Genetically Modified Organisms Overview of an Organism

Genetically Modified Organisms Overview of an Organism

1/22/2014 GMO’s:  Genetically Modified  Organisms Genetically Modified Organisms • • • • GMO’s, GM GE (Genetically Engineered) Transgenic “Frankenf...

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1/22/2014

GMO’s:  Genetically Modified  Organisms

Genetically Modified Organisms • • • •

GMO’s, GM GE (Genetically Engineered) Transgenic “Frankenfoods”

DNA from 1 organism transplanted into another

Overview of an Organism • Organism • Organs systems • Tissues • Cells • Organelles • Molecules • Atoms

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DNARNAProteins Proteins: molecules that provide physical  structure, hormones, enzymes, etc.    

DNA:  molecule made of “bases” and “backbone”

http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/dna2.php

Genes:  specific physical sequences of DNA that  code for specific proteins Brown eyes sequence: AAAAGCGCCCGG Blue eyes sequence: AAATGCGCCCGC http://www.mrpscience.com/Genetics/DNAFingerprint.htm

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Chromosome:  one long, double‐stranded  DNA molecule, containing many genes

http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Human_Karyotype.html

“Genetically Modified” DNA from 1 organism transplanted into another Conventionally done via • Hybridization • Selective breeding

http://2011russellbiology.wikispaces.com/Chapter+8+Mendel+and+Genetics

Hybridization

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selective_breeding

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Selective Breeding

Liger

Dogs Tigon

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) Genetic Engineering: transplanting DNA (gene) from  one organism to another

http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/05/27/us‐monkeys‐green‐idUSTRE54Q4A520090527

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How to create transgenic organisms: Gene gun 

http://www.nepadbiosafety.net/subjects/biotechnology/plant‐transformation‐bombardment

DNA Microinjection

http://www.research.uci.edu/tmf/dnaMicro.htm

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Why Create GMOs? • • • • • • •

Better taste Better appearance Faster growth Longer shelf‐life Improved nutrition Pest‐resistant Herbicide resistant

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Golden_Rice.jpg

http://extension.entm.purdue.edu/radicalbugs/default.php?page=pests/european_corn_borer

Advantages of GMOs: •Increased crop yield/efficiency of food production •Drought/frost resistant crops •Disease resistant crops •Improved nutritional content • Decreased allergenicity

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•Food without toxins or allergens •Plants that contain vaccines •Animals that produce pharmaceutical drugs •Animals that grow faster, eat less •Animals that could donate organs?

“Pharm” animals

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Wild‐type plant        Salt‐tolerant plant

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AquAdvantage salmon vs. Wildtype

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Potential Disadvantages of GMOs • Human health risks (allergies) • Ecological/environmental risks (contamination) • Economic/social justice concerns (patents,  intellectual property)

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Concerns Regarding GMOs

• GMOs could “escape” • Might interbreed with wild relatives • Might accelerate pesticide resistance  • Unequal access to technology

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Specific Examples of GMOs • Bt corn • Round‐up ready crops • Flavr Savr tomatoes http://blogs.cornell.edu/agsci‐interns/2012/08/05/highlights‐of‐crop‐scouting‐with‐wnycma/

http://www.21stcentech.com/agriculture‐update‐gm‐minnesota‐family‐farm‐perspective/

http://www.lifesciencesfoundation.org/printer_events‐The_FlavrSavr_tomato.html

Bt Corn Bt genes – inserted into corn genome (gene gun technology)  Corn plant that can produce Bt in every cell Advantages over topically applied powder: ‐ Bt toxin not destroyed by UV, heat, dessication ‐ wider coverage of insect feeding sies ‐ no guessing as when to apply

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U.S. Government Regulation of GMOs 1.

EPA – evaluates for environmental safety

2.

USDA – evaluates whether the plant is safe to grow

3.

FDA – evaluates whether the plant is safe to eat

Examples:   Bt corn or RoundUp Ready soybeans – checked by EPA Bt corn (ear) – checked by USDA Bt corn (in cornflakes) – checked by FDA

Roundup Herbicide, Created by Monsanto in 1970

Glyphosate

Pros and Cons… Pros: Increase crop yields Affects enzyme only in plants Cons: Superweeds/resistance Human health effects Environmental impacts  (soil/water contamination)

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RoundUp‐Ready Crops: • Crops genetically modified to be resistant to   Roundup •Currently Include: soy, corn, canola, alfalfa, cotton, sorghum  (wheat is under development) •"terminator seeds“‐‐ crops produced from  Roundup Ready seeds are sterile.

Current Use of GMOs • GMOs are used internationally • U.S. majority of soybeans, cotton, corn are GMOs • 60% of all processed food estimated to contain GMOs • No “GMO” label is required in the U.S.

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U.S. Labeling Laws The U.S. Food and Drug Administration currently  requires labeling of GM foods if: • the food has a significantly different nutritional  property • a new food includes an unexpected allergen  (e.g., a peanut protein in a soybean product) • if a food contains a toxicant beyond acceptable  limits.

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Pro‐labeling Arguments • Consumers have a right to know what’s in their  food • Would allow consumers to identify and avoid  food products that cause them problems. • Some people want to avoid eating animal  products, including animal DNA.

Anti‐labeling Arguments • No significant differences between GMO and  conventional foods have been detected.  • Would impose a cost on all consumers.  • Certified organic foods by definition cannot be  produced with GM ingredients. • Current food system could not accommodate  segregation of GM and non‐GM products. • No GE products currently on the market or  under review contain animal genes

FDA Voluntary Guidelines for Labeling  • If  GMO food is significantly different, the  name must be changed to describe the  difference. • If a bioengineered food has a significantly  different nutritional property, its label must  reflect the difference. • If a new food includes an allergen, the  presence of that allergen must be disclosed on  the label. 

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Issues with Mandatory Labeling • What specific technologies for crop variety  development would require a label?  • What percentage of a GE ingredient must be present in  a food before a label is required? • Would meat, eggs and dairy products from livestock  that are fed transgenic crops require labeling?  • How should regulators verify claims that a food is or is  not genetically engineered? • What is the economic impact of labeling?

California Proposition 37  Genetically Engineered Foods Labeling  Initiative Statute • Raw or processed food made from plants or  animals with genetic material changed in  specified ways. • Prohibits labeling or advertising such food, or  other processed food, as “natural.”

Prop 37 Exempts foods that are:  – unintentionally produced with GM material – made from animals fed or injected with GM  material but not GM themselves – processed with or containing only small amounts of  GM ingredients – administered for treatment of medical conditions – sold for immediate consumption such as in a  restaurant – alcoholic beverages

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