Exploring Florida: 500 years of History, Culture, and Nature An activity book featuring artwork by Christopher Still.
We are working to make the activity book accessible to all users. Please contact us if you need an alternate format. http://museumoffloridahistory.com/exhibits/permanent/foreverchanged/education.cfm The Museum of Florida History 500 S. Bronough Tallahassee, FL 32399 850.245.6400 [email protected]
Exploring Florida 500 Years of History, Culture, and Nature An Activity Book Featuring Artwork by Christopher M. Still
About the Artwork
In 1999, the Florida House of Representatives commissioned artist Christopher M. Still to create eight murals to hang in its Capitol chambers in Tallahassee. Meticulously researched, each oil-on-linen, 48- by 126-inch painting explores a different era in state history from prehistoric times to the present. Historical background and symbols related to each painting are described at www.christopherstill.com/murals.htm.
About the Artist
A native Floridian, Christopher M. Still (1961–) studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and apprenticed in traditional art techniques in Florence, Italy. His artworks have earned more than a dozen awards and honors, been featured in two dozen exhibitions, and currently hang in museums and collections throughout Florida and the U.S.
Created and produced by the
Museum of Florida History, Florida Department of State, Division of Cultural Affairs. 500 South Bronough Street, Tallahassee, Florida 32399–0250 www.museumoffloridahistory.com For information or copies: 850.245.6400 • [email protected]
To download a free copy: museumoffloridahistory.com/foreverchanged/education December 2012
CULTURE BUILDS FLORIDA ™
Exploring Florida 500 Years of History, Culture, and Nature
In April 2013, Florida will commemorate the 500th anniversary of the first known landing of Europeans on its soil. The expedition led by Juan Ponce de León in 1513, followed by other Spanish and French explorers and colonists, encountered diverse and welldeveloped groups of native inhabitants, whose predecessors had occupied the peninsula for at least 10,000 years. Florida’s human and natural landscapes have changed dramatically in the last five centuries. Viva Florida 500 is a statewide initiative to mark the onset of these changes and also celebrate the vibrant and dynamic cultural legacy that has resulted. To help young people visualize and appreciate Florida’s growth over time, this booklet features eight paintings by artist Christopher M. Still and related activities that explore different eras in state history.
In Ages Past, painting by Christopher Still
Early Human Inhabitants P
eople first reached Florida at least 12,000 years ago. The Florida coastline was very different then. The sea level was much lower, so the Florida peninsula was twice the size it is now. Many large animals that lived then (such as the saber-tooth tiger, mastodon, giant armadillo, and camel) are now extinct. The people who lived in early Florida hunted small animals and gathered wild plants for food. Sometimes they hunted large animals. They also ate nuts and shellfish. They lived in areas where fresh water, firewood, and stones were available. They used stone, bone, wood, and shell to make tools. Native peoples’ ways of life changed over time.
About 1,000 years ago, some native groups in Florida began to grow corn, beans, and squash. They traded with people outside Florida. Some societies built large mounds made of soil. Today we can learn about their culture by studying objects they left behind, including clay pottery and wooden carvings.
Find the food-gathering tools used by Native Americans. What foods were gathered here? Go to www.christopherstill.com/mural_in_ages_past.htm to help you identify the objects.
Web Quest Web Quest Archaeologists
What do you know about the people who lived in Florida before European explorers arrived in 1513? The people who lived in early Florida hunted animals, caught fish, and gathered wild plants for food. They lived in areas where fresh water, firewood, and stones were available. They used stone, bone, wood, and shell to make tools.
find objects buried in the ground that people from the past left behind. Studying these objects can tell us a lot about how people lived and worked.
Your task for this Web Quest is to be a virtual archaeologist and “dig up” objects on the Florida Memory web site that were used by Native Americans before 1513. Directions: Go to www.floridamemory.com. First search “indian tool,” then search “shell dipper.” Additional topic to search: archaeological excavation
Questions to answer: What kind of objects do you think these are (tools, toys, jewelry)?
How do you think they were used? Did you find other items similar to these in additional searches? Can you tell which regions in Florida the objects came from? Can you tell which Native American group made these objects?
Sketch or paste your favorite objects.
