This unit is designed for fourth grade students but can be adapted to other grade levels. It is designed to be used with the Central Florida Memory Website http://www.cfmemory.org/. The five lessons integrate language arts, social studies, science, and visual arts. Each lesson has four days of activities, so the entire unit will take twenty days, but individual lessons can be used. The student journal enhances the lessons.
Unit outline Lesson 1 – Florida’s Location and Shape Lesson 2 – Outdoors in Florida Lesson 3 – Trains, Sails, and Trails Lesson 4 – Life on the Frontier Lesson 5 – Uniting the Slaters and Boyers
Strawberry Girl by Lois Lenski Florida is one of the most interesting and amazing of the 50 United States. The Sunshine State has been the home of many men and women who have played a part in the 400 years of Florida’s history. This children’s literature unit, Strawberry Girl is set in the beginning of the 20th century. It is hoped that students who read and study about this time period will be able to understand why so many people came to Florida’s frontier. Lois Lenski presents a segment of American life in an authentic way in her book. With the help of Central Florida Memory website, Strawberry Girl, and other non-fiction books on Florida, students will be able to discover the way these people lived and to understand the frontier people.
Lesson 1 Florida’s Location and Shape SS.A.6.2.2. SS.A.1.2.2 SS.A.1.2.3
Students will understand the influence of geography on the history of Florida Students will use a variety of methods and sources to understand history Students will understand broad categories of time in years, decades, and centuries
Objectives: • Students will locate the following places on a Florida map: Polk County, Marion County, Galloway, Kissimmee, and Tallahassee • Students will describe the scrub and the vegetation in Central Florida • Students will determine the time period Strawberry Girl is set in by gathering information from the clues given in the story. • Students will compare and contrast the Slater family and the Boyer family using a Venn diagram. • Students will explore the nature of language Materials: • Central Florida Memory website: http://www.cfmemory.org/ • Strawberry Girl by Lois Lenski - Prologue & Chapter 1 • A county map of the State of Florida • The Strawberry Girl Journal • Vegetation list • Pamphlets on Florida’s vegetation • Computers with Internet access • Resource Materials - dictionary, encyclopedias, and books on Florida • Venn diagram • Florida map • Orlando Sentinel article, “Life is tough, but at least pioneers had land to live off.” • Blank calendar pages • Websites to help with vegetation: o http://www.floridaplants.com/youngn.htm Florida Plants Online: Guide to Florida Plant Life o http://www.sfrc.ufl.edu/Extension/ffws/tof.htm Florida Forestry Information o http://www.floridata.com/tracks/scrub/PlantGal/quer_spp.htm Plants of the Florida Scrub Time: Four 50 minute classes Procedure: Day 1 Setting: computer lab or classroom with Internet accessible computers 1. Introduce the Strawberry Girl unit 2. Pass out the Strawberry Girl Journal
3. Instruct students to find the Central Florida Memory website (http://www.cfmemory.org/) and allot time to explore the site using the Scavenger Hunt. a. Click on Teachers, and then click on Take a Scavenger Hunt under Activities. Day 2 Setting: classroom 4. Class will be divided into five communities. 5. Read together the Prologue and Chapter 1 of Strawberry Girl. Discuss the meaning of the term “Florida Cracker.” Read the introduction to the journal and the Orlando Sentinel article, “Life was tough, but at least pioneers had land to live off.” 6. Instruct students to determine in what year the story takes place from the author’s words. (Around 1890 - 1900) 7. Who appears to be the main character in the story? (Essie) What is Essie concerned about and is it an important concern? (Land and who it belongs to and what is going to happen to her family) 8. Using a Venn diagram, compare and contrast the Boyer and Slater families. 9. Complete Journal entry #1. Day 3 Setting: computer lab or classroom with Internet accessible computers 10. Each community will be given a list of vegetation that has been mentioned in the story. They will sketch what each plant looks like in pencil or colored pencils. 11. Instruct the students to go to the Central Florida Memory site (http://www.cfmemory.org/) to find any of the vegetation on their list. a. Click on Florida Stories, under Critters, Crackers, and Cottages click on Nature. 12. Students will add to their sketches of Florida vegetation. Day 4 Setting: classroom 13. Students will compare and contrast their sketches and create a Florida Vegetation Calendar for the following year using the artwork collected. The vegetation sketch will be placed at the blank space on the left of each month. Evaluation: 1. Students will complete journal entry #1 2. Each group will use their sketches to complete a 12 month Florida calendar. 3. Students will demonstrate their ability to navigate around the Central Florida Memory website.
