global 100 greenhouse gas performance - BSD Consulting

global 100 greenhouse gas performance - BSD Consulting

A THOMSON REUTERS FINANCIAL AND RISK WHITE PAPER GLOBAL 100 GREENHOUSE GAS PERFORMANCE NEW PATHWAYS FOR GROWTH AND LEADERSHIP BY DAVID LUBIN, JOHN M...

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GLOBAL 100 GREENHOUSE GAS PERFORMANCE

NEW PATHWAYS FOR GROWTH AND LEADERSHIP BY DAVID LUBIN, JOHN MOORHEAD AND TIM NIXON MAY 2017

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CONTENTS Introduction........................................................................................................................................................................................... 2 A Growing Signal from Investors......................................................................................................................................................... 3 Performance: The Global 100 and our Planet.....................................................................................................................................4 State of the Climate 2016 – Climate Change by the Numbers.....................................................................................................5 What Does Leadership Look Like?.......................................................................................................................................................6 Commentary on the Role of the Boards of Directors from the Global 100................................................................................... 7 How to Become a Leader: The Sustainability Premium.....................................................................................................................8 Innovation for a Sustainability Premium.............................................................................................................................................9 Indications of a “Sustainability Premium”..........................................................................................................................................14 Correlation between CO2 Change Rate and Total Return to Investors........................................................................................14 Correlation between CO2 Change Rate and P/E Ratio.................................................................................................................15 Conclusion............................................................................................................................................................................................16

The authors would like to acknowledge the important contributions of State Street Global Exchange, KPMG, Baker & McKenzie, CDP, the European Space Agency, Fordham Law School’s Sustainability Initiative, CECP’s Strategic Investor Initiative and Minnesota Public Radio. Important data and analytics support was provided by Frank Schilder, Thomson Reuters Research & Development, Adam Baron from Thomson Reuters Content Analytics, Elena Philipova from Thomson Reuters ESG and Ian van der Vlugt from CDP. INTRODUCTION

journey, and doing it now will bring maximum benefit over all time horizons for a business and its stakeholders. Not doing so now risks losing the opportunity altogether and incurring considerable risks as climate change worsens, sea levels rise and populations are displaced.

A relatively small number of global companies will make a big difference in fighting climate change. The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the 100 largest emitting companies of the world1 (including their value chains) account for approximately a quarter of global annual emissions.2 At a time when the geopolitical winds are shifting on climate change, this report presents a global invitation to these top emitters of GHG to become transformative leaders.3

This analysis is not about naming and shaming into action. Many of the largest emitters have brought badly needed energy, infrastructure, housing and food to people throughout the world. This is about a closer look at the scale of climate impact of the Global 100 and the progress some have made embracing the new business logic of decarbonization. It is core to their strategies for financial success and responsible growth on our increasingly fragile and resourceconstrained planet. It’s also about the urgent need to reduce our warming impact on our atmosphere while there is still time to do so.

In doing so, they would join the ranks of companies such as Enel, NRG and Xcel Energy, who, among others, are executing on strategies to diversify and decarbonize their business models in heavily carbonintensive industries. Their plans, begun a decade or more ago, have proven results and provide a pathway to a clean energy future that stretches to 2050. Any carbon-intensive business can start on this

This report builds on and supports the Global 100 CalPERS initiative based on the PRI Montreal Pledge.Only publicly traded companies are included in this analysis; the 100 firms listed in this report are part of a larger group of carbon-intensive companies that have an extraordinary opportunity to lead on climate and grow their businesses over the long term. These companies primarily come from the fossil fuel energy, utility, infrastructure, consumer goods, mining, cement, steel, automobile and aviation sectors.

and 3) adjusted for double counting of 55% which is equivalent to the total energy companies' emissions of 15.7 Gigatons being double counted.

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This is detailed later in the report, but leadership is primarily about diversifying risk away from carbon-intensive business models in a step-by-step, strategic transformation spread out over the next 35 years. Less than 10% of the Global 100 is currently demonstrating leadership on transparency and decarbonization.

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This is measured against total anthropogenic emissions, including land use of approximately 52 gigatons CO2e. This number includes direct, indirect and value chain emissions (scopes 1, 2 2

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Reuters/Issel Kato

A GROWING SIGNAL FROM INVESTORS

The 100 companies4 named in this report have a unique opportunity to lead and keep the world within 2 degrees C of warming. These companies are particularly important because the Paris climate treaty is unlikely to provide a viable solution to climate change without their leadership.5 Non-state actors are crucially important. And there is growing upside for leadership. Today, investors and policy makers better understand the climate risk imposed by individual companies. Increasingly, investors see the value creation potential from companies that are transparent on their emissions and offer product portfolios designed to compete in the emerging low-carbon economy. It’s no accident that some of the largest investors in the world are part of the authorship of this report, as we see in the following observation from State Street Global Exchange.6

An investor’s perspective on carbon-intensive business models Mark McDivitt, Managing Director, Head of ESG Solutions, State Street Global Exchange, part of a firm with $28 trillion in assets under custody and administration and $2.5 trillion in assets under management, offers the following observations from an investor perspective on carbon-intensive business models: • The Paris Agreement, unlike Copenhagen, Kyoto and other COP gatherings, drove home the point that the private sector, partnered with individual country INDCs, will be the impetus needed to start to limit overall global warming to less than 2°C. • The global investor community will not be limited to “playing defense” with negative screening and divestiture strategies designed to limit exposure to carbon-intensive assets, particularly those not positioned to decarbonize in line with scientific and policy guidance. Right now, many leading owners, asset managers, endowments, insurance companies and hedge funds are “playing offense,” investing in innovative leaders in carbon-intensive business sectors who are delivering sustainable solutions and above-market returns. • In addition, there is increasing evidence that investors and managers may be able to outperform their benchmarks by integrating more broad-based environmental, social and governance (ESG) factors, beyond climate, into their investment strategy and decision-making process. This growing base of ESG integrators has seen a rapid inflow of capital to these strategies in the past two years. • The investor community knows that business operations are responsible for the vast majority of addressable GHG emissions, and it is these same business operators and their owners, among other stakeholders, who will experience results of climate change. For global financial players of all stripes, it’s time to answer the question ... Are you in the game of integrating climate impacts into investment strategies or still on the bench?

These “Global 100” vary and depend on the transparency of the companies. Thomson Reuters and CDP have collaborated on this report to bring together the latest data from companies that do report and the latest estimates for those that do not. The finance sector was excluded, as there are insufficient estimates on their Scope 3.

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Even if all Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) were fully implemented from the COP21 agreement, warming would be about 3 degrees C, according to UNEP.

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State Street was founded in 1792 and is the second-oldest financial institution in the U.S. It has approximately $28 trillion in assets under custody and administration and $2.5 trillion in assets under management.

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This report is an urgent invitation. It’s an invitation to leadership on behalf of the investors, policy makers, consumers and billions of inhabitants of our fragile world. It’s an invitation to “play offense” on climate change, as McDivitt says above, by finding the right equilibrium between risk, opportunity and responsibility to your ecosystem of stakeholders.

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PERFORMANCE: THE GLOBAL 1007 AND OUR PLANET

a new norm emerges. Leadership is then expected as part of core business strategy.”

As mentioned earlier, the Global 100 emitters matter because they represent a large portion of annual GHG emissions, and they can immediately influence their marketplaces and policy makers to drive significant but manageable reductions of at least 2% per year in line with the latest policy guidance from the scientific community.8 Lance Pierce, President of CDP North America, remarks, “It’s important to remember the catalyzing effect that can occur from leadership at the top of these carbon-intensive industries. With enough momentum from the largest industry players, we can reach a tipping point whereby

Looking at the performance of this group of companies (see appendix 1 for complete list), we see in Figure 1 the top 30 emitters among the largest publicly traded companies of the world, across all scopes. On the next page, we have included the “State of the Climate,” with the latest trends in global climate conditions as the actual measurement for our progress on climate change.

