadha Poothukkal; 1980: Nenjathai Killathey; Johnny; 1981:

Nandu; 1982: Azhagiya Kanney; Metti; 1984: Kayi Kodukkum Kayi; 1986: Kannukku Mai Ezhuthu; 1992: Oor Panjayathu.

Majid, Abdul (b. 1932) Assamese director. Started as playwright with Banchita, Dhuli Makoti, Char, Sihat Ahise, Chor et al. Entered films as actor in Nip Barua’s Ranga Police (1958). Produced, wrote and directed his films, acting in c.25. Best-known film: Chameli Memsaab, deploying a staid narrative progression weaving romance into clearly defined themes. FILMOGRAPHY: 1968: Maram Trishna; 1975: Chameli Memsaab; 1977: Banahansa; 1978: Banjui; 1981: Ponakan; 1990: Uttarkaal.

MAjumdar, Nagendra (b. 1894) Hindi director and actor born and educated in Baroda, Gujarat. Employed as a policeman in Baroda, he became involved in the amateur theatre (1923-5) and directed Gujarati plays. Made his debut at Laxmi, acting in R.S. Choudhury’s Asha (1926), then joined Royal Art Studio as director. Directed some Indulal Yagnik productions (Kalina Ekka, Rasili Rani), worked at Imperial directing Qatil Kathiyani, at the Kaiser-e-Hind production house and at Sharda studio. Made several love stories at Ranjit with the studio’s leading stars E. Bilimoria and Madhuri. His sound films are mainly in the stunt genre, adapting Arabian Nights-type adventures, but he also made some Marathi films such as the historical Shatakarta Shivaji. Set up Pratima Pics (1933) and Honey Talkies (1934). Scripted K.B. Athavale’s Sant Tukaram at Sharda Movietone (1932). Illness forced him to retire. His son Ninu Majumdar became a film composer. FILMOGRAPHY: 1926: Panima Aag; 1928: Pavagarh Nu Patan; Punarlagnani Patni; Qatil Kathiyani; Vasavadatta; Pandav Patrani; 1929: Jayant; 1930: Albelo Sawar; Jagmagti Jawani; Kalina Ekka; Khandana Khel; Rasili Rani; 1931: Diwano; Gwalan; Kashmir Nu Gulab; Premi Pankhida; Pardesi Ni Preet; 1932: Bahuroopi Bazaar; Khubsoorat Khawasan; Matrubhoomi; Ranghelo Rajput (all St); Raas Vilas; 1933: Mirza Sahiban; Patit Pawan; 1934: Kala Wagh; Mera Imaan; Shatakarta Shivaji; 1935: Alladdin-II; Rangila Nawab; 1936: Kimiagar; 1937: Laheri Lutera; 1946: Swadesh Seva; Talwarwala.

Majumdar, Phani (1911-94) Hindi and Bengali director born in Faridpur (now Bangladesh). Also worked in other languages. Graduated from Carmichael College (1930); worked as a typist. Employed by P.C. Barua (1931-7) as stenographer and later as assistant director and scenarist for Mukti (1937). Also scripted Prafulla Roy’s Abhigyan (1938). First film: Street Singer, a big New Theatres hit which added a new dimension to the K.L. Saigal persona initially moulded by Barua. Kanan Devi is the female lead and Rai 141