Lesson 2 Outdoors in Florida SS.A.6.2.3
Students will understand the perspectives of diverse cultural, ethnic, and economic groups with regard to past and current events in Florida History Students will understand broad categories of time in years, decades, and centuries
Objectives: • Students will identify some of the animals of Florida in the time of 1890-1900. • Students will compare and contrast animals of Florida in the time period of 18901900 to the present day using Venn diagram. • Students will describe crops grown in Polk County. • Students will describe in writing and orally the important relationships between the Slater family and the Boyer family. • Students will make judgments about fencing animals vs. free range. • Students will analyze the importance of saving Florida’s natural resources. • Students will compare and contrast a classroom in the 20th century to one in the 21st century. • Students will research stories on the Central Florida Memory website that relate to animals. • Students will write to communicate ideas and information in an effective way. • Students will explain the life cycle of a strawberry using the website: http://www.ramseysfarm.com/Strawberry/spring_strawberrylifecycle.htm Materials: • Central Florida Memory website: http://www.cfmemory.org/ • Strawberry Girl by Lois Lenski - Chapters 2-3 • The Strawberry Girl Journal • Computers with Internet access • Resource materials: dictionary, encyclopedias, and books on Florida • Letter writing paper • Life cycle of a strawberry • Florida Map Time: Four 50 minute classes Procedure: Day 1&2 Setting: computer lab or classroom with Internet accessible computers 1. Read together Chapters 2-3 of Strawberry Girl and instruct the students to create a list of all the animals mentioned in the chapters. Be sure to locate Galloway on the map. 2. Instruct the students to go to the Central Florida Memory site to find a picture of an alligator. Click on “performing a search.” Type in “alligator.”
Share animal lists.
Day 3 - Chapters 2 & 3 Setting: classroom 4. Discussion on fencing or free range of animals a. Slater vs. Boyer b. crops vs. hunting (crops are listed on page 16 and animals on page 22) c. Show the diagram of the life cycle of a strawberry 5. Discussion on the pages describing Mr. Pearce’s classroom where the Slater and Boyer children attend. (Page 32) a. Compare a classroom of the 20th century vs. 21st century Day 4 Setting: Classroom 6. Pass out writing paper 7. Instruct students to write a letter to a friend in Marion County and describe their new home in Polk County using the facts and information discussed in the previous chapters. Evaluation: 1. Students will complete journal entry #2 and #3 2. Students will write a letter to a friend describing their new home in Polk County using facts and information found in the historical novel and on the Central Florida Memory website.
Lesson 3 Trains, Sails, and Trails SS.A.1.2.2 SS.A.6.2.1 SS.A.6.2.2 SS.A.6.3.3
Students use a variety of methods and sources to understand history Students will understand the reasons that immigrants came to Florida and the contributions of immigrants to the state’s history Students will understand the influence of geography on the history of Florida Students will know the significant individuals, events, and social, political and economic characteristics of different time periods in Florida’s history Students will understand that after the Civil War, massive immigration, big business, and mechanized farming transformed American life Students will use maps, globes, graphs, and other geographic tools including map keys and symbols to gather and interpret data and to draw conclusions about physical patterns
Objectives: • Students will be able to describe Florida’s economy changes in the late 1800's • Students will define transportation as the moving of people and goods from place to place • Students will contrast steamboats and railroads • Students will explain the effects of railroads on the Florida’s growth in the late 1800's • Students will identify Henry Flagler, Henry Plant, and William D. Chipley and their role in creating economic changes in Florida • Students will read and compare the map of the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad and the Florida East Coast Railway System and the Southern Railroad • Students will create a map with a title, map scale, map key, main cities, natural features, principal rivers, major railroad system, and compass rose in order to create questions for peers about their own railroad system. • Students will create a menu for the dining car of one of the main railway systems Materials: • Central Florida Memory website: http://www.cfmemory.org/ • Strawberry Girl by Lois Lenski Chapters 4-5 • Strawberry Girl Journal • Lap top computers • Resource Materials: dictionary, encyclopedia, and books on Florida • Tellable Cracker Tales by Annette J. Bruce • Florida map • Florida map – blank • Florida History by Hal Bamford Time: Four 50 minute classes
Procedures: Setting: classroom Day 1 & 2 1.