Figure 1: Top 30 of Global 100 Emitters of GHG GHG emissions Tons CO2e Scope 1+2+3 Source GHG

Company Name

GHG Index*

Decoupling Index*

Revenues USD

2015

2014

Baseline 2014 =100

2015

2014

Baseline 2014 =100

CDP

Coal India

2,014,693,250

1,850,080,574

109

11,903,683,242

11,770,273,584

93

CDP

PJSC Gazprom

1,247,624,306

1,264,855,340

99

83,315,971,620

95,924,596,230

88

CDP

ExxonMobil Corporation

1,096,498,615

1,145,083,349

96

259,488,000,000

394,105,000,000

69

CDP

China Petroleum & Chemical Corp

873,898,581

902,075,103

97

310,968,548,490

455,452,559,380

70

CDP

Rosneft OAO

835,887,091

833,148,361

100

70,606,500,000

94,816,690,000

74

CDP

PETROCHINA Company Limited

730,914,625

693,615,195

105

265,767,674,840

367,944,985,540

69 69

Thomson Reuters

Rio Tinto Ltd

663,900,000

628,700,000

106

34,829,000,000

47,664,000,000

CDP

China Shenhua Energy

643,810,940

728,365,957

88

27,273,938,070

40,789,064,770

76

Thomson Reuters

Royal Dutch Shell PLC

641,000,000

686,000,000

93

264,960,000,000

421,105,000,000

67

CDP

Petróleo Brasileiro SA - Petrobras

629,174,567

634,294,435

99

96,468,000,000

143,657,000,000

68

Thomson Reuters

Total SA

575,800,000

598,400,000

96

143,421,000,000

212,018,000,000

70

CDP

United Technologies Corporation

530,627,775

530,627,775

100

56,098,000,000

57,900,000,000

97

CDP

BHP Billiton PLC

474,376,663

436,331,000

109

30,912,000,000

44,636,000,000

64

Thomson Reuters

Eni SpA

466,131,372

450,838,037

103

73,565,665,012

112,728,482,429

63

Thomson Reuters

BP PLC

457,800,000

461,400,000

99

222,894,000,000

353,568,000,000

64 69

CDP

Valero Energy Corporation

438,076,129

448,800,949

98

87,804,000,000

130,844,000,000

Thomson Reuters

Chevron Corp

428,000,000

414,000,000

103

129,648,000,000

199,941,000,000

63

Thomson Reuters

Korea Electric Power Corp

399,984,300

443,325,000

90

50,178,919,954

52,589,333,882

106

CDP

Peabody Energy Corporation

397,079,232

433,138,945

92

5,609,200,000

6,792,200,000

90

CDP

Toyota Motor Corporation

377,020,000

383,198,000

98

226,863,559,930

248,954,617,590

93

CDP

YTL Corp

372,995,902

393,967,914

95

4,441,845,410

6,003,908,864

78

Thomson Reuters

General Motors Co

359,381,663

333,986,186

108

152,356,000,000

155,929,000,000

91

CDP

Phillips 66

331,341,051

323,169,655

103

98,975,000,000

161,212,000,000

60

CDP

Volkswagen AG

328,330,937

336,875,378

97

236,618,000,000

268,484,000,000

90

CDP

ENGIE

319,709,310

350,307,803

91

77,526,000,000

99,043,000,000

86

Thomson Reuters

Statoil ASA

313,800,000

304,600,000

103

57,900,000,000

96,708,000,000

58

CDP

Exor S.p.A.

295,542,540

234,989,334

126

148,086,960,000

145,287,389,400

81

Thomson Reuters

Glencore PLC

290,714,000

312,923,000

93

170,497,000,000

221,073,000,000

83

Thomson Reuters

Honda Motor Co Ltd

284,160,000

279,007,000

102

129,718,825,515

110,956,535,132

115

CDP

Marathon Petroleum

279,703,599

260,251,261

107

72,251,000,000

98,081,000,000

69

Global 30

17,097,976,448

17,096,355,551

100

3,600,946,292,084

4,855,978,636,801

74

Global 100

28,407,556,866

28,453,074,124

100

6,345,922,512,313

7,938,498,561,200

80

* A GHG Index over 100 indicates growing emissions, and a Decoupling Index over 100 indicates revenues increasing faster than emissions.9

S  ee footnote 82. This is the guidance from the latest analysis from the IPCC and UNEP gap report. 9 GHG Index = (GHG emissions 2015/GHG emissions 2014)*100Revenue Index = (Revenues 2015/ Revenues 2014)*100. Decoupling index = Revenues Index/GHG Index. 7

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The Global 100 were responsible directly and through their value chains for 28.4 gigatons CO2e of emissions in 2015 (unadjusted for double counting). They accounted for about one-fourth of total annual anthropogenic emissions of 52.2 gigatons CO2e (assuming 55% of Global 100 emissions were double counted, which equals all Global 100 Energy sector emissions or 15.6 gigatons). Coal India was the biggest emitter, with over 2 gigatons CO2e (includes value chain), followed by Gazprom and ExxonMobil, all three major suppliers of fossil fuels, respectively coal, natural gas and oil. Total emissions were flat for the Global 100 from 2014 to 2015 (when they should have been decreasing), and revenues decreased by 20% (26% for the Global 30), largely due to volitility in exchange rates and energy prices. Some companies stood out by reducing emissions faster than their revenues grew from 2014 to 2015, for example, Duke Energy, Ingersoll-Rand Co. Ltd. and BASF. It is critically important that this data is used to launch a deeper discussion into the latest emissions figures and company plans for decarbonization. The Global 100 companies themselves may have more up-to-date information than is currently available through public sources or expert estimate, and their input is welcome.

STATE OF THE CLIMATE 2016 CLIMATE CHANGE BY THE NUMBERS An unprecedented third “warmest year on record” globally. Record Arctic warmth. Live coverage of the latest extreme weather event. There are many ways we observe and experience climate change. Climate change impacts becomes more real and hit closer to home every year. What is the current state of earth’s climate by the numbers?

It is difficult to see how these planetary trends change without leadership from this top group of emitters, even if thousands of smaller companies and millions of households continue to demonstrate leadership themselves. This long tail of cities, companies, households and individuals is valiant and important, but we will need leadership in the next five years and beyond across the Global 100 to stay within 2 degrees C warming.

16 of 17 warmest years on record globally have occurred since 2000 1 in 27 million odds that string of hottest years globally since 2000 occurred naturally 1.48 C – global average temperature change from early industrial levels most likely for the whole of 2016 scientificamerican.com/ article/earth-flirts-with-a-1-5-degree-celsius-global-warmingthreshold1/ 2016 - unprecedented third consecutive ”warmest year on record” globally ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/201613 2015 – second straight warmest year on record globally since 1880 2014 – previous warmest year on record globally since 1880 410 ppm – atmospheric CO2 likely to reach unprecedented level in 2017 scripps.ucsd.edu/programs/keelingcurve/wp-content/plugins/siobluemoon/graphs/mlo_one_year.png 22 to 44 cm – IPCC projected sea level rise by 2100 1 trillion tons – cumulative ice loss in Greenland between 2011 and 2014 independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change-global-warminggreenland-ice-melting-rate-sea-levels-rise-a7147846.html 12% per decade – rate of Arctic Sea ice decline twitter.com/ZLabe/ status/844573790138916865 Contributed by Minnesota Public Radio Chief Meteorologist Paul Huttner, theguardian.com/environment/climate-consensus-97-percent/2014/aug/21/scientist-in-focus-meteorologist-paul-huttner

Time is simply running out on climate change, and these firms matter most. As they delay reducing total emissions, they exacerbate the problem, with more drastic, disruptive and expensive reductions necessary later to stay within 2 degrees C.10 Unless we start to change now, as these firms have the unique opportunity to do, we are unlikely to change enough and in time to matter. voxeu.org/article/cost-delaying-action-stem-climate-change-meta-analysis

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WHAT DOES LEADERSHIP LOOK LIKE?

baseline for a 2-degree C pathway, and 2.1% for a 1.5-degree pathway, typically by decoupling growth from emissions. From a 2016 baseline, because of the general failure to reduce global emissions from 2010, firms will need to reduce GHG by at least 2% per year to stay within 2 degrees C.13

It’s very important to note that some of these companies are already demonstrating leadership. These include companies such as Enel and others just outside of Global 100, such as Xcel, Iberdrola and PG&E, all of which are top emitters. But what do we mean by leadership? A few basic things:

3. Leaders have the confidence to challenge their organizations with publicly announced long-term GHG goals from the 2020s out to 2050, even when the solutions are still unknown. This typically means setting transparent plans for getting to major milestones within a decade and aspirational goals to drive the reach for longer-term decarbonization. Note that even if a company has not been demonstrating past reductions, it can still qualify as a “climate leader” by transparently planning on more aggressive decarbonization from today forward.

1. Leaders are transparent. Currently over 50% of companies of the Global 100 report on their emissions from their operations, purchase of energy and value chains.11 Interestingly, this level of transparency will be improving dramatically in the next few years due to improvements in satellite measuring, which will allow for verification of existing, point source GHG reporting and new measurement where there is currently no transparency. The European Space Agency has provided Figure 2 for inclusion in the report, and they are leading this part of the effort. Note the “Future Mission” section.

