freedom writers

freedom writers

perpustakaan.uns.ac.id digilib.uns.ac.id AN ANALYSIS OF POWER RELATION BETWEEN A TEACHER AND HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS INTERACTION IN THE MOVIE ENTITLED ...

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AN ANALYSIS OF POWER RELATION BETWEEN A TEACHER AND HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS INTERACTION IN THE MOVIE ENTITLED “FREEDOM WRITERS” (BASED ON CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS)

THESIS Submitted as a Partial Fulfillment for Requirements For The Sarjana Sastra Degree in English Department Faculty of Letters and Fine Arts Sebelas Maret University

By:

Yunita Tyas Puspitasari C0308008

FACULTY OF LETTERS AND FINE ARTS SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY SURAKARTA commit to user 2014

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PRONOUNCEMENT

The researcher honestly declares that the thesis An Analysis of Power Relation between a Teacher and High School Students Interaction in the Movie Entitled “Freedom Writers” (Based on Critical Discourse Analysis) is not a plagiarism. The thesis is originally written by the researcher. All of the information which relates to other people’s works are written in quotation and stated in the bibliography. If the pronouncement is proven to be incorrect, the researcher will be ready to accept any academic consequence and penalty, including the cancellation of the thesis and academic degree obtained from completing the thesis and study.

Surakarta, April 2014

Yunita Tyas Puspitasari

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MOTTOS

“Every second you spend angry or upset is a second of happiness you can never get back.” - Ika Natassa

“For every dark night, there’s a brighter day.” - Tupac Shakur “A mistake is part of life, and not doing the same mistake is a lesson learned from life.” - Mickey Mouse

“What we should really fear is not failure, but the heart that is no longer brave enough to take risks and embrace challenges.” - G-dragon of Big Bang

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DEDICATION

I sincerely dedicate this thesis to…

My beloved Mom and Dad for the endless love and prayers My family for the never ending cares and support My superb friends ex-Trisula, Lovely BFF, Shining Stars, KBSeoul~o, Sahabat Sehat and ED’08 for all the best memories in life Everyone who has become a part of my life

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Alhamdulillahirrobil’alamin, praise and gratitude are to the Most Merciful and the Most Beneficent, Allah SWT, for blessing me in accomplishing this thesis entitled An Analysis of Power Relation between a Teacher and High School Students Interaction in the Movie Entitled “Fredom Writers”. I would like to express my deepest gratitude and appreciation to the people who have ever helped me in finishing this thesis. 1. Drs. Riyadi Santosa, M.Ed., Ph.D as the Dean of Faculty of Letters and Fine Arts for giving the approval for this thesis. 2. Drs. Agus Hari Wibowo, M.A., Ph.D as the Head of English Department for supporting the finishing of this thesis. 3. Dra. Diah Kristina, M.A., Ph.D as my thesis consultant for guiding me in accomplishing this thesis. Thank you for the patience and suggestion to assist me in finishing this thesis. 4. Dra. SK Habsari, M.Hum.,Ph.D as my academic supervisor for the assistance during my study. Thank you for the guidance and support during my study in Sebelas Maret University. 5. My Late academic supervisor, Alm. Drs. Gatot Sunarno, although it was just a short time we met, thank you for your kindness and support. 6. All the lecturers in English Department, who had taught me, thank you for giving guidance during mycommit study. to user vii

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7. The all time best motivators, my beloved mother and father, I know this thesis comes out late, but thank you so much for your never ending love, faith, and support. That is priceless! 8. My family, especially the super duper lovely brother and cousins: Rama, Zhafran, Fathan, Hanan, and The Wiryo Martonos Gank. Thank you for being so caring and supportive. 9. My precious friends: ex-Trisula, Lovely BFF, Shining Stars, Sahabat Sehat, and KBSeoul~o team. You, guys, are more like family to me. Thank you for always being there through my ups and downs. 10. All English Department 2008 students. 11. Everyone whom I met in my life. 12. My ideal type of a man, the Late Paul Walker, thank you for being such an inspiration. 13. The last but not least, Super Junior, Big Bang, 2PM, Running Man, and YG Family. Thank you for being the best mood-booster ever.

I realize that this research is not perfect. Therefore, I accept some advice and criticism in order to make it better. Finally, I wish this research paper would be useful for all readers.

Surakarta, April 2014

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The Researcher

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE ………………………………………………………...........................

i

APPROVAL OF THE CONSULTANT ……………………………………..

ii

APPROVAL OF THE BOARD OF EXAMINERS ………………………… iii PRONOUNCEMENT ……………………………………………………….. iv MOTTO ………………………………………………………………………

v

DEDICATION ………………………………………………………………. vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT …………………………………………………… vii TABLE OF CONTENTS ………….................................................................. ix LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………………………...…. xii LIST OF FIGURES ………………………………………………………….. xiii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS …………………….…………………………. xiv ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………. xv

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION A.

