Financial Risk Management Instruments Usage in Large and Medium

Financial Risk Management Instruments Usage in Large and Medium

International Statistical Institute, 55th Session 2005 Financial Risk Management Instruments Usage in Large and Medium-Sized Enterprises – Business S...

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International Statistical Institute, 55th Session 2005

Financial Risk Management Instruments Usage in Large and Medium-Sized Enterprises – Business Survey in a Transition Country Ksenija Dumičić University of Zagreb, Graduate School of Economics and Business, Department of Statistics Kennedyjev trg 6, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia, [email protected], Mirna Dumičić Croatian National Bank, Central Banking Operations Area Trg hrvatskih velikana 3, HR-10002 Zagreb, Croatia, [email protected] Roko Cukrov Croatian Post Bank, Risk Management Department, Jurišićeva 2, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia, [email protected]

1. Introduction Financial risk is uncertainty connected with the price of financial contracts that perform the affirmation of real goods and services (shares, bonds, and currency itself), and this risk could be dispersed, but can not be eliminated. After recognizing the type of risk, financial managers may use hedging, insurance or a kind of diversification strategy, prescribed instruments or financial limits. Protection against financial risks is extremely important for conducting a business in a global economy. Enterprises in transition countries are particularly exposed to this problem, because they do not have enough experiences with fighting against financial risks (about financial risk protection instruments see, e.g., Brealey, Myers, 2003; Jorion, 2001, or Peterlin, 2004). In this paper, as an example of a transition country, a business survey conducted in Croatia in 2004 is described. It was a pilot survey, the first of that kind ever conducted in Croatia. The aim of the paper is to investigate the usage and non-usage of selected types of financial risk protection instruments by large and medium-sized enterprises, and to find out if the usage of these financial protection means would get a positive impact to enterprises’ business success. In the analysis, adequate statistical descriptive techniques and inferential procedures, such as estimation and adequate tests of hypothesis, using statistical package SPSS 9.0, were applied.

2. The sample survey research methodology Survey research based on telephone interviews with financial (or accounting) managers from a random sample of 100 Croatian companies in autumn 2004 was carried out. Equal allocation with 50 large (with more than 250 employees) and 50 medium-sized (with 51-250 employees) enterprises from each of respective strata was applied. Considering activity, sample structure was as follows: 46% from manufacturing; 15% construction; 11% retail trade; 7% hotels and restaurants; 7% transport, storage and communications; 7% real estate, renting and business activities; 4% wholesale trade; 1% agriculture, hunting and forestry; 1% of companies from electricity, gas and water supply; and 1% from other activities. Used sampling frame was a Croatian Financial Agency (FINA) list of Croatian companies from 2002. For the purpose of this survey the sampling methodology was carefully applied considering all non perfect practical situations, compare to Dumičić (1991), having in mind survey period and

International Statistical Institute, 55th Session 2005

survey costs, following valuable literature resources like Groves (1989), and Cox et al. (1995). Estimation formulas took into account the procedure of random sampling of units, so, margin of errors could be given, as well. Considering normal approximation for the sampling distribution for the proportion estimator, in each strata with n=50, with 95% confidence level and confidence coefficient z = 1.96, the research result is within margin of error of maximum ∓ 14.2%. 3. Usage of financial risk management instruments The majority of 59% of enterprises in the sample do not use financial risk management instruments. From the further analysis the dependence of “financial risks protection instrument usage” and “company size” was not appeared to be statistically significant, because in testing the hypothesis of independence of categories “use” and “don’t use” with categories “medium-sized companies” and “large companies”, the test value of χ 2 did not give enough evidence for rejection of the nullhypothesis. Figure 1 shows which risk protection instruments are “known” to financial managers from 41% of companies that are “users”, and which of them are actually “used”. Comparison of instrument usage by types of financial risks is shown. It is evident from the highest bars for liquidity risk that most of users are concentrated on protection against this kind of risk. Currency risks, as well as interest rate risks, are not considered as to be so dangerous for Croatian managers. Figure 1. Comparison of no. of managers/ firms that know and that use protection instruments by types of financial risks 40 Know n



30 25 20 15 10

Liquidity risk

Currency risk

Caps, floors, and collars

Interest rate option

Interest rate swap

Interest rates futures

Forward rate agreements

Currency options

Currency swap

Currency futures

Currency forward

Assets and liabilities management

Selling prices policy

Leading and lagging


Credit capability analysis

Analysis of assets, liabilities and sources

Cash flow investments analysis


Interest rate management at the money market


Interest rate risk

It could be noticed that the frequencies for instruments “used” are in many cases smaller than for “known” category. This difference is the most evident for liquidity risk protection approach called “credit capability analysis”.