4) Leaders are using their influence to encourage leadership from policy makers and their peers. These top firms have significant 2. Alongside transparency, leaders are also reducing their influence on regulatory direction in their economies,14 and emissions in line with IPCC guidance.12 This means reducing leadership is about promoting manageable decarbonization to GHG emissions least 1.4% per year starting from aa2010 Work Work inatin progress progress towards towards a future future anthropogenic anthropogenic CO achieve 2050 goals. CO 2 2

Emission Emission Monitoring Monitoring Sentinel Sentinel Constellation Constellation Figure 2: Work in progress towards a future anthropogenic CO Emission Monitoring Spatial Spatial Resolution Resolution and and Coverage Coverage 2

Sentinel Constellation Spatial Resolution and Coverage

Future Future Mission Mission Future Mission 2 2 2 x222xkm km 22km

OCO-2 2.3 x 1.3 km2

GOSAT 10 km

SCIMACHY 30 x 60 km2

IMPROVED SPATIAL RESOLUTION AND COVERAGE ENABLES NEW IMPORTANT APPLICATION AREAS: ANTHROPOGENIC C02

(AND CH4) EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM POINT SOURCES. Improved Improved spatial spatial resolution resolution and and coverage coverage enables enables new new important important application application areas: areas: anthropogenic anthropogenic COCO (and (and CH CH ) emission ) emission measurements measurements from from point point sources sources 2 2 4 4

Source: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Germany

Figure: Figure: Institute Institute of Environmental of Environmental Physics, Physics, University University of Bremen, of Bremen, Germany Germany The Greenhouse Gas Protocol is the most widely used emissions measurement and reporting standard. 12 Over 260 firms have publicly committed to Science-Based Targets, a joint initiative of CDP, UN Global Compact, World Resources Institute and World Wildlife Fund. The initiative provides practical guidance and methodologies for target-setting as well as a free quality check service for submitted targets. 13 And a 3% reduction for CO2 (as previously described in a private sector emissions report) See carbonbrief.org/analysis-four-years-left-one-point-five-carbon-budget and the

prior report at thomsonreuters.com/content/dam/openweb/documents/pdf/corporate/ Reports/global-500-greenhouse-gases-performance-trends-2010-2013.pdf page 4). 14 As a policy instrument, an internal carbon price – sometimes referred to as a shadow price – bakes the consequences of carbon pollution into a firm’s internal accounting and capital budgeting processes, helping to incentivize low-carbon investments. There are multiple ways to design a carbon pricing scheme, but as this executive guide to carbon pricing explains, it does not need to be complicated. Nearly 80 firms have already committed to carbon pricing through the We Mean Business coalition.

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These aspects of leadership are made possible by good governance. Given the emerging regulatory, reputational and operational risks with carbon-intensive business models, boards of directors from these companies have a fiduciary duty to these corporations to consider these aspects carefully, and investors and stakeholders generally will applaud and encourage that process. Professors Bob Eccles and Tim Youmans summarize their recent work15 (see text at right) on the fiduciary duty owed by boards of directors to corporations, which includes considering the material regulatory and legal risks as atmospheric concentrations of CO2 continue to rise.

Commentary from Eccles and Youmans on the role of the boards of directors from the Global 100 • Leadership on climate in these carbon giants is about the fiduciary duty owed by boards of directors to their corporations and what this means to the company’s relationship with its shareholders and other key stakeholders. • Leadership must begin with the board of directors; otherwise, top executives will be held hostage by short-term shareholders. • A key way the board can communicate this leadership is to publish an annual one-page “Statement of Significant Audiences and Materiality (The Statement).” • For the Global 100, a Statement is where the board publicly states its position on addressing climate change.

David Hackett, partner at the global law firm Baker & McKenzie, summarizes that “greater marketplace and legal scrutiny lies ahead for major emitters of greenhouse gases, and as the climate leaders accelerate their emission reduction efforts, others will find their positions increasingly untenable accompanied by the growing potential for expanded risk and liability. Charged with the responsibility for assessing material risk, corporate boards of directors will find this duty more demanding and significant in light of the emerging trends and risks associated with climate change considerations.”

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• Such a Statement also specifies which stakeholders are material for the corporation and the time frames for assessing progress. • In publishing and acting on a Statement, boards of carbon-intensive emitters can provide critical leadership on mitigating emerging regulatory, reputational and operational risks.

 or more on the statement, see Eccles’ and Youmans’ survey of the fiduciary duty owed by F boards of directors to corporations, to shareholders and to other stakeholders: Materiality in Corporate Governance: The Statement of Significant Audiences and Materiality – Journal of Applied Corporate Finance. Also: The Board That Embraced Stakeholders Beyond Shareholders – MIT Sloan Management Review, Why Boards Must Look Beyond Shareholders – MIT Sloan Management Review, Why It’s Time For Boards To Take A Stand On Sustainability – Forbes.com 7

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HOW TO BECOME A LEADER: THE SUSTAINABILITY PREMIUM

Xcel Energy’s energy mix and are seen as “a cost-effective hedge against more volatile fuel prices.” Xcel Energy has begun to focus on capturing efficiency gains for itself and its customers by rolling out energy-saving programs that have the added benefit of enabling better demand management. The capacity and economics of renewable initiatives is being actively tested.

Few climate leaders have achieved their position by “bet the company” radical transformations. Instead, with a new appreciation of how increasing constraints posed by climate impacts drive deep and persistent change in customer needs and wants, they build their case for change and mobilize their organizations. Climate leaders develop a new value creation vision and a business case for evolving their company’s capabilities over time. This vision propels progress on a decade-long pathway or maturity curve that closely resembles the stages described below.

Stage 2: Doing New Things in New Ways Now with greater confidence, companies begin to evolve their operations and products, proving the market for innovations that meet customer needs while simultaneously delivering benefits on the climate challenge. As new models are proven, change in products, processes and whole systems becomes widespread.

As an example, let’s follow Xcel Energy’s journey. In 2004, the company issued its first carbon management plan. Then, in 2005, Richard Kelly was appointed Chairman and CEO, and the company issued its first Triple Bottom Line Report stating that “comprehensive action is needed to address climate change today, including greatly increasing our use of resources that produce lower or no CO2 emissions, increasing our energy conservation opportunities for customers, and participating in research and development on carbon sequestration … regardless of regulation our company is implementing voluntary carbon management targets ...”16 This story continues below, explained in a four-stage framework applicable to all carbon-intensive companies.17

Continuing the example,18 in 2010, Xcel Energy reported expanded energy efficiency programs saving customers 987 GWh of power. Overall efforts to implement Xcel Energy’s clean energy vision reduced CO2 emissions from 2005 by 10%, with a 2020 goal set at a 20% reduction. Xcel Energy‘s Solar*Rewards® program to encourage solar usage grew from 300 customers in 2006 to 7300 in 2010, and Xcel Energy became a founding member of the Solar Technology Acceleration Center to build and share knowledge.

Stage 1: Doing Old Things in New Ways First, companies capture early wins from operational improvements that typically reduce costs, as well as regulatory, financial and reputational risks. Emissions reduction is a by-product of improved operational efficiency and risk management. Continuing the example with Xcel Energy, in 2005, renewables account for about 9% of

Stage 3: Transforming the Core As vision becomes reality, eco-advantaged innovations drive durable and material sources of new revenues and profits. Often the growth of these new eco-advantaged portfolios far exceeds the rate of overall revenue growth. Old business lines give way to the new.

xcelenergy.com/staticfiles/xe/Corporate/Corporate%20PDFs/2005_Xcel_Energy_ Triple_Bottom_Line.pdf 17 Adapted from The Sustainability Imperative, David A Lubin and Daniel C Esty. Harvard Business Review, May, 2010.

ral.ucar.edu/solutions/bringing-the-wind-to-the-grid

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Continuing our example,19 Xcel Energy maintained its commitment to clean energy through a leadership change in 2011 to its new CEO and chairman, Ben Fowke. By 2015, Xcel Energy was recognized by the EPA as a climate leader. Emissions have declined 24% from 2005 levels, well ahead of targets, and the company produces 34% of its total energy from renewables with a goal of 43% by 2020. Xcel Energy introduced Renewable* Connect® in Minnesota and Colorado, a new way for consumers to set the dial on purchasing renewable energy for home or business all the way up to 100%.

INNOVATION FOR A SUSTAINABILITY PREMIUM

Climbing this sustainable value curve requires innovation. The GHGintensive industry sectors profiled below are significant contributors to global emissions. Carbon dioxide (CO2) accounts for 76% of GHG emissions (65% from fossil fuels and industrial processes, 11% from forestry and other land use).22 Of the fossil fuels, coal is responsible for the most (24.8%) GHG emissions, followed by oil (20%) and natural gas (18.5%) for a total of 63.3%.23 In other words, ending the use of fossil fuels would constitute a nearly 2/3 direct decrease in GHG emissions. However, fossil fuels power and have powered the world economy since the industrial revolution. The challenge is how to decarbonize the economy to achieve the low-carbon and ultimately net-zero status in the time needed to minimize climate impacts, ranging from serious disruptions to potential catastrophe.