Five Flags Over Florida
2. The 1564, French explorers established a short-lived settlement near present-day Jacksonville.
3. The flag of Britain flew over Florida from 1763 to1784.
4. This flag was one of several flown in Florida during the Civil War from 1861 to 1865.
5. The design of Florida’s current flag was adopted in 1900.
Spanish soldiers and explorers used a flag bearing the Cross of Burgundy when they occupied Florida from 1565 to 1763.
To see more of Florida’s historic flags: www.flheritage.com/facts/symbols/flags.cfm Use the pictures on this web site to color Florida’s historic flags. 5
La Florida, painting by Christopher Still
European exploration and Colonization S panish explorer Juan Ponce de León landed on Florida’s east coast in 1513. He called the area “La Florida.” Over the next fifty years, three Spaniards tried, but failed, to create permanent settlements in Florida. The French built a fort and settlement near Jacksonville, but it only lasted about a year. Spain finally achieved a permanent settlement when St. Augustine was founded in 1565.
The Spaniards established Catholic missions among the Apalachee and Timucua Indians. During the 1600s, many Florida Indians died of diseases. In the 1700s, Spanish Florida was attacked several times by English and French forces. The missions were destroyed, and many Indians were killed or enslaved. Later, Indians from the Carolinas and Georgia, ancestors of today’s Seminole and Miccosukee Indians, moved to Florida. In 1763, Britain took control of Florida and divided the land into East and West Florida. St. Augustine and Pensacola were the capitals of these two colonies. During the American Revolution, the two Floridas remained loyal to Britain.
Spain took control of Florida again after the American Revolution. Spanish and American settlers came to Florida. Enslaved blacks escaped to Florida to seek their freedom. In 1818, the U.S. government engaged the Seminole Indians in the first of three wars. When Spain transferred the peninsula to the United States in 1821, Florida became a U.S. territory.
Identify different pieces of the Spanish explorers’ uniforms. Go to www.christopherstill.com/mural_la_ florida.htm to find the objects’ names. Look for photos at www.floridamemory.com to see how they compare with U.S. soldiers’ uniforms.
Web Quest Web Quest
What do you know about Florida geography in 1763?
By 1763, the Florida peninsula had been colonized, and people were traveling across and around the state. As people became more familiar with interior and maritime boundaries in Florida, they documented the changes on maps and charts.
Cartographers are people who make maps and charts. They identify rivers, bays, forts, roads, and political boundaries of an area, such as cities, towns, and counties. Studying these documents can show us how the geography of an area changed over time. Your task for this Web Quest is to compare a map of Florida from 1763 with a map from 1845 and identify the changes. Directions: View the 1763 Florida map on page 9 or on the Florida Memory web site (www.floridamemory.com/items/show/35204). On Florida Memory, search “Map of Florida” AND 1845.
Questions to answer:
The 1763 map includes words in Spanish. Why would Spanish names appear on an English map?
What natural feature formed the border between East and West Florida? What river marked Florida’s western border?
Examine the enlarged view of Pensacola. Where are the buildings? How many forts are identified? Where did ships usually anchor? What do the numbers in the middle of the bay represent?
What is the modern location and name for the Bay of Sta Rosa? What evidence supports this conclusion?
What is the modern name for Cape Escondido? In which county is it located?
What major river in the northeast is represented on the 1763 map? What is the modern name for this river? 8
State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory, http://www.floridamemory.com/items/show/35204
Map from 1763 9
A New Capital, painting by Christopher Still
From Territory to State G
eneral Andrew Jackson set up a new territorial government in 1821. Tallahassee was chosen as the new state capital. The first legislators met in a simple log cabin. Two years later, a new capitol building made of bricks was completed. As the number of people in Florida grew, tension increased between whites and Indians. The Seminoles occupied lands that white settlers wanted, and they also lived with escaped slaves. The idea of removing Indians from Florida became more popular among white leaders. The territory’s economy was based on agriculture, and enslaved blacks worked on numerous cotton plantations and small farms. By 1840, almost half of Florida’s population consisted of blacks, and most were slaves. Florida became the 27th state in 1845.
What city in Florida is represented in this painting? Here’s a clue: the log cabin was the first capitol. Go to www.christopherstill.com/mural_a_new_capital.htm to learn how Florida became a state.
Web Quest Web Quest
What do you know about Andrew Jackson?
How do historians use portraits?