Majumdar, Sushil

Chand Boral’s music included Saigal’s biggest hit song, Babul Mora. Doctor is based on a Sailajananda Mukherjee story and scored by Pankaj Mullick. Moved to Bombay (1941) and worked at Laxmi Prod. making musicals. Associated with New Maharashtra Film as producer; also made films at Bombay Talkies, at Ranjit and as a freelancer. Late 40s work became more ‘socially conscious’(Insaaf, Hum Bhi Insaan Hain, Andolan). Baadbaan is the last film of Bombay Talkies, financed by the studio’s employees in an attempt to stave off bankruptcy. Like Balkrishna Narayan Rao, he made several features for Shaws Malay Film Prod. (1956-9) in Singapore, starring e.g. the singer P. Ramlee in Hang Tuah, one of the earliest Malay colour features, and in Kaseh Sayang, a successful war movie about the Japanese invasion; also made Long House/ Rumah Panjang, an English-Malay bilingual about Borneo headhunters shot on location, and his last film before returning to India, Circus, a Chinese-Malay bilingual. The prominent Malaysian film-maker Jamil Sulong assisted Majumdar on 6 of the 8 films. Later wrote the travelogue Borneo Ke Naramund Shikari (1983). Also made films in less familiar Indian languages: Magadhi (Bhaiya) and Maithili (Kanyadaan), having already made a Punjabi film (Chambe Di Kali) while still in Calcutta. Also made several documentaries and children’s shorts, such as Saral Biswas based on a Tagore poem, Veer Purush and TV series such as Bulbul and the 52-episode Our India (1993). Best-known films include Tamasha and Baadbaan, starring Ashok Kumar. Script credits include Sharan Agarwal’s Pratima Aur Payal (1977) and Raghunath Jhalani’s Badalte Rishte (1978). FILMOGRAPHY: 1938: Street Singer/ Saathi; 1939: Kapal Kundala; 1940: Doctor; 1941: Chambe Di Kali; 1942: Aparadh; Tamanna; 1943: Mohabbat; 1944: Meena; 1945: Devadasi; 1946: Door Chalein; Insaaf; 1948: Hum Bhi Insaan Hain; 1951: Andolan; 1952: Goonj; Tamasha; 1954: Baadbaan; Dhobi Doctor; Two Worlds (Doc); 1955: Faraar; 1955: Hang Tuah; 1956: Anakku Sazali; 1957: Kaseh Sayang; Long House/ Rumah Panjang; 1958: Masyarakat Pincang; Sri Menanti; Doctor; 1959: Circus; Saral Biswas; 1960: Veer Purush; 1961: Bhaiya; Savitri; 1962: Aarti; 1965: Birthday; Akashdeep; Oonche Log; Kanyadaan; Mamata; 1966: Toofan Mein Pyar Kahan; 1968: Apna Ghar Apni Kahani; 1969: Munna; 1975: Shri Aurobindo: Glimpses of His Life (Doc/3 parts); 1989: Babul; 1990: Fire (Sh); Common Accidents (Doc).

Majumdar, Sushil (1906-88) Bengali and Hindi director born in Komilla, Tripura (now Bangladesh). Educated at Shantiniketan (1911-21) and at Kashi Vidyapeeth, Benares, and studied engineering at Jadavpur. Participated in non-co-operation agitations (1922). Actor for the amateur University Institute theatre group, then in the Calcutta Theatres stage company Manmohan Theatres (1927). Manager of touring company in Chittagong. Joined Bengal Movie & Talkie 142

Film (e.g. Jeevan Prabhat), and then P.C. Barua’s studio (1930). Directed Barua’s short comedy Ekada and Debaki Bose’s Aparadhi and Nishir Dak. Early work strongly influenced by Calcutta theatres’ stage conventions (e.g. Tarubala), but also moved into new directions, e.g. Muktisnan’s depiction of political corruption. Later work, esp. Tulsi Lahiri’s scripts, moved closer to IPTA-influenced film (Dukhir Iman). The only Bengali director from the 30s to retain his popularity for over 40 years, e.g. with the Ashok Kumar starrer, Hospital, and one of Uttam Kumar’s bestknown performances in Lal Patthar. His Rikta was re-edited and reissued in 1960. Turned producer with Digbhranta. FILMOGRAPHY (* also act/** act only): 1931: Jeevan Prabhat**; Aparadhi**; 1932: Nishir Dak**; Ekada* (all St); Bengal 1983**; 1936: Tarubala; 1937: Muktisnan; Basanti Purnima; 1939: Rikta*; 1940: Tatinir Bichar; Abhinav**; 1941: Pratishodh; 1942: Avayer Biye; 1943: Jogajog/Hospital; 1944: Char Aankhen; 1945: Begum; 1947: Abhijog*; 1948: S