Stage 4: New Business Model Creation and Differentiation At the top of the curve, firms fully exploit the climate and environment megatrend as a source of differentiation in business model, brand, employee engagement and other intangibles, fundamentally repositioning the company and redefining its strategy for competitive advantage. Finishing the example, Xcel Energy’s 2017 investor presentation20 opened with an assertion that its business strategy enables earnings growth without bill increases to its customers, resulting from key factors including reduced fuel, operating and maintenance costs from its renewables-heavy portfolio. Xcel Energy positions its brand with investors, consumers and employees as the leading clean energy provider, with a goal to add another 4000 MW from wind and solar by 2021, pushing its CO2 reductions to 45% below 2005 by that year. Xcel Energy has climbed the maturity curve, and in prior three- and five-year comparisons has produced total returns that significantly outperform their EEI Index peer group.21

For this innovation has a critical role to play in the fossil fuel producing industries as well as the carbon-intensive sectors. In each, leaders have the potential to create their own sustainability premium as they gain market share and increase their productivity with innovative solutions for a low-carbon future. These sector competitors are moving across a broad base of technologies and approaches. Making good strategic choices can be expected to pay big dividends as the constraints of climate change tighten. Let’s take a closer look at existing and future pathways and see what is happening in some key sectors. The industries mentioned below are reviewed in terms of the decarbonization pathways they will likely follow (to stay within 2 degrees C warming) and some of the innovations, whether technological or in terms of business models, likely to get them there.

How to Become a Leader Summary The pathway to the top is not an easy climb. It takes years, and in many cases a decade or more, of hard work. Not all firms have the scope of vision to see the opportunity. For some, it may not exist without radical transformation. Others may start strong but stop along the way as management changes shift priorities. Some CEOs prefer to wait to see if the demand is real.

Fossil Fuel Energy • Natural Gas – While natural gas is the least carbon-intensive of the fossil fuels and provides a current economically viable alternative to more carbon-intensive fuels, deep decarbonization24 requires natural gas to be progressively replaced by hydrogen25, bio natural gas26, treated bio gas27 and Bio-SNG.28 All these natural gas substitutes can be produced locally using waste and natural sources for both transport and heating purposes. Bio-SNG is produced by gasification of cellulosic materials (e.g., forestry residues, energy crops), whereas “biogas” is produced by a biological process – anaerobic digestion of organic materials (e.g., manure, organic waste).29 Taking these technologies to scale remains a significant challenge. Companies such as Gazprom can play a key role in this progressive substitution.30

For such companies the risks are great. Catching up may be hard or impossible – think of digital photography and Kodak. And even among those that see the opportunity, not all can build the capacity to execute successfully – remember BP’s initial effort to get ”Beyond Petroleum”? Companies at the top of the curve are delivering a Sustainability Premium to their shareholders. Firms not yet there, but maintaining strong momentum as they climb the curve, have a significant sustainability premium potential. Understanding how to spot companies as they are rising may be an important insight for investors seeking an opportunity to outperform.

perrytonwind.com/quote_of_the_day_ben_fowke_xcel_energy_ceo

eon.com/en/business-areas/renewable-energy-source/bio-energy/bio-natural-gas/ from-biogas-to-bio-natural-gas.html

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ecofys.com/files/files/world-ghg-emission-flow-chart-2012_v9-c-asn-ecofys-2016_02.pdf 24 project-syndicate.org/commentary/paris-climate-talks-deep-decarbonization-byjeffrey-d-sachs-et-al-2015-12 25 ukerc.ac.uk/network/network-news/guest-blog-decarbonising-heat-by-replacingnatural-gas-with-hydrogen.html

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Ibid. 30 dsmbiogas.com/en-us/News/Gazprom-to-Prepare-Investment-Plan-for-ProducingExporting-Green-Gas-Russia

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Transport • Aviation – Current projections estimate that airlines will purchase approximately 39,000 new aircraft valued at $5.9T between 2016 and 2035.37 Similarly, the 3.4B passengers and 34.5M tonnes of freight airlines carry annually will grow at 4.6% per year during this period.38

• Oil and Gas – The most viable innovation pathway for oil and gas is business model transformation and diversification. This is exemplified by Total with their Renewable Energy & Infrastructure31 program (solar and battery/storage), and Statoil (offshore wind).32 Another pathway is the progressive switch to natural gas away from oil, for example at Eni.33 Making fossil fuel extraction less carbon-intensive by reductions in methane emissions and gas flaring and electrically powered platforms also has a material role to play. However, oil in a deep decarbonization model requires progressive substitution by renewable alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, bio alcohol (methanol, ethanol, butanol), refusederived fuel, chemically stored electricity (batteries and fuel cells), hydrogen, non-fossil methane, non-fossil natural gas, vegetable oil, propane and other biomass sources.34

The aviation pathway to a low-carbon future took a major step forward with the introduction of the Boeing Dreamliner, a carbon fiber aircraft with a new generation of super-efficient engines, together reducing fuel consumption by approximately 20-30%. The success of the Dreamliner, which recently became Boeing’s top-selling wide-body jet,39 has inspired other R & D efforts that will drive gains across the emerging super-efficient fleet.40 Another area ripe for innovation that will result in fuel savings and reduced GHGs is flight management systems. Big data analytic tools and services are now being sold from vendors such as Rolls Royce and Honeywell to optimize how aircraft are flown, from takeoff to landing. Predictive analytics are optimizing fuel efficiency and the emissions reductions from climb to cruise to descent and taxiing. While currently yielding only 2-3% gains,41 that’s off a very big base. The shift to biofuels is the third leg in the aviation pathway. The Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative (CAAFI), formed in 2006 with more than 400 members, is well on its way to meeting the goal of 1 billion gallons of biofuel in use by 2018, yielding a 30-80% GHG reduction over conventional jet aviation fuel (over 67 billion gallons of aviation jet fuel were consumed in 2013).42 These innovations hold the potential for net neutral growth in emissions from commercial aircraft in the 2020s. Ultimately, if we fully progress on the biofuels pathway, CO2 emissions can be reduced to 0.2GT by 2050, (50% of the 2005 levels) as opposed to 2.1 GT projected in the business-as-usual case.43

• Coal – Increasing regulatory scrutiny, unsolved technological challenges and growing pressure from lower-cost alternatives, have largely closed the pathways for lower-emission coalfired energy.35 Even best practice supercritical (SC) and ultrasupercritical (USC) coal-fired power plants that produce 35% fewer emissions than conventional coal plants still produce more emissions per KWh than natural gas,36 thus attracting more regulatory scrutiny than the alternatives. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is an important innovation that can reduce emissions by 90%, but this makes coal significantly more expensive in an environment of steadily decreasing costs from renewables and alternatives.

Finally, electric-powered flight is the biggest leap into the lowcarbon aviation future, and both Airbus and Boeing are in. Zunum Aero, the three-year-old electric commercial airplane startup now partnered with Boeing and Jet Blue, hopes to dominate the regional travel market in the 2030s with 10- to 50-passenger ultra-efficient hybrid electric craft now in development.44 Airbus, too, is serious enough about electric flight to put the E-Fan (electric powered jet engine) into production as a pilot-training aircraft. It will go on sale towards the end of 2017, to be followed by a fourseat version.45 The battery versus fuel weight trade-off appears to be workable, especially for the short-haul regional travel market.

CDP In the Pipeline by Tarek Soliman, Luke Fletcher and Charles Fruitiere – November 2016 – Which oil and gas companies are preparing for the future? 32 Ibid. 33 Ibid. 34 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternative_fuel 35 Subsidized coal (due to lack of meaningful carbon pricing globally) is undoing much of the work being done to decarbonize the economy wri.org/publication/global-coal-riskassessment 36 glencore.com/assets/sustainability/doc/GLEN-Sustainable-DevelopmentPresentation-20160613.pdf 37 boeing.com/resources/boeingdotcom/commercial/about-our-market/assets/ downloads/cmo_print_2016_final_updated.pdf

airbus.com/company/market/forecast/ bizjournals.com/wichita/news/2017/02/24/boeings-787-dreamliner-hits-an-orderbook.html 40 Build Something Cleaner, Boeing Environmental Report, 2015_environment_report.pdf 41 Going Beyond Fuel Management to Holistic Fuel Efficiency Service Solutions. Aviation Week Network, Nov 30, 2015 42 According to indexmundi.com/energy/?product=jet-fuel, at least 5,000,000 barrels of jet fuel were consumed per day in 2013 X 365 days X 36 gallons/barrel = 65.7 Bio gallons/year

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Mining Mining is highly energy-intensive as it goes deeper in more remote locations for poorer grade ores that require more processing and transportation. Mined thermal coal (for electricity generation) and coking coal (for steel production) are the most carbon-intensive due to their combustion. Others, such as iron ore (for steel), bauxite (for aluminum) and limestone, are carbon-intensive due to the energy intensity of their processing and, in the case of cement, additional release of CO2 during production. Mining companies have, with few exceptions, opposed low-carbon regulations, and none have both absolute and intensity emission targets.55 Their emissions are generally increasing when they should be decreasing.