Portraits are paintings that show what people look like at a certain point in time. They can be important state and family records or a way to remember a person. Artists usually are hired to paint a portrait, but some are made because an artist is inspired by or admires a person.
Historians use portraits to become familiar with the person they are researching. Because artists paint from their point of view, studying a group of portraits painted by different artists can tell us much more about the person. Your task for this Web Quest is to study various portraits of Andrew Jackson to find facts about who he was.
Sketch or paste the most interesting portrait of Andrew Jackson.
Directions: Go to www.floridamemory.com. Search “Andrew Jackson” AND portrait AND 1767–1845. Scroll through the search results to answer the questions.
Describe what is similar or different about how Jackson looks in the portraits.
What is he wearing in most of the portraits? According to the search results, where is one of the portraits currently on display? Find the silhouette. Click on the image for answers to fill in the blanks. Andrew Jackson was Florida’s
He served as the governor of the territories of
from March 10 until December 31, 1821.
Find the medallion. Click on the image. What does it say? 12
Florida State Seal Each state in the nation has a seal–a visual image–that illustrates its unique character. New and different seals were made for Florida when it became a territory in 1821 and a state in 1845, and after the Civil War. The state’s current seal was adopted in 1985. It features a steamboat on the water, a sabal palm (the state tree), and a native woman scattering flowers. To see all of Florida’s historic seals, go to www.flheritage.com/facts/symbols/seals.cfm.
To learn more about Florida’s state seals: www.flheritage.com/facts/symbols.cfm Use the picture on this web site to color Florida’s current state seal.
Patriot and Warrior, painting by Christopher Still
The Seminoles of Florida I
n the 1830s, the U.S. government decided to relocate Seminoles to a new Indian territory, which is now Oklahoma. The Second Seminole War was the outcome of this policy. This war lasted for seven years. Eventually, some Seminoles left on their own, some were captured and sent to Oklahoma, and others escaped into the Everglades in south Florida. About 5,000 Seminoles were removed from Florida. Only about 200 were able to survive in the Everglades. Osceola was a Seminole war leader who refused to leave his home in Florida. He was a brave fighter, but he was captured and sent to prison. He died a short time later. He became famous because of his resistance to the policy of removal. Today, he is a symbol of the Seminole people of Florida.
Who is the man in this painting? Study what he is wearing, and go to www.christopherstill.com/mural_ patriot_and_warrior.htm to learn about the objects. Would he typically have worn these items?
Web Quest Web Quest
What do you know about the daily life of Seminole Indians? The ancestors of the 200 Seminoles who remained in Florida in 1860 lived in camps in the south Florida Everglades. Each camp had several open-air houses called “chickees” that were used for cooking, eating, sleeping, and working. The Seminoles also used new plants for food and medicine and developed a unique style of lightweight clothing. The campfire was the center of activity, and families gathered at night to share stories and legends.
Your task for this Web Quest is to study an old photograph to identify what daily life was like for Seminole Indians. Directions: View the photo on page 17 or on the Florida Memory web site at http://www.floridamemory.com/items/show/69683. Additional topic to search: “Bedell Collection”
Questions to answer: What is your first impression about the photograph? What is happening in the picture? How would you describe the people (their age, clothing, expressions, relationship)? Make a list of activities that are taking place. Make another list of objects in the photograph. When do you think the picture was taken (the year, the time of day)? Where was it taken? How can you tell? 16
State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory, http://www.floridamemory.com/items/show/69683
Reflecting on Ocean Pond, painting by Christopher Still
Civil War and Reconstruction M
ost people in southern states believed that slavery was necessary, but people in northern states did not. After Abraham Lincoln was elected President in 1860, Florida and other southern states withdrew from the United States because of this issue. Florida joined southern states in forming the Confederate States of America, also called the Confederacy.
The Civil War lasted from April 1861 to April 1865. Florida sent 15,000 men and many supplies, including salt, beef, cotton, pork, and other products, to help the Confederacy. Northern ships patrolling Florida’s coast tried to block supplies from coming and going. Many white and black residents helped the northern cause in quiet ways. Several major battles took place, but Florida did not experience as much damage as its neighbors to the north.
After the Civil War, the U.S. government set up a policy called “Reconstruction” in the South. It wanted states to accept new rules, including some to improve conditions for African Americans. In the end, though, blacks had little voice in government.