Research Background ………………………………………………

1

B.

Problem Statement ………………………………………………….

3

C.

Research Objective …………………………………………………

3

D.

Research Benefit ……………………………………………………

4

E.

Research Method …………………………………………………...

4

F.

Thesis Organization ………………………………………………...

5

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CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW A.

B.

C.

Critical Discourse Analysis …………………………………………

7

1. Power Relation ……………………………………………………..

9

2. “Power in Discourse” and “Power behind Discourse” ……………..

10

3. Three Stages of Critical Discourse Analysis ……………………….

12

4. Linguistic Evidences ……………………………………………….

22

A Movie Entitled “Freedom Writers” ……………………………....

27

1. The Rodney King Riots …………………………………………...

28

2. Holocaust ………………………………………………………….

29

3. Tupac Shakur ……………………………………………………...

31

Review of Related Studies .…………………………………………

32

CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A.

Research Method ……………………………………………………

34

B.

Source of Data ………………………………………………………

35

C.

Sample and Sampling Technique …………………………………...

36

D.

Instrument of the Research ………………………………………….

37

E.

Research Design …………………………………………………….

37

F.

Technique of Collecting data ……………………………………….

37

G.

Technique of Analyzing Data ………………………………………. 38

CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS A.

Introduction ………………………………………………………...

40

B.

Data Analysis ……………………………………………………….

41

C.

Discussion ………………………………………………………….. 121 commit to user x

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CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION A.

Conclusion ………………………………………………………….. 128

B.

Recommendation …………………………………………………… 133

BIBLIOGRAPHY LETTER OF NOTIFICATION APPENDICES

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1. Constraints on Discourse and Structural Effects ………………....... 11 Table 2.2. Formal Features ……………………………………………………. 15

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1. The Descriptive Framework ……………………………………...

15

Figure 2.2. Interpretation ……………………………………………………..

18

Figure 2.3. Situational Context and Discourse Type …………………………

20

Figure 2.4. Explanation ……………………………………………………….

21

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

1. AB

: Andre Bryant

2. BS

: Ben Samuels

3. CN

: Cindy Nigor

4. EB

: Eva Benitez

5. GM

: Gloria Munez

6. JH

: Jamal Hill

7. M

: Marcus

8. MG

: Mrs. Erin Gruwell

9. S

: Student(s)

10. T

: Tito

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ABSTRACT Yunita Tyas Puspitasari. 2014. An Analysis of Power Relation between a Teacher and High School Students Interaction in the Movie Entitled “Freedom Writers” (Based on Critical Discourse Analysis). Thesis: English Department of Faculty of Letters and Fine Arts. Sebelas Maret University. This research is conducted to analyze the power relation of teacher and high school students’ interaction that can be found in the movie entitled “Freedom Writers”. The aims of this research are: (1) to find the indicators of power that are found in the interaction between a teacher and the students in the movie entitled “Freedom Writers”, (2) to describe the relationship that is built between the teacher and the high school students in the movie, and (3) to figure out the participant, the teacher or the students, who shows more power in each interaction. This is a descriptive qualitative research. It refers to the method of solving problems by collecting, classifying and interpreting the data of the research. The data were collected by using a non-probability technique of sampling. The source of data is a movie entitled “Freedom Writers”. The data are in the form of transcript dialogue employed by the teacher (Mrs. Erin Gruwell) and the students in the class scenes of the movie. Thus, the data were analyzed one by one to find out the power relation between both participants. The results of the research are as follows. First, the relationship between Mrs. Gruwell and the students in Wilson High School was built under the traditional classroom discourse that contains an unequal relationship of teacher and pupils. It is also associated with the racial discourse, as the students in this case are experiencing gang violence in their neighborhood. Second, the indicators of power were divided into two parts. They are some indicators of power which function is to show the teacher’s authority in the class (formal expression, command, and appearance), and some indicators of power which function is to express control and constraint to the students’ contribution in the class (turntaking, enforcing explicitness, formulation, and allusion). Third, the participant who shows more power in the interaction is Mrs. Gruwell as the teacher. She was experiencing power struggles in defending her position from some challenges of power shown by the students in the class. This research is intended to bring benefit for students who are interested in analyzing written or spoken text by using Critical Discourse Analysis as an approach. This research is also expected to give an inspiration for the practicing teachers to understand more about their students.

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