enhancing migration data management in nigeria - IOM Publications

enhancing migration data management in nigeria - IOM Publications

OBSERVATORY ON MIGRATION OBSERVATOIRE ACP SUR LES MIGRATIONS OBSERVATÓRIO ACP DAS MIGRAÇÕES O ENHANCING MIGRATION DATA MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA: Assessm...

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OBSERVATORY ON MIGRATION OBSERVATOIRE ACP SUR LES MIGRATIONS OBSERVATÓRIO ACP DAS MIGRAÇÕES O

ENHANCING MIGRATION DATA MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA: Assessment and Recommendations Theophilus Oyeyemi Fadayomi

An Initiative of the ACP Secretariat, Funded by the European Union Implemented by IOM and with the Financial Support of Switzerland, IOM, the IOM Development Fund and UNFPA International Organization for Migration (IOM) Organisation internationale pour les migrations (OIM) Organização Internacional para as Migrações (OIM)

Data Assessment ACPOBS/2013/MDA06

2013

ACP OBSERVATORY ON MIGRATION The ACP Observatory on Migration is an initiative of the Secretariat of the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group of States, funded by the European Union, implemented by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) in a Consortium with 15 partners, and with the financial support of Switzerland, IOM, the IOM Development Fund and UNFPA. Established in 2010, the ACP Observatory is an institution designed to produce data on South–South ACP migration for migrants, civil society and policymakers and aims to enhance research capacities in ACP countries to improve the situation of migrants and strengthen the migration–development nexus. The Observatory was established to facilitate the creation of a network of research institutions and experts on migration research. Activities are underway in 12 pilot countries and will be progressively extended to other interested ACP countries. The 12 pilot countries are: Angola, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Haiti, Kenya, Lesotho, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Senegal, Timor‐Leste, Trinidad and Tobago and the United Republic of Tanzania. The Observatory has launched research and capacity‐building initiatives on South–South migration and development, addressing topics of increasing importance for the ACP Group. Research publications and capacity‐building manuals can be accessed and downloaded free of charge from the Observatory’s website (www. acpmigration‐obs.org). Upcoming publications and information on the Observatory’s activities will be posted online.

© 2013 ACP Observatory on Migration © 2013 International Organization for Migration

This document was prepared by Theophilus Oyeyemi Fadayomi. Jette Christiansen, Capacity Building Officer of the ACP Observatory on Migration, provided overall coordination and revision of the report. Opinions expressed in this document are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Secretariat of the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group of States, the ACP Observatory on Migration, the European Union, the International Organization for Migration (IOM), its Member States, the Government of Nigeria, the Swiss Federation or the United Nations Population Fund. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Layout prepared by Pablo Escribano Miralles, ACP Observatory on Migration. ACPOBS/2013/MDA06

OBSERVATORY ON MIGRATION OBSERVATOIRE ACP SUR LES MIGRATIONS OBSERVATÓRIO ACP DAS MIGRAÇÕES O

ENHANCING MIGRATION DATA MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA: Assessment and Recommendations Theophilus Oyeyemi Fadayomi

FOREWORD Nigeria is a major migration hub in the West Africa region. The country is characterized by important migration inflows and outflows, as well as great movements of population at an internal level. Adequate planning and policymaking on migration is therefore a key area of action for the Nigerian public administration. This assessment provides an overview of all data sources that can yield information on migration in our country in an effort to evaluate the availability of such data and its management by national stakeholders and identifying gaps in this regard. This assessment was commissioned by the ACP Observatory on Migration and carried out in close cooperation with the Government of Nigeria, its Technical Working Group and the National Consultative Committee on Migration and Development (NCC). The report makes a series of recommendations to improve data collection, analysis, coordination and dissemination in Nigeria. As Secretary to the National Planning Commission and Chair of the NCC, I strongly support the implementation of the short, medium and long term recommendations addressed to Nigerian Government Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) aimed at enhancing migration data management and ensuring evidence-based policymaking and planning in this area.

Ntufam (Barr.) Fidel Ugbo Secretary to the National Planning Commission Chair of the National Consultative Committee (NCC)

iii

Acknowledgements This report has benefitted greatly from the cooperation and participation of government officials of various Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) in Abuja. My special gratitude goes to Mr. James Atusue, ACP Observatory on Migration National Focal Point at the International Organization for Migration Nigeria, who facilitated contacts with officials from government institutions and assisted in the collection of relevant data and publications, in particular from desk officials in charge of migration data management. Finally, I would like to thank IOM Nigeria for the logistic support, i.e. transport and office space, extended to me.

v

TABLE OF CONTENTS List of acronyms............................................................................................................................................................................ ix List of TABLES AND FIGURES......................................................................................................................................................... xi List of ANNEXES................................................................................................................................................................................ xi EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...................................................................................................................................................................... xiii 1. Introduction.............................................................................................................................................................................. 1 2. METHODOLOGY.............................................................................................................................................................................. 3 3. MIGRATION DATA SOURCES AND AVAILABILITY................................................................................................................ 7 4. MIGRATION DATA MANAGEMENT..........................................................................................................................................13 A) CURRENT PRACTICES.......................................................................................................................................................... 13 B) DATA QUALITY CONTROL................................................................................................................................................ 17 C) ANALYSIS/DATA MINING/REPORTING........................................................................................................................... 17 5. RESOURCES FOR MIGRATION DATA MANAGEMENT...................................................................................................... 21 6. GAPS.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 23 A) DATA........................................................................................................................................................................................... 23 B) DATA COLLECTION PROTOCOLS................................................................................................................................... 23 C) DATA QUALITY CONTROL................................................................................................................................................ 23 D) ANALYSIS/DATA MINING/REPORTING/SHARING....................................................................................................... 23 E) RESOURCES.............................................................................................................................................................................. 23 7. RECOMMENDATIONS................................................................................................................................................................... 25 A) SHORT TERM............................................................................................................................................................................ 25 B) MEDIUM TERM......................................................................................................................................................................... 25 C) LONG TERM............................................................................................................................................................................. 25 8. REFERENCES..................................................................................................................................................................................... 27 9. ANNEXES........................................................................................................................................................................................... 29

vii

List of acronyms ACP

African Caribbean and Pacific

CBN

Central Bank of Nigeria

ECOWAS

Economic Community Of West African States

FMLP

Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity

ICT

Information and Communication Technology

IDP

Internally Displaced Person

ILMD

International Labour Migration Desk

IOM

International Organization for Migration

MDAs

Ministries, Departments and Agencies

MFA

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

NAPTIP

National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons

NBS

National Bureau of Statistics

NCFRMI

National Commission for Refugees, Migrants and Internally Displaced Persons

NCC

National Consultative Committee

NEMA

National Emergency Management Agency

NIDO

Nigerians-in-Diaspora Organizations

NIS

Nigeria Immigration Service

NNVS

Nigeria National Volunteer Services

NPC

National Planning Commission

NPopC

National Population Commission

UNHCR

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

ix

List of TABLES AND FIGURES Table 1:

List of Public Institutions Interviewed........................................................................................................... 3

Table 2:

Migration-Related Data Collected in Public Institutions............................................................................... 7

Table 3:

Data Collection, Processing, Storage Format by Agency and Migration Data Category.............................. 13

Table 4:

Analysis and Reporting of Migration-Related Data by Agency and Migration Data Category..................... 18

List of ANNEXES Annex 1:

List of Agencies and Officials Interviewed on Migration-Related Data Management in Nigeria................ 29

Annex 2:

Possible Agency Roles in Migration Data Management by Cluster of Migration Data Category................ 30

xi

Enhancing Migration Data Management in Nigeria

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Observatory on Migration conducted this Migration Data Management Assessment in Nigeria between 14 January and 13 February, 2013 in close cooperation with the Government of Nigeria and its Technical Working Group, the National Consultative Committee on Migration and Development (NCC). This report outlines the various types of migration data being collected and used by the Nigerian government Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs). It also provides an overview of the migration data management process of each agency. The key findings indicate that, while data on international and internal migration is available in Nigeria’s public agencies, several gaps exist in terms of data collection, analysis, quality control, informative fields in datasets, data sharing and public access to data. As a conclusion, recommendations to improve migration-related data management in Nigeria are provided. These recommendations outline short-, medium- and long-term measures that will enhance the availability and quality of information on migration to improve the development of informed and timely migration and development policies and programs.

xiii

Enhancing Migration Data Management in Nigeria

1. Introduction Nigeria is both an important immigration and emigration country. The majority of Nigerian migration (both immigration and emigration) takes place within the West African region. The migrants are primarily from neighbouring countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) region: Benin, Ghana and Mali. However, there are more people emigrating from Nigeria than immigrating to the country, hence the net migration has become increasingly negative in recent years (Afolayan and IOM’s Research Division, 2009). As a destination country, Nigeria is host to a sizeable number of highly skilled migrants, most of which are in the professional and technical fields from Europe. Emigration from Nigeria has attracted more attention from the public than immigration. This is a result of the apparent growth in the number of skilled professionals leaving the country as well as the financial and social returns to Nigeria. While the country undoubtedly experiences losses in well-trained and much needed skills, the data on financial remittances from the World Bank and the Central Bank of Nigeria indicate a dramatic increase from about 2.3 billion USD in 2004 to about 21 billion USD in 2012 (World Bank, 2013). In spite of increased awareness in Nigeria on the importance of migration especially in terms of the evident migrationdevelopment nexus, adequate information on the management of migration data is lacking. This report, therefore, assesses migration data management capacity in Nigeria, its current status, challenges and opportunities. It was carried out under the auspices of the ACP Observatory on Migration in collaboration with the NCC and the Technical Working Group on Migration. The assessment was conducted simultaneously with an Information Technology (IT) assessment of IT databases and systems undertaken by IOM in Nigeria. The assessment identifies existing migration data produced and used by the Nigerian government MDAs as required by their mandates. Furthermore, the report presents an overview of how each dataset is collected, stored, analysed, used and shared within each organization and between agencies. Gaps in these areas are also identified. Based on the afore-mentioned, measures for improving migration data management are proposed.

1

Enhancing Migration Data Management in Nigeria

2. METHODOLOGY The information in this report was obtained through questionnaires, supplemented by in-depth interviews of government officials and finally by the use of checklists to obtain missing information. Table 1 shows the 11 government MDAs interviewed. They were chosen on account of their roles in migration data management. The official functions of several of these institutions include the collection of administrative data on migration. The National Population Commission (NPopC) and National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) carry out censuses, vital registration and large-scale sample surveys containing information on migration. Table 1:

List of Public Institutions Interviewed

S/N Institutions

Main Activities

Migration Data Related Functions

1.

Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN)

CBN maintains the country’s external reserves, promotes monetary stability and a sound financial environment, and acts as a banker of last resort and financial adviser to the Federal Government. Through the CBN, the Government builds the national money and equity centers, forms securities regulatory board and introduces treasury tools into the capital market.

2.

Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity (FMLP)

FMLP deals with relations between workers and employees.

3.

Ministry of MFA is responsible for the formulation, articulation and Foreign Affairs pursuit of Nigerian foreign policy. The Ministry and its (MFA) numerous embassies and consulates abroad support Nigerians, who are travelling or living overseas; promote Nigeria trade and other national interests abroad; as well as encourage foreign investment in Nigeria. National NAPTIP has the mandate to adopt measures to eradicate Agency for the trafficking in persons (TIP); enhance the capacity of law Prohibition enforcement in this regard; coordinate the rehabilitation of Traffic of trafficked persons and investigate and prosecute in Persons trafficking offences. (NAPTIP)

Collects data on remittances from diasporas as part of the balance of payments statistics. CBN plans to engage in sample surveys of informal remittances. (Several banks, including Zenith Bank PLC Nigeria, are already collecting information on remittances and sharing the information with the CBN). Collects administrative data on foreign workers in formal establishments on work and residence permits but does not analyse or disseminate information on it. Proposes to collect more information on labor migrants, student migrants and diasporas. Collects migration-related data on Nigerians abroad and foreigners applying for entry into Nigeria at the Nigerian embassies abroad.

4.

Collects information on trafficking in persons, including assistance provided as well as reports and convictions of trafficking cases.

3

ACP Observatory on Migration

S/N Institutions

Main Activities

Migration Data Related Functions

5.

National Bureau of Statistics (NBS)

Collects socioeconomic data through large scale sample surveys. Migration-related data collected includes data on internal migrants, labour migrants and migrants’ remittances.

6.

National Commission for Refugees, Migrants and Internally Displaced Persons (NCFRMI) National Planning Commission (NPC)

NBS oversees the National Statistical System; develops and promotes the use of statistical standards and appropriate methodologies; collects, compiles, analysis, interprets, publishes and disseminates statistical information independently and in collaboration with other agencies (both governmental and nongovernmental agencies). NBC develops and maintains a comprehensive national database by encouraging units of line MDAs to develop their sectorial databases and forward to the Bureau; acts as focal contact point with international agencies on statistical matters, advises federal, state & local governments on all matters related to statistical development. NBS also carries out censuses. NCR functions include provision of general guidelines and overall policy on issues relating to the protection of refugees and asylum seekers in Nigeria and advice to the Federal Government on policy matters related to refugees in Nigeria. The Commission was further mandated by the Federal Government to handle the resettlement of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) and all migration matters in 2002 and 2009 respectively. NPC determines and advises on matters related to national development and overall management of the economy. It also ensures that plans and policies are properly implemented by all relevant agencies. NPC provides policy advice to the President, sets national priorities and goals, formulates national development plans and monitors projects and programs, among other tasks. NEMA is mandated to manage disasters in Nigeria through the establishment of concrete structures and measures, including public education to raise awareness and reduce the effects of disasters as well as detection measures to respond and combat disasters in a timely manner. NPopC conducts censuses and surveys as well as registration of birth and deaths nationwide through the Continuous Vital Registration System. It publishes data in an annual report International Migration Statistics: Annual Summary (last published in 1991). The NPopC Act (CAP N67, part II Sect. 6 ‘d’) mandates the Commission to collect, report and publish data on migration statistics while subsection ‘e’ empowers it to research and monitor the National Population Policy and to set up a national population information data bank among other functions. The Commission also collaborates with the Nigeria Immigration Service (NIS) in the design of Immigration Arrival and Departure Cards administered by NIS officials at various entry points and sent back to the Commission for sorting, coding, numbering and analysing of border statistics.

Collects migration-related data related to IDPs.

7.

8.

National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA)

9.

National Population Commission (NPopC)

4

Collects data on refugees, asylum seekers, and IDPs and performs the role of the lead agency on migration issues.

Key user of migration-related data for planning and policy development. In addition, NPC coordinates the activities of the NCC and oversees the tenth European Development Fund for Better Management of Migration in Nigeria.

Collects socioeconomic data including migration-related data through censuses, large scale sample surveys and continuous vital registration. Types of migration data collected are on internal migration, labour migration, immigration, emigration and remittances.

Enhancing Migration Data Management in Nigeria

S/N Institutions

Main Activities

Migration Data Related Functions

10. Nigeria Immigration Service (NIS)

The functions of NIS include: control of aliens, passport issuance and control, visa/entry permit control, monitoring of quota utilization, deportation and repatriation. NIS acts according to relevant laws including: the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999; Aliens Registration Act, 2004; Citizenship Act; Passport (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 2004; ECOWAS treaties and protocols; and bilateral/multilateral agreements between Nigeria and other countries. NNVS was set up by the Federal Government in 2002 to complement national development efforts through encouraging, harnessing, managing and effectively deploying volunteer services and activities of Nigerians both at home and in Diaspora. It is also expected to mobilize and utilize the skills, knowledge and experiences of Nigerians, who during their careers or after retirement from the public and private sectors, are willing and able to volunteer.