Read together chapters 4-5 of Strawberry Girl. Instruct students to listen and take notes on facts about transportation, roads, clothing, and life on a Saturday in a town. Discuss Journal entries #4 & #5. Read pages 21-22 of Tellable Cracker Tales, “Sech As It Is.” This will take about 8 minutes. Explain to the students before reading that “sowins” is a dish made of water added to cracked corn and allowed to sour in the sun. “Gopher” is a land tortoise. Questions for discussion: a. What do you think Shoestring and Cracker Jack have in common? How are they alike? b. What do you think is the moral of this tale? (The grass isn’t always greener on the other side.)
Day 3 Setting: computer lab or classroom with Internet accessible computers 1. Today’s lesson will be about transportation in Florida at the turn of the 21st century. Locate Tampa and Jacksonville on a map. 2. Ask students how they think people traveled from one place to another in Florida during the early 1900s. 3. People traveled mostly by stagecoach, foot, mule, horse drawn carts, or on horseback. Steamships transported people and goods from place to place. Steamships moved about 5 miles per hour. a. How far could you travel in two hours? (10 miles) b. How long would it take to travel 50 miles? (10 hours) c. If you traveled for one full day and evening about how far could you go? (120 miles) The ships had to travel around the peninsula and the trip was often dangerous. Ships became wrecked on coral reefs or were damaged by a sudden storm. Soon Floridians began to look for new ways to travel across the state. Summary: After the Civil War, Florida began a period of growth that far exceeded anything that the state had ever experienced. Railroad development helped the newcomers reach the cheap unsettled land of Florida. New businesses boomed as crops were able to be transported to other areas of the United States. William D. Chipley built a railway that crossed the Panhandle of Florida from Pensacola east to Tallahassee. Farm goods, people, and lumber moved quickly to ports and across the panhandle. Two of the most powerful men in Florida’s history were Henry Bradley Plant and Henry Morrison Flagler. They bought up most of the independent railways and created two large rail lines along with hotels. Henry Plant created the Seaboard Coast Line and Henry Flagler created the Florida East Coast Railway. Both of these men were responsible for promoting Florida as a winter tourist attraction. 4.
Ask students the following questions contrasting steamboats and railroads:
Which mode of transportation moved goods and people up and down the Florida rivers? (steamboats) b. Which mode of transportation moved goods and people over land? (railroads) c. Was it cheaper to travel by steamboat or railroad? (steamboat) d. Which mode of transportation provided a quicker way to get goods from coast to coast in Florida? (railroads) Instruct students to go to Central Florida Memory website and trace the two main rail lines in Florida by clicking on Performing a Search. Type in “Florida East Coast Railway Map” (be sure to click on all the pages) and “Southern Railway System” (remember that Plant bought this system). How are these rail systems alike and different? a. Which line do you think was most helpful to Florida’s tourism? Why? b. Which line do you think was most helpful to Florida’s industry? Why? c. Are there other areas of Florida where Plant or Flagler should have created rail lines? Where? Why? Distribute blank Florida maps to each community (group of 4 to 5 students) and instruct students to create their own Railway System using the following criteria: a. a title b. a map scale c. a map key d. main Florida cities e. natural features f. principle rivers g. compass rose h. created railway system i. 5 questions related to the map for peers to answer
Day 4 Setting: classroom 7. Instruct students to create a menu with graphics that would have been suitable to serve on the Southern Railway System or the Florida East Coast Railway. Students must be able to explain all choices on the menu. Please consider: a. Is there refrigeration? b. Who are the passengers? c. How long will the trip take? d. What month is the trip? e. What crops are being grown and shipped in Florida?