These advances hold great promise for increasing the interconnectedness of the world’s people, itself an important stabilizing force, while reducing the burden on our atmosphere. • Automobiles – Automobile manufacturers’ biggest impact on climate change is through the cars they sell, as 79% of manufacturers’ emissions comes from fleet emissions.46 Renault, Nissan, BMW, Toyota and specialists like Tesla are leading the way in decarbonizing fleet emissions by increasingly selling cars that are battery electric vehicles (BEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) rather than internal combustion engines (ICE).47 From a resource use perspective, ICE cars are highly inefficient, with only 14% of energy reaching the wheels.48

Part of the answer lies in renewables (solar and wind) powering mining, as is the case, particularly, in remote locations in India, Africa and Chile, with the surplus electricity being sold locally.56 Coal mining will be increasingly unviable due to cost, regulatory change and competition from renewable energy sources for electricity generation (e.g., solar) and steel manufacture (e.g., hydrogen). This will only happen if developing countries also make the leap to renewables rather than build coal-fired plants that damage health and cause the climate change that is expected to affect them most. The transformation of existing coal mines to components of a renewable energy infrastructure can be made complete by converting them, for example, to geothermal power sources57 or as giant batteries for renewable energy storage.58

Beyond repowering, the industry is ripe for business model innovation, as ride-sharing businesses have demonstrated. Cars are not used most of the time (a car is parked 96% of its lifetime).49 New car-sharing business models mean that 4 to 1050 and even up to 15 cars could be replaced by one shared car.51 Other usage patterns can also have huge impacts, with a factor of 9.3 reduction in energy consumed by commuting one time per week versus the typical five times per week.52 Similarly, switching from cars to rapid transit buses can reduce emissions by a factor of five.53 Pricing parking according to market forces and maximum limits (The Shard in London has 48 parking places for its 96 storeys) instead of being free or subsidized can bring significant economic benefits (€190 million for Amsterdam in revenues alone), encourage car sharing and public transport use, and stop subsidizing those that drive to work alone (76% of Americans in 2014).54 Even Apple’s new 318,000-square-meter HQ, planned to be one of the most resource-efficient buildings in the world, still must allocate 325,000 square meters to parking, due in large part to limited mass transit options.

Cement Cement manufacturing is highly carbon-intensive, estimated to be 3.8% of global emissions.59 Beginning as early as 2002, the Cement Sustainability Initiative (CSI) started the search for solutions to the GHG challenge posed by and potentially imposed on the cement industry. With 23 major cement companies operating in 100 countries producing approximately 30% of global volume, these firms are committed to keeping cement a viable product well into the 21st century. Through the work of the CSI, companies are reducing GHGs and other toxins in their value chain. From 1990 to 2010, cement production grew globally by 61% while GHG emissions increased by 39%, showing evidence of meaningful reductions in intensity.

As more and more demand comes from the developing world’s booming middle class, cars will need to be much cleaner, shared, and ultimately smart and driverless, which means safer and healthier for all, with less congestion and air pollution. There is great potential on the automobile pathway if we continue developing low-impact products and strategies.

Still, getting on a 2-degree pathway requires aggressively decreasing absolute emissions from current levels. For this scenario to occur, the cement industry will need to step up its use of low GHG materials and kiln operators will need to shift to cleaner sources of energy.

Emission impossible: Which car makers are driving into trouble? Chloe Chan, Pedro Carqueija and James Magness, CDP, March 2016 47 Ibid. 48 Reinventing Fire: Bold Business Solutions for the New Energy Era, Amory B. Lovins and the Rocky Mountain Institute 49 Ibid. 50 MOMO (2010). The state of European car-sharing. Final Report D 2.4 Work Package 2.MOSES (2005). Mobility Services for Urban Sustainability. Moses deliverable 6.2. 51 The future of driving: Seeing the back of the car, The Economist 52 cta.tech/CTA/media/policyImages/Telecommuting-e-Commerce-Study.pdf analysis of page 33 table

wricities.org/ Briefing: Parking, The Economist, April 17th, 2017 55 Making the grade: Are some miners chasing fool’s Gold? CDP, November 2015 56 wbcsdcement.org/index.php/key-issues/climate-protection/sectoral-marketmechanisms/modeling-results-sectoral-approach?id=116 57 c leantechnica.com/2012/05/03/mining-old-coal-mines-for-instant-geothermalenergy/ 58 independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/germany-coal-mine-convert-renewablebattery-hydroelectric-prosper-haniel-north-rhine-westphalia-a7648841.html 59 epa.gov/ghgemissions/global-greenhouse-gas-emissions-data#Sector

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almost all the process emissions of steelmaking. It is aiming for a working demonstration plant around 2025, with potential for commercialization envisaged a further one to two decades later.

Given the demand projections for cement in the rapidly urbanizing global economy, absolute increases are expected through the 2020s. However, if the potential of these advances are adopted by 2030, absolute emissions could be approximately 2110 MT of CO2, down from their expected peak in the 2020s and back near to levels reported in 2010.60

• Thyssenkrupp’s intensity is the lowest of companies focused on the blast furnace steelmaking route – only Hyundai Steel and SSAB with significant electric arc furnace operations have lower emissions intensities. Thyssenkrupp is pursuing a CCU project, Carbon2Chems, seeking to create usable chemicals from CO and CO2 waste gases from steelmaking.

Additionally, developers also may diversify and switch to more sustainable building materials (such as bamboo, lumber and dimension stone)61 combined with modular construction (67% less energy in construction, 80% less energy consumed during use, 100 % recyclable)62 to manage a more sustainable overall demand for cement.

Given the required 70% reduction in GHG required for the steel sector to stay within 2 degrees C by 2050,65 and the early stages of decarbonization technologies, much more needs to happen, especially by preserving steel, which can be endlessly recycled. In addition to substitution by carbon fiber (e.g., in aviation and automobiles), polymers, wood, alloys, etc., steel can be produced as high-strength steel, which is 25-40% lighter with the consequent drops in energy use and emissions produced.66

Steel With global steel demand, emissions and energy intensity increasing in recent years, emerging technologies have still to prove their potential.63 Combined with a highly competitive and recently oversupplied market, three steel manufacturers stand out as leading in technology investment needed for a sustainable future: POSCO, SSAB and Thyssenkrupp. Following is an extract from CDP’s report on Steel:64

Finished products with high steel content (e.g., cars), can be designed for much longer life-spans and shared (e.g., five 2,000-cycle washing machines can be replaced by one 10,000-cycle washing machine).67 Over 50% of steel is used in long-life buildings and infrastructure, trains and ships. With flexible building design, the life of buildings can be extended to 200 years and automobiles to 300,000 miles.68 Maersk is using the design phase of its container ships (that are made up of 98% steel) to improve their recovery and recyclability through its cradle-to-cradle passport program; existing ships can also benefit from such documentation for up to 70% of their materials.69 Finally recycling of steel reduces energy use by 70%, and each 1 ton of steel recycled avoids extraction of 1.4 tons of iron ore, burning 720 kg of coal and 120 kg of limestone.70

• POSCO’s FINEX technology provides incremental emissions reductions from steelmaking by eliminating sintering and coke oven processes that can be combined with Carbon Capture and Storage CCS. POSCO is in the early stages of hydrogen-based steelmaking. • SSAB emissions intensity is low, driven by significant electric arc furnace (EAF) operations and Europe-based blast furnacebasic oxygen furnace (BF-BOF) plants, that it states benchmark as among the most carbon efficient globally. It recently announced a long-term breakthrough emissions reduction project, HYBRIT, working toward a hydrogen-based steelmaking process using renewable energy that envisages elimination of

wbcsdcement.org/index.php/key-issues/climate-protection/sectoral-marketmechanisms/modeling-results-sectoral-approach?id=116 61 sustainabilityworkshop.autodesk.com/buildings/green-building-materials; en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_building 62 constructionglobal.com/majorprojects/492/3-reasons-why-modular-construction-ismore-sustainable-than-traditional-methodology 63 Nerves of Steel: Who’s ready to get tough on emissions? Drew Fryer, Chloe Chan and Tom Crocker, CDP, October 2016 64 Ibid.