Collects basic information on ar‐ rivals and departures at the Nige‐ ria borders as well as on refugees, irregular migrants, trafficked per‐ sons, etc.

11. Nigerian National Volunteer Services (NNVS)

Collects information from Nigerians diasporas and their organizations in the Americas, Europe, Asia and Africa.

In total, 37 government officials from 11 MDAs were interviewed, and each agency appointed a contact person, responsible for the collection of information on migration from its various units or departments. Among them two were Ministerial Departments and nine agencies/parastatals (see Annex 1 for the list of government officials interviewed).

5

Enhancing Migration Data Management in Nigeria

3. MIGRATION DATA SOURCES AND AVAILABILITY The major sources of migration data in Nigeria are censuses, household surveys and administrative records. The newly revitalized vital registration scheme does not collect data on migration. Censuses have been conducted in Nigeria since the turn of the last century. Until the 1950s, census data suffered considerably from incomplete coverage. Since independence in the 1960s, the reliability of census data collected has been in doubt as a result of the suspicion that census figures are being manipulated for political ends. In terms of census-based migration data, the censuses of 1963 and 1991, and the 1991 Post-Enumeration Survey contained some migration-related questions as for instance the place of birth. However, the 2006 Population and Housing Survey gave a comprehensive picture of the migration status of respondents. Small scale migration surveys have been conducted by researchers since the 1960s. Most of them are located in the South West of the country; hence most of the data collected and analysed is not representative of the country. Large scale household surveys focused on economic conditions in the country are usually conducted by NBS as part of its mandate. While some of these surveys ask migration-related questions, they remain largely unanalysed and unutilized. The 1993 National Migration and Urbanization Survey conducted by the Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER), however, provided a meaningful insight into the stock and flow of migration in Nigeria (NISER, 1997). Recently, the World Bank (2009) conducted a migration sample survey in selected African countries, including Nigeria to elicit information on national and international migrants and their remittances to countries of origin. The National Population Commission carried out an Internal Migration Survey of Nigeria in 2010, now published, which gives a lot of current information on the stock and flow of migration and their characteristics in the country (NPopC, 2010). Data on immigrants are usually gathered by government agencies such as NIS at Nigerian border points and FMLP from foreign workers in formal establishments. Visas acquired from the Nigerian embassies abroad also mirror the flow of immigrants. Information is gathered on Nigerian diasporas and foreign workers needing diplomatic service from Nigerian embassies. However, there is limited information on trafficked persons and emigrants, especially those migrating irregularly. In general, administrative data sources are not sufficiently utilized to produce vital information on migration. Table 2 shows the types of migration-related data being collected by public agencies in Nigeria. Altogether this assessment found that the Nigerian public institutions harbor 38 migration-related datasets in 9 of the 11 agencies assessed. Table 2:

Migration-Related Data Collected in Public Institutions

Data Category Institution Cross-border Migrants

Dataset Description

NCFRMI, in collaboration with United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), collects data on asylum seekers crossing Nigeria borders. Data collected includes their personal profile, country of origin and reasons for fleeing. Data is collected daily at borders (unless the border is officially closed. Data is stored in a database housed in Lagos, analysed and published annually and accessible through the UNHCR website in Nigeria (www.unhcr.org/pages/49e484f76.html). Nigeria Immigration NIS collects data on Nigerians and non-Nigerians at all ports of entry. Service (NIS) Based on NIS arrival and departure cards filled out by travellers, data is collected daily on age, sex, purpose of visit, origin of the journey, proposed length of stay and mode of transportation. Data is collected on travellers both entering and departing the country. Some of this data is analysed and included in the NIS annual reports, which are sent to the agency’s management and shared within the agency, but not further disseminated.

National Commission for Refugees, Migrants and Internally Displaced Persons (NCFRMI)

Total 2

7

ACP Observatory on Migration

Data Category Institution Diasporas

Emigrants

8

Dataset Description

Federal Ministry The International Labour Migration Desk (ILMD) of the Ministry is of Labour and responsible for collecting data on international labour migration Productivity (FMLP) both into and out of the country and establishing a database for this purpose. This database created in 2004 is not yet functional. Eventually, this database should incorporate data on Nigerian diasporas by gender, field of professional specialisation and country of residence. Ministry of Foreign MFA collects data on Nigerians living abroad, who receive consular Affairs (MFA) services. Some embassies have a diaspora desk, which collects addition information on diaspora members, including personal profile, level of education, employment activities. MFA also collects data on irregular migrants slated for deportation from host countries including personal profile, data of departure from Nigeria, as well as the date and method of arrival to host country. Data is not shared or published. Nigerian National NNVS is charged with engaging and mobilizing the Nigerian diasporas Volunteer Services as important stakeholders in Nigeria’s development agenda. A data (NNVS) form for Nigerians in Diaspora is available online: www.nnvs.org.ng/RE GISTRATION+DATA+FORM+FOR+NIGERIANS+IN+DIASPORA. It includes information on sex, age, marital status, current citizenship, state of origin in Nigeria, country of residence and address, next-of-kin and educational/professional job title. NNVS also collects information on skilled Nigerians abroad willing to make their services available in the critical sectors of the Nigerian economy (such as doctors who organize work visits to some of the states to render their services). This data is not analysed nor published. Data is also collected from members of Nigerians-in-Diaspora Organizations (NIDO) at their annual conferences (known as the Diaspora Day Celebration) on their personal profile, profession and destination. NIDO data is archived and remains unpublished due to lack of data-skilled personnel. Data is merely reported in aggregate form to NNVS management. Presently, NNVS is embarking on the 2013 Diaspora Survey in collaboration with NPopC, IOM and others. Federal Ministry FMLP intends to use its ILMD to collect the following information of Labour and on emigrants: state of origin, local government of origin, highest Productivity (FMLP) qualification before migration, type of employment being sought (contract or full-time), reasons for emigration, age and sex. This initiative is not yet underway. National Bureau of Data on emigration can be derived from the NBS National Living Statistics (NBS) Standard Surveys of 2004 and 2009. This survey is carried out every five years. Data generated from these surveys is reported and submitted to NPC and disseminated through the NBS website (www. nigerianstat.gov.ng). These surveys include inquiry on the migration experience of household members, yet this section of the survey is never fully disaggregated and analysed due to limited financial resources. National Population NPopC receives and analyses data from NIS departure cards of Commission travellers leaving Nigeria at land, air or sea ports. Data is collected on (NPopC) a daily basis, and analysis is done on age, sex, nationality, occupation, as well as place and reasons for departure. Until 1991, quarterly and annual reports were published and disseminated. All data collected since then is backlogged awaiting analysis and publication. Further data processing and reports is planned to commence in 2013.