Did cows always live in Florida? Find the branding iron in the painting. What brand do you think this is? Go to www.christopherstill.com/mural_reflecting_on_ocean_pond.htm to learn about Florida cattle.
Web Quest Web Quest
What do you know about Florida’s role in the Civil War?
During the Civil War, Floridians faced a shortage of many items, such as coffee, sugar, salt, and even shoes. People created alternative ways to produce these items. For example, people boiled sea water to produce salt so that they could preserve their meat.
Historians study documents such as letters, diaries, memoirs, and photographs to interpret how historical events
impacted people’s daily lives.
Your task for this Web Quest is to read an excerpt from a memoir and find images that relate to it to understand how the Civil War impacted people’s lives in Florida. Directions: Read the memoir excerpt on page 21 or on the Florida Memory web site at (www.floridamemory.com/items/show/69683). Search “salt factory” and “salt marsh.”
Questions to answer: How did Joshua’s family feel about the war? How old was he when he enrolled in the First Florida Reserves? What was the inventive way to make salt? What kind of meat did they preserve? How does Joshua describe its appearance? Scroll through the search results of “salt marsh.” Where are some salt marshes located? What is the legend associated with the St. Mark’s Lighthouse?
Excerpt from Joshua Hoyet Frier’s Civil War Memoir But the most serious ill convenience however, that was felt was salt, having by our civilization been accustomed to a free and all most unlimited supply; to be suddenly cut off without a grain, was a situation that can be imagined, but not realized only by experience. It is true the South had a long coast line where unlimited quantities might have been manufactured (and it was done later on) we had no arrangements of making it, and iron mind you at this time was as scarce as hens teeth. There was no persons among us that understood the manufacture of it, and last but not least, was a dread of Yankee gun boats for while according to reports, our army had uniformly been successful on land; we had invariable been worsted where they could get at us with those invulnerable monsters, and the idea of setting up an industry right under the nose of the United States Navy was something we did not do until forced to do so. But the salt was gone and it meant we had to either have some, or quit eating, the one looked like an impossibility, while the other was a dreadful alternative. About
this time some inventive person discovered that by taking up the dirt out of the meat houses, and leaching it a fair article of salt could be made: this he published for the good of suffering humanity. Next day all hands went to work, erecting hoppers to leach the earth in, and improvising furnaces for the evaporation of the water after it had leached out the precious property, late in the evening we took a small run off, the product of which was about one gallon of I hardly know what to call it, it looked much more like mud than salt; but it was salty any how. The water leached abundance of other matter out of the meat house soil besides salt, but for the sake of what little salt there was in it we manufactured several bushels of it; and that winter 1862-63 we saved our pork with it. A piece of pork liberally smeared with it had the appearance of being wallowed in the mud. But even a new danger confronted us; the supply of dirt was limited, in fact it was all utilized the first season. So at the dawn of 1863 the prospect of a Salt famine added gravity to the already grave situation.
Who was Joshua Hoyet Frier? Joshua Hoyet Frier was born in Lowndes County, Georgia. He lived with his family near the Florida border. Frier’s father and brothers were opposed to secession. One brother eventually enlisted in the Eighth Florida Infantry Regiment and was killed by Confederate authorities after he deserted. On his seventeenth birthday, May 20, 1864, Joshua Frier enrolled in a Florida militia company that eventually became the First Florida Reserves, Company B. The unit remained in north Florida throughout its service. This selection is from his work, Reminiscences of the War Between the States by a Boy in the Far South at Home and in the Rank of the Confederate Militia.
State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory, http://www.floridamemory.com/items/show/69683
The Okeehumkee on the Oklawaha, painting by Christopher Still
Florida Development A
t the end of the 1800s, agriculture, cattle raising, and manufacturing became important. Roads and railroads were built to support these industries. Steamboats carried people, mail, and supplies along Florida rivers and to distant places. Tourists began to arrive because of Florida’s natural beauty and mild climate. Land was cheap, so some people came to invest in businesses. The railroads allowed Florida products, especially citrus, to be sent to northern markets. During the Spanish-American War in 1898, Florida was the base for U.S. efforts to help Cubans win freedom from Spanish rule. By the early 1900s, Florida’s population and prosperity were growing rapidly. After World War I, land developers, businessmen, new residents, and vacationers in vehicles added to this growth. Many people grew wealthy by buying, developing, and selling land. The potential of the Sunshine State seemed endless.