I bid. circulareconomy-worldsteel.org/ 67 ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/interactive-diagram/in-depthwashing-machines 68 lcmp.eng.cam.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/allwood-and-cullen-r09-davos.pdf 69 ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/case-studies/using-product-passports-to-improve-therecovery-and-reuse-of-shipping-steel 70 c irculareconomy-worldsteel.org/

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Innovation Summary Of course, these are just examples of what is driving decarbonization in these different sectors. In each, innovative research and development is producing advances that create the potential for leading companies to expand products and markets, while simultaneously significantly reducing their (and their customers’) GHG emissions.

Buildings Globally, buildings account for nearly 16% of the total GHG emissions and consume approximately 40% of electricity production in the U.S.71 Many studies and research reports from experts in the field of sustainable buildings report that trillions of dollars in energy costs could be saved with currently available technologies. The widely referenced retrofit of the iconic Empire State Building has reduced energy consumption by 38% and produced annual cost savings of approximately $4 million.72 The net-zero pathway for both residential and commercial is still in its early stages. Design strategies and life cycle ownership cost comparisons are being tested, but cost differentials are falling. Major innovations in building technologies from companies such as UTC, Ingersoll-Rand, Johnson Controls and others will enable both near-term high-efficiency gains and the path to net-zero.

Utilities sit at the crucial intersection of most of these sectors. Electricity is a common denominator. The emerging experience with solar photovoltaic (PV) cells will likely have parallels in other sectors. The risks and costs associated with coal are rising, with little potential for decline, while the risks and cost of clean energy alternatives such as PV cells continue to fall. According to Swanson’s Law,75 the price of solar photovoltaic panels will drop in the future, as it has in the past, roughly 20 percent for every doubling of cumulative shipped volume. At present rates, costs halve about every 10 years,76 and will continue to do so, as the volume continues to grow.

However, there are two pieces of research that, if more widely understood, could significantly influence the flow of capital to “green buildings,“ especially as our urban populations rapidly grow, along with investments in new commercial construction.

If the anticipated global infrastructure investment in utilities77 follows the pathway shown by climate leaders such as Excel Energy, rather than a heavy reliance on fossil fuels, then upward volumes will continue to drive lower prices. If clean energy PV cell prices keep falling, then achievement of the 2050 target for energy sector global GHG emissions is a manageable challenge.78

First, a 2015 report from the U.S. Department of Energy presents a review of prior research studies on LEED and Energy Star–certified buildings. The report offers some powerful conclusions reflecting the business logic of sustainable design. LEED and Energy Star buildings have higher rental rates, a premium of approximately 16 and 8 percent, respectively, compared to similar properties. Likewise they have higher occupancy rates (on average 17 and 10 percent), and a sales prices per square foot increase of approximately 20 and 8 percent. All while reducing utility bills and incurring only a small construction cost premium of approximately 2 percent.73

Innovations across many of the sectors discussed will need to find and follow their own versions of Swanson’s Law. Companies will allocate capital to research and development that should help them compete in a not-too-distant future that will likely be very different from the present. If those innovations follow the types of pathways described here, then competitive low-carbon solutions may become economically feasible and scale up. If supply of and demand for innovative solutions fails to fully materialize, then hard-to-recover ground will be lost.

The second 2015 report from Harvard University’s Chan School of Public Health cites an even more startling finding. People who work in green buildings have higher levels of cognitive functioning and make better decisions than their peers in non–green buildings, where ventilation, air quality and other environmental factors adversely affect cognitive functioning. Professor Joseph Allen, the report’s author, suggests that ”even modest improvements on indoor environmental quality may have profound impact on the decision making performance of workers.”74

We cannot and should not rely on last-minute solutions to make up for lost time on climate change and emissions.79 There are no quick fixes to getting global scale innovations in place. The climate trend is not in line with scientific guidance and needs to be reversed by following key sector pathways like those described above. To do otherwise is to push even more risk onto future generations.

Taken together, these findings on the business logic of decarbonizing our homes and offices should inform the flows of capital toward a new low-carbon future.

eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.php?id=86&t=1 esbnyc.com/esb-sustainability 73 Energy Efficiency & Financial Performance: A Review of Studies in the Market. U.S Department of Energy, December 2015 74 green.harvard.edu/tools-resources/research-highlight/impact-green-buildingscognitive-function 75 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swanson%27s_law

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INDICATIONS OF A “SUSTAINABILITY PREMIUM”

CO2 emissions is plotted against momentum on total return to shareholders for the most recent four-year period. The larger the dot the higher the absolute level of emissions, typically reflecting both the scale of the enterprise and intensity of emissions. Companies to the left of the vertical green line are decarbonizing in line with guidance – often reflecting significant investment in transforming products and operations.

Digging deeper into the relationship between financial performance and carbon emissions, we begin to see indications of a “sustainability premium.” A Pearson correlation analysis of the top 100 emitters from North America and Europe, after excluding outliers, unsurprisingly shows a positive correlation between change of revenue and CO2 emissions; however, no correlation between either rate of change in net income or total return and CO2 emissions was found. In other words, while revenues tend to trend with emissions, financial performance may not. This could indicate that decoupling of economic performance with emissions reductions is beginning to occur in more regulated markets, meaning that shareholder value is not being negatively impacted from decarbonization.

The creation of consistent profits independent from the amount of GHG being released points to a trend away from correlation between increased CO2 emission leading to more net income. In fact, some of the largest emitters are demonstrating the potential of decoupling strategies with positive trends in both emissions reduction and earnings growth.

In Figure 3, company momentum (positive or negative) on Figure 3: Correlation between CO2 Change Rate and Total Return to Investors

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Taken together, these finding support the new business logic, even among the world’s largest emitters, that positive momentum in shareholder value and financial performance can be consistent with meaningful progress on GHG reductions.

Interestingly enough, in Figure 4, a weak negative correlation (r = -0.22) can be found between momentum in price/earnings (P/E) ratio and momentum in GHG emission that is significant (p < 0.05). P/E momentum is often an indication of how investors assess the likely future value of a company via the current stock price.

Of course, there are also the myriad and growing number of analyses demonstrating the importance of ESG factors to effective risk management and long-term value creation generally, and climate leadership specifically.80 This evidence will continue to mount, as real-world conditions worsen and the risks become more manifest for shareholders and the global community of inhabitants on our finite planet.

Given the observed negative correlation, the results may indicate that investors in carbon-intensive sectors in a more regulated environment see a greater likelihood of increasing value for companies that are decarbonizing, in comparison to others that do not show progress on emission reduction.

Figure 4: Correlation between CO2 Change Rate and Price/Earnings Ratio

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CONCLUSION

This report adds another voice to the urgent call for action to reduce the risks associated with GHG emissions that continue above the recommended guidance of the world’s climate scientists. Many other reports have catalogued the scale of loss, both financial and societal, that we may experience. These are not new observations. The recognition of this situation has become more firmly planted in the minds of the largest investors, asset managers, corporate leaders, governing institutions and global citizens. This report focuses on some of the largest emitters on our planet and the role they will inevitably play either enabling us to stay within the guardrails on the pathway to a sustainable future or veering dangerously off course, risking our economic and ethical foundation. The cases and sector views presented demonstrate that making our way toward a low-carbon future is possible. The data suggest companies, even in carbon-intensive sectors, can have a winning strategy turning leadership into business opportunity. Dennis Whalen, leader of KPMG’s Board Leadership Center,81 states, “As we cross the threshold to a lower carbon world, there is a growing recognition of risks associated with long-term carbon intensive business models. Early movers that invest now in staying competitive in a low carbon future, could gain significant advantages as they integrate lower cost, lower risk and more resilient business models.”

For companies who have been on the sidelines, this report offers some excellent examples of how firms translate vision into action – and action into results. For investors seeking maximum risk-adjusted returns, there are early signs that companies leading us on this ”green” pathway can also be generating higher total return for shareholders. The world is entering a new chapter in meeting the climate challenge. Two things are true. First, the timeline for bending the GHG curve is tightening, adding urgency to the need for change. And second, the needed cost curve reductions on new climate-friendly technologies have arrived. This means ”crossing the chasm” from early adoption to mainstream demand and accelerated growth is now underway.

Our global business economy, and especially our Global 100 companies, will spend vast sums of money in the coming decades building new plants, buying new equipment, developing new products, and finding new sources of raw materials. Likewise, our civil societies and consumers will spend trillions on new infrastructure, construction materials, equipment and supplies in the same time period.

The choices made by the Global 100 companies and the customers who buy from them will go a long way toward defining which path we are on and the state of our planet in 2050.