Evaluation: 1. Completed journal entries 2. Completed railway map 3. Completed menu
Lesson 4 Life on the Frontier SS.A.2.2.3 SS.A.6.2.2 SS.B.1.2.1
Students understand various aspects of family life, structures, and roles in different cultures and in many eras Students understand the influence of geography on the history of Florida Students will use maps, globes, graphs, and other geographic tools including map keys and symbols to gather and interpret data and to draw conclusions about physical patterns Students will explain how regions are constructed according to physical criteria and human criteria
Objectives: • Students will define a sink-hole as a bowl-shaped hole in the surface of the land formed when water dissolves part of the limestone layer and explain how it is formed • Students will compare how the perception of sink-holes have changed over the course of time • Students will define a hurricane as a huge storm with heavy rains and high winds with speeds of 74 miles an hour or more and explain how it is formed • Students will identify Jacob Summerlin and his role in creating economic changes in Florida • Students will create a poem about a sinkhole or a hurricane Materials: • Central Florida Memory website: http://www.cfmemory.org/ • Strawberry Girl by Lois Lenski – Chapters 6-7 • Orlando Sentinel article, “Summerlin photo helps inspire historians.” • Strawberry Girl Journal • Lap top computers • Resource Materials: dictionary, encyclopedia, and books on Florida • Tellable Cracker Tales by Annette J. Bruce • Florida map • Florida History by Hal Bamford • The Florida Aquifer transparency • Sinkhole poem by Kerry Gibbons • Sinkhole website: http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/geologictopics/sinkhole.htm http://www.visitgainesville.net/photogallery/millhopper.htm • Hurricane website: http://observe.arc.nasa.gov/nasa/earth/hurricane/creation.html Time: Four fifty minute classes Procedures: Day 1
Setting: computer lab or classroom with Internet accessible computers 1. Read together the Chapters 6-7 of Strawberry Girl. 2. Discuss the Journal questions and complete. 3. Read the Orlando Sentinel article, “Summerlin photo helps inspire historians,” to class. a. Point out the number of people living in Orlando at the time of this historical novel. (80) b. How would life be different if we had only 80 people living in Orlando? c. What did Summerlin do that we can still see today? (Saved land for Lake Eola, major Florida highways named after Summerlin, and made sure that the county seat was located in Orlando) d. Point out that “Orlando, the City Beautiful,” was due to Jacob Summerlin. 4. Read pp. 64-67 of Tellable Cracker Tales, “How Orlando Got Its Name and Kept Its Courthouse.” This will take about 18 minutes. Be sure to explain that Seminole County was formed in 1913 and Sanford was chosen as the county seat. 5. Go to website: Central Florida Memory and click on a. Performing a search. 1) Type in postcards. Be sure to browse all four pages of postcards to find pictures of points of interest in Orlando like: a) A.C.L. Railway Station, Orlando, Fla.. "The City Beautiful." b) Concord & Ivanhoe Lakes, Orlando, Fla. c) Fountain at Eola Park, Orlando Florida, "The City Beautiful." d) Lake Eola, Orlando, Fla. e) Lake Lucerne Circle postcard. f) Orange grove and pineries, Orlando, Fla. Day 2 Setting: computer lab or classroom with Internet accessible computers 1. 6. Today’s lesson is going to be on sinkholes. Summary: Sinkholes are a common feature of Florida’s landscape. They are one of many kinds of karst landforms, which include caves, disappearing streams, springs, and underground drainage systems. All of which occur in Florida. (Karst refers to the characteristic terrain produced by erosion associated with chemical weathering and the dissolution of limestone or dolomite, the two most common carbonate rocks found in Florida.) Dissolution of carbonate rocks begins when they are exposed to acidic water. Most rainwater is slightly acidic and usually becomes more acidic as it moves through decaying plant debris. There are 400 new sinkholes reported in Florida each year. Place The Florida Aquifer transparency on the overhead. Limestone in Florida is porous, allowing the acidic water to percolate through the strata, dissolving some limestone and carrying it away in solution. Over eons of time, this persistent erosion process has created underground voids and drainage systems in much of the carbonate rocks throughout the state. Too much groundwater can cause problems. As water flows from the soil to the limestone layer, it wears away parts of the rock. Water gathering in the empty areas can become underground streams and pools. If an empty area gets large enough, the ground can cave in. This leaves a bowl-shaped hole called a sinkhole.