How is this steamboat similar to or different from boats you have seen? Find photos of boats at www.floridamemory.com to compare. Go to www.christopherstill.com/mural_okeehumkee.htm to learn about steamboat travel in Florida.
Web Quest Web Quest
What do you know about baseball in Florida?
The development of transportation enabled people to come to Florida to live, work, vacation, and play baseball! Professional baseball leagues were created in the late 1800s, and many teams were located in northern states. As the sport became more popular, teams decided to train in Florida during the colder months.
Curators assemble exhibits to display and interpret a collection of related objects. Most exhibits are found in museums,
but some can be found online. Exhibits are a great way to learn about interesting topics, and they can inspire us to learn more. Your task for this Web Quest is to look through the Florida Memory online exhibit about baseball in Florida. When you are done, search the additional topics listed to learn more about this period of Florida’s history. Directions: View the Baseball Photo Exhibit at www.floridamemory.com/photographiccollection/photo_exhibits/baseball. Additional photo exhibits to explore: Tin Can Tourism, Trains
Questions to answer:
What professional teams do you recognize in the exhibit?
What cities had spring training? List the local teams in the exhibit.
Who was John Henry “Pop” Lloyd? Which Florida governor is pictured wearing a New York Yankees uniform? What was the occasion?
When did women play professional baseball? Why? Where in Florida are the fields in the exhibit located? 24
Symbols State Reptile Alligators symbolize Florida’s vast untamed wilderness and swamps. They are found throughout Florida and prefer lakes, swamps, canals, and other wetlands. State Bird The Mockingbird is a year-round Florida resident and often sings all night long, especially under bright springtime moonlight. State Butterfly The Zebra Longwing butterfly is found throughout Florida, although it is more common in south Florida, particularly in the Everglades National Park. State Animal The Florida Panther is a large, long-tailed, pale brown cat that grows to six feet or longer. They are the most endangered of all the Florida symbols and reside mostly in south Florida. State Marine Mammal The Manatee, also called a sea cow, is a gray, waterplant-eating, gentle giant that reaches eight to fourteen feet in length and can weigh more than a ton. State Wildflower The Coreopsis is a colorful flower used in Florida’s roadside plantings and highway beautification programs. It is found in a variety of colors ranging from gold to pink. State Tree The Sabal Palm is the most common palm in Florida. It grows in almost any soil and has many uses, including food, medicine, and landscaping. State Shell The Horse Conch also is known as the giant band shell. It is native to marine waters around Florida and can grow to a length of twenty-four inches.
To learn about all of Florida’s symbols: www.flheritage.com/kids/symbols.cfm
To Have and Have Not, painting by Christopher Still
The Great Depression in Florida T
he land boom ended suddenly in 1926 when money and public trust ran out. The economy was damaged further by two serious hurricanes and a fruit fly invasion in citrus groves. Floridians already knew about hardship when the Great Depression descended on the nation in 1929.
From 1920 to the mid-1940s, Florida’s government took steps to represent its citizens more fairly. Women gained the right to vote. A tax that had prevented poor people from voting was repealed. Changes in other election rules gave African Americans a greater opportunity to vote.
Which Florida industries are represented in this painting? Go to www.christopherstill.com/mural_to_ have_and_have_not.htm to learn about Florida’s growth.
Crossword Puzzle Across
1. The sea level was much lower 12,000 years ago, so the Florida 2. Spanish explorer
was twice the size that it is now.
landed on Florida’s east coast in 1513, and he called the area La Florida.
3. During the Civil War, Northern ships tried to
supplies from coming and going.
allowed Florida products, especially citrus, to be sent to northern markets.
ended suddenly in 1926 when money and public trust ran out.
5. During the
-American War in 1898, Florida was the base of U.S. efforts to help Cubans win freedom from Spanish rule.
7. Because of its mild weather and landscape, the state became a major Down
8. In 1763, Britain took control of Florida and divided the land into
site for men and women in the military.
and West Florida.
9. The territory’s economy was based on agriculture, and enslaved blacks worked on numerous cotton and small farms.
10. Indians from the Carolinas and Georgia, ancestors of today’s 11.
and Miccosukee Indians, moved to Florida.
was a Seminole war leader who refused to leave his home in Florida.