International Statistical Institute, 55th Session 2005

More detailed frequencies for using different types of financial risks protection instruments by company size are given in Table 1. Large companies seem to be more conscious about all kinds of financial risks and protection instruments. From 41 protection instruments users in the sample the majority of 56% of them are from large companies and 44% from medium-sized ones. Bigger firms covered by the sample are better informed and they use risk protection approach more often than those medium-sized. The difference between proportions of users out of those who know for a particular risk protection instrument shows a great variability from instrument to instrument. Considering liquidity risk protection approach “credit capability analysis” as an extreme example, only 48% of those large firms who know, actually use this method (11 out of 23). From medium-sized firms who are acquainted with this protection approach, 60% use it in the same time (9 out of 15). Table 1. Usage of protection instruments by types of financial risks and by enterprises size (More than one answer was possible) No. of enterprises Instrument

Against liquidity risk Cash flow investments analysis Analysis of assets, liabilities and sources Credit capability analysis Against currency risk Netting Leading and lagging Selling prices policy Assets and liabilities management Currency forward Currency futures Currency swap Currency options Against interest rate risk Interest rate management at the money market Forward rate agreements Interest rates futures Interest rate swap Interest rate option Caps, floors, and collars

Known MediumLarge sized enterprises enterprises

Mediumsized enterprises

Used Large enterprises

14 13 15

20 17 23

12 12 9

17 17 11

3 3 3 1 6 7 4 3

6 8 11 9 6 8 5 5

2 2 2 1 5 6 3 2

3 8 10 9 6 8 5 4

1 2 2 2 1

4 3 4 3 2 2

1 1 1 1

4 3 4 2 2 2

According to research results an estimated average yearly revenue for enterprises that are using financial risks protection instruments is higher (more than 35,000,000 €) than for non-users of these instruments (approximately 17,000,000 €). Applied t-test for the means difference has shown that this difference is statistically significant at α = 0.05 . In the firms that apply risk protection the revenue is growing more dynamically than in the rest of firms. The χ 2 -test of independence of two categories shows that the growing of revenue is

International Statistical Institute, 55th Session 2005

dependant on usage or non-usage of financial risk protection and this dependence is shown to be highly significant at. α = 0.01 .

4. Conclusion From this survey research came out the conclusion that companies in Croatian transition economy are not enough aware of possibilities to protect themselves from financial risks. It is shown that less than a half of medium-sized and large Croatian enterprises (41%) included in the sample do use instruments to protect themselves from financial risks. Even users of these means are not sufficiently acquainted with particular instruments and those who are, do not actually use them. It was shown that enterprises that use financial risk protection methods have got, firstly, larger total yearly revenue, and, secondly, this revenue has got a tendency to grow. These two mentioned business success variables are statistically significantly dependant on usage (non-usage) of financial risks protection instruments. After the research, it should be recommended to banks, insurance companies and financial consultants to develop the corporate advisory service in the direction of better informing their corporate clients, actual and potential, about financial risks protection means and give them advice what is appropriate to use, why, when and how. This activity should be a kind of banks’ and consultants’ marketing activity, and help not only corporate clients in their financial management, but also help them to create better position on financial market. In the future it would be interesting to investigate small enterprises’ attitudes towards financial risk management concerning risk protection, and not only for medium-sized and large companies, as well, and this is the next task for the authors of the paper. A larger sample size should be recommended, as well. REFERENCES Brealey, R.A., Myers, S.C. (2003). Principles of Corporate Finance. McGraw-Hill, Irwin, Boston. Cox, B.G., Binder, D.A., Chinappa, B.N., Colledge, M.J., Kott, P. (1995). Business Survey Methods. John Wiley & Sons, New York. Dumičić, K. (1991). Značaj ispravnog korištenja teorije i metode uzoraka u praktičnom istraživanju. Ekonomski analitičar br. 5/1991, 17-25. Groves, R.M. (1989). Survey Errors and Survey Costs. John Wiley & Sons, New York. Jorion, Ph. (2001). Value, risk and control: a dynamic process in need of integration. In Financial Times Mastering Risk. Volume 1: Concepts. (Edt.: Pickford, J.). FT, Prentice Hall, Pearson, Edinburgh, pp. 119124. Peterlin, J. (2004). Instrumenti za upravljanje financijskim rizicima, I. dio. Računovodstvo, revizija i financije, RRIF, 2/2004., 215-221. RÉSUMÉ Les risques financiers sont importants pour l’existence et pour la croissance des entreprises. Dans les économies de transition les entreprises ne sont pas suffisamment conscientes des dangers que les risques financiers portent. Une recherche à la base d’une enquête a montré que moins de la moitié d’ entreprises moyennes et grandes utilise les moyens de protection contre les risques financiers. Les entreprises ne connaissent pas suffisamment ces instruments. Il s’est manifesté que les entreprises qui utilisent les moyens de protection contre les risques financiers ont le chiffre d’affaires plus grand et il montre aussi une tendance de croissance.