Geologists estimate that Florida’s oldest sinkhole, called the Devil’s Millhopper, located in Gainesville, was formed nearly 20,000 years ago. It runs 120 feet deep and has sides covered by vegetation. Today, visitors may descend a 236 step staircase to the bottom of the hole. Go to website: http://www.visitgainesville.net/photogallery/millhopper.htm Click on all the graphics. Look at the vegetation. Day 3 7. Today’s lesson is going to be on hurricanes. Summary: Hurricanes are formed over tropical oceans where there are warm waters, humid air and converging winds. It takes a lot of energy for a hurricane to be created, not to mention just the right conditions. Hurricanes start out as a group of storms that begin to rotate when they encounter converging winds. These storms create violent seas, stirring up even more water into the air in the form of vapor. The water vapor rises very quickly, rotating with the storms, and helping to increase the wind speed. The storms begin to organize, holding themselves together and forming a central rotation point of low pressure. When this occurs, and sustained wind speeds reach 74 mph, the storms become a hurricane. 8. Click on website: A Fierce Force of Nature: Hurricanes http://observe.arc.nasa.gov/nasa/earth/hurricane/creation.html Click on map and watch a hurricane form. 9. Divide students into groups of 4 or 5, instruct them to prepare a weather report on a hurricane of the past using the Internet. Create posters to use in their presentations. Day 4 Setting: classroom 10. Explain to the students that today each group is going to create a poem about a hurricane or a sinkhole. After poems are completed, share with each other. 11. Share Kerry Gibbon’s poem “Sinkhole.” Kerry was a fifth grade student at Sweetwater Episcopal Academy in 2003-2004. A trench in the earth’s soul. Damp, mysterious, dark A very distinct landmark. A very dangerous place to be Could be part of an underground sea. Falling, crumbling, sighing The awful sound of crashing. Settling, dusty Very musty. A sinkhole
Evaluation: 1. Completed journal entries for chapters 6 & 7 2. Completed group hurricane weather report 3. Completed poem on hurricane or sinkhole
Lesson Five Uniting the Slaters and Boyers SS.A.2.2.3 SS.A.6.3.3
Students understand various aspects of family life, structures, and roles in different cultures and in many eras Students will know the significant individuals, events, and social, political and economic characteristics of different time periods in Florida’s history
Objectives: • Students will interpret literature to understand that there are differing points of view • Students will apply the steps in the decision making process to historic situations • Students will analyze causes and effect • Students will identify symbolism of a quote • Students will interpret information • Students will use artifacts and primary sources to acquire information about Cracker life in the 1890s • Students will interpret information in visuals Materials: • Strawberry Girl by Lois Lenski – Chapters 8-15. • Strawberry Girl Journal Time: Four fifty minute classes Procedures: Setting: Classroom Day 1 1. Read chapters 8 & 9 2. Complete journal entries for chapters 8 & 9 Day 2 3. Read chapters 10 & 11 4. Complete journal entries for chapters 10 & 11 Day 3 5. Read chapters 12 & 13 6. Complete journal entries for chapters 12 &13 Day 4 7. Read chapters 14 & 15 8. Complete journal entries for chapters 14 & 15 Evaluation: 1. Completed journal entries for chapters 8-15.