12. General Andrew
set up a new territorial government in 1821.
13. In 1860, Florida and other southern states left the United States because of
14. After the Civil War, the U.S. government set up a policy called 15.
in the South.
carried people, mail, and supplies along Florida rivers and to distant places.
Across 1. PENINSULA; 2. JUAN PONCE DE LEÓN; 3. BLOCK; 4. RAILROADS; 5. SPANISH; 6. LAND BOOM; 7. TRAINING; Down 8. EAST; 9. PLANTATIONS; 10. SEMINOLE; 11. OSCEOLA; 12. JACKSON; 13. SLAVERY; 14. RECONSTRUCTION; 15. STEAMBOATS
A New Age, painting by Christopher Still
World War II and the Post-War “Boom” W
orld War II helped to renew Florida’s economy. Because of its landscape and mild climate, the state became a major training site for men and women in the military. Airports and roads were constructed. This prepared the state for a large increase in population after the war. Newcomers from other states and countries helped to create a diverse population. Beginning in the 1950s, changes in laws and public education sought to protect peoples’ rights and prevent discrimination. Florida’s economy became more diverse after WWII. Growth in tourism, agriculture, and other industries created jobs and opportunities, causing businesses and corporations to move to the state. The space industry brought people, technology, research, and media attention. Over time, legislation, education, transportation, health care, and the economy have kept pace with the needs of a dynamic and diverse population. Today, Florida’s citizens share a rich and varied heritage that is seen in every part of daily life.
Why is Florida known as the Sunshine State? Find the Florida symbols and go to www.christopherstill.com/mural_a_new_age.htm to learn about them.
Web Quest Web Quest
How did Florida support World War II?
During World War II, many items used every day were rationed so that there were enough supplies for the war. Posters were distributed around the country to encourage people to buy war bonds and conserve food, clothing, and gasoline. These posters also persuaded women to join the military as nurses or to work in factories.
Your task for this Web Quest is to study posters from World War II to find out how the U.S. motivated citizens to support the war.
Directions: Go to www.floridamemory.com. Search these terms: “Woman Worker Poster,” “savings bond stamps,” “defense bonds stamps,” and “defense posters.” Go to www.floridamemory.com/exhibits/ floridahighlights/wwiiposters.
Sketch your own poster to promote something you need or an issue that is important to you (i.e., recycling, eating more oranges, riding your bike).
What did the U.S. need people to do? How slow were cars supposed to drive? Why was this important? What role did women have during this time?
Math Game Using the numbers in the grid, solve the formulas to discover important dates in Florida’s history. When you see a plus (+) sign, add the numbers together. When you see a minus (-) sign, subtract the second number from the first one. Example: Florida became the 27th state in:
Questions 1. Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León landed on Florida’s east coast in: A1 B2-A1 C1-B1 A1+B1 2. Britain took control of Florida in: D2-C2 A3-B1 B2
3. Andrew Jackson made Florida a U.S. Territory in: B2-A2 A2+C1 D2-B2 A1 4. The Civil War lasted from April 1861 to April: A1 B3-B1 D12-B2 B1+C1
1 2 3
A 1 5 9
2 6 19
3 7 11
4 8 12
5. Florida was the base of U.S. efforts to help Cubans win freedom from Spanish rule during the Spanish-American War in: C1-B1 D2 B2+C1 A3-A1 6. Florida’s economy had already been damaged by two hurricanes and a fruit fly invasion by the time the Great Depression descended on the nation in: A2-D2 D3-B2 B3-D2 A3 Bonus: World War II helped to renew Florida’s economy in: D3-C3 C2+B1 A3-A2 A3-D2
High Points in Florida History 12,000 B.C. People first moved into Florida at the end of the last Ice Age.
1783 Spain resumed control of Florida.
1864 Confederates defeated Union forces at Olustee.
1940 The Banana River Naval Air Station opened; later, it became Cape Canaveral Space Center.
People established the first permanent settlements, primarily on the coast.
The Woodland culture emerged.
1200 The powerful Mississippian culture emerged.
1823 Tallahassee was established as the Florida capital.
1500 The Timucua, Calusa, and Apalachee were important Native American groups in Florida.
1835 The Second Seminole War began and continued until 1842.
Andrew Jackson invaded Florida, beginning the First Seminole War.