If those dollars push forward solutions that meet or exceed customer needs while simultaneously reducing climate impacts, then we will be on the right path. From the jet airplanes we fly to the cement runways we land on, innovative low-carbon solutions are within reach.

Dennis Whalen is Leader of the KPMG Board Leadership Center (BLC). The BLC champions outstanding governance to help drive long-term corporate value and enhance investor confidence. Through an array of programs and perspectives—including KPMG’s Audit Committee Institute, the Women Corporate Directors Foundation and Board Exchange – the BLC engages with directors and business leaders to help articulate their challenges and promote corporate governance. 82 GHG emission data for this report is a result of a collaboration between Thomson Reuters and CDP, to combine and publish the most current (2015) and best estimates available on these companies. Generally, if a company reported its own emissions, those figures were used unless they are not sufficiently representative of the global footprint of the company. More specifically by source, Thomson Reuters source for data is Scopes 1, 2 and 3 public disclosures made by the company, or proprietary estimates in lieu of scopes 1 or 2. CDP sources for data from its Full GHG Emissions Dataset are: • Scopes 1 and 2: CDP completed information requests, CDP data check of information requests, data collected from company filings, bottom-up estimations (physical activity data * EFs for O&G, coal, cement, electric utilities, and iron and steel), intracompany estimation (using previously reported values to estimate, interpolation, etc.) and multivariable regression analysis (revenue by activity as independent variables).

• Scope 3: CDP completed information requests, data collected from company filings, multivariable regression analysis (revenue by activity as independent variables with aggregation to higher industry groupings as needed) and bottom-up estimations (physical activity data * EFs for Scope 3 ”Use of sold products” emissions for O&G, coal and automobile manufacturers). • CDP’s modelling methodology is publicly available from: cdp.net/en/investor/ghgemissions-dataset Indexes: GHG Index = (GHG emissions 2015/GHG emissions 2014)*100. Results of 120 = 20% increase in emissions, 80 = 20% decrease in emissions. Revenues Index = (Revenues 2015/ Revenues 2014)*100. Results of 120 = 20% increase in revenues, 80 = 20% decrease in revenues. Decoupling index = Revenues Index/GHG Index. Results of 120 = Revenues growing at a 20% greater rate than GHG emissions growth rate, 80 = Revenues growing at a 20% lesser rate than GHG emissions growth rate. Where changes in GHG from 2014 to 2015 are known to be due to changes in level of reporting, methodology used or estimation methods uses (e.g., in cases of cross-sectional regression analysis with differing test data), the 2015 value was used for 2014 (also if 2014 data was private). This was the case for United Technologies Corporation, Fairmount Santrol Holdings Inc., Procter & Gamble Company, General Electric Company, Boeing Company, Airbus Group, Michelin, Martin Marietta Materials, Inc. and Ford Motor Company. Financial years for GHG emissions and revenues may differ, and may differ with calendar years.

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APPENDIX 1: GLOBAL 10082 GHG emissions Tons CO2e Scope 1+2+3 Source GHG

Company Name

GHG Index*

Decoupling Index*

Revenues USD

2015

2014

Baseline 2014 =100

2015

2014

Baseline 2014 =100

CDP

Coal India

2,014,693,250

1,850,080,574

109

11,903,683,242

11,770,273,584

93

CDP

PJSC Gazprom

1,247,624,306

1,264,855,340

99

83,315,971,620

95,924,596,230

88

CDP

ExxonMobil Corporation

1,096,498,615

1,145,083,349

96

259,488,000,000

394,105,000,000

69

CDP

China Petroleum & Chemical Corp

873,898,581

902,075,103

97

310,968,548,490

455,452,559,380

70

CDP

Rosneft OAO

835,887,091

833,148,361

100

70,606,500,000

94,816,690,000

74

CDP

PETROCHINA Company Limited

730,914,625

693,615,195

105

265,767,674,840

367,944,985,540

69

Thomson Reuters

Rio Tinto Ltd

663,900,000

628,700,000

106

34,829,000,000

47,664,000,000

69

CDP

China Shenhua Energy

643,810,940

728,365,957

88

27,273,938,070

40,789,064,770

76

Thomson Reuters

Royal Dutch Shell PLC

641,000,000

686,000,000

93

264,960,000,000

421,105,000,000

67

CDP

Petróleo Brasileiro SA - Petrobras

629,174,567

634,294,435

99

96,468,000,000

143,657,000,000

68

Thomson Reuters

Total SA

575,800,000

598,400,000

96

143,421,000,000

212,018,000,000

70

CDP

United Technologies Corporation

530,627,775

530,627,775

100

56,098,000,000

57,900,000,000

97

CDP

BHP Billiton PLC

474,376,663

436,331,000

109

30,912,000,000

44,636,000,000

64

Thomson Reuters

Eni SpA

466,131,372

450,838,037

103

73,565,665,012

112,728,482,429

63

Thomson Reuters

BP PLC

457,800,000

461,400,000

99

222,894,000,000

353,568,000,000

64 69

CDP

Valero Energy Corporation

438,076,129

448,800,949

98

87,804,000,000

130,844,000,000

Thomson Reuters

Chevron Corp

428,000,000

414,000,000

103

129,648,000,000

199,941,000,000

63

Thomson Reuters

Korea Electric Power Corp

399,984,300

443,325,000

90

50,178,919,954

52,589,333,882

106

CDP

Peabody Energy Corporation

397,079,232

433,138,945

92

5,609,200,000

6,792,200,000

90

CDP

Toyota Motor Corporation

377,020,000

383,198,000

98

226,863,559,930

248,954,617,590

93

CDP

YTL Corp

372,995,902

393,967,914

95

4,441,845,410

6,003,908,864

78

Thomson Reuters

General Motors Co

359,381,663

333,986,186

108

152,356,000,000

155,929,000,000

91

CDP

Phillips 66

331,341,051

323,169,655

103

98,975,000,000

161,212,000,000

60

CDP

Volkswagen AG

328,330,937

336,875,378

97

236,618,000,000

268,484,000,000

90

CDP

ENGIE

319,709,310

350,307,803

91

77,526,000,000

99,043,000,000

86

Thomson Reuters

Statoil ASA

313,800,000

304,600,000

103

57,900,000,000

96,708,000,000

58

CDP

Exor S.p.A.

295,542,540

234,989,334

126

148,086,960,000

145,287,389,400

81

Thomson Reuters

Glencore PLC

290,714,000

312,923,000

93

170,497,000,000

221,073,000,000

83

Thomson Reuters

Honda Motor Co Ltd

284,160,000

279,007,000

102

129,718,825,515

110,956,535,132

115

CDP

Marathon Petroleum

279,703,599

260,251,261

107

72,251,000,000

98,081,000,000

69

Thomson Reuters

Vale SA

274,600,000

270,900,000

101

25,643,458,573

37,520,838,605

67

CDP

Reliance Industries

268,120,610

256,820,959

104

60,294,861,000

72,424,482,000

80

Thomson Reuters

Fairmount Santrol Holdings Inc

267,847,451

267,847,451

100

828,709,000

1,356,458,000

61

Thomson Reuters

Hitachi Ltd

266,810,000

246,070,000

108

89,146,277,541

81,376,373,626

101

CDP

ConocoPhillips

254,391,143

254,350,422

100

29,456,000,000

52,366,000,000

56

CDP

Huaneng Power International

248,537,456

252,425,954

98

19,855,217,511

22,568,101,685

89

Thomson Reuters

RWE AG

247,500,000

248,800,000

99

50,343,719,117

55,826,528,761

91

CDP

Anglo American

244,372,036

332,688,759

73

20,455,000,000

27,073,000,000

103 53

CDP

CNOOC

235,533,813

209,869,268

112

26,406,441,110

44,262,761,780

CDP

MAN SE

225,234,175

200,242,542

112

14,880,372,000

17,281,774,200

77

CDP

Procter & Gamble Company

221,217,336

221,217,336

100

70,749,000,000

74,401,000,000

95

Thomson Reuters

Lafargeholcim Ltd

221,000,000

131,800,000

168

23,541,625,075

18,936,726,687

74

CDP

China Coal Energy

216,366,242

260,638,235

83

9,129,491,336

11,388,891,093

97

Thomson Reuters

ArcelorMittal SA

205,000,000

206,000,000

100

63,578,000,000

79,282,000,000

81

Thomson Reuters

E.ON SE

203,300,000

230,500,000

88

126,212,790,912

136,811,226,033

105

CDP

Anhui Conch Cement

197,501,682

188,471,477

105

7,851,838,827

9,792,447,593

77

CDP

General Electric Company

197,315,071

197,315,071

100

117,385,000,000

117,184,000,000

100

CDP

Saic Motor Corporation

185,737,143

204,344,712

91

103,000,000,000

102,000,000,000

111

CDP

NTPC Ltd

183,071,000

186,073,300

98

13,188,000,000

13,073,000,000

103

CDP

Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company

182,845,651

182,624,444

100

16,443,000,000

18,138,000,000

91

CDP

Audi AG

180,641,372

134,355,077

134

63,400,000,000

65,100,000,000

72

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GHG emissions Tons CO2e Scope 1+2+3