References Bamford, H. (1976). Florida History. St. Petersburg: Great Outdoors Publishing Co. Bruce, A.J. (1996). Tellable Cracker Tales. Sarasota: Pineapple Press. Brunson, R. (2005, July 24). Summerlin photo helps inspire historians. Orlando Sentinel, p. K4. Andrews, M. (January 24, 1999). Life was tough, but at least pioneers had land to live off. Orlando Sentinel, p. K2. Raynor, B., Raynor C. Old St. Augustine. A Taste of St. Augustine. Retrieved November 17, 2005, from http://www.tasteofstaugustine.com/ Ste. Claire, D. (1998). CRACKER: The Cracker Culture in Florida History. Daytona Beach: The Museum of Arts and Sciences. Sammons, S. W. (1993). Henry Flagler: Builder of Florida. Lake Buena Vista: Tailored Tours Publications, Inc. Turner, G. (2005). Fort Myers in Vintage Postcards. Charleston: Arcadia Publishing.
Additional Ideas •
Cracker Day o Contact Central Florida Historical Society. Arrange for their presentation on Cracker life. o Serve recipes from Raynor, B., Raynor C. Old St. Augustine. A Taste of St. Augustine. Retrieved November 17, 2005, from http://www.tasteofstaugustine.com/ o Students dress in Cracker attire (jeans, straw hats, bare-foot, plaid shirts). o Create centers Food tasting Tale telling of Bruce, A.J. (1996). Tellable Cracker Tales. Sarasota: Pineapple Press. PowerPoint viewing on Cracker life, The Cracker Culture in Florida Reading of books on Cracker life (see references) Artifacts investigation
Field Trip to Wekiwa Springs State Park (http://www.abfla.com/parks/WekiwaSprings/wekiwa.html) o Identify vegetation presented in Strawberry Girl.
Strawberry Girl Journal Entries Prologue and Chapter 1 Strawberry Girl is set deep in the heart of the Florida scrub. The author has given much attention to describing the vegetation. Your job is to decide in what year you think Strawberry Girl is set. Give examples that you find in the reading to support your answer. Also, share your sketches of the vegetation described in this reading section. Chapter 2 Describe the relationship between Birdie and Shoestring. What do you think Shoestring is going to do about the fence? Chapter 3 Describe Mr. Pearce’s classroom. What lesson do you think Birdie has learned? Chapter 4 What did Shoestring do to upset Birdie? Do you agree or disagree with Birdie’s change of heart about Shoestring? Why? Chapter 5 How do you feel about the Slater family? Explain your answer with examples from Chapter 5. Chapter 6 Explain all the things that went wrong for Birdie in Chapter 6 “The Storm.” Have you ever had a bad day? What happened? Chapter 7 What do you think Mr. Slater has in mind for the Boyer family? Chapter 8 Do you think the Slaters have a right to use the lake on the Boyer property for watering their cows? What did you think of Mrs. Boyer’s plan to live peacefully with her neighbors, the Slaters? Chapter 9
Do you think Birdie was brave to let the bunny out of the snake cage? Would you have let the bunny out? Why of why not? Chapter 10 Do you think Mr. Boyer handled Shoestring properly? Why do you think Mr. Boyer spanked him? Chapter 11 “There’s always a way to get ahead when you’ve got a mind to!” What did Mr. Boyer mean when he spoke these words? Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Chapter 12 How do you think Shoestring feels about the pine forest fire? Do you think Shoestring’s point of view is the same as his father’s on the fire? How do you think the fire began? Chapter 13 Explain the differences between a cattleman and a farmer during this early 1900 time period. Which would you rather spend your life as, a cattleman or farmer? Why? Chapter 14 Do you think Mr. Slater will begin to realize what the preacher meant when he prayed, “Teach us to love our neighbors as ourselves?” Explain. Chapter 15 What did you think of the final chapter of Strawberry Girl? Do you think the title of this book fits the story?