Total 3

3

Enhancing Migration Data Management in Nigeria

Data Category Institution Emigrants Students

Forced MigrantsInternally Displaced Persons

Forced MigrantsRefugees

Dataset Description

Federal Ministry As part of the agency’s work-in-progress, it intends to use the ILMD of Labour and and collaborate with NIS and NPopC to use the departure/exit cards Productivity (FMLP) to identify emigrant students and collect the following information; state of origin, local government of origin, highest qualification, type of training/qualification sought overseas, duration of study, intention to return after completion of study, other personal characteristics etc. National NCFRMI regularly collects data on IDPs, who have been displaced Commission for either as a result of conflicts or environmental disaster. Data is collected on the personal profile of the victim, cause/s of Refugees, Migrant and Internally displacement, site of displacement, direction of flow, vulnerability and the destruction of property. Data is collected on prescribed forms, Displaced Persons (NCFRMI) processed and stored in the database in Lagos. This data is used to prepare quarterly reports, which are sent to the Nigerian Presidency. The data is collected by NEMA at the local level and submitted to NCFRMI for analysis and reporting. National Emergency NEMA collects data on IDPs through Local Government Authorities, State Emergency Management Agencies (SEMA) and NEMA zonal Management offices. Data is checked for accuracy and authenticity before being Agency (NEMA) forwarded to NEMA Management for documentation. Collected data is reported to the NEMA Management on weekly basis. Data is then passed on to NCFRMI. Ministry of Foreign Nigerian embassies continuously collect data on all Nigerians, seeking Affairs (MFA) or obtaining refugee status abroad. Embassies obtain this data from UNHCR in the country of asylum and report it to MFA management as and when the data is available. National NCFRMI collects data on all recognized refugees and asylum seekers. Commission for This data includes personal profile, country of origin, reason/s for Refugees, Migrants fleeing from country of origin. Data is collected In collaboration with and Internally UNHCR. There is no specific periodicity to the data collected, but data Displaced Persons collection is on-going as events occur. Data is stored in a database (NCFRMI) housed in Lagos. It is analysed and published annually, included in the annual reports and accessible through the UNHCR (www.unhcr.org/ pages/49e484f76.html). Nigerian Additional data on refugees is collected from NIS Arrival Records Immigration Service for refugees entering through regular channels. Data on refugees is also collected by NIS Local Government Attaches located in each of (NIS) Nigeria’s 774 local governments. The collected data is shared with NCFRMI for analysis and dissemination.

Total 1

2

3

9

ACP Observatory on Migration

Data Category Institution

Dataset Description

Immigrants

Some information on immigrants and their characteristics can be obtained from the personal data, which MFA collects on visa application forms. However, this data is neither analysed nor published. Only the total number of applications and visas issued is reported to the MFA management on a monthly basis. The NBS National Living Standard Surveys collect data on immigration (2004, 2009, every five years). In addition, data on immigrants is collected in NBS National Panel Surveys (2010, 2012, annually from now on). However, NBS does not analyse or report on the immigration data collected as part of these two surveys. Data collected by NIS from arrival cards is sent to NPopC for analysis and the publication of Nigeria’s International Migration Statistics: Annual Summary last published in 1991. NPopC plans to analyse the backlog of data collected since 1991 and publish detailed information on the characteristics of the immigrants (similar to the analysis of emigration data). NIS collects data on immigrants from arrival cards as well as residence and work permits issued to foreign workers in formal establishments. Additional data is collected by local government NIS attaches, which provide security information on foreigners living in their domain. Most of this data is stored in the NIS records, while data from arrival cards is shared with NPopC for further analysis. Data is included in the internal NIS annual report to management, but is neither published nor shared. Same as in the case of emigrant students except that additional information from NIS and NPopC will be sought from the arrival/entry cards. NAPTIP collects data on internal migrants that have experienced abuse, exploitation or trafficking in persons. The data collected is neither analysed nor published but remains within the domain of the agency. NBS carries out National Youth Surveys which contain information on young migrants’ place of birth and place of previous residence in the last ten years. The report of the surveys is expected to be published annually as of 2012, but do not have detailed information on the migration profile of the youth. The Internal Migration Survey carried out 2010 contains data on migrants, non-migrants and return migrants in households throughout Nigeria with detailed information on their migration status, including place of birth, place of previous residence, current residence, reasons for migration. The report contains reliable data on the stock, flow and characteristics of internal migration in Nigeria (not currently available online). Nigerian embassies collect data on Nigerian deportees including detailed information on their personal profiles. Embassies report this data to the MFA management and some other government agencies upon request. NIS collects some data on irregular emigrants based on persons stopped from Nigeria, namely “Refuse Departure Records.” This data is reported to NIS management, but not published.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA)

National Bureau of Statistics (NBS)

National Population Commission (NPopC)

Nigeria Immigration Service (NIS)

Immigrants Students Internal Migrants

Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity (FMLP) National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons (NAPTIP) National Bureau of Statistics (NBS)

National Population Commission (NPopC)

Irregular Emigrants

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA)

Nigeria Immigration Service (NIS)

10

Total 4

1

3

2

Enhancing Migration Data Management in Nigeria

Data Category Institution

Dataset Description

Irregular Immigrants

NCFRMI obtains data on irregular immigrants through NIS and MFA for coordination purposes. The data collected is neither analysed nor published but remains within the domain of the agency.

Labour Migrants

National Commission for Refugees, Migrants and Internally Displaced Persons (NCFRMI) Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity (FMLP)

Data on irregular immigrants is collected from NIS “Refuse Entry Records” on persons refused entry at border points. This data is neither analysed nor published but reported to NIS management. The Labour Migration Desk of FMLP is in charge of collecting data on the inflow of migrants by employment status and other personal characteristics, outflows of Nigerian nationals for educational purposes by sex and country of destination, number of Nigerian nationals retained after studies and skill acquisition by sex and country of destination, and the outflow of employed nationals by sex and country of destination. However, the Desk has not been able to meet this mandate for poor budgetary provisions. Ministry of Foreign Data on the personal profile of labour immigrants, who apply for entry Affairs (MFA) visa in to the country, is available in their visa application forms. This data is not exploited beyond the reporting of the total figure of visa applicants and recipients to the Management. National Agency for NAPTIP collects data on victims of trafficking, who have been referred the Prohibition of to them after escape or rescue. In some cases, these victims of Traffic in Persons trafficking may have entered the country as labour migrants. (NAPTIP) National Bureau of Data on labour immigrants can be derived from the NBS National Statistics (NBS) Manpower Stock and Employment Generation (2009, 2012) which is expected to be carried out and reported yearly. Preliminary reports have been written and submitted to the National Planning Commission. In addition, the 2006 census and post-enumeration census data contains information on labour immigrant stock in Nigeria and their personal characteristics. National Population NPopC collects information on labour migrants through immigration Commission (arrival) cards and emigration (departure) cards administered by NIS (NPopC) by analysing reasons for departure and arrival. The agency plans to generate statistics based on this analysis and publish them quarterly. Nigeria Immigration Data on labour migrants could be gleaned from records on expatriates Service (NIS) obtainable from the expatriate quota administration, records of residence and work permits and the local government attaches of the NIS. This data is not presently published and reported.

Total 2

6

11

ACP Observatory on Migration

Data Category Institution Remittances

CBN collects data on Nigerian foreign workers’ remittances received by Commercial Banks. The data is submitted to CBN through Electronic Financial Analysis Surveillance System (e-fass). The Commercial banks access their data through financial transfers sent from abroad. Data on remittances is published in the balance of payments accounts yearly. The agency is planning to work closely with other agencies such as the NPopC to collect survey data on remittances from informal channels. National Bureau of Data on remittances can be derived from the NBS National Living Statistics (NBS) Standard Surveys of 2004 and 2009. This data is not presently published and reported. National Population The proposed Diaspora Survey 2013 (with NNVS and IOM) will solicit Commission information on remittances of Nigerians abroad. The 2010 Internal (NPopC) Migration Survey also has information on the remittance behaviour of internal migrants. The latter is already published, but not yet in circulation. Trafficked Ministry of Foreign Data on Nigerian trafficked persons, who are deported back to Persons Affairs (MFA) Nigeria, is collected by Nigerian embassies, including detailed information on their personal profiles. The information is reported to internal management and referred to NAPTIP for record keeping. National Agency for NAPTIP receives data on trafficked persons from the Nigerian Police, NIS, MFA, Ministry of Women Affairs, and the Nigerian Civil Defence the Prohibition of Organization and collects data on victims referred to NAPTIP. The data Traffic in Persons is collected electronically on variables such as sex, age, state of origin, (NAPTIP) rescue agency etc. The data is analysed and reported regularly on the NAPTIP website. Nigeria Immigration Data on trafficked persons is contained in Screening Centre records Service (NIS) and anti-human trafficking records of the agency. The information is neither published nor reported, but referred to NAPTIP for this purpose. Total Number of Datasets on Migration