GHG Index*

Decoupling Index*

Revenues USD

2015

2014

Baseline 2014 =100

2015

2014

Baseline 2014 =100

China National Building Materials Company Limited

180,529,972

183,584,089

98

15,447,913,146

19,664,548,650

80

Source GHG

Company Name

CDP CDP

Boeing Company

178,391,357

178,391,357

100

96,114,000,000

90,762,000,000

106

CDP

China Resources Power Holdings Company Limited

173,417,583

171,340,129

101

9,217,370,951

9,115,680,593

100

CDP

Ingersoll-Rand Co Ltd

165,732,301

192,316,700

86

13,300,700,000

12,891,400,000

120

CDP

SK Innovation Co Ltd

165,158,319

157,767,203

105

41,102,872,352

59,933,248,482

66

CDP

BASF SE

160,155,082

225,199,703

71

76,507,614,000

89,912,162,200

120

CDP

JX Holdings, Inc

159,910,347

171,063,955

93

90,650,891,800

120,272,405,970

81

CDP

Oil & Natural Gas

159,908,391

164,954,450

97

25,890,603,356

29,085,325,235

92

Thomson Reuters

PTT PCL

158,639,426

157,001,887

101

56,271,836,987

79,181,227,499

70

CDP

Yanzhou Coal Mining

158,398,227

184,141,197

86

10,629,207,049

10,528,612,856

117

CDP

Novatek OAO

156,082,204

143,040,353

109

6,516,705,750

6,162,188,890

97

Thomson Reuters

Surgutneftegaz OAO

153,983,125

144,871,000

106

13,743,822,782

15,342,291,591

84

CDP

Nissan Motor Co, Ltd

148,144,914

144,556,655

102

94,755,474,310

101,575,618,800

91

CDP

Repsol

146,837,090

143,160,973

103

44,083,000,000

62,626,000,000

69 94

Thomson Reuters

Centrica PLC

144,120,328

150,107,507

96

41,223,545,363

45,796,866,727

CDP

Canadian Natural Resources Limited

142,348,671

121,864,524

117

8,933,503,800

16,235,949,990

47

CDP

Airbus Group

141,769,289

141,769,289

100

69,992,700,000

73,444,516,100

95 98

Thomson Reuters

Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd

138,671,500

118,941,782

117

3,222,991,698

2,835,282,822

Thomson Reuters

Gas Natural SDG SA

138,213,300

116,163,900

119

28,252,299,606

29,876,005,565

79

Thomson Reuters

Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd

137,500,000

134,500,000

102

6,226,350,391

5,553,604,729

110 83

Thomson Reuters

Dow Chemical Co

137,500,000

136,600,000

101

48,778,000,000

58,167,000,000

CDP

Rolls-Royce

133,041,391

130,866,127

102

20,227,905,000

21,391,072,800

93

CDP

EDF

129,190,322

133,668,810

97

81,456,516,000

88,771,415,100

95

CDP

Cloud Peak Energy Inc

128,995,633

149,539,488

86

1,120,000,000

1,320,000,000

98

CDP

A.P. Moller - Maersk

128,531,578

88,111,490

146

40,308,000,000

47,569,000,000

58

Thomson Reuters

Enel SpA

128,303,000

123,697,000

104

79,360,562,983

88,705,014,214

86

Thomson Reuters

Tokyo Electric Power Co Holdings Inc

128,049,054

129,800,000

99

53,926,154,940

56,630,569,431

97

Thomson Reuters

Bridgestone Corp

126,375,000

130,375,000

97

31,506,658,354

30,698,228,610

106

CDP

Michelin

125,146,604

125,146,604

100

23,022,114,000

23,653,264,100

97

CDP

American Electric Power Company, Inc

125,013,953

141,118,430

89

16,453,200,000

16,378,600,000

113

Thomson Reuters

OMV AG

124,300,000

125,100,000

99

24,464,330,318

43,444,021,049

57

Thomson Reuters

Kumba Iron Ore Ltd

124,149,454

118,725,812

105

2,280,503,185

4,115,251,600

53

CDP

Ecopetrol Sa

123,420,224

124,649,909

99

16,669,096,640

27,708,192,960

61

CDP

Martin Marietta Materials, Inc

122,090,246

122,090,246

100

3,539,570,000

2,957,951,000

120

CDP

Duke Energy Corporation

121,058,680

149,246,865

81

22,371,000,000

22,509,000,000

123

Thomson Reuters

Ford Motor Co

120,310,000

120,310,000

100

149,558,000,000

144,077,000,000

104 100

CDP

Huadian Power International Corp Ltd

119,430,410

134,492,585

89

10,938,393,163

12,350,981,064

Thomson Reuters

Nestle SA

118,628,768

102,847,141

115

88,625,474,147

92,155,718,741

83

CDP

The Southern Company

117,877,643

130,611,174

90

17,489,000,000

18,467,000,000

105

CDP

Anadarko Petroleum Corporation

116,026,758

117,568,847

99

8,698,000,000

18,470,000,000

48

Thomson Reuters

Exelon Corp

113,784,000

119,378,000

95

29,447,000,000

27,429,000,000

113 126

CDP

Royal Philips

113,442,754

140,251,616

81

26,328,984,000

25,876,692,700

CDP

Fiat Chrysler Automobiles NV

111,404,271

91,475,096

122

120,106,210,836

113,276,477,348

87

CDP

Datang International Power Generation

108,908,786

126,847,195

86

9,532,960,599

11,313,219,683

98

CDP

Daikin Industries, Ltd

107,050,117

69,376,108

154

15,952,058,290

17,322,609,510

60

Thomson Reuters

Posco

106,673,000

108,554,000

98

49,527,507,180

59,564,868,976

85

CDP

Occidental Petroleum Corporation

106,349,891

100,792,543

106

12,598,000,000

19,442,000,000

61

CDP

NRG Energy Inc

105,366,813

126,110,636

84

14,674,000,000

15,868,000,000

111

CDP

Korea Gas Corp Global 100

104,308,462

111,276,195

94

22,144,815,254

33,929,228,753

70

28,407,556,866

28,453,074,124

100

6,345,922,512,313

7,938,498,561,200

80

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David A. Lubin Constellation Research & Technology David A. Lubin serves as Co-Chairman and Managing Director of the newly launched Constellation Research and Technology. He has previously founded and built to scale several technology and management consulting firms, including Renaissance Worldwide and the Palladium Group. Dr. Lubin served as Chairman of the Sustainability Innovators Working Group. His research focuses on understanding and assessing the business value of sustainability for both companies and investors. He developed reports on the Value Driver Model for the UNPRI and UNGC and on sustainable investing for the IFC/ World Bank. His work has appeared in the Harvard Business Review and the MIT Sloan Review. He sits on the board of the CDP and previously served on the faculties at Tufts and Harvard University. He received his doctoral degree from Harvard University in 1977. [email protected]

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John Moorhead BSD Consulting As Head of Climate Change practice at BSD Consulting, John advises organizations on sustainability strategy. He is coauthor of five previous reports on private-sector GHG emissions and a contributor to The Economist and Thomson Reuters blogs to raise awareness on the role of non-state actors in climate action and Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) realization. As a performance analyst and strategist, he participates in the Global Climate Action Analysis Group (GCAA) and the Marrakech Partnership for Global Climate Action (GCA) under UNFCCC’s auspices. John also coaches and trains managers on sustainability reporting at the Geneva School of Business Administration. His current projects include a Decarbonization Platform for non-state actors in partnership with Thomson Reuters and a book. [email protected]

Tim Nixon Thomson Reuters Tim Nixon is a founder and the managing editor of Sustainability (sustainability. thomsonreuters.com). He is also Director of Sustainability at Thomson Reuters and has ongoing engagement with thought leaders across a wide spectrum of NGO and private sector partners. He has spoken at global policy-making events, including the World Bank Land & Poverty Conference, UN PRI Annual Meeting and the first global meeting of UNEA (United Nations Environment Assembly). He is a frequent writer for the Sustainability blog and Thomson Reuters Answers On, and coauthor of a report on the Global 500 greenhouse gas emission trends. Tim is a lawyer by training and has spent most of his career working with diverse collaborators to build change-leading initiatives. [email protected]