Through the Adams-Onís Treaty, Florida became a U.S. territory, with Andrew Jackson as the first governor.
Victory at the Battle of Natural Bridge made Tallahassee the only Confederate capital east of the Mississippi River to avoid capture.
Floridians adopted a new federally mandated state constitution. A second state seal was adopted.
The U.S. entered the Second World War. Florida training bases opened all over the state.
The Wainwright shipyard in Panama City built more than 100 Liberty Ships for the U.S. war effort.
World War II ended.
On May 5, Alan Shepard, the first American astronaut, was launched into space from Cape Canaveral Space Center (later called Cape Kennedy).
1885 A new state constitution was adopted, replacing the 1868 version.
1888 Railroad baron Henry Flagler completed the Ponce de Leon Hotel in St. Augustine.
Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León landed on the east coast and named it La Florida.
Under the command of Jean Ribault, French Huguenots explored Florida.
Led by Rene de Laudonnière, French settlers established Fort Caroline.
Spaniards established St. Augustine, the first permanent European settlement in North America.
After the Seven Years’ War, England acquires Florida and divides it into East and West Florida.
On March 3, Florida was approved for statehood.
The first state seal was adopted.
Political and cultural tensions were on the rise because of the national slavery debate.
The SpanishAmerican War saw embarkation camps at Tampa, Miami, and Jacksonville.
A land boom began in Florida.
A severe hurricane struck Florida, thrusting it into an economic depression.
The Third Seminole War was fought.
1928 Another hurricane struck south Florida, effectively ending the land boom.
Union forces occupied Fernandina, Jacksonville, and St. Augustine.
1929 A Mediterranean fruit fly infestation resulted in the massive loss of citrus crops.
Walt Disney World opened in Orlando.
A new state seal was created to correct inaccuracies dating to 1868.
Florida becomes the focus of world attention in the presidential election between George W. Bush and Al Gore.
Four hurricanes— Charley, Fran, Ivan, and Jeanne—hit Florida in a six-week period, impacting most counties.
Florida commemorates the 500th anniversary of the first known arrival of Europeans on its soil.
Source: Florida Memory (www.floridamemory.com/exhibits/timeline) and Museum staff.
A Note for Educators A selection of Next Generation Sunshine State Standards benchmarks for fourth- and fifth-grade social studies and art are presented below. The content of this booklet can be aligned with benchmarks in other subjects, and activities can be adapted easily for younger and older youths.
Social Studies SS.4.A.1.1 SS.4.A.3.1 SS.4.A.3.2 SS.4.A.3.3 SS.4.A.3.7 SS.4.A.3.8 SS.4.A.4.2 SS.4.A.5.1 SS.4.A.7.1 SS.4.A.7.3 SS.5.A.1.1 SS.5.A.1.2 SS.5.A.5.1 SS.5.A.5.2
Analyze primary and secondary resources to identify significant individuals and events throughout Florida history. Identify explorers who came to Florida and the motivations for their expeditions. Describe causes and effects of European colonization on the Native American tribes of Florida. Identify the significance of St. Augustine as the oldest permanent European settlement in the United States. Identify nations (Spain, France, England) that controlled Florida before it became a United States territory. Explain how the Seminole tribe formed and the purpose for their migration. Describe pioneer life in Florida. Describe Florida’s involvement . . . in the Civil War. Describe the causes and effects of the 1920s Florida land boom and bust. Identify Florida’s role in World War II. Use primary and secondary sources to understand history. Utilize timelines to identify and discuss American history time periods. Identify and explain significant events leading up to the American Revolution. Identify significant individuals and groups who played a role in the American Revolution.
Visual Arts VA.4.H.1.1: VA.4.H.1.3: VA.5.H.1.1: VA.5.C.1.2:
Identify historical and cultural influences that have inspired artists to produce works of art. Describe artworks that honor and are reflective of particular individuals, groups, events, and/or cultures. Examine historical and cultural influences that inspire artists and their work. Use prior knowledge and observation skills to reflect on, analyze, and interpret exemplary works of art.
For additional educational resources: www.museumoffloridahistory.com For information about Viva Florida 500: www.VivaFlorida.org