12

Central Bank of Ni‐ geria (CBN)

Dataset Description

Total 3

3

38

Enhancing Migration Data Management in Nigeria

4. MIGRATION DATA MANAGEMENT A) CURRENT PRACTICES While 38 datasets containing information on migration exist in Nigeria, few government MDAs conduct data mining, analysis or reporting on this data, rendering most of it inaccessible to policymakers, researchers and the general public. The NBS National Living Standard Surveys, for example, carried out every five years, collect some data on the emigration experience of household members, yet relevant data mining and analysis does not take place. Most agencies collect raw data through paper-based forms. Subsequently, data input and storage is done using statistical packages or MS Excel (or both). Of the nine agencies involved in migration data collection, only three of them, MFA, NNVS and NAPTIP, lack a database. NPopC, NBS and CBN are the best-equipped in terms of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) i.e. RAM capacity, scanners for capturing data from cards, servers, etc. (IOM, 2013). With regards to data back-up, only NCFRMI and NIS reported that they do data back-up regularly. Agencies collecting migration-related data are involved in some data sharing. However, no systematic data sharing agreement exists between all MDAs involved. NIS and NPopC do officially and regularly share data on immigration and emigration, which is sent from NIS to NPOpC for analysis. When inter-agency data sharing occurs, it is the result of a specific mutual interest of those agencies, as for instance between NPopC and NBS with respect to Census data, which is often mined by NBS for further socioeconomic and demographic analysis. MFA shares data collected on visas, passport renewal, deportees, Nigerians in Diaspora with relevant agencies, including NCFRMI, NAPTIP, NIS and NNVS. Some data collected by NAPTIP on trafficked persons is received from the Police, Ministry of Women Affairs and the Nigerian Civil Defense Organization. Table 3:

Data Collection, Processing, Storage Format by Agency and Migration Data Category

Data Category Institution

Data Format

Cross-border Migrants

Raw data is in paper form. Data is digitalized and stored in a database with a back-up. Data is analysed using MS Excel.

Diasporas

National Commission for Refugees, Migrants and Internally Displaced Persons (NCFRMI) Nigeria Immigration Service (NIS)

Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity (FMLP) Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) Nigerian National Volunteer Services (NNVS)

Raw data is collected at border crossing points using both immigration and emigration forms that are digitalized. It is delivered monthly to the Planning, Research and Statistics Division at NIS Headquarters in Abuja for processing. Data is inputted manually and stored using MS Excel in the NIS database, with a back-up. Data is analysed using Excel. The international airports and two land borders have electronic passport reading devices to register travellers’ information directly into the NIS database. Data collection is not yet being undertaken but is planned. Raw data is collected on prescribed forms administered by NNVS, but not processed. Raw data is collected online. Data is manually processed and stored In the desk computer. Data is analysed using MS Excel.

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ACP Observatory on Migration

Data Category Institution

Data Format

Emigrants

Data collection is work in progress.

Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity (FMLP) National Bureau of Statistics (NBS)

National Population Commission (NPopC)

Emigrants Students Forced MigrantsInternally Displaced Persons

Forced MigrantsRefugees

Immigrants

Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity (FMLP) National Commission for Refugees, Migrants and Internally Displaced Persons (NCFRMI) National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) National Commission for Refugees, Migrants and Internally Displaced Persons (NCFRMI) Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) National Bureau of Statistics (NBS)

National Population Commission (NPopC)

Nigeria Immigration Service (NIS)

14

Raw data is collected via questionnaires. Data is scanned and stored in a database. Data is processed and analysed using statistical packages (IMPS and CSPro). Raw data is collected from NIS immigration cards, census and survey questionnaires (in digital form). Data is scanned and stored in a database. Data is processed and analysed using statistical packages (IMPS and CSPro). Data collection is not yet being undertaken but is planned. Raw data is in paper form. Data is digitalized and stored in a database with a back-up. Data is analysed using statistical packages and MS Excel. The agency provides no information.

Data is collected online from UNHCR. Data is kept in the records of the agency. Raw data is in paper form. Data is digitalized and stored in a database with a back-up. Data is analysed using statistical packages and MS Excel. Immigration data on refugees collected on immigration cards is sent to NCFRMI unprocessed. Raw data is in paper form. Data is manually processed. Data is kept in the records of the agency. Raw data is collected via questionnaires. Data is scanned and stored in a database. Data is not processed and analysed even when the capability exists, using statistical packages (IMPS and CSPro). Raw data is collected from NIS immigration card, Census and surveys questionnaires (in digital form). Data is scanned and stored in a database. Data is processed and analysed using statistical packages (IMPS and CSPro). Raw data is collected at border crossing points and delivered monthly to the Planning, Research and Statistics Division at NIS Headquarters in Abuja for processing. Data is inputted manually and stored using MS Excel in the NIS database, with a back-up. Data is analysed using Excel. The international airports and two land borders have electronic passport reading devices to register travellers’ information directly into the NIS database.

Enhancing Migration Data Management in Nigeria

Data Category Institution

Data Format

Immigrants Students Internal Migrants

Data collection is not yet being undertaken but is planned.

Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity (FMLP) National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons (NAPTIP)

National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) National Population Commission (NPopC)

Irregular Emigrants

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) Nigeria Immigration Service (NIS)

Irregular Immigrants

National Commission for Refugees, Migrants and Internally Displaced Persons (NCFRMI) Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS)

Raw data is in paper form. Data is inputted manually and stored using MS Excel in the computer of the data analyst. Data is processed using MS Excel as part of the data reported on trafficked persons. Raw data is collected via questionnaires. Data is scanned and stored in a database. Data is not processed and analysed. Raw data is collected from surveys questionnaires (in digital form). Data is scanned and stored in a database. Data is processed and analysed using statistical packages (IMPS and CSPro. Data on deportees is in paper form. Data is manually processed. Data is kept in the records of the agency. Raw data is collected at border crossing points on forms. It is delivered monthly to the Planning, Research and Statistics Division at NIS Headquarters in Abuja for processing. Data is inputted manually and stored using MS Excel in the NIS database, with a back-up. Data is not analysed. The international airports and two land borders have electronic passport reading devices to register travellers’ information directly into the NIS database. Raw data is in paper form. Data is digitalized and stored in a database with a back-up. Data is not analysed. Raw data is collected at border crossing points. It is delivered monthly to the Planning, Research and Statistics Division at NIS Headquarters in Abuja for processing. Data is inputted manually and stored using MS Excel in the NIS database, with a back-up. Data is not analysed. The international airports and two land borders have electronic passport reading devices to register travellers’ information directly into the NIS database.

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ACP Observatory on Migration

Data Category Institution

Data Format

Labour Migrants

Data collection is not yet being undertaken but is planned.

Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity (FMLP) Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons (NAPTIP) National Bureau of Statistics (NBS)

National Population Commission (NPopC)

Nigeria Immigration Service (NIS)

Remittances

Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN)

National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) National Population Commission (NPopC)

Trafficked Persons

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) National Agency for the Pro‐ hibition of Traffic in Persons (NAPTIP) Nigeria Immigration Service (NIS)

16

Raw data is in paper form. Data is manually processed. Data is kept in the records of the agency. Raw data is in paper form. Data is inputted manually using MS Excel and stored in the computer record of the data analyst. Raw data is collected via questionnaires. Data is scanned and stored in a database. Data is processed and analysed using statistical packages (IMPS and CSPro). Raw data is collected from surveys-questionnaires (in digital form). Data is scanned and stored in a database. Data is processed and analysed using statistical packages (IMPS and CSPro). Raw data is collected at border crossing points. It is delivered monthly to the Planning, Research and Statistics Division at NIS Headquarters in Abuja for processing. Data is inputted manually and stored using MS Excel in the NIS database, with a back-up. Data is not analysed. The international airports and two land borders have electronic passport reading devices to register travellers’ information directly into the NIS database. Data is collected in digital form from the Commercial Banks. Data is scanned, some are manually inputted using the MS Excel, and stored in a database. Data is processed and analysed using statistical packages. Raw data is collected via questionnaires. Data is scanned and stored in a database. Data is processed but not analysed. Raw data is collected from surveys-questionnaires (in digital form). Data is scanned and stored in a database. Data is processed and analysed using statistical packages (IMPS and CSPro). Raw data is in paper form. Data is manually processed. Data is kept in the records of the agency Raw data is in paper form but it is subsequently digitalized. Data is manually processed using MS Excel. Data is processed and analysed using statistical packages. Raw data is collected at border crossing points and delivered monthly to the Planning, Research and Statistics Division at NIS Headquarters in Abuja for processing. Data is inputted manually and stored using MS Excel in the NIS database, with a back-up. Data is not analysed. The international airports and two land borders have electronic passport reading devices to register travellers’ information directly into the NIS database.

Enhancing Migration Data Management in Nigeria

B) DATA QUALITY CONTROL Data quality control is compulsory in NPopC, NBS, NAPTIP and CBN. The quality control involves checking forms/ questionnaires for data consistency, completeness and accuracy before or at the time of data entry. No quality check is done on their databases. Others, such as NCFRMI, MFA, NNVS, NIS and NEMA are yet to engage in data quality control in their data management. C) ANALYSIS/DATA MINING/REPORTING Despite the existence of many sources of migration data, government institutions do little analysis, data mining and reporting related to this data. In fact, most government agencies do not report at all on migration-related data collected, and only few agencies produce reports on a regular basis. Table 4 shows the extent of analysis and reporting executed by MDAs on the migration-related data collected by them. When this table is juxtaposed with table 2, the raw data collected in forms and questionnaires contains much more information than analysis and reporting either because of the low official demand for detailed analysis or because of the inadequacy of data analysts with appropriate skills in migration data analysis in the agencies or both. Of the nine agencies assessed, only NPopc, NBS and CBN carry out detailed analysis of their data. They produce reports that are published for both official and public consumption e.g. Quarterly and Annual Reports on International Migration Statistics (1991); Nigerian Census Volumes 1 and 2, 2006; Internal Migration Survey (2010) published in 2013; National Living Standard Survey, 2004, 2009; National Manpower Stock and Employment Generation (2009,2012) etc. CBN publishes quarterly and annually its reports on workers’ remittances by amount and country of destination in the nation’s balance of payments statistics. Data collected by NIS on cross-border migrants on Arrivals and Departures is disaggregated but this is not reflected in the annual reports of NIS which put emphasis on the stock and flow rather than on the characteristics of the migrants. As a result, other details like age, sex, purpose of travelling are not reported. Data collected on refugees and internally displaced persons by NCFRMI is detailed but not fully analysed in the annual reports. While NNVS collects detailed data on the diaspora mainly on line, data is not fully exploited in analysis but is reported in aggregate form to the top management via annual reports. As mentioned above, MFA does not engage in data analysis but shares its data with other relevant agencies for this purpose. NAPTIP analyses and reports on data collected regularly via NAPTIP website but without going into the details of the available information fields. None of the agencies assessed engages in data mining partly because of very low official demand for detailed information and limited number of well trained personnel and partly because there are no specific legislations and internal regulations guiding access to public data. This practice limits requests for and the granting of data for unofficial uses, particularly in respect of higher education institutions that use secondary data for the purpose of research. NPopC is currently developing a policy to guide its data sharing with other agencies and stakeholders.

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ACP Observatory on Migration

Table 4:

Analysis and Reporting of Migration-Related Data by Agency and Migration Data Category

Data Category

Institution

Analysis and Reports

Diasporas

Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity (FMLP) Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) Nigerian National Volunteer Services (NNVS)

No report is currently produced.

Emigrants

Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity (FMLP) National Bureau of Statistics (NBS)

National Population Commission (NPopC)

Emigrants Students Forced MigrantsInternally Displaced Persons

Forced MigrantsRefugees

18

Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity (FMLP) National Commission for Refugees, Migrants and Internally Displaced Persons (NCFRMI) National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) National Commission for Refugees, Migrants and Internally Displaced Persons (NCFRMI) Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS)

Data is shared with NNVS for relevant analysis and reporting. Data collected online from the diaspora is neither analysed nor collected. Data is kept in the official files of the agency and remain unpublished due to lack of data-skilled personnel. Aggregate data is presented to top management in annual reports. 2013 Diaspora Survey (with NPopC and IOM) will include comprehensive data on Nigerian diasporas. No report is currently produced. The National Living Standard Surveys, 2004, 2009 are analysed and published but do not contain detailed information collected on the migration phenomenon. The reports are submitted to the National Planning Commission (NPC) and disseminated through the NBS web site: www.nigerianstat.gov.ng. The section on migration is never fully disaggregated in analysis due to limited financial resources. Data on emigrants is collected on daily basis. Analysis is done on age, sex, nationality, occupation, place of departure and reasons for departure. The last quarterly reports containing information on emigration (departures) was published in 1991. As a result, there is a backlog of this data awaiting analysis and publication. Further data processing and reports is planned to commence in 2013. No report is currently produced. Information on Internally Displaced Persons is contained in the annual reports. Data is stored in the data base in Lagos.

The agency produces reports (with detailed information on the profile of victims) which are sent to the management on weekly basis. Data collected is not published but reported to the management of the agency as and when the data is available. Data is stored in a database which is housed in Lagos. It is analysed and published annually and accessible through the UNHCR website in Nigeria (www.unhcr.org/pages/49e484f76.html). Data collected is not published but reported to the management of the agency, and shared with NCFRMI.

Enhancing Migration Data Management in Nigeria

Data Category

Institution

Immigrants

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA)

Immigrants Students Internal Migrants

Irregular Emigrants

Irregular Immigrants

Analysis and Reports

Apart from the reports sent to the management monthly on the total number of visa applications received and visas issued, there are no other reports and publications. National Bureau of Reports containing information on immigrants are based on the Statistics (NBS) data collected in National Panel Surveys (2010, 2012) to be carried out yearly. National Population Data is reported in Nigeria’s International Migration Statistics: Commission (NPopC) Annual Summary, which last appeared in 1991. The backlog of data collected since 1991 will begin to be analysed in 2013 and published with detailed information on the characteristics of the immigrants (similar to the analysis of emigration data). Nigeria Immigration Service Annual reports contain aggregated data on immigrants (arrivals) (NIS) while the detailed information on the immigrants is in the report on International Migration Statistics: Annual Summary published last in 1991 by NPopC. Federal Ministry of Labour No report is currently produced. and Productivity (FMLP) National Agency for the Data is reported on NAPTIP website together with other data on Prohibition of Traffic in internationally trafficked persons. Persons (NAPTIP) National Bureau of Data is reported in National Youth Surveys including analysis Statistics (NBS) of young migrants profile, their origin, detailed migration characteristics such as, place of birth, place of previous residence in the last ten years etc. This report is expected to be published yearly. National Population Data is published in the Internal Migration Survey carried out Commission (NPopC) 2010 and available to the public upon request and at a cost (not available online). Ministry of Foreign Affairs There is no special report on the deportees. Information on them is (MFA) reported to the management and other agencies on request. Nigeria Immigration Service Records are kept on Nigerians stopped from leaving the country, (NIS) i.e. “Refuse departure records”. This data is not published but are reported officially to the management of the agency. National Commission Data collected is reported to the management. for Refugees, Migrants and Internally Displaced Persons (NCFRMI) Nigerian Immigration Records of the agency on persons refused entry in to the country, Service (NIS) i.e. “Refuse entry records” are kept. This data is not published but reported officially to the management of the agency.

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ACP Observatory on Migration

Data Category

Institution

Labour Migrants Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity (FMLP) Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA)

Remittances

National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons (NAPTIP) National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) National Population Commission (NPopC) Nigeria Immigration Service (NIS) Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN)

National Population Commission (NPopC)

Trafficked Persons



20

National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons (NAPTIP) Nigeria Immigration Service (NIS)

Analysis and Reports No report is currently produced. There is no analysis of the data collected. This data is not exploited beyond the reporting of the total figure of visa recipients to the management. Data is treated as data on trafficked persons. It is included in the annual reports of NAPTIP on trafficked persons. Reports on National Manpower Stock and Employment Generation (2009, 2012). Reports are expected to be published yearly. Reports of the 2006 Census, the Post-Enumeration Survey and the Internal Migration Survey, 2010. Data is not published presently but is reported to management officially. Analysis of remittances by amount, country of destination is done by the Central Bank, and published regularly in the balance of payments statistics. Data is accessible from the CBN website. The Report on 2010 Internal Migration Survey has information on the remittance behaviour of internal migrants. In addition, the proposed Diaspora Survey 2013 in conjunction with NNVS and funding by IOM will yield information on remittances of Nigerians abroad. Information on remittances is not presently published and reported. All data is sent to NAPTIP for analysis and reporting. The data collected electronically on variables such as sex, age, state of origin, rescue agency etc. is analysed and reported regularly on the NAPTIP website. All data is sent to NAPTIP for analysis and reporting.

Enhancing Migration Data Management in Nigeria

5. RESOURCES FOR MIGRATION DATA MANAGEMENT This assessment did not focus on human resources for migration data management. The IOM has recently conducted needs assessment in this area (IOM, 2013). During interviews, several stakeholders did emphasize the need for enhancing the capacity of data officers in statistical analysis, analysis of migration data and data management as well as advanced use of excel, reporting software and SQL, in addition to training tailored to each agency. In terms of physical resources (IT hardware and software), a separate assessment was undertaken simultaneously to this one by IOM, which focuses specifically on such migration data management systems in Nigeria (IOM, 2013). As indicated above, three out of the nine agencies lack databases. Among the remaining six agencies with databases, only NPopC, NBS and CBN are the well-equipped in terms of ICT infrastructure. All agencies indicated a need for appropriate or improved databases, regular maintenance of equipment, especially the provision of appropriate anti-virus software and the availability of computer specialists.

21

Enhancing Migration Data Management in Nigeria

6. GAPS Although Nigeria’s public agencies have many datasets that contain data on international and internal migration, several gaps exist. These include a lack of sufficient information on some types of migration, limited reporting on data collected and processed, insufficient use and analysis of administrative data sources, poor data sharing, lack of public access to data, needs for improved data management infrastructure, lack of quality control, lack of sufficient informative fields in most datasets. These gaps hinder the use of data to inform government programs and policies as well as the appropriate intervention of the civil society and international partners. A) DATA The areas where data is insufficient but required for policy development is the area of student migration, given the large amount of foreign reserves devoted to educating Nigerian youths abroad. While FMLP is proposing to collect data on Nigerians studying abroad, the Federal Ministry of Education whose main function is the provision and maintenance of educational services is yet to take appropriate steps in this direction. There is a need for improved data collection and analysis of irregular migration and trafficked persons. Given the clandestine nature of these movements, most cases escape the attention of law enforcement agencies. Data on labour migrants is not comprehensive, including formal establishments required to possess work permits and residence visas. Many labour immigrants are found in informal sector employment with no data being collected. While data on remittances through the formal channels e.g. commercial banks is available through CBN, there is a need for large scale sample surveys of NPopC, NBS, and other agencies involved regarding informal remittances. For data to be meaningful and useful for policymaking and planning, it must contain details, which is possible only if data is collected on important policy-oriented variables. At present, a lot of the analysed data gives only totals and few informative variables. B) DATA COLLECTION PROTOCOLS The forms being used for data collection in many agencies need to be up-dated and re-designed for more appropriate information fields and ease of respondents. The departure form/questionnaire being administered at the Nigerian borders, for instance, is presently undergoing a review by NIS and other stakeholders like NPopC. C) DATA QUALITY CONTROL Few of the assessed institutions perform data quality control checks for data consistency, completeness and accuracy before or at the time of data entry. No quality check is done on their databases. D) ANALYSIS/DATA MINING/REPORTING/SHARING A major gap identified in all institutions is the low extent of analysis and querying of existing datasets and databases. None of the assessed institutions performs data mining or other analysis to produce migration information from their administrative datasets that are used primarily for internal procedural and administrative purposes. Data sharing is not common. Existing data is often regarded as official data to be disclosed when officially demanded within or between agencies. This practice limits public access and the utility of available data. E) RESOURCES The resources deployed to migration-related data management are very thin on the ground. In most of the agencies, there is no special staffing devoted to migration data management except in NPopC NIS and NBS. Even where they exist, there is a lot of training needs especially in migration analysis, and migration data management. Only a few of the existing staff in these agencies have had courses in migration and migration data management. In addition, there is a need for adequate databases in some of the agencies involved in the management of migration data, as afore-mentioned.

23

Enhancing Migration Data Management in Nigeria

7. RECOMMENDATIONS A) SHORT TERM 1. As the official lead agency with the role of policy formulation, there is an urgent need for NCFRMI to develop capacity for evidence-based migration policy and programs. Staff must obtain relevant data analysis skills and improvements are necessary regarding data management equipment. NCFRMI could lead the establishment of a working group on migration data within existing inter-agency exchange platforms, such as the Technical Working Group on Migration, to exchange knowledge and experience in migration data management issues and develop priorities. 2. Building on the 2009 IOM Migration Profile, regularly inter-agency reports on key priority migration and development indicators could be produced with existing data to allow policymakers to start considering migration and development issues in their policy development, decision-making and planning. 3. Develop a capacity building programme for all relevant MDAs, including trainings, actions to improve staff recruitment, ensure adequate funding and equipment modern and provide training on key areas, such as general analysis of migration data, statistical analysis, as well as advanced use of excel, reporting software and SQL, in addition to training tailored to each agency. B) MEDIUM TERM 1. As the capacity of each agency, including the official lead agency NCFRMI, improves in terms of staffing quality and equipment, the substantial amount of data collected on migration should be increasingly analysed and reported based on priorities defined by the Technical Working Group on Migration. 2. Data protection procedures should be developed, which would also allow for increased data sharing once relevant procedures were in place. 3. Training sessions and materials on mining existing data and databases for in house staff could be developed and implemented to take advantage of the substantial amounts of unutilized administrative data. 4. MDAs require additional funding in yearly budgets for regular data management training expenses. C) LONG TERM Once the capacity of each agency involved in migration data management is enhanced, advanced forms of inter-agency collaboration in migration data management should be pursued. A migration data sharing mechanism could be developed involving all nine institutions currently collecting migration-related data. This process would help to improve the quality of data collected and processed. Priorities in terms of the migration and development indicators to be collected, as well as specific information fields to meet data and policy needs, should be defined. A quality control system should be put in place. Such a mechanism would ensure the common use of national data resources as well as inter-agency operability, harmonization and comparability. Government agencies could also more easily share information on migration with other stakeholders. Finally, such as mechanism could help to reduce duplication among agencies in terms of resource needs and deployment for migration data management. To facilitate the process of developing and implementing a data sharing mechanism, the following is recommended: 1. Form migration data management clusters around the identified lead-agency for each category of migration data collected by public institutions (see Annex 2). 2. Within each cluster, form a data management technical working group. This technical working group should be composed of the ICT officers, analysts and statisticians with the objective of re-examining the protocols/ format of data collection of each agency, subdividing it into generic and specific information fields, exchanging knowledge and defining a migration data management strategy for each dataset for a period of time. 3. The technical working group should prepare the quality control systems to be put in place. 4. The technical working group should ensure that the information fields in their data are fully specified in the databases and that regular updating occurs. 5. The technical working group could propose an inter-agency data sharing system.

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Enhancing Migration Data Management in Nigeria

8. REFERENCES Afolayan, A. and International Organization for Migration’s Research Division 2009 Migration in Nigeria. A country Profile Prepared by Adejumoke Afolayan and IOM Research Division. Geneva, Switzerland. http://publications.iom.int/bookstore/free/Nigeria_Profile_2009.pdf. International Organization for Migration (IOM) 2009 Migration in Nigeria: A Country Profile 2009, http://publications.iom.int/bookstore/free/Nigeria_ Profile_2009.pdf 2011 Guide to Enhancing Migration Data in West and Central Africa , prepared by Michel Poulain and Anne Herm. Geneva, Switzerland. 2012a Presentation of the Findings of Institutional Needs Assessment for National Population Commission (NPOpC), National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) and National Commission for Refugees, Migration and Internally Displaced Persons (NCFRMI) by Heikki S. Mattila. 2012b Presentation of the Findings of Institutional Needs Assessment for International Labour Migration Desk/Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity, Nigeria National Volunteer Service and Nigerian Diaspora Organizations by Ivan Martin. 2013 Validation of the Assessment of Migration Databases and ICT Capacities for Migration Data Management in Selected Ministries, Departments and Agencies in Nigeria. A Presentation by Data and Policy Unit, IOM Nigeria. National Population Commission (NPopC) 2010 National Internal Migration Survey Report. Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER) 2007 Migration Survey of Nigeria, www.niser.gov.ng/. Ponce, P. 2010

World Bank 2009 2013

Overview on South-South Migration and Development Trends and Research Needs in Nigeria. ACP Observatory on Migration/IOM, Brussels. www.acpmigration-obs.org/sites/default/files/NigeriaFin. pdf. Nigeria – Migration Household Survey 2009, NGA_2009_MRHSS_v01_M, http://microdata. worldbank.org/index.php/catalog/402/study-description. World Bank Annual Remittances Data, http://econ.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTDEC/EXTD ECPROSPECTS/0,,contentMDK:22759429~pagePK:64165401~piPK:64165026~theSitePK:476883,00. html.

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Enhancing Migration Data Management in Nigeria

9. ANNEXES ANNEX 1: LIST OF AGENCIES AND OFFICIALS INTERVIEWED ON MIGRATION-RELATED DATA MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA 1. National Population Commission (NPopC) (i) Ojo Oni - Director, Vital Registration Department (ii) Chidi Arukwe - Deputy Director, Census (iii) Adesola Fatilewa - Deputy Director, ICT Dept. (iv) E. A. Olanipekun - Assistant Director, Census 2. National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) (i) Thickman Tanimu - Principal Planning Officer (Situation Room) (ii) Fatsuma Mamman - EE II (Situation Room) (iii) Mercy Thompson - Search & Rescue Officer (Situation Room) 3. Federal Ministry of Education (i) Beatrice Nwalozie -

Assistant Director, BACAA

4. Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity (i) J. U. Okpuno - Deputy Director, Employment and Wages (ii) Emmanuel Igbinosun - Chief Labour Officer, nelex (iii) Oluwatoyin Fadimu - Labour Officer, nelex 5. National Planning Commission (NPC) (i) Ibrahim MohammedKing- Desk Officer, Migration (ii) Anthony Monye - Planning Officer II, Migration 6. National Commission for Refugees (NCFR) (i) Charles Nwanelo - Head, Migration Unit (ii) Rosemary Abdulai - Head, IDPs Unit (iii) Gambo Wada - Project Officer (iv) Joyce Opara - Migration Officer (v) Fatima Nasko - Migration Officer (vi) Mathias Esene - Profiling Division, IDP Unit (vii) Richard Abia - ICT Unit 7. Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) (i) Omolara Duke - (ii) Fatima Ismail - (iii) Ubong Udoette - (iv) Annotu Abdullahi -

Assistant Director, Research Dept. Senior Ecpnomist, Research Dept. Manager, Statistics Dept. Senior Supervisor, Trade & Investments Department

8. National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons (NAPTIP) (i) R. A. Kuffon - Director, Research & Programme Development (ii) Lilly Oguejiofor - Director, Counseling and Rehabilitation 9. Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) (i) Abdulaziz Dankano -

Director, Consular and Immigration

10. National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) (i) Louis Gambo - (ii) E. O. Ekezie -

HoD, Demography & Social Statistics Department. HoD, ICT

11. Nigeria National Volunteer Service (NNVS) (i) Umma Amina Abdullahi - Director (ii) Risikat Ayangade - Assistant Director (iii) Emmanuel Agodi - Principal Administrative Officer (iv) Rachael Obiechina - Senior Administrative Officer 12. Nigeria Immigration Service (NIS) (i) M. Abuga - (ii) O. K. Ogun - (iii) Charles Opum -

Deputy Comptroller of Immigration, Migration Unit Asst. Supt. Of Immigration, PRS Asst. Comptroller of Immigration, ICT 29

ACP Observatory on Migration

ANNEX 2: POSSIBLE AGENCY ROLES IN MIGRATION DATA MANAGEMENT BY CLUSTER OF MIGRATION DATA CATEGORY Data Category

Institution

Cross-border Migrants

Nigeria Immigration Service (NIS) National Commission for Refugees, Migrant and Internally Displaced Persons (NCFRMI) Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity (FMLP) Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) Nigerian National Volunteer Service (NNVS) National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) National Population Commission (NPopC) Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity (FMLP) Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity (FMLP) National Commission for Refugees, Migrants and Internally Displaced Persons (NCFRMI) National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) National Commission for Refugees, Migrant and Internally Displaced Persons (NCFRMI) Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) Nigeria Immigration Service (NIS) Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) National Population Commission (NPopC) Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity (FMLP) National Population Commission (NPopC) National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons (NAPTIP) Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) Nigeria Immigration Service (NIS) National Commission for Refugees, Migrants and Internally Displaced Persons (NCFRMI) Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) National Population Commission (NPopC) National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity (FMLP) Ministry of Foreign Affairs(MFA) National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons (NAPTIP) Nigeria Immigration Service (NIS) National Population Commission (NPopC) National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons (NAPTIP) Nigeria Immigration Service (NIS)

Diasporas

Emigrants

Emigrants - Students Forced Migrants Internally Displaced Persons Forced Migrants -Refugees

Immigrants

Immigrants - Students Internal Migrants

Irregular Emigrants Irregular Immigrants

Labour Migrants

Remittances

Trafficked Persons

30

Agency Role by Cluster of Migration Data Category Lead Agency Supportive Supportive Supportive Lead Agency Supportive Lead Agency Supportive Lead Agency Lead Agency Supportive Lead Agency Supportive Supportive Supportive Lead Agency Supportive Supportive Lead Agency Lead Agency Supportive Supportive Supportive Lead Agency Supportive Lead Agency Supportive Supportive Lead Agency Supportive Supportive Supportive Supportive Supportive Lead Agency Supportive Lead Agency Supportive

Kenya environment Nigeria displacement trafficking East Africa labour Tanzania Senegal migration diasporas database

Central Africa

training

of the Congo

Observatory

Angola

Republic

rights

Pacific

statistics gender West Africa remittances

Trinidad and Tobago

ACP Observatory on Migration 20, rue Belliardstraat (7th floor) 1040 Brussels - Belgium Tel.: +32 (0)2 894 92 30 - Fax: +32 (0)2 894 92 49 [email protected] - www.acpmigration-obs.org

South-South Cameroon

internal

Democratic

return

development Timor-Leste

integration

Haiti health

Caribbean

data Southern Africa

Lesotho urbanization Papua New Guinea

An Initiative of the ACP Secretariat, Funded by the European Union Implemented by IOM and with the Financial Support of Switzerland, IOM, the IOM Development Fund and UNFPA International Organization for Migration (IOM) Organisation internationale pour les migrations (OIM) Organização Internacional para as Migrações